Nadon, N L; Strong, R; Miller, R A; Nelson, J; Javors, M; Sharp, Z D; Peralba, J M; Harrison, D E
The field of biogerontology has made great strides towards understanding the biological processes underlying aging, and the time is ripe to look towards applying this knowledge to the pursuit of aging interventions. Identification of safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive interventions that slow the aging process and promote healthy aging could have a significant impact on quality of life and health care expenditures for the aged. While there is a plethora of supplements and interventions on the market that purport to slow aging, the evidence to validate such claims is generally lacking. Here we describe the development of an aging interventions testing program funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to test candidate interventions in a model system. The development of this program highlights the challenges of long-term intervention studies and provides approaches to cope with the stringent requirements of a multi-site testing program.
Moss, Ellen; Tarabulsy, George M; St-Georges, Rachèle; Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Cyr, Chantal; Bernier, Annie; St-Laurent, Diane; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Lecompte, Vanessa
This article describes a video-feedback intervention program with maltreating parents and their children aged 1 to 5 years using a case-study approach. The 8-week program is of interest to researchers and clinicians because it is the first short-term attachment-based intervention program to demonstrate efficacy in enhancing parental sensitivity, improving child attachment security, and reducing disorganized attachment for children and parents who have been reported for child abuse and/or neglect. We have previously described the theoretical and empirical basis of the intervention program and evidence for its efficacy. Details of program implementation and a case study are currently presented.
Hobby, Patti Tennant
This qualitative study used an ethnographic method to investigate teachers' perceptions of reading interventions delivered in a state-funded early intervention program (EIP). Academically at-risk students struggle to meet grade-level standards year after year, even with interventions involving small group, targeted assistance. Teacher perceptions…
Rivero, Estela M.; Cimini, M. Dolores; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.
Objective: This case study examined the effects of an early intervention program designed to respond to residential college students demonstrating risk for suicide. Participants: Participants were 108 undergraduates at a large northeastern public university referred to an early intervention program subsequent to presenting with risk factors for…
Aust, Birgit; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann
Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees' conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. PMID:26380356
The purpose of this sequential explanatory embedded mixed methods study was to: (a) investigate and describe the academic performance of eighth grade students in the Falcon School District (FSD) who were designated as Long Term English Learners (LTELs) and participants in FSD's reading intervention program during their fourth through eighth grade…
Simington, J A; Cargill, L; Hill, W
Crisis intervention is based upon crisis theory and is defined as a short-term active mode of therapy that focuses on solving the client's immediate problem and reestablishing psychological equilibrium. The crisis intervention program was the first phase in the development of a broader mental health program with advancement decisions being based upon evaluation results of this initial phase. An evaluation methodology using the Stufflebeam Goal-Stakeholder Model (1980) was designed and implemented. A satisfaction survey was conducted to develop a database relative to the program's process. The Mental Health Category Measure, and the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale were used to capture outcome data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicate that stakeholders are satisfied with the program. outcome data demonstrates that the program produces the intended outcomes. Triangulation, a method of comparing the qualitative and quantitative findings revealed consistency, and thus provides confidence in the accuracy of the findings.
Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd
Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129
Full Text Available The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009 and adapted it for groups. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28, a Wait Control group (n = 9, and a control group of healthy children (n = 40. Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children’s knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group and externalizing symptoms were reduced for this group as well. This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children’s enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies.
Gómez Santos, Santiago Felipe; Casas, Rafael; Taylor Palomo, Vanessa; Martin Pujol, Anna; Fitó Colomer, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut
BACKGROUND: The speeding increase and the high prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious problem for Public Health. Community Based Interventions has been developed to combat against the childhood obesity epidemic. However little is known on the efficacy of these programs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of community based intervention on changes in lifestyle and surrogate measures of adiposity. METHODS/DESIGN: Parallel intervention study including two thousand 2...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a long-term exercise program (3 years on kinanthopometric and metabolic in obese children. The sample consisted of eight boys between 8 and 11 years, who conducted a aerobic multi-sport exercise program (three sessions, 90 minutes per week. Carried out an assessment kinanthropometric assessing the following parameters: height, weight, body mass index (BMI, zBMI, fat mass and fat free mass, and a metabolic assessing: total cholesterol (TC, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, insuline, glucose, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR, ratio LDL/HDL and TC/HDL. Following the intervention, changes were observed on zBMI (ceasing to be obese after the intervention, total cholesterol, LDL, and ratio total cholesterol/HDL and glucose levels at the long term, showing that longitudinal interventions generate positive benefits on obese children mainly in the lipid profile.
Zhang, Jun; Shoham, David A; Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B
We studied simulated interventions that leveraged social networks to increase physical activity in children. We studied a real-world social network of 81 children (average age = 7.96 years) who lived in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, and attended public schools and 1 of 2 structured afterschool programs. The sample was ethnically diverse, and 44% were overweight or obese. We used social network analysis and agent-based modeling simulations to test whether implementing a network intervention would increase children's physical activity. We tested 3 intervention strategies. The intervention that targeted opinion leaders was effective in increasing the average level of physical activity across the entire network. However, the intervention that targeted the most sedentary children was the best at increasing their physical activity levels. Which network intervention to implement depends on whether the goal is to shift the entire distribution of physical activity or to influence those most adversely affected by low physical activity. Agent-based modeling could be an important complement to traditional project planning tools, analogous to sample size and power analyses, to help researchers design more effective interventions for increasing children's physical activity.
Ohrig, E; Geiss, H C; Haas, G M; Schwandt, P
We describe the design and baseline data of the Prevention Education Program (PEP), a home-based and family oriented intervention program, aimed to assess and improve cardiovascular risk factors in school children and their families during an intervention period of 10 y. At study entry all participants were randomized either to an intervention group (screening and intervention program) or to a control group (risk screening, general advice). Cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, elevated lipids, smoking, obesity) as well as dietary behaviour are evaluated yearly using structured interview, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and seven-day dietary protocol. During the years 1993-1998, 3547 adults (age 36.2+/-7 y) and 3495 children (age 6.5+/-2 y) were recruited. Adults show a high prevalence of risk factors: hypertension 21%; active smoking 39%, elevated LDL-cholesterol 19%; and obesity 42%. Children exhibit these risk factors in comparable frequency: hypertension 20%; passive smoking 44%; elevated LDL-cholesterol 17%; and obesity 19%. The analysis of the dietary protocols (1926 adults, 1569 children) shows that both generations adhere to a diet exceeding the recommended fat intake (adults 38% of total energy, children 38%), while carbohydrate intake (adults 43% of total energy intake, children 50%) is reduced compared to NCEP-(step I)-guidelines. The finding, that children show a prevalence of risk factors which is comparable to that found in adults, supports the need for an early beginning of intervention. Since both generations adhere to an unhealthy diet which contributes to cardiovascular risk, dietary intervention may be a promising method in primary prevention of cardiovascular risk.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of a new reading intervention program, Understanding Words, for struggling readers in an open trial design. Twenty-five participants who had poor reading skills and typically had a mix of coexisting developmental disorders completed the 40-hr program over 20 weeks. Significant gains were achieved on measures of word identification, phonological decoding, and reading comprehension. Growth in reading ability per hour of intervention matched the average reported in the literature. Individual analysis showed that 84% of the sample returned to the average range on a measure of phonological decoding and 52% to 56% achieved the same gains in reading comprehension. Limitations of study design and future research directions are also discussed.
Virues-Ortega, Javier; Julio, Flávia M; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto
The intervention program for autism known as Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) is considered an emerging practice for autism. In the present study we used state-of-the-art meta-analytical procedures to examine the pooled clinical effects of TEACCH in a variety of outcomes. A total of 13 studies were selected for meta-analysis totaling 172 individuals with autism exposed to TEACCH. Standardized measures of perceptual, motor, adaptive, verbal and cognitive skills were identified as treatment outcomes. We used inverse-variance weighted random effects meta-analysis supplemented with quality assessment, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, and heterogeneity and publication bias tests. The results suggested that TEACCH effects on perceptual, motor, verbal and cognitive skills were of small magnitude in the meta-analyzed studies. Effects over adaptive behavioral repertoires including communication, activities of daily living, and motor functioning were within the negligible to small range. There were moderate to large gains in social behavior and maladaptive behavior. The effects of the TEACCH program were not moderated by aspects of the intervention such as duration (total weeks), intensity (hours per week), and setting (home-based vs. center-based). While the present meta-analysis provided limited support for the TEACCH program as a comprehensive intervention, our results should be considered exploratory owing to the limited pool of studies available. © 2013.
Vong, Etain; Wilson, Linda; Lincoln, Michelle
This study investigated the outcomes of implementing the Lidcombe Program, an evidence-based early intervention for stuttering, with four preschool children in Malaysia. Early stuttering intervention is currently underdeveloped in Malaysia, where stuttering treatment is often more assertion-based than evidence-based. Therefore, introducing an evidence-based early stuttering intervention is an important milestone for Malaysian preschoolers who stutter. The participants ranged from 3 years 3 months to 4 years 9 months at the start of the study. Beyond-clinic speech samples were obtained at 1 month and 1 week pretreatment and immediately post-Stage 1, and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-Stage 1. Two participants, who were bilingual, achieved near-zero levels of stuttering at 12 months posttreatment. Near zero levels of stuttering were also present in their untreated languages. One participant withdrew due to reasons not connected with the research or treatment. The remaining participant, who presented with severe stuttering, completed Stage 1 but had some relapse in Stage 2 and demonstrated mild stuttering 12 months post-Stage 1. The outcomes were achieved without the need to significantly adapt Lidcombe Program procedures to Malaysian culture. Further research to continue evaluation of the Lidcombe Program with Malaysian families and to estimate proportion of those who will respond is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Viđak, Marin; Tokalić, Ružica; Marušić, Matko; Puljak, Livia; Sapunar, Damir
Analysis of graduation success at the University of Split School of Medicine PhD programs conducted in 2011 revealed that only 11% of students who enrolled and completed their graduate coursework between 1999 and 2011 earned a doctoral degree. In this prospective cohort study we evaluated and compared three PhD programs within the same medical school, where the newest program, called Translational Research in Biomedicine (TRIBE), established in the academic year 2010/11, aimed to increase the graduation rate through an innovative approach. The intervention in the new program was related to three domains: redefined recruitment strategy, strict study regulations, and changes to the curriculum. We compared performance of PhD students between the new and existing programs and analyzed their current status, time to obtain a degree (from enrolment to doctorate), age at doctorate, number of publications on which the thesis was based and the impact factor of journals in which these were published. These improvement strategies were associated with higher thesis completion rate and reduced time to degree for students enrolled in the TRIBE program. There was no change in the impact factor or number of publications that were the basis for the doctoral theses. Our study describes good practices which proved useful in the design or reform of the PhD training program.
Luchsinger, José A; Ma, Yong; Christophi, Costas A; Florez, Hermes; Golden, Sherita H; Hazuda, Helen; Crandall, Jill; Venditti, Elizabeth; Watson, Karol; Jeffries, Susan; Manly, Jennifer J; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier
We examined the association of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention arms (lifestyle intervention, metformin, and placebo) with cognition in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). We also examined metformin use, incident type 2 diabetes, and glycemia as exposures. The DPP lasted 2.8 years, followed by a 13-month bridge to DPPOS. Cognition was assessed in DPPOS years 8 and 10 (12 and 14 years after randomization) with the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test (SEVLT), letter fluency and animal fluency tests, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and a composite cognitive score. A total of 2,280 participants (749 lifestyle, 776 metformin, and 755 placebo) aged 63.1 ± 10.7 years underwent cognitive assessments; 67.7% women, 54.6% non-Hispanic white, 20.7% non-Hispanic black, 14.6% Hispanic, 5.5% American Indian, and 4.6% Asian; 26.6% were homozygous or heterozygous for APOE-ε4. At the time of cognitive assessment, type 2 diabetes was higher in the placebo group (57.9%; P cognition across intervention arms. Type 2 diabetes was not related to cognition, but higher glycated hemoglobin at year 8 was related to worse cognition after confounder adjustment. Cumulative metformin exposure was not related to cognition. Exposure to intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin was not related to cognition among DPPOS participants. Higher glycemia was related to worse cognitive performance. Metformin seemed cognitively safe among DPPOS participants. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. Methods The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews, quantitative (survey, and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. Results A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Conclusions Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care.
Koekkoek, Bauke; van Meijel, Berno; Schene, Aart; Hutschemaekers, Giel
Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews), quantitative (survey), and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure) research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care.
Abrahamson, Kathleen; Cai, Yun; Richards, Elizabeth; Cline, Krista; O'Haire, Marguerite E
Research has shown that there are multiple benefits of animal assisted interventions for patients. However, the impact of interaction with these animals in staff is understudied, particularly in the acute care setting, and is thus a novel contribution to the literature on human-animal interaction. The purpose of this qualitative pilot study was to contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding the experiences and perceptions of hospital staff who have participated in a hospital-based animal assisted intervention program. Nine face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted (4 staff nurses, 3 support staff members, and 2 hospital volunteers). Five themes emerged from the respondent interviews: (1) descriptions of the therapy dogs; (2) contacts with the dogs at work; (3) connection with the dogs outside of work; (4) benefits; (5) drawbacks. Our findings reflect abundantly positive hospital staff experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
James, Thea L; Bibi, Salma; Langlois, Breanne K; Dugan, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Patricia M
This study intended to explore clients' experiences and provide a contextual basis for understanding their perceptions of the effectiveness of the Boston Medical Center (BMC) Violence Intervention Advocacy Program (VIAP). This was an exploratory, qualitative study conducted in an urban, Level I trauma center from July 1, 2011 to February 24, 2012. Emergency department (ED) patients older than 18 years with penetrating trauma, and who were enrolled in the VIAP, were eligible. Two trained, qualitative interviewers who were not part of the VIAP obtained consent and conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, deidentified, coded, and analyzed. Thematic content analysis consistent with grounded theory was used to identify themes related to client experiences with VIAP, life circumstances, challenges to physical and emotional healing postinjury, services provided by VIAP, and perceptions of VIAP's effectiveness. Twenty subjects were interviewed. Most were male, African American, and younger than 30 years of age, reflecting the overall program's clientele. Most subjects perceived their advocates as caring adults in their lives and cited aspects of the peer support model that helped establish trusting relationships. Major challenges to healing were fear and safety, trust, isolation as a coping mechanism, bitterness, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Every subject noted important services provided by VIAP advocates. Most subjects explicitly stated that they had positive experiences with the VIAP and perceived advocates' roles as a positive influence, providing client-centered advocacy, education, and support. This study provides insight into the lives of 20 BMC VIAP clients and contextualizes their unique challenges. Participants described positive, life-changing behaviors on their journey to healing through connections to caring, supportive adults. Information gained from this study will help the VIAP to
Ottesen, Laila; Jeppesen, Rikke Schou; Krustrup, Birgitte Rejkjær
exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks......This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories (“I,”“we” and “they”) as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical......). The study also points to the importance of the activity itself for internal bonding illustrated through we- and they-stories. Our data indicate that team sports, such as football, may have an advantage over individual sports in the development of social capital....
Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Ferrer, Lucas; Charles, Scott; Ramsey, Frederick; van Zandt, Andrea; Volgraf, Jill; Santora, Thomas; Pathak, Abhijit; Dujon, Jay; Sjoholm, Lars; Rappold, Joseph; Goldberg, Amy
From 2002 to 2011, there were more than 17,000 shootings in Philadelphia. "Turning Point," Temple University Hospital's inpatient violence intervention program, takes advantage of the teachable moment that occurs after violent injury. In addition to receiving traditional social work services, Turning Point patients watch their trauma bay resuscitation video and a movie about violence, meet with a gunshot wound survivor and an outpatient case manager, and also undergo psychiatric assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of Turning Point in changing attitudes toward guns and violence among victims of penetrating trauma. This prospective randomized study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2014. Patients who sustained a gunshot or stab wound were randomized to standard of care, which involved traditional social work services only, or Turning Point. The Attitudes Toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire was administered to assess attitude change. Analysis was performed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. A p violence. Turning Point is effective in changing attitudes toward guns and violence among victims of penetrating trauma. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine if this program can truly be a turning point in patients' lives. Therapeutic/care management study, level II.
Full Text Available BackgroundImproving the quality of care provided to patients byincreased staff motivation, will increase patients’satisfaction and leads to improved health.MethodAn interventional study was carried out among ENTward patients at NHSL over a period of 2 years.Satisfaction regarding different components of patientneeds was assessed in an interviewer administeredquestionnaire prepared in Sinhala, English and Tamil.This contained statements about initial management ofpatients, time factors, treatment and attitudes of thestaff members, tidiness and orderliness of the ward,information delivery, discharge and the clinicappointment system. Pre and post interventionalpatients were selected by systematic sampling, eachgroup consisting of 200 patients.ResultsThe demographic distribution of the pre and postintervention categories was not significant. The meanscore of satisfaction at base line was 3.68 (73.6 %.Themean score, 4.81(96.2% following the intervention wassignificantly high. Also a statistically significant increasein the patient satisfaction was observed in initialmanagement of the patients (P<0.001, time factors(P<0.001, treatment (P<0.001 and attitudes(P<0.001 of the staff members, tidiness (P<0.001and basic physical facilities (P<0.001 of the ward,information factors (P<0.001, discharge (P<0.001and the clinic appointment system (P<0.001.ConclusionThe staff motivation program has resulted in astatistically significant improvement in patientsatisfaction (P<0.001 compared to the preintervention group.
Nohara, Yasunobu; Kai, Eiko; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Islam, Rafiqul; Ahmed, Ashir; Kuroda, Masahiro; Inoue, Sozo; Hiramatsu, Tatsuo; Kimura, Michio; Shimizu, Shuji; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Baba, Yukino; Kashima, Hisashi; Tsuda, Koji; Sugiyama, Masashi; Blondel, Mathieu; Ueda, Naonori; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Nakashima, Naoki
The prevalence of non-communicable diseases is increasing throughout the world, including developing countries. The intent was to conduct a study of a preventive medical service in a developing country, combining eHealth checkups and teleconsultation as well as assess stratification rules and the short-term effects of intervention. We developed an eHealth system that comprises a set of sensor devices in an attaché case, a data transmission system linked to a mobile network, and a data management application. We provided eHealth checkups for the populations of five villages and the employees of five factories/offices in Bangladesh. Individual health condition was automatically categorized into four grades based on international diagnostic standards: green (healthy), yellow (caution), orange (affected), and red (emergent). We provided teleconsultation for orange- and red-grade subjects and we provided teleprescription for these subjects as required. The first checkup was provided to 16,741 subjects. After one year, 2361 subjects participated in the second checkup and the systolic blood pressure of these subjects was significantly decreased from an average of 121 mmHg to an average of 116 mmHg (Plearning technique (random forest method) using the medical interview, subject profiles, and checkup results as predictor to avoid costly measurements of blood sugar, to ensure sustainability of the program in developing countries. The results of this study demonstrate the benefits of an eHealth checkup and teleconsultation program as an effective health care system in developing countries.
Watson, Amy C.
Police agencies across the country are struggling to respond to significant number of persons with serious mental illness, who are landing on their doorsteps with sometimes tragic consequences. Arguably, the most widely adopted approach, the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model, is a specialized police-based program designed to improve officers'…
Rincon, Blanca E.; George-Jackson, Casey E.
This study examines the funding practices and challenges of diversity initiatives found in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Interviews with 55 intervention program administrators, representing 48 unique STEM intervention programs, were conducted at nine large research-intensive universities. The interviews,…
van der Plas, Atie; Scherpbier, Henriette; Kuijpers, Taco; Pajkrt, Dasja
In HIV-infected children, long-term adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) is difficult. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the effect of two different treatment adherence programs on treatment adherence (as indicated by cART failures) and the need for additional supportive care measures in a cohort of 31 HIV-infected children between 3 and 18 years of age. In a follow-up period of 6 years, we evaluated the treatment adherence at baseline (before introduction of any treatment adherence program in 2004) and compared this to cART failures during two treatment adherence programs (in respectively 2006 and 2009). The need for additional supportive care measures (the frequency of hospitalizations, daily observed treatment, use of child protection service, attendance of special schools, and placement in foster homes) was also evaluated at these three time points. The first treatment adherence program focused on increasing patient's obedience by imposing negative measures in case of treatment failure, whereas the second program aimed to increase treatment adherence by rewarding optimal medication intake. Prior to start of any treatment adherence intervention program, cART failures were observed in 29% of the pediatric patients. After introduction of the first treatment adherence program, cART failures decreased to 6%. During the second treatment adherence program, the cART failures remained equally low (10%), but the need for some specific additional supportive care measures (the frequency of hospitalizations and placement in foster homes) was importantly reduced. Treatment adherence programs are effective in increasing treatment adherence to cART in HIV-infected children. A novel reward treatment interventional program as an addition to social supportive care programs is a promising new positive enforcement program and can reduce the need for additional supportive care programs. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the long
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Strahler, K.; Krustrup, Peter
exercise intervention groups experience rather high levels of flow regardless of whether the intervention is a team or individual sport. Differences in experiencing flow, worry and exertion as well as physiological improvements could be found for the different types of sports and the two genders......This study explores whether inactive individuals can experience flow, a rewarding, psychological state, during an exercise intervention and if there are differences according to the type of intervention they perform. Furthermore, the study investigates if experiencing flow is connected......, with the male football group having the highest score for physiological improvement and the lowest score for worry. A connection between experiencing flow and physiological improvement could not be found. Future research should investigate the influence that the participant's gender and also the type of sport...
Orzan, E; Ciciriello, E
Non-uniform, late, or inappropriate care of childhood with permanent hearing impairment (PHI) predisposes many children to develop communicative- behaviour problems and impaired psychosocial adjustment that can persist in adolescence and adulthood.In March 2014, the CCM (Centro Controllo Malattie or Disease Control Centre) of the Italian Ministry of Health funded a project entitled " Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children". The project involved 5 tertiary centres with UNHS programs formally approved by the Region. The main purpose of the project is to define and launch an integrated regionally-based public health model for identification, diagnosis and intervention of childhood PHI. The first phase of the project investigated the state of art and produced recommendations for positive changes in identification, diagnosis, therapy and care of childhood PHI in Italy, taking into account diagnostic and treatment innovations, family empowerment, treatment alliance and an interdisciplinary approach. Recommendations drawn from this initial phase will represent the basis for a regional system for early intervention that is validated, integrated and shared between the five regions. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.
Deli, Eleni; Bakle, Iliana; Zachopoulou, Evridiki
The reported study aimed to identify the effects of two 10-week intervention programs on fundamental locomotor skill performance in kindergarten children. Seventy-five children with mean age 5.4 plus or minus 0.5 years participated. Experimental Group A followed a movement program, experimental Group B followed a music and movement program, and…
Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Albizzati, Alessandro; Downing, George
This pilot study examined the effectiveness of an attachment-based intervention program, PRERAYMI, based on video technique, psychological counseling and developmental guidance in improving the style...
Sakuraya, Asuka; Shimazu, Akihito; Imamura, Kotaro; Namba, Katsuyuki; Kawakami, Norito
Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees' well-being such as work engagement. This study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed job crafting intervention program on work engagement (as primary outcome), as well as job crafting and psychological distress (as secondary outcomes), using a pretest-posttest study design among Japanese employees. Participants were managers of a private company and a private psychiatric hospital in Japan. The job crafting intervention program consisted of two 120-min sessions with a two-week interval between them. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (Time 1), post-intervention (Time 2), and a one-month follow-up (Time 3). The mixed growth model analyses were conducted using time (Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3) as an indicator of intervention effect. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. The program showed a significant positive effect on work engagement (t = 2.20, p = 0.03) in the mixed growth model analyses, but with only small effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.33 at Time 2 and 0.26 at Time 3). The program also significantly improved job crafting (t = 2.36, p = 0.02: Cohen's d = 0.36 at Time 2 and 0.47 at Time 3) and reduced psychological distress (t = -2.06, p = 0.04: Cohen's d = -0.15 at Time 2 and -0.31 at Time 3). The study indicated that the newly developed job crafting intervention program was effective in increasing work engagement, as well as in improving job crafting and decreasing psychological distress, among Japanese managers. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000024062 . Retrospectively registered 15 September 2016.
Larkins, Randy James
environment possible in whatever form the focus group takes place. Suggestions for future research include recruiting participants from online classes and attempting to engage more disenfranchised students in other studies. Similar to new types of focus group methods due to technological advances, academic interventions for students facing failing grades are also increasing due to the internet and new methods of service delivery. The contextual aspect of this research involved asking students to participate in an initial focus group session, four weeks of email updates, and a final focus group session in which students participated in the same group as the initial session. The purpose of the focus groups was to evaluate whether or not the universities' attempts to help students succeed in a course known in the past for high failure rates through a program known as the Early Alert Project was succeeding. Interview data were analyzed using thematic coding to evaluate available support services using a comprehensive implementation evaluation model which included effort, monitoring, process, components; and treatment specification. The primary findings were although students believed the university was trying to help them succeed, Early Alert Project efforts were adversely received. In addition, participants felt that although there were enough support services to help them succeed in the course, the components of the support system were confusing and not organized in any systematic manner. Suggestions for further research included researching delivery of this type of communication that might be more amenable to the students who received it and applying this research to other courses to examine whether the same results occur. Finally, implications of the use of traditional methods and academic support services are discussed in addition to the effect of the research itself upon its participants.
Shie, Huei-Guan; Pan, Sheng-Wei; Yu, Wen-Kuang; Chen, Wei-Chih; Ho, Li-Ing; Ko, Hsin-Kuo
Life-long smoking cessation is a critical public health objective, but it is difficult for numerous people. This study aimed to identify the independent predictors of 1-year abstinence in smokers motivated to quit and participating in an intervention program. This 6-year retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in smokers who participated in an intervention program. The exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) was sequentially measured on day 1, 8, 15, and 22 of the intervention program. The primary outcome measure was smoking status at 1 year of follow-up. A total of 162 participants were enrolled and divided into a successful quit group (n = 52) and unsuccessful quit group (n = 110). Using a multivariate logistic regression analysis, we reported that the intention to quit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.475, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.169-1.862, P-value = 0.001), varenicline use (AOR = 3.199, 95% CI = 1.290-7.934, P -value = 0.012) and the exhaled CO level on day 8 (AOR = 0.937, 95% CI = 0.885-0.992, P-value = 0.025) independently predicted 1-year smoking cessation. Moreover, the level of exhaled CO smoking cessation (area under curve 0.761, sensitivity 88.2%, and specificity 57.8%, P-value intervention programs to achieve a higher rate of long-term smoking cessation. IDENTIFYING PREDICTORS OF SUCCESS: Researchers in Korea identify key predictors that pinpoint people most likely to quit smoking successfully during intervention programs. Millions are spent each year supporting people to quit smoking. However, successful quitters remain in the minority, with only 9-35 per cent of those in intervention programs abstaining for at least a year. Hsin-Kuo Ko at Taipei Veterans General Hospital and co-workers identified key independent indicators of successful abstinence in 162 smokers attending an intervention program. Alongside having a high intention to quit and using varenicline medication, a potential predictor
Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Vargas, Cristian; Duica, Kelly; Richard, Shanel; Palacio, Juan David; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos
Bipolar Disorder (BD) and schizophrenia are included in the group of severe mental illness and are main causes of disability and morbidity in the local population due to the bio-psycho-social implications in patients. In the last 20 years or so, adjunctive psychological interventions been studied with the purpose of decreasing recurrences, stabilising the course of the disease, and improving the functionality in these patients. To analyse the psychological effect of a multimodal intervention (MI) vs a traditional intervention (TI) program in BD I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to the MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. The MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. The TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. The Hamilton and Young scales, and the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Postive Symptoms (SAPS) were used on bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The scales AQ-12, TEMPS-A, FAST, Zuckerman sensation seeking scale, BIS-11, SAI-E and EEAG were applied to measure the psychological variables. The scales were performed before and after the interventions. The psychotherapy used in this study was cognitive behavioural therapy. There were statistically significant differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder group. There were no statistically significant differences in the psychological scales after conducting a multivariate analysis between the intervention groups and for both times (initial and final). This study did not show any changes in variables of psychological functioning variables between bipolar and schizophrenic groups, who were subjected to TI vs MI (who received cognitive behavioural therapy
Sampaio, Maria Nobre; Capellini, Simone Aparecida
To develop an intervention procedure for spelling difficulties and to verify the effectiveness of the intervention program in students with lower spelling performance. We developed an intervention program for spelling difficulties, according to the semiology of the errors. The program consisted of three modules totaling 16 sessions. The study included 40 students of the third to fifth grade of public elementary education of the city of Marilia (SP), of both genders, in aged of eight to 12 years old, being distributed in the following groups: GI (20 students with lower spelling performance) and GII (20 students with higher spelling performance). In situation of pre and post-testing, all groups were submitted to the Pro-Orthography. The results statistically analyzed showed that, in general, all groups had average of right that has higher in post-testing, reducing the types of errors second semiologycal classification, mainly related to natural spelling errors. However, the results also showed that the groups submitted to the intervention program showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. The intervention program developed was effective once the groups submitted showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. Therefore, the intervention program can help professionals in the Health and Education to minimize the problems related to spelling, giving students an intervention that is effective for the development of the spelling knowledge.
Intervention tricals can principally be classified into community or clinically oriented designs. The clinical approach of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) implies the individual randomization of a volunteer population into a study and a control group. In community-oriented trials, however, the study and control group are not composed of individuals, but rather of total population groups (e.g. communities, factories). The paper gives first an overview over the historial development of epidemiological methods as the basis for both study types. Shortcomings and advantages both of RCT's and of community trials are discussed, using the examples of the "diet-heart" hypothesis and of the National Research Program 1A design, respectively. The two study types uses as primary endpoints for the analysis changes in risk factor distribution, morbidity and/or mortality. A recent alternative is presented, too: advances in angiography allow direct measurements of changes in vessels with atherosclerotic disease. The different study types available complement one another in trying to understand the mechanisms involved in disease of multifactorial origin.
Weigel, Angelika; Gumz, Antje; Uhlenbusch, Natalie; Wegscheider, Karl; Romer, Georg; Löwe, Bernd
There are a high number of adolescents who are at risk of developing an eating disorder. There is, therefore, a strong need to implement prevention programs aimed at reducing the incidence of eating disorders at this critical age. Among other factors, successful prevention programs have been shown to be interactive, carried out by professionals, focused on educational as well as psychosocial elements and have taken risk factors as well as resources into account. The objective of this study protocol is to present the design of a new prevention program for eating disorders in schools. The gender-adapted prevention program extends over six school hours. It contains interactive and educational elements about eating disorders and their treatment. Participants pass through different exercises and reflect on the influences of the media, self-esteem, body perception and individual resources. A cluster-randomized controlled trial is chosen to evaluate the program. Based on an estimated effect size of d = 0.3 a total of 1848 participants are enrolled in the study. Eating disorder risk, internalization of Western beauty ideals, body dissatisfaction, self-concept as well as anxiety and symptoms of depression are measured before and immediately after the intervention as well as at a six-month follow-up. In addition, the intervention group evaluates the different components of the program. The study intends to test the practicability and efficacy of an interactive, gender-adapted ED prevention program in schools. Moreover, it will provide valuable information about the occurrence of eating disorder risk factors in school-aged children. ISRCTN97989348; Registered 19 December 2012.
Ohtani, Nobuyo; Narita, Shin; Yoshihara, Eiji; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko
The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation method for animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs involving Mood Check List-Short form.2 (MCL-S.2) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for psychiatric daycare of Japanese alcohol. dependents. A total of 36 alcohol dependents completed the study and questionnaires assessing their state. A single session of AAI reduced both subjective and physiological measures of state anxiety (A-State); and this program induced a significant reduction in the anxiety after an AAI program session with the dogs and cats involved in the intervention (p = 0.001). The Wilcoxon t-test showed that there were also significant differences in the "anxiety", "pleasantness", and "relaxation". scores for MCL-S.2 among the alcohol dependents, before and after AAI; a significantly decreased "anxiety" score (p = 0.006), and increased "pleasantness" (p = 0.002) and "relaxation" (p=0.012) scores for MCL-S.2 after AAI. The results of this study indicated that alcohol dependents who experienced a group AAI session-program exhibited significant improvements in their feeling; decreased anxiety, and increased pleasantness and relaxation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family-based behavioural intervention programs (FBIPs against childhood obesity have shown promising results, but the mediating mechanisms have not been identified. The aim of this study was to examine changes in obese childreńs lifestyle habits during a 2-year FBIP according to their own and parents' reports, the concordance between these reports and the correlations to change in post-intervention z-BMI. METHODS: An observational study of 26 children (8.3-12.0 years and their parents participating in a 2-year FBIP was performed. Weight and height were measured from baseline to 12 months after the end of the program. Eating habits and physical- and sedentary activity were reported separately by children and parents. Data were analysed with regard to concordance between parents' and children's reports and association between the lifestyle reports and change in z-BMI at the study endpoint using descriptive statistics and parametric and non-parametric tests. RESULTS: According to both children's and parents' reports, the level of physical activity among the children had increased after the intervention as well as the agreement between the informants' reports. According to the children, eating habits had improved, while the parents' reports showed an improvement only with regard to binge eating. The concordance between children and parents regarding eating habits was slight to fair also after the intervention. No statistically significant associations between changes in lifestyle reports and changes in z-BMI were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Child and parent reports of physical activity were found to converge and display an improvement in a 2-year FBIP, while the reports on eating habits showed a more refractory pattern. Changes in concordance and agreement between children and parents reports did not correlate with weight reduction. Further methods development and studies of the processes during family-based interventions against childhood
Skubby, David; Bonfine, Natalie; Novisky, Meghan; Munetz, Mark R; Ritter, Christian
The Crisis Intervention Teams model (CIT) was originally developed as an urban model for police officers responding to calls about persons experiencing a mental illness crisis. Literature suggests that there is reason to believe that there may be unique challenges to adapting this model in rural settings. This study attempts to better understand these unique challenges. Thematic analysis of focus group interviews revealed that there were both external and internal barriers to developing CIT in their respective communities. Some of these barriers were a consequence of working in small communities and working within small police departments. Participants actively overcame these barriers through the realization that CIT was needed in their community, through collaborative efforts across disciplines, and through the involvement of mental health advocacy groups. These results indicate that CIT can be successfully implemented in rural communities.
Berry, Alessandra; Borgi, Marta; Terranova, Livia; Chiarotti, Flavia; Alleva, Enrico; Cirulli, Francesca
An ever increasing interest in the therapeutic aspects of the human-animal bond has led to a proliferation of animal-assisted interventions (AAI) involving dogs. However, most of these programs lack a solid methodological structure, and basic evaluative research is needed. The purpose of this study was to test the value of dog-assisted interventions as an innovative tool to increase quality of life in the geriatric population. Nineteen patients (men and women) with a mean age of 85 years participated in the study. Interactions between patients and visiting dogs occurred either in a social situation (socialization sessions) or in a therapeutic context (physical therapy sessions). We derived and characterized a specific ethogram of elderly-dog interactions aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of visiting dogs in improving mood, catalyzing social interactions and reducing their everyday apathetic state. Cortisol levels were also measured in the saliva, and depressive state was evaluated. Overall, results show a time-dependent increase in social behaviour and spontaneous interactions with the dogs. Dog-mediated interactions affected the daily increase in cortisol levels, thus having an 'activational effect', in contrast to the apathetic state of institutionalized elderly. Dog-mediated intervention programs appear to be promising tools to improve the social skills and enrich the daily activities of the institutionalized elderly. © 2012 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2012 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
de Velasco, José A; Cosín, Juan; de Oya, Manuel; de Teresa, Eduardo
Secondary prevention measures for myocardial infarction are inadequate. In Spain, the earlier PREVESE studies provided preliminary data. The aim of this study was to document the results of a simple intervention program for secondary prevention, implemented during the hospital stay. We included 4174 patients (mean age 63.7 years, 73% men) discharged from 110 hospitals after myocardial infarction. Lipid profile was determined during the first 24 h after admission, and before discharge patients and relatives were informed about the disease and its prevention, and were given printed informative materials. The patients were seen again 6 months later. After 6 months, 82.9% of the patients were examined and 10% were lost to follow-up. Mean blood pressure, weight and body mass index of the sample were lower, and lifestyle variables had improved. At discharge 87% were prescribed statins, 59.4% beta blockers, 51.2% ACE inhibitors and angiotensin blockers, and 94.1% antiplatelet drugs. These prescriptions were still being used 6 months later. There were substantial improvements in lipid values. The implementation of a simple intervention program for patients with myocardial infarction and their relatives, and the determination of lipid levels within 24 hours of admission, improved the secondary prevention measures at discharge and during the 6-month follow-up period. Acceptance of the program among the patients was good.
Smith, Marilyn; Hill, George C.; Bandera, Marcia
This paper reports on long-term effects of a fifth-grade intervention for high-risk students. The intervention, "Just Do It, Jr." (JDR), was a collaborative after-school program between University of Nevada Cooperative Extension and the Elko County School District (Nevada), in which fifth-graders at risk of academic failure participated…
Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.
Full Text Available This paper is part of a broader study that addresses the topic of the role of evaluation within the System of Structural Instruments in Romania. The main objective is to identify the mechanisms that can lead to the institutionalization of evaluation as an instrument of public interventions improvement. The study is based on several key assumptions: the current maturation level of the evaluation culture in Romania is still incipient, the development of the evaluation process is considered only under the framework of structural instruments, the low impact of the evaluation practice towards the interventions at stake and the waste of financial, human and time resources that is being generated when a system does not fulfill its main purpose. The current article presents a study case of the evaluation system developed under the Romanian Regional Operational Program during the financial cycle 2007 – 2013. The research is based on an analysis of the evaluation process that aims to highlight its strengths and weaknesses as well as to determine a set of main factors that influence the capacity of the process to achieve its purpose, namely to contribute to the increase of the efficiency and effectiveness of the Regional Operational Program. The article is focused on the analysis of the perspective of the stakeholders that are involved in the management and evaluation process. Therefore it is based on an exploratory approach, analyzing data collected from the hard core side of this sector, which includes the commissioners of the evaluation studies at the level of the program, the managers of the evaluation system at the central level and the external evaluation experts that develop the evaluation studies and deliver the evaluation reports.
van Vilsteren, Myrthe; Boot, Cécile R L; Steenbeek, Romy; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Anema, Johannes R
Workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often experience restrictions in functioning at work and participation in employment. Strategies to maintain work productivity exist, but these interventions do not involve the actual workplace. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the (cost)effectiveness of an intervention program at the workplace on work productivity for workers with RA. This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in specialized rheumatology treatment centers in or near Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Randomisation to either the control or the intervention group is performed at patient level. Both groups will receive care as usual by the rheumatologist, and patients in the intervention group will also take part in the intervention program. The intervention program consists of two components; integrated care, including a participatory workplace intervention. Integrated care involves a clinical occupational physician, who will act as care manager, to coordinate the care. The care manager has an intermediate role between clinical and occupational care. The participatory workplace intervention will be guided by an occupational therapist, and involves problem solving by the patient and the patients' supervisor. The aim of the workplace intervention is to achieve consensus between patient and supervisor concerning feasible solutions for the obstacles for functioning at work. Data collection will take place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months by means of a questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is work productivity, measured by hours lost from work due to presenteeism. Secondary outcome measures include sick leave, quality of life, pain and fatigue. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated from the societal perspective. Usual care of primary and outpatient health services is not aimed at improving work productivity. Therefore it is desirable to develop interventions aimed at improving functioning at work. If the
Vilsteren Myrthe van
Full Text Available Abstract Background Workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA often experience restrictions in functioning at work and participation in employment. Strategies to maintain work productivity exist, but these interventions do not involve the actual workplace. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the (costeffectiveness of an intervention program at the workplace on work productivity for workers with RA. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT in specialized rheumatology treatment centers in or near Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Randomisation to either the control or the intervention group is performed at patient level. Both groups will receive care as usual by the rheumatologist, and patients in the intervention group will also take part in the intervention program. The intervention program consists of two components; integrated care, including a participatory workplace intervention. Integrated care involves a clinical occupational physician, who will act as care manager, to coordinate the care. The care manager has an intermediate role between clinical and occupational care. The participatory workplace intervention will be guided by an occupational therapist, and involves problem solving by the patient and the patients’ supervisor. The aim of the workplace intervention is to achieve consensus between patient and supervisor concerning feasible solutions for the obstacles for functioning at work. Data collection will take place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months by means of a questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is work productivity, measured by hours lost from work due to presenteeism. Secondary outcome measures include sick leave, quality of life, pain and fatigue. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated from the societal perspective. Discussion Usual care of primary and outpatient health services is not aimed at improving work productivity. Therefore it is desirable to develop
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about early physiotherapy to preterm infants is sparse, given the risk of delayed motor development and cerebral palsy. Methods/Design A pragmatic randomized controlled study has been designed to assess the effect of a preventative physiotherapy program carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit. Moreover, a qualitative study is carried out to assess the physiotherapy performance and parents' experiences with the intervention. The aim of the physiotherapy program is to improve motor development i.e. postural control and selective movements in these infants. 150 infants will be included and randomized to either intervention or standard follow-up. The infants in the intervention group will be given specific stimulation to facilitate movements based on the individual infant's development, behavior and needs. The physiotherapist teaches the parents how to do the intervention and the parents receive a booklet with photos and descriptions of the intervention. Intervention is carried out twice a day for three weeks (week 34, 35, 36 postmenstrual age. Standardized tests are carried out at baseline, term age and at three, six, 12 and 24 months corrected age. In addition eight triads (infant, parent and physiotherapist are observed and videotaped in four clinical encounters each to assess the process of physiotherapy performance. The parents are also interviewed on their experiences with the intervention and how it influences on the parent-child relationship. Eight parents from the follow up group are interviewed about their experience. The interviews are performed according to the same schedule as the standardized measurements. Primary outcome is at two years corrected age. Discussion The paper presents the protocol for a randomized controlled trial designed to study the effect of physiotherapy to preterm infants at neonatal intensive care units. It also studies physiotherapy performance and the parent's experiences
Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina
In recent years, there has been renewed interest among community psychologists in indigenous interventions, which are programs created by local practitioners (rather than researchers) already rooted in their communities. Indigenous interventions have strong ecological validity, but their effectiveness is often unknown because so few are rigorously evaluated. The goal of this project was to use Kelly and Trickett's ecological theory as a conceptual framework for evaluating an indigenous intervention and its mediating mechanisms of effectiveness. The focal intervention was a midwestern Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program, which provides post-assault medical care, crisis intervention, and medical forensic exams for sexual assault survivors. Prior studies of SANE programs have suggested that these interventions may help increase sexual assault prosecution rates. In this case example, we used a mixed methods design to determine if this program contributed to increased prosecution rates, and if so, why. Based on qualitative interviews with key stakeholders, we found substantial evidence for the Principle of Interdependence such that the SANE program strengthened the interconnections between the legal and medical systems, which contributed to increased prosecution. The intervention was effective in these outcomes because it promoted Cycling of Resources throughout the systems and fostered Adaptation of new roles for legal and medical personnel. Moving beyond this specific case example, this paper also examines cross-cutting advantages and struggles of using an ecological approach in the evaluation of indigenous community interventions.
McPherson, Tracy L; Goplerud, Eric; Derr, Dennis; Mickenberg, Judy; Courtemanche, Sherry
Substantial empirical support exists for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in medical, but not non-medical settings such as the workplace. Workplace settings remain underutilised for delivering evidenced-based health services. This research aims to translate medical research into behavioural health-care practice in a telephonic call centre acting as a point of entry into an Employee Assistance Program (EAP). The goal of the study is to examine the feasibility of implementing routine telephonic alcohol SBIRT in an EAP call centre and assess whether routine SBIRT results in increased identification of workers who misuse alcohol. The design was pretest-posttest, one-group, pre-experimental. An alcohol SBIRT program developed based on World Health Organization recommendations was implemented in one EAP call centre serving one large employer. Workers were offered screening using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) during intake, brief counselling using motivational interviewing, referral to counselling, and follow-up. At 5 months, 93% of workers contacting the EAP completed the AUDIT-C: 40% prescreened positive and 52% went on to screen at moderate or high risk for an alcohol problem. Overall identification rate (18%) approached general US population estimates. Most agreed to follow-up and three-quarters set an appointment for face-to-face counselling. Integration of routine alcohol SBIRT into EAP practice is feasible in telephonic delivery systems and increases identification and opportunity for brief motivational counselling. When SBIRT is seamlessly integrated workers are willing to answer questions about alcohol and participate in follow-up.[McPherson TL, Goplerud E, Derr D, Mickenberg J, Courtemanche S. Telephonic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse among workers contacting the employee assistance program: A feasibility study. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…
Stevens, Kimberly A; Ronan, Prof Kevin; Davies, Gene
This paper reports on a new family-centred, feedback-informed intervention focused on evaluating therapeutic outcomes and language changes across treatment for conduct disorder (CD). The study included 26 youth and families from a larger randomised, controlled trial (Ronan et al., in preparation). Outcome measures reflected family functioning/youth compliance, delinquency, and family goal attainment. First- and last-treatment session audio files were transcribed into more than 286,000 words and evaluated through the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Analysis program (Pennebaker et al., 2007). Significant outcomes across family functioning/youth compliance, delinquency, goal attainment and word usage reflected moderate-strong effect sizes. Benchmarking findings also revealed reduced time of treatment delivery compared to a gold standard approach. Linguistic analysis revealed specific language changes across treatment. For caregivers, increased first person, action-oriented, present tense, and assent type words and decreased sadness words were found; for youth, significant reduction in use of leisure words. This study is the first using lexical analyses of natural language to assess change across treatment for conduct disordered youth and families. Such findings provided strong support for program tenets; others, more speculative support. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Nylén, Eva Charlotta; Lindfors, Petra; Ishäll, Lars; Göransson, Sara; Aronsson, Gunnar; Kylin, Camilla; Sverke, Magnus
Psychosocial factors, including job demands and poor resources, have been linked to stress, health problems, and negative job attitudes. However, worksite based interventions and programs targeting psychosocial factors may change employees' perceptions of their work climate and work attitudes. This pilot study describes a newly developed worksite based participatory organizational intervention program that was tested in the social service sector. It is evaluated using participants' perceptions of the intervention to investigate its acceptability as a feature of feasibility and its short-term effects on work climate factors (job demands and resources) and work-related attitudes. Forty employees of a Swedish social service unit provided self-reports before, during, and after the intervention. As for effects, quantitative role overload and social support decreased while turnover intention increased. Responses to an open-ended question showed that participants considered the intervention program valuable for addressing issues relating to the psychosocial work climate. Although the findings are preliminary, it was possible to carry out this worksite based participatory organizational program in this particular setting. Also, the preliminary findings underscore the challenges associated with designing and implementing this type of intervention program, thus adding to the methodological discussion on implementation and evaluation.
Wainscott, Sarah Dawson
Families are faced with numerous decisions shortly after their infants are identified with a hearing loss. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the family decision-making process including how families receive and respond to information and how family priorities and concerns for their child's future relate to the decisions they make. Of…
Calloway, Eric E; Stern, Katie L; Schober, Daniel J; Yaroch, Amy L
Objectives To understand the process by which early childhood education (ECE) providers effectively used an existing intervention to facilitate the creation or strengthening of a written breastfeeding policy, understand the factors important to this process, and present a logic model to guide future intervention design and evaluation. Methods A purposive sample of interviewees who recently completed an ECE nutrition and physical activity intervention and reported positive pre-post scores for breastfeeding support were recruited to complete semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded, following a Grounded Theory approach. Results The ECE programs (n = 23) had a written breastfeeding policy and were located across six states in the United States. The most common aspects of breastfeeding support covered in the policies were handling and storing of breastmilk, pieces of equipment to be provided (e.g., breast pump), and the creation of a space or room designated for breastfeeding and pumping. Many factors important to the policy creation process were identified such as motivation, education, technical assistance, perceptions of parental indifference, staff buy-in, and time and administrative constraints. Once motivated to create a policy, ECE providers described actions, such as gathering background information and model policies, discussing policy needs with stakeholders, utilizing technical assistance, and overcoming barriers. Conclusions for Practice From these findings, a logic model was created to guide future intervention design and evaluation, and several recommendations were made to help guide subsequent interventions in promoting the development and implementation of written breastfeeding policies at ECE programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Executive function is critical for children's healthy development. We propose an intervention program to enhance children's executive function using the game, GO. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed that playing GO is related to executive function. In addition, previous studies also revealed that executive function can be enhanced by training. We will perform a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a GO intervention group and a control group without intervention. Methods/Design 35 elementary school children aged 8 to 10 were recruited from Edogawa elementary school in Tokyo, Japan. They will be randomized into two groups; either the 5-week GO intervention group or no-intervention control group. We will ask the participants of the intervention group to join the GO course which will be held once every week for five weeks (total: six times. In the GO course, the children will be taught GO by the GO masters of the Nihon Ki-in and enjoy it for an hour. Besides the course, the participants will perform GO problems about twenty minutes a day, three times a week during the intervention period. We will use the Stroop task, the digit span, the Raven's colored progressive matrices, the Span-board task, and the Behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation scale for the outcome measures. Outcomes will be measured at a baseline (Assessment 1 and 5 weeks after the intervention program started (Assessment 2. The intervention group will be compared with the control group using one-way analyses of covariance with the difference between Assessment 1 and Assessment 2 measures as dependent variables and pretest scores as covariates. Discussion To our knowledge, this study will be the first RCT to investigate the efficacy of a GO intervention program for elementary school children. If this intervention is effective, we will be able to take the next steps in making an educational program to enhance children's executive
This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…
Intervention programs through computer application should be used to persuade and support health awareness, treatment and prevention. This paper investigate and review studies using persuasive technology in health intervention program in Malaysia. It presents the main objective, the technology persuasive principles ...
Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine
This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…
van Manen, T.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Conducted a pilot study on the efficacy of a social-cognitive group intervention program based on social information-processing theory (K. A. Dodge, 1986) for children with a conduct disorder. Human Ss: 16 Dutch school-age children and adolescents (aged 10-13 yrs) (conduct disorder). Ss participated
Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Background An effective intervention program aiming to reduce whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work will reduce the number of low back complaints in the near future. Methods An evaluation study with a controlled pretest-post-test design. Nine companies and 126 drivers were included in the
Phang, Cheng Kar; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Normala; Keng, Shian-Ling; Sidik, Sherina Mohd.
Pursuing undergraduate medical training can be very stressful and academically challenging experience. A 5-week mindfulness-based stress management (MBSM/Mindful-Gym) program was developed to help medical students cope with stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing stress among students in a…
Ho, Rainbow T H; Sing, Cheuk Yan; Wong, Venus P Y
To examine the effectiveness of a body-mind-spirit (BMS) intervention program in improving the holistic well-being and work empowerment among helping professionals in continuous education. Forty-four helping professionals, who were in their first-year part-time postgraduate study, participated in the present study. All participants attended a 3-day BMS intervention program which emphasized a holistic approach to health and well-being. Ratings on their levels of physical distress, daily functioning, affect, spirituality, and psychological empowerment at work were compared before and immediately after the intervention. Participants reported significantly lower levels of negative affect and physical distress, and were less spiritually disoriented after the intervention. Enhanced levels of daily functioning, positive affect, spiritual resilience, and tranquility were also reported. Results also suggested that participants were empowered at work, and specifically felt more able to make an impact on work outcomes. The 3-day BMS intervention program produced a positive and measurable effect on participants' holistic well-being and empowerment at work. Educators in related fields could incorporate holistic practices into the curriculum to better prepare the future practitioners, leading to better outcomes both to the professionals themselves and their clients or patients.
Phang, Cheng Kar; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Normala; Keng, Shian-Ling; Mohd Sidik, Sherina
Pursuing undergraduate medical training can be very stressful and academically challenging experience. A 5-week mindfulness-based stress management (MBSM/Mindful-Gym) program was developed to help medical students cope with stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing stress among students in a medical school in Malaysia. Seventy-five medical students participated in the program. They were stratified according to years of studies and randomly allocated to intervention (N = 37) and control groups (N = 38). The following outcome variables were measured at pre- and post-intervention: mindfulness (with Mindful Awareness Attention Scale); perceived stress (with Perceived Stress Scale); mental distress (with General Health Questionnaire), and self-efficacy (with General Self-efficacy Scale). Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to analyse the effect of group (intervention vs. control) on changes in the outcome variables. There were significant improvements at one week post-intervention in all outcome variables: mindfulness (β = 0.19, ΔR2 = 0.04, p = .040, f (2) = 0.05), perceived stress (β = -0.26, ΔR2 = 0.07, p = .009, f (2) = 0.10); mental distress (β = -0.28, ΔR2 = 0.10, p = .003, f (2) = 0.15); and self-efficacy (β = 0.30, ΔR2 = 0.09, p effective stress management program for medical students in Malaysia.
Structure to utilize interventionists' implementation experiences of a family-based behavioral weight management program to enhance the dissemination of the standardized intervention: The TODAY study.
Chadwick, Jennifer Q; Van Buren, Dorothy J; Morales, Elisa; Timpson, Alexandra; Abrams, Ericka L; Syme, Amy; Preske, Jeff; Mireles, Gerardo; Anderson, Barbara; Grover, Nisha; Laffel, Lori
Background For a 2- to 6-year period, interventionists for the TODAY (Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) randomized clinical trial delivered a family-based, behavioral weight-loss program (the TODAY Lifestyle Program) to 234 youth with type 2 diabetes. Interventionists held at least a bachelor's degree in psychology, social work, education, or health-related field and had experience working with children and families, especially from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. This article describes the administrative and organizational structure of the lifestyle program and how the structure facilitated collaboration among study leadership and lifestyle interventionists on the tailoring of the program to best suit the needs of the trial's diverse patient population. Methods During the pilot phase and throughout the duration of the trial, the interventionists' experiences in delivering the intervention were collected in a variety of ways including membership on study committees, survey responses, session audio recordings, and feedback during in-person trainings. Results The experiences of interventionists conveyed to study leadership through these channels resulted in decisions to tailor the lifestyle intervention's delivery location and ways to supplement the standardized educational materials to better address the needs of a diverse patient population. Conclusion The methods used within the TODAY study to encourage and utilize interventionists' experiences while implementing the lifestyle program may be useful to the design of future multi-site, clinical trials seeking to tailor behavioral interventions in a standardized, and culturally and developmentally sensitive manner.
Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Chen; Wang, Jean
This study evaluated the outcome and process of a community-based aging intervention program for the elderly in Taiwan. The program included education on nutrition and dietary behavior and on physical activities. Outcome and process evaluations were conducted. The program may have had some effects on decreasing some dietary behavioral problems and…
Marfo, Kofi; Dinero, Thomas E.
This paper argues that efficacy of early intervention must be assessed in relation to both program and extra-program variables. A framework outlining five classes of independent variables and two classes of outcomes to be considered in efficacy research is presented, and regression and path analytic techniques are suggested as tools for addressing…
Cobb, Jeanne B.
Discusses the importance of early intervention and the necessity of providing support for at risk first graders to circumvent the cycle of failure that, once begun, persists. Presents a study comparing the effects of tutoring fourth graders by a trained prospective teacher and an untrained college athlete. Finds no significant difference in…
Marfo, Kofi; And Others
This study examined child developmental, program, family ecological, and demographic variables from 200 families with mentally retarded or developmentally delayed toddlers, to identify predictors of child developmental progress and parental satisfaction following participation in early intervention. Child developmental progress correlated…
Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Ghayour, Mahboubeh; Kordi, Mahboubeh; Younesian, Ali
The objectives of this study were a) to develop a physical activity program for nursery schools, and b) to evaluate the effects of this program on fundamental movement skills of preschool age children in Iran. In this quasi-experimental study 147 children from five nursery schools in five different cities in Iran were enrolled. A physical activity program was developed for nursery children. Trained nursery physical activity instructors conducted the program for 10 weeks for all subjects. The levels of gross motor development of all subjects were measured before intervention and after 10 weeks physical activity program employing the Test of Gross Motor Development-edition 2 (TGMD-2). The participants in this study had a mean (SD) age of 4.95 (0.83) years. At the end of the study, scores of subjects at all components of TGMD-2 (including locomotor, object control, sum of standard scores and gross motor quotient) were significantly improved compared to the baseline scores (P120) and after 10 weeks intervention this rate was increased to 49.7% of all subjects. It seems that the developed physical activity program conducted by trained nursery physical activity instructors could be an effective and practical way of increasing levels of fundamental movement skills of preschool children in Iran.
Gámez-López, Antonio L; Bonilla-Palomas, Juan L; Anguita-Sánchez, Manuel; Moreno-Conde, Mirian; López-Ibáñez, Cristina; Alhambra-Expósito, Rosa; Castillo-Domínguez, Juan C; Villar-Ráez, Antonia; Suárez de Lezo, José
Hospitalized patients with heart failure who are malnourished present a worse prognosis than those with an adequate nutritional status. It is unknown whether a nutritional intervention can modify the prognosis of these patients. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a nutritional intervention on morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients with heart failure who are malnourished. PICNIC is a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial in which hospitalized patients with heart failure and malnutrition, as defined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment, are randomly assigned to conventional management of heart failure or conventional management of heart failure and an individualized nutritional intervention consisting of 3 points: optimization of diet, specific recommendations, and prescription, if deemed necessary, of nutritional supplements. A sample size of 182 patients for a maximum follow-up of 12 months has been estimated. The primary endpoint is time to death from any cause or rehospitalization because of heart failure. Analysis is by intention to treat. PICNIC study will determine the prognostic impact of a nutritional intervention in hospitalized patients with heart failure who are malnourished. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Wassenaar, Annelies; van den Boogaard, Mark; Underpin-Icu Study Group; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Pickkers, Peter
Delirium is common in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and associated with poor outcome. In non-ICU patients a multicomponent intervention program with non-pharmacological interventions has shown to reduce delirium. Currently, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effects of such a program in ICU patients. We developed a draft program based on a review. As most studies were conducted in non-ICU patients, the feasibility of the program in ICU patients needs to be assessed before investigating its effectiveness. To determine experts' opinion and to achieve group consensus on the feasibility and completeness of the multicomponent intervention program for ICU patients. A modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method Delphi study was used. A total of 38 experts were selected following purposive sampling. Round one informed the experts about the draft program and asked for their opinion about its feasibility and completeness. In round two the experts were asked to reconsider their opinion based on changes made, and to rank the interventions in order of importance. The feasibility was scored using a 9-point Likert scale. A disagreement index (DI) and panel median were calculated to determine the level of agreement. During Delphi round one 100% of the questionnaires was completed, during round two 79%. After two rounds the experts agreed on the feasibility of the interventions targeting sleep deprivation (panel median 7.00, DI 0.26), immobility (panel median 8.00, DI 0.22), visual and hearing impairment (panel median 8.00, DI 0.19), and cognitive impairment (panel median 8.00, DI 0.23), except for cognitive training (panel median 5.00, DI 0.52). During this study a feasible multicomponent intervention program to prevent ICU delirium was developed based on expert consensus. As no consensus was reached on cognitive training, a pilot study is planned to determine the feasibility of cognitive training in the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Critical Care
Bernardo, Greyce Luci; Jomori, Manuela Mika; Fernandes, Ana Carolina; Colussi, Claudia Flemming; Condrasky, Margaret D; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa
Community-based intervention studies that aim at developing cooking skills have increased in the scientific literature and are related to healthier food practices. However, methodological limitations are observed and only a few studies have university students as the target. The university entrance period has been related to negative changes in eating habits among young people and it represents an important period for developing interventions for health promotion. This study describes the study protocol and the evaluation framework for the Nutrition and Culinary in the Kitchen program. This program aims to develop cooking skills in university students, and is based on the Cooking with a Chef program in the United States. This ongoing, randomized controlled intervention was designed with a six month follow-up study. The intervention consisted of three-hour weekly classes during a six week period with printed materials provided. Five of the classes were hands-on cooking and one was a tour to a popular food market. There were eight primary outcome measures: changes in relation to i) accessibility and availability of fruits and vegetables; ii) cooking attitudes; iii) cooking behaviors at home; iv) cooking behaviors away from home; v) produce consumption self-efficacy; vi) self-efficacy for using basic cooking techniques; vii) self-efficacy for using fruits, vegetables, and seasonings (while cooking); and viii) knowledge of cooking terms and techniques. Secondary outcomes included changes in body mass index and in personal characteristics related to cooking. Repeated measures were collected through the application of an online self-completed survey, at baseline, after intervention and six months after intervention. A sample of 80 university students (40: intervention group; 40: control group) was estimated to detect a mean change of 1.5 points in cooking knowledge, with study power of 80%, and 95% level of confidence, plus 20% for random losses and 10% for confounding
Cook, Fallon; Seymour, Monique; Giallo, Rebecca; Cann, Warren; Nicholson, Jan M; Green, Julie; Hiscock, Harriet
Anticipatory guidance around the management of sleep and crying problems in early infancy has been shown to improve both infant behaviour and parent symptoms of postnatal depression. Digital technology offers platforms for making such programs widely available in a cost-efficient manner. However, it remains unclear who accesses online parenting advice and in particular, whether the parents who would most benefit are represented amongst users. It is also unknown whether the uptake of online programs can be improved by health professional recommendations, or whether parents require additional prompts and reminders to use the program. In this study we aim to: (1) determine whether weekly email prompts increase engagement with and use of a brief online program about infant sleeping and crying, (2) determine whether encouragement from a maternal and child health nurse promotes greater engagement with and use of the program, (3) examine who uses a brief online program about infant sleeping and crying; and, (4) examine the psychosocial characteristics of participants. This study is a randomised, parallel group, superiority trial, with all participating primary carers of infants aged 2 to 12 weeks, receiving access to the online program. Two modes of recruitment will be compared: recruitment via an online notice published on a non-commercial, highly credible and evidence-based website for parents and carers and via the parent's Maternal and Child Health nurse. After baseline assessment, parents will be randomised to one of two support conditions: online program alone or online program plus weekly email prompts. Follow up data will be collected at 4 months of infant age. Results from this trial will indicate whether involvement from a health professional, and/or ongoing email contact is necessary to engage parents in a brief online intervention, and promote parental use of strategies suggested within the program. Results of this trial will inform the development of
Lee, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Fang-Yi
Safe medication management is a major competency taught in the nursing curriculum. However, administering pediatric medications is considered a common clinical stressor for Taiwanese students. A supplemental e-learning program that helps students fill the gap between basic nursing skills and pediatric knowledge on medication safety was developed. To evaluate the effectiveness of an e-learning program to increase pediatric medication management among students who take pediatric nursing courses. This intervention study used a historical comparison design. A university in Northern Taiwan. A total of 349 undergraduate nursing students who took pediatric nursing courses participated. Eighty students in the comparison group received regular pediatric courses, including the lectures and clinical practicum; 269 students in the intervention group received an e-learning program, in addition to the standard pediatric courses. Between February 2011 and July 2012 pediatric medication management, including pediatric medication knowledge and calculation ability, was measured at the beginning of the first class, at the completion of the lectures, and at the completion of the clinical practicum. The program was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The intervention group had significantly higher pediatric medication management scores at completion of the lecture course and at the completion of the clinical practicum than the comparison group based on the first day of the lecture course, after adjusting for age, nursing program, and having graduated from a junior college in nursing. Overall, the students appreciated the program that included various teaching modalities content that related to the administration of medication. Using an e-learning program on pediatric medication management is an effective learning method in addition to sitting in a regular lecture course. The different emphases in each module, provided by experienced instructors, enabled the students to be more
Pluchino, Alessandra; Lee, Sae Yong; Asfour, Shihab; Roos, Bernard A; Signorile, Joseph F
To compare the impacts of Tai Chi, a standard balance exercise program, and a video game balance board program on postural control and perceived falls risk. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. Independent seniors (N=40; 72.5±8.40) began the training, 27 completed. Tai Chi, a standard balance exercise program, and a video game balance board program. The following were used as measures: Timed Up & Go, One-Leg Stance, functional reach, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, force plate center of pressure (COP) and time to boundary, dynamic posturography (DP), Falls Risk for Older People-Community Setting, and Falls Efficacy Scale. No significant differences were seen between groups for any outcome measures at baseline, nor were significant time or group × time differences for any field test or questionnaire. No group × time differences were seen for any COP measures; however, significant time differences were seen for total COP, 3 of 4 anterior/posterior displacement and both velocity, and 1 displacement and 1 velocity medial/lateral measure across time for the entire sample. For DP, significant improvements in the overall score (dynamic movement analysis score), and in 2 of the 3 linear and angular measures were seen for the sample. The video game balance board program, which can be performed at home, was as effective as Tai Chi and the standard balance exercise program in improving postural control and balance dictated by the force plate postural sway and DP measures. This finding may have implications for exercise adherence because the at-home nature of the intervention eliminates many obstacles to exercise training. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ann-Charlotte Grahn Kronhed
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore long-term effects seven years after the completion of a ten-year community-based osteoporosis intervention program in Vadstena, Sweden. The association between calcaneal bone mineral density and several life style factors, and the impact of risk factors for sustaining a fracture after the age of 50 were also studied. Previous participants in the intervention group, and matched subjects were invited to calcaneal bone mass measurement by a portable device including the dual X-ray and laser (DXL technology by Calscan, and to complete a questionnaire in 2006. A total of 417 persons (63% of those invited in the intervention (I group, and 120 persons (47% of those invited in the control (C group participated. Mean age was 63 years (37–94 years. There was somewhat more knowledge of osteoporosis in the I-group (M = 18 than in the C-group (M = 17 (p −2.5. The long-term effects of a ten-year, community-based, osteoporosis intervention program on knowledge and behavior were modest seven years after its completion.
Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2016
The Missouri State Board of Education and the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education are dedicated to ensuring that all children have access to good schools that prepare them for college and career success. The Missouri School Improvement Program: Support and Intervention Plan takes a differentiated approach to state support based on…
Kaufmann, Liane; Handl, Pia; Thony, Brigitte
In this study, six elementary grade children with developmental dyscalculia were trained individually and in small group settings with a one-semester program stressing basic numerical knowledge and conceptual knowledge. All the children showed considerable and partly significant performance increases on all calculation components. Results suggest…
Robertson, Angela A.; Gardner, Sheena; Xu, Xiaohe; Chi, Guangqing; McCluskey, D. Lee
The Mississippi Alcohol Safety Education Program (MASEP) is a court-mandated driving under the influence (DUI) intervention for persons convicted of DUI. This study describes the evolution of the curriculum, evaluates the effectiveness of MASEP in reducing recidivism, and examines whether recent program revisions have led to improvements in…
Cook, Judith A; Blyler, Crystal R; Leff, H Stephen; McFarlane, William R; Goldberg, Richard W; Gold, Paul B; Mueser, Kim T; Shafer, Michael S; Onken, Steven J; Donegan, Kate; Carey, Martha Ann; Kaufmann, Caroline; Razzano, Lisa A
This article summarizes the published results of the Employment Intervention Demonstration Program (EIDP), a federally-funded, multi-site study examining the effectiveness of supported employment programs for 1273 unemployed individuals with psychiatric disabilities in the U.S. Findings confirm the effectiveness of supported employment across different models, program locations, and participant populations. The study's results are discussed in the context of public policies designed to encourage return to work for those with a severe mental illness.
Farris, Jaelyn R; Bert, Shannon S Carothers; Nicholson, Jody S; Glass, Kerrie; Borkowski, John G
This study assessed the secondary effects of a parent training intervention program on maternal adjustment, with a focus on understanding ways in which program efficacy differed for participants as a function of whether or not their children had behavior problems. Mothers (N = 99) of toddlers (2-3 years of age) were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of intervention: (1) informational booklet (2) booklet + face-to-face parent training sessions, or (3) booklet + web-based parent training sessions. Findings indicated that all levels of intervention were associated with increases in maternal well-being for participants with typically developing children. Mothers of toddlers with behavior problems, however, did not benefit from receiving only the booklet but significantly benefitted from receiving either the face-to-face or web-based interventions. Findings are discussed in terms of efficient and efficacious program dissemination and the resulting implications for public policy.
Chacón Moscoso, Salvador; Chaves, Susana Sanduvete; Vidal, Mariona Portell; Teresa Anguera Argilaga, M.
The approach to intervention programs varies depending on the methodological perspective adopted. This means that health professionals lack clear guidelines regarding how best to proceed, and it hinders the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of this paper is to set out the essential and common aspects that should be included in any program evaluation report, thereby providing a useful guide for the professional regardless of the procedural approach used. Furthermore, the paper seeks to ...
Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Gregório, Maria João; Gein, Pierre; Eusébio, Mónica; Santos, Maria José; de Sousa, Rute Dinis; Coelho, Pedro S; Mendes, Jorge M; Graça, Pedro; Oliveira, Pedro; Branco, Jaime C; Canhão, Helena
The limited or uncertain access to adequate food in elderly people includes not only economic restrictions but also inability of food utilization due to functional or cognitive impairment, health problems, and illiteracy. The aim of this work is to present the protocol of the randomized controlled trial Saúde.Come Senior, an educational and motivational television (TV)-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles and decrease food insecurity in elderly people. A randomized controlled study will be conducted in subjects aged 60 years and older with food insecurity, identified at 17 primary care centers in the Lisboa e Vale do Tejo health region in Lisbon, Portugal. The primary outcome will be the changes in participants' food insecurity score (evaluated by the Household Food Insecurity Scale) at 3 months. Change in other outcomes will be assessed (dietary habits, nutritional status, physical activity, health status, and clinical outcomes). Subjects will be followed over 6 months; the intervention will last 3 months. Data collection will be performed at 3 different time points (baseline, end of intervention at 3 months, and follow-up at 6 months). The intervention is based on an interactive TV app with an educational and motivational program specifically developed for the elderly that has weekly themes and includes daily content in video format: (1) nutrition and diet tips for healthy eating, (2) healthy, easy to cook and low-cost recipes, and (3) physical exercise programs. Furthermore, brief reminders on health behaviors will also be broadcasted through the TV app. The total duration of the study will be 6 months. The intervention is considered to be effective and meaningful if 50% of the individuals in the experimental group have a decrease of 1 point in the food insecurity score, all the remaining being unchanged. We expect to include and randomize 282 (141 experimental and 141 control) elderly with food insecurity. We will recruit a total of 1,128 subjects
Maria Netto, Tânia; Greca, Denise Vieira; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Oliveira, Camila; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Landeira-Fernandez, J.
This systematic review aimed to identify the designs, procedures, and results of empirical studies that performed neuropsychological interventions on WM in adults. Methods A PubMed and LILACS literature search was conducted using the keywords working memory AND (training OR rehabilitation OR intervention) AND adult. Results Of the seven studies found, three were randomized controlled trials, two were case reports, one was a clinical trial, and one was an evaluation study. With regard to the type of programs and samples, three studies employed global programs with healthy elderly adults and four employed specific programs for samples with neurologically-impaired adults. Conclusions The effectiveness of the WM intervention programs was more evident in studies that employed specific methods of rehabilitation for samples with neurological disorders than in those based on global programs with healthy adults. There is a need for more empirical studies to verify the effectiveness of WM intervention programs in order to provide adequate guidance for clinical neuropsychologists and future research. PMID:29213690
Tânia Maria Netto
Full Text Available Abstract This systematic review aimed to identify the designs, procedures, and results of empirical studies that performed neuropsychological interventions on WM in adults. Methods: A PubMed and LILACS literature search was conducted using the keywords working memory AND (training OR rehabilitation OR intervention AND adult. Results: Of the seven studies found, three were randomized controlled trials, two were case reports, one was a clinical trial, and one was an evaluation study. With regard to the type of programs and samples, three studies employed global programs with healthy elderly adults and four employed specific programs for samples with neurologically-impaired adults. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the WM intervention programs was more evident in studies that employed specific methods of rehabilitation for samples with neurological disorders than in those based on global programs with healthy adults. There is a need for more empirical studies to verify the effectiveness of WM intervention programs in order to provide adequate guidance for clinical neuropsychologists and future research.
Cornélio, Marilia E; Godin, Gaston; Rodrigues, Roberta Cm; de Freitas Agondi, Rúbia; Alexandre, Neusa Mc; Gallani, Maria-Cecilia Bj
Excessive salt intake has been directly associated with cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension, and non-cardiovascular diseases. Despite the current recommendations, salt intake remains high, indicating the need to develop theory-based interventions aimed at reducing this intake. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of a theory-based intervention - the SALdável Program - to promote the use of less than 4 g of salt/day during cooking. This was a two-arm parallel-group randomized study. A total of 92 hypertensive women were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention was aimed at motivating participants to reduce salt addition by increasing self-efficacy and counteracting the negative influence of habit. Primary outcomes were the behavioral question of salt addition and total salt addition, secondary outcomes were overall salt intake, provided by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, and psychosocial variables (intention, self-efficacy, and habit). At three-month follow-up, the intervention group improved significantly more than the control group regarding salt addition measures (p-values between 0.05 and 0.001) and psychosocial variables (all p-values ⩽0.001). The reduction in 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was not significant. The findings showed that this theory-based intervention was effective to motivate and change the behavior of hypertensive women regarding daily salt use in cooking meals. This was accomplished by means of improvements in intention and self-efficacy and reduction of the habit of using more than 4 g of salt/day during cooking. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.
Fiocco, Alexandra Jasmine; Scarcello, Sabrina; Marzolini, Susan; Chan, Alan; Oh, Paul; Proulx, Guy; Greenwood, Carol
Canada is experiencing a rise in type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a known risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline and dementia. Within the context of an aging population, this will impose significant individual and societal burden, making the development of prevention programs imperative. This pilot study examines the effects of the Diabetes Exercise and Healthy Lifestyle Service, a 24-week intervention program, on cardiovascular, metabolic regulation and cognitive function in adults with T2DM. Seventeen middle-aged participants provided blood samples for biological markers, underwent cognitive testing and a physical stress test pre- and post-intervention. Cognitive performance was evaluated using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Digit Symbol Substitution Tasl (DSST) and fluency test. Adjusted models reveal participants displayed increased cardiovascular fitness (VO2 peak: Mchange=4.09 mL∙kg∙min(-1) SE=1.4), peak heart rate (Mchange= 9.28 beats⋅min(-1) SE=2.68) and change in heart rate (Mchange=10.71 SE=1.76) in response to the stress test (pscognitive performance on the CVLT immediate recall (M= -4.37 SE=2.21), CVTL short-delay recall (M= -1.06 SE=0.55), DSST (Mchange= -3 SE=0.53) and category fluency (Mchange= -1.69 SE=0.78) declined following the intervention (pscognitive health in those with T2DM. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thus the purpose of the study was to study the effectiveness of the audio-visual intervention program on the cognitive development of preschool children in relation to their socio economic status. The researcher employed experimental method to conduct the study. The sample consisted of 100 students from preschool of ...
Bippert, Kelli; Harmon, Janis
Middle schools often turn to computer-assisted reading intervention programs to improve student reading. The questions guiding this study are (a) in what ways are computer-assisted reading intervention programs utilized, and (b) what are teachers' perceptions about these intervention programs? Nineteen secondary reading teachers were interviewed…
Waldemar, G; Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V
Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteri......Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline...
Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte; Salminen, Helena
The aim of the study was to explore long-term effects seven years after the completion of a ten-year community-based osteoporosis intervention program in Vadstena, Sweden. The association between calcaneal bone mineral density and several life style factors, and the impact of risk factors for sustaining a fracture after the age of 50 were also studied. Previous participants in the intervention group, and matched subjects were invited to calcaneal bone mass measurement by a portable device including the dual X-ray and laser (DXL) technology by Calscan, and to complete a questionnaire in 2006. A total of 417 persons (63% of those invited) in the intervention (I) group, and 120 persons (47% of those invited) in the control (C) group participated. Mean age was 63 years (37-94 years). There was somewhat more knowledge of osteoporosis in the I-group (M = 18) than in the C-group (M = 17) (p cane spikes in elderly women in the I-group (67%) than in the C-group (40.5%). The fully adjusted model of logistic regression showed that participants with an osteoporotic DXL T-score (≤- 2.5) had a 3-fold increased risk (95%CI 1.48-6.89) of having a history of a self-reported fracture after the age of fifty compared to women with a calcaneal T-score >- 2.5. The long-term effects of a ten-year, community-based, osteoporosis intervention program on knowledge and behavior were modest seven years after its completion.
Jimenez, Daniel E; Schulz, Richard; Perdomo, Dolores; Lee, Chin Chin; Czaja, Sara J
The overall aim of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a multicomponent, psychosocial intervention specifically designed to meet the unique needs of caregivers who are balancing caregiving duties with work responsibilities. Seventy-one family caregivers employed at a private, nonprofit institution in South Florida were randomized to either the Caregiver Workstation condition ( n = 35) or a control condition ( n = 36). Sixty-two caregivers completed the 5-month follow-up. Our results indicate that an intervention tailored to the time demands of a working caregiver is feasible, acceptable to caregivers, and has the potential to have positive long-term effects. Currently, there are limited data available regarding the benefits of employer programs for caregivers or the type of programs caregivers find most useful. This pilot study is the first step in developing a working caregiver intervention program that can be implemented on a broad-scale basis.
Hasson, H.; Brown, C.; Hasson, D.
In web-based health promotion programs, large variations in participant engagement are common. The aim was to investigate determinants of high use of a worksite self-help web-based program for stress management. Two versions of the program were offered to randomly selected departments in IT and media companies. A static version of the program…
McDonald, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Teresa; Slavin, Nicola
The No Germs on Me (NGoM) Social Marketing Campaign to promote handwashing with soap to reduce high rates of infection among children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities has been ongoing since 2007. Recently three new television commercials were developed as an extension of the NGoM program. This paper reports on the mass media component of this program, trialling an evaluation design informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A survey questionnaire taking an ecological approach and based on the principals and constructs of the TPB was developed. Surveys were completed in six discrete Aboriginal communities immediately before and on completion of four weeks intensive televising of the three new commercials. Across the six communities access in the home to a television that worked ranged from 49 to 83 % (n = 415). Seventy-seven per cent (n = 319) of participants reported having seen one or more of the new commercials. Levels of acceptability and comprehension of the content of the commercials was high (97 % n = 308). Seventy-five per cent (n = 651) of participants reported they would buy more soap, toilet paper and facial tissues if these were not so expensive in their communities. For TPB constructs demonstrated to have good internal reliability the findings were mixed and these need to be interpreted with caution due to limitations in the study design. Cultural, social-economic and physical barriers in remote communities make it challenging to promote adults and children wash their hands with soap and maintain clean faces such that these behaviours become habit. Low levels of access to a television in the home illustrate the extreme level of disadvantage experienced in these communities. Highlighting that social marketing programs have the potential to increase disadvantage if expensive items such as television sets are needed to gain access to information. This trial of a theory informed evaluation design allowed for new and rich
Heijden, van der L.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Janse, A.J.
Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with significant health consequences. Early and successful treatment of this public health issue is necessary. Although several intervention programs for children result in weight loss or stabilisation in the short term, preventing relapse
Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Ghayour, Mahboubeh; Kordi, Mahboubeh; Younesian, Ali
.... The levels of gross motor development of all subjects were measured before intervention and after 10 weeks physical activity program employing the Test of Gross Motor Development-edition 2 (TGMD-2...
Sim, In Ok
This study developed and implemented a humor intervention program for school-aged children with chronic diseases. Thirty-three children with atopic dermatitis and type 1 diabetes were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group included 17 children while the control group included 16 children. The experimental group participated in 6 weekly sessions of a 60-minute humor intervention. The subject and type of humorous material was collected from a survey of parents and children. Outcome measures assessed pre- and post-intervention included stress, behavior profile scores, and resilience. There was a significant decrease in behavior problems and increase in resiliency in experimental group compared to control group. There was no difference in stress cortisol measures between the groups. This study was the first to examine a humor intervention for children with chronic diseases in South Korea and offers practical implications for humor interventions in pediatric nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crétel-Durand, Elodie; Nouguerède, Emilie; Le Caer, Hervé; Rousseau, Frédérique; Retornaz, Frédérique; Guillem, Olivier; Couderc, Anne-Laure; Greillier, Laurent; Norguet, Emmanuelle; Cécile, Maud; Boulahssass, Rabia; Le Caer, Francoise; Tournier, Sandrine; Butaud, Chantal; Guillet, Pierre; Nahon, Sophie; Poudens, Laure; Kirscher, Sylvie; Loubière, Sandrine; Diaz, Nadine; Dhorne, Jean; Auquier, Pascal; Baumstarck, Karine
Cancer incidence and social isolation increase along with advanced age, and social isolation potentiates the relative risk of death by cancer. Once spotted, social isolation can be averted with the intervention of a multidisciplinary team. Techniques of automation and remote assistance have already demonstrated their positive impact on falls prevention and quality of life (QoL), though little is known about their impact on socially isolated elderly patients supported for cancer. The primary objective of the PREDOMOS study is to evaluate the impact of establishing a Program of Social intervention associated with techniques of Domotic and Remote assistance (PS-DR) on the improvement of QoL of elderly isolated patients, treated for locally advanced or metastatic cancer. The secondary objectives include treatment failure, tolerance, survival, and autonomy. This trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label, two-parallel group study. The setting is 10 French oncogeriatric centers. Inclusion criteria are patients aged at least 70 years with a social isolation risk and a histological diagnosis of cancer, locally advanced or metastatic disease. The groups are (1) the control group, receiving usual care; (2) the experimental group, receiving usual care associating with monthly social assistance, domotic, and remote assistance. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 allocation ratio. Evaluation times involve inclusion (randomization) and follow-up (12 months). The primary endpoint is QoL at 3 months (via European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C30); secondary endpoints are social isolation, time to treatment failure, toxicity, dose response-intensity, survival, autonomy, and QoL at 6 months. For the sample size, 320 individuals are required to obtain 90% power to detect a 10-point difference (standard deviation 25) in QoL score between the two groups (20% loss to follow-up patients expected). The randomized
Shih, Sophy T F; Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Janus, Edward D; Wildey, Carol; Versace, Vincent L; Hagger, Virginia; Asproloupos, Dino; O'Reilly, Sharleen; Phillips, Paddy A; Ackland, Michael; Skinner, Timothy; Oats, Jeremy; Carter, Rob; Best, James D; Dunbar, James A
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with its onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Post-GDM women have a life-time risk exceeding 70% of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Lifestyle modifications reduce the incidence of T2DM by up to 58% for high-risk individuals. The Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) is a randomized controlled trial aiming to assess the effectiveness of a structured diabetes prevention intervention for post-GDM women. This trial has an intervention group participating in a diabetes prevention program (DPP), and a control group receiving usual care from their general practitioners during the same time period. The 12-month intervention comprises an individual session followed by five group sessions at two-week intervals, and two follow-up telephone calls. A total of 574 women will be recruited, with 287 in each arm. The women will undergo blood tests, anthropometric measurements, and self-reported health status, diet, physical activity, quality of life, depression, risk perception and healthcare service usage, at baseline and 12 months. At completion, primary outcome (changes in diabetes risk) and secondary outcome (changes in psychosocial and quality of life measurements and in cardiovascular disease risk factors) will be assessed in both groups. This study aims to show whether MAGDA-DPP leads to a reduction in diabetes risk for post-GDM women. The characteristics that predict intervention completion and improvement in clinical and behavioral measures will be useful for further development of DPPs for this population. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTRN 12610000338066.
Oct 16, 2017 ... The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the workplace program intervention on AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use with regular partners among young factory workers in Thailand. The conceptual frame- work for the study was based on constructs from the ...
van den Brink, W.; Leenstra, A.; Ormel, J.; van de Willige, G.
This study examines the scientific basis for mental health intervention programs in primary care. The validity of five underlying assumptions is evaluated, using the results of a naturalistic study covering a representative sample of 25 Dutch family practices and data from the literature. Our
Vijai Kumar Baskaran
Full Text Available In this research, an integrated reservoir study is performed in the J#Field (J-Oil Field of western onshore, India to evaluate its additional reserves expectations and implement field developments plan using waterflood pilot program. The target strata includes two formations of Paleogene, which is about 3600 ft, namely G#Fm (G-Formation of the Eocene and T#Fm (T-Formation of Oligocene, subdivided into 11 zones. Based on these results, an attempt was made to construct of an optimization plan to exploit it, taking into account that the field is producing since 1947, with a cumulative production of 183.5 MMbbl and an overall recovery factor of 28% until January 2016. On the basis of the potential evaluation and geological modeling, blocks J48 and J45 were simulated, and the remaining oil distribution characteristics in two blocks were studied after history match. The work includes the stratigraphic studies, seismic study, logging interpretation, sedimentary facies modeling, three dimensional geological modeling, simulations for waterflooding, and future field development plans.
Full Text Available Introduction: Supervised toothbrushing program at schools have indicated limited improvement in oral hygiene among children. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the use of an intra-oral camera as a reinforcement tool in a supervised tooth brushing program at school can improve plaque control. Materials and Methods: A double-blind, parallel, two arm interventional study was conducted among 120 school children from 2 schools, aged 12-year in Pune. The study group received an intervention of supervised toothbrushing and reinforcement sessions for 30 days using intra-oral camera. The control group received only supervised toothbrushing. Evaluation for plaque control was performed at the end of 30 days, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis of co-variance was used to find the intergroup difference at different time intervals. Analysis of variance was used to find the intragroup differences of the plaque scores. Post hoc Bonferroni test was used to find the pairwise changes in plaque scores between different time intervals. Results: In the study group, the mean plaque score was reduced to a significant extent from baseline to 30 days and 3 months (P < 0.05 and then the plaque score remained stable until the end of 12 months. While in the control group, the plaque score increased compared to baseline. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean plaque scores of study and control group at each time interval (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Intra-oral camera can be effectively used as a reinforcement tool in supervised toothbrushing program at school for achieving higher plaque reduction.
Klein Velderman, M.; Pannebakker, F.D.; Vliet, W. van; Reijneveld, S.A.
Objective: Parental divorce has strong impacts on children. Evidence-based programs to support young children after parental divorce are rare. The U.S.-developed Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP) is one of these. CODIP’s effectiveness outside the U.S. setting is to be further
Hite, Jessica Elaine; McGahey, James Todd
The purpose of this research study was to determine whether or not student test scores on the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) were positively impacted by the implementation of the Response to Intervention (RTI) program. This paper will review the implementation and effectiveness of the RTI method.
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman G.; Cook, Brittany; Schmeidler, James
We report the impact of case management services and youth psychopathy on Juvenile Diversion program completion for youths involved in a clinical trial, and evaluation of an innovative intervention service providing 16 weeks of intensive case management services to youths and their families. The present study examines baseline interview data for…
Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Dutman, A.E.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Ronckers, E.T.; Ament, A.; Assema, van P.; Ree, de J.; Ruland, E.C.; Schuit, A.J.
Background: Community-based health promotion is a widely advocated strategy in public health to favorably alter lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the net effect of a cardiovascular disease-prevention program (Hartslag Limburg) on lifestyle factors after 5 years of intervention
Shannonhouse, Laura; Lin, Yung-Wei Dennis; Shaw, Kelly; Wanna, Reema; Porter, Michael
Objective: Suicide remains a pressing issue for college communities. Consequently, gatekeeper trainings are often provided for staff. This study examines the effect of one such program, Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST). Participants: 51 college employees received ASIST in August of 2014 and were compared to 30 wait-list control…
Effective prevention is needed to combat the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. We investigated the long-term extent of beneficial effects of lifestyle intervention and metformin on diabetes prevention, originally shown during the 3-year Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), and assessed whether these interventions reduced diabetes-associated microvascular complications. The DPP (1996-2001) was a randomised trial comparing an intensive lifestyle intervention or masked metformin with placebo in a cohort selected to be at very high risk of developing diabetes. All participants were offered lifestyle training at the end of the DPP. 2776 (88%) of the surviving DPP cohort were followed up in the DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS, Sept 1, 2002, to Jan 2, 2014) and analysed by intention to treat on the basis of their original DPP assignment. During DPPOS, the original lifestyle intervention group was offered lifestyle reinforcement semi-annually and the metformin group received unmasked metformin. The primary outcomes were the development of diabetes and the prevalence of microvascular disease. For the assessment of microvascular disease, we used an aggregate microvascular outcome, composed of nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. During a mean follow-up of 15 years, diabetes incidence was reduced by 27% in the lifestyle intervention group (hazard ratio 0·73, 95% CI 0·65-0·83; pdiabetes were 55% in the lifestyle group, 56% in the metformin group, and 62% in the placebo group. The prevalences at the end of the study of the aggregate microvascular outcome were not significantly different between the treatment groups in the total cohort (placebo 12·4%, 95% CI 11·1-13·8; metformin 13·0%, 11·7-14·5; lifestyle intervention 11·3%, 10·1-12·7). However, in women (n=1887) the lifestyle intervention was associated with a lower prevalence (8·7%, 95% CI 7·4-10·2) than in the placebo (11·0%, 9·6-12·6) and metformin (11·2%, 9·7-12·9) groups, with reductions in the
Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Ko, Hung-Ju; Chang, Ray-E
Health intervention program (HIP) based on diet and lifestyle modifications had been shown to improve cardiovascular risks. The effects of such program on a variety of cardiometabolic outcome measures conducted in a strict analysis remained relatively unexplored. A total of 2,660 participants (mean age: 43.3 ± 10 years, 63.6% male) underwent annual health survey from our health evaluation department. We implemented health intervention program (HIP) in which diet and lifestyle modifications including smoking cessation and advised physical activities were introduced. We further studied the effects of HIP on several cardiometabolic outcome measures including Framingham, metabolic scores and renal function in terms of Egfr with a mean follow-up period of 38.5 months. Propensity score (PS) matching (HIP vs non-HIP group) was used to avoid effects of case selection bias. Totally 1,004 (502 subjects for each group) left after PS matching protocol (both HIP and non-HIP group). The HIP group showed significant decline of waist circumference (-1.46 ± 0.61, p = 0.016), post-prandial glucose (-6.77 ± 2.06, p = 0.001), and total cholesterol level (-4.42 ± 2.15, p = 0.04), with borderline increase in eGFR (1.72 ± 0.94, p = 0.068) after an average of 1.91 ± 1.14 year follow up period. Exercise behavior significantly increased for those who received HIP when compared to the non-HIP group (44.6 vs 52.4 %, p = 0.014). PS matching and difference-in-difference (DID) analysis further confirmed the beneficial effects of ATP III reduction by HIP (-0.36 ± 0.06, p view points.
Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Campbell, Michelle; Hoffman, Renee Thibodeau; Self, Kayli
This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used.…
Cavalcanti, Christiane Leite; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; da Costa, Solange de Fátima Geraldo; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios
.... This qualitative study of an exploratory nature investigated the discourse of obese elderly women regarding their participation in a nutritional intervention program associated with physical activity...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Common low back pain represents a major public health problem in terms of its direct cost to health care and its socio-economic repercussions. Ten percent of individuals who suffer from low back pain evolve toward a chronic case and as such are responsible for 75 to 80% of the direct cost of low back pain. It is therefore imperative to highlight the predictive factors of low back pain chronification in order to lighten the economic burden of low back pain-related invalidity. Despite being particularly affected by low back pain, Hospices Civils de Lyon (HCL personnel have never been offered a specific, tailor-made treatment plan. The PRESLO study (with PRESLO referring to Secondary Low Back Pain Prevention, or in French, PREvention Secondaire de la LOmbalgie, proposed by HCL occupational health services and the Centre Médico-Chirurgical et de Réadaptation des Massues – Croix Rouge Française, is a randomized trial that aims to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of a global secondary low back pain prevention program for the low back pain sufferers among HCL hospital personnel, a population at risk for recurrence and chronification. This program, which is based on the concept of physical retraining, employs a multidisciplinary approach uniting physical activity, cognitive education about low back pain and lumbopelvic morphotype analysis. No study targeting populations at risk for low back pain chronification has as yet evaluated the efficiency of lighter secondary prevention programs. Methods/Design This study is a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial proposed to all low back pain sufferers among HCL workers, included between October 2008 and July 2011 and followed over two years. The personnel following their usual treatment (control group and those following the global prevention program in addition to their usual treatment (intervention group are compared in terms of low back pain recurrence and the
Sneath, Julie Z; Lacey, Russell
This exploratory study identifies perceptions of and participation in resuscitation training programs, and bystanders' willingness to resuscitate cardiac arrest victims. While most of the study's participants greatly appreciate the importance of saving someone's life, many indicated that they did not feel comfortable assuming this role. The findings also demonstrate there is a relationship between type of victim and bystanders' willingness to intervene. Yet, bystander intervention discomfort can be overcome with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation training, particularly when the victim is a coworker or stranger. Further implications of these findings are discussed and modifications to public access defibrillation (PAD) training programs' strategy and communications are proposed.
Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia
The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.
The growing number of studies in the field of prevention science and related advancements in evidence based programs leads to some discussions about the fundamental issues such as efficacy, effectiveness, dissemination, adaptation, fidelity and continuity in recent years. In this article it is intended to report the common views of early childhood…
Haghani, Sharareh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
.... This is immediately recognizable in both children and adolescents. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of tailored education on lifestyle modification in elementary school students in Isfahan. Methods...
Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group.This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP (n = 122 or the usual care (n = 146 groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL.An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI revealed that the Co-HELP participants' mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001 compared to the usual care group.This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction of several diabetes risk
Holmes, Emily G; Connolly, AnnaMarie; Putnam, Karen T; Penaskovic, Kenan M; Denniston, Clark R; Clark, Leslie H; Rubinow, David R; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha
Rates of resident physician burnout range from 60 to 76 % and are rising. Consequently, there is an urgent need for academic medical centers to develop system-wide initiatives to combat burnout in physicians. Academic psychiatrists who advocate for or treat residents should be familiar with the scope of the problem and the contributors to burnout and potential interventions to mitigate it. We aimed to measure burnout in residents across a range of specialties and to describe resident- and program director-identified contributors and interventions. Residents across all specialties at a tertiary academic hospital completed surveys to assess symptoms of burnout and depression using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively. Residents and program directors identified contributors to burnout and interventions that might mitigate its risk. Residents were asked to identify barriers to treatment. There were 307 residents (response rate of 61 %) who completed at least one question on the survey; however, all residents did not respond to all questions, resulting in varying denominators across survey questions. In total, 190 of 276 residents (69 %) met criteria for burnout and 45 of 263 (17 %) screened positive for depression. Program directors underestimated rates of burnout, with only one program director estimating a rate of 50 % or higher. Overall residents and program directors agreed that lack of work-life balance and feeling unappreciated were major contributors. Forty-two percent of residents reported that inability to take time off from work was a significant barrier to seeking help, and 25 % incorrectly believed that burnout is a reportable condition to the medical board. Resident distress is common and most likely due to work-life imbalance and feeling unappreciated. However, residents are reluctant to seek help. Interventions that address work-life balance and increase access to support are urgently needed in academic
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND...
Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Carter, Stacy; O'Connor, Denise; Schneider, Carmen Huckel; Turner, Tari; Gallego, Gisselle
Process evaluation is vital for understanding how interventions function in different settings, including if and why they have different effects or do not work at all. This is particularly important in trials of complex interventions in 'real world' organisational settings where causality is difficult to determine. Complexity presents challenges for process evaluation, and process evaluations that tackle complexity are rarely reported. This paper presents the detailed protocol for a process evaluation embedded in a randomised trial of a complex intervention known as SPIRIT (Supporting Policy In health with Research: an Intervention Trial). SPIRIT aims to build capacity for using research in health policy and program agencies. We describe the flexible and pragmatic methods used for capturing, managing and analysing data across three domains: (a) the intervention as it was implemented; (b) how people participated in and responded to the intervention; and (c) the contextual characteristics that mediated this relationship and may influence outcomes. Qualitative and quantitative data collection methods include purposively sampled semi-structured interviews at two time points, direct observation and coding of intervention activities, and participant feedback forms. We provide examples of the data collection and data management tools developed. This protocol provides a worked example of how to embed process evaluation in the design and evaluation of a complex intervention trial. It tackles complexity in the intervention and its implementation settings. To our knowledge, it is the only detailed example of the methods for a process evaluation of an intervention conducted as part of a randomised trial in policy organisations. We identify strengths and weaknesses, and discuss how the methods are functioning during early implementation. Using 'insider' consultation to develop methods is enabling us to optimise data collection while minimising discomfort and burden for
Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Dutman, Alice E; Verschuren, W M Monique; Ronckers, Emma T; Ament, Andre; van Assema, Patricia; van Ree, Jan; Ruland, Erik C; Schuit, Albertine J
Community-based health promotion is a widely advocated strategy in public health to favorably alter lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the net effect of a cardiovascular disease-prevention program (Hartslag Limburg) on lifestyle factors after 5 years of intervention (1998-2003). In a cohort study, 5-year mean changes in lifestyle factors (energy intake; fat intake; time spent on leisure-time physical activity; walking, bicycling, and sports; and smoking behavior) between subjects from the intervention area (n=2356) and the control area (n=758) were compared for men and women and for those with a low (less than intermediate secondary education) and a moderate (intermediate vocational or higher secondary education) or high (higher vocational education or university) educational level. Adjustments were made for age and the mean of the individual pre- and post-intervention measurement of the variable under study. When stratifying for gender, adjustments were made for educational level, and vice versa. In general, lifestyle factors changed unfavorably in the control group, whereas changes were less pronounced or absent in the intervention group. The adjusted difference in mean change in lifestyle factors between the intervention group and the control group was significant (pchanges in energy intake, fat consumption, walking, and bicycling, particularly among women and those with low SES.
Adams, John Edwin
A Study to Determine the Impact of a Precollege Intervention on Early Adolescent Aspiration and Motivation for College in West Virginia John E. Adams (ABSTRACT) The impact of a precollege intervention, the Junior High Washington Gateway Academy (JHWGA), on early adolescent aspiration and motivation for a college education was measured. JHWGA provided an intensive week of activities in career planning, self-concept improvement, and study skills. Specific research questions were:...
Coleman, Winson R.
Among professional occupations in the United States, non-Asian minorities are least represented in science and engineering fields. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that over the next decade, civilian employment of scientists and engineers has the potential to grow by 40 percent. Furthermore, projections for the year 2000 indicate that 100,000 fewer B.S. and B.A. degrees will be awarded than were awarded in 1984. The latter projection takes into consideration the overall declining proportion of all 18 year old college students. Within this shrinking pool of 18 year old potential college students will be an increasing proportion of Blacks and Hispanics. In order to change the educational patterns for minority youth, an intense look at the factors that affect the science and mathematics performance of minorities. Furthermore, the work of programs that are successful at producing minority scientists and engineers must be examined and documented with the intent of replicating these programs. The fundamental concern at this time appears to be the quality of precollege experience because research has shown that lack of precollege preparation is the single most important cause of underrepresentation of minorities in science and engineering careers. For many years, intervention programs have attempted to improve the quality of the minority precollege experience by latter year intervention in grades eleven and twelve. Later efforts, such as this one, have concentrated on earlier years. The effectiveness of intervention programs is widely accepted but not rigorously documented. The mechanisms these programs have developed need to be identified and their potential for broader use evaluated. The ultimate goal of such studies would be to provide the different educational communities with a set of proven cost-effective state of the art mechanisms designed to increase participation and success of minority students in science and mathematics-related courses. One such
This study deals with an educational intervention program for elementary school teachers aimed at decreasing gender stereotypes. The limits of the educational program's effectiveness in relation to the theory of "relative autonomy of schools" is examined. The sample of sixth graders in this study was divided into two groups: the experiment group, whose teachers participated in the program's workshops, and the control group, whose teachers did not. It was hypothesized that (1) the experiment group would show greater preference for the more prestigious professions than would the control group. This hypothesis was supported in the main findings; (2) the experiment group would choose less gender-biased professions than would the control group. This hypothesis was only partially supported by the findings. Since school is only one of the many socializing factors in society, the effectiveness of this research was limited, as can be expected from the theory of the relative autonomy of schools.
The Health Initiative Program for Kids (HIP Kids): effects of a 1-year multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on adiposity and quality of life in obese children and adolescents--a longitudinal pilot intervention study
Bock, Dirk E; Robinson, Tracy; Seabrook, Jamie A; Rombeek, Meghan; Norozi, Kambiz; Filler, Guido; Rauch, Ralf; Clarson, Cheril L
... and how they affect quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to determine if a 1-year multidisciplinary, family-centered outpatient intervention based on social cognitive theory would be effective...
Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Deborah I; Scott, Amanda R; Lara-Smalling, Agueda; Watson, Kathleen B; Konzelmann, Karen
This study examined the relationships between participant goal attainment and changes in mediating variables and food choice outcomes from a modified curriculum for the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) promoting healthy home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. EFNEP participants in 54 intervention classes received a goal sheet after each of 6 classes. Participants recorded goal attainment and returned at the next class, Diet and mediating variables were measured at baseline, immediate post, and 4 months later. Mixed model regression analysis over time assessed whether goal attainment was associated with the outcomes at post or follow-up, controlling for baseline assessment. Participants who reported attaining more goals reported greater self-efficacy for planning/encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption and making fruit and vegetables available, menu planning skills, improvement in the food preparation practices and higher home availability for regular vegetables. At post, those who reported attaining more fiber, vegetable, and water goals reported consuming more of these items. Goal attainment was related to some changes in food choice and mediating variables in an at risk population. Further research into the use and efficacy of goal setting and attainment in this population is warranted.
Pereira, Catarina; Rosado, Hugo; Cruz-Ferreira, Ana; Marmeleira, José
Nursing home institutionalization tends to exacerbate loss of functioning. Examine the feasibility and the effect of a psychomotor intervention-a multimodal exercise program promoting simultaneous cognitive and motor stimulation-on the executive (planning ability and selective attention) and physical function of nursing home residents. Seventeen participants engaged in a 10-week multimodal exercise program and 17 maintained usual activities. Exercise group improved planning ability (25-32%), selective attention (19-67%), and physical function [aerobic endurance, lower body strength, agility, balance, gait, and mobility (19-41%)], corresponding to an effect size ranging from 0.29 (small) to 1.11 (high), p functions of the nursing home residents, reverting the usual loss of both cognitive and motor functioning in older adult institutionalized. Multimodal exercise programs may help to maintain or improve nursing home residents' functioning.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a parent-implemented intervention on children's speech-language development and parents' interaction styles. Seventeen children with cleft palate (CP) and their mothers participated in all sessions of a parent-implemented intervention program. Nine children with CP and their mothers who did not receive the intervention were included to examine the full effectiveness of the program. The intervention program consisted of four phases, pre-intervention test, parent training, parent-implemented intervention at children's home for 3 months, and post-intervention test. Children's language and speech measures and maternal measures from pre- and post-intervention tests were compared between groups (intervention vs. no intervention). Children who received a parent-implemented intervention exhibited significant improvement in language measures based on standardized tests and quantitative language and speech measures from spontaneous utterances. The children in the intervention group showed a significantly greater extent of change in expressive vocabulary size, number of total words, and mean length of utterance than did those who did not receive the intervention. Mothers who received the training showed a significantly decreased number of different words, increased responsiveness, and decreased non-contingent utterances for children's communication acts compared to those who did not receive the training. The results of the study support the effectiveness of parent-implemented early intervention on positive changes in children's speech-language development and mothers' use of communication strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dogini, Eric U.
Bullying behavior has reached pandemic proportions and is a growing concern in primary school. Most intervention programs in primary school are focused on bullying prevention or principally on the behavior of the bully. The purpose of this study was to explore whether a school-based bullying intervention program is an effective method for reducing…
Campeño-Martínez, Yoana; Santiago-Ramajo, Sandra; Navarro-Asencio, Enrique; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza; Santiuste Bermejo, Victor
There has been increasing evidence in recent years of the need to adapt intervention programs to the specific needs of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main goal of this research work was to study the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve attention and reflexivity in school children with ADHD…
This article critically analyzes how the criminal justice system centrally situates itself in an intervention program intended to protect victims of domestic abuse and stalking. Based on the first empirical, in-depth study in the Netherlands of an intervention program using electronic technology
Day, Lesley; Donaldson, Alex; Thompson, Catherine; Thomas, Margaret
To identify Department of Health programs with high potential to integrate evidence-based interventions to prevent falls among older people. Broad consultation within the Department followed by structured decision making. This work was informed by an analysis of Victorian hospital separations data and a Cochrane Systematic Review to identify relevant target groups and interventions. Ranking of the integration potential of interventions for a broad range of Department program areas was achieved through a facilitated workshop. A short list of program areas was then developed and scored, using pre-defined criteria, for their match with the interventions. The ranked order of interventions, from most to least suitable for integration, were: multifactorial risk assessment and intervention; multi-component group exercise; medication review; occupational therapy-based home safety; home-based exercise; and first eye cataract surgery. Four of six program areas had a strong match (a score of ≥75% of the maximum score) with one or more of three interventions. Two program areas (Primary Care Partnerships, and Home and Community Care) had strong matches with three interventions (group- and home-based exercise; occupational therapy-based home safety) and were selected as priority areas. The Hospital Admissions Risk Program had strong and good matches respectively with home-based exercise and medication review, and was also selected. Our systematic methods identified Department programs with strong potential for integration of proven falls prevention interventions. Matching departmental programs and evidence-based interventions for integration may lead to more efficient resource allocation for falls prevention in Victoria. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Hernández-Fernaud, Estefanía; Ruiz-de la Rosa, Carmen Inés; Negrín, Fátima; Ramos-Sapena, Yeray; Hernández, Bernardo
In the current socioeconomic situation, the need to improve employability of potential workers is especially relevant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention program focusing on improving employability of university students. To do this, a two-group study was designed: one group undertook the intervention program and the other group were used for comparison. Two measurements were taken at different times (pre-intervention and post-intervention). The sample consisted of 271 university students. The results show that the group that underwent the intervention program improved their perceived employability F(1, 269) = 17.49, p employment resources F(1, 269) = 512.89, p < .001; η2 = .66 compared to the group that did not. Furthermore, there was a high level of satisfaction of participants with the intervention program.
Johannessen, Aud; Bruvik, Frøydis Kristine; Hauge, Solveig
Background Psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia and their primary family carers are promising approaches to reducing the challenges associated with care, but, obtaining significant outcomes may be difficult. Even though carers in general are satisfied with such interventions, few studies have evaluated the interventions by means of qualitative methods. Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate family carers’ experiences of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program, and also to offer advice on how to develop the intervention program. Methods Content analyses were taken from individual qualitative interviews conducted in 2012 with 20 carers (aged 50–82 years) who participated in a psychosocial intervention program that included education, individual and family counseling, and parallel group sessions for carers and persons with dementia. Results Two main categories emerged: 1) benefits of the intervention program, which sets out the informants’ experiences for the benefits of participation, described in the subcategories “importance of content and group organization” and “importance of social support”; and 2) missing content in the intervention program, which details the informants’ suggestions for future interventions, contained in the subcategories “need for extended content” and “need for new group organization”. Conclusion The carers found the interventions useful. The importance of even earlier and more flexible interventions for the family carers, the extended family, and the persons with dementia was underscored. PMID:25709469
Johannessen, Aud; Bruvik, Frøydis Kristine; Hauge, Solveig
Psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia and their primary family carers are promising approaches to reducing the challenges associated with care, but, obtaining significant outcomes may be difficult. Even though carers in general are satisfied with such interventions, few studies have evaluated the interventions by means of qualitative methods. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate family carers' experiences of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program, and also to offer advice on how to develop the intervention program. Content analyses were taken from individual qualitative interviews conducted in 2012 with 20 carers (aged 50-82 years) who participated in a psychosocial intervention program that included education, individual and family counseling, and parallel group sessions for carers and persons with dementia. Two main categories emerged: 1) benefits of the intervention program, which sets out the informants' experiences for the benefits of participation, described in the subcategories "importance of content and group organization" and "importance of social support"; and 2) missing content in the intervention program, which details the informants' suggestions for future interventions, contained in the subcategories "need for extended content" and "need for new group organization". The carers found the interventions useful. The importance of even earlier and more flexible interventions for the family carers, the extended family, and the persons with dementia was underscored.
A mother-child intervention program in adolescent mothers and their children to improve maternal sensitivity, child responsiveness and child development (the TeeMo study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Firk, Christine; Dahmen, Brigitte; Lehmann, Christin; Niessen, Anke; Koslowski, Julia; Rauch, Geraldine; Schwarte, Reinhild; Stich, Kerstin; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate
Children of adolescent mothers present a high-risk group for child neglect and maltreatment. Previous findings suggest that early interventions can reduce maltreatment by improving the quality of mother-child interaction, particularly maternal sensitivity. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of a mother-child intervention program using home visits and video-feedback regarding mother-child interaction (STEEP-b) plus psychiatric treatment of the mother in cases where mental illness is present compared with TAU (treatment as usual, that is, standardized support by the child welfare system) on enhancing maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness in adolescent, high-risk mothers. The second aim of the current project is to investigate behavioral and neural differences between adolescent and adult mothers at baseline and postintervention. This is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 120 high-risk adolescent mothers (25 years) will additionally be recruited to investigate behavioral and neural differences between the adolescent and adult group. Blind assessments will take place at T1 (pre-intervention), at the end of the 9-month intervention (T2, postintervention) and 6 months postintervention (T3, follow-up). Moderators of treatment outcomes and sociodemographic data will be assessed at T1. The primary outcome hypothesis is that STEEP-b added to treatment as usual will improve maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness compared with treatment as usual alone in high-risk adolescent mothers. The primary hypothesis will be evaluated at the end of the 9-month follow-up assessment based on the intention-to-treat principle. The trial is funded by the German Ministry for Research and Education (BMBF). Data collection started in October 2012. This is a randomized controlled trial that evaluates the effects of an early intervention program (STEEP-b) on the quality of mother-child interaction and child development in adolescent, high-risk mothers
Mayoral, Fermín; Berrozpe, Adela; de la Higuera, Jesús; Martinez-Jambrina, Juan José; de Dios Luna, Juan; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
According to most relevant guidelines, family psycho-educational interventions are considered to be one the most effective psychosocial treatments for people with schizophrenia. The main outcome measure in controlled and randomized studies has been prevention of relapses and admissions, and encouragement of compliance, although some questions remain about its applicability and results in clinical practice. The aim of study was to evaluate the efficacy and implementation of a single family psychoeducational intervention in 'real' conditions for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. A total of 88 families were randomized in two groups. The family intervention group received a 12 months psychoeducational treatment, and the other group followed normal standard treatment. Assessments were made at baseline, at 12 and at 18 months. The main outcome measure was hospitalization, and secondary outcome measures were clinical condition (BPRS-E) and social disability (DAS-II). A total of 71 patients finished the study (34 family intervention group and 37 control group). Patients who received family intervention reduced the risk of hospitalization by 40% (P = .4018; 95%CI: 0.1833-0.6204). Symptomatology improved significantly at 12 months (P = .4018; 95%CI: 0.1833-0.6204), but not at 18 months (P = .4018; 95%CI: 0.1833-0.6204). Social disability was significantly reduced in the family intervention group at 12 months and 18 months. Family psychoeducational intervention reduces hospitalization risk and improves clinical condition and social functioning of people with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: Overweight and obesity are regarded as one of the most serious health and nutrition issues worldwide. This is immediately recognizable in both children and adolescents. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of tailored education on lifestyle modification in elementary school students in Isfahan. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study, two elementary schools in Isfahan District 3, Iran, were randomly selected to determine the intervention and comparison groups. Subsequently, 32 students from each school, 64 in total, were chosen arbitrarily and included in the study. They filled out the standardized questionnaire of physical activity and dietary behaviors before the intervention. Following one and four months’ educational intervention, they were asked to complete the questionnaires once more. Results: The average general lifestyle score, one and four months after education, was significantly different between the groups (p < 0.001. However, this difference was not significant before the intervention (p = 0.660. Furthermore, the average lifestyle scores related to nutrition and physical activity one and four months after education showed a significant difference between the groups (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Providing overweight elementary school students with education about a healthy lifestyle improves their general lifestyle and reduces weight. Therefore, it is recommended that such interventions are applied to prevent complications associated with being overweight in children.
Björklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Päivi
Schools provide a natural context to promote children's mental health. However, there is a need for more evidence-based, high quality school intervention programs combined with an accurate evaluation of their general effectiveness and effectiveness of specific intervention methods. The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the "Together at School" intervention program. The intervention program is designed to promote social-emotional skills and mental health by utilizing whole-school approach and focuses on classroom curriculum, work environment of school staff, and parent-teacher collaboration methods. The evaluation study examines the effects of the intervention on children's socio-emotional skills and mental health in a cluster randomized controlled trial design with 1) an intervention group and 2) an active control group. Altogether 79 primary school participated at baseline. A multi-informant setting involves the children themselves, their parents, and teachers. The primary outcomes are measured using parent and teacher ratings of children's socio-emotional skills and psychological problems measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Multisource Assessment of Social Competence Scale. Secondary outcomes for the children include emotional understanding, altruistic behavior, and executive functions (e.g. working memory, planning, and inhibition). Secondary outcomes for the teachers include ratings of e.g. school environment, teaching style and well-being. Secondary outcomes for both teachers and parents include e.g. emotional self-efficacy, child rearing practices, and teacher-parent collaboration. The data was collected at baseline (autumn 2013), 6 months after baseline, and will be collected also 18 months after baseline from the same participants. This study protocol outlines a trial which aims to add to the current state of intervention programs by presenting and studying a
Jaegers, Lisa; Dale, Ann Marie; Weaver, Nancy; Buchholz, Bryan; Welch, Laura; Evanoff, Bradley
Background Intervention studies in participatory ergonomics (PE) are often difficult to interpret due to limited descriptions of program planning and evaluation. Methods In an ongoing PE program with floor layers, we developed a logic model to describe our program plan, and process and summative evaluations designed to describe the efficacy of the program. Results The logic model was a useful tool for describing the program elements and subsequent modifications. The process evaluation measured how well the program was delivered as intended, and revealed the need for program modifications. The summative evaluation provided early measures of the efficacy of the program as delivered. Conclusions Inadequate information on program delivery may lead to erroneous conclusions about intervention efficacy due to Type III error. A logic model guided the delivery and evaluation of our intervention and provides useful information to aid interpretation of results. PMID:24006097
Ingrid S. Følling
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle intervention may reduce the development of type 2 diabetes among high-risk individuals. The aim of this study was to explore how older adults perceived their own lifestyle and being at increased risk for type 2 diabetes while they participated in a lifestyle intervention programme. Methods A nested qualitative study was performed with 26 participants (mean age 68 years in the VEND-RISK Study. Participants had previously participated in the HUNT3 Study and the HUNT DE-PLAN Study, where their risk for developing type 2 diabetes (FIND-RISC ≥ 15 had been identified. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation. Results Two main themes were identified. The first theme was having resources available for an active lifestyle, which included having a family and being part of a social network, having a positive attitude toward life, and maintaining established habits from childhood to the present. The second theme was being at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, which included varied reactions to the information on increased risk, how lifestyle intervention raised awareness about risk behaviour, and health-related worries and ambitions as type 2 diabetes prevention. Conclusions Assessing a participant’s resources could improve the outcomes of lifestyle intervention programmes. Both family history and risk perception could be used in preventive strategies to enhance changes in lifestyle. Trial registration The VEND-RISK Study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov on April 26, 2010, with the registration number NCT01135901 .
Parsons, Martin; And Others
Describes IMPACT (Insight, Motivation, Progress, Assessment, Counseling, Treatment), successful intervention approach for repeat impaired driving offenders. Explains intensive, residential, weekend experience in which program participants examine their alcohol- and drug-related behaviors. Notes that, through interaction with peers, participants…
Kelly, Patricia R.; And Others
This report summarizes the results of three studies concerning the Reading Recovery or Descubriendo la Lectura program with first-grade California students. Studies were conducted using state-wide data obtained during 1993-94 programs to determine if the program was an effective intervention for children with difficulty in learning to read. The…
Toulabi, Tahereh; Khosh Niyat Nikoo, Mohsen; Amini, Fariba; Nazari, Hedayat; Mardani, Mahnaz
The prevalence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents is increasing rapidly. The present research was performed to determine the influence of a ''behavior modification'' program on body mass index (BMI) in obese public high school students in Iran. In this study, 152 adolescence and their parents were selected from 12 high schools of Khorram Abad from 2004 to 2006, and they were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control groups. The "behavior modification" interventional program consisted of nutritional education, modifying dietary habits, teaching exercise programs, teaching nutritional facts to the parents, and performing exercises 3 days a week. The height and weight as well as waist, hip, and wrist circumferences of the participants were measured before and after implementing the interventional program. BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. The adolescents and parents completed a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Adolescents also completed the Beck's Depression Questionnaire. Adolescent's mean weight, BMI, and waist and hip circumferences decreased significantly after implementing the interventional program, in the intervention group (p≤0.001). In addition, the students' and parents' nutrition knowledge increased in the intervention group after implementing the interventional program (pbehavior modification'' interventional program is effective in reducing BMI in obese students, and therefore, school principals and planners can play an important role in controlling obesity by implementing this program via the students, their parents, and the school staff. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Sturmey, Peter
Excitement and controversy have surrounded the effectiveness of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of EIBI based on applied behavior analysis in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). There were 11 studies with 344…
van Vilsteren, M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Steenbeek, R.; van Schaardenburg, D.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Anema, J.R.
Background: Workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often experience restrictions in functioning at work and participation in employment. Strategies to maintain work productivity exist, but these interventions do not involve the actual workplace. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the
Full Text Available Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief therapy based on a patient-centered model of suicidal behavior, with an emphasis on early therapeutic alliance.Patients who had recently attempted suicide were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (n = 60 or treatment as usual plus ASSIP (n = 60. ASSIP participants received three therapy sessions followed by regular contact through personalized letters over 24 months. Participants considered to be at high risk of suicide were included, 63% were diagnosed with an affective disorder, and 50% had a history of prior suicide attempts. Clinical exclusion criteria were habitual self-harm, serious cognitive impairment, and psychotic disorder. Study participants completed a set of psychosocial and clinical questionnaires every 6 months over a 24-month follow-up period. The study represents a real-world clinical setting at an outpatient clinic of a university hospital of psychiatry. The primary outcome measure was repeat suicide attempts during the 24-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures were suicidal ideation, depression, and health-care utilization. Furthermore, effects of prior suicide attempts, depression at baseline, diagnosis, and therapeutic alliance on outcome were investigated. During the 24-month follow-up period, five repeat suicide attempts were recorded in the ASSIP group and 41 attempts in the control group. The rates of participants reattempting suicide at least once were 8.3% (n = 5 and 26.7% (n = 16. ASSIP was associated with an approximately 80% reduced risk of participants making at least one repeat suicide attempt (Wald χ21 = 13.1, 95% CI 12.4-13.7, p < 0
Hara, Toshiya; Muto, Takeo; Yoshimori, Chikako; Ishido, Koichi; Sunami, Takashi; Endo, Koichi; Yuzuriha, Takefumi
We examined the effectiveness of a drinking plan (goal setting), and a drinking diary (self monitoring), in the intervention program (HAPPY program), for heavy drinkers in the workplace. 115 people participated, and 80 people were evaluated three months later and 31 people were evaluated one year later. We classified the drinking plans in the limitation of the quantity, non-drinking days, and the device of low risk drinking model. 75 people made the drinking diary for 12 weeks after brief intervention and studied three months later and 31 people were analyzed one year later. We evaluated on heavy drinking days of 28 days, and non-drinking days of 28 days and standard drinks of 7 days. The limitation of the quantity model is effective for low risk drinking. The non-drinking day model is easily achieved, but not effective for low risk drinking. The device of low risk drinking model improved drinking habits for a long-term. The drinking diary for 12 weeks after intervention improved drinking habits for a long-term. The drinking plan (goal setting), and drinking diary (self monitoring), in intervention program for heavy drinkers were effective for prevention of lifestyle-related disease and alcoholism.
Shorey, Ryan C; Zucosky, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L; Sage, Chelsea; Stuart, Gregory L
Dating violence among college students is a widespread and destructive problem. The field of dating violence has seen a substantial rise in research over the past several years, which has improved our understanding of factors that increase risk for perpetration. Unfortunately, there has been less attention paid to dating violence prevention programming, and existing programs have been marred with methodological weaknesses and a lack of demonstrated effectiveness in reducing aggression. In hopes of sparking new research on dating violence prevention programs, the current review examines possible new avenues for dating violence prevention programming among college students. We discuss clinical interventions that have shown to be effective in reducing a number of problematic behaviors, including motivational interventions, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, and bystander interventions, and how they could be applied to dating violence prevention. We also discuss methodological issues to consider when implementing dating violence prevention programs.
Taguchi, Naoto; Higaki, Yasuki; Inoue, Shinichi; Kimura, Hiromi; Tanaka, Keitaro
.... The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a 12-month multicomponent exercise program on physical performance, daily physical activity, and HRQOL among very elderly people...
Carter, Marion W
Program evaluation is a key tool for gathering evidence about the value and effectiveness of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs and interventions. Drawing from published literature, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluation framework, and program examples, this article lays out some of the key principles of program evaluation for STD program staff. The purpose is to offer STD program staff a stronger basis for talking about, planning, conducting, and advocating for evaluation within their respective program contexts.
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Bellantoni, Michele; Zhu, Shijun; Brown, Clayton; Brennan, Patricia F; Charters, Kathleen; Brown, Jeanine; Rietschel, Matthew; Pinna, Joanne; An, Minjeong; Park, Bu Kyung; Plummer, Lisa
With the increasing nationwide emphasis on eHealth, there has been a rapid growth in the use of the Internet to deliver health promotion interventions. Although there has been a great deal of research in this field, little information is available regarding the methodologies to develop and implement effective online interventions. This article describes two social cognitive theory-based online health behavior interventions used in a large-scale dissemination study (N = 866), their implementation processes, and the lessons learned during the implementation processes. The two interventions were a short-term (8-week) intensive online Bone Power program and a longer term (12-month) Bone Power Plus program, including the Bone Power program followed by a 10-month online booster intervention (biweekly eHealth newsletters). This study used a small-group approach (32 intervention groups), and to effectively manage those groups, an eLearning management program was used as an upper layer of the Web intervention. Both interventions were implemented successfully with high retention rates (80.7% at 18 months). The theory-based approaches and the online infrastructure used in this study showed a promising potential as an effective platform for online behavior studies. Further replication studies with different samples and settings are needed to validate the utility of this intervention structure. © The Author(s) 2013.
Victoria A. Ferrer-Perez
Full Text Available The Organic Law 1/2004 of 28 December on Integrated Protection Measures against Gender Violence has had, among other consequences, the generalization of intervention programs for batterers in cases of gender violence. The objective of this research is to explore the point of view of specialized professionals about these programs. For this purpose a qualitative methodology was used, by applying semi-structured interviews to 65 key informants, i.e. professionals with experience in implementing and/or managing and evaluating such programs. In general, these professionals were satisfied with the programs in which they had participated and they valued them positively. They considered that certain characteristics of participants and of the programs themselves contribute to promoting or hindering their success and also that they could obtain better results by customizing interventions. These results provide valuable information for understanding the difficulties encountered in implementing these programs and to improve them.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies measuring fidelity of complex interventions have mainly evaluated adherence, and not taken factors affecting adherence into consideration. A need for studies that clarify the concept of fidelity and the function of factors moderating fidelity has been emphasized. The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate implementation fidelity and possible factors influencing fidelity of a complex care continuum intervention for frail elderly people. Methods The intervention was a systematization of the collaboration between a nurse with geriatric expertise situated at the emergency department, the hospital ward staff, and a multi-professional team with a case manager in the municipal care services for older people. Implementation was evaluated between September 2008 and May 2010 with observations of work practices, stakeholder interviews, and document analysis according to a modified version of The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity. Results A total of 16 of the 18 intervention components were to a great extent delivered as planned, while some new components were added to the model. No changes in the frequency or duration of the 18 components were observed, but the dose of the added components varied over time. Changes in fidelity were caused in a complex, interrelated fashion by all the moderating factors in the framework, i.e., context, staff and participant responsiveness, facilitation, recruitment, and complexity. Discussion The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity was empirically useful and included comprehensive measures of factors affecting fidelity. Future studies should focus on developing the framework with regard to how to investigate relationships between the moderating factors and fidelity over time. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01260493.
Michael William Dunn
Full Text Available For a struggling writer, step-by-step instruction can be a helpful means to manage organizing and producing elaborate text. This mixed-methods project offered four struggling writers a mnemonic strategy called Ask, Reflect, Text (ART in 45-minute sessions over 22 days. The second- and fourth-grade students attended a public school in the US Pacific Northwest. As a parallel component to the project, the students’ teachers and intervention specialist met with the author for 4 one-hour sessions to discuss: 1 the children’s intervention programming and progress, and 2 the paradigm of response to intervention (RTI and their thoughts about its feasibility in classrooms. The end-of-project assessment data demonstrated that the children made progress with writing skills, but the teachers and intervention specialist felt that support personnel would be needed to manage RTI-type intervention programming in general education classrooms.
Mouaffak, Fayçal; Marchand, Arnaud; Castaigne, Emmanuelle; Arnoux, Armelle; Hardy, Patrick
Attempted suicide is a strong risk factor for subsequent suicidal behavior. In recent years, a particular interest has been given to follow-up interventions as a potential effective strategy in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. We developed a follow-up intervention program called OSTA (organization of a suitable monitoring for suicide attempters) aimed at addressing this issue and tested its effectiveness in a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Individuals who attempted suicide and were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Bicêtre Hospital (n=320) were randomly allocated to receive either the OSTA program or a control treatment. On an intention to treat basis, the proportion of patients who reattempted suicide did not differ significantly between the interventional group (IG) 14.5% (22/152) and the control group (CG) 14% (21/150). There were also no significant differences, between the two arms, in the number of suicide attempts. Although no significant difference has been found between the OSTA program and the control treatment concerning the rate of suicide reattempts, we believe that further studies should be conducted to test the effectiveness of more standardized follow-up studies in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Díaz Zuluaga, Ana M; Duica, Kelly; Ruiz Galeano, Carlos; Vargas, Cristian; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos
Functional improvement in bipolar and schizophrenic patients is one of the main aims of treatment. Nevertheless, there is no evidence about the effect of socio-occupational intervention within a multimodal intervention (MI) programme. To describe the socio-occupational profile and to evaluate the functional effect of a MI in bipolar I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was performed including 302 subjects (104 schizophrenic and 198 Bipolar Disorder I [BDI] patients), who were randomised into two groups, multimodal (psychiatry, psychology, medicine, occupational therapy, neuropsychology, and family therapy), or traditional intervention (psychiatry and medicine only). Several scales were applied to assess assertiveness, free time management, social abilities, general anxiety, self-care and performance in home, work and community tasks. After performing the longitudinal analysis, it was shown that the multimodal intervention was more effective than traditional intervention in general anxiety scores (P=.026) and development in home tasks (P=.03) in schizophrenic patients. No statistical differences were found in bipolar patients. The other variables showed improvement, however, their effect was similar in both intervention groups. Our study identified functional improvement in home tasks in schizophrenic patients after receiving multimodal intervention. Other variables also showed improvement for both interventions groups. Future studies, applying longer rehabilitation programs and other ecological strategies should be performed to identify the most effective interventions. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Alvarado, M Irma
This study describes the experiences of two mothers of Mexican origin who are immigrants living under undocumented status in the United States and who participated in their children's early intervention programs...
Esteban Gómez; Bernardita Cifuentes; Catalina Sieverson
A descriptive study is presented, about the characteristics of boys and girls served between 2006 and 2009 in a child maltreatment and sexual abuse intervention program, implemented by Protectora de...
Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.
Guerrero Caballero, Laura; Ramos Blanes, Rafel; Alcolado Aranda, Ana; López Dolcet, Maria Josep; Pons La Laguna, Juan Lucas; Quesada Sabaté, Miquel
To improve quality of life, anxiety and depression in caregivers of patients in home care. We performed a randomized clinical trial in 79 main caregivers (39 control group and 40 intervention group) of patients in the home care program of a primary care health center between 2000 and 2001. Quality of life, anxiety and depression were measured by the COOP/WONCA and Goldberg questionnaires, respectively, at the beginning and at the end of the study. Interventions consisted of two medical visits to take a bio-psychosocial history of the caregiver and a nurse visit for health education. Two letters, adapted to each carer's needs, were sent and two telephone calls were made. The intervention group scored significantly better than the control group in relation to WONCA-feelings (p=0.03), WONCA-social activities (p=0.05), and WONCA-quality of life (p=0.02). A short multidisciplinary intervention program adapted to routine consultations could prevent deterioration in caregivers' quality of life.
Elgán, Tobias H; Hansson, Helena; Zetterlind, Ulla; Kartengren, Nicklas; Leifman, Håkan
It has been estimated that approximately 20% of all Swedish children grow up with parents having alcohol problems, which may result in negative outcomes among these children. Therefore, most Swedish municipalities provide resources for support, but at the same time figures reveal that not even 2% receive support, mainly due to difficulties in identifying and recruiting these children into support programs. Delivering intervention programs to children and adolescents via the Internet seems a promising strategy, but to date, the number of web-based interventions aimed at this target group is very scarce. We have therefore developed a novel internet-delivered therapist assisted self-management intervention called the web-ICAIP (Individual Coping and Alcohol Intervention Program) for adolescents having parents with alcohol problems. The purpose of the program is to strengthen adolescents' coping behavior, improve their mental health, and postponing the onset or decreasing risky alcohol consumption. This paper describes the web-ICAIP and the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to measure the efficacy of this intervention. The RCT will include at least 183 adolescents (15-19 year old) who will be randomly allocated to two conditions where one group has access to the web-ICAIP and the other is a waiting list control group. Participants will be recruited from websites containing information and facts for adolescents about alcohol and other drugs. Possible participants will be screened using the short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6). The assessment consists of a baseline and two follow-up measurements taking place after two and six months, respectively. The primary outcomes include the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-DC), a coping behavior scale, and also the short version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Additional outcomes include the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life
Full Text Available Patello-femoral pain syndrome (PFPS is a common knee joint disability. The integration of hip soft tissue regimens are not always emphasized, although current literature implies that there is a significant relationship between the two and there is a lack of randomized clinical trials to substantiate this relationship in clinical practice. A randomized controlled assessor blinded trial was designed to explore different rehabilitation programs related to PFPS. The study was conducted at RAZIEL institute of physical therapy, Netania, Israel with a total of 30 consecutive patients (mean age 35y, diagnosed with PFPS. All patients were randomly allocated into 3 groups. Group I conventional knee rehabilitation program. Included quadriceps strengthening and Trans Electric Neuromuscular Stimulation (TENS. Group II hip oriented rehabilitation program. included stretching, Hip external rotators strengthening and TENS. Group III a combination of the two above programs. Pain and function were documented on initial of the program and again 3 weeks later, on the completion. Pain was assessed by a numeric visual analogue scale (VAS; function was assessed by Patello-femoral joint evaluation scale (PFJES (0-100 points. At end of trial, all groups showed significant improvements in VAS and PFJES (p<0.0001; these improvements did not vary significantly between the 3 groups. The conclusions were that the explored different rehabilitation programs showed a similar beneficial effect.
Szeto, G P Y; Wong, T K T; Law, R K Y; Lee, E W C; Lau, T; So, B C L; Law, S W
Community nurses are exposed to high physical demands at work resulting in musculoskeletal disorders. The present study examined the short- and long-term benefits of a multifaceted intervention program designed especially for community nurses in Hong Kong. Fifty community nurses working in 4 local hospitals participated in the study. All of them underwent an 8-week intervention program consisting of ergonomic training, daily exercise program, equipment modification, computer workstation assessment and typing training. All participants showed significant improvement in musculoskeletal symptoms and functional outcomes comparing pre- and post-intervention results. Significant reduction in symptom score was observed at 1-year follow-up compared to post-intervention. Symptomatic group (n=40) showed more significant changes overall compared to asymptomatic group (n=10). Results support the positive benefits, both short- and long-term, of the multifaceted ergonomic intervention programme for community nurses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Ibrahim, Muhamad Aizat Mat; Hasbollah, Hasif Rafidee; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery; Marican, Nor Dalila; Halim, Muhd Hafzal Abdul; Rashid, Ahmad Faezi Ab.; Yasin, Nurul Hafizah Mohd
The person who have low back pain often report impaired disability to performance daily activities which passive movement of daily life. The effects of low back pain on daily function of patients can describe as a patients level of disability or reduction in physical function it interferes with the movement of patients for running a daily lives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a review to examine the relationship between physical activity and low back pain. Besides that, the suggestion prevention program to patient who has low back pain. This systematic review study was used internet to find databases and search engines. Data were collected using Wiley online library, Bioline International, SAGE, Science Direct, NCBI, ProQuest, Biomed central, American Diabetes Association, PLOS One and Springer. The search was performed using keywords of "physical activity", "low back pain", "back pain", "activity level" and "intervention". The study was reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different section The results were classified based on several sections including years of reporting, who were reporting, the origins of articles and their health criteria about physical activity and low back pain. There are positive associate physical activity and low back pain from the systematic review. Future intervention treatment can reduce associate physical activity to low back pain.
Guay, Stéphane; Goncalves, Jane; Boyer, Richard
Workplace violence can lead to serious consequences for victims, organizations, and society. Most workplace violence prevention programs aim to train staff to better recognize and safely manage at-risk situations. The Omega education and training program was developed in Canada in 1999, and has since been used to teach healthcare and mental health workers the skills needed to effectively intervene in situations of aggression. The present study was designed to assess the impact of Omega on employee psychological distress, confidence in coping, and perceived exposure to violence. This program was offered to 105 employees in a psychiatric hospital in Montreal, Canada. Eighty-nine of them accepted to participate. Questionnaires were completed before the training, after a short period of time (M = 109 days) and at follow-up (M = 441 days). Repeated-measures ANOVAs and Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated. Results demonstrated statistically significant improvements in short-term and follow-up posttest scores of psychological distress, confidence in coping, and in levels of exposure to violence. This study is one of very few to demonstrate the positive impact of this training program. Further research is needed to understand how to improve the effectiveness of the program, especially among participants resistant to change. PMID:27490582
Leko, Melinda M.; Roberts, Carly A.; Pek, Yvonne
This study examined the causes and consequences of secondary teachers' adaptations when implementing a research-based reading intervention program. Interview, observation, and artifact data were collected on five middle school intervention teachers, leading to a grounded theory composed of the core component, reconciliation through adaptation, and…
Poythress, Norman G.; Dembo, Richard; DuDell, Gary; Wareham, Jennifer
In this issue we describe a clinical trials study of the impact of adding specific case manager overlay services to "treatment as usual" services for youths in a Juvenile Arbitration Program. In this first article we describe the experimental intervention, the Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) service, which was provided to a randomly selected…
Özbek, Ahmet Bilal; Girli, Alev
The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a tablet computer-aided intervention program for improving reading fluency. It also investigates the opinions of students and parents about this intervention by using skill- and performance-based techniques, which have been investigated qualitatively. Three students with a learning…
Nickerson, Amanda B.; Serwacki, Michelle L.; Brock, Stephen E.; Savage, Todd A.; Woitaszewski, Scott A.; Louvar Reeves, Melissa A.
This study details a program evaluation of the "PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum" ("PREPaRE"), conducted in the United States and Canada between 2009 and 2011. Significant improvements in crisis prevention and intervention attitudes and knowledge were shown among 875 "Crisis Prevention…
Thompson, Carla J.
Improving student performance for high-need student populations by improving the use of data in decision-making for early reading intervention programs in northwest Florida is the focus of this research to practice effort. The study is conceptually based on using a relational-feedback intervention (RFI) database model in early learning…
JUANITA HENAO ESCOBAR
Full Text Available The article presents a review of different kinds of international early violence prevention-intervention programs,which have shown effectiveness in the reduction of preschooler’s aggression, and in some cases, in the prevention ofviolent behavior during adolescence and youth. The central matter of this article is what we can learn from theexperiences on this field of knowledge around the world. First, the target intervention problem is presented andframed in the colombian context. After presenting the main research findings about aggressive behavior in childrenand the risk factors associated with it, the related intervention modalities will be analyzed and described. Finally, thearticle derives some pragmatic conclusions and recommendations.
Bridging the Gap through Academic Intervention Programs: A Quantitative Study of the Efficacy of the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) on Underrepresented Students' State Standardized Test Scores
Smith, Feon M.
The purpose of the quantitative research study was to determine if participation in the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) led to significant differences in the math and reading/language arts scores on the West Virginia Educational Standards Test 2 (WESTEST 2), between students who participated in the program compared to students who…
This study examined the relationships between participant goal attainment, and changes in mediating variables, and food choice outcomes from a modified curriculum for the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), promoting healthy home food environments and parenting skills relate...
Ercoli, LM; Castellon, SA; Hunter, AM; Kwan, L.; Kahn-Mills, BA; Cernin, PA; Leuchter, AF; Ganz, PA
To assess the feasibility of a cognitive rehabilitation program in breast cancer survivors (BCS) with persistent post-treatment cognitive complaints. BCS with cognitive complaints, 18-months to 5-years post-treatment, were recruited for a once-weekly, five-week, group cognitive training intervention. Outcome measures included selfreported mood and cognitive function, and neurocognitive tests administered at pre-intervention, immediate-, twomonth and four-month post-intervention. A sub-study i...
Full Text Available The authors describe the Fernando Fonseca Psychiatric Department and after a brief theoric report about Psychosis early intervention and its prognostic implications, describe more specificaly the PSIC Program (Early intervention pro- gram after a first psychotic episode. After characterizing the initial sample, they describe the patients' evolution during the three phases of the Program evaluation. Finally they present future implications in the development of new projects in this area in the Service, regarding the good therapeutic adherence, the low rate of readmissions and the decrease of Psychosocial level.
Sundell, Knut; Beelmann, Andreas; Hasson, Henna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
One of the major dilemmas in intervention and implementation research is adaptation versus adherence. High fidelity to an intervention protocol is essential for internal validity. At the same time, it has been argued that adaptation is necessary for improving the adoption and use of interventions by, for example, improving the match between an intervention and its cultural context, thus improving external validity. This study explores the origins of intervention programs (i.e., novel programs, programs adopted from other contexts with or without adaptation) in two meta-analytic intervention data sets from two European countries and compares the effect sizes of the outcomes of the interventions evaluated. Results are based on two samples of studies evaluating German child and youth preventative interventions (k = 158), and Swedish evaluations of a variety of psychological and social interventions (k = 139). The studies were categorized as novel programs, international adoption and contextual adaptation, with a total of six subcategories. In the German sample, after statistically controlling for some crucial methodological aspects, novel programs were significantly more effective than adopted programs. In the Swedish sample, a trend was found suggesting that adopted programs were less effective than adapted and novel programs. If these results are generalizable and unbiased, they favor novel and adapted programs over adopted programs with no adaptation and indicate that adoption of transported programs should not be done without considering adaptation.
Wright, Waukita; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Bergin, James J.
Using a mixed method design, this study investigated the effectiveness of a bully intervention program aimed at fifth-grade girls. The Ophelia Project provided the framework for a six-week prevention program. Results showed that the bullying intervention program did decrease the relational aggressive behaviors among the participants and indicated…
Sweeney, Jennifer K.; Villarejo, Merna
This qualitative, retrospective study explored how educational experiences provided as part of an undergraduate intervention program helped to shape career decisions for minority biology students. A key goal for the program is to increase minority entry into science research and teaching careers, yet actual career choice has not been studied.…
Wee, Liang En; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat
We studied whether individual socioeconomic and neighborhood factors such as living in a poor community independently affected health screening participation. We studied 3 blocks of public-rental flats (the poorer neighborhood) adjacent to 3 blocks of owner-occupied public housing (the better-off neighborhood) in a precinct in Taman Jurong, Singapore. Demographic details and reasons for not having regular hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and colorectal cancer screening were collected from 2009 to 2010. An access-enhancing intervention was implemented in both neighborhoods to raise health screening rates. Participation rates for rental flats and owner-occupied flats were 89.0% (356/400) and 70.2% (351/500) respectively. Living in a better-off neighborhood was independently associated with diabetes mellitus (66% vs. 35%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.12, p<0.01), hyperlipidemia (53% vs. 26%, AOR=4.34, p<0.01) and colorectal cancer screening (17% vs. 6%, AOR=15.43, p<0.01), as were individual socioeconomic factors such as employment, need for financial aid and household income. Uptake of all screening modalities significantly increased in the poorer neighborhood post-intervention (all p<0.05). Cost was cited more commonly as a barrier to health screening in the poorer neighborhood. Differing neighborhoods within one geographical location, as well as individual socioeconomic factors, were independently associated with differences in health screening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Glovinsky, Ira; Keller, Jackie
An early intervention project for preschool handicapped children is described. Specific program goals (including improved functioning in social, emotional, communication, and preacademic areas) are listed, and roles of the interdisciplinary staff members are considered. Among evaluation approaches discussed are psychological measures, family…
Boulden, Walter T.
The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…
Santacroce, Sheila Judge; Leeman, Jennifer; Song, Mi-Kyung
To reduce the burden of chronic illness, prevention and management interventions must be efficacious, adopted and implemented with fidelity, and reach those at greatest risk. Yet, many research-tested interventions are slow to translate into practice. This paper describes how The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Nursing's NINR-funded institutional pre- and postdoctoral research-training program is addressing the imperative to speed knowledge translation across the research cycle. The training emphasizes six research methods ("catalysts") to speed translation: stakeholder engagement, patient-centered outcomes, intervention optimization and sequential multiple randomized trials (SMART), pragmatic trials, mixed methods approaches, and dissemination and implementation science strategies. Catalysts are integrated into required coursework, biweekly scientific and integrative seminars, and experiential research training. Trainee and program success is evaluated based on benchmarks applicable to all PhD program students, supplemented by indicators specific to the catalysts. Trainees must also demonstrate proficiency in at least two of the six catalysts in their scholarly products. Proficiency is assessed through their works in progress presentations and peer reviews at T32 integrative seminars. While maintaining the emphasis on theory-based interventions, we have integrated six catalysts into our ongoing research training to expedite the dynamic process of intervention development, testing, dissemination and implementation. Through a variety of training activities, our research training focused on theory-based interventions and the six catalysts will generate future nurse scientists who speed translation of theory-based interventions into practice to maximize health outcomes for patients, families, communities and populations affected by chronic illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ammendolia, Carlo; Côté, Pierre; Cancelliere, Carol; Cassidy, J. David; Hartvigsen, Jan; Boyle, Eleanor; Soklaridis, Sophie; Stern, Paula; Amick, Benjamin
.... How best to design, integrate and deliver these programs are unknown. The main purpose of this study was to use an intervention mapping approach to develop a workplace health promotion and wellness program aimed at reducing presenteeism...
Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.
This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…
Baldry, A.C.; Farrington, D.P.
The present study evaluates the effect of an intervention program on the reduction of bullying and victimization in schools with a sample of 239 students aged 10-16 years old in Rome, Italy. The program deals with bullying and violence. It consists of three videos and a booklet that help students to
Shen, Chen; Wan, Alice; Kwok, Lit Tung; Pang, Sally; Wang, Xin; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S
Neighborhood cohesion, which refers to the extent of the connectedness and solidarity among residents in a community or neighborhood, is an important determinant of human health. To enhance neighborhood cohesion, the "Learning Families Project" was developed with a series of intervention programs in Kwun Tong in Hong Kong, a district with low neighborhood cohesion. This project, based on the social ecological model, provided a platform for neighbors to learn, communicate and interact with each other. This quasi-experimental study included two nearby government subsidized low rent housing estates separated by busy main roads. One served as the intervention (Tsui Ping (South) Estate) and one as the control (Shun Tin Estate) estate. The intervention included promotion, resident training and learning programs, embodied by a series of community activities such as talks, day camp, thematic activities and horticulture class. Baseline (before the programs) and follow-up (one year after the programs) surveys were conducted both in the intervention and control estate to assess the impact of the programs on neighborhood cohesion. The number of residents who completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys was 502 in the intervention estate and 476 in the control estate. Neighborhood cohesion significantly improved in the intervention group after the programs (Cohen effect size d: 0.15). Compared with the control group, the improvements in closeness of the neighborhood and trust in neighbors were significantly greater in the intervention group (Cohen effect size d: 0.13 and 0.14, respectively). This brief intervention program using a quasi-experimental study design increased neighborhood cohesion in a low rent housing estate. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02851667.
Humphry, R; Link, S
This paper presents the results of a survey of 43 occupational therapy academic programs regarding their preparation of students to work with young children with special needs. The number of instructional hours devoted to topics related to services for infants or toddlers and their families varied greatly. Some programs plan an increase in hours but are limited by the total hours available within the curriculum. This paper also shares the recommendations of a panel of occupational therapists with expertise in early intervention and entry-level education. The panel was concerned with the quality of preparation of therapists entering early intervention programs and encouraged the profession to review the amount of course work within each curriculum that introduces students to basic knowledge and skills related to early intervention. Some knowledge, such as the consultant's role and working with families of persons who are physically or mentally challenged, are common to other practice areas. The panel stressed that students be taught strategies for obtaining the training necessary for postgraduate entry into a specialty area such as early intervention.
Towne, Forrest S.
Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills
Silva, Nathane Sanches Marques; Crenitte, Patrícia Abreu Pinheiro
To assess the applicability of an intervention program to children at risk for reading disabilities. This experimental study compared 10 children at risk for reading difficulty submitted to a phonological decoding intervention program (study group) with 10 other children at risk for reading difficulty not submitted to the program (control group). The intervention program was based on two international studies. It comprised 24 sessions: the first 12 sessions were conducted with groups of two to three children, whereas the others were performed individually. The sessions lasted 50 minutes and were held twice a week. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. Children at risk for reading difficulties submitted to the phonological decoding intervention program showed statistically significant improvement at post-assessment in the performance of the following skills: letter naming; phoneme-grapheme relationship; phonological awareness; phonological working memory for non-words; phonological working memory for digits in direct order; alphabet recognition in sequence; writing under dictation of words and pseudowords; reading of words and pseudowords. The phonological decoding intervention program showed applicability to improve the prerequisite skills of reading and writing of children at risk for reading disabilities.
Roseane de Fátima Guimarães
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to systematically review studies on intervention programs involving physical activity promotion and/or nutritional education to reduce health-related risk factors (overweight/obesity and metabolic profilealterations in Brazilian adolescent students. A search was performed in the following electronic databases: Medline (PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scielo and Capes Thesis Database. A total of 1,568 studies were identified, of which 21 full papers were analyzed and 5 were included in the systematic review. The majority of the studies involved physical activity practice combined with nutritional education in Brazilian adolescent students and all interventions showed positive effect on reducing health-related risk factors among Brazilian adolescents.It was concluded that all studies included in this review showed positive alterations in healthrelated risk factors after interventions, reinforcing the importance of intervention programs to promote a healthier lifestyle and reduce health-related risk factors in adolescents.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity in children has increased in recent years throughout the world and is associated with adverse health consequences. Early interventions, including appropriate pedagogy strategies, are important for a successful intervention program. The aim of this study was to assess changes in body mass index, the ability to perform sport activities, behavior in the classroom and academic performance following one year of a health-wellness intervention program in obese youth. Methods The CEMHaVi program included 37 obese children (19 girls and 18 boys. Participants received an intervention program consisting of physical activity and health education. Assessment included body mass index, academic performance, classroom performance and ability to perform sport activities. Paired t tests were used to assess the effects of intervention, and chi square was used to assess inter-action between measures. Results Findings of the study suggest significant decrease in Z scores of Body Mass Index and an improvement of academic performance, classroom behavior and the ability to perform sport activities (p Conclusions Results following year one of CEMHaVi showed that a program of physical activity and health education had positive effects on obesity, behavior in the classroom and the ability to perform sport activities in obese adolescents. Significant inter-action in changes between variables was observed. Findings are important for designing intervention models to improve health in obese youth.
Infancy is an important period in a child's life, with rapid growth and development. Early experiences shape the developing brain, and adverse experiences can have both an immediate and lifelong impact on health and wellbeing. Parenting interventions offered to parents of newborns can support parents in providing sensitive and responsive care, and reinforce healthy development for their infants. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the Incredible Years™ Parents and Babies Program in a universal setting for parents with infants. This is a pragmatic, two-arm, parallel, pilot, randomized controlled trial (RCT) where 128 families with newborn infants up to four-months-old are recruited in two municipalities in Denmark. Families are randomized to the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program or usual care with a 2:1 allocation ratio. The primary outcome is parenting confidence measured after 20 weeks by the Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale and Parental Stress Scale. Secondary outcomes include measures of parent health, reflective functioning, relationship with the infant, and infant development. Interviewers and data analysts are blind to allocation status. This is the first RCT of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program, and one of the first rigorous evaluations of a universally offered preventive intervention for parents with infants. The trial will provide important information on the effectiveness of a relatively brief, universally offered parenting intervention for parents of infants, and will also provide information on infant measures, parent recruitment and participation, and implementation of the program, which could inform future trials. This trial was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT01931917) on 27 August 2013.
Full Text Available This study analyzed, first, if there were any differences in attitudes towards partner violence (i.e., perceivedseverity, victim blaming, and acceptability, responsibility attributions, sexism, and risk of recidivismbetween Latin American immigrants and Spanish offenders convicted of intimate-partner violence at thebeginning of a batterer intervention program. Second, differences in the batterer intervention programoutcomes between Spanish and Latin American offenders were explored. The sample consisted of 278batterers (211 Spanish and 67 Latin American who participated in a community-based battererintervention program. Results showed significant differences between Spanish and Latin Americanoffenders in perceived severity, victim blaming, violence against women acceptability, and benevolentsexism. Regarding batterer intervention program outcomes, results showed that despite initial differencesbetween Spanish and Latin American offenders, both groups benefit equally from the intervention.
Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.
van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M; Braam, Katja I; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Takken, Tim; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Streng, Isabelle C; Bierings, Marc; Merks, Johannes H; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Veening, Margreet A; Huisman, Jaap
The purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of a psychosocial intervention in childhood cancer patients. This individualized structured psychosocial program to enhance social-emotional functioning and coping with disease-related effects includes six sessions for children and two sessions for parents. This program was part of a combined intervention with physical exercise. Questionnaires are used to evaluate completion of the psychosocial intervention, coping and satisfaction with the psychosocial intervention by patients and psychologists, and ranking of the individual topics by patients, parents, and psychologists. Of the 30 patients (mean age 13.0 (SD 3.0); 53.3 % male; 30 % still on treatment) who participated in the psychosocial intervention, two dropped out due to medical complications and one due to lack of time; 90 % completed the psychosocial intervention. Overall, patients liked participation in the intervention (4.2 on a 5-point scale; SD 0.8) and were positive about the psychologists (8.1 on a 10-point scale; SD 1.3). Psychologists rated the intervention on several points (e.g., clarity of the manual and content of the intervention), and mean scores ranged from 7.1 (SD 1.1) to 8.6 (SD 0.9) on 10-point scales. Minor adaptations were suggested by patients and psychologists, including customizing according to age and a more patient-tailored approach. This psychosocial intervention for childhood cancer patients appears to be applicable. Future studies need to establish whether this intervention combined with a physical exercise intervention actually improves psychosocial functioning of childhood cancer patients. When proven effective, this combined intervention can be offered to childhood cancer patients and may enhance their physical health and quality of life.
Brown, Kenneth H; Baker, Shawn K
This paper summarizes the results of the foregoing reviews of the impact of different intervention strategies designed to enhance zinc nutrition, including supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification or modification. Current evidence indicates a beneficial impact of such interventions on zinc status and zinc-related functional outcomes. Preventive zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory tract infection among young children, decreases mortality of children over 12 months of age, and increases growth velocity. Therapeutic zinc supplementation during episodes of diarrhea reduces the duration and severity of illness. Zinc fortification increases zinc intake and total absorbed zinc, and recent studies are beginning to confirm a positive impact of zinc fortification on indicators of population zinc status. To assist with the development of zinc intervention programs, more information is needed on the prevalence of zinc deficiency in different countries, and rigorous evaluations of the effectiveness of large-scale zinc intervention programs should be planned. Recommended steps for scaling up zinc intervention programs, with or without other micronutrients, are described. In summary, there is now clear evidence of the benefit of selected interventions to reduce the risk of zinc deficiency, and a global commitment is urgently needed to conduct systematic assessments of population zinc status and to develop interventions to control zinc deficiency in the context of existing public health and nutrition programs.
Netto, Tânia Maria; Greca, Denise Vieira; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Oliveira, Camila; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Landeira-Fernandez, J.
Abstract This systematic review aimed to identify the designs, procedures, and results of empirical studies that performed neuropsychological interventions on WM in adults. Methods: A PubMed and LILACS literature search was conducted using the keywords working memory AND (training OR rehabilitation OR intervention) AND adult. Results: Of the seven studies found, three were randomized controlled trials, two were case reports, one was a clinical trial, and one was an evaluation study. With re...
Viviana Vargas; Marisol Lila; Alba Catalá-Miñana
... convicted of intimate-partner violence at thebeginning of a batterer intervention program. Second, differences in the batterer intervention programoutcomes between Spanish and Latin American offenders were explored...
This quasi-experimental study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of an early nursing intervention program to support mothers of children aged 0-3 yr living in poverty. In this study, mothers who received financial support from the government were recruited from one city and assigned to an intervention group (24) and comparison group (18). They completed a baseline questionnaire about depression, child rearing burden, agreement on physical punishment, and child temperament. Also, Denver II screening of the children was performed by the researcher. Mothers in the intervention group received a home visit intervention every two weeks for three months. At 3-months post-baseline, questionnaire and Denver II screening were reused to compare these two groups. Mother's depression, child rearing burden, agreement on physical punishment, and child temperament were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the percentage of depression declined only in the intervention group. Mothers in the intervention group showed higher Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores than mothers in the comparison group. The findings of the study show that this nursing intervention is an effective parenting program. The early nursing program for mothers with infant and toddlers in poverty is effective in promoting HOME, the child rearing home environment.
Agbozo, Faith; Colecraft, Esi; Ellahi, Basma
Community-based growth promotion (CBGP) delivered by community volunteers aims at enhancing the traditional growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) program delivered by community health nurses through the promotion of optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF) leading to improved child growth. This study compared IYCF knowledge and practices among caregiver-child pairs (0-24 months) receiving child welfare services from CBGP (n = 124) and GMP (n = 108) programs. Semistructured questionnaires were used to interview caregivers on IYCF knowledge/practices and validated food frequency questionnaire used to record infants' food intakes. Group differences were determined using Chi-square and independent samples t-tests (P children under 5 years owned by caregiver (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.405; 95% CI: 1.13-78.53, P = 0.038), her educational level (AOR: 0.112; 95% CI: 0.02-0.90, P = 0.040), and IYCF knowledge (AOR: 0.140; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79, P = 0.026) significantly predicted optimum child feeding. Nutrition education on optimum complementary feeding and birth spacing strategies should intensify.
Clarke, Kris; Harris, Debra; Zweifler, John A; Lasher, Marc; Mortimer, Roger B; Hughes, Susan
Infectious disease remains a significant social and health concern in the United States. Preventing more people from contracting HIV/AIDS or Hepatitis C (HCV), requires a complex understanding of the interconnection between the biomedical and social dimensions of infectious disease. Opiate addiction in the US has skyrocketed in recent years. Preventing more cases of HIV/AIDS and HCV will require dealing with the social determinants of health. Needle exchange programs (NEPs) are based on a harm reduction approach that seeks to minimize the risk of infection and damage to the user and community. This article presents an exploratory small-scale quantitative study of the injection drug using habits of a group of injection drug users (IDUs) at a needle exchange program in Fresno, California. Respondents reported significant decreases in high risk IDU behaviors, including sharing of needles and to a lesser extent re-using of needles. They also reported frequent use of clean paraphernalia. Greater collaboration between social and health outreach professionals at NEPs could provide important frontline assistance to people excluded from mainstream office-based services and enhance efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS or HCV infection.
Full Text Available We examined the feasibility and effectiveness of a cosmetic intervention program for frail older women. Thirty-nine older adults (83.0 ± 8.65 years from two nursing homes in Tokyo were allocated to a cosmetic (intervention: n = 27 or a light-exercise (control: n = 12 group according to their nursing home residence. Both groups attended weekly classes over a 5-week period from May to June 2009. The program feasibility was examined using class participation, class attendance, and program adherence rates, while the effectiveness of the program was examined using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and participants' engagement in positive activities (i.e., engaging in social activities and going outside. The intervention group showed significantly higher rates on all feasibility measures than did the control group (class participation: 24.1% vs. 13.3%, class attendance: 75.5% vs. 32.6%, program adherence: 70.8% vs. 10.0%. Furthermore, the GDS scores decreased significantly in the intervention group, but not the control group. Although the change in GDS score was larger in the intervention group (−1.30 ± 2.36 than in the control group (−0.75 ± 3.53, the inter-group difference in this change was not significant. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-intervention positive activity rates in either group, or in the inter-group comparisons of changes in these rates. Overall, the cosmetic program was highly feasible and effective for improving the mental health of frail older women. However, further studies using longer intervention periods and larger samples would be needed to identify the program effectiveness.
Cotter, Katie L.; Bacallao, Martica; Smokowski, Paul R.; Robertson, Caroline I. B.
Objectives: This study examines the implementation and effectiveness of Parenting Wisely, an Internet-based parenting skills intervention. The study assesses whether parents benefit from Parenting Wisely participation and whether the delivery format influences program effectiveness. Method: This study uses a quasi-experimental design.…
Cantave, Obert G.
Regardless of the leadership traits and strengths of an organizational or program leader, he or she is expected to visualize beyond the current state of his or her organization or program in order to remain relevant and competitive. The leader's ability to understand the organizational environment and constituents is vital for the…
Viviana Vargas; Marisol Lila; Alba Catalá-Miñana
This study analyzed, first, if there were any differences in attitudes towards partner violence (i.e., perceivedseverity, victim blaming, and acceptability), responsibility attributions, sexism, and risk of recidivismbetween Latin American immigrants and Spanish offenders convicted of intimate-partner violence at thebeginning of a batterer intervention program. Second, differences in the batterer intervention programoutcomes between Spanish and Latin American offenders were explored. The samp...
Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Sturmey, P.
Excitement and controversy have surrounded the effectiveness of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of EIBI based on applied behavior analysis in young children with Autism Spectrum
Estimating the intra-cluster correlation coefficient for evaluating an educational intervention program to improve rabies awareness and dog bite prevention among children in Sikkim, India: A pilot study.
Auplish, Aashima; Clarke, Alison S; Van Zanten, Trent; Abel, Kate; Tham, Charmaine; Bhutia, Thinlay N; Wilks, Colin R; Stevenson, Mark A; Firestone, Simon M
Educational initiatives targeting at-risk populations have long been recognized as a mainstay of ongoing rabies control efforts. Cluster-based studies are often utilized to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population in response to education campaigns. The design of cluster-based studies requires estimates of intra-cluster correlation coefficients obtained from previous studies. This study estimates the school-level intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) for rabies knowledge change following an educational intervention program. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 226 students from 7 schools in Sikkim, India, using cluster sampling. In order to assess knowledge uptake, rabies education sessions with pre- and post-session questionnaires were administered. Paired differences of proportions were estimated for questions answered correctly. A mixed effects logistic regression model was developed to estimate school-level and student-level ICCs and to test for associations between gender, age, school location and educational level. The school- and student-level ICCs for rabies knowledge and awareness were 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.19) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.09), respectively. These ICCs suggest design effect multipliers of 5.45 schools and 1.05 students per school, will be required when estimating sample sizes and designing future cluster randomized trials. There was a good baseline level of rabies knowledge (mean pre-session score 71%), however, key knowledge gaps were identified in understanding appropriate behavior around scared dogs, potential sources of rabies and how to correctly order post rabies exposure precaution steps. After adjusting for the effect of gender, age, school location and education level, school and individual post-session test scores improved by 19%, with similar performance amongst boys and girls attending schools in urban and rural regions. The proportion of participants that were able to correctly order post
Nunez, Elizabeth; Gibson, Gretchen; Jones, Judith A; Schinka, John A
...) transitional housing intervention program. Our sample consisted of 9870 veterans who were admitted into a VA homeless intervention program during 2008 and 2009, 4482 of whom received dental care during treatment and 5388 of whom did...
Peto, Thomas J; Mendy, Maimuma E; Lowe, Yamundow; Webb, Emily L; Whittle, Hilton C; Hall, Andrew J
Gambian infants were not routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV) before 1986. During 1986-90 the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) allocated 125,000 infants, by area, to vaccination or not and thereafter all infants were offered the vaccine through the nationwide immunisation programme. We report HBV serology from samples of GHIS vaccinees and unvaccinated controls, and from children born later. During 2007-08, 2670 young adults born during the GHIS (1986-90) were recruited from 80 randomly selected villages and four townships. Only 28% (753/2670) could be definitively linked to their infant HBV vaccination records (255 fully vaccinated, 23 partially vaccinated [1-2 doses], 475 not vaccinated). All were tested for current HBV infection (HBV surface antigen [HBsAg]) and, if HBsAg-negative, evidence of past infection (HBV core-protein antibody [anti-HBc]). HBsAg-positive samples (each with two age- and sex-matched HBsAg-negative samples) underwent liver function tests. In addition, 4613 children born since nationwide vaccination (in 1990-2007) were tested for HBsAg. Statistical analyses ignore clustering. Comparing fully vaccinated vs unvaccinated GHIS participants, current HBV infection was 0.8% (2/255) vs 12.4% (59/475), p 2 ULN) was 4.1%, compared with 0.2% in those HBsAg-negative. The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus was low (0.5%, 13/2592). In children born after the end of GHIS, HBsAg prevalence has remained low; 1.4% (15/1103) in those born between 1990-97, and 0.3% (9/35150) in those born between 1998-2007. Infant HBV vaccination achieves substantial protection against chronic carriage in early adulthood, even though approximately a quarter of vaccinated young adults have been infected. This protection persists past the potential onset of sexual activity, reinforcing previous GHIS findings of protection during childhood and suggesting no need for a booster dose. Nationwide infant HBV vaccination is controlling chronic
ElGarhy, Sayed; Liu, Ting
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a psychomotor intervention program (PIP) on body awareness and psychomotor concepts for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-eight students (23 boys and 5 girls) with ASD participated in this study. Fourteen students with ASD were randomly assigned to the experimental group…
de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander; Post, Wendy
In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and
Kim, Hee-Jin; Yang, YoungSoon; Oh, Jeong-Gun; Oh, Seongil; Choi, Hojin; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Seung Hyun
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multidomain program in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 53 patients with probable AD participated in the present study. The participants were classified to a cognitive programming group (n = 32) and control group (n = 21). Participants in the cognitive intervention program received multidomain cognitive stimulation including art, music, recollection and horticultural therapy, each period of intervention lasting 1 h. This program was repeated five times per week over a period of 6 months at the Seongdong-gu Center for Dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination, the Korean version of Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease, Clinical dementia rating scales, and the Korean version of the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease were used to evaluate cognitive ability at baseline and after intervention. After 6 months, cognitive abilities were compared between patients actively participating in cognitive intervention and the pharmacotherapy only group. Patients receiving cognitive intervention showed significant cognitive improvement in the word-list recognition and recall test scores versus the control. There was no change in the overall Clinical dementia rating score, but the domain of community affairs showed a significant improvement in the cognitive intervention group. Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease of caregivers was slightly improved in the cognitive intervention group after 6 months. Multidomain cognitive intervention by regional dementia centers has great potential in helping to maintain cognitive function in patients with dementia, increase their social activity and reduce depression, while enhancing the quality of life of caregivers. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Kalhan, Satish C; Wilson-Costello, Dee
Contemporary clinical practice for the care of the prematurely born babies has markedly improved their rates of survival so that most of these babies are expected to grow up to live a healthy functional life. Since the clinical follow up is of short duration (years), only limited data are available to relate non-communicable diseases in adult life to events and interventions in the neonatal period. The major events that could have a programming effect include (1) Intrauterine growth restriction (2) Interruption of pregnancy with change in redox and reactive oxygen species injury (3) Nutritional and pharmacological protocols for Clinical care (4) Nutritional care in the first two years resulting in accelerated weight gain. The available data are discussed in the context of perturbations in one carbon (methyl transfer) metabolism and its possible programming effects. Although direct evidence for genomic methylation is not available, clinical and experimental data on impact of redox and ROS, of low protein intake, excess methionine load and vitamin A, on methyl transfers are reviewed. The consequences of antenatal and postnatal administration of glucocorticoids are presented. Analysis of the correlates of insulin sensitivity at older age, suggests that premature birth is the major contributor, and is compounded by gain in weight during infancy. We speculate that premature interruption of pregnancy and neonatal interventions by effecting one carbon metabolism may cause programming effects on the immature baby. These can be additive to the effects of intrauterine environment (growth restriction) and are compounded by accelerated growth in early infancy. PMID:25054678
Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…
Statharou A.; Berk A.; Galatou C.
The healthy way of diet of mental patients, as it appears from the international bibliography, occupies the professionals of health for a lot of years. A lot of efforts have become in this sector and mainly in acquire the mental patients the control of natural health and well-being. Each program of intervention that aims in the modification of alimentary habits with the use of cognitive-behavior theories contributes in the improvement of quality of diet, but also in the aid of self-esteem Nev...
Nunez, Elizabeth; Gibson, Gretchen; Jones, Judith A; Schinka, John A
In this retrospective longitudinal cohort study, we examined the impact of dental care on outcomes among homeless veterans discharged from a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) transitional housing intervention program. Our sample consisted of 9870 veterans who were admitted into a VA homeless intervention program during 2008 and 2009, 4482 of whom received dental care during treatment and 5388 of whom did not. Primary outcomes of interest were program completion, employment or stable financial status on discharge, and transition to permanent housing. We calculated descriptive statistics and compared the 2 study groups with respect to demographic characteristics, medical and psychiatric history (including alcohol and substance use), work and financial support, and treatment outcomes. Veterans who received dental care were 30% more likely than those who did not to complete the program, 14% more likely to be employed or financially stable, and 15% more likely to have obtained residential housing. Provision of dental care has a substantial positive impact on outcomes among homeless veterans participating in housing intervention programs. This suggests that homeless programs need to weigh the benefits and cost of dental care in program planning and implementation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives Disease self-management programs have been a popular approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic disease. Replicating an evidence-based disease management program successfully requires practitioners to ensure fidelity to the original program design. Methods The Florida Health Literacy Study (FHLS was conducted to investigate the implementation impact of the Pfizer, Inc. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension Disease Self-Management Program based on health literacy principles in 14 community health centers in Florida. The intervention components discussed include health educator recruitment and training, patient recruitment, class sessions, utilization of program materials, translation of program manuals, patient retention and follow-up, and technical assistance. Results This report describes challenges associated with achieving a balance between adaptation for cultural relevance and fidelity when implementing the health education program across clinic sites. This balance was necessary to achieve effectiveness of the disease self-management program. The FHLS program was implemented with a high degree of fidelity to the original design and used original program materials. Adaptations identified as advantageous to program participation are discussed, such as implementing alternate methods for recruiting patients and developing staff incentives for participation. Conclusion Effective program implementation depends on the talent, skill and willing participation of clinic staff. Program adaptations that conserve staff time and resources and recognize their contribution can increase program effectiveness without jeopardizing its fidelity.
Karanth, Prathibha; Shaista, Sufia; Srikanth, Nirupama
To establish the efficacy of Communication DEALL, an indigenous early intervention program; in the management of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ABA design of pre intervention assessment, intervention and post intervention assessment was utilized, across an 8 month period. The first set of measures covered the assessment of developmental skills in the eight areas of gross motor skills, fine motor skills, activities of daily life skills, receptive language, and expressive language, cognitive, social and emotional skills. The second independent measure was the rating of each child on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Parental observations and parental estimation of the child's progress were also recorded. The study was conducted in the Com DEALL units in Bangalore, including thirty subjects diagnosed with ASD. Main Outcome Measures were developmental skill gains and decrease in behavioral issues. Statistically significant increase in all eight developmental domains and statistically significant decrease in behavioral symptoms as measured by the CARS, were seen. Thus, the Communication DEALL program shows promise as an effective early intervention program. It also indicates a need to further enhance the stabilization of the pre linguistic skills such as maintenance of eye contact, attention, sitting tolerance and compliance, in the program.
A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a nutrition intervention program in a multiethnic adult population in the corporate setting reduces depression and anxiety and improves quality of life: the GEICO study.
Agarwal, Ulka; Mishra, Suruchi; Xu, Jia; Levin, Susan; Gonzales, Joseph; Barnard, Neal D
To determine whether a plant-based nutrition program in a multicenter, corporate setting improves depression, anxiety, and productivity. A quasi-experimental study examined the impact of diet on emotional well-being and productivity. The study was conducted in 10 corporate sites of a major U.S. insurance company. There were 292 participants (79.8% women, 20.2% men), with body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) and/or previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Either weekly instruction in following a vegan diet or no instruction was given for 18 weeks. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Short Form-36 questionnaire. Work productivity was measured using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Baseline characteristics were examined by t-test for continuous variables and χ(2) test for categorical variables. Analysis of covariance models were adjusted for baseline covariates. Paired t-tests were used to determine within-group changes and t-tests for between-group differences. In an intention-to-treat analysis, improvements in impairment because of health (p health (p = .02), non-work-related activity impairment because of health (p health (p = .01), and general health (p = 0.02) in the intervention group were significantly greater than in the control group. Results were similar for study completers. A dietary intervention improves depression, anxiety, and productivity in a multicenter, corporate setting.
Shibru, Daniel; Zahnd, Elaine; Becker, Marla; Bekaert, Nic; Calhoun, Deane; Victorino, Gregory P
Exposure to violence predisposes youths to future violent behavior. Breaking the cycle of violence in inner cities is the primary objective of hospital-based violence intervention and prevention programs. An evaluation was undertaken to determine if a hospital-based, peer intervention program, "Caught in the Crossfire," reduces the risk of criminal justice involvement, decreases hospitalizations from traumatic reinjury, diminishes death from intentional violent trauma, and is cost effective. We designed a retrospective cohort study conducted between January 1998 and June 2003 at a university-based urban trauma center. The duration of followup was 18 months. Patients were 12 to 20 years of age and were hospitalized for intentional violent trauma. The "enrolled" group had a minimum of five interactions with an intervention specialist. The control group was selected from the hospital database by matching age, gender, race or ethnicity, type of injury, and year of admission. All patients came from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The total sample size was 154 patients. Participation in the hospital-based peer intervention program lowered the risk of criminal justice involvement (relative risk=0.67; 95% CI, 0.45, 0.99; p=0.04). There was no effect on risks of reinjury and death. Subsequent violent criminal behavior was reduced by 7% (p=0.15). Logistic regression analysis showed age had a confounding effect on the association between program participation and criminal justice involvement (relative risk=0.71; p=0.043). When compared with juvenile detention center costs, the total cost reduction derived from the intervention program annually was $750,000 to $1.5 million. This hospital-based peer intervention program reduces the risk of criminal justice system involvement, is more effective with younger patients, and is cost effective. Any effect on reinjury and death will require a larger sample size and longer followup.
Roberts, Jacqueline; Williams, Katrina; Carter, Mark; Evans, David; Parmenter, Trevor; Silove, Natalie; Clark, Trevor; Warren, Anthony
This study compares outcomes of early intervention programs for young children with autism; an individualised home-based program (HB), a small group centre-based program for children combined with a parent training and support group (CB) and a non-treatment comparison group (WL). Outcome measures of interest include social and communication skill…
Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Bredenberg, Kurt
To reduce the high repetition rates in early years of primary school, the government of Cambodia piloted a school readiness program (SRP) in the first two months of Grade 1 of primary school. This study examines whether such intervention has effects on students' immediate acquisition of school readiness skills as well as students' longer term…
Nichols, Kayla; Graves, Scott L., Jr.
The importance of identifying and building on individual strengths has been a key component of many psychoeducational theories and modalities focused on developing interventions. However, program training in this growing area is not well known. As such, this is the first study designed to ascertain the American Psychological Association-accredited…
Bekman, Sevda; Aksu-Koc, Ayhan; Erguvanli-Taylan, Eser
This study reports on the evaluation of a "summer pre-school model" as an intervention measure. A 10-week program was designed to increase the school readiness of Turkish children from disadvantaged and multilingual environments by supporting their cognitive and linguistic skills during the summer prior to the start of school. The…
The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental study is to examine the effectiveness of the "Healthy Kids, Smart Kids" intervention program on academics. Extant data will be used to determine if a statistically significant difference in academics exist between experimental schools implementing the "Healthy Kids, Smart…
Al, C.M.W.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.; van der Laan, P.H.
This study evaluated the Family Crisis Intervention Program (FCIP), focusing on crisis, child safety, family functioning and child behaviour problems. Questionnaires were completed by 183 families in crisis and their FCIP worker. After FCIP, the crisis had decreased and child safety had increased.
van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Takken, Tim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/184586674; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Streng, Isabelle C.; Bierings, Marc|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074759620; Merks, Johannes H.; Eibrink, Marry; Veening, Margreet A.; Huisman, Jaap
The purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of a psychosocial intervention in childhood cancer patients. This individualized structured psychosocial program to enhance social-emotional functioning and coping with disease-related effects includes six sessions for children and two
Thomas, Cheryl Denise
The purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of PBIS (Positive Behavioral Intervention Support) program had a positive significant effect in decreasing office discipline referrals in a local elementary school. A sample independent t-Test was used to examine data on the school's average office discipline referrals for two years…
Reupert, A.E.; Cuff, R.; Drost, L.; Foster, K.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Santvoort, F. van
Objective: To identify and describe intervention programs to improve outcomes for children whose parents have a mental illness. Data sources: Grey and black literature was sourced from (i) three previous reviews/scoping studies, (ii) PsycINFO and MEDLINE searches of English, German and Dutch papers,
Westensko, Arla; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Child, Barbara
This study describes 3 years of mathematics intervention research examining the effectiveness of a summer individualized tutoring program for rising fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students with low mathematics achievement. Based on an iceberg model of learning, an instructional framework was developed that identified and targeted students'…
Montes de Oca, Jesús H.
The study aimed to determine the effect of the implementation of the program "Manage your Talent" on assertive communication and teamwork competences. A quasi-experimental research design was used with pretest - intervention - post-test with control group. The sample included 28 supervisors from a private company, 13 in the experimental…
Smaby, Marlow H.; Downing, Jerry
The purpose of this paper is twofold: it reviews current national research on adolescent suicide and successful intervention/prevention programs and it surveys the 17 Nevada school districts to determine the presence of successful suicide intervention/prevention programs in the state. Findings include the following: (1) the popular…
Controlled Education of patients after Stroke (CEOPS)- nurse-led multimodal and long-term interventional program involving a patient's caregiver to optimize secondary prevention of stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Mendyk, Anne-Marie; Duhamel, Alain; Bejot, Yannick; Leys, Didier; Derex, Laurent; Dereeper, Olivier; Detante, Olivier; Garcia, Pierre-Yves; Godefroy, Olivier; Montoro, Francisco Macian; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Richard, Sébastien; Rosolacci, Thierry; Sibon, Igor; Sablot, Denis; Timsit, Serge; Zuber, Mathieu; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Bordet, Régis
Setting up a follow-up secondary prevention program after stroke is difficult due to motor and cognitive impairment, but necessary to prevent recurrence and improve patients' quality of life. To involve a referent nurse and a caregiver from the patient's social circle in nurse-led multimodal and long-term management of risk factors after stroke could be an advantage due to their easier access to the patient and family. The aim of this study is to compare the benefit of optimized follow up by nursing personnel from the vascular neurology department including therapeutic follow up, and an interventional program directed to the patient and a caregiving member of their social circle, as compared with typical follow up in order to develop a specific follow-up program of secondary prevention of stroke. The design is a randomized, controlled, clinical trial conducted in the French Stroke Unit of the Strokavenir network. In total, 410 patients will be recruited and randomized in optimized follow up or usual follow up for 2 years. In both group, patients will be seen by a neurologist at 6, 12 and 24 months. The optimized follow up will include follow up by a nurse from the vascular neurology department, including therapeutic follow up, and a training program on secondary prevention directed to the patient and a caregiving member of their social circle. After discharge, a monthly telephone interview, in the first year and every 3 months in the second year, will be performed by the nurse. At 6, 12 and 24 month, the nurse will give the patient and caregiver another training session. Usual follow up is only done by the patient's general practitioner, after classical information on secondary prevention of risk factors during hospitalization. The primary outcome measure is blood pressure measured after the first year of follow up. Blood pressure will be measured by nursing personnel who do not know the group into which the patient has been randomized. Secondary endpoints are
Wang, Zhiyun; Wang, Jianping; Maercker, Andreas
Insight into user adherence to Web-based intervention programs and into its relationship to intervention effect is needed. The objective of this study was to examine use of a Web-based self-help intervention program, the Chinese version of My Trauma Recovery (CMTR), among Chinese traumatized individuals, and to investigate the relationship between program use and user characteristics before the intervention and change in outcomes after the intervention and at 3-months' follow-up. The sample consisted of 56 urban survivors of different trauma types and 90 rural survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, who used the CMTR in 1 month on their own or guided by volunteers in a counseling center. Predictors were demographics (sex, age, highest education, marital status, and annual family income), health problems (trauma duration, posttraumatic symptoms, and depression), psychological factors (coping self-efficacy), and social factors (social functioning impairment and social support). Program use was assessed by general program usage (eg, number of visiting days) and program adherence (eg, webpages completed in modules). Outcome measures were the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS), Symptom Checklist 90-Depression (SCL-D), Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy scale (CSE), Crisis Support Scale (CSS), and Social Functioning Impairment questionnaire (SFI) adopted from the CMTR. (1) Program use: rural participants had a larger total number of visiting days (F1,144=40.50, Psocial factors at pretest. (3) Program use and outcomes change: in general, use of the triggers and self-talk modules showed a consistent positive association with improvement in PDS, SCL-D, SFI, and CSE. The relaxation module was associated with positive change in PDS, but with negative change in CSS and SFI. The professional help module was associated with positive change in SCL-D, but its use on the first day was associated with negative change in CSS and CSE. The unhelpful coping module was associated with
Mucka, Lilia E; Dayton, Carolyn J; Lawler, Jamie; Kirk, Rosalind; Alfafara, Emily; Schuster, Melisa M; Miller, Nicole; Ribaudo, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa; Muzik, Maria
Parenting group success begins with attendance. Using archival pilot data from 99 mothers who enrolled in the Mom Power (MP) parenting intervention, this study sought to understand the factors that influenced participant engagement and retention. MP is a group-based, early intervention program grounded in attachment theory that utilizes motivational interviewing as a core component to enhance program engagement. Study aims were to qualitatively describe the reasons why mothers were interested in participating in the program, including what they hoped to gain from the experience, and to quantitatively examine the extent to which attendance was associated with demographic, experiential, and psychosocial factors. The qualitative analysis of intake interviews revealed that mothers expected the MP intervention to provide a warm environment for themselves and their children as well as to support and enhance their parenting, and 95% revealed their hopes that the intervention would help them grow and develop as women. Attendance rates were relatively high, with 62% of mothers missing less than one group session. Quantitative analyses using multiple regression to test associations of demographic, experiential, and psychosocial factors with attendance rates were not significant. Results suggest that motivational interviewing may be an important component in promoting participant engagement efforts in parenting interventions. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Jensen, Olaf Chresten
Introduction Intervention studies in public- and occupational health on chronic non-infectious diseases have been increasingly used. Also in the maritime health area, intervention studies have been done and some are on the way. The intervention methods are most often counselling or education...... to modify the specific risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and obesity. The objective here is to present the methodological gold standard for the intervention studies and to discuss how to improve the intervention studies and programs. Material and Methods...... As a starting point the specific features of an ideal randomized occupational health intervention research model is presented. Two large reviews on health intervention studies are presented as an offset to discuss how the health intervention studies and programs can be improved. Results A Cochrane review based...
Harbalis, Thomas; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Theodorakis, Yannis
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a self-talk intervention program on performance of wheelchair basketball drills. Twenty-two (N = 22) wheelchair basketball athletes from two different clubs of the same league participated in the study. The duration of the intervention was 12 weeks and its aim was the improvement of two…
Niakan, Sharareh; Mehraeen, Esmaeil; Noori, Tayebeh; Gozali, Elahe
With the increasing growth of HIV positive people the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can play an important role in controlling the spread of the AIDS. Web and Mobile are the new technologies that young people take advantage from them. In this study a review to investigate the web and mobile based HIV prevention and intervention programs was carried out. A scoping review was conducted including PubMed, Science direct, Web of Science and Proquest to find relevant sources that published in 2009 to 2016. To identify published, original research that reported the web and mobile-based HIV prevention and intervention programs, an organized search was conducted with the following search keywords in combination: HIV, AIDS, m-Health, Mobile phone, Cell phone, Smartphone, Mobile health, internet, and web. Using the employed strategies, 173 references retrieved. Searched articles were compared based on their titles and abstracts. To identify duplicated articles, the title and abstracts were considered and 101 duplicated references were excluded. By going through the full text of related papers, 35 articles were found to be more related to the questions of this paper from which 72 final included. The advantages of web and mobile-based interventions include the possibility to provide constancy in the delivery of an intervention, impending low cost, and the ability to spread the intervention to an extensive community. Online programs such as Chat room-based Education program, Web-based therapeutic education system, and Online seek information can use for HIV/AIDS prevention. To use of mobile for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention, programs including in: Health system focused applications, Population health focused applications, and Health messaging can be used.
Chmitorz, A; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Tüscher, O; Kalisch, R; Kubiak, T; Wessa, M; Lieb, K
Psychological resilience refers to the phenomenon that many people are able to adapt to the challenges of life and maintain mental health despite exposure to adversity. This has stimulated research on training programs to foster psychological resilience. We evaluated concepts, methods and designs of 43 randomized controlled trials published between 1979 and 2014 which assessed the efficacy of such training programs and propose standards for future intervention research based on recent developments in the field. We found that concepts, methods and designs in current resilience intervention studies are of limited use to properly assess efficacy of interventions to foster resilience. Major problems are the use of definitions of resilience as trait or a composite of resilience factors, the use of unsuited assessment instruments, and inappropriate study designs. To overcome these challenges, we propose 1) an outcome-oriented definition of resilience, 2) an outcome-oriented assessment of resilience as change in mental health in relation to stressor load, and 3) methodological standards for suitable study designs of future intervention studies. Our proposals may contribute to an improved quality of resilience intervention studies and may stimulate further progress in this growing research field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Caldeira, Antônio Prates; Fagundes, Gizele Carmem; de Aguiar, Gabriel Nobre
Breastfeeding Friendly Primary Care Initiative comprises educational activities focused on primary care units. The To evaluate the effectiveness of a strategy on breastfeeding promotion to the Family Health Program team. A controlled intervention study was performed with 20 family health care teams randomly selected into intervention and control group in Montes Claros, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. The teams randomly selected into intervention and control group, and the intervention group took part in a 24-hour training program on breastfeeding promotion for health providers, modeled on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. It was emphasized health provider's support for breastfeeding and management of major lactation problems. The control group received routine breastfeeding training. Mothers of all children under two cared by the teams were interviewed at home before (n=1,423) and 12 months after the intervention (n=1,491) and answered questions about breastfeeding practices. Survival curves of breastfeeding were plotted and compared for both time points studied using the log rank test. There was a significant increase in exclusive breastfeeding after the educational activities for the Family Health Program teams. Survival curves of exclusive breastfeeding at the fi rst time point studied showed no statistical significance difference between the groups by log rank test (p=0.502). After the intervention, survival curves of exclusive breastfeeding were significantly different by the log rank test (p=0.001). The training of Family Health Program teams as proposed by the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative proved to be an effective, low-cost strategy for raising awareness among health providers, providing consistent information, and assuring the required support to mothers with breastfeeding issues.
Lyon, Aaron R; Frazier, Stacy L; Mehta, Tara; Atkins, Marc S; Weisbach, Jessica
Although sustainability is frequently described as a project goal in community-based programs, concentrated efforts to sustain interventions beyond the conclusion of research funding have only recently emerged as a focus of implementation research. The current paper describes a study of behavioral consultation to after-school program staff in low-SES, urban communities. Following consultation, staff use of four recommended tools and strategies was examined, emphasizing facilitators and barriers to sustainability. Results indicated high perceived utility and intention to use intervention components, but low sustainability at two follow-up time points within 1 year after the initial consultation concluded. Findings suggest that ongoing implementation support in community settings may be necessary to ensure the sustainability of interventions and meet the mental health needs of participating high-risk youth.
Talita do Nascimento da Silva
Full Text Available One aimed to analyze nursing interventions in the medical records of the elderly assisted by the management program for chronic patients, comparing them with the Nursing Interventions Classification. The investigation was carried out in a private health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in March 2014. This is a cross mapping study, with a quantitative approach. The sample was composed of 80 medical records according to the following criteria: attended in 2013; average complexity II; age over 64 years old; received more than five home visits; and being active on December 2013 in low complexity I. The frequently mapped interventions were: education – disease process (98%; nutritional counseling (98%; environment control (95%; and exercise promotion (94%. The decline in the functional status of the program indicates that the guidelines were effective, but they are not standardized yet. It is recommended the adoption of a standardized language.
Full Text Available Background: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to expose residents to research opportunities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a series of iterative interventions to increase scholarly activity in one internal medicine residency. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of a series of interventions to increase resident and faculty scholarly productivity over a 14-year period was performed using quality improvement methodology. Outcomes measured were accepted regional and national abstracts and PubMed indexed manuscripts of residents and faculty. Results: Initially, regional meeting abstracts increased and then were supplanted by national meeting abstracts. Sustained gains in manuscript productivity occurred in the eighth year of interventions, increasing from a baseline of 0.01 publications/FTE/year to 1.57 publications/FTE/year in the final year measured. Run chart analysis indicated special cause variation associated with the interventions performed. Conclusions: Programs attempting to stimulate research production among faculty and residents can choose among many interventions cited in the literature. Since success of any group of interventions is likely additive and may take years to show benefit, measuring outcomes using quality improvement methodology may be an effective way to determine success.
Draper, Michele; Appregilio, Seymour; Kramer, Alaina; Ketcherside, Miranda; Campbell, Summer; Stewart, Brandon; Rhodes, Darson; Cox, Carol
Media literacy education teaches youth to critically examine the influence of media messages on health and substance use behavior. A small group of low-achieving middle school students at high risk for substance abuse attending an afterschool academic remediation program received a media literacy intervention intended for elementary students in a…
Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J
Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Nina B.; Sara B. Eriksen; Elklit, Ask
Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV.Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression) and perceived social support. Gi...
Chen, Wenfeng; Deng, Haoyu; Shen, Liangfang; Qin, Man; He, Lianxian
Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) have been increasingly utilized in treating patients in intensive care. The purpose of this study is to analyze the related complications and to evaluate effect of a comprehensive intervention on long-term PICCs. We selected 217 and 243 cases before and after comprehensive intervention respectively from the department of radiotherapy in our hospital. Various possible factors affecting PICCs insertions and maintenance were analyzed. A quality control circle was formed for nursing care. The comprehensive intervention was performed both on catheter insertion and post-PICCs care. Complication rates were compared before and after the intervention. The duration for PICCs was 90 days. In the control group (before intervention), the complications were as follows: Tube feeding difficulties (23.5%), catheter dislodgment (23.5%), infection (17.6%), catheter obstruction (17.6%), puncture failure (5.9%), allergy (5.9%), and pain (5.9%). The incidence of unplanned extubations was 7.8%. The incidence of complications was significantly decreased in the test group (after intervention). Moreover, one episode of catheter obstruction (5.9%) and one episode of allergy (5.9%) were found (P < 0.01) in this study. Comprehensive intervention programs effectively reduce the incidence of complications in long-term PICCs lines.
Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila
BACKGROUND: Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’ nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t-test and paired t-test were used. RESULTS: Paired t-test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit (P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables (P nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t-test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents. PMID:29296604
Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila
Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents' nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t -test and paired t -test were used. Paired t -test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit ( P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables ( P nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t -test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents.
Contador, Israel; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino; Ramos, Francisco; Olazarán, Javier
This research retrospectively analyzed the effect of education on cognitive interventions carried out in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The total sample consisted of 75 patients with mild AD receiving treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors. The participants were divided into two groups: cognitive intervention (IG; n=45) and waiting list (WLG; n=30). Patients in the IG received either the Big Brain Academy (n=15) or the Integrated Psychostimulation Program (n=30) during 12 weeks. The influence of education on intervention effect was analyzed comparing mean change scores of the two study groups in the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog), stratified by educational level. The potential effect of age, sex, cognitive status, and type of intervention was examined using post hoc stratification analyses. Higher education was associated with faster cognitive decline in the WLG (effect size=0.51; pintervention might delay accelerated cognitive decline in higher educated individuals with mild AD.
Full Text Available Nilesh J Goswami,1 Mitch DeKoven,2 Andreas Kuznik,3 Jack Mardekian,3 Michelle R Krukas,2 Larry Z Liu,3,4 Patrick Bailey,1 Cynthia Deitrick,5 John Vincent3 1Prairie Heart Cardiovascular Consultants, Springfield, IL, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health, Alexandria, VA, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 4Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY, USA; 5Prairie Heart Education and Research Cooperative, Springfield, IL, USA Background: This trial evaluated the effectiveness of an integrated intervention program that included a 3-to-5-minute nurse counseling session, copay relief cards, and a monthly newsletter on adherence to atorvastatin treatment. Methods and results: A prospective, integrated (composed of nurse counseling, adherence tip sheet, copay relief card, opportunity to enroll in 12-week cholesterol management program randomized interventional study was designed involving patients >21 years of age who were prescribed atorvastatin at a large single-specialty cardiovascular physician practice in Illinois from March 2010 to May 2011. Data from the practice's electronic medical record were matched/merged to IMS Health's longitudinal data. A total of 500 patients were enrolled (125 in the control arm; 375 in the intervention arm. After data linkage, 53 control patients and 155 intervention patients were included in the analysis. Results: Mean age was 67.8 years (control and 69.5 years (intervention; 67.9% and 58.7%, respectively, were male. The mean 6-month adherence rate was 0.82 in both arms. The mean proportion of days covered for both the new-user control and intervention groups was the same, averaging 0.70 day (standard deviation [SD], 0.27 day; for continuing users, the proportion of days covered for the control group was 0.83 (SD, 0.24 and for the intervention group was 0.84 (SD, 0.22. For continuing users, the control group had mean persistent days of 151.6 (SD, 50.2 compared with 150.9 days
Kelly, Stephanie A; Oswalt, Krista; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Jacobson, Diana
Fidelity in implementing an intervention is critical to accurately determine and interpret the effects of an intervention. It is important to monitor the manner in which the behavioral intervention is implemented (e.g. adaptations, delivery as intended and dose). Few interventions are implemented with 100% fidelity. In this study, high school health teachers implemented the intervention. To attribute study findings to the intervention, it was vital to know to what degree the intervention was implemented. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate intervention fidelity and to compare implementation fidelity between the creating opportunities for personal empowerment (COPE) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (thinking, emotions, exercise, and nutrition) program, the experimental intervention and Healthy Teens, an attention-control intervention, in a randomized controlled trial with 779 adolescents from 11 high schools in the southwest region of the United States. Thirty teachers participated in this study. Findings indicated that the attention-control teachers implemented their intervention with greater fidelity than COPE TEEN teachers. It is possible due to the novel intervention and the teachers' unfamiliarity with cognitive-behavioral skills building, COPE TEEN teachers had less fidelity. It is important to assess novel skill development prior to the commencement of experimental interventions and to provide corrective feedback during the course of implementation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hallas, J.; Harvald, B.; Worm, J.
Farmakologi, drug education, hospital admission, adverse drug reactions, drug utilisation, intervention......Farmakologi, drug education, hospital admission, adverse drug reactions, drug utilisation, intervention...
Cataldo, Rosa; John, Janice; Chandran, Latha; Pati, Susmita; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.
Lack of physical activity has contributed to the nation's childhood obesity crisis, but the impact of physical activity on self-efficacy as a mediator of behavior change has not been examined. This systematic review (SR) describes the published evidence related to the impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy among youths. From January 2000 to June 2011, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were used to identify publications from PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) approach guided this SR articles selection and evaluation process. Of the 102 publications screened, 10 original studies matched the SR inclusion criteria. The types of physical activity interventions and self-efficacy assessments for these 10 studies were diverse. Of the 10 included articles, 6 articles identified an improvement in post-self-efficacy assessments compared to baseline and 4 showed no effect. In conclusion, physical activity intervention programs may improve self-efficacy in youths. A standardized approach to classify and measure self-efficacy is required. Further research is needed to quantify the association of self-efficacy ratings after completing physical activity interventions with objective health improvements, such as weight loss. PMID:24555151
Letourneau, Nicole; Whitty, Pam; Watson, Barry; Phillips, Jennifer; Joschko, Justin; Gillis, Doris
Low levels of literacy in early childhood can have lasting effects on children's educational and intellectual development. Many countries have implemented newborn literacy programs designed to teach parents pre-literacy promoting activities to share with their children. We conducted 2 quasi-experimental studies using 1) a pre-test/post-test design and 2) a non-equivalent control group design to examine the effect of newborn literacy programs on parents' self-reported literacy intentions/behaviors, values toward literacy, and parent-child interactions. Parents were recruited from 3 provinces, 2 with newborn literacy programs (intervention) and 1 without (control). Parents in the intervention group completed prenatal and postnatal (after participation in program) questionnaires. Parents in the control group completed 1 questionnaire. Questionnaires were designed to capture parents' literacy intentions (prenatal), behaviors (postnatal), values, and parent-child interactions (postnatal). A total of 98 parents were included in study one and 174 were included in study two. Parents' self-reported prenatal intentions and values were higher than their postnatal behaviors and values. Parents in the intervention group exhibited higher literacy behaviors and values and greater enjoyment reading to their children than parents in the control group, though they also reported reading to their children less frequently. Parents in the intervention group had significantly higher Positive Interactive scores than controls. Overall, we found participation in newborn literacy programs positively impacted parenting behaviors and attitudes. Lower postnatal within-group scores (intentions and values versus behaviors and values) may have been the result of participants' high expectations. Given our findings, we recommend that these programs continue.
Ercoli, Linda M; Castellon, Steven A; Hunter, Aimee M; Kwan, Lorna; Kahn-Mills, Barbara A; Cernin, Paul A; Leuchter, Andrew F; Ganz, Patricia A
To assess the feasibility of a cognitive rehabilitation program in breast cancer survivors (BCS) with persistent post-treatment cognitive complaints. BCS with cognitive complaints, 18-months to 5-years post-treatment, were recruited for a once-weekly, five-week, group cognitive training intervention. Outcome measures included self-reported mood and cognitive function, and neurocognitive tests administered at pre-intervention, immediate-, two-month and four-month post-intervention. A sub-study in eight participants evaluated resting state quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) changes from pre- to immediate post-intervention in relationship to post-intervention changes in cognitive complaints. Twenty-seven BCS completed the protocol and tolerated the intervention well. We observed significant reductions in total and memory-specific cognitive complaints from pre-intervention to immediate post-intervention (p = 0.031 and p = 0.009, respectively) and at four-months post-intervention (p Stroop, and Trails A tests (df = 26, all p's <0.05). Effect sizes for changes from pre-intervention to immediate and to four-month post intervention ranged from 0.429 to 0.607, and from 0.439 to 0.741, respectively. Increase in qEEG absolute alpha power over the course of the intervention was associated with reduced complaints at immediate post-intervention (r = -0.78, p = 0.021), two-months (r range = -0.76 to -0.82, p-value range 0.004 to 0.03), and four-months (r = -0.71, p = 0.048). A five-week group cognitive training intervention is feasible and well tolerated. Cognitive complaints and neurocognitive test performances showed positive changes. qEEG may serve as a potential biomarker for improvement in self-reported complaints. A randomized clinical trial is underway to test the efficacy of the intervention.
McManus, Beth M; Nugent, J Kevin
The purpose of this study is to compare two models of early intervention (EI) service delivery-a neurobehavioral intervention and usual care-on parents' perceived quality of EI service delivery. Families of newborns referred to EI were randomly assigned to a neurobehavioral intervention or usual care group and followed until the infant was 12 weeks corrected gestational age. The intervention group (n = 25) received a weekly neurobehavioral intervention. The usual care group (n = 13) received standard weekly home visits. Mothers completed the Home Visiting Index (HVI) measuring the quality of EI service delivery. Mixed linear regression was used to examine group differences in quality scores. The intervention group reported higher quality of care related to facilitating optimal parent-infant social interaction (mean difference = 2.17, 95% CI: 0.41, 3.92).A neurobehavioral model of service delivery can be successfully integrated into EI programming and appears to be associated with higher parent-reported perceived quality.
Ellis, Horace A
In communities across the United States and internationally, police officers frequently come into contact with individuals experiencing mental health crisis despite not having the skills to safely intervene. This often results in officers resorting to excessive or even deadly force. The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) is heralded as a revolutionary and transformative intervention to correct this gap in practice. Several previous interdisciplinary national and international studies, including criminology and sociology, have examined these concepts using quantitative and qualitative methodological designs, however, no prior nursing studies have been done on this topic. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CIT training on police officers' knowledge, perception, and attitude toward persons with mental illness. Twenty five police officers participated. An explorative, quasi experimental, descriptive design was used to collect the data on the three major concepts. Results on knowledge about mental illness improved at p<.0125 (p<.05 after Bonferroni correction). Perception scores improved at p<.0125 (p<.05 after Bonferroni correction), and attitudes were more favorable at p<.0125 (p<.05 after Bonferroni correction). The results of this study validated the CIT program as an innovative community health program that benefits law enforcement, consumers, mental health professionals, and stakeholders. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DiFulvio, Gloria T.; Linowski, Sally A.; Mazziotti, Janet S.; Puleo, Elaine
Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a large-scale intervention designed to reduce alcohol abuse among adjudicated college students. Participants: Participants were college students mandated to attend a Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program and a randomly selected comparison group of…
Love-Quick, Sharon J.
One of the most pressing concerns that universities and colleges face today is the drug and alcohol abuse of students. In order to address this, there is a need to strengthen university policies in order to mitigate the increasing rate and cases of drug and alcohol abuse among students. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the…
Per Morten Fredriksen
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. Methods The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545 with two control schools (n = 752; all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL, mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. Discussion HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. Trial registration The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 as of June 20th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.
If our chosen aim in science education is to be inclusive and to improve students' learning achievements, then we must identify teaching methodologies that are appropriate for teaching and learning specific knowledge. Karagiorgi and Symeo 2005) remind us that instructional designers are thus challenged to translate the philosophy of constructivism into current practice. Thus, research in science education must focus on evaluating intervention programs which ensure the effective construction of knowledge and development of competencies. The present study reports the elaboration, application and evaluation of a problem-based learning (PBL) program with the aim of examining its effectiveness with students learning Environmental Education. Prior research on both PBL and Environmental Education (EE) was conducted within the context of science education so as to elaborate and construct the intervention program. Findings from these studies indicated both the PBL methodology and EE as helpful for teachers and students. PBL methodology has been adopted in this study since it is logically incorporated in a constructivism philosophy application (Hendry et al. 1999) and it was expected that this approach would assist students towards achieving a specific set of competencies (Engel 1997). On the other hand, EE has evolved at a rapid pace within many countries in the new millennium (Hart 2007), unlike any other educational area. However, many authors still appear to believe that schools are failing to prepare students adequately in EE (Walsche 2008; Winter 2007). The following section describes the research that was conducted in both areas so as to devise the intervention program.
Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila
BACKGROUND: Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’ nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a kind of field t...
van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chin A. Paw, Mai J. M.
Background: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials. Methods: We revisited the Intervention Mapping (IM)…
Yavuz, H Melis; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Mesman, Judi; van der Veek, Shelley
Obesity is a growing problem even in very young childhood, resulting in high costs for individuals and society. As a response, numerous obesity prevention and intervention programs have been developed. Previous research has shown that early intervention programs are more effective when parents are involved, but the effectiveness of specific aspects of programs with parental involvement has not been investigated. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the features related to the effectiveness of different types of obesity intervention programs involving parents and targeting young children (0-6-year-olds). The Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and ERIC databases were searched for childhood obesity prevention and intervention programs involving parents. Data were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis (CMA) software. Fifty studies with effect sizes measured at short-term follow-up (within 3 months from the end of the intervention) and 26 studies with effect sizes measured at long-term follow-up (all reported in a total of 49 publications) were identified. The combined effect size of interventions was small but significant at short-term follow-up (d = .08, p interventions were not effective at long-term follow-up. Multivariate meta-regression analyses showed that interventions were more effective when including either interactive sessions or educational materials as opposed to those including both interactive sessions and noninteractive educational materials. No other moderators regarding sample characteristics, study design, or methodological quality were significant. Interventions targeting young children that require parental involvement are effective at short-term follow-up, specifically when interventions include one mode of intervention rather than two. However, results were not retained in the long run. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Connelly, J. J.; Russell, J. E.; Seline, J. R.; Sumner, N. R., Jr.
Two models, a system performance model and a program assessment model, have been developed to assist NASA management in the evaluation of development alternatives for the Earth Observations Program. Two computer models were developed and demonstrated on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computer Facility. Procedures have been outlined to guide the user of the models through specific evaluation processes, and the preparation of inputs describing earth observation needs and earth observation technology. These models are intended to assist NASA in increasing the effectiveness of the overall Earth Observation Program by providing a broader view of system and program development alternatives.
Full Text Available School-based mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing mental health symptoms. However, comparatively little research has investigated the acceptability of these programs from the perspective of the children. Program acceptability underpins engagement, and more engaging programs are also more efficacious (Cowan & Sheridan, 2003; Mautone et al., 2009 yet there is little literature which has considered the acceptability of school-based mindfulness programs. To address this gap, semi-structured interviews were conducted with upper primary aged children (N = 30 who had participated in a six week mindfulness program in four Australian primary schools. Thematic analysis of interviews revealed children found the program to be acceptable. Children reported that they enjoyed doing the mindfulness program, would recommend it to others, and learned about relaxing as well as felt relaxed while doing the program. Children also highlighted the use of culturally appropriate teaching materials and possible stigmatisation as threats to the acceptability of the program. The results of the study support the acceptability of mindfulness programs in school settings, grounded in the unique perspective of the child.
Favrod, Jérôme; Nguyen, Alexandra; Fankhauser, Caroline; Ismailaj, Alban; Hasler, Jean-David; Ringuet, Abel; Rexhaj, Shyhrete; Bonsack, Charles
Recent literature has distinguished the negative symptoms associated with a diminished capacity to experience (apathy, anhedonia) from symptoms associated with a limited capacity for expression (emotional blunting, alogia). The apathy-anhedonia syndrome tends to be associated with a poorer prognosis than the symptoms related to diminished expression. The efficacy of drug-based treatments and psychological interventions for these symptoms in schizophrenia remains limited. There is a clear clinical need for new treatments. This pilot study tested the feasibility of a program to reduce anhedonia and apathy in schizophrenia and assessed its impact on 37 participants meeting the ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Participants were pre- and post-tested using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). They took part in eight sessions of the Positive Emotions Program for Schizophrenia (PEPS)--an intervention that teaches participants skills to help overcome defeatist thinking and to increase the anticipation and maintenance of positive emotions. Thirty-one participants completed the program; those who dropped out did not differ from completers. Participation in the program was accompanied by statistically significant reductions in the total scores for Avolition-Apathy and Anhedonia-Asociality on the SANS, with moderate effect sizes. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant reduction of depression on the CDSS, with a large effect size. Emotional blunting and alogia remain stable during the intervention. Findings indicate that PEPS is both a feasible intervention and is associated with an apparently specific reduction of anhedonia and apathy. However, these findings are limited by the absence of control group and the fact that the rater was not blind to the treatment objectives. PEPS is a promising intervention to improve anhedonia and apathy which need to be
Danielle Ribeiro Ganda
Full Text Available Self-regulation is the process by which individuals monitor, control, and reflect on their learning. Self-regulated students have motivational, metacognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that enhance their learning. As the importance of self-regulated learning is well acknowledged by research nowadays, the aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an innovative course designed to promote self-regulated learning among Brazilian preservice student teachers. The innovative approach was developed in the format of a program of intervention based heavily on self-reflection. The content involved student exposure to self-reflexive activities, lectures on the self-regulated learning framework, and theoretical tasks aimed at fostering self-regulation of students in a double perspective: as a student and as a future teacher. The efficacy of the approach was tested by comparison with both the results of students who had taken a course with theoretical content only and those who had not taken any course at all. The sample consisted of 109 students in 4 different freshman classes in a Teacher Education Program in a Brazilian public university in an inner city in the state of São Paulo. The research was conducted using a quasi-experimental design with three stages: pretest, intervention, and posttest. The classes were randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions as follows: an experimental group involving intervention, an experimental group exposed to theory, and two control groups not taking the course. Before and after the intervention program, all the participants responded to the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory and the Self-efficacy for Self-regulated Learning scales. Overall, the results showed that the intervention program format had a positive impact in enhancing student self-regulation. Moreover, students in both the experimental groups reported both higher gains in self-efficacy for self-regulated learning
Kelly, Ronald; Godin, Lori
This study is an evaluation of a unique "surveillance nurse" telephone support intervention for community-dwelling elderly individuals in a home care program. A combined propensity-based covariate-matching procedure was used to pair each individual who received the intervention ("treatment" condition, nT = 930) to a similar individual who did not receive the intervention ("control" condition, nC1 = 930) from among a large pool of potential control individuals (nC0 = 4656). The intervention consisted of regularly scheduled telephone calls from a surveillance nurse to proactively assess the individual's well-being, care plan status, use of and need for services (home support, adult day program, physiotherapy, etc.) and home environment (e.g., informal caregiver support). Treatment and control conditions were compared with respect to four service utilization outcomes: (1) rate of survival in the community before institutionalization in an assisted living or nursing home facility or death, (2) rate of emergency room registrations, (3) rate of acute care hospitalizations, and (4) rate of days in hospital, during home care enrollment. Results indicated a beneficial effect of the surveillance nurse intervention on reducing rate of service utilization by increasing the duration of the home care episode. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj; Wang, Lihshing Leigh; Wilson, Bradley; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana
Process evaluations are an often overlooked yet essential component of health promotion interventions. This study reports the results of a comprehensive process evaluation for the "Comics for Health" program, a childhood obesity prevention intervention implemented at 12 after-school programs. Qualitative and quantitative process data were collected using surveys, field notes, and open-item questionnaires, which assessed program fidelity, dose delivered, dose received, reach, recruitment, and context. Triangulation of methods was also employed to better understand how the program was implemented and received by the facilitator, staff members, and children in the program. Results indicated that program implementation had an almost perfect rate of fidelity with most lessons recording 100% tasks completed. Lessons were implemented in their intended order and lasted approximately 30 minutes as planned. After-school staff members reported that the program was well received by children, and this program should be replicated in the future. Attendance records showed that a majority of the children attended each lesson on the initial day of delivery (70.4%) and informal make-up lessons were implemented to compensate for the other children. Finally, several known sources of contamination were found such as past and concurrent exposure to similar health promotion interventions, which could potentially influence study outcomes. These findings will be used to help explain the results of this intervention and make recommendations for future intervention efforts.
Acosta, Victor; Hernandez, Sergio; Ramirez, Gustavo
The aim of this study was twofold: first, to obtain a neuropsychological characterization of children with language disorders, and second, to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program on working memory. We used a pretest-instruction-posttest design, carefully identifying a sample of 32 children with language disorders whom we then evaluated for short-term verbal and visuospatial memory, verbal and visuospatial working memory, attention, processing speed, and lexical-semantic skills. We then implemented an intervention program on working memory consisting of 72 sessions of 15 minutes each, after which we repeated the neuropsychological assessment of these functions. Children with language disorders performed worse than children in the control group in all memory tasks evaluated and in the lexical-semantic processing task. After the intervention, children with language disorders showed a significant increase over their own previous performance in all variables. Children with language disorders show significant cognitive deficits and not just linguistic impairment. We offer conclusive findings on the effectiveness of the intervention program used. Finally, we obtained partial support for the existence of a causal link between improved performance on memory tasks and performance in a lexical-semantic task.
Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E
Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.
Donna M. Kazemi
Conclusions: Intervention programs to reduce drinking by college students need to address developmental dynamics of freshmen students, including gender, psychosocial factors, personality, and lifestyle health-promoting behaviors.
Wright, Linnie Green
In this study the author examined the effects of a dyadic, mother-paired play intervention-The Mommy and Me Play Program-an innovative intervention program designed using a live-action modeling technique in which mothers serve as "natural helpers" to each other. By identifying natural strengths in mothers and employing opportunities for scaffolded learning, this intervention aimed to enhance mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competence. Fifty mother-child dyads from a single, low-income, African American, urban community were assessed in this study on measures of mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competency. Results from this pilot were not statistically significant, but provide important information regarding future research with this intervention program. These preliminary findings indicated that mothers with fewer play skills pre-intervention demonstrated improvement in their play skills post-intervention beyond other intervention participants; and children of those same mothers showed the greatest decrease in angry and aggressive behaviors in the classroom when compared to other participating children from pre- to post-intervention. Implications for research and practice in community-based, intervention work with low-income, ethnic-minority families are discussed.
Pontoppidan, Maiken W.
Background: Infancy is an important period in a child’s life, with rapid growth and development. Early experiences shape the developing brain, and adverse experiences can have both an immediate and lifelong impact on health and wellbeing. Parenting interventions offered to parents of newborns can......-arm, parallel, pilot, randomized controlled trial (RCT) where 128 families with newborn infants up to four-months-old are recruited in two municipalities in Denmark. Families are randomized to the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program or usual care with a 2:1 allocation ratio. The primary outcome....... Discussion: This is the first RCT of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program, and one of the first rigorous evaluations of a universally offered preventive intervention for parents with infants. The trial will provide important information on the effectiveness of a relatively brief, universally...
Fredrikson, Diane H.; Boyda, Heidi N.; Tse, Lurdes; Whitney, Zachary; Pattison, Mark A.; Ott, Fred J.; Hansen, Laura; Barr, Alasdair M.
Psychotic disorders most commonly appear during the late teenage years and early adulthood. A focused and rapid clinical response by an integrated health team can help to improve the quality of life of the patient, leading to a better long-term prognosis. The Vancouver Coastal Health early psychosis intervention program covers a catchment area of approximately 800,000 people in the cities of Vancouver and Richmond, Canada. The program provides a multidisciplinary approach to supporting patients under the age of 30 who have recently experienced first-break psychosis. The program addresses the needs of the treatment environment, medication, and psychological therapies. A critical part of this support includes a program to specifically improve patients’ physical health. Physical health needs are addressed through a two-pronged, parallel approach. Patients receive routine metabolic health assessments during their first year in the program, where standard metabolic parameters are recorded. Based on the results of clinical interviews and laboratory tests, specific actionable interventions are recommended. The second key strategy is a program that promotes healthy lifestyle goal development. Patients work closely with occupational therapists to develop goals to improve cardiometabolic health. These programs are supported by an active research environment, where patients are able to engage in studies with a focus on improving their physical health. These studies include a longitudinal evaluation of the effects of integrated health coaching on maintaining cardiometabolic health in patients recently admitted to the program, as well as a clinical study that evaluates the effects of low versus higher metabolic risk antipsychotic drugs on central adiposity. An additional pharmacogenomic study is helping to identify genetic variants that may predict cardiometabolic changes following treatment with antipsychotic drugs. PMID:25249985
DiFulvio, Gloria T; Linowski, Sally A; Mazziotti, Janet S; Puleo, Elaine
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a large-scale intervention designed to reduce alcohol abuse among adjudicated college students. Participants were college students mandated to attend a Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program and a randomly selected comparison group of high-risk drinkers. Data were collected from January 2006 through December 2008. A total of 1,390 (67%) students in the intervention group and 508 (61%) students in the comparison group completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys. Male students in the intervention group significantly decreased their drinking at follow-up, whereas those in the comparison group increased their drinking. Women in both the intervention and comparison groups decreased their drinking at 6 months. When implemented with fidelity, BASICS is a generally effective intervention, especially for male adjudicated college students. The intervention was most effective for moderate- and high-risk drinkers.
Kirschner, Neil M.; Levin, Louis
An intervention program for the modification of classroom aggressive behavior is outlined. The primary components of this program are positive reinforcement, behavior rehearsal and modeling, and group activity procedures. (Author)
DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Cheng, Weiyi; Hart, Susan Crandall; Bellinger, Jillian
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal social skills program, the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007), for students in first grade. Classrooms from 6 elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment or business-as-usual control conditions.…
Sherman, Elyse J.; Primack, Brian A.
Background: Cigarette use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Although school is an ideal setting for antismoking interventions, school-based programs have not been successful in the long term. The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of programs deemed to be successful short-term Research-Tested…
Schwingel, Andiara; Gálvez, Patricia
Few interventions have used faith-based approaches in health promotion programs among US Latinos, a notably religious population. This article explores the perceptions of church leaders, promotoras, and program participants on the Catholic religious context and content of a community-based intervention addressing physical activity, nutrition, and stress management for Chicago Latinas aged 50+. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted. Viewed as trustworthy, natural, and authentic, the church setting nurtured community bonds. Moreover, the program's religious content encouraged Latinas to feel motivated, connected, and engaged with the program in meaningful ways. Overall, faith-based health promotion programs offer a promising approach for Latino-centered interventions.
To evaluate the effects of a retention intervention program on nursing students' persistence in obtaining an associate's degree. An associate degree nursing program at a large community college used a three-year grant from the US Department of Labor to create a program to improve retention of nursing students. Seven retention interventions (stipends, learning communities, comprehensive orientation, individualized academic planning, counseling, peer tutoring, and community nurse mentoring) were provided to participants. Correlational analyses were conducted between demographic variables and degree completion and between individual intervention program participation and degree completion. The program produced a statistically significant improvement in retention, but no specific intervention or mixture of interventions was significantly correlated with retention. Retention programs must be comprehensive, integrated efforts in order to increase the degree completion rate.
The purpose of this study is to consider the content and key points for inclusion in a Java programming course for beginners. The Java programming language has a variety of functions and has the largest application field of all such languages, containing many themes that are appropriate for any such programming course. The multifunctional and wide-ranging functions of Java, however, may actually act as a barrier to study for beginners. The core content of a programming class for beginners sho...
Ray, Dee C; Lilly, J P; Gallina, Nancy; MacIan, Paula; Wilson, Brittany
Children who have experienced physical abuse benefit from a multitude of community interventions including support programs to address emotional and behavioral stability. This pilot study evaluated the services of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA), a community of bikers lending intervention to abused children, using a pre/post exploratory design. Participants (N=154) were children who had been referred by parents/guardians for current or past physical and/or sexual abuse. Parents/guardians of children were interviewed four times over a course of one year. Results indicated children demonstrated substantial improvements in their overall levels of emotional distress, conduct concerns, hyperactivity, and behavioral and emotional functioning. Overall, results support the premise that services provided by BACA may serve as a unique intervention for children who have experienced abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan
This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A χ analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (χ = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (χ = 5.2, p ≤ 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs.
Goodman, Glenn; Landis, James; George, Christina; McGuire, Sheila; Shorter, Crystal; Sieminski, Michelle; Wilson, Tamika
Ergonomic principles at the computer workstation may reduce the occurrence of work related injuries commonly associated with intensive computer use. A program implemented in 2001 by an occupational therapist and a physical therapist utilized these preventative measures with education about ergonomics, individualized evaluations of computer workstations, and recommendations for ergonomic and environmental changes. This study examined program outcomes and perceived effectiveness based on review of documents, interviews, and surveys of the employees and the plant manager. The program was deemed successful as shown by 59% of all therapist recommendations and 74% of ergonomic recommendations being implemented by the company, with an 85% satisfaction rate for the ergonomic interventions and an overall employee satisfaction rate of 70%. Eighty-one percent of the physical problems reported by employees were resolved to their satisfaction one year later. Successful implementation of ergonomics programs depend upon effective communication and education of the consumers, and the support, cooperation and collaboration of management and employees.
Gadzella, Bernadette M.
This paper describes a computer assisted instruction (CAI) study skills program and reports the results of a study conducted to determine its effectiveness. The program consists of ten CAI study skills modules, a CAI study skills notebook, and a CAI study skills test. The modules address (1) managing time, (2) improving memory, (3) taking lecture…
Nina B. Hansen
Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.
Fuengfoo, Adidsuda; Sakulnoom, Kim
Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health is a tertiary institute of children in Thailand, where early intervention programs have been provided since 1990 by multidisciplinary approach especially in Down syndrome children. This aim of the present study is to follow the impact of early intervention on the outcome of Down syndrome children. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children was compared between regular early intervention and non-regular early intervention. The present study group consists of 210 Down syndrome children who attended early intervention programs at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health between June 2008 and January 2012. Data include clinical features, school attendance developmental quotient (DQ) at 3 years of age using Capute Scales Cognitive Adaptive Test/Scale (CAT/CLAMS). Developmental milestones have been recorded as to the time of appearance of gross motor, fine motor, language, personal-social development compared to those non-regular intervention patients. Of 210 Down syndrome children, 117 were boys and 93 were girls. About 87% received regular intervention, 68% attended speech training. Mean DQ at 3 years of age was 65. Of the 184 children who still did follow-up at developmental department, 124 children (59%) attended school: mainstream school children 78 (63%) and special school children 46 (37%). The mean age at entrance to school was 5.8 ± 1.4 years. The school attendance was correlated with maternal education and regular early intervention attendance. Regular early intervention starts have proven to have a positive effect on development. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children receiving regular early intervention was statistically and significantly higher than the number of Down syndrome children receiving non-regular early intervention was. School attendance correlated with maternal education and attended regularly early intervention. Regular early intervention together with maternal
Thomas, Anne E.; Marvin, Christine A.
Program monitoring is an important and necessary assessment practice within the field of early childhood deaf education. Effective program monitoring requires a focus on both the consistent implementation of intervention strategies (fidelity) and the assessment of children's ongoing progress in response to interventions (progress monitoring).…
Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao
This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to improve mental health, work ability, and work productivity in privately owned enterprises in China. A prospective cohort intervention study design was employed in which the intervention program was implemented for 30 months (from July 2009 to December 2012). Nine privately owned retail enterprises in China participated in the intervention study. Researchers administered a self-report survey to 2768 employees. The research team measured participants' job stress, resilience, work ability, absenteeism, depression, and work performance. A comprehensive Health Promotion Enterprise Program was implemented that entailed the following components: policies to support a healthy work environment, psychosocial interventions to promote mental health, provision of health services to people with mental illness, and professional skills training to deal with stress and build resilience. Analysis of variance was used to examine preintervention versus postintervention differences in stress, resilience, and work ability. Logistic regression was used to examine absenteeism related to depression. The results suggest that the intervention program was effective at improving participants' ability to work, their sense of control over their jobs, and, in particular, their ability to meet the mental demands of work. The intervention program also reduced participants' job stress levels and reduced the probability of absenteeism related to depression. The intervention programs incorporating both individual-level and organizational-level factors to promote mental health were effective and have implications for both practice and policy regarding enterprises taking more responsibility for the provision of mental health services to their employees.
Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012
The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…
Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Sánchez-Martín, Milagrosa
The methodological quality of primary studies is an important issue when performing meta-analyses or systematic reviews. Nevertheless, there are no clear criteria for how methodological quality should be analyzed. Controversies emerge when considering the various theoretical and empirical definitions, especially in relation to three interrelated problems: the lack of representativeness, utility, and feasibility. In this article, we (a) systematize and summarize the available literature about methodological quality in primary studies; (b) propose a specific, parsimonious, 12-items checklist to empirically define the methodological quality of primary studies based on a content validity study; and (c) present an inter-coder reliability study for the resulting 12-items. This paper provides a precise and rigorous description of the development of this checklist, highlighting the clearly specified criteria for the inclusion of items and a substantial inter-coder agreement in the different items. Rather than simply proposing another checklist, however, it then argues that the list constitutes an assessment tool with respect to the representativeness, utility, and feasibility of the most frequent methodological quality items in the literature, one that provides practitioners and researchers with clear criteria for choosing items that may be adequate to their needs. We propose individual methodological features as indicators of quality, arguing that these need to be taken into account when designing, implementing, or evaluating an intervention program. This enhances methodological quality of intervention programs and fosters the cumulative knowledge based on meta-analyses of these interventions. Future development of the checklist is discussed. PMID:27917143
Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kuraoka, Masataka; Yasunaga, Masashi; Nonaka, Kumiko; Sakurai, Ryota; Takeuchi, Rumi; Murayama, Yoh; Ohba, Hiromi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori
Non-pharmacological interventions are expected to be important strategies for reducing the age-adjusted prevalence of senile dementia, considering that complete medical treatment for cognitive decline has not yet been developed. From the viewpoint of long-term continuity of activity, it is necessary to develop various cognitive stimulating programs. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive intervention through a training program for picture book reading for community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-eight Japanese older participants were divided into the intervention and control groups using simple randomization (n =29 vs 29). In the intervention group, participants took part in a program aimed at learning and mastering methods of picture book reading as a form of cognitive training intervention. The control group listened to lectures about elderly health maintenance. Cognitive tests were conducted individually before and after the programs. The rate of memory retention, computed by dividing Logical Memory delayed recall by immediate recall, showed a significant interaction (p < .05) in analysis of covariance. Simple main effects showed that the rate of memory retention of the intervention group improved after the program completion (p < .05). In the participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) examined by Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) (n =14 vs 15), significant interactions were seen in Trail Making Test-A (p < .01), Trail Making Test-B (p < .05), Kana pick-out test (p < .05) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (p < .05). The intervention effect was found in delayed verbal memory. This program is also effective for improving attention and executive function in those with MCI. The short-term interventional findings suggest that this program might contribute to preventing a decline in memory and executive function. UMIN000014712 (Date of ICMJE and WHO compliant trial information
Full Text Available Background: Mental health needs to increase in disasters and this study assesses the basic and mental health needs and delivered services during the first month after Bam (Iran earthquake disaster in year 2004."nMethods: Thirty Five mental health professionals and experts were involved in mental health care and interventions for survivors in Tehran general hospitals and in the Bam, were participated in a focus group qualitative study, and finding analyzed after coding from tape recorder."nResults: The primary and immediate needs of survivors were: water, food, shelter, security, finding family members, treating and helping injured ones, respect and good relationship by others, and information and news about disaster and others. Second and long time needs and services were the previous needs and services and also immediate starting the daily routine activities, opening schools and workplaces, participating in community services and resettlement or housing. Lack of previous program and inadequate services are discussed in the paper."nConclusion: It is the first time in Iran survivors get immediate mental health intervention in disaster, but based on finding and the survivors needs, and the problems reported in services were delivered, the study proposes a new mental health intervention program in natural disaster for Iran
Design of the EXercise Intervention after Stem cell Transplantation (EXIST study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individualized high intensity physical exercise program on fitness and fatigue in patients with multiple myeloma or (non- Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of high-dose chemotherapy combined with autologous stem cell transplantation has improved the outcome of hematologic malignancies. Nevertheless, this treatment can cause persistent fatigue and a reduced global quality of life, role and physical function. Physical exercise interventions may be beneficial for physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life. However, the trials conducted so far to test the effects of physical exercise interventions in this group of patients were of poor to moderate methodological quality and economic evaluations are lacking. Hence there is need for a rigorous, appropriately controlled assessment of the effectiveness of exercise programs in these patients. The aims of the present study are (1 to determine the effectiveness of an individualized high intensity strength and interval training program with respect to physiological and psychological health status in patients with multiple myeloma or (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who have recently undergone high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation; and (2 to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this program. Methods A multicenter, prospective, single blind randomized controlled trial will be performed. We aim to recruit 120 patients within an inclusion period of 2 years at 7 hospitals in the Netherlands. The patients will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1 intervention plus usual care; or (2 usual care. The intervention consists of an 18-week individualized supervised high-intensity exercise program and counselling. The primary outcomes (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength and fatigue and secondary outcomes are assessed at baseline, at completion of the intervention and at 12 months follow-up. Discussion The strengths of this study include the solid trial design with clearly defined research groups and standardized outcome measures, the inclusion of an economic evaluation and the inclusion of both
Full Text Available Nowadays, drug research and surveillance after authorisation becomes more and more important for several reasons. Non-interventional studies (NIS investigate various aspects of drug use including efficacy and safety under real life conditions. Such kind of health services research should be on a high scientific, methodological and organisational level. Therefore accompanying measures to improve or to keep the quality are highly recommended. The aim of quality management is: first to avoid bias of results by using an appropriate study design and an adequate data analysis, second to assure authenticity, completeness and validity of the data and third to identify and resolve deficiencies at an early stage. Basic principles are laid down in corresponding guidelines and recommendations of authorities, institutes and societies. Various guidelines for good epidemiological practice (GEP were published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA and international and regional societies for epidemiology. In addition in Germany the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM together with the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI and the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA have published respectively recommendations dealing with quality aspects of non-interventional observational studies. Key points are the advanced publishing of information about the project, developing of a study plan/protocol containing the scientific objectives, a sample size justification and a description of the planned analyses and the publishing of a summary of the results timely after completion of the study. The quality of the data can be improved by using standardized case report forms (CRF and the CRF should be reviewed and tested before start of study by some participants. A source data verification (SDV should be performed in randomly selected centres – in between 2% and 5% of the centres depending on the number of participating centres
Perry, Zvi; Busiba, Ziva; Uziel, Elia; Meiri, Gal
In their daily work, physicians encounter varied illnesses, often accompanied with an emotional crisis that engulfs both the patient and his/her family. Research has shown that physicians find this part of their occupation extremely harsh, especially when conveying to the patient the initial bad news about his condition. Most medical school curricula published do not have any training programs for medical students in this expertise. The Patient's Rights Act and the current need of patients to be involved in their treatment have made it even more important to train would-be physicians on how to convey bad news. The Faculty of Health Sciences at the Ben-Gurion University is among the pioneers in articulating a formal curriculum on how to convey bad news and crisis intervention. The clinical workshop "Crisis Intervention" is aimed at 2nd year medical students, and has been taught at this school for the last 15 years, confronting these issues head-on. The course is conducted by an expert psychiatrist and an experienced social worker. The course is aimed at providing the students with theoretical background on the crisis and the emotional turmoil caused by medical emergencies, as well as to expose the students to real life crisis situations of patients and their families, thereby exposing them to optimal management of these situations. During this 4-day workshop, students learn how to convey bad news, as well as to understand its impact upon patients and their families. In the workshop emphasis is placed on the ethical and legal issues that evolve when caring for extremely ill patients. In the current article the authors unfold the techniques, theoretical and pedagogical issues of the workshop. The authors used semi-structured questionnaires to evaluate the course, and found that the students considered this workshop to be an interesting and relevant course. Using the results shown, as well as an oral debriefing after the course with class representatives, the authors
Ammendolia, Carlo; Cassidy, David; Steensta, Ivan; Soklaridis, Sophie; Boyle, Eleanor; Eng, Stephanie; Howard, Hamer; Bhupinder, Bains; Côté, Pierre
Despite over 2 decades of research, the ability to prevent work-related low back pain (LBP) and disability remains elusive. Recent research suggests that interventions that are focused at the workplace and incorporate the principals of participatory ergonomics and return-to-work (RTW) coordination can improve RTW and reduce disability following a work-related back injury. Workplace interventions or programs to improve RTW are difficult to design and implement given the various individuals and environments involved, each with their own unique circumstances. Intervention mapping provides a framework for designing and implementing complex interventions or programs. The objective of this study is to design a best evidence RTW program for occupational LBP tailored to the Ontario setting using an intervention mapping approach. We used a qualitative synthesis based on the intervention mapping methodology. Best evidence from systematic reviews, practice guidelines and key articles on the prognosis and management of LBP and improving RTW was combined with theoretical models for managing LBP and changing behaviour. This was then systematically operationalized into a RTW program using consensus among experts and stakeholders. The RTW Program was further refined following feedback from nine focus groups with various stakeholders. A detailed five step RTW program was developed. The key features of the program include; having trained personnel coordinate the RTW process, identifying and ranking barriers and solutions to RTW from the perspective of all important stakeholders, mediating practical solutions at the workplace and, empowering the injured worker in RTW decision-making. Intervention mapping provided a useful framework to develop a comprehensive RTW program tailored to the Ontario setting.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite over 2 decades of research, the ability to prevent work-related low back pain (LBP and disability remains elusive. Recent research suggests that interventions that are focused at the workplace and incorporate the principals of participatory ergonomics and return-to-work (RTW coordination can improve RTW and reduce disability following a work-related back injury. Workplace interventions or programs to improve RTW are difficult to design and implement given the various individuals and environments involved, each with their own unique circumstances. Intervention mapping provides a framework for designing and implementing complex interventions or programs. The objective of this study is to design a best evidence RTW program for occupational LBP tailored to the Ontario setting using an intervention mapping approach. Methods We used a qualitative synthesis based on the intervention mapping methodology. Best evidence from systematic reviews, practice guidelines and key articles on the prognosis and management of LBP and improving RTW was combined with theoretical models for managing LBP and changing behaviour. This was then systematically operationalized into a RTW program using consensus among experts and stakeholders. The RTW Program was further refined following feedback from nine focus groups with various stakeholders. Results A detailed five step RTW program was developed. The key features of the program include; having trained personnel coordinate the RTW process, identifying and ranking barriers and solutions to RTW from the perspective of all important stakeholders, mediating practical solutions at the workplace and, empowering the injured worker in RTW decision-making. Conclusion Intervention mapping provided a useful framework to develop a comprehensive RTW program tailored to the Ontario setting.
Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta
Background This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. Methods This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Results Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62% and 50% respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 kg and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 kg/m2 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Discussion This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. PMID:22460538
Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia L; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta
This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62 and 50 % respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 and 5.5 kg/m(2) from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women.
Ellis, Jeanna; Johnson, Mary Ann; Fischer, Joan G; Hargrove, James L
This study examined the effects of a nutrition education intervention on improving the intake and behaviors related to whole grain foods in congregate meal recipients in senior centers in north Georgia. Participants were a convenience sample and completed a pretest, an educational intervention, and a post-test (N = 84, mean age = 77 years, 88% female, 76% Caucasian, and 24% African American). At the pre-test, most participants agreed that eating more whole grain foods would help reduce their risk of cancer (69%), heart disease (76%), type 2 diabetes (65%), and bowel disorders (82%), but consumption of 11 whole grain foods was low (10.5 times/week). Following the intervention, participants were more likely to suggest one or more correct ways to identify whole grain foods (45 vs. 62%, Pwhole grain bread, cereal, and crackers (5.8 vs. 6.9 times/week, P whole grain foods was high, the intakes were low. As a first step, this intervention improved several aspects of the consumption of whole grain foods; however, additional interventions that target the individual and the congregate meal program are needed to increase intakes to the recommended three servings daily.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of two intervention programs: a physical exercise program with strategies to support the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness; and a physical exercise program with nutritional education in order to improve the lifestyles of adult and elderly women who practiced functional maintenance. The Self-Determination Theory was applied as the theoretical framework. A sample of 135 women aged between 40 and 88 years (59.66 ± 10.76 who enrolled in a 12-week functional maintenance program and attended 24 exercise classes took part in the study. A quasi-experimental study was performed where strategies to support the three basic psychological needs were applied to one group and strategies for the improvement of eating habits were applied to the other group. No strategy was applied to the control group. The main results showed an improvement in experimental groups I and II when compared to the control group regarding the variables of autonomy, competence, intrinsic regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and eating habits, after the application of the intervention programs. The conclusion is that both intervention programs were successful with this project’s participants and that it is crucial to promote such intervention programs in functional maintenance classes, as they foster healthy lifestyles among participants.
Chamnan, Parinya; Boonlert, Kittipa; Pasi, Wanit; Yodsiri, Songkran; Pong-on, Sirinya; Khansa, Bhoonsab; Yongkulwanitchanan, Pichapat
Despite the availability of effective medical treatment and disease management guidelines, asthma remains a poorly controlled disease in developing countries. There is little evidence of the effectiveness of disease management guidelines in rural clinical practice. The effect of disease management guidelines on clinical outcomes and quality of life in asthmatic patients in a rural community hospital was examined. Fifty-seven patients aged > or = 16 years with physician-diagnosed asthma from a hospital outpatient clinic in Ubon-ratchathani, Thailand, were recruited. Asthma diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing clinical records. We implemented a 12-week disease management program, including the use of written asthma treatment plan and asthma action plan tailored to individual patients. Using one-group pre- and post-intervention design, we compared the average number of emergency visits and hospitalizations from acute asthmatic attacks before and after the implementation of interventions using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. We also compared patient's asthma quality of life (AQL) scores, measured using the 7-point scaled Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. It was found that among the 57 patients, 38 (67%) were women, and the mean age (SD) of the patients was 47.6 (17.0) years. Sixteen patients (28%) had a family history of asthma. Emergency visits decreased from 0.48 (SD = 0.83) per patient before implementation of interventions to 0.11 (0.37) per patient after implementation of interventions (p = 0.003). Hospitalizations with acute asthma attacks reduced from 0.14 (0.35) per patient to 0.04 (0.27) per patient (p = 0.034). Overall AQL scores increased significantly from 3.7 to 5.4 (p emotions. It was concluded that implementation of a 12-week asthma disease management program could reduce emergency visits and hospitalizations, and improve patients' quality of life in a rural practice setting.
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the cause of frequent violence in the education and to find behaviour typology leading to bullying that often occur at school and produce appropriate Islamic intervention program model for bullying. This study uses research and development that only focused on hypothetical phase. Writer collects data from several existing Senior High School in Pekanbaru-Riau. Data collection techniques use questionnaire, observation, interview and documentation. To obtain valid data, the researcher also conducted triangulation. The study concluded that intervention model can be done by streamline the peer coaching, religious mentoring intensively periodically that conducted school with involving counselling and religious teachers and maximize co-operation between parents, teachers and schools to make effective group counselling, mediation and use of ICT in the learning process.
Sheppard, Christopher S; Golonka, Megan; Costanzo, Philip R
The current study involved an examination of the impact of a peer-led substance use intervention program on the peer leaders beyond the substance use-related goals of the intervention. Specifically, unintended consequences of an adult-sanctioned intervention on the targeted peer leader change agents were investigated, including whether their participation affected their peer status, social influence, or self perceptions. Twenty-two 7th grade peer-identified intervention leaders were compared to 22 control leaders (who did not experience the intervention) and 146 cohort peers. Three groups of measures were employed: sociometric and behavioral nominations, social cognitive mapping, and leadership self-perceptions. Results indicated that unintended consequences appear to be a legitimate concern for females. Female intervention leaders declined in perceived popularity and liked most nominations over time, whereas males increased in total leader nominations. Explanations for these results are discussed and further directions suggested.
Yannakoulia, Mary; Sitara, Marietta; Matalas, Antonia-Leda
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program that combined nutrition education and prevention of disordered eating in a group of female professional dance students. Thirty-two dancers, aged 19-25 years, took part in the program. Evaluation was done by a series of questionnaires that participants were asked to complete on 3 occasions. Assessments of body composition and dietary intake were also performed. Significant improvements in nutrition knowledge as well as a decrease in abnormal eating behavior and dietary restraint were observed at post intervention. At 6-month follow-up, the positive effects were maintained and further benefits were recorded; only nutrition knowledge showed a minor decline. Participants who were at higher risk for adopting abnormal eating behavior benefited the most from the program. These findings encourage the implementation of intervention programs in groups of young women that experience particular pressures for controlling body weight.
Jarden, Mary Ellen; Hovgaard, Doris; Boesen, Ellen
Substantial physical and functional deconditioning and diminished psychological wellbeing are all potential adverse effects of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and benefits (physical and functional capacity) of a 4......-6 week supervised and structured mixed-type exercise, progressive relaxation and psychoeducation programme in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Nineteen patients were randomized to an intervention or a conventional care group (CC) and were tested for physical and functional capacity before admission...... muscle strength, and minimizing loss of physical and functional capacity in patients undergoing allo-HSCT....
Juvonen, Jaana; Schacter, Hannah L; Sainio, Miia; Salmivalli, Christina
This study was designed to examine whether a school-wide antibullying program, effective in reducing incidents of bullying, can also reduce the harm associated with victimization. Specifically, we test whether baseline victimization moderates the KiVa program intervention effects on school perceptions, depression, and self-esteem. Relying on a randomized control sample consisting of 7,010 fourth to sixth grade Finnish elementary school students, self-report data were examined using multilevel modeling across 39 intervention and 38 control schools over a 12-month period. The KiVa program was particularly effective in facilitating perceptions of a caring school climate among students who were most victimized before the intervention, while program benefits on attitudes toward school did not vary by level of victimization. The intervention effects on depression and self-esteem were strongest only among the most victimized sixth graders. The results suggest that antibullying programs designed to improve the school ecology can alleviate the plight of the victimized and underscore that harm reduction should be assessed by testing risk × intervention effects when evaluating effectiveness of such programs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Watts, Amy M.; Pothong, Pattarapan
This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors. Evolving from earlier preventive interventions implemented in clinic and school settings, the program, entitled The Village Model of Care, consisted...
Villeval, Mélanie; Bidault, Elsa; Gaborit, Emilie; Grosclaude, Pascale; Haschar-Noé, Nadine; Lang, Thierry
The AAPRISS intervention-research program (Apprendre et Agir Pour Réduire les Inégalités Sociales de Santé) aims to change prevention projects to improve the extent to which they take health inequalities into account. The goal is to assess a project's feasibility and its acceptability, from the viewpoint of the sponsors of the project in question, and to present its tools and potentially-transferable elements. Five cancer-prevention projects focused on nutrition have been included in the AAPRISS program: two projects conducted in school, one community-health project conducted in a disadvantaged neighbourhood and two hospital therapeutic-education programes. For each one, a workgroup was created bringing together the project sponsors and their team as well as researchers from various disciplines. The study involves projects currently underway in the Midi- Pyrénées region of France. AAPRISS is based on the exchange of knowledge among project sponsors and researchers and the co-construction of the analysis, reorientations and the assessment of the prevention projects included in the program. The validation of the program and its feasibility from the project sponsors' point of view is based on a questionnaire and presentations carried out during a symposium that took place in May 2014 in Toulouse. Twelve key program functions have been described. They have been shown to be feasible and acceptable and concrete project modifications towards a better consideration of social inequalities of health (SIH) have been realized in most of the projects. Co-construction among the stakeholders raises many issues and difficulties that could have been overcome by the establishment of a relationship of trust between project sponsors and researchers. The complexity of the determinants leading to SIH calls for programs that revisit existing projects rather than a new intervention aimed at reducing them.
Thomas, Naomi; Komiti, Angela; Judd, Fiona
This study aims to examine the acceptability and effectiveness of an antenatal group intervention designed to reduce the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms and improve maternal attachment in pregnant women with current or emerging depression and anxiety. Women who participated in the program completed pre- and posttreatment measures of depression (Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and maternal attachment (Condon Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale). Participants also completed a satisfaction questionnaire and provided general feedback about the group intervention and experience. A total of 48 women (M = 26 weeks of gestation) commenced and 37 (77 %) completed at least 80 % of the six session group intervention. Significant improvements with moderate to large effect sizes were observed for depression as measured on the Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (p Scale (EPDS) (p anxiety (p Future directions could involve more comprehensive randomised controlled trials (RCT) to examine the effectiveness of the group intervention.
TOBASE, P.; LANE, H.; SIDDIQI, A.-E-A.; INGRAM-RICH, R.; WARD, R. S.
Introduction Recurrent joint hemarthroses due to hemophilia (Factor VIII and Factor IX deficiency) often lead to invasive orthopedic interventions to decrease frequency of bleeding and/or to alleviate pain associated with end-stage hemophilic arthropathy. Aim Identify trends in invasive orthopedic interventions among people with hemophilia who were enrolled in the Universal Data Collection (UDC) program during the period 2000–2010. Methods Data were collected from 130 hemophilia treatment centers in the United States annually during the period 2000–2010, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The number of visits in which an invasive orthopedic intervention was reported was expressed as a proportion of the total visits in each year of the program. Invasive orthopedic interventions consisted of arthroplasty, arthrodesis, and synovectomy. Joints included in this study were the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Results A 5.6% decrease in all invasive orthopedic interventions in all joints of people with hemophilia enrolled in the UDC program over the 11-year study period was observed. Conclusions These data reflect a declining trend in invasive orthopedic interventions in people with hemophilia. Further research is needed to understand the characteristics that may influence invasive orthopedic interventions. PMID:27030396
Kraaij, V.; van Emmerik, A.; Garnefski, N.; Schroevers, M.J.; Lo-Fo-Wong, D.; Empelen, P.; Dusseldorp, E.; Witlox, R.; Maes, S.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine whether low-resource, cost-effective intervention programs can be effective in improving depressed mood in people with HIV. The efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral self-help program (CBS) and a computerized structured writing intervention (SWI)
Kraaij, Vivian; van Emmerik, Arnold; Garnefski, Nadia; Schroevers, Maya J.; Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah; van Empelen, Pepijn; Dusseldorp, Elise; Witlox, Robert; Maes, Stan
Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine whether low-resource, cost-effective intervention programs can be effective in improving depressed mood in people with HIV. The efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral self-help program (CBS) and a computerized structured writing intervention (SWI)
Maria de Fátima Morais; Saul Neves de Jesus; Ivete Azevedo; Alexandra M Araújo; João Viseu
...., academic motivation). The Future Problem Solving Program International (FPSPI), aimed for training creativity representations and creative problem solving skills in young people, has been one of the most implemented programs...
Chan, Roxane Raffin; Giardino, Nicholas; Larson, Janet L
Living well with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires people to manage disease-related symptoms in order to participate in activities of daily living. Mindfulness practice is an intervention that has been shown to reduce symptoms of chronic disease and improve accurate symptom assessment, both of which could result in improved disease management and increased wellness for people with COPD. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate an 8-week mindful meditation intervention program tailored for the COPD population and explore the use of breathing timing parameters as a possible physiological measure of meditation uptake. Results demonstrated that those randomized to the mindful meditation intervention group (N=19) had a significant increase in respiratory rate over time as compared to those randomized to the wait-list group (N=22) (P=0.045). It was also found that the mindful meditation intervention group demonstrated a significant decrease in level of mindfulness over time as compared to the wait-list group (P=0.023). When examining participants from the mindful meditation intervention who had completed six or more classes, it was found that respiratory rate did not significantly increase in comparison to the wait-list group. Furthermore, those who completed six or more classes (N=12) demonstrated significant improvement in emotional function in comparison to the wait-list group (P=0.032) even though their level of mindfulness did not improve. This study identifies that there may be a complex relationship between breathing parameters, emotion, and mindfulness in the COPD population. The results describe good feasibility and acceptability for meditation interventions in the COPD population.
Parent training programs have been shown to be helpful to parents in regards to implementing behavior intervention strategies with their children. Parent satisfaction with a parent-training program is an important variable in that, if parents like a program, it is more likely to be successful. The purpose of this project was to provide a brief parent training program using Dr. Glenn I. Latham’s website, Parenting Prescriptions, and examine parent evaluations of the program. The participants w...
Full Text Available The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/strengths, challenges/weaknesses, and recommendations for program improvement. Results of the program evaluation indicated that telerehabilitation has the potential to cost-effectively meet the therapeutic needs of children living in rural areas where provider shortages exist. The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program serves as a model for how telerehabilitation can be used to deliver early intervention services to ameliorate health disparities and improve access to rehabilitation services. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Occupational Therapy, Rural, Early Intervention, Children, Program Evaluation, Cost Analysis
Freitas, Mfl; Santos, Jm; Fuks, A; Bezerra, Acb; Azevedo, Tdpl
Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) is an effective treatment approach with increasing acceptance among dental professionals. This study aimed to evaluate the MID impact on Dentistry by analyzing procedures performed on patients treated at a Pediatric Dentistry Graduate Program clinic which implemented MID. The number of procedures including sealants, modified atraumatic restorative treatment (mART), resin crowns, direct pulp capping, pulpotomy, pulpectomy, and deciduous/ permanent extractions from 333 pediatric patients treated between the years 2001 to 2003 and 2008 to 2010 in Distrito Federal, Brazil were analyzed. Statistical analysis involved chi-square and G Williams tests. 783 procedures were analyzed and demonstrated that there was a significant reduction of sealant placement in the last triennium when compared to the first one (ppulpectomy (p=0.0002). Based on the results, MID represented a positive impact on the intervention on caries lesions in patients, mainly reflected by the significant reduction in the number of direct pulp capping, pulpotomy and pulpectomy.
Roberta Roggia Friedrich
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:to evaluate the effects of intervention program strategies on the time spent on activities such as watching television, playing videogames, and using the computer among schoolchildren.SOURCES:a search for randomized controlled trials available in the literature was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library using the following Keywords randomized controlled trial, intervention studies, sedentary lifestyle, screen time, and school. A summary measure based on the standardized mean difference was used with a 95% confidence interval.DATA SYNTHESIS: a total of 1,552 studies were identified, of which 16 were included in the meta-analysis. The interventions in the randomized controlled trials (n = 8,785 showed a significant effect in reducing screen time, with a standardized mean difference (random effect of: -0.25 (-0.37, -0.13, p < 0.01.CONCLUSION:interventions have demonstrated the positive effects of the decrease of screen time among schoolchildren.
Friedrich, Roberta Roggia; Polet, Jéssica Pinto; Schuch, Ilaine; Wagner, Mário Bernardes
to evaluate the effects of intervention program strategies on the time spent on activities such as watching television, playing videogames, and using the computer among schoolchildren. a search for randomized controlled trials available in the literature was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library using the following Keywords randomized controlled trial, intervention studies, sedentary lifestyle, screen time, and school. A summary measure based on the standardized mean difference was used with a 95% confidence interval. a total of 1,552 studies were identified, of which 16 were included in the meta-analysis. The interventions in the randomized controlled trials (n=8,785) showed a significant effect in reducing screen time, with a standardized mean difference (random effect) of: -0.25 (-0.37, -0.13), p<0.01. interventions have demonstrated the positive effects of the decrease of screen time among schoolchildren. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang
Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…
Jarvis, Nita M.
The purpose of this program evaluation was to evaluate the Direct Instruction programs, Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading, from SRA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, which were being used as a school-wide reading intervention. These programs were implemented at a small elementary school in the Piedmont area of North Carolina beginning in the…
Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.
This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…
Plante, Catherine; Moreau, Nicolas; Jaimes, Annie; Turbide, Carole
Recruitment is known to be a challenge for intervention programs targeting youths, including sports programs. Following the popularity of the "Alter-Action" program of the Montreal-based organization "DesÉquilibres", we wanted to understand the motivations and barriers to youths' recruitment in this voluntary sports community…
Kelso, Ginger L.; Fiechtl, Barbara J.; Olsen, Susan T.; Rule, Sarah
Although videoconferencing has been used to deliver distance education, tutoring for children, and telemedicine observations, there is limited information on the efficacy of its use in delivering part C early intervention services. Four families receiving early intervention services in a rural program participated in a pilot study to test the…
Bughi, Stephanie A.; Sumcad, Jennifer; Bughi, Stefan
The study aims to assess 1) the prevalence of stress among a group of third and fourth year medical students (MS) from two Southern California universities and 2) the effect of a brief behavioral intervention program (BBIP) on stress management among the students instructed on stress intervention techniques. The stress level was determined by using the General Well Being Scale (GWBS), a self-report questionnaire designed by the National Center for Health Statistics.1 The stress testing was do...
Seabra, André; Serra, Hugo; Seabra, Ana
at school. Bone mass indicators included whole-boy and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). Physical fitness tests included 5- and 30-m sprints, countermovement jump (CMJ), and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1). Body composition was evaluated using dual......Introduction: Physical activity is an important medium for improving bone mass and physical fitness of children, and as such is often emphasized in intervention programs with overweight/obesity children. Only few studies have examined the impact of a specific team sport intervention on the bone...... mass and physical fitness in overweight children. This study examined the effects of a 6-month football intervention program in bone mass and physical fitness of overweight children. Methods: Nine boys (8-12 years; body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) participated in a structured 6-month football program...
Full Text Available This study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2002 was aimed to determine the influence of a cognitive-motivational intervention program, to improve the basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment, in youth volleyball players. Participants included 34 Under-19 female volleyball players. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with an experimental group (n = 16; M = 17.45; SD = .45 and a control group (n = 18; M = 16.64; SD = .70. The experimental group followed a multidimensional intervention program comprised of 24 sessions held over three months (two training sessions per week. It was based on two strategies: giving athletes the possibility of choice in specific training tasks (proposing training situations with several action alternatives and questioning (cognitively involving players through tactical questions. A repeated-measures MANOVA 2 (group: experimental and control x 2 (time: pre-test and post-test was used to analyse the effect of Group x Time interaction. The results of the inter-group analysis showed significant differences in the post-test measurement between the experimental group and the control group (in favour of the experimental group in the variables: basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment. Given the relevance of the cognitive-motivational processes, not only for performance but also for sport commitment, this intervention has important implications for sport coaching.
Claver, Fernando; Jiménez, Ruth; Gil-Arias, Alexander; Moreno, Alberto; Moreno, M Perla
This study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2002) was aimed to determine the influence of a cognitive-motivational intervention program, to improve the basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment, in youth volleyball players. Participants included 34 Under-19 female volleyball players. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with an experimental group (n = 16; M = 17.45; SD = .45) and a control group (n = 18; M = 16.64; SD = .70). The experimental group followed a multidimensional intervention program comprised of 24 sessions held over three months (two training sessions per week). It was based on two strategies: giving athletes the possibility of choice in specific training tasks (proposing training situations with several action alternatives) and questioning (cognitively involving players through tactical questions). A repeated-measures MANOVA 2 (group: experimental and control) x 2 (time: pre-test and post-test) was used to analyse the effect of Group x Time interaction. The results of the inter-group analysis showed significant differences in the post-test measurement between the experimental group and the control group (in favour of the experimental group) in the variables: basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment. Given the relevance of the cognitive-motivational processes, not only for performance but also for sport commitment, this intervention has important implications for sport coaching.
McBride, Cami K.; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C.; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M.
SUMMARY Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth’s exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smith, & Henry, 2003). This often translates into three concrete programmatic features: (1) Contextual relevance; (2) Developmental-groundedness; and (3) Systemic Delivery. Because families are considered to be urban youth’s best hope to grow up and survive multiple-dangers in urban neighborhoods (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000), centering prevention within families may ensure that youth receive ongoing support, education, and messages that can increase their capacity to negotiate peer situations involving sex. This paper will present preliminary data from an HIV/AIDS prevention program that is contextually relevant, developmentally grounded and systematically-delivered. The collaborative HIV/AIDS Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) is aimed at decreasing HIV/AIDS risk exposure among a sample of African American youth living in a poverty-stricken, inner-city community in Chicago. This study describes results from this family-based HIV preventive intervention and involves 88 African American pre-adolescents and their primary caregivers. We present results for the intervention group at baseline and post intervention. We compare post test results to a community comparison group of youth. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:20852742
Lowe, Michael R.; Tappe, Karyn A.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Coletta, Maria C.; Ochner, Christopher N.; Rolls, Barbara J.
Modifying the food environment is a promising strategy for promoting healthier eating behavior. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees’ calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. Participant lunch choices were monitored electronically at the point of purchase for 3 months before the intervention was instituted (i.e., the baseline period) and for 3 months afterward (i.e., intervention period). Participants were adults (n = 96, BMI = 29.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) who regularly ate lunch at their workplace cafeteria. There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. Across groups, energy and percent of energy from fat decreased and percent of energy from carbohydrate increased from baseline to the intervention period (all p <. 01). Follow-up analyses, conducted by averaging Baseline Months 1 and 2 and comparing them to Intervention Month 3 as a conservative estimate of overall impact of the intervention, indicated that change in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake remained significant (p < .001). Providing nutrition labels and reducing the ED of selected foods was associated with improved dietary intake. PMID:20434060
Owen, C. A.; Beard, E. F.
A long term exercise prescription type of physical conditioning program has been available to executive personnel of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center for the past two years. Periodic ergometric testing with a heart rate controlled, automatically programmed, bicycle ergometer is used to follow the individual's progress and appropriately alter his exercise prescription from time to time. Such a program appears feasible, and acceptance is excellent, dropout rates small and periodic testing participation good. Subjects training diligently can maintain satisfactory levels of conditioning.
An Evaluation of the Right Choices Program to Determine Effectiveness in Delivering Constructive Interventions and Providing an Early Support Program in Order to Modify Behavior of First-Time Student Offenders Who Commit Drug and Violent Acts
Barnes, Lisa B.
The purpose of the study was to perform a program evaluation of the Right Choices Program to determine the program's effectiveness in delivering constructive interventions that modify student behavior once students have left the program and have returned to their regular learning environment. This mixed-method evaluation consisted of an…
Full Text Available A descriptive study is presented, about the characteristics of boys and girls served between 2006 and 2009 in a child maltreatment and sexual abuse intervention program, implemented by Protectora de la Infancia and fi nanced by the National Service of Children of Chile. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 100 clinical records randomly selected (76 women and 24 men, all of them less than 18 years old. The results show that they are mostly girls between 8 and 12 years old, from low income families, and with appropriate levels of development except on the socio-emotional and psycho-sexual sphere. The main intake motive is sexual abuse, intra-familial, chronic, perpetrated on their own home, and by a masculine figure close to the child, on most cases. The complexity of this situations demand an integral eco-systemic approach to the intervention
Spruit, Anouk; van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan
To prevent juvenile delinquency, there is growing interest in the use of sports-based interventions. To date, there is little empirical research that provides insights into for whom, how, and when sports-based crime prevention programs are most effective. Therefore, the current study assessed which youth, coach, and context factors were predictive of change in risk factors and protective factors for delinquency in a sports-based crime prevention program for at-risk adolescents. Participants ( N = 155) and their teachers filled in questionnaires about risk and protective factors for delinquency at the start of the intervention and 13 months later. In addition, the coaches and participants filled in questionnaires about the predictors of intervention success. The youths showed significant improvements over the course of the intervention. Various youth, coach, and context factors (e.g., the type of education of youth and the sociomoral climate at the sports club) were associated to change in the outcome variables.
Syazwan, AI; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Anita, AR; Azizan, HS; Shaharuddin, MS; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Muhaimin, AA; Nizar, AM; Rafee, B Mohd; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Kasani, Adam
Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multidisciplinary, interventional, ergonomic education program designed to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal problems by reducing schoolbag weight and correcting poor sitting posture. Methods Data were collected twice before and twice following intervention using the Standardized Nordic Body Map Questionnaire, a rapid upper limb assessment for posture evaluation, and schoolbag weight measurement in children aged 8 and 11 years attending two schools within the central region of Malaysia. Results Students who received the ergonomic intervention reported significant improvements in their sitting posture in a classroom environment and reduction of schoolbag weight as compared with the controls. Conclusion A single-session, early intervention, group ergonomics education program for children aged 8 and 11 years is appropriate and effective, and should be considered as a strategy to reduce musculoskeletal pain among schoolchildren in this age group. PMID:22003301
Sabatini, John P; Shore, Jane; Holtzman, Steven; Scarborough, Hollis S
To compare the efficacy of instructional programs for adult learners with basic reading skills below the seventh grade level, 300 adults were randomly assigned to one of three supplementary tutoring programs designed to strengthen decoding and fluency skills, and gains were examined for the 148 adult students who completed the program. The three intervention programs were based on or adapted from instructional programs that have been shown to benefit children with reading levels similar to those of the adult sample. Each program varied in its relative emphasis on basic decoding versus reading fluency instruction. A repeated measures MANOVA confirmed small to moderate reading gains from pre- to post-testing across a battery of targeted reading measures, but no significant relative differences across interventions. An additional 152 participants who failed to complete the intervention differed initially from those who persisted. Implications for future research and adult literacy instruction are discussed.
What Works Clearinghouse, 2012
The "High School Puente Program" aims to help disadvantaged students graduate from high school, become college eligible, and enroll in four-year colleges and universities. Interdisciplinary in approach, the program has three components: writing, counseling, and mentoring. Students in the ninth and tenth grades receive rigorous writing…
Objective: To review the findings of safe motherhood intervention studies conducted in African settings. Data sources: Published literature regarding interventions designed to reduce maternal mortality in African settings. Study selection: Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa to assess the effects of interventions designed ...
محمدرضا عبدی; تقي پورابراهيم; علی محمد نظری
Divorce is one of the most important phenomenons of human life that not only undermines the psychological balance of the couple but also to change the psychological balance of the children, relatives, and friends. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP). A sample of 26 children of divorce (11 boys and 15 girls) between 7 to 9 years old was selected through an available sampling of community. CODIP was conducted on the e...
Full Text Available In the field of batterer intervention and research on improving the effectiveness of these interventions, alcohol abuse has been one of the risk factors that has received special attention. The aim of this work is analyze the relationship between alcohol abuse, process of change due to the intervention, and the dropout rate. The sample consisted of 86 risk male consumers and 80 non risk male consumers, all of them sentenced for violence against women and participating in an intervention program in community environment that does not specifically address the problem of alcohol use. Using multiple repeated measures ANOVAs, the results reveal that there is a higher percentage of dropouts from the intervention among risk consumers. However, regardless of alcohol use, participating in the intervention program was associated with positive changes in relation to risk of recidivism and other success indicators analyzed -attributions and attitudes toward violence, psychological adjustment, and social support. Finally, the results and their practical implications are discussed.
Chopra, Ritu; Banerjee, Rashida; DiPalma, Geraldine; Merrill, Laura; Ferguson, Ardith
Under the supervision of a licensed early intervention provider, paraprofessionals play an indispensable role in implementation of home and community-based services to infants and toddlers with developmental delays or disabilities and their families in Colorado. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 requires that…
Couvillon, Michael; Peterson, Reece L.; Ryan, Joseph B.; Scheuermann, Brenda; Stegall, Joanna
Recent advocacy organization reports, Congressional hearings, and proposed federal legislation have called attention to the abusive use of physical restraint procedures in school settings. As a result, administrators and school officials wonder whether they should purchase "crisis intervention" training for staff and faculty members from outside…
Yang, Yi-Hsin; Sue, Rouh-Lan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Dasanayake, Ananda P
The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of an educational program aimed at improving oral health knowledge and behaviors in junior high school students in indigenous communities in Taiwan. Two junior high schools were randomly selected. Students in the intervention school received an oral health education program. Both groups received structured questionnaires to assess their oral health practices and risk behaviors at baseline and after the intervention. The intervention group had statistically significant positive changes in their oral health knowledge (pCarefully designed health education programs delivered within schools in areas with limited access to health care can improve the students' knowledge and reduce their risk behaviors which may prove to be a mechanism that ultimately reduces health disparities.
Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluates the effects of a prison-based addiction intervention program. The evaluation is based on a multidimensional data collection that draws a portrait of the respondents’ substance use, and of their psychological/emotional, social, and judicial spheres. It measures the changes, or lack thereof, in substance use; the psychological/emotional, social, and judicial spheres; as well as the post-treatment services used. Method A quasi-experimental repeated measures design (0, 6 weeks, and 6 months was used. Effects of the program were identified by comparing the results obtained by a group of inmates who had participated in the program ( n = 80; experimental group with those of another group who had received no intervention ( n = 70; control group. Results The preliminary results suggested a certain treatment effect related to impulsivity and psychological distress. Conclusion Although the preliminary results were promising, the experimental and control groups did not differ significantly when more robust analyses were used.
This report presents results from FMCSAs Roadside Intervention Model for fiscal year 2007. The model estimates the number of crashes avoided, as well as injuries avoided and lives saved, as a result of the Agencys roadside inspection program. T...
Otim, Michael E; Jayasinha, Ranmalie; Forbes, Hayley; Shah, Smita
Asthma is the most common chronic illness among adolescents in Australia. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents, in particular, face substantial inequalities in asthma-related outcomes. Triple A (Adolescent Asthma Action) is a peer-led education intervention, which aims to improve asthma self-management and reduce the uptake of smoking among adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of implementing the Triple A program in Australia. Standard economic costing methods were used. It involved identifying the resources that were utilised (such as personnel and program materials), measuring them and then valuing them. We later performed sensitivity analysis so as to identify the cost drivers and a stress test to test how the intervention can perform when some inputs are lacking. Results indicate that the estimated cost of implementing the Triple A program in five schools was $41060, assuming that the opportunity cost of all the participants and venues was accounted for. This translated to $8212 per school or $50 per target student. From sensitivity analysis and a stress test, it was identified that the cost of the intervention (in practice) was $14 per student. This appears to be a modest cost, given the burden of asthma. In conclusion, the Triple A program is an affordable intervention to implement in high schools. The potential asthma cost savings due to the program are significant. If the Triple A program is implemented nation-wide, the benefits would be substantial.
Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor
The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological intervention and a non-intervention control group. Phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and spelling abilities were tested before and after the intervention. Participants from both linguistic intervention programs and in all grades made significant progress in linguistic awareness and spelling after the intervention. The results showed that both intervention programs were successful in promoting children's spelling skills in both groups. Also, older poor readers showed a stronger response to the morphological intervention than the older skilled readers. A transfer effect was found with the phonological training contributing to the morphological skills and vice versa. The results of the current study were discussed in the light of developmental and psycholinguistic views of spelling acquisition as well as the characteristics of Arabic language and orthography.
Cramer, Kristine M.; Castro-Olivo, Sara
Student self-reports of resiliency and social-emotional internalizing problems were examined to determine intervention effects of a culturally adapted social and emotional learning (SEL) program. Data were analyzed from 20 culturally and linguistically diverse high school students who participated in a school-based 12-lesson SEL intervention and…
Vlaming, de R.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.
Background - The aim of this paper is to provide the rationale for an evaluation design for a complex intervention program targeting loneliness among non-institutionalized elderly people in a Dutch community. Complex public health interventions characteristically use the combined approach of
Hulette, Annmarie C.; Dunham, Mackenzie; Davis, Mindy; Gortney, Jason; Lieberman, Alicia F.
This article describes the Attachment Vitamins program, a trauma-informed parent group intervention for families with young children. Attachment Vitamins is a relational psychoeducational intervention based on the principles of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP). Its goal is to repair the impact of chronic stress and trauma through strengthening the…
Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.
Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.
Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…
Pedrosa, C; Oliveira, B M P M; Albuquerque, I; Simões-Pereira, C; Vaz-de-Almeida, M D; Correia, F
Excess weight may be related to the development of adverse cardiometabolic risk factors in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a lifestyle intervention program (nutrition and exercise counseling) on anthropometric parameters and metabolic syndrome (MS) components in Portuguese overweight/obese children. A total of 83 overweight/obese children aged 7-9 years were assigned to a 1-year individual or group-based treatment (GT); 61 children (z-score BMI (zBMI): 1.93 ± 0.28; 27 boys and 34 girls) completed the program. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, at 6 months and at 1 year. The overweight/obese children, compared to normal-weight ones, presented significantly higher blood pressure, total-cholesterol, total-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) ratio, triglycerides, Apolipoprotein B and C-reactive protein levels, while HDL and Apolipoprotein A-I were significantly lower. At baseline, the prevalence of MS was 16.4% in overweight/obese and 0% in normal-weight children. The number of components of MS was significantly higher in children with higher zBMI. Lifestyle intervention led to a significant improvement in zBMI, waist circumference/height ratio, HDL, triglycerides, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Apolipoprotein B levels. The prevalence of MS decreased to 14.8%. The GT intervention seems to be more successful, with a significant decrease in zBMI and an increase in HDL and a lower drop-out rate. Overweight/obese children have multiple risk factors associated with the MS. Lifestyle intervention, both individual and group-based treatment, led to an improvement in the degree of overweight/obesity and in MS components.
Duque, Luis Fernando; Orduz, José Fernando; Sandoval, Juan de Jesús; Caicedo, Beatriz Elena; Klevens, Joanne
To describe the components and development of the Early Prevention of Violence Program in the city of Medellín, Colombia, and to evaluate the results of its first phase, three years after implementation. A before (2001) and after (2004) study of four variables--direct aggression, indirect aggression, prosocial behavior, and scholastic achievement--was conducted among a convenience sample of 339 program participants and their families. Several program benefits were noted. Decreases in both direct and indirect aggression were observed, though the latter was reduced only in girls and in those over 12 years old. Prosocial behavior increased among children of all ages and both genders, including those who exhibited low levels of prosocial behavior in 2001. In addition, improved school performance was seen in the group as a whole. Results may have been affected by some changes to the prevention program's implementation and by the dangerous nature of the neighborhood, which limited the home visits. The program seems to be an effective intervention for highly aggressive children, among whom a decline in direct aggression was observed. It also offers preventive benefits, as evidenced by the rise of prosocial behaviors in less aggressive children.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Zucosky, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L.; Sage, Chelsea; Stuart, Gregory L.
Dating violence among college students is a widespread and destructive problem. The field of dating violence has seen a substantial rise in research over the past several years, which has improved our understanding of factors that increase risk for perpetration. Unfortunately, there has been less attention paid to dating violence prevention programming, and existing programs have been marred with methodological weaknesses and a lack of demonstrated effectiveness in reducing aggression. In hop...
Bailey, Beth A.
Despite the known dangers of pregnancy smoking, rates remain high, especially in the rural, Southern United States. Interventions are effective, but few have been developed and tested in regions with high rates of pregnancy smoking, a culture that normalizes smoking, and a hard-to-reach prenatal population. The goals were to describe a smoking…
Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Soares, Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz R; Simoes, Eduardo J; Brownson, Ross C
This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education (PE) programs in Latin America. The aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activity promotion in Latin American youth. Following the US Community Guide systematic review process, five school-based PE intervention studies with sufficient quality of design, execution and detail of intervention and outcomes were selected for full abstraction. One study was conducted in Brazil, two studies were conducted in Chile and two studies were conducted on the US/Mexico border. While studies presented assorted outcomes, methods and duration of interventions, there were consistent positive increases in physical activity levels for all outcomes measured during PE classes, endurance and active transportation to school in all three randomized studies. Except for one cohort from one study, the non-randomized studies showed positive intervention effects for moderate and vigorous physical activity levels during PE classes. The core elements of these five interventions included capacity building and staff training (PE specialists and/or classroom teachers); changes in the PE curricula; provision of equipment and materials; and adjustment of the interventions to specific target populations. In order to translate the strong evidence for school-based PE into practice, systematic attention to policy and implementation issues is required.
Carral San Laureano, F; Cabo Navarro, D; Ayala Ortega, C; Gómez Rodríguez, F; Piñero Zaldivar, A; Prieto Ferrón, M; Jiménez Millán, A I; Sanz Sanz, A; García Calzado, C
Obesity is a chronic disease that affects approximately 25% of the Spanish population, causing high morbidity and associated healthcare costs. To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program on lifestyles in obese patients treated in a day hospital scheme. A prospective non- controlled intervention study was conducted on obese patients treated in the Endocrinology and Nutrition day hospital, Puerto Real University Hospital, and included in program of lifestyle modification to achieve a weight loss of ≥ 5% minimum. We studied 262 patients with a mean age of 44.6±16.0 years (71% women) with an initial weight, body mass index and waist circumference of 110.4±21.1kg, 41.6±6.6Kg/m(2) and 120.5±13.2cm, respectively. Patients who continued in the study lost an average of 4.8±4.8kg (n=165) and 7.0±6.2kg (n=48) at three and six months, respectively, with 51.5% (n=135) patients reaching the weight loss goal of ≥ 5%. There were no statistically differences in weight loss between any clinical or follow-up variables analysed. 43.5% of patients voluntarily left the study without reaching the weight loss goal. The intervention on lifestyles in obese patients treated in a day hospital achieves moderate weight loss in the medium term, with half of patients achieving a weight loss ≥5%. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
de Pee, Saskia; Spiegel, Paul; Kraemer, Klaus; Wilkinson, Caroline; Bilukha, Oleg; Seal, Andrew; Macias, Kathy; Oman, Allison; Fall, Ahmed Baba; Yip, Ray; West, Keith; Zlotkin, Stanley; Bloem, Martin W
The World Food Programme and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees organized a meeting of experts to discuss evaluation of micronutrient interventions under special circumstances, such as emergency and refugee situations. Multimicronutrient interventions for groups with higher needs may include home fortification products for young children or supplements for pregnant and lactating women. The choice of preparation should be guided by target group needs, evidence of efficacy of a product or its compounds, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness. Different designs can be used to assess whether an intervention has the desired impact. First, program implementation and adherence must be ascertained. Then, impact on micronutrient status can be assessed, but design options are often limited by logistic challenges, available budget, security issues, and ethical and practical issues regarding nonintervention or placebo groups. Under these conditions, a plausibility design using pre- and postintervention cross-sectional surveys, a prospective cohort study, or a step-wedge design, which enrolls groups as they start receiving the intervention, should be considered. Post hoc comparison of groups with different adherence levels may also be useful. Hemoglobin is often selected as an impact indicator because it is easily measured and tends to respond to change in micronutrient status, especially iron. However, it is not a very specific indicator of micronutrient status, because it is also influenced by inflammation, parasitic infestation, physiological status (age, pregnancy), altitude, and disorders such as thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Given the constraints described above, replicability of impact in different contexts is key to the validation of micronutrient interventions.
Walters, Kirk; Garet, Michael; Leinwand, Steve
This paper describes the PD program that was delivered during the first year of the study. The main goal of the intervention was to increase teachers' capability to teach positive rational number topics effectively. The program included a 3-day summer institute (18 hours per teacher), five 1-day seminars held during the school year (30 hours per…
Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Pui-Wa
The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings…
This study evaluated the impact of a preventive intervention program focused on self-understanding and interpersonal interactions to prevent psychosocial distress among Japanese university students. Two hundred and twenty-two undergraduate students were divided into a treatment group and a control group to complete Time 1 and Time 2 surveys. The…
Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.
Janssen, Marleen J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Van Dijk, Jan P. M.
This study examined the effects of an intervention program to improve the quality of daily interaction between six congenitally deaf-blind children and their 14 educators (teachers, caregivers, and mothers). With video analysis as the most important tool, the interaction coaches trained the educators to recognize the children's signals and attune…
Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.
This study presents the results of an efficacy evaluation of a web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention program called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Four on-line sessions providing individually-tailored feedback were delivered to first-year college students over 9 weeks. Non- and…
O'Brien, Matthew J; Whitaker, Robert C; Yu, Daohai; Ackermann, Ronald T
Educational attainment is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but it is unknown whether education impacts individuals' diabetes prevention efforts. We examined the comparative efficacy of intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin by educational attainment among participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), an ongoing U.S. multi-site trial beginning in 1996. We studied 2,910 DPP participants randomized to receive lifestyle intervention, metformin, or placebo. Stratifying by educational attainment, diabetes incidence and relative risk reductions by treatment assignment were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. 47% of participants had completed college and 53% had not. Compared to placebo, lifestyle participants who had completed college demonstrated a 68% reduction in diabetes incidence (95% CI=56, 77), whereas those with less education experienced a 47% risk reduction (95% CI=29, 61). For metformin participants, college graduates experienced a 49% relative risk reduction (95% CI=33, 62), compared to 23% (95% CI=1, 41) among those with lower educational attainment. There was a statistically significant education-by-treatment interaction with incident diabetes (p=0.03). Intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin have greater efficacy among highly educated individuals. Future efforts to deliver these treatments and study their dissemination may be more effective if tailored to individuals' educational background. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Arabia, Patricia L; Dugosh, Karen L; Benasutti, Kathleen M; Croft, Jason R
Adaptive interventions apply a priori decision rules for adjusting treatment services in response to participants' clinical presentation or performance in treatment. This pilot study (n = 30) experimentally examined an adaptive intervention in a misdemeanor drug court. The participants were primarily charged with possession of marijuana (73%) or possession of drug paraphernalia (23%). Results revealed that participants in the adaptive condition had higher graduation rates and required significantly less time to graduate from the program and achieve a final resolution of the case. It took an average of nearly 4 fewer months for participants in the adaptive intervention to resolve their cases compared with those participating in drug court as usual. Participants in the adaptive condition also reported equivalent satisfaction with the program and therapeutic alliances with their counselors. These data suggest that adaptive interventions may enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of drug courts and justify examining adaptive interventions in large-scale drug court studies.
Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program
Pollyanna Fernandes Patriota
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. Methods/study design The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438 consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] –for-age Z score, n = 138 received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353 participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n
Full Text Available Caregivers of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are chronically exposed to high levels of stress.In turn, such stress is associated with high rates of negative health outcomes. However, few studies haveanalyzed the effects of psychotherapeutic interventions in improving health in this population. The mainaim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention program,based on the model proposed by Ruiz-Robledillo and Moya-Albiol (2014a. For this, we used a sample of 17informal caregivers of people diagnosed with ASD. The study was based on a pre-post design. Caregivershad lower levels of burden immediately after the intervention than at baseline, while both immediatelyafter the intervention and at 1 month of follow-up, they had fewer somatic symptoms, lower levels ofdepression, and better mood states than at baseline. These results provide evidence of the efficacy of thecognitive-behavioral intervention developed for reducing stress and health complaints in chronicallystressed caregivers. Additionally, the program could be useful in early stages of the caring process, toprovide caregivers with effective skills for preventing future health problems. The integration of theprogram in general psychosocial interventions would be highly beneficial for this population.
Semini, Iris; Batona, Georges; Lafrance, Christian; Kessou, Léon; Gbedji, Eugène; Anani, Hubert; Alary, Michel
HIV response has entered a new era shaped by evidence that the combination of interventions impacts the trajectory of the epidemic. Even proven interventions, however, can be ineffective if not to scale, appropriately implemented, and with the right combination. Benin is among the pioneering countries that prioritized HIV prevention for sex workers and clients early on. Effective implementation up to 2006 resulted in consistent condom use among sex workers increasing from 39% to 86.2% and a decline in prevalence of gonorrhea from 5.4% to 1.6%. This study responds to the growing concern that, although proven interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) were expanded in Benin since 2008, indicators of coverage and behaviors are far from satisfactory. The quest to better understand implementation and how to render service delivery efficient and effective resonates with increased emphasis in the international arena on return for investments. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to collect data. The output measured is the number of sex workers seeking Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) care at user-friendly STI Clinics (SCs). Data were collected for 2010-2011 in nine regions of Benin. While recognizing that commitment to scale up is commendable, the study revealed deficiencies in program design and implementation that undermine outcomes. The selected mix of interventions is not optimal. Allocation of funds is not proportionate to the needs of FSW across regions. Only 5 of 41 SCs were fully functional at time of study. Free distribution of condoms covers only 10% of needs of FSWs. Funding and financing gaps resulted in extended interruptions of services. Successful HIV prevention in Benin will depend on the effective and efficient implementation of well-funded programs in sex work setting. Resources should be aligned to local sex work typology and presence in communities. A national framework defining an appropriate mix of interventions, management
Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.
Fassier, J-B; Lamort-Bouché, M; Sarnin, P; Durif-Bruckert, C; Péron, J; Letrilliart, L; Durand, M-J
Health promotion programs are expected to improve population health and reduce social inequalities in health. However, their theoretical foundations are frequently ill-defined, and their implementation faces many obstacles. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention mapping protocol in health promotion programs planning, used recently in several countries. The challenges of planning health promotion programs are presented, and the six steps of the intervention mapping protocol are described with an example. Based on a literature review, the use of this protocol, its requirements and potential limitations are discussed. The intervention mapping protocol has four essential characteristics: an ecological perspective (person-environment), a participative approach, the use of theoretical models in human and social sciences and the use of scientific evidence. It comprises six steps: conduct a health needs assessment, define change objectives, select theory-based change techniques and practical applications, organize techniques and applications into an intervention program (logic model), plan for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability, and generate an evaluation plan. This protocol was used in different countries and domains such as obesity, tobacco, physical activity, cancer and occupational health. Although its utilization requires resources and a critical stance, this protocol was used to develop interventions which efficacy was demonstrated. The intervention mapping protocol is an integrated process that fits the scientific and practical challenges of health promotion. It could be tested in France as it was used in other countries, in particular to reduce social inequalities in health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Conner, Matthew David
Background: The prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes in the United States has increased over the past two decades and rates remain high. The latest data from the National Center for Health Statistics estimates that 36% of adults and 17% of children and adolescents in the US are obese (CDC Adult Obesity, CDC Childhood Obesity). Being overweight or obese greatly increases one's risk of developing several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 8% of adults in the US have diabetes, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of these cases. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is still rare, however clinical reports suggest an increase in the frequency of diagnosis (CDC Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011). Results from the Diabetes Prevention Program show that the incidence of type 2 diabetes can be reduced through the adoption of a healthier lifestyle among high-risk individuals (DPP, 2002). Objectives: This classroom-based intervention included scientific coverage of energy balance, diabetes, diabetes prevention strategies, and diabetes management. Coverage of diabetes management topics were included in lesson content to further the students' understanding of the disease. Measurable short-term goals of the intervention included increases in: general diabetes knowledge, diabetes management knowledge, and awareness of type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. Methods: A total of 66 sixth grade students at Tavelli Elementary School in Fort Collins, CO completed the intervention. The program consisted of nine classroom-based lessons; students participated in one lesson every two weeks. The lessons were delivered from November of 2005 to May of 2006. Each bi-weekly lesson included a presentation and interactive group activities. Participants completed two diabetes knowledge questionnaires at baseline and post intervention. A diabetes survey developed by Program ENERGY measured general diabetes knowledge and awareness of type 2 diabetes prevention strategies
Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program.
Patriota, Pollyanna Fernandes; Filgueiras, Andrea Rocha; de Almeida, Viviane Belucci Pires; Alexmovitz, Guilherme Aparecido Costa; da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; de Carvalho, Vivian Fortuna Feres; Carvalho, Natália; de Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Domene, Semiramis Martins Alvares; do Prado, Wagner Luiz; Torres, Gustavo Enrique Salazar; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Reis; Sesso, Ricardo; Sawaya, Ana Lydia
Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN) in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438) consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] -for-age Z score, n = 138) received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353) participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n = 125) were invited to attend the routine outpatient
Wagner, Bree; Fitzpatrick, James; Symons, Martyn; Jirikowic, Tracy; Cross, Donna; Latimer, Jane
Although previous research has demonstrated the benefits of targeting self-regulation in non-Aboriginal children, it is unclear whether such programs would be effective for Aboriginal children attending school in remote communities. Some of these children have been diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) impairing their ability to self-regulate. The aim of this article is to describe a three phase formative process to develop and pilot a curriculum version of the Alert Program ® , a promising intervention for improving self-regulation that could be used in remote community schools. This modified version of the program will be subsequently tested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. A mixed methods approach was used. Modifications to the Alert Program ® , its delivery and evaluation were made after community and stakeholder consultation facilitated by a senior Aboriginal community researcher. Changes to lesson plans and program resources were made to reflect the remote community context, classroom environment and the challenging behaviours of children. Standardised study outcome measures were modified by removing several questions that had little relevance to the lives of children in remote communities. Program training for school staff was reduced in length to reduce staff burden. This study identified aspects of the Alert Program ® training, delivery and measures for evaluation that need modification before their use in assessing the efficacy of the Alert Program ® in remote Aboriginal community primary schools. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Blundell, Joan; And Others
Describes five creative/innovative human service programs currently dealing with the farm/rural crisis: Northwest Iowa Community Mental Health Center (Spencer), Lutheran Social Services in southwest Minnesota, Farm Counseling Service, Inc. (Memphis, Missouri), Missouri Financial Advisory and Resource Management Support (Columbia), and Missouri…
Oct 16, 2017 ... The effect of the HIV/AIDS training for managers, peer leaders and workers was positive but not statistically significant. With some ... condoms despite a high level of AIDS knowledge among the factory workers of Nepal. .... of the program inter- vention, the researchers focused on the degree or the intensity.
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
Waterford Early Reading Program[TM] is a software-based curriculum for students in Kindergarten through second grade. The curriculum is designed to promote reading, writing, and typing, incorporating literacy skills such as letter mastery, language stories, spelling, basic writing skills, reading and listening development, and comprehension…
psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression, are associated with high attrition. Very little research has been conducted to determine the...condition or disease); severe asthma; diabetes; arthritis-related conditions (including arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, or fibromyalgia ...treatment prior to exiting the program. A mental health problem may include serious depression, serious anxiety , hallucinations, violent behavior or
Reed, Carolyn Mascia
To be effective in providing a writing literacy program, regardless of communication approaches, educators should establish program-wide conditions that promote English writing literacy over time. The researcher's purpose for this study was to identify shared characteristics of writing intervention programs in three different communication school…
van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Brug, J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.
BACKGROUND: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials.
Wainer, Allison L.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.
Systematic research focused on developing and improving strategies for the dissemination and implementation of effective ASD services is essential. An innovative and promising area of research is the use of telehealth programs to train parents of children with ASD in intervention techniques. A hybrid telehealth program, combining self-directed…
Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Zucosky, Heather C.; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Andersen, Shawna M.; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Stuart, Gregory L.
The substantial increase in the enrollment of women in batterer intervention programs (BIPs) over the past 30 years has greatly outpaced research on women who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV). As a result, it is unknown whether existing programs, which were originally designed to treat male perpetrators, are effective at preventing…
Prupas, Andrea; Harvey, William J.; Benjamin, Janet
The article describes an early intervention approach to aquatics for preschool children with autism. The Aquatic Nursery program successfully taught both the children and their parents to become involved in swimming. Specific programming details are provided in relation to people with autism, and particular attention is paid to aquatic skill…
Glenda Dias Santos
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-pharmalogical interventions represent an important complement to standard pharmalogical treatment in dementia. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program on cognitive ability, quality of life and depression symptoms in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND. Methods Ninety-seven older adults were recruited to the present study. Of these, 70 patients had mild AD and were allocated into experimental (n = 54 or control (n = 16 groups. Two additional active comparison groups were constituted with patients with moderate AD (n = 13 or with CIND (n = 14 who also received the intervention. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation program lasted for 12 weeks and was composed by sessions of memory training, recreational activities, verbal expression and writing, physical therapy and physical training, delivered in two weekly 6-hour sessions. Results As compared to controls, mild AD patients who received the intervention had improvements in cognition (p = 0.021 and quality of life (p = 0.003, along with a reduction in depressive symptoms (p < 0.001. As compared to baseline, CIND patients displayed at the end of the intervention improvements in cognition (p = 0.005 and depressive symptoms (p = 0.011. No such benefits were found among patients with moderate AD.Discussion: This multidisciplinary rehabilitation program was beneficial for patients with mild AD and CIND. However, patients with moderate dementia did not benefit from the intervention.
Junqueira, Marcelle Aparecida de Barros; Rassool, G Hussein; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina
Nurses are the prime movers in the prevention and harm reduction in alcohol-related harm especially for those patients who are unwilling to access specialist care. The aim of the study is to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of nursing students before and after Brief Intervention Training for alcohol problems. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with 120 undergraduate nursing students. Sixty recruited students were randomized into experimental and control groups (n = 60 each). Participants completed questionnaires on knowledge and attitudes before and after this training of brief intervention. The brief intervention program, 16 hours of duration, includes training for screening and early recognition, nursing, and the treatment of alcohol problems. Analysis of the data showed statistically significant positive change in the nursing students' knowledge (identifications and care) and personal and professional attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems after the educational intervention. The experimental group differed significantly in all the variables measured at posteducational program. The provision of educational program on brief intervention in undergraduate nursing education can be an effective way for acquisition of knowledge and changes in attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems.
Bar-On, Elhanan; Weigl, Daniel Martin; Becker, Tali; Katz, Kalman; Konen, Osnat
The increase in the utilization of fluoroscopy during surgical procedures carries with it an inherent increase in the exposure of both patients and surgical staff to ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability to reduce radiation doses by the implementation of an intervention program targeted at the staff operating the fluoroscopy machinery and attempting to make a behavioral change in its utilization. (1) Fluoroscopy technique was optimized after a series of simulation fluoroscopies. (2) A series of lectures was given to all staff operating fluoroscopy equipment (surgeons and x-ray technicians). (3) Directives for the reduction of radiation were included in the preoperative briefing, a sign was displayed next to the fluoroscopy screen, and radiation data was discussed in postoperative conferences. The index procedure chosen for the study was closed reduction and percutaneous fixation of Gartland III supracondylar humerus fractures. Fluoroscopy time and dosage were compared in 43 cases before the intervention program (group A) and in 40 cases after the program (group B). Reduction accuracy was assessed by the Bauman angle, humerocapitellar angle, and rotation index. The mean fluoroscopy time was 122 seconds (6-565) in group A and 54 seconds (1-188) in group B with a P value of 0.001. Radiation emission was 202 (5-1210) millirems in group A and 90 millirems (10-237) in group B (P=0.005). The mean fluoroscopy time for a surgery performed by a resident was 126 seconds (27-431) with 211 (38-766) millirems of radiation. The presence of a senior surgeon reduced these figures to 75 seconds (1-565) (P=0.003) and 127 millirems (5-1210) (P=0.001). The effect of the intervention program was similar regardless of the level of training of the surgical staff. Reduction accuracy and complication rate were no different in the 2 groups. Radiation exposure is significantly affected by surgical and fluoroscopic techniques and by the surgeons' level of
The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/strengths, challenges/weaknesses, and recommendations for program improvement. Results of the program evaluation indicated that telerehabilitation has the potential to cost-effectively meet the therapeutic needs of children living in rural areas where provider shortages exist. The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program serves as a model for how telerehabilitation can be used to deliver early intervention services to ameliorate health disparities and improve access to rehabilitation services. PMID:25945160
The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/strengths, challenges/weaknesses, and recommendations for program improvement. Results of the program evaluation indicated that telerehabilitation has the potential to cost-effectively meet the therapeutic needs of children living in rural areas where provider shortages exist. The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program serves as a model for how telerehabilitation can be used to deliver early intervention services to ameliorate health disparities and improve access to rehabilitation services.
Poole, Lucinda A; Lewis, Andrew J; Toumbourou, John W; Knight, Tess; Bertino, Melanie D; Pryor, Reima
Depression is the most common mental disorder for young people, and it is associated with educational underachievement, self-harm, and suicidality. Current psychological therapies for adolescent depression are usually focused only on individual-level change and often neglect family or contextual influences. The efficacy of interventions may be enhanced with a broader therapeutic focus on family factors such as communication, conflict, support, and cohesion. This article describes a structured multi-family group approach to the treatment of adolescent depression: Behaviour Exchange Systems Therapy for adolescent depression (BEST MOOD). BEST MOOD is a manualized intervention that is designed to address both individual and family factors in the treatment of adolescent depression. BEST MOOD adopts a family systems approach that also incorporates psychoeducation and elements of attachment theories. The program consists of eight multifamily group therapy sessions delivered over 2 hours per week, where parents attend the first four sessions and young people and siblings join from week 5. The program design is specifically aimed to engage youth who are initially resistant to treatment and to optimize youth and family mental health outcomes. This article presents an overview of the theoretical model, session content, and evaluations to date, and provides a case study to illustrate the approach. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Hackstadt, Amber J; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Williams, D'Ann L; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Butz, Arlene M; Peng, Roger D
Previous research has found evidence of an association between indoor air pollution and asthma morbidity in children. Environmental intervention studies have been performed to examine the role of household environmental interventions in altering indoor air pollution concentrations and improving health. Previous environmental intervention studies have found only modest effects on health outcomes and it is unclear if the health benefits provided by environmental modification are comparable with those provided by medication. Traditionally, the statistical analysis of environmental intervention studies has involved performing two intention-to-treat analyses that separately estimate the effect of the environmental intervention on health and the effect of the environmental intervention on indoor air pollution concentrations. We propose a principal stratification approach to examine the extent to which an environmental intervention's effect on health outcomes coincides with its effect on indoor air pollution. We apply this approach to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention trial conducted in a population of asthmatic children living in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We find that among children for whom the air cleaner reduced indoor particulate matter concentrations, the intervention resulted in a meaningful improvement of asthma symptoms with an effect generally larger than previous studies have shown. A key benefit of using principal stratification in environmental intervention studies is that it allows investigators to estimate causal effects of the intervention for sub-groups defined by changes in the indoor air pollution concentration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/str...
Efficacy of a family practice-based lifestyle intervention program to increase physical activity and reduce clinical and physiological markers of vascular health in patients with high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose (SNAC: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous interventions to increase physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk factors have been targeted at individuals with established disease; less attention has been given to intervention among individuals with high risk for disease nor has there been determination of the influence of setting in which the intervention is provided. In particular, family practice represents an ideal setting for the provision and long-term maintenance of lifestyle interventions for patients at risk (ie high-normal blood pressure or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods/design The Staged Nutrition and Activity Counseling (SNAC study is a randomized clustered design clinical trial that will investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of a multi-component lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors and vascular function in patients at risk in primary care. Patients will be randomized by practice to either a standard of care lifestyle intervention or a behaviourally-based, matched prescriptive physical activity and diet change program. The primary goal is to increase physical activity and improve dietary intake according to Canada's Guides to Physical Activity Healthy Eating over 24 months. The primary intention to treat analysis will compare behavioral, physiological and metabolic outcomes at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomization including estimation of incident hypertension and/or diabetes. Discussion The design features of our trial, and the practical problems (and solutions associated with implementing these design features, particularly those that result in potential delay between recruitment, baseline data collection, randomization, intervention, and assessment will be discussed. Results of the SNAC trial will provide scientific rationale for the implementation of this lifestyle intervention in primary care. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN:42921300
Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel
College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples.
Schlarb, Angelika A; Brandhorst, Isabel
.... Therefore, in the current study we examined the acceptance and efficacy of a newly developed Internet-based intervention program called Mini-KiSS Online for sleep disturbances for children aged 6...
Full Text Available The objectives of this case study were to describe comprehensively how the SEAMEO-VOCTECH Regional Center conducted the school adoption program, to gain information from teachers and related persons on the implementation of the programs, and to identify various interventions for achieving maximum outputs. The study employed a naturalistic qualitative method with Jerudong primary school and the VOCTECH Center as the major sites of the study. Three methods of data collection were enumeration techniques, participant observation and in-depth interview. The findings indicate how beneficial the program was to the school, and the program appears to be suitable to Indonesian schools, whose communities, conditions, and potencies vary
Malti, Tina; Noam, Gil G; Beelmann, Andreas; Sommer, Simon
This special issue examines essential challenges and successes for developing, implementing, and disseminating evidence-based psychological interventions for child and adolescent development and mental health. The main aims are to identify what evidence is "good enough" for roll-out, if and how interventions need to be adapted to developmental diversity and contextual variation, and how they relate to complex systemic contexts. Themes of the special issue are twofold and first include questions about adoption versus adaptation, in terms of both developmental tailoring and cultural adaptation of existing intervention programs. Second, the issue tackles questions about what systems of support are needed to ensure the system readiness for child and adolescent mental health interventions. We argue that moving from simple adoption to dynamic adaptation and from programs to collaborative systems offers new perspectives for developing and implementing flexible protocols and strategies that allow adapted intervention. The special issue raises broader questions of whether current intervention programs and practices are good enough in moving us from mere adoption to innovation in system readiness, or whether we need to do more before we can claim that interventions are good enough for roll-out.
Vachharajani, Tushar J; Moossavi, Shahriar; Salman, Loay; Wu, Steven; Dwyer, Amy C; Ross, Jamie; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Maya, Ivan D; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Agarwal, Anil; Abreo, Kenneth D; Work, Jack; Asif, Arif
The development of interventional nephrology has undoubtedly led to an improvement in patient care at many facilities across the United States. However, these services have traditionally been offered by interventional nephrologists in the private practice arena. While interventional nephrology was born in the private practice setting, several academic medical centers across the United States have now developed interventional nephrology programs. University Medical Centers (UMCs) that offer interventional nephrology face challenges, such as smaller dialysis populations, limited financial resources, and real or perceived political "turf" issues." Despite these hurdles, several UMCs have successfully established interventional nephrology as an intricate part of a larger nephrology program. This has largely been accomplished by consolidating available resources and collaborating with other specialties irrespective of the size of the dialysis population. The collaboration with other specialties also offers an opportunity to perform advanced procedures, such as application of excimer laser and endovascular ultrasound. As more UMCs establish interventional nephrology programs, opportunities for developing standardized training centers will improve, resulting in better quality and availability of nephrology-related procedures, and providing an impetus for research activities. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lear, S A; Ignaszewski, A; Laquer, E A; Pritchard, P H; Frohlich, J J
Long-term management of the lifestyles of cardiac patients who have completed a cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP), and the risks that may develop for future health problems, have not been extensively reported. The purpose of this pilot study of graduates of CRPs was to: (a) assess lifestyle and risk factor trends, (b) test certain protocols, and (c) identify the challenges and limitations in managing lifestyles and risk factors. A convenience sample of 49 people with ischemic heart disease (IHD) was randomized to a Lifestyle Management Intervention (LMI) group and a Usual Care (UC) group and followed for 6 months. Patients assigned to the LMI group underwent six additional exercise sessions and participated in telephone follow-ups and a counseling session. Patients in the UC group were assessed at baseline and at the end of 6 months. Of the original 49 participants, 17 in the LMI group and 19 in the UC group completed the study. Patients in the LMI group showed significant reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-C from baseline at 6 months. Diastolic blood pressure was decreased significantly in the UC group. The study identified the challenges of lifestyle intervention and found that favorable risk factor modifications are possible for patients who have completed a CRP.
Tougas, Anne-Marie; Boisvert, Isabelle; Tourigny, Marc; Lemieux, Annie; Tremblay, Claudia; Gagnon, Mélanie M
This study sought to verify if a history of maltreatment may predict the psychosocial profile of children who participated in an intervention program aiming at reducing sexual behavior problems. Data were collected at both the beginning and the end of the intervention program using a clinical protocol and standardized tests selected on the basis of the intervention targets. In general, the results indicate that children who had experienced maltreatment display a psychosocial profile that is similar to that of children who had not experienced maltreatment. However, children who had experienced psychological abuse or neglect may display greater externalized or sexualized behaviors, whereas children who have a parent who had been a victim of sexual abuse may display fewer sexualized behaviors.
Kraus, Michael David; Mueller, Marguerite; Schmitz, Bernd; Cunningham, Michael; Gebhard, Florian
Performance improvement (PI) programs are an educational tool used to analyze clinical performance of clinicians. The effect of this tool has not been fully explored in orthopedic and trauma surgery. A needs assessment was conducted in connection with a worldwide webinar on magnetic resonance imaging in spinal injuries to identify the clinical need for an educational intervention. A 3-step PI process was defined and implemented over a 6-month period in 1 hospital department. Opportunities for improvement were identified by applying a 10-item quality checklist to 26 cases. A focused educational intervention was delivered to address the identified gaps, and a set of 22 posteducation cases was compared. The department of radiology and the department of trauma surgery of a level I university hospital participated in this study. A total of 26 cases collected before the educational intervention showed several areas for potential improvement. Important information was not provided by the surgeons in their communication with the radiologist. The educational intervention outlined the data and suggested actions. Comparing the information transfer of the preintervention and postintervention data, there was a significant improvement following the intervention (p = 0.0013). Our PI program was able to demonstrate a significant influence on the behavior and the attitude of surgeons and radiologists. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sellschop, Ingrid; Myezwa, Hellen; Mudzi, Witness; Mbambo-Kekana, Nonceba
The interest in school ergonomic intervention programs and their effects on musculoskeletal pain is increasing around the world. The objective of this longitudinal randomized control trial was to implement and measure the effects of a computer-related ergonomics intervention on grade eight learners in a school environment in Johannesburg South Africa (a developing country). The sample comprised of a control group (n= 66) and an intervention group (n= 61). The outcome measures used were posture assessment using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment tool (RULA) and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Measurements were done at baseline, three months and six months post intervention. The results showed that the posture of the intervention group changed significantly from an Action Level 4 to an Action level 2 and Action level 3, indicating a sustained improvement of learners' postural positions whilst using computers. The intervention group showed a significant reduction in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain from 42.6% at baseline to 18% six months post intervention (p< 0.003). In conclusion, the results indicated that a computer-related intervention program for grade eight learners in a school environment is effective and that behavioural changes can be made that are sustainable over a period of six months.
Lindenskov, Lena; Kirsted, Katrine
“There is nothing so practical as a good theory”. The statement from Kurt Lewin is frequently cited, also in mathematics education. The statement invites for and requires close cooperation between different agents, whatever their own specific relation to practice and theory is. It is not a straig......“There is nothing so practical as a good theory”. The statement from Kurt Lewin is frequently cited, also in mathematics education. The statement invites for and requires close cooperation between different agents, whatever their own specific relation to practice and theory is...... theory?” and “What makes a good theory good for whom?” This paper explores this variation of how theory is perceived by mathematics teachers and by mathematics researchers involved in a developmental project on early intervention in mathematics education in Denmark. The paper exemplifies how agents......’ quite different work conditions and work requirements seem to constitute qualitative different needs for theoretical constructs, despite some common interest, too....
Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Watts, Amy M.; Pothong, Pattarapan
This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors.…
Mroczek, Dariusz; Maćkała, Krzysztof; Kawczynski, Adam; Superlak, Edward; Chmura, Paweł; Seweryniak, Tomasz; Chmura, Jan
This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 6-week plyometric exercise training program on the development of lower limb explosive power in terms of vertical jumping ability in university level volleyball players. The study involved 9 male volleyball players from the AWF Wroclaw University Sports Club, with a minimum of 5 years of training and competition experience. The program consisted of various bounds, hops, and jumps in vertical, horizontal, and mixed directions. During the program, a progressive overload of plyometric intervention was applied. Lower limb explosive power in the form of vertical jumping ability was developed and tested. The jumping ability was evaluated via 5 types of maximum-effort vertical jumps, using the Opto Jump system. In addition, once each week, the heart rate was recorded using a heart rate monitor-Polar RS300X GPS (Finland). The only significant correlation was found between squat jump and number of jumps and between counter movement jump and heart rate. From a practical standpoint, the improvement, which was noticed after 3 and 6 weeks, seems to optimal period for volleyball players adaptation to significant increased training load.
Joiner, Kevin L; Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin
The objective was to describe Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-based lifestyle interventions delivered via electronic, mobile, and certain types of telehealth (eHealth) and estimate the magnitude of the effect on weight loss. A systematic review was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2003 and February 2016 that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. An overall estimate of the effect on mean percentage weight loss across all the interventions was initially conducted. A stratified meta-analysis was also conducted to determine estimates of the effect across the interventions classified according to whether behavioral support by counselors post-baseline was not provided, provided remotely with communication technology, or face-to-face. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, in which 26 interventions were evaluated. Samples were primarily white and college educated. Interventions included Web-based applications, mobile phone applications, text messages, DVDs, interactive voice response telephone calls, telehealth video conferencing, and video on-demand programing. Nine interventions were stand-alone, delivered post-baseline exclusively via eHealth. Seventeen interventions included additional behavioral support provided by counselors post-baseline remotely with communication technology or face-to-face. The estimated overall effect on mean percentage weight loss from baseline to up to 15months of follow-up across all the interventions was -3.98%. The subtotal estimate across the stand-alone eHealth interventions (-3.34%) was less than the estimate across interventions with behavioral support given by a counselor remotely (-4.31%), and the estimate across interventions with behavioral support given by a counselor in-person (-4.65%). There is promising evidence of the efficacy of DPP-based eHealth interventions on weight loss. Further studies are needed particularly in racially and ethnically diverse
Garbutt Jane M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate a 12-month telephone-coaching program designed to support primary care management of children with persistent asthma and subsequently to improve asthma control and disease-related quality of life and reduce urgent care events for asthma care. Randomization occurred at the practice level with eligible families within a practice having access to the coaching program or to usual care. The coaching intervention was based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Targeted behaviors included 1 effective use of controller medications, 2 effective use of rescue medications and 3 monitoring to ensure optimal control. Trained lay coaches provided parents with education and support for asthma care, tailoring the information provided and frequency of contact to the parent's readiness to change their child's day-to-day asthma management. Coaching calls varied in frequency from weekly to monthly. For each participating family, follow-up measurements were obtained at 12- and 24-months after enrollment in the study during a telephone interview. The primary outcomes were the mean change in 1 the child's asthma control score, 2 the parent's quality of life score, and 3 the number of urgent care events assessed at 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes reflected adherence to guideline recommendations by the primary care pediatricians and included the proportion of children prescribed controller medications
Tunson, Java; Boatright, Dowin; Oberfoell, Stephanie; Bakes, Katherine; Angerhofer, Christy; Lowenstein, Steven; Zane, Richard; King, Renee; Druck, Jeffrey
Much work remains to be done to align the diversity of the health care workforce with the changing racial and ethnic backgrounds of patients, especially in the field of emergency medicine. In academic year (AY) 2012-2013, to increase the number of underrepresented minority (URM) candidates who were interviewed and matched, the Denver Health Residency in Emergency Medicine program (DHREM) initiated a focused pilot intervention with three principal strategies: (1) a scholarship-based externship program, (2) a funded second-look event, and (3) increased involvement and visibility of URM faculty in the interview and recruitment process. One year after implementation of the pilot intervention, the percentage of URMs among all applicants invited to interview at the DHREM doubled (7.1% [20/282] in AY 2011-2012, 7.0% [24/344] in AY 2012-2013, and 14.8% [58/393] in AY 2013-2014) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5-10, 4-11, and 11-19, respectively). Of all DHREM interviewees in AY 2013-2014, 17.6% (49/279) (95% CI = 12-23) were URMs, nearly a threefold increase from AY 2012-2013 (6.2% [14/226], 95% CI = 3-10). In AY 2013-2014, 23.5% (4/17) (95% CI = 7-50) of all new DHREM residents were URMs, compared with 5.9% (1/17) in AY 2011-2012 and 5.6% (1/18) in AY 2012-2013 (95% CI = 0-29 and 0-27, respectively). Additional studies are needed to determine whether these results are sustainable and generalizable to other residency programs in emergency medicine and other specialties.
Logan, Diane E; Kilmer, Jason R; King, Kevin M; Larimer, Mary E
This study investigated the effectiveness of three single-session interventions with high-risk mandated students while considering the influence of motivational interviewing (MI) microskills. This randomized, controlled pilot trial evaluated single-session interventions: Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP), Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) feedback sessions, and treatment-as-usual Alcohol Diversion Program (ADP) educational groups. Participants were 61 full-time undergraduates at a southern U.S. campus sanctioned to a clinical program following violation of an on-campus alcohol policy (Mage = 19.16 years; 42.6% female). RESULTS revealed a significant effect of time for reductions in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and number of weekly drinks but not in alcohol-related consequences. Although ASTP and BASICS participants reported significant decreases in eBAC over time, ADP participant levels did not change (with no intervention effects on quantity or consequences). MI microskills were not related to outcomes. RESULTS from this study suggest equivalent behavioral impacts for the MI-based interventions, although individual differences in outcome trajectories suggest that research is needed to further customize mandated interventions. Given the overall decrease in eBAC following the sanction, the lack of reduction in the ADP condition warrants caution when using education-only interventions.
Yıldırım, Arzu; Hacıhasanoğlu Aşılar, Rabia; Karakurt, Papatya
This study was conducted to examine the effect of psychosocial education provided to mothers with intellectually disabled children on the risk of depression and perception of family functioning in those mothers. Families with intellectually disabled children need encouragement, support and training to more actively participate in their children's education and to positively affect their children's growth and development. Randomised controlled study. The study included the mothers of 75 intellectually disabled children (40 intervention, 35 control). The mothers in the intervention group who participated in a routine program at private education and rehabilitation centres attended four different psychosocial educational sessions. Sessions were conducted once a week for four weeks and lasted 120 minutes. The control group attended only the routine program of the private education and rehabilitation centre. Our study results showed that after completion of the educational program, there was a greater decrease in the risk for depression in the intervention group when compared to the control group, and the former perceived their family functions better. These differences were statistically significant (p children with intellectual disabilities may be effective in reducing the risk for depression and in increasing the perception of healthy family functioning. Psychosocial nursing education program can contribute to the use of evidence-based education strategies in nursing practice to improve the mental health for mothers with intellectually disabled children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Wölfer, Ralf; Scheithauer, Herbert
Bullying is a social phenomenon and although preventive interventions consequently address social mechanisms, evaluations hardly consider the complexity of peer processes. Therefore, the present study analyzes the efficacy of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program from a social network perspective. Within a pretest-posttest control group design, longitudinal data were available from 328 middle-school students (MAge = 13.7 years; 51% girls), who provided information on bullying behavior and interaction patterns. The revealed network parameters were utilized to examine the network change (MANCOVA) and the network dynamics (SIENA). Across both forms of analyses, findings revealed the hypothesized intervention-based decrease of bullies' social influence. Hence the present bullying prevention program, as one example of programs that successfully addresses both individual skills and social mechanisms, demonstrates the desired effect of reducing contextual opportunities for the exhibition of bullying behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stadnick, Nicole A.; Stahmer, Aubyn; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren
This is a pilot study of the effectiveness of Project ImPACT, a parent-mediated intervention for ASD delivered in a community program. The primary aim was to compare child and parent outcomes between the intervention group and a community comparison for 30 young children with ASD at baseline and 12 weeks. The secondary aim was to identify parent…
Kairaluoma, Leila; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Holopainen, Leena
This study is an intervention case study of fluency in Finnish-speaking children with dyslexia. Two 7-year-old children, a girl and a boy, were selected from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. The intervention emphasised syllables as reading units, and proceeded from reading syllables to reading words and text. Letter knowledge, reading…
Verbeek, J.; Salmi, J.; Pasternack, I.; Jauhiainen, M.; Laamanen, I.; Schaafsma, F.; Hulshof, C.; van Dijk, F.
As a result of low numbers and diversity in study type, occupational health intervention studies are not easy to locate in electronic literature databases. To develop a search strategy that facilitates finding occupational health intervention studies in Medline, both for researchers and
Hackstadt, A. J.; Butz, Arlene M.; Williams, D’Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Peng, Roger D.
Previous research has found evidence of an association between indoor air pollution and asthma morbidity in children. Environmental intervention studies have been performed to examine the role of household environmental interventions in altering indoor air pollution concentrations and improving health. Previous environmental intervention studies have found only modest effects on health outcomes and it is unclear if the health benefits provided by environmental modification are comparable to t...
Armsby, Laurie; Beekman, Robert H; Benson, Lee; Fagan, Thomas; Hagler, Donald J; Hijazi, Ziyad M; Holzer, Ralf; Ing, Frank; Kreutzer, Jacqueline; Lang, Peter; Levi, Daniel S; Latson, Larry; Moore, Phillip; Mullins, Charles; Ruiz, Carlos; Vincent, Robert
Pediatric and Congenital Interventional Cardiology is the practice of catheter-based techniques that improve cardiac physiology and circulation through the treatment of heart disease in children and adults with congenital or acquired heart defects. Over the last decade, and since last published training guidelines for pediatric cardiac catheterization and interventional cardiology were published in 2005  the field of Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Catheterization has evolved into a predominantly interventional discipline. As there is no sub-specialty certification for interventional cardiac catheterization in pediatrics, the Congenital Heart Disease Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions has put together this consensus statement for advanced training in pediatric and congenital interventional cardiac catheterization. The statement puts forth recommendations for program infrastructure in terms of teaching, personnel, equipment, facilities, conferences, patient volume and trainee assessment. This is meant to set a standard for training programs as well as giving applicants a basis on which to judge and compare programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ahmed, Kauser; Marchand, Erica; Williams, Victoria; Coscarelli, Anne; Ganz, Patricia A
To describe the development, pilot testing, and dissemination of a psychosocial intervention addressing concerns of young breast cancer survivors (YBCS). Intervention development included needs assessment with community organizations and interviews with YBCS. Based on evidence-based models of treatment, the intervention included tools for managing anxiety, fear of recurrence, tools for decision-making, and coping with sexuality/relationship issues. After pilot testing in a university setting, the program was disseminated to two community clinical settings. The program has two distinct modules (anxiety management and relationships/sexuality) that were delivered in two sessions; however, due to attrition, an all day workshop evolved. An author constructed questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention evaluation. Post-treatment scores showed an average increase of 2.7 points on a 10 point scale for the first module, and a 2.3 point increase for the second module. Qualitative feedback surveys were also collected. The two community sites demonstrated similar gains among their participants. The intervention satisfies an unmet need for YBCS and is a possible model of integrating psychosocial intervention with oncology care. This program developed standardized materials which can be disseminated to other organizations and potentially online for implementation within community settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thakkar, Jay; Barry, Tony; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Redfern, Julie; McEwan, Alistair L; Rodgers, Anthony; Chow, Clara K
Mobile health (mHealth) has huge potential to deliver preventative health services. However, there is paucity of literature on theoretical constructs, technical, practical, and regulatory considerations that enable delivery of such services. The objective of this study was to outline the key considerations in the development of a text message-based mHealth program; thus providing broad recommendations and guidance to future researchers designing similar programs. We describe the key considerations in designing the intervention with respect to functionality, technical infrastructure, data management, software components, regulatory requirements, and operationalization. We also illustrate some of the potential issues and decision points utilizing our experience of developing text message (short message service, SMS) management systems to support 2 large randomized controlled trials: TEXT messages to improve MEDication adherence & Secondary prevention (TEXTMEDS) and Tobacco, EXercise and dieT MEssages (TEXT ME). The steps identified in the development process were: (1) background research and development of the text message bank based on scientific evidence and disease-specific guidelines, (2) pilot testing with target audience and incorporating feedback, (3) software-hardware customization to enable delivery of complex personalized programs using prespecified algorithms, and (4) legal and regulatory considerations. Additional considerations in developing text message management systems include: balancing the use of customized versus preexisting software systems, the level of automation versus need for human inputs, monitoring, ensuring data security, interface flexibility, and the ability for upscaling. A merging of expertise in clinical and behavioral sciences, health and research data management systems, software engineering, and mobile phone regulatory requirements is essential to develop a platform to deliver and manage support programs to hundreds of
Boots, Denise Paquette; Wareham, Jennifer; Bartula, Aaron; Canas, Roberto
Studies of batterer intervention and prevention programs (BIPPs) offer mixed results regarding their effect on recidivism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of BIPP for cases assigned to a misdemeanor family court. This study focused on determining whether BIPP cases, compared with alternative sanctions, had significantly lower recidivism rates 12 months after program involvement. Findings indicated that BIPP was more effective than jail or regular dismissal in reducing the likelihood of future arrests, but not plea deferred adjudication and conditional dismissal. Results argue toward the efficacy of some form of treatment versus simply receiving jail time. © The Author(s) 2015.
Horan Christopher L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation, for either diagnosis or treatment, is used extensively in the field of oncology. An understanding of oncology radiation safety principles and how to apply them in practice is critical for nursing practice. Misconceptions about radiation are common, resulting in undue fears and concerns that may negatively impact patient care. Effectively educating nurses to help overcome these misconceptions is a challenge. Historically, radiation safety training programs for oncology nurses have been compliance-based and behavioral in philosophy. Methods A new radiation safety training initiative was developed for Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC adapting elements of current adult education theories to address common misconceptions and to enhance knowledge. A research design for evaluating the revised training program was also developed to assess whether the revised training program resulted in a measurable and/or statistically significant change in the knowledge or attitudes of nurses toward working with radiation. An evaluation research design based on a conceptual framework for measuring knowledge and attitude was developed and implemented using a pretest-intervention-posttest approach for 15% of the study population of 750 inpatient registered oncology nurses. Results As a result of the intervention program, there was a significant difference in nurse's cognitive knowledge as measured with the test instrument from pretest (58.9% to posttest (71.6%. The evaluation also demonstrated that while positive nursing attitudes increased, the increase was significant for only 5 out of 9 of the areas evaluated. Conclusion The training intervention was effective for increasing cognitive knowledge, but was less effective at improving overall attitudes. This evaluation provided insights into the effectiveness of training interventions on the radiation safety knowledge and attitude of oncology nurses.
Saltzman, William R
This article describes the core principles and components of the FOCUS Program, a brief intervention for families contending with single or multiple trauma or loss events. It has been administered nationally to thousands of military family members since 2008 and has been implemented in a wide range of civilian community, medical, clinical, and school settings. Developed by a team from the UCLA and Harvard Medical Schools, the FOCUS Program provides a structured approach for joining with traditional and nontraditional families, crafting shared goals, and then working with parents, children, and the entire family to build communication, make meaning out of traumatic experiences, and practice specific skills that support family resilience. Through a narrative sharing process, each family member tells his or her story and constructs a timeline that graphically captures the experience and provides a platform for family discussions on points of convergence and divergence. This narrative sharing process is first done with the parents and then the children and then the family as a whole. The aim is to build perspective-taking skills and mutual understanding, to reduce distortions and misattributions, and to bridge estrangement between family members. Previous studies have confirmed that families participating in this brief program report reductions in distress and symptomatic behaviors for both parents and children and increases in child pro-social behaviors and family resilient processes. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Effects of a school-based stroke education program on stroke-related knowledge and behaviour modification-school class based intervention study for elementary school students and parental guardians in a Japanese rural area.
Kato, Suzuka; Okamura, Tomonori; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Takekawa, Hidehiro; Nagao, Masanori; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Hino, Tenyu; Wada, Shinichi; Arimizu, Takuro; Takebayashi, Toru; Kobashi, Gen; Hirata, Koichi; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo
This study aimed to determine the effect of a stroke education programme on elementary school students and their parental guardians in a rural area in Japan that has high stroke mortality. School class based intervention study. Eleven public elementary schools in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. 268 students aged 11-12 years and 267 parental guardians. Students received lessons about stroke featuring animated cartoons and were instructed to communicate their knowledge about stroke to their parental guardians using material (comic books) distributed in the lessons. Stroke knowledge (symptoms, risk factors and attitude towards stroke) and behavioural change for risk factors were assessed at baseline, immediately after the programme and at 3 months. We also evaluated behavioural change for risk factors among parental guardians. The percentage of students with all correct answers for stroke symptoms, risk factors and the recommended response to stroke was significantly increased at 3 months P<0.001). We observed a significant increase in the percentage of guardians who chose all correct symptoms (P<0.001: 61.0% vs 85.4%) and risk factors (P<0.001: 41.2% vs 59.9%) at 3 months compared with baseline. The percentage of parental guardians with a high behavioural response to improving risk factors was significantly increased at 3 months compared with baseline (P<0.001). In a rural population with high stroke mortality, stroke education can improve knowledge about stroke in elementary school students and their parental guardians. We conducted the intervention as a part of compulsory education; this study was not a clinical trial. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (M27-026). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One...
... White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...
Full Text Available The study describe characteristics and risk factors for child abuse and neglect,in 591 children and adolescents, their parents and families served by eight brief intervention programs (PIB “Viviendo en Familia”, funded by the Chilean National Service of Children (SENAME and implemented by Protectora de la Infancia (a non-profit organization in Chile. The results revealed the existence of problems of moderate complexity, on the environment,parental competencies, family interactions, family safety and child well-being. About three of each four caregivers show signs of high risk for the abuse or neglect of children, especially in their mental health, a topic that must be considered by the staff to develop a plan of coordinated work with the local network of health services.
Full Text Available Introduction: according to the ethology theory mother infant separation immediately after birth can interfere with the infants innate behaviors for the initiation of breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to the effect of an interventional program based on the Theory of Ethology on infant breast feeding competence Materials and Methods: 114 primiparous, Iranian, healthy, full term mothers between 18-35 years with normal vaginal delivery who intended to breastfeed their babies. They were put in direct skin to skin contact with their infants immediately after birth for two hours. Then, rates of infant breastfeeding competence were compared with a control group receiving routine hospital cares. Results: Rates of infant breastfeeding competence were higher in the skin to skin contact group compared to routine care group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: mother- infant early skin to skin contact promotes infants natural feeding behaviors leading to higher rates of infant breastfeeding competence. These findings confirm the Theory of Ethology.
Full Text Available Introduction: according to the ethology theory mother infant separation immediately after birth can interfere with the infants innate behaviors for the initiation of breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to the effect of an interventional program based on the Theory of Ethology on infant breast feeding competence Materials and Methods: 114 primiparous, Iranian, healthy, full term mothers between 18-35 years with normal vaginal delivery who intended to breastfeed their babies. They were put in direct skin to skin contact with their infants immediately after birth for two hours. Then, rates of infant breastfeeding competence were compared with a control group receiving routine hospital cares. Results: Rates of infant breastfeeding competence were higher in the skin to skin contact group compared to routine care group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: mother- infant early skin to skin contact promotes infants natural feeding behaviors leading to higher rates of infant breastfeeding competence. These findings confirm the Theory of Ethology.
Bourgeois, Nicole; Brauer, Paula; Simpson, Janis Randall; Kim, Susie; Haines, Jess
Preventing childhood obesity is a public health priority, and primary care is an important setting for early intervention. Authors of a recent national guideline have identified a need for effective primary care interventions for obesity prevention and that parent perspectives on interventions are notably absent from the literature. Our objective was to determine the perspectives of primary care clinicians and parents of children 2-5 years of age on the implementation of an obesity prevention intervention within team-based primary care to inform intervention implementation. We conducted focus groups with interprofessional primary care clinicians (n = 40) and interviews with parents (n = 26). Participants were asked about facilitators and barriers to, and recommendations for implementing a prevention program in primary care. Data were recorded and transcribed, and we used directed content analysis to identify major themes. Barriers existed to addressing obesity-related behaviours in this age group and included a gap in well-child primary care between ages 18 months and 4-5 years, lack of time and sensitivity of the topic. Trust and existing relationships with primary care clinicians were facilitators to program implementation. Offering separate programs for parents and children, and addressing both general parenting topics and obesity-related behaviours were identified as desirable. Despite barriers to addressing obesity-related behaviours within well-child primary care, both clinicians and parents expressed interest in interventions in primary care settings. Next steps should include pilot studies to identify feasible strategies for intervention implementation.
Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Arikan, Arzu; Aksoy, Funda; Çelik, Seçil
This study aims to describe the views of teachers, parents, and FSS-PSV counselors on the Preschool Version of First Step to Success Early Intervention Program (FSS-PSV) in preventing antisocial behaviors; in addition, the implementation process and contributions from the program will also be outlined. The study was conducted in six different…
Frosch, DL; Rincon, D.; Ochoa, S; Mangione, CM
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of an activation intervention delivered in community senior centers to improve health outcomes for chronic diseases that disproportionately affect older adults. Design: Two-group quasi-experimental study. Setting: Two Los Angeles community senior centers. Participants: One hundred sixteen senior participants. Intervention: Participants were invited to attend group screenings of video programs intended to inform about and motivate self-management of chronic c...
Verheijden Johannes; van Doormaal Lily; Dirks Tineke; Bos Arend F; Maathuis Carel GB; Reinders-Messelink Heleen A; Hamer Elisa G; Hielkema Tjitske; Vlaskamp Carla; Lindeman Eline; Hadders-Algra Mijna
Abstract Background It is widely accepted that infants at risk for cerebral palsy need paediatric physiotherapy. However, there is little evidence for the efficacy of physiotherapeutic intervention. Recently, a new intervention program, COPCA (Coping with and Caring for infants with special needs - a family centered program), was developed. COPCA has educational and motor goals. A previous study indicated that the COPCA-approach is associated with better developmental outcomes for infants at ...
Ingersoll, Brooke; Berger, Natalie I
There has been growing interest in using telehealth to increase access to parent-mediated interventions for children with ASD. However, little is known about how parents engage with such programs. This paper presents program engagement data from a pilot study comparing self-directed and therapist-assisted versions of a novel telehealth-based parent-mediated intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Parents of young children with ASD were randomly assigned to receive a self-directed or therapist-assisted version of ImPACT Online. Parent engagement and satisfaction with the different components of the program website were examined using the program's automated data collection and a post-treatment evaluation survey. We examined the relationship between program engagement and changes in parent knowledge and implementation and participant characteristics associated with program engagement. Of the 27 parent participants, the majority were female (26/27, 96%), married (22/27, 81%), with a college degree or higher (18/27, 66%), and less than half were employed outside of the home (10/27, 37%). The mean chronological age of the child participants was 43.26 months, and the majority were male (19/27, 70%) and white (21/27, 78%). Most of the families (19/27, 70%) resided in a rural or medically underserved area. Parents logged into the website an average of 46.85 times, spent an average of 964.70 minutes on the site, and completed an average of 90.17% of the lesson learning activities. Participants in the therapist-assisted group were more likely to engage with the website than those in the self-directed group: F2,24=17.65, Pintervention knowledge, and program completion (beta=.43, P=.03) and group assignment (beta=-.37, P=.045) predicted post-treatment intervention fidelity. Partial correlations indicated that parent depressive symptoms at pretreatment were negatively associated with program completion (r=-.40, P=.04), but other key parent and
Warren, Lana R; Rao, Patricia A; Paton, David C
To determine whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would tolerate an acupressure/acupuncture intervention and whether parents would adhere to a twice-weekly, 8-week intervention protocol. Second, to further understand best measures to use to capture impact of intervention on behavioral and regulatory functions. This is an observational pilot study with pre-, mid-, and postintervention measures. The intervention was carried out in a private practice office in a large metropolitan area. A total of 10 children of ages 3-10 years with ASD and one of their parents participated. A total of 16 biweekly treatment sessions of acupressure and/or acupuncture were carried out by a licensed acupuncturist, and a daily home-based acupressure intervention was carried out by a parent. Attendance, tolerance of intervention, parent compliance with home program, and parent compliance in completing daily diary and five standardized measures of behavioral and regulatory functions pre-, mid-, and postintervention were recorded. The 10 children in this observational study, collectively, tolerated the intervention and parents adhered to the 16 sessions, biweekly protocol, and home protocol, as well as completing daily diary and five standardized measures at three different time intervals. The five measurements appeared to be sensitive to behavioral and regulatory functions that may improve with this type of intervention. The results of this observational pilot study suggest that acupressure/acupuncture is a feasible intervention for children with ASD that merits rigorous evaluation through a randomized controlled trial.
Callander, Emily J; Lindsay, Daniel B; Scuffham, Paul A
The Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) project aimed to determine if early intervention for depression influenced workforce productivity in full-time employees. The current study aims to examine whether this intervention is cost-effective. A cost-benefit analysis of the WORC project from the employer's perspective was undertaken, taking into account intervention costs and associated gains due to increased workforce productivity from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Both the single intervention and case management groups were found to have a decrease in time lost at work due to presenteeism. This contributed to net gains resulting from increased workforce productivity in both intervention groups. The results suggest that the WORC intervention was cost-effective. A similar intervention to that described here may be beneficial to employers who are seeking to increase workforce productivity.
Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Lopez, Veronica; Flores, Bianca; Lawhon, Brittany
Nutrition in early childhood can significantly impact physical and mental health outcomes for children. However, research on broadly defined pre/postnatal nutrition interventions is sparse. The present study is a process and outcome evaluation of a primary care-based nutrition intervention targeting low-income Hispanic women. Pregnant women enrolled in the program were in their first trimester and received services through their 6-month well child check. The program provided vouchers for fruits and vegetables from the local farmers' market, nutrition classes, cooking classes, and lactation counseling. We conducted a prospective study of program participants (n = 32) and a comparable group of women for whom the program was not available (n = 29). Panel survey data measured maternal diet, exercise, stress, depression, social support, infant feeding practices, and demographics. Outcome measures obtained from medical records included pregnancy weight gain, infant weight at 6 and 12 months, and infant development at 9 months. Findings reveal that the program was not associated with infant weights. However, despite similar profiles at baseline, women in the intervention group were more likely than women in the comparison group to have significant improvements in diet, exercise, and depression (p ≤ .05). In addition, participants were more likely to breastfeed (p = .07) and their infants were more likely to pass the ages and stages developmental screen (p = .06) than women in the comparison group. The study was limited by a lack of random assignment and small samples. However, the breadth and size of the effects suggest pre/postnatal nutrition interventions integrated into primary care warrant additional investigation.
Comer, James P.; Emmons, Christine
The Yale Child Study Center School Development Program (SDP) practices an action research approach to look into obstacles to good teaching and learning in schools, and to reduce or eliminate them. A discussion on the SDP explains how the pilot, field-test and dissemination aspects of the work evolved, the intervention methods used and their…
Mustanski, Brian; Greene, George J; Ryan, Daniel; Whitton, Sarah W
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience multiple sexual health inequities driven, in part, by deficits in parental and peer support, school-based sex education programs, and community services. Research suggests that the Internet may be an important resource in the development of sexual health among LGBT youth. We examined the feasibility of recruiting youth in same-sex relationships into an online sexual health intervention, evaluated intervention acceptability, and obtained initial estimates of intervention efficacy. LGBT youth (16 to 20 years old) completed Queer Sex Ed (QSE), an online, multimedia sexual health intervention consisting of five modules. The final sample (N = 202) completed the pretest, intervention, and posttest assessments. The primary study outcomes were sexual orientation identity and self-acceptance (e.g., coming-out self-efficacy), sexual health knowledge (e.g., sexual functioning), relationship variables (e.g., communication skills), and safer sex (e.g., sexual assertiveness). Analyses indicated that 15 of the 17 outcomes were found to be significant (p acceptability, and initial efficacy of QSE, an innovative online comprehensive sexual health program for LGBT youth.
Restek-Petrović, Branka; Mihanović, Mate; Grah, Majda; Molnar, Sven; Bogović, Anamarija; Agius, Mark; Kezić, Slobodanka; Grošić, Vladimir; Mayer, Nina; Svrdlin, Pero; Dominis, Vesna; Goršić, Lada; Kamerman, Nenad; Pavlović, Irena; Švagelj, Ana
The Early intervention program for the first episodes of psychotic disorders (RIPEPP) at the Psychiatric Hospital “Sveti Ivan“ in Zagreb encompasses patients hospitalized due to various psychoses (acute psychotic disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective and delusional disorder, bipolar affective disorder with psychotic symptoms) in the “critical period“ of illness, i.e. within five years after the occurrence of the first symptoms. The RIPEPP Program consists of an in- and out-patient...
Linda J Cobiac
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for chronic disease, but a growing number of people are not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity necessary for good health. Australians are no exception; despite Australia's image as a sporting nation, with success at the elite level, the majority of Australians do not get enough physical activity. There are many options for intervention, from individually tailored advice, such as counselling from a general practitioner, to population-wide approaches, such as mass media campaigns, but the most cost-effective mix of interventions is unknown. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From evidence of intervention efficacy in the physical activity literature and evaluation of the health sector costs of intervention and disease treatment, we model the cost impacts and health outcomes of six physical activity interventions, over the lifetime of the Australian population. We then determine cost-effectiveness of each intervention against current practice for physical activity intervention in Australia and derive the optimal pathway for implementation. Based on current evidence of intervention effectiveness, the intervention programs that encourage use of pedometers (Dominant and mass media-based community campaigns (Dominant are the most cost-effective strategies to implement and are very likely to be cost-saving. The internet-based intervention program (AUS$3,000/DALY, the GP physical activity prescription program (AUS$12,000/DALY, and the program to encourage more active transport (AUS$20,000/DALY, although less likely to be cost-saving, have a high probability of being under a AUS$50,000 per DALY threshold. GP referral to an exercise physiologist (AUS$79,000/DALY is the least cost-effective option if high time and travel costs for patients in screening and consulting an exercise physiologist are considered
This study was conducted to develop and to determine the effects of an integrated symptom management program for prevention of recurrent cardiac events after percutaneous coronary intervention. Subjects consisted of 58 CAD patients (experimental group: 30, control group: 28). The experimental group participated in an integrated symptom management program for 6 months which was composed of tailored education, stress management, exercise, diet, deep breathing, music therapy, periodical telephone monitoring and a daily log. The control group received the usual care. The experimental group significantly decreased symptom experiences and the level of LDL compared to the control group. The experimental group significantly increased self care activity and quality of life compared to the control group. Although no significant difference was found in cardiac recurrence, the experimental group had fewer recurrences. These results suggest that an integrated symptom management program for prevention of recurrent cardiac events after percutaneous coronary intervention can improve symptom aggravation, recurrent rate, self care activity and quality of life. Nursing interventions are needed to maintain and further enhance the quality of life of these patients and the interventions should be implemented in the overall transition period.
Culp, A M; Culp, R E; Blankemeyer, M; Passmark, L
This study examined the effect of an intervention over a 6-month period to improve first time mothers knowledge about parenting and safety in the home. The sample included 61 mothers who completed a baseline and follow-up survey. Mothers were first time adolescent (38) and nonadolescent (22) mothers recruited from rural county health departments for participation in a voluntary home visitation intervention program. Four hypotheses were tested that associated home visitation with greater parenting skill and child development knowledge and safety. Adolescent mothers were expected to make greater gains but to lag behind nonadolescent mothers in child development knowledge, parenting skills knowledge, household safety, and use of community resources. The sample included 32% with a high school degree and 12% African American. 83% were in school. 85% lived at or below the US federal poverty level. Parent Educators provided weekly in-home education based on a manual and individualized curriculum. Parenting skills knowledge was measured by the Adolescent-Adult Parenting Inventory (Bavolek, 1984). Home safety was measured by Culp's Home Safety Checklist. Educators recorded use of 13 community services. Analysis of variance revealed that infant knowledge increased to the same level among all mothers regardless of adolescents' lesser knowledge at baseline. Parenting skill knowledge of child roles increased for both ages, but older mothers scored higher. Parenting skill knowledge of alternatives to corporal punishment increased similarly for both ages. No age or interactive effects were related to improvement in safety or use of community services.
Cloutier, P; Thibedeau, N; Barrowman, N; Gray, C; Kennedy, A; Leon, S L; Polihronis, C; Cappelli, M
Despite documented increases in emergency department (ED) mental health (MH) presentations, there are inconsistent findings on the characteristics of patients with repeat presentations to pediatric EDs (PEDs) for MH concerns. Our study sought to explore the characteristics of MH patients with repeat PED visits and determine predictors of return visits, of earlier repeat visits, and of more frequent repeat visits. We examined data collected prospectively in a clinical database looking at MH presentations to a crisis intervention program housed within a PED from October 2006 to December 2011. Predictive models based on demographic and clinical variables were constructed using logistic, Cox, and negative binomial regression. A total of 4,080 presentations to the PED were made by the 2,900 children and youth. Repeat visits accounted for almost half (45.8%) of all presentations. Multivariable analysis identified five variables that independently predicted greater odds of having repeat presentations, greater risk of earlier repeat presentations, and greater risk of frequent repeat presentations. The five variables were: female, living in the metropolitan community close to the PED, being in the care of child protective services, taking psychotropic medications, and presenting with an actionable need in the area of mood disturbances. Repeat visits account for a large portion of all MH presentations to the PED. Furthermore, several patient characteristics are significant predictors of repeat PED use and of repeating use sooner and more frequently. Further research is needed to examine interventions targeting this patient group to ensure appropriate MH patient management.
Pitt, Rachelle; Theodoros, Deborah; Hill, Anne J; Russell, Trevor
Aphasia group therapy offers many benefits, however people with aphasia report difficulty accessing groups and speech-language pathologists are faced with many challenges in providing aphasia group therapy. Telerehabilitation may offer an alternative service delivery option. An online aphasia group therapy program - Telerehabilitation Group Aphasia Intervention and Networking (TeleGAIN) - has been developed according to the guidelines of the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex interventions. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of TeleGAIN and the results of a pilot trial to determine feasibility and acceptability. The development of TeleGAIN was informed through literature reviews in relevant topic areas, consideration of expert opinion and application of the social cognitive theory. TeleGAIN was then modelled through a feasibility pilot trial with four people with aphasia. TeleGAIN appeared to be feasible and acceptable to participants and able to be implemented as planned. Participant satisfaction with treatment was high and results suggested some potential for improvements in language functioning and communication-related quality of life. TeleGAIN appeared to be feasible and acceptable, however the study highlighted issues related to technology, clinical implementation and participant-specific factors that should be addressed prior to a larger trial.
Shadkam, Somayeh; Oel, Pieter; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco
Increasing water demand often results in unsustainable water use leaving insufficient amounts of water for sustaining natural environments. Therefore, to save natural resources water-saving interventions have been introduced to the environmental policy agenda in many (semi)-arid regions. Many policies, however, have failed reaching their objectives to increase water availability for the environment. This calls for a comprehensive tool to assess water-saving policies. Therefore, this study introduces a constructive framework to assess the policies by estimating five components: 1) Total water demand under socio-economic scenarios, 2) Water supply under climate change scenarios, 3) Water withdrawal for different sectors, 4) Water depletion and 5) Environmental flow. The framework, was applied to assess Urmia Lake Restoration Program (ULRP), which aims to restore the drying Urmia Lake in north-western Iran by increasing the lake inflow by 3.1×106m3yr-1. Results suggest that although the ULRP helps to increase inflow by up to 57% it is unlikely to fully reach its target. The analysis shows that there are three main reasons for the potential poor performance. The first reason is decreasing return flows due to increasing irrigation efficiency. This means that the expected increase in lake inflow volume is smaller than the volume saved by increasing irrigation efficiency. The second reason is increased depletion which is due to neglecting the fact that agricultural water demand is currently higher than available water for agriculture. As a result, increasing water use efficiency may result in increased water depletion. The third reason is ignoring the potential impact of climate change, which might decrease future water availability by 3% to 15%. Our analysis suggests that to reach the intervention target, measures need to focus on reducing Water demand and Water depletion rather than on reducing Water withdrawals. The assessment framework can be used to comprehensively
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The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS is a collaborative undertaking by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, The Government of the Republic of The Gambia and the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom. This programme was launched in 1986 with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of Hepatitis B (HB vaccination in childhood in the prevention of HB infection, chronic liver disease and primary liver cancer in a population at high risk. The implementation of this trial involves three overlapping phases:
Phase l (1986-1990: V Vaccination accination of appro approximately ximately 60,000 children. HB vaccine, which was approved by the World Health Organisation, was integrated into the Gambian Expanded Programme of Immunisation (EPI in a phased manner over a four-year period from July 1986 to February 1990. During this period, two groups of children were recruited, one comprising about 60,000 children who received all vaccines in the EPI schedule plus the HB vaccine, the other comprising a similar number of children who received all vaccines except HB. Since February 1990, HB vaccination is offered to all newborns as part of the EPI schedule in The Gambia.
Phase ll (1991-1997: Estimate of efficacy of HB vac- vaccine cine against infection and chronic carriage. Longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys were carried out in selected groups of vaccinated (Group 1 and unvaccinated (Group 2. These two subsets have provided evidence of the short-term efficacy of HB vaccine in preventing infection and chronic carriage
mohamad mehdi hazavei
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Today nicotine has been known as an addictive substance and difficult to quit. Cigarette dependence also occurs quickly and high prevalence of nicotine dependence has made it the most common psychiatric disorder. This study was performed with the purpose of evaluating and comparing interventions based on training methods and training based on the use of theories and models of health education to reduce smoking in adolescents. Methods: Electronic search was performed using Persian and English keywords in Iran medical science databank (Iran Medex, Scientific Information Database (SID, PubMed, Science direct, Biomed Central from April 21 to June 5, 2015. Results: Nine interventional researches were investigated in this review study. The interventions were divided into two studies, which, in general, theories and models of health education were the basis for intervention in 5 studies, and 4 other interventions were carried out without the use of theories and models of health education. All studies were performed as intervention and control. Conclusion: The results showed that education based on theory and models of health education has a major impact on the reduction of smoking in adolescents. Also, time, method of interventions, and training programs using appropriate models and theories is of great importance in the effectiveness of interventions to reduce smoking in adolescents.
Berger, Natalie I
Background There has been growing interest in using telehealth to increase access to parent-mediated interventions for children with ASD. However, little is known about how parents engage with such programs. Objective This paper presents program engagement data from a pilot study comparing self-directed and therapist-assisted versions of a novel telehealth-based parent-mediated intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods Parents of young children with ASD were randomly assigned to receive a self-directed or therapist-assisted version of ImPACT Online. Parent engagement and satisfaction with the different components of the program website were examined using the program’s automated data collection and a post-treatment evaluation survey. We examined the relationship between program engagement and changes in parent knowledge and implementation and participant characteristics associated with program engagement. Results Of the 27 parent participants, the majority were female (26/27, 96%), married (22/27, 81%), with a college degree or higher (15/27, 56%), and less than half were not employed outside of the home (10/27, 37%). The mean chronological age of the child participants was 43.26 months, and the majority were male (19/27, 70%) and white (21/27, 78%). Most of the families (19/27, 70%) resided in a rural or medically underserved area. Parents logged into the website an average of 46.85 times, spent an average of 964.70 minutes on the site, and completed an average of 90.17% of the lesson learning activities. Participants in the therapist-assisted group were more likely to engage with the website than those in the self-directed group: F 2,24=17.65, Pintervention knowledge, and program completion (beta=.43, P=.03) and group assignment (beta=-.37, P=.045) predicted post-treatment intervention fidelity. Partial correlations indicated that parent depressive symptoms at pretreatment were negatively associated with program completion (r
Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin
Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs.
Cebula, Katie R.
Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither…
DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Bellinger, Jillian; Cheng, Weiyi
A multisite cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effects of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007) on students' classroom social behavior. The final sample included 432 students across 38 second grade classrooms. Social skills and problem behaviors were measured…
Castro, Erin L.
Social science methodologies of intervention programming for college and career readiness, particularly in regard to evaluation, must be situated within a larger context of racialized readiness for college and career. The policy context for this argument is a state-level evaluation of college and career readiness legislation in Illinois using…
White, Belinda Johnson
Career success as measured by the objective, traditional criteria of the composite of high number of promotions, high annual compensation, and high organizational level in corporate America has eluded the majority of African Americans. This article describes an undergraduate business program career success intervention designed to assist African…
Sanchez, A. M.; Rivas, M. T.; Trianes, M. V.
This work describes the results of the "Programa de Desarrollo Social y Afectivo" [Social and Affective Development Program] (Trianes & Munoz, 1994; Trianes, 1996), under way during four years at a public school in a disadvantaged area Malaga, earmarked for special educational resources. The intervention is meant to improve classroom…
Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Nevo, Einat
The effectiveness of a joint interactive storybook reading program delivered by class teachers to develop literacy skills is examined in Hebrew-speaking preschool and kindergarten children. Post-intervention, both groups achieved significantly higher gains in language and print concept skills than age-matched comparison groups that did not have…
Schwartz, Henrietta S.; Schwartz, Bernard S.
The purpose of this investigation was to document the development, operation, and impact of an interagency agreement between two federal departments cooperating to create the School Crime Intervention Program, Activity I. The agencies involved were the U.S. Office of Education and the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Data were collected…
Alvirde-García, Ulices; Rodríguez-Guerrero, Alfredo J; Henao-Morán, Santiago; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A
Describe the three-year results of a program designed for the adoption of a healthy life style in primary school students on the body mass index (BMI) and the consumption of food. Community randomized and controlled trial. Two communities in the State of Mexico with similar socio-demographic characteristics were randomized to implement the intervention (n=816) or serve as a control (n=408). The intervention was carried out in primary schools and it consisted of education on healthy habits, modification of distributed food and physical activity. The primary outcome was the change in BMI. After three years, intervention resulted in a lower increase of BMI (1.6 vs. 1.9 Kg/m², p< 0.01) and a decreased consumption of total calories, bread, fat and sugar consumption in the schools. School programs are useful to address childhood obesity, but its benefits are not immediate.
Martinez, Lauren C; Gatto, Nicole M; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N
The LA Sprouts 12-week nutrition, cooking and gardening intervention targets obesity reduction in Latino children. While other gardening and nutrition programs are shown to improve dietary intake, LA Sprouts is unique in that it utilized a curriculum demonstrated to decrease obesity. This methodology paper outlines the design and processes of the LA Sprouts study, and discusses key strategies employed to foster successful implementation of the program. After-school program in four Los Angeles elementary schools. 3rd-5th grade students. Randomized controlled trial. Gardens were built on two of four school campuses, and the 90-minute weekly lessons focused on strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, gardening at school and home, and cooking healthy meals/snacks. Data collection was conducted pre- and post-intervention and included basic clinical and anthropometric measures, dietary intake and psychosocial constructs measured by questionnaire, and an optional fasting blood draw. Baseline data was collected from 364 children, and 320 (88%) completed follow-up. No participants withdrew from the program (data were missing for other reasons). Intervention students attended 9.7 ± 2.3 lessons. Fasting blood samples were collected on 169 children at baseline, and 113 (67%) at follow-up. Questionnaire scales had good internal consistency (IC) and intra-rater reliability (IRR; in child scales: 88% items with IC > 0.7 and 70% items with IRR > 0.50; in parent scales: 75% items with IC > 0.7). The intervention was successfully implemented in the schools and scales appear appropriate to evaluate psychosocial constructs relevant to a gardening intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martinez, Lauren C.; Gatto, Nicole M.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N.
Objective The LA Sprouts 12-week nutrition, cooking and gardening intervention targets obesity reduction in Latino children. While other gardening and nutrition programs are shown to improve dietary intake, LA Sprouts is unique in that it utilized a curriculum demonstrated to decrease obesity. This methodology paper outlines the design and processes of the LA Sprouts study, and discusses key strategies employed to foster successful implementation of the program. Setting After-school program in four Los Angeles elementary schools. Subjects 3rd–5th grade students. Design Randomized controlled trial. Gardens were built on two of four school campuses, and the 90-minute weekly lessons focused on strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, gardening at school and home, and cooking healthy meals/snacks. Data collection was conducted pre- and post-intervention and included basic clinical and anthropometric measures, dietary intake and psychosocial constructs measured by questionnaire, and an optional fasting blood draw. Results Baseline data was collected from 364 children, and 320 (88%) completed follow-up. No participants withdrew from the program (data were missing for other reasons). Intervention students attended 9.7 ± 2.3 lessons. Fasting blood samples were collected on 169 children at baseline, and 113 (67%) at follow-up. Questionnaire scales had good internal consistency (IC) and intra-rater reliability (IRR; in child scales: 88% items with IC >0.7 and 70% items with IRR > 0.50; in parent scales: 75% items with IC > 0.7). Conclusions The intervention was successfully implemented in the schools and scales appear appropriate to evaluate psychosocial constructs relevant to a gardening intervention. PMID:25896115
Kerr, Rachel A.
The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to increase the elementary teachers' utilization of the RtI process. Another purpose of the study was to determine the teachers' background knowledge and perceptions about the Responsiveness to Intervention (RtI) process at the…
Bonfine, Natalie; Ritter, Christian; Munetz, Mark R
The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program is an approach for law enforcement officers to safely response to individuals who are experiencing a mental health crisis. Research must identify the components of CIT that are instrumental to the overall effectiveness of the program. For instance, recent studies report that CIT may have a transformative effect on officers' attitudes by increasing exposure to and familiarity with mental illness. This study explores this possibility further by examining 57 CIT officers' experiences with mental illness and attitudes about CIT. Specifically, we assessed how personal and professional exposure to mental illness associates with officers' perceptions about CIT generally, as well as with opinions about the officers' confidence in their abilities and the perceived effectiveness of the police department in responding to individuals in mental health crisis. Our findings indicate that CIT is rated very positively by officers. We found that officers' attitudes about the impact of CIT on improving overall safety, accessibility of services, officer skills and techniques, and the preparedness of officers to handle calls involving persons with mental illness are positively associated with officers' confidence in their abilities or with officers' perceptions of overall departmental effectiveness. There is further evidence that personal contact with individuals with mental illness affects the relationship between attitudes that CIT impacts overall safety and perceived departmental effectiveness. The results of this exploratory study underscore the importance of CIT officers' perceptions of key elements of CIT and the role of exposure to mental illness in examining program effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Fogelberg, Donald; Diaz, Jesus; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence
The manualization of a complex occupational therapy intervention is a crucial step in ensuring treatment fidelity for both clinical application and research purposes. Towards this latter end, intervention manuals are essential for assuring trustworthiness and replicability of randomized controlled trials (RCT’s) that aim to provide evidence of the effectiveness of occupational therapy. In this paper, literature on the process of intervention manualization is reviewed. The prescribed steps are then illustrated through our experience in implementing the University of Southern California/Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center’s collaborative Pressure Ulcer Prevention Project (PUPP). In this research program, qualitative research provided the initial foundation for manualization of a multifaceted occupational therapy intervention designed to reduce incidence of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with SCI. PMID:22214116
about non-major programs was that very little changed in the initial program office organization despite significant changes in program requirements... office organization and staffing • Key participating Service personnel responsibilities. 4.3.3 Funding Practices and Agreements Funding agreements...including management philoso- phies and structures, acquisition strategies, program office organization , the POM process, and contracting procedures. 6.2
Sakakibara, Brodie M; Lear, Scott A; Barr, Susan I; Benavente, Oscar; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Silverberg, Noah D; Yao, Jennifer; Eng, Janice J
To describe the systematic development of the Stroke Coach, a theory- and evidence-based intervention to improve control of lifestyle behavior risk factors in patients with stroke. Intervention development. Community. Individuals who have had a stroke. We used intervention mapping to guide the development of the Stroke Coach. Intervention mapping is a systematic process used for intervention development and composed of steps that progress from the integration of theory and evidence to the organization of realistic strategies to facilitate the development of a practical intervention supported by empirical evidence. Social cognitive theory was the underlying premise for behavior change, whereas control theory methods were directed toward sustaining the changes to ensure long-term health benefits. Practical evidence-based strategies were linked to behavioral determinants to improve stroke risk factor control. Not applicable. The Stroke Coach is a patient-centered, community-based, telehealth intervention to promote healthy lifestyles after stroke. Over 6 months, participants receive seven 30- to 60-minute telephone sessions with a lifestyle coach who provides education, facilitates motivation for lifestyle modification, and empowers participants to self-management their stroke risk factors. Participants also receive a self-management manual and a self-monitoring kit. Through the use of intervention mapping, we developed a theoretically sound and evidence-grounded intervention to improve risk factor control in patients with stroke. If empirical evaluation of the Stroke Coach produces positive results, the next step will be to develop an implementation intervention to ensure successful uptake and delivery of the program in community and outpatient settings. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK is generally accepted as positively impacting teaching quality and student learning. Therefore, research on PCK development in (prospective teachers is highly relevant. Based on a search in three databases (ERIC, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, a systematic review is conducted on intervention studies aiming at PCK development. The research questions are threefold: (1 How are the studies designed? (2 How are the interventions designed? and (3 What elements of interventions contribute to PCK development? The results show that most intervention studies are conducted in math and science education and use a qualitative methodology. Reflection, PCK courses, contact with other teachers, and experiences in educational practice are typically part of effective interventions. The review enables the identification of clear guidelines that may strengthen future research on stimulating PCK.
Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias
Aim: The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study on BMI development. Methods: The OOIS is a semi-blinded randomized controlled trial with three measurement occasions. Participants were allocated into two intervention arms; a day camp...... intervention arm (DCIA) and a standard intervention arm (SIA). For the DCIA the camp lasted for six weeks and consisted of fun-based physical activities, healthy eating, and health classes. The following 10 months a family based intervention was accomplished. The SIA was offered a weekly activity session....... Conclusions: The DCIA has a clear positive health effect in key parameters; BMI, BMI z-score, body fat-%, and clustered risk. The effect is pronounced at 6 weeks and, though reduced, still present after 52 weeks. The results of the study shows the potential of an activity camp as a basis for health change...
Perinatal outcomes were compared between 354 twins treated with the Higgins Nutrition Intervention Program and 686 untreated twins. After differing distributions of key confounding variables were adjusted for, the twins in the intervention group weighed an average of 80 g more (P less than 0.06) than the nonintervention twins; their low-birth-weight rate was 25% lower (P less than 0.05) and their very-low-birth-weight rate was almost 50% lower (P less than 0.05). Although the rate of preterm delivery was 30% lower in the intervention group (P less than 0.05), the rates of intrauterine growth retardation were similar in the two groups. Fetal mortality was slightly higher (14 vs 12 per 1000, NS), but early neonatal mortality was fivefold lower (3 vs 19 per 1000, P less than 0.06) in the intervention group. Maternal morbidity was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) in the intervention group. There was a trend towards lower infant morbidity in the intervention group. These results suggest that nutritional intervention can significantly improve twin-pregnancy outcome.
Genevieve N Healy
Full Text Available Context and purpose: Too much sitting is now recognised as a common risk factor for several health outcomes, with the workplace identified as a key setting in which to address prolonged sitting time. The Stand Up Australia intervention was designed to reduce prolonged sitting in the workplace by addressing influences at multiple-levels, including the organisation, the environment, and the individual. Intervention success has been achieved within the context of randomised controlled trials, where research staff deliver several of the key intervention components. This study describes the initial step in the multi-phase process of scaling up the Stand Up Australia intervention for workplace translation. Methods: A research-government partnership was critical in funding and informing the prototype for the scaled up BeUpstanding programTM. Evidence, protocols and materials from Stand Up Australia were adapted in collaboration with funding partner Workplace Health and Safety Queensland to ensure consistency and compatibility with existing government frameworks and resources. In recognition of the key role of workplace champions in facilitating workplace health promotion programs, the BeUpstanding programTM is designed to be delivered through a stand-alone, free, website-based toolkit using a 'train the champion' approach. Key findings and significance: The BeUpstanding programTM was influenced by the increasing recognition of prolonged sitting as an emerging health issue as well as industry demand. The research-government partnership was critical in informing and resourcing the development of the scaled-up program.
Wafik, Wagida; Tork, Hanan
Childhood injuries constitute a major public health problem worldwide. First aid is an effective life-preservation tool at work, school, home, and in public locations. In this study, the effectiveness of a first-aid program delivered by undergraduate nursing students to preparatory school children was examined. This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 100 school children in governmental preparatory schools in Egypt. The researchers designed a program for first-aid training, and this was implemented by trained nursing students. The evaluation involved immediate post-test and follow-up assessment after two months. The results showed generally low levels of satisfactory knowledge and inadequate situational practice among the school students before the intervention. Statistically-significant improvements were shown at the post- and follow-up tests. Multivariate regression analysis identified the intervention and the type of school as the independent predictors of the change in students' knowledge score, while the intervention and the knowledge score were the predictors of the practice score. The study concluded that a first-aid training program delivered by nursing students to preparatory school children is effective in improving their knowledge and practice. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Mihandoost, Zeinab; Elias, Habibah
The current research tested the differences in reading attitude and reading comprehension in the dyslexic students between the control group and the experimental group following the Barton intervention program. Dyslexia screening instrument and reading text were employed in order to identify dyslexic students. The population of the study included 138 dyslexic students studying in schools in Ilam, Iran. From this population, 64 students were randomly selected and assigned to an experimental group as well as a control group. The experimental group was taught for 36 sessions, using the Barton's method at two levels, and ten lessons were provided to improve the reading skill. The reading comprehension and reading attitude instruments were employed for the measurement of the attitude and comprehension before and after the intervention program. The analysis of covariance showed a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group following the Barton intervention program. This study showed that dyslexic students learned to read, and a more direct instruction related to decoding could influence their progress more than the general exposure to education.
Kao Uyen H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based interventions that are being delivered in real-world settings are adapted to enhance the external validity of these interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine multiple intervention adaptations made during pre-implementation, implementation, maintenance, and evolution phases of human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention technology transfer. We examined two important categories of adaptations -- modifications to key characteristics, such as activities or delivery methods of interventions and reinvention of the interventions including addition and deletion of core elements. Methods Study participants were thirty-four community-based organization staff who were implementing evidence-based interventions in Los Angeles, California. Participants were interviewed twice and interviews were professionally transcribed. Transcriptions were coded by two coders with good inter-rater reliability (kappa coefficient = 0.73. Sixty-two open-ended codes for adaptation activities, which were linked to 229 transcript segments, were categorized as modifications of key characteristics or reinvention. Results Participants described activities considered modifications to key characteristics and reinvention of evidence-based interventions during pre-implementation, implementation, and maintenance phases. None of the participants reported accessing technical assistance or guidance when reinventing their interventions. Staff executed many of the recommended steps for sound adaptation of these interventions for new populations and settings. Conclusion Staff reported modifying and reinventing interventions when translating HIV prevention programs into practice. Targeted technical assistance for formative evaluation should be focused on the pre-implementation phase during which frequent modifications occur. Continuous or repeated measurements of fidelity are recommended. Increased technical assistance and guidance are needed to
Veniegas, Rosemary C; Kao, Uyen H; Rosales, Ricki
Evidence-based interventions that are being delivered in real-world settings are adapted to enhance the external validity of these interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine multiple intervention adaptations made during pre-implementation, implementation, maintenance, and evolution phases of human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention technology transfer. We examined two important categories of adaptations -- modifications to key characteristics, such as activities or delivery methods of interventions and reinvention of the interventions including addition and deletion of core elements. Study participants were thirty-four community-based organization staff who were implementing evidence-based interventions in Los Angeles, California. Participants were interviewed twice and interviews were professionally transcribed. Transcriptions were coded by two coders with good inter-rater reliability (kappa coefficient = 0.73). Sixty-two open-ended codes for adaptation activities, which were linked to 229 transcript segments, were categorized as modifications of key characteristics or reinvention. Participants described activities considered modifications to key characteristics and reinvention of evidence-based interventions during pre-implementation, implementation, and maintenance phases. None of the participants reported accessing technical assistance or guidance when reinventing their interventions. Staff executed many of the recommended steps for sound adaptation of these interventions for new populations and settings. Staff reported modifying and reinventing interventions when translating HIV prevention programs into practice. Targeted technical assistance for formative evaluation should be focused on the pre-implementation phase during which frequent modifications occur. Continuous or repeated measurements of fidelity are recommended. Increased technical assistance and guidance are needed to ensure that reinventions are evaluated and consistent with the
Jesús H. Montes de Oca
Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of the implementation of the program "Manage your Talent" in competence assertive communication skills and teamwork. A quasi-experimental research design was used with pre-test - intervention - post-test with control group. The sample included 28 supervisors of a private company, 13 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. A type of purposive sample was used. The results suggest a positive impact of the program to significantly increase competition achievement assertive communication (U = 3.5, Z = 4.58, *** P <.000, just as in effective dialogue dimensions (U = 8.0, feedback (U = 10.0, conflict resolution (U= 7.0 and non-verbal communication (U = 4.0, the skills of this competence in the highest increase was recorded were effective dialogue and nonverbal communication. In the other, the increase was lower. Regarding competition teamwork (U = 0.00, Z = 4.837, *** P <.000, just as in the dimensions (U = 9.0, Goal Achievement (U = 15.0, democratic environment (U= 12.0 and decision making (U = 7.0. The skills of this competence in the highest increase was recorded were the subject property, democratic environment and goal achievement. Minor increase in decision-making for managing consensus.
Manley, Dana; Cowan, Patricia; Graff, Carolyn; Perlow, Michael; Rice, Pamela; Richey, Phyllis; Sanchez, Zoila
Physical activity in children has been associated with a number of health benefits. Unfortunately, physical inactivity continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self-efficacy levels, physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body composition (relative body mass index [RBMI]) and to determine whether a school-based pedometer intervention program would improve those variables. The sample consisted of 116 rural 11- to 13-year-old students. Weakly positive correlations between self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness and weakly correlated inverse relationships between self-efficacy, physical activity, aerobic fitness and RBMI were found. There was no statistical significance between the intervention and control group when analyzing outcome variables. These findings suggest that those with optimal RBMI levels have higher self-efficacy, physical activity and aerobic fitness levels. Although not statistically significant, the intervention group had greater improvements in mean self-efficacy scores, aerobic fitness levels, and RBMI. © 2014.
Molinari, Victor A; Brown, Lisa M; Frahm, Kathryn A; Schinka, John A; Casey, Roger
To understand the needs and challenges encountered by older homeless veterans. We conducted six focus groups of older veterans, two focus groups, and one semi-structured interview of VA staff liaisons, and two focus groups and one semi-structured interview of housing intervention providers. Major themes for older veterans: 1) negative homelessness experience; 2) benefits of the structured transitional housing program; 3) importance of peer outreach; and 4) need for age-tailored job placement programs. Major themes for VA staff liaison/housing intervention providers: 1) belief that the transitional housing program has made a positive change; 2) need for individualized criteria to address the unique needs of veterans; 3) distinct differences between older and younger homeless veterans; 4) outreach services; 5) permanent housing issues; and 6) coordination of services. Compared with younger veterans, older veterans have less social support, greater employment and health challenges, and, perhaps greater motivation to change.
Designing clinical trials for assessing the effects of cognitive training and physical activity interventions on cognitive outcomes: the Seniors Health and Activity Research Program Pilot (SHARP-P) study, a randomized controlled trial.
Legault, Claudine; Jennings, Janine M; Katula, Jeffrey A; Dagenbach, Dale; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Sink, Kaycee M; Rapp, Stephen R; Rejeski, W Jack; Shumaker, Sally A; Espeland, Mark A
The efficacy of non-pharmacological intervention approaches such as physical activity, strength, and cognitive training for improving brain health has not been established. Before definitive trials are mounted, important design questions on participation/adherence, training and interventions effects must be answered to more fully inform a full-scale trial. SHARP-P was a single-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial of a 4-month physical activity training intervention (PA) and/or cognitive training intervention (CT) in a 2 × 2 factorial design with a health education control condition in 73 community-dwelling persons, aged 70-85 years, who were at risk for cognitive decline but did not have mild cognitive impairment. Intervention attendance rates were higher in the CT and PACT groups: CT: 96%, PA: 76%, PACT: 90% (p=0.004), the interventions produced marked changes in cognitive and physical performance measures (p≤0.05), and retention rates exceeded 90%. There were no statistically significant differences in 4-month changes in composite scores of cognitive, executive, and episodic memory function among arms. Four-month improvements in the composite measure increased with age among participants assigned to physical activity training but decreased with age for other participants (intervention*age interaction p=0.01). Depending on the choice of outcome, two-armed full-scale trials may require fewer than 1,000 participants (continuous outcome) or 2,000 participants (categorical outcome). Good levels of participation, adherence, and retention appear to be achievable for participants through age 85 years. Care should be taken to ensure that an attention control condition does not attenuate intervention effects. Depending on the choice of outcome measures, the necessary sample sizes to conduct four-year trials appear to be feasible. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00688155. © 2011 Legault et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Designing clinical trials for assessing the effects of cognitive training and physical activity interventions on cognitive outcomes: The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program Pilot (SHARP-P Study, a randomized controlled trial
Rejeski W Jack
Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of non-pharmacological intervention approaches such as physical activity, strength, and cognitive training for improving brain health has not been established. Before definitive trials are mounted, important design questions on participation/adherence, training and interventions effects must be answered to more fully inform a full-scale trial. Methods SHARP-P was a single-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial of a 4-month physical activity training intervention (PA and/or cognitive training intervention (CT in a 2 × 2 factorial design with a health education control condition in 73 community-dwelling persons, aged 70-85 years, who were at risk for cognitive decline but did not have mild cognitive impairment. Results Intervention attendance rates were higher in the CT and PACT groups: CT: 96%, PA: 76%, PACT: 90% (p=0.004, the interventions produced marked changes in cognitive and physical performance measures (p≤0.05, and retention rates exceeded 90%. There were no statistically significant differences in 4-month changes in composite scores of cognitive, executive, and episodic memory function among arms. Four-month improvements in the composite measure increased with age among participants assigned to physical activity training but decreased with age for other participants (intervention*age interaction p = 0.01. Depending on the choice of outcome, two-armed full-scale trials may require fewer than 1,000 participants (continuous outcome or 2,000 participants (categorical outcome. Conclusions Good levels of participation, adherence, and retention appear to be achievable for participants through age 85 years. Care should be taken to ensure that an attention control condition does not attenuate intervention effects. Depending on the choice of outcome measures, the necessary sample sizes to conduct four-year trials appear to be feasible. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00688155
María T Gonzálvez
Full Text Available Tobacco use prevalence rates are high among Spanish adolescents. Programming to counteract tobacco use is needed.The current study provides a one-year follow-up outcome evaluation of Project EX, an eight-session classroom-based curriculum. The intervention was tested using a randomized controlled trial with 1,546 Spanish students, involving three program and three control schools. Compared to the control condition, the program condition revealed a greater reduction in nicotine dependence (p < .05 and CO ppm levels (p < .001, and lower consumption of cigarettes at last month (p = .03.Long-term outcomes of the Project EX classroom-based program are promising for adolescent prevention and possibly cessation in Spain.
Full Text Available Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading motivation. As motivation hinges around two major theoretical approaches, intrinsic and extrinsic, numerous studies argue for the first to be more sustainable in enhancing reading motivation. Accordingly, many research-based interventional programs have emerged since the late nineties with increasing popularity to offer answers to the dwindling rates in reading among youth. This article discusses traits of 21st century education in light of trends and challenges as it probes the effectiveness of some interventional programs that are meant, and argued for, to enhance literacy skills and reading motivation.
Elmquist, JoAnna; Hamel, John; Shorey, Ryan C; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Stuart, Gregory L
Research has attempted to elucidate men and women's proximal motivations for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). However, previous research has yet to clarify and resolve contention regarding whether motives for IPV are gender-neutral or gender specific. Thus, the purpose of this present study was to compare motives for physical IPV perpetration among a sample of men (n =90) and women (n =87) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to batterer intervention programs. Results demonstrated that the most frequently endorsed motives for IPV by both men and women were self-defense, expression of negative emotions, and communication difficulties. With the exception of expression of negative emotions and retaliation, with women endorsing these motives more often than men, there were no significant differences between men and women's self-reported reasons for perpetrating physical aggression. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention programs are discussed.
Nebot Paradells, Vicente; Pablos Monzó, Ana; Elvira Macagno, Laura; Guzmán Luján, José Francisco; Pablos Abella, Carlos
it is vital to monitor and promote healthy lifestyle habits in early adolescence, as it is a time of changes when future lifestyle habits are formed. a study was conducted to find out the effects of a Healthy Habits Program (HHP) in children between the ages of 10 and 12 years (N = 158). The study included an intervention group (IG) (n = 90), which participated in the HHP for 8 months, and a control group (CG) (n = 100). In order to assess healthy habits in these children we used the Inventory of Healthy Habits (IHH), the reliability of which was previously evaluated (N = 134). the IHH