WorldWideScience

Sample records for program interchange focus

  1. Introducing a class of standardized and interchangeable parts utilizing programmed ribosomal frameshifts for synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Harland E; Friedt, Jenna R; Glaister, Graeme D; Kharey, Suneet K; Smith, Dustin D; Stinson, Zak K; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology and the rational design of biological devices depend on the availability of standardized and interchangeable biological parts with diverse range of functions. Reliable access to different reading frames during translation has largely been overlooked as functionality for bioengineering applications. Here we report the construction and initial characterization of the first member of such a class of biological parts that conforms to the BioBrick Standard (RFC25), allowing its interchangeable use in biological devices. Using our standardized frameshifting signal consisting of a UUUAAAG slippery sequence, a 6 nt spacer and an engineered pseudoknot based on the infectious bronchitis virus pseudoknot PK401 embedded in a dual reporter construct, we confirm that the frameshifting activity is comparable to the previously published frequency despite the introduced sequence changes. The frameshifting activity is demonstrated using SDS-PAGE and fluorescence spectroscopy. Standardized programmable ribosomal frameshift parts with specific frameshifting frequencies will be of utility for applications such as double coding DNA sequences by expanding the codable space into the -1 frame. Programmed shifting into the -1 frame to bypass a stop codon allows labeling of a protein pool with a fixed stoichiometry of fusion protein, as well as the construction of multi-enzyme expression constructs with specific expression ratios. A detailed understanding of the structural basis of programmed frameshifting will provide the opportunities to rationally design frameshifting elements with a wide range of applications in synthetic biology, including signals that are regulated by small ligands.

  2. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab: Monoclonal antibodies against programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) that are interchangeable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay; Kaestner, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Nivolumab (Opdivo, Bristol Meyer Squibb, New York, NY) and pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck, Kenilworth, NJ) are the first two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1). Nivolumab and pembrolizumab work by interfering with the interaction between PD-1 and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), whose unimpeded interaction downregulates T cells allowing cancer cells to evade immune surveillance. These drugs have earned a series of FDA approvals for melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC), urothelial cancer, classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and renal cell cancer. In this review we will summarize the data for efficacy and toxicity for these two agents. We conclude that they represent two valuable but interchangeable alternatives to target their approved indications. We will discuss how this can help global payers seeking to contain the cost of cancer therapeutics that continues to spiral out of control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Trauma-Focused Training Program for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marilyn Diane

    2016-01-01

    Teachers have reported that they have difficulty providing support to traumatized children and youth because of a lack of training in how to identify and respond to the needs of these children. The program, "Amazing Help Skills for Teachers to Unmask Trauma in Children and Youth" (AHSUM), is a trauma-focused training program, designed…

  4. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  5. Line-focus concentrating collector program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Line-Focus Concentrating Collector Program has emphasized the development and dissemination of concentrating solar technology in which the reflected sunlight is focused onto a linear or line receiver. Although a number of different types of line-focus concentrators were developed, the parabolic trough has gained the widest acceptance and utilization within the industrial and applications sectors. The trough is best applied for application scenarios which require temperatures between 140 and 600 F. Another concept, the bowl, is investigated for applications which may require temperatures in the range between 600 and 1200 F. Current technology emphases are upon the reduction of system installation cost and the implementation of production oriented engineering.

  6. SUGOI: automated ontology interchangeability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khan, ZC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available : Automated Ontology Interchangeability Zubeida Casmod Khan and C. Maria Abstract. A foundational ontology can solve interoperability issues among the domain ontologies aligned to it. However, several foundational ontologies have been developed, hence...

  7. Program sustainability: focus on organizational routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, P; Potvin, L; Denis, J L; Pelletier, J

    2004-12-01

    Program sustainability is an ongoing concern for most people in health promotion. However, the current notion of sustainability in organizations, namely routinization, needs refinement. This article examines organizational routines. In so doing, it refines the notion of sustainability and the assessment of routines. Drawing on the organizational literature, a routinized program is defined by the presence of routinized activities, meaning that these activities exhibit four characteristics of organizational routines: memory, adaptation, values and rules. To answer the question of how these characteristics are useful, we conducted an empirical study of the routinization of the Quebec Heart Health Demonstration Project in five community health centers. Our method consisted of a multiple-case study. We observed project activities in each center in 2000. The data came from documents and interviews with project actors. Our results show that, in one of the centers, no resources had been officially committed to project activities. Even so, the actors continued some activities on an informal basis. In another center, the activities satisfied three of the four routine characteristics. In the three others, activities satisfied all of the characteristics. These results suggest focusing the study of program sustainability on the routinization of activities resulting from it. They indicate four distinct degrees of sustainability: (1) the absence of sustainability; no program activity is continued; (2) precarious sustainability; some residual activities are pursued, at least unofficially; (3) weak sustainability; the program produces some official activities that are not routinized; and (4) sustainability through routinization; routinized activities result from the program.

  8. SEL-Focused After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle; Deutsch, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    After-school programs offer young people opportunities for self-expression, exploring their talents, and forming relationships with supportive adults. That is, after-school programs promote young people's social and emotional learning (SEL) skills--whether the programs use that term or not. Despite these programs' potential, Noelle Hurd and Nancy…

  9. Direct marketing of parenting programs: comparing a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna

    2017-06-01

    : For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations.

  10. Using Focus Groups to Validate a Pharmacy Vaccination Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Mary; Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick

    2015-06-12

    Introduction: Focus group methodology is commonly used to quickly collate, integrated views from a variety of different stakeholders. This paper provides an example of how focus groups can be employed to collate expert opinion informing amendments on a newly developed training program for integration into undergraduate pharmacy curricula. Materials and methods: Four focus groups were conducted, across three continents, to determine the appropriateness and reliability of a developed vaccination training program with nested injection skills training. All focus groups were comprised of legitimate experts in the field of vaccination, medicine and/or pharmacy. Results: Themes that emerged across focus groups informed amendments giving rise to a validated version of a training program. Discussion: The rigorous validation of the vaccination training program offers generalizable lessons to inform the design and validation of future training programs intended for the health sector and or pharmacy curricula. Using the knowledge and experience of focus group participants fostered collaborative problem solving and validation of material and concept development. The group dynamics of a focus group allowed synthesis of feedback in an inter-professional manner. Conclusions: This paper provides a demonstration of how focus groups can be structured and used by health researchers to validate a newly developed training program.

  11. Using Focus Groups to Validate a Pharmacy Vaccination Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Bushell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Focus group methodology is commonly used to quickly collate, integrated views from a variety of different stakeholders. This paper provides an example of how focus groups can be employed to collate expert opinion informing amendments on a newly developed training program for integration into undergraduate pharmacy curricula. Materials and methods: Four focus groups were conducted, across three continents, to determine the appropriateness and reliability of a developed vaccination training program with nested injection skills training. All focus groups were comprised of legitimate experts in the field of vaccination, medicine and/or pharmacy. Results: Themes that emerged across focus groups informed amendments giving rise to a validated version of a training program. Discussion: The rigorous validation of the vaccination training program offers generalizable lessons to inform the design and validation of future training programs intended for the health sector and or pharmacy curricula. Using the knowledge and experience of focus group participants fostered collaborative problem solving and validation of material and concept development. The group dynamics of a focus group allowed synthesis of feedback in an inter-professional manner. Conclusions: This paper provides a demonstration of how focus groups can be structured and used by health researchers to validate a newly developed training program.

  12. Interdisciplinary Programs Focused Populations: The Case of Health Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Yavich, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The Ariel University has a unique interdisciplinary program in healthcare management that targets experienced healthcare professionals who wish to earn an academic degree. Only one academic study has been held so far on the integration of graduates of an academic university-level school in healthcare management in the field. In the current study,…

  13. Monitoring and Evaluation for the Focus Cities Program in Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Monitoring and Evaluation for the Focus Cities Program in Asia. IDRC's Focus Cities Research Initiative (FCRI) is supporting research teams in nine cities around the world to promote awareness, policy options and best practices for reducing environmental impacts in poor urban and periurban areas. Jakarta, Indonesia, and ...

  14. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan - FY96-FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP) presents the recommended TFA technical program. The recommendation covers a 3-year funding outlook (FY96-FY98), with an emphasis on FY96 and FY97. In addition to defining the recommended program, this document also describes the processes used to develop the program, the implementation strategy for the program, the references used to write this report, data on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank site baselines, details on baseline assumptions and the technical elements, and a glossary.

  15. Initiating the 2002 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Focused Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Robert T.; Udomkesmalee, Gabriel; Hayati, Samad A.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project is an aggressive mission launching in 2009 to deliver a new generation of rover safely to the surface of Mars and conduct comprehensive in situ investigations using a new generation of instruments. This system will be designed to land with precision and be capable of operating over a large percentage on the surface of Mars. It will have capabilities that will support NASA's scientific goals into the next decade of exphation. The MSL Technology program is developing a wide-range of technologies needed for this Mission and potentially other space missions. The MSL Technology Program reports to both the MSL Project and the Mars Technology Program (MTP). The dual reporting process creates a challenging management situation, but ensures the new technology meets both the specific MSL requirements and the broader Mars Program requirements. MTP is a NASA-wide technology development program managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and is divided into a Focused Program and a Base Program. The Focused Technology Program addresses technologies that are specific and critical to near-term missions, while the Base Technology Program addresses those technologies that are applicable to multiple missions and which can be characterized as longer term, higher risk, and high payoff technologies. The MSL Technology Program is under the Focused Program and is tightly coupled to MSL's mission milestones and deliverables. The technology budget is separate from the flight Project budget, but the technology s requirements and the development process are tightly coordinated with the Project. The Technology Program combines proven management techniques of flight projects with commercial and academic technology management strategies, to create a technology management program that meets the near-term requirements of MSL and the long-term requirements of MTP. This paper examines the initiation of 2002 MSL Technology program. Some of the areas

  16. Program Standards and Expectations: Providing Clarity, Consistency, and Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Keith G.

    2016-01-01

    The effort described in this article resulted from requests for clarity and consistency from new and existing Extension/4-H educators as well as from recommendations by university auditors. The primary purpose of the effort was to clarify standards for effective county-based 4-H youth development programs and to help focus the roles of 4-H…

  17. Implementation of psychiatric-focused lifestyle medicine programs in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; Nishi, Daisuke; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Su, Kuan-Pin; Bannatyne, Amy; Oliver, Georgina; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Chee Hong

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle-focused health programs are growing in interest throughout Western society, and a range of lifestyle factors are known to enhance both physical and mental health. However, it remains largely unknown as to whether this approach is salient for the Asian context. The major components of integrative lifestyle-focused health programs to enhance mental and physical health are considered to include the evidence-based adoption of physical activity and exercise, dietary modification, general psychoeducation, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness techniques, the reduction of substance use, attention of intersecting environmental factors, and the potential use of motivation and goal-setting techniques. This paper outlines an overview of the evidence underpinning these elements, and discusses potential barriers and challenges, and what logistical considerations may need to be addressed in the implementation of such programs within the context of Asian cultures. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Offers suggestions from six contributors regarding a variety of classroom activities, including the use of high interest-low vocabulary books with gifted and average readers, an exercise in sequencing, a Halloween project to improve students' grammar, a technique to improve students' dictionary skills, and methods for helping students write books.…

  19. Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program focus groups: A manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Garkovich, C.A.; Shriver, T.E. Jr.

    1991-04-01

    While completing a congressionally mandated destruction of the US stockpile of unitary chemical weapons, the US Army decided that enhanced emergency planning was needed to reduce the consequences of an accidental release of agent. This decision is being implemented cooperatively by the US Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the form of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), with additional cooperation from other federal agencies and affected state and local governments. This manual supports that effort by providing information about a commonly used qualitative data and information gathering technique, focus group interviewing, that may be used to design public education materials and other wide enhance communication among CSEPP providers and users. The focus group technique is characterized by structured discussions on a specific topic among a carefully selected group of participants. This manual provides background information on the CSEPP and the current management plan for the CSEPP. It describes the focus group technique and how it may be applied, either by itself or in conjunction with other appropriate research techniques, by state and local government officials to investigate many of the behavioral and organizational impacts of the CSEPP. Sample questions and probes that may be useful in designing and conducting specific CSEPP focus groups are also provided. The manual also includes a list of suggested readings and other reference material that may be useful in designing focus groups. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The formation of blobs from a pure interchange process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, P., E-mail: pzhu@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Sovinec, C. R.; Hegna, C. C. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we focus on examining a pure interchange process in a shear-less slab configuration as a prototype mechanism for blob formation. We employ full magnetohydrodynamic simulations to demonstrate that the blob-like structures can emerge through the nonlinear development of a pure interchange instability originating from a pedestal-like transition region. In the early nonlinear stage, filamentary structures develop and extend in the direction of the effective gravity. The blob-like structures appear when the radially extending filaments break off and disconnect from the core plasma. The morphology and the dynamics of these filaments and blobs vary dramatically with a sensitive dependence on the dissipation mechanisms in the system and the initial perturbation. Despite the complexity in morphology and dynamics, the nature of the entire blob formation process in the shear-less slab configuration remains strictly interchange without involving any change in magnetic topology.

  1. Transport intermodal interchanges: Socio-economic impacts at Lille European metropolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddebaut, O.; Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    Within the framework of the “City-HUB” FP7 European research project 27 interchanges were studied in nine European countries. It investigated how transport interchanges work from the point of view of governance and the organization of facilities. On this basis a typology of interchanges has been defined for classifying the interchanges and selecting the key elements for improving the interchanges location, construction, and organization of an interchange. The paper focus on the implementation of the City-HUB interchange typology to the case study of Lille European Metropolis (MEL) where two contingent railways stations Lille Flandres and Lille Europe were analysed as a potential unique interchange. Indeed, the article is related to the creation of a joint interchanges able to attract more public transport users than private users such as it is now the case. These two main railways interchanges have different territorial and transport functions (i.e. one is oriented to regional traffic and the other one to national and international traffic). Urban planners and transport authorities would like to connect both stations creating a unique interchange. A key point of the Lille’s City-HUB analysis is related to the involvement of the stakeholders. Their involvement is at the origin of the interactions between City-HUB and its socio-economic and urban context. We demonstrate that combining transport and land use planning policies could boost commercial development, new business offices or housing. The urban City-Hub overcomes its role of transport infrastructure for being a “place”. (Author)

  2. Knowledge Representation Standards and Interchange Formats for Causal Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, David R.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land

    2005-01-01

    In many domains, automated reasoning tools must represent graphs of causally linked events. These include fault-tree analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), planning, procedures, medical reasoning about disease progression, and functional architectures. Each of these fields has its own requirements for the representation of causation, events, actors and conditions. The representations include ontologies of function and cause, data dictionaries for causal dependency, failure and hazard, and interchange formats between some existing tools. In none of the domains has a generally accepted interchange format emerged. The paper makes progress towards interoperability across the wide range of causal analysis methodologies. We survey existing practice and emerging interchange formats in each of these fields. Setting forth a set of terms and concepts that are broadly shared across the domains, we examine the several ways in which current practice represents them. Some phenomena are difficult to represent or to analyze in several domains. These include mode transitions, reachability analysis, positive and negative feedback loops, conditions correlated but not causally linked and bimodal probability distributions. We work through examples and contrast the differing methods for addressing them. We detail recent work in knowledge interchange formats for causal trees in aerospace analysis applications in early design, safety and reliability. Several examples are discussed, with a particular focus on reachability analysis and mode transitions. We generalize the aerospace analysis work across the several other domains. We also recommend features and capabilities for the next generation of causal knowledge representation standards.

  3. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html). Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see http://resource.geosciml.org/ 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML (https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML). In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  4. Motivation and Career-Development Training Programs: Use of Regulatory Focus to Determine Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Peter J.; Weide, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to focus on the relationship between career-development training programs and the motivation of employees. The study used a qualitative method and a phenomenological design using semistructured interviews conducted with a script of open-ended questions. Two main components of the research design were the modified van…

  5. interchange workshops amongst master of education students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Donoghue. The workshop interchange reported ... convened by the Master of Education students of the interacting universities. The theme of science, ... technology, society (STS) with a strong environmental problem-solving flavour. A plenary.

  6. Focus Group Outcomes of the Happy Kids Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen; Ferguson, Neil; Partington, Gary; Byrne, Matt

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the outcomes of The Happy Kids project, a strategy to improve the social and emotional well-being of primary school students, were examined. Results indicated that the Happy Kids program had demonstrated positive social and emotional outcomes for students in all schools, in particular, a positive impact upon students' confidence,…

  7. IDRC program to focus on digital innovations | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-03-17

    Mar 17, 2016 ... The Networked Economies program will support research that helps developing countries use digital innovations to create inclusive economic opportunities and advance democracy. More particularly ... IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer ...

  8. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan FY97-FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major tank remediation problem with approximately 332 tanks storing over 378,000 ml of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Most of the tanks have significantly exceeded their life spans. Approximately 90 tanks across the DOE complex are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents are potentially explosive. These tanks must be remediated and made safe. How- ever, regulatory drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Therefore, the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) began operation in October 1994. The focus area manages, coordinates, and leverages technology development to provide integrated solutions to remediate problems that will accelerate safe and cost-effective cleanup and closure of DOE`s national tank system. The TFA is responsible for technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), INEL (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: safety, characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, and closure.

  9. Security architecture for HL/7 message interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T S; Liao, B S; Lin, M G; Gough, T G

    2001-01-01

    The promotion of quality medical treatment is very important to the healthcare providers as well as to patients. It requires that the medical resources of different hospitals be combined to ensure that medical information is shared and that resources are not wasted. A computer-based patient record is one of the best methods to accomplish the interchange of the patient's clinical data. In our system, the Health Level/Seven (HL/7) format is used for the interchange of the clinical data, as it has been supported by many healthcare providers and become a â standard'. The security of the interchange of clinical data is a serious issue for people using the Internet for data communication. Several international well-developed security algorithms, models and secure policies are adopted in the design of a security handler for an HL/7 architecture. The goal of our system is to combine our security system with the end-to-end communication systems constructed from the HL/7 format to establish a safe delivery channel. A suitable security interchange environment is implemented to address some shortcomings in clinical data interchange. located at the application layer of the ISO/OSI reference model. The medical message components, sub-components, and related types of message event are the primary goals of the HL/7 protocols. The patient management system, the doctor's system for recording his advice, examination and diagnosis as well as any financial management system are all covered by the HL/7 protocols. Healthcare providers and hospitals in Taiwan are very interested in developing the HL/7 protocols as a common standard for clinical data interchange.

  10. THE PROBLEM OF MEDICINES INTERCHANGEABILITY. FOCUS ON PERINDOPRIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Malyhina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the therapeutic equivalence between generic perindopril (Parnavel, LLC Ozone, Russia and the original perindopril (Prestarium A, Laboratories Servier, France. Material and methods. Patients with arterial hypertension, grade 1-2 (n=40, aged 35-75 years were included into the open randomized cross-over trial. The previous anti- hypertensive therapy was discontinued before study for 14 days in all patients. Each of the patients was randomized for alternate 8-week treatment with the original (Prestarium A and generic (Parnavel perindopril. Treatment efficacy was assessed by the achievement of target blood pressure (BP <140/90 mm Hg. The drug dose was increased in the efficacy lack and inapamide was added if necessary. Therapy was discontinued for 14 days after 8 weeks of treatment with the first randomization drug, and the same therapy course with the other study drug was carried out. Side effects were also recorded.Results. A significant reduction in systolic (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP was found in patients of Parnavel group by 28 mm Hg (19% and 17 mm Hg (19%, respectively. In the patients of Prestarium A group SBP and DBP reduction was 27 mm Hg (18.5% and 16 mm Hg (18.7%, respectively. After 2 months of therapy the target BP level (<140/90 mm Hg was achieved in 95% and 90% of patients in Parnavel and Prestarium A groups, respectively. Drug tolerability was comparable.Conclusion. Efficacy and tolerability data demonstrated therapeutic equivalence of generic perindopril (Parnavel to the original perindopril.

  11. THE PROBLEM OF MEDICINES INTERCHANGEABILITY. FOCUS ON PERINDOPRIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Malyhina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the therapeutic equivalence between generic perindopril (Parnavel, LLC Ozone, Russia and the original perindopril (Prestarium A, Laboratories Servier, France. Material and methods. Patients with arterial hypertension, grade 1-2 (n=40, aged 35-75 years were included into the open randomized cross-over trial. The previous anti- hypertensive therapy was discontinued before study for 14 days in all patients. Each of the patients was randomized for alternate 8-week treatment with the original (Prestarium A and generic (Parnavel perindopril. Treatment efficacy was assessed by the achievement of target blood pressure (BP <140/90 mm Hg. The drug dose was increased in the efficacy lack and inapamide was added if necessary. Therapy was discontinued for 14 days after 8 weeks of treatment with the first randomization drug, and the same therapy course with the other study drug was carried out. Side effects were also recorded.Results. A significant reduction in systolic (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP was found in patients of Parnavel group by 28 mm Hg (19% and 17 mm Hg (19%, respectively. In the patients of Prestarium A group SBP and DBP reduction was 27 mm Hg (18.5% and 16 mm Hg (18.7%, respectively. After 2 months of therapy the target BP level (<140/90 mm Hg was achieved in 95% and 90% of patients in Parnavel and Prestarium A groups, respectively. Drug tolerability was comparable.Conclusion. Efficacy and tolerability data demonstrated therapeutic equivalence of generic perindopril (Parnavel to the original perindopril.

  12. Extension Wellness Ambassadors: Individual Effects of Participation in a Health-Focused Master Volunteer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Lisa T.; Traywick, LaVona; Copeland, Lauren; Vincent, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    We present findings from a pilot implementation of the Extension Wellness Ambassador Program, a health-focused master volunteer program, and briefly describe the program approach and purpose. Program participants received 40 hr of training and completed assessments of self-efficacy, physical activity, and functional fitness at baseline and 3-month…

  13. Motivation and career-development training programs: Use of regulatory focus to determine program effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter John Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to focus on the relationship between career-development training programs and the motivation of employees. The study used a qualitative method and a phenomenological design using semistructured interviews conducted with a script of open-ended questions. Two main components of the research design were the modified van Kaam method for exploration of experiences and the purposive selection of the participants. The 20 participants in the sample were project managers and consultants from south-central Texas, all of whom had experience with governmental projects. Based on interview responses, the findings of this study highlighted a concern from the participants that training programs have a major influence on workplace productivity and morale. Furthermore, the findings suggest the training program’s quality may influence workplace productivity. The authors conclude by pointing out the analysis of the answers showed that not only does workplace productivity decline from the changes in a training program, but employee motivation is altered as well. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i2.214

  14. science, technology and environment: interchange workshops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The workshop interchange reported here were funded with a grant from the Foundation for Research. Development (FRD). Two workshops were convened by the Master of Education students of the interacting universities. The theme of science, technology and environment was introduced as a cluster of priorities that has ...

  15. Radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Fundamenski, W.

    2006-01-01

    Radial convection of isolated filamentary structures due to interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated. Following a basic discussion of vorticity generation, ballooning, and the role of sheaths, a two-field interchange model is studied by means of numerical simulations on a biperio......Radial convection of isolated filamentary structures due to interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated. Following a basic discussion of vorticity generation, ballooning, and the role of sheaths, a two-field interchange model is studied by means of numerical simulations...... on a biperiodic domain perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that a blob-like plasma structure develops dipolar vorticity and electrostatic potential fields, resulting in rapid radial acceleration and formation of a steep front and a trailing wake. While the dynamical evolution strongly depends...... as the acoustic speed times the square root of the structure size relative to the length scale of the magnetic field. The plasma filament eventually decelerates due to mixing and collisional dissipation. Finally, the role of sheath dissipation is investigated. When included in the simulations, it significantly...

  16. FOCUS: Essential Elements of Quality for State-Funded Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "FOCUS: Essential Elements of Quality, New Mexico's Tiered Quality Rating and Improvement System (TQRIS)," provides early childhood program personnel with the criteria, tools, and resources they need to improve the quality of their program. These quality improvements focus on children's growth, development, and learning--so that each…

  17. Diverging diamond interchange performance evaluation (I-44 and Route 13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Performance evaluation was conducted on the first diverging diamond interchange (DDI) or double : crossover interchange (DCD) constructed in the United States. This evaluation assessed traffic operations, safety and : public perceptions t...

  18. Interchangeable Bearings for Profile and Weight Trade Studies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air-Lock, Incorporated is proposing to design fully sealed shoulder and arm bearings with interchangeable bearing housings. The interchangeable housings shall be...

  19. A reference model for scientific information interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Lou; Sawyer, Don; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an Information Interchange Reference Model (IIRM) currently being developed by individuals participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Panel 2, the Planetary Data Systems (PDS), and the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS). This is an ongoing research activity and is not an official position by these bodies. This reference model provides a framework for describing and assessing current and proposed methodologies for information interchange within and among the space agencies. It is hoped that this model will improve interoperability between the various methodologies. As such, this model attempts to address key information interchange issues as seen by the producers and users of space-related data and to put them into a coherent framework. Information is understood as the knowledge (e.g., the scientific content) represented by data. Therefore, concern is not primarily on mechanisms for transferring data from user to user (e.g., compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM), wide-area networks, optical tape, and so forth) but on how information is encoded as data and how the information content is maintained with minimal loss or distortion during transmittal. The model assumes open systems, which means that the protocols or methods used should be fully described and the descriptions publicly available. Ideally these protocols are promoted by recognized standards organizations using processes that permit involvement by those most likely to be affected, thereby enhancing the protocol's stability and the likelihood of wide support.

  20. Limb lead interchange in thorough QT/QTc studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Vaibhav; Karnad, Dilip R; Panicker, Gopi Krishna; Kothari, Snehal; Hingorani, Pooja; Natekar, Mili; Mahajan, Vaibhav; Narula, Dhiraj

    2011-10-01

    The investigators analyzed 85,133 electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded in 484 subjects from 5 thorough QT/QTc studies (3 using Holter devices, 2 using 12-lead ECGs) for inadvertent limb lead interchanges using a dedicated quality control process in a central ECG laboratory. Limb lead interchanges were present in 2919 (3.4%) ECGs in 17.9% of subjects and were more frequent with Holter devices (7.5% vs 0.8%, P arm-left leg interchange was seen in 54% of 12-lead ECGs and right arm-left arm interchange in 38%. The ECG device itself could identify 21.7% of interchanges, whereas experienced readers blinded to subject and visit identified 79% of interchanges; 21% of interchanges were identified only during the quality control process. If correctly identified, QT measurement could be performed in a precordial lead. If undiagnosed, incorrect QT interval measurements and morphological diagnosis may confound results.

  1. 2014 Trans-Atlantic Research and Development Interchange ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Atlantic Research and Development Interchange on Sustainability (TARDIS) has been bringing together a select group of scientists and engineers for in-depth discussions on sustainability on a bi-annual basis since 2004. TARDIS 2014 included twenty eight individuals from across the globe discussing issues related to progress towards sustainability. The discussion included policies, technologies, societal structure and norms, business practices and culture, and time-frames. As discussed later, the focus was on four questions: (1) what progress has been accomplished in sustainability? (2) why has there not been more progress in moving societies towards sustainability? (3) what are the road-blocks to progress towards sustainability? (4) what are the policies, technologies, and other changes that are needed to make further progress towards sustainability? One salient conclusion from TARDIS 2014 is that while sustainability has entered mainstream thinking, significant social, economic, technological, and business barriers remain to further progress towards a sustainable path as discussed throughout this report. The Trans-Atlantic Research and Development Interchange on Sustainability is a bi-annual workshop alternatively held in the United States and Austria. The purpose is to bring the best thinkers from across the globe to discuss, explore, and clarify major issues related to sustainability. A report summarizing teh finding and discussions is prepared and d

  2. HST Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Static Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, William V.

    2008-01-01

    The HST Super Light Weight Interchangeable Carrier Static Test program calls for a total of 15 load cases with an average of 9 simultaneous push/pull locations per load case. This testing program represents the most complex static test ever attempted at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many unique multi-pull fixtures were designed to apply the simultaneous loading. Additionally, a total of 600 channels of data required processing for each loadcase. A total of 1100 separate strain gages were installed on SLIC. A team of 15 trained technicians were needed to apply test loads via mechanical hand pumps for several load cases. All 15 load cases were successfully conducted within 15 weeks. The ManTech team successfully tested all SLIC 1200 interface clips to the required testing loads. Several unique designs were needed to address testing challenges as loadline interference, Payload Safety, payload flexibility and opposing load applications.

  3. Evaluation of a Goal-Focused Educational Program in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Ian; Korbelik, John

    Results from an evaluation study of a new masters' program in social work are described. The paper focuses upon the interaction between program goals that are conceived in terms of (1) the need to train social work students in three methods of social work, and (2) the need to prepare students who could address the problems of disorganized urban…

  4. Recruiting & Preparing Diverse Urban Teachers: One Urban-Focused Teacher Education Program Breaks New Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jennifer; Ukpokodu, Omiunota N.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a university's Urban Teacher Education Program (UTEP) and its success not just in recruiting, preparing, retaining, and graduating its students, but in likewise leading to employment and retention as teachers in urban schools. It focuses on critical aspects of the program, including recruitment of diverse candidates,…

  5. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  6. Characteristics of magnetic island formation due to resistive interchange instability in helical plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Itagaki, M.; Oikawa, S. [Graduate School of Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Watanabe, K. Y.; Sato, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    Focusing attention on the magnetic island formation, we investigate the characteristics of the resistive interchange magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, which would limit a high beta operational regime in helical type fusion reactors. An introduction of a new index, i.e., the ratio of the magnetic fluctuation level to the radial displacement, enables us to make a systematic analysis on the magnetic island formation in the large helical device-like plasmas during the linear growth phase; (i) the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate makes the magnetic island larger than that with the largest growth rate when the amplitude of the radial displacement in both cases is almost the same as each other; (ii) applied to a typical tearing instability, the index is smaller than that for the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate.

  7. The Great American Biotic Interchange in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Jason T; Bermingham, Eldredge; Schluter, Dolph

    2009-12-22

    The sudden exchange of mammals over the land bridge between the previously isolated continents of North and South America is among the most celebrated events in the faunal history of the New World. This exchange resulted in the rapid merging of continental mammalian faunas that had evolved in almost complete isolation from each other for tens of millions of years. Yet, the wider importance of land bridge-mediated interchange to faunal mixing in other groups is poorly known because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. In particular, the ability of birds to fly may have rendered a land bridge unnecessary for faunal merging. Using molecular dating of the unique bird faunas of the two continents, we show that rates of interchange increased dramatically after land bridge completion in tropical forest-specializing groups, which rarely colonize oceanic islands and have poor dispersal abilities across water barriers, but not in groups comprised of habitat generalists. These results support the role of the land bridge in the merging of the tropical forest faunas of North and South America. In contrast to mammals, the direction of traffic across the land bridge in birds was primarily south to north. The event transformed the tropical avifauna of the New World.

  8. Achieving robust interchangeability of test assets in ATE systems

    CERN Document Server

    Oblad, R P

    1999-01-01

    This paper identities the key issues that have made if so difficult to achieve asset interchangeability. Several of the historical attempts to solve the problem of asset interchangeability are described, along with an analysis of the reasons that they did not achieve the expected results. Specific topics that are covered are SCPI, VXIplug&play, IVI, ATLAS, and Measurement Subsystems. Principles associated with the ownership of interfaces will be outlined. Finally, a set of rules and principles will be discussed that must be applied to achieve robust asset interchangeability. Robust is defined as interchangeability that can be "guaranteed" without testing all TPSs against the modified test system. (9 refs).

  9. Budget Impact of a Comprehensive Nutrition-Focused Quality Improvement Program for Malnourished Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulo, Suela; Feldstein, Josh; Partridge, Jamie; Schwander, Bjoern; Sriram, Krishnan; Summerfelt, Wm Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Nutrition interventions can alleviate the burden of malnutrition by improving patient outcomes; however, evidence on the economic impact of medical nutrition intervention remains limited. A previously published nutrition-focused quality improvement program targeting malnourished hospitalized patients showed that screening patients with a validated screening tool at admission, rapidly administering oral nutritional supplements, and educating patients on supplement adherence result in significant reductions in 30-day unplanned readmissions and hospital length of stay. To assess the potential cost-savings associated with decreased 30-day readmissions and hospital length of stay in malnourished inpatients through a nutrition-focused quality improvement program using a web-based budget impact model, and to demonstrate the clinical and fiscal value of the intervention. The reduction in readmission rate and length of stay for 1269 patients enrolled in the quality improvement program (between October 13, 2014, and April 2, 2015) were compared with the pre-quality improvement program baseline and validation cohorts (4611 patients vs 1319 patients, respectively) to calculate potential cost-savings as well as to inform the design of the budget impact model. Readmission rate and length-of-stay reductions were calculated by determining the change from baseline to post-quality improvement program as well as the difference between the validation cohort and the post-quality improvement program, respectively. As a result of improved health outcomes for the treated patients, the nutrition-focused quality improvement program led to a reduction in 30-day hospital readmissions and length of stay. The avoided hospital readmissions and reduced number of days in the hospital for the patients in the quality improvement program resulted in cost-savings of $1,902,933 versus the pre-quality improvement program baseline cohort, and $4,896,758 versus the pre-quality improvement program in the

  10. Internet-based data interchange with XML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, a complete concept for Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - a well-known buzzword in the area of logistics and supply chain management to enable the automation of the interactions between companies and their partners - using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) will be proposed. This approach is based on Internet and XML, because the implementation of traditional EDI (e.g. EDIFACT, ANSI X.12) is mostly too costly for small and medium sized enterprises, which want to integrate their suppliers and customers in a supply chain. The paper will also present the results of the implementation of a prototype for such a system, which has been developed for an industrial partner to improve the current situation of parts delivery. The main functions of this system are an early warning system to detect problems during the parts delivery process as early as possible, and a transport following system to pursue the transportation.

  11. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  12. Faculty Teaching Perspectives about an Urban-Focused Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpokodu, Omiunota N.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates the perspectives of faculty teaching engagement in a uniquely designed, collaborative urban-focused teacher education program. The study analyzes interviews conducted with seven participating faculty from both the School of Education and the College of Arts and Sciences in an urban university. The findings…

  13. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a) Patent...

  14. PUBLIC TRANSPORT INTERCHANGES FUNCTIONING FROM A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naumov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport interchange functioning has been presented as a gray box cybernetic model. The identified input data characterizes the transport interchange as an infrastructure object and influence the processes both for public transport and passengers. An integrated indicator has been chosen as the efficiency criterion, combining economic, environmental and social costs.

  15. Primary care focus and utilization in the Medicare shared savings program accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrel, Lindsey A; Ayanian, John Z; Hawken, Scott R; Miller, David C

    2017-02-15

    Although Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are defined by the provision of primary care services, the relationship between the intensity of primary care and population-level utilization and costs of health care services has not been examined during early implementation of Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) ACOs. Our objective was to evaluate the association between primary care focus and healthcare utilization and spending in the first performance period of the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs). In this retrospective cohort study, we divided the 220 MSSP ACOs into quartiles of primary care focus based on the percentage of all ambulatory evaluation and management services delivered by a PCP (internist, family physician, or geriatrician). Using multivariable regression, we evaluated rates of utilization and spending during the initial performance period, adjusting for the percentage of non-white patients, region, number of months enrolled in the MSSP, number of beneficiary person years, percentage of dual eligible beneficiaries and percentage of beneficiaries over the age of 74. The proportion of ambulatory evaluation and management services delivered by a PCP ranged from focus) to >46% (highest quartile, ACOs with greatest PCP focus). ACOs in the highest quartile of PCP focus had higher adjusted rates of utilization of acute care hospital admissions (328 per 1000 person years vs 292 per 1000 person years, p = 0.01) and emergency department visits (756 vs 680 per 1000 person years, p = 0.02) compared with ACOs in the lowest quartile of PCP focus. ACOs in the highest quartile of PCP focus achieved no greater savings per beneficiary relative to their spending benchmarks ($142 above benchmark vs $87 below benchmark, p = 0.13). Primary care focus was not associated with increased savings or lower utilization of healthcare during the initial implementation of MSSP ACOs.

  16. Should body image programs be inclusive? A focus group study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C; Ohls, Olivia C; Pringle, Kevin D

    2018-01-01

    Most evidence-based body image programs for college students (e.g., the Body Project) are designed for female-only audiences, although body dissatisfaction is not limited to female-identified individuals. Furthermore, programs do not explicitly discuss diversity, although individuals with marginalized gender, racial, and sexual identities may be particularly vulnerable to body image disturbances. Making programs more inclusive may increase their disseminability. This qualitative study examined the feasibility of adapting the Body Project for universal and inclusive use with college students. Participants (N = 36; M age = 21.66 years; 73% female-identified; 20% sexual minority; 23% racial minority) attended one of five semi-structured focus groups to explore the inclusivity of appearance-based cultural norms using adapted Body Project activities and discuss the feasibility of universal and inclusive interventions. Inductive qualitative content analysis with three-rater consensus identified focus group themes. There was consensus that inclusive interventions could have a positive impact (broadening perspectives, normalizing body image concerns, increasing awareness) despite potential barriers (poor diversity representation, vulnerability). There was strong consensus regarding advice for facilitating inclusive interventions (e.g., skilled facilitation, education, increasing diversity). Results suggest that inclusive body image programs are desirable and provide a framework for creating the EVERYbody Project, a program for more universal audiences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Redefining Leadership Education in Graduate Public Health Programs: Prioritization, Focus, and Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxendine, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Public health program graduates need leadership skills to be effective in the complex, changing public health environment. We propose a new paradigm for schools of public health in which technical and leadership skills have equal priority as core competencies for graduate students. Leadership education should focus on the foundational skills necessary to effect change independent of formal authority, with activities offered at varying levels of intensity to engage different students. Leadership development initiatives should be practice based, process focused, interdisciplinary, diversity based, adaptive, experimental, innovative, and empowering, and they should encourage authenticity. Leadership training in graduate programs will help lay the groundwork for public health professionals to have an immediate impact in the workforce and to prioritize continuous leadership development throughout their careers. PMID:25706021

  18. Redefining leadership education in graduate public health programs: prioritization, focus, and guiding principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A; Oxendine, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    Public health program graduates need leadership skills to be effective in the complex, changing public health environment. We propose a new paradigm for schools of public health in which technical and leadership skills have equal priority as core competencies for graduate students. Leadership education should focus on the foundational skills necessary to effect change independent of formal authority, with activities offered at varying levels of intensity to engage different students. Leadership development initiatives should be practice based, process focused, interdisciplinary, diversity based, adaptive, experimental, innovative, and empowering, and they should encourage authenticity. Leadership training in graduate programs will help lay the groundwork for public health professionals to have an immediate impact in the workforce and to prioritize continuous leadership development throughout their careers.

  19. Focus and coverage of Bolsa Família Program in the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen H Schmidt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the focalization and coverage of Bolsa Família Program among the families of children who are part of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort (2004 cohort. METHODS The data used derives from the integration of information from the 2004 cohort and the Cadastro Único para Programas Sociais do Governo Federal (CadÚnico – Register for Social Programs of the Federal Government, in the 2004-2010 period. We estimated the program coverage (percentage of eligible people who receive the benefit and its focus (proportion of eligible people among the beneficiaries. We used two criteria to define eligibility: the per capita household income reported in the cohort follow-ups and belonging to the 20% poorest families according to the National Economic Indicator (IEN, an asset index. RESULTS Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of families in the cohort that received the benefit increased from 11% to 34%. We observed an increase in all wealth quintiles. In 2010, by income and wealth quintiles (IEN, 62%-72% of the families were beneficiaries among the 20% poorest people, 2%-5% among the 20% richest people, and about 30% of families of the intermediate quintile. According to household income (minus the benefit 29% of families were eligible in 2004 and 16% in 2010. By the same criteria, the coverage of the program increased from 43% in 2004 to 71% in 2010. In the same period, by the wealth criterion (IEN, coverage increased from 29% to 63%. The focalization of the program decreased from 78% in 2004 to 32% in 2010 according to income, and remained constant (37% according to the IEN. CONCLUSIONS Among the families of the 2004 cohort, there was a significant increase in the program coverage, from its inception until 2010, when it was near 70%. The focus of the program was below 40% in 2010, indicating that more than half of the beneficiaries did not belong to the target population.

  20. Connecting the Learners: Improving Uptake of a Nursing Home Educational Program by Focusing on Staff Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Pinheiro, Sandro O.; Anderson, Ruth A.; Porter, Kristie; McConnell, Eleanor; Corazzini, Kirsten; Hancock, Kathryn; Lipscomb, Jeffery; Beales, Julie; Simpson, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The CONNECT intervention is designed to improve staff connections, communication, and use of multiple perspectives for problem solving. This analysis compared staff descriptions of the learning climate, use of social constructivist learning processes, and outcomes in nursing facilities receiving CONNECT with facilities receiving a falls education program alone. Design and Methods: Qualitative evaluation of a randomized controlled trial was done using a focus group design...

  1. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  2. Interchangeability among reference insulin analogues and their biosimilars: regulatory framework, study design and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlat, H A; Kuhlmann, M K; Khatami, H; Ampudia-Blasco, F J

    2016-08-01

    Biosimilars are regulated differently from small-molecule generic, chemically derived medicines. The complexity of biological products means that small changes in manufacturing or formulation may result in changes in efficacy and safety of the final product. In the face of this complexity, the regulatory landscape for biosimilars continues to evolve, and global harmonization regarding requirements is currently lacking. It is essential that clinicians and patients are reassured that biosimilars are equally safe and effective as their reference product, and this is particularly important when interchangeability, defined as 'changing one medicine for another one which is expected to achieve the same clinical effect in a given clinical setting in any one patient', is considered. Although the automatic substitution (i.e. substitution without input from the prescribing healthcare provider) of biosimilars for reference products is currently not permitted by the majority of countries, this may change in the future. In order to demonstrate interchangeability between reference products and a biosimilar, more stringent and specific studies of the safety and efficacy of biosimilars are likely to be needed; however, guidance on the design of and the need for any such studies is currently limited. The present article provides an overview of the current regulatory framework around the demonstration of interchangeability with biosimilars, with a specific focus on biosimilar insulin analogues, and details experiences with other biosimilar products. In addition, designs for studies to evaluate interchangeability with a biosimilar insulin analogue product are proposed and a discussion about the implications of interchangeability in clinical practice is included. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Participant perceptions of a mindful movement program for older women with breast cancer: focus group results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane-Okada, Rebecca; Kiger, Holly; Anderson, Nancy L R; Carroll-Johnson, Rose Mary; Sugerman, Fred; Shapiro, Shauna L; Wyman-McGinty, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been directed to the longer-term survivorship phase for older breast cancer survivors (BCSs) who often continue to struggle with late and long-term adverse effects of treatment including lower physical functioning, fear of recurrence, stress and anxiety, neuropathies, and pain. Creative and accessible strategies are needed that offer support to this population of cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to examine participant perceptions of the effects of a Mindful Movement Program intervention on quality of life and mindfulness through focus groups. This was part of a pilot feasibility study testing the intervention with older women at more than 1 year after treatment for breast cancer. Eight to 9 weeks after completion of 12 weekly, 2-hour mindful movement sessions, focus groups were held with 3 experimental group cohorts of participants who had attended on average 10.4 classes. Focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative techniques for recurrent themes. Four themes emerged from the direct quotes of the participants: freedom, rediscovering, body sense in moving, and in the moment. Participants also contributed opinions about program delivery. Participants described how the Mindful Movement Program experience affected their lives. Their feedback indicated that the intervention yielded positive results and was feasible for a variety of older BCSs. Research with a wider group of participants is needed. Preliminary indications are that mindful movement may offer an acceptable strategy for increasing activity and decreasing stress among older BCSs.

  4. Implementation of a worksite educational program focused on promoting healthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanagra, Dimitra; Panidis, Dimitris; Tountas, Yannis; Remoudaki, Elina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of a short-term educational-counseling worksite program focused on lipid intake, by monitoring the possible change on nutrition knowledge and eating habits. an 8-week educational program based on the Health Belief Model was implemented in a honey packaging and sales company in Greece. 20 out of the 29 employees initially enrolled completed the program. Knowledge level and eating habits were evaluated prior and after the intervention by the "Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire" and the "Food Habits Questionnaire". ANOVA, Spearman rho test and paired Wilcoxon test were employed in statistical analysis. Non smokers and those with higher educational level had healthier eating habits. Knowledge following the intervention was significantly improved concerning recommendations and basic food ingredients but as far as eating habits were concerned, scores were not improved significantly, while intake of fried food was increased. Short-term interventions may produce substantial improvement in knowledge but not necessarily modifications in unhealthy eating habits.

  5. [Transference Focused Psychotherapy for Borderline-Adolescents in a Day Clinic Treatment Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Maya; Ponton-Rodriguez, Tamara; Gooran, Ghazal Rostami; Bender, Stephan

    2017-07-01

    Transference Focused Psychotherapy for Borderline-Adolescents in a Day Clinic Treatment Program This paper focuses on the concept of transference focused psychotherapy (TFP) modified for juvenile borderline patients. Adolescents with borderline developmental personality disorder (bpd) have an essential deficit in their personality structure that leads to oscillations in their self-esteem and in a "split" perception of the world. They suffer from a variety of symptoms and severe impairments on their own and their families' quality of life. Their fragmented perception of themselves and others make relationships almost unbearable for them. Relationships are mostly marked by severe anxiety of resentment and rejection. For these patients this causes intolerable trouble at school where every day conflicts take place. Self-mutilation and suicidal thoughts often seem the only way out. By now, there is an agreement that an early specialized assessment and treatment is necessary in order to stop the typical consequences of their self-mutilative and dysfunctional behavior. Still, in contrast to adult age, empirical evidence is missing which proves the effectiveness of treating adolescent borderline patients. In this paper we present a research project on the effectiveness of transference focused psychotherapy with adolescent borderline patients (TFP-A) in a day clinic setting, combining TFP with group skills training as known from dialectic behavior therapy (DBT). Furthermore, we give first results on analyzing the effectiveness of our day clinic treatment program based on TFP-A, focusing on improving core symptoms such as affective problems, aggressive behavior against self and others and interpersonal problems.

  6. Plutonium stabilization and disposition focus area, FY 1999 and FY 2000 multi-year program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Consistent with the Environmental Management`s (EM`s) plan titled, ``Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure``, and ongoing efforts within the Executive Branch and Congress, this Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Plutonium Focus Area was written to ensure that technical gap projects are effectively managed and measured. The Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) defines and manages technology development programs that contribute to the effective stabilization of nuclear materials and their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of PFA activities includes the complete spectrum of plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA enables solutions to site-specific and complex-wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. The report describes the current technical activities, namely: Plutonium stabilization (9 studies); Highly enriched uranium stabilization (2 studies); Russian collaboration program (2 studies); Packaging and storage technologies (6 studies); and PFA management work package/product line (3 studies). Budget information for FY 1999 and FY 2000 is provided.

  7. The FOCUS Family Resilience Program: An Innovative Family Intervention for Trauma and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, William R

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the core principles and components of the FOCUS Program, a brief intervention for families contending with single or multiple trauma or loss events. It has been administered nationally to thousands of military family members since 2008 and has been implemented in a wide range of civilian community, medical, clinical, and school settings. Developed by a team from the UCLA and Harvard Medical Schools, the FOCUS Program provides a structured approach for joining with traditional and nontraditional families, crafting shared goals, and then working with parents, children, and the entire family to build communication, make meaning out of traumatic experiences, and practice specific skills that support family resilience. Through a narrative sharing process, each family member tells his or her story and constructs a timeline that graphically captures the experience and provides a platform for family discussions on points of convergence and divergence. This narrative sharing process is first done with the parents and then the children and then the family as a whole. The aim is to build perspective-taking skills and mutual understanding, to reduce distortions and misattributions, and to bridge estrangement between family members. Previous studies have confirmed that families participating in this brief program report reductions in distress and symptomatic behaviors for both parents and children and increases in child pro-social behaviors and family resilient processes. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  8. Towards harmonized data interchange in food consumption data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkala, H.; Christensen, Tue; Presser, K.

    2014-01-01

    Food consumption data are collected and used in several fields of science. The data are often combined from various sources and interchanged between different systems. There is, however, no harmonized and widely used data interchange format. In addition, food consumption data are often combined...... with other data such as food composition data. In the field of food composition, successful harmonization has recently been achieved by the European Food Information Resource Network, which is now the basis of a standard draft by the European Committee for Standardization. We present an XML-based data...... interchange format for food consumption based on work and experiences related to food composition.The aim is that the data interchange format will provide a basis for wider harmonization in the future....

  9. Horses and At-Risk Youth: An Equine Facilitated Learning Program Focusing on Authentic Leadership Skill Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Adams-Pope

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interesting and innovative youth development programs are important to further youth education. Programs focused on developing leadership skills in youth, specifically at-risk youth, are important when thinking of the future of our communities. The primary purpose of the study was to determine the impact of an equine facilitated, authentic leadership program on at-risk youth. Youth participated in a three-day equine facilitated learning program based on authentic leadership with focus groups conducted three days before and three days after the program. In this article, we describe the development and methodology of the program and specific implications for practice.

  10. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  11. Strategies to optimize participation in diabetes prevention programs following gestational diabetes: a focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaberi Dasgupta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2 prevention program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. RESULTS: Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. CONCLUSIONS: Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.

  12. Strategies to optimize participation in diabetes prevention programs following gestational diabetes: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Da Costa, Deborah; Pillay, Sabrina; De Civita, Mirella; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Leong, Aaron; Bacon, Simon; Stotland, Stephen; Chetty, V Tony; Garfield, Natasha; Majdan, Agnieszka; Meltzer, Sara

    2013-01-01

    We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM) diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevention program. Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.

  13. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  14. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  15. [The family as the focus of nursing care in the hospital environment: an educational program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Manuela; Fernandes, Carla Sílvia; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an educational program experience for nurses on caring for the family, at the hospital environment. The objective was to train nurses for the care of the family. The strategies adopted for teaching/learning focused on the Calgary Model of Assessment and Family Intervention, with a group of nurses from a general hospital located in the north of Portugal. In the subjective evaluation of the participants, the pedagogic experience was useful because they could recognize the need for a change on nursing care, and move towards an integrated approach to the family attention.

  16. Multi-physics simulations using a hierarchical interchangeable software interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portegies Zwart, Simon F.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; van Elteren, Arjen; Pelupessy, F. Inti; de Vries, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a general-purpose framework for interconnecting scientific simulation programs using a homogeneous, unified interface. Our framework is intrinsically parallel, and conveniently separates all component numerical modules in memory. This strict separation allows automatic unit conversion, distributed execution of modules on different cores within a cluster or grid, and orderly recovery from errors. The framework can be efficiently implemented and incurs an acceptable overhead. In practice, we measure the time spent in the framework to be less than 1% of the wall-clock time. Due to the unified structure of the interface, incorporating multiple modules addressing the same physics in different ways is relatively straightforward. Different modules may be advanced serially or in parallel. Despite initial concerns, we have encountered relatively few problems with this strict separation between modules, and the results of our simulations are consistent with earlier results using more traditional monolithic approaches. This framework provides a platform to combine existing simulation codes or develop new physical solver codes within a rich “ecosystem” of interchangeable modules.

  17. Connecting the learners: improving uptake of a nursing home educational program by focusing on staff interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Pinheiro, Sandro O; Anderson, Ruth A; Porter, Kristie; McConnell, Eleanor; Corazzini, Kirsten; Hancock, Kathryn; Lipscomb, Jeffery; Beales, Julie; Simpson, Kelly M

    2014-06-01

    The CONNECT intervention is designed to improve staff connections, communication, and use of multiple perspectives for problem solving. This analysis compared staff descriptions of the learning climate, use of social constructivist learning processes, and outcomes in nursing facilities receiving CONNECT with facilities receiving a falls education program alone. Qualitative evaluation of a randomized controlled trial was done using a focus group design. Facilities (n = 8) were randomized to a falls education program alone (control) or CONNECT followed by FALLS (intervention). A total of 77 staff participated in 16 focus groups using a structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using framework analysis, and summaries for each domain were compared between intervention and control facilities. Notable differences in descriptions of the learning climate included greater learner empowerment, appreciation of the role of all disciplines, and seeking diverse viewpoints in the intervention group. Greater use of social constructivist learning processes was evidenced by the intervention group as they described greater identification of communication weaknesses, improvement in communication frequency and quality, and use of sense-making by seeking out multiple perspectives to better understand and act on information. Intervention group participants reported outcomes including more creative fall prevention plans, a more respectful work environment, and improved relationships with coworkers. No substantial difference between groups was identified in safety culture, shared responsibility, and self-reported knowledge about falls. CONNECT appears to enhance the use of social constructivist learning processes among nursing home staff. The impact of CONNECT on clinical outcomes requires further study.

  18. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  19. Analysis of the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics in Low Volume Freeway Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drivers’ behavior characteristics cannot be ignored in designing freeway interchange facilities in order to improve traffic safety. This paper conducted a field experiment in Qingyin expressway. Four freeway interchanges from K571+538 to K614+932 with relatively low volume were selected, and 12 qualified drivers, 6 car test drivers and 6 truck test drivers, were driving vehicles according to the driving program. GPS and eye-tracking instrument were employed to record running speed, real-time, running track, fixation point, and so forth. Box-plot graphs and Student’s t-test were used to analyze the 12 data sets of driver’s fixation on exit guide signs. Speed-distance curves of effective 11 data sets were plotted to examine the test drivers’ behavior in diverging area and merging area. The results indicated that (1 drivers recognize the exit direction signs in 170 m–180 m advanced distance; (2 the diverging influence area is 1000 m upstream of the diverge point, and the merging influence area is 350 m downstream of the merge point; (3 NO OVERTAKING sign is recommended to be placed at 350 m upstream of the diverge point. The results can provide guidance for the design of freeway interchange facilities and management in order to improve traffic safety.

  20. Accurate automatic detection of electrode interchange in the electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kors, J A; van Herpen, G

    2001-08-15

    In recording an electrocardiogram (ECG), an interchange of electrodes may easily go unnoticed. Automatic detection would be desirable, but current algorithms, when dealing with more than left arm-right arm reversal, have moderate sensitivity. We propose a novel approach that uses the redundancy of information in the standard 12-lead ECG. We assume that each of the 8 independent electrocardiographic leads can be reconstructed from the 7 others in reasonable approximation. The correlation between any electrocardiographic lead and its reconstruction should be higher if the electrodes are correctly placed than when some interchange were present. The difference in correlation should have discriminative power. This was verified on a set of 3,305 ECGs for 14 common electrode interchange errors. The material was split in a learning and test set, and general reconstruction coefficients were computed from the learning set. For each interchange, electrode-error ECGs were derived by rearranging leads of the unaltered ECGs. Correlations between the actual leads and their reconstructions were computed for all ECGs. From the differences in lead correlation, decision rules were derived for each kind of interchange. All 14 rules had specificities of > or =99.5% in the test set. Sensitivities were > or =93% for 11 rules, and left arm-left leg electrode reversal scored low.

  1. A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis of Interpersonal Violence Prevention Programs Focused on Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliep, Naiema; Lazarus, Sandy; Naidoo, Anthony V

    2017-12-01

    Exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence have triggered a call by many experts for the need to determine effective ways to address the onset and effects of exposure to interpersonal violence. The specific aim of this study was to identify and draw on existing promising practices to make a more informed decision on strategies to develop a contextually relevant intervention that focused on the promotion of positive forms of masculinity to create safety and peace. This study used a qualitative meta-synthesis (QMS) technique to integrate and interpret findings from various intervention studies that focused on males and/or gender. An in-depth literature search yielded a total of 827 papers that met the search criteria. After removal of duplicates, abstract review, and review of the full texts, the subsequent sample for this meta-synthesis included 12 intervention programs and 23 studies. This QMS revealed the value of a comprehensive approach, using multiple strategies, employing participatory and interactive methods, and promoting social mobilization to address interpersonal violence. The promotion of positive forms of masculinity as an interpersonal violence prevention strategy is a much-needed, relatively untapped approach to generating safety and peace for both males and females.

  2. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE`s technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50).

  3. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BA Carteret; JH Westsik; LR Roeder-Smith; RL Gilchrist; RW Allen; SN Schlahta; TM Brouns

    1999-10-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste

  4. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  5. Interchange Instability and Transport in Matter-Antimatter Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendl, Alexander; Danler, Gregor; Wiesenberger, Matthias; Held, Markus

    2017-06-09

    Symmetric electron-positron plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic fields are intrinsically subject to interchange instability and transport. Scaling relations for the propagation velocity of density perturbations relevant to transport in isothermal magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are deduced, including damping effects when Debye lengths are large compared to Larmor radii. The relations are verified by nonlinear full-F gyrofluid computations. Results are analyzed with respect to planned magnetically confined electron-positron plasma experiments. The model is generalized to other matter-antimatter plasmas. Magnetized electron-positron-proton-antiproton plasmas are susceptible to interchange-driven local matter-antimatter separation, which can impede sustained laboratory magnetic confinement.

  6. Igniting interest in prevention: using firefighter focus groups to inform implementation and enhancement of an urban canvassing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; McDonald, Eileen M; Tran, Nhan T; Trump, Alison R; OʼBrocki, Raymond C; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Smoke alarm canvassing is recognized as an empirically based, effective intervention for increasing access to and the presence of smoke alarms in homes. We sought to inform the implementation of an intervention designed to enhance an existing fire department smoke alarm canvassing program through an empirically grounded, participatory process. We conducted a series of focus groups with fire union leaders and firefighters involved with the canvassing program in 1 US city, shared the results with the participants, and presented the resulting recommendations to fire department leadership. This research occurred in Baltimore, Maryland. Focus group participants included firefighters who participate in the Fire Department's smoke alarm canvassing program and representatives from the local firefighters' union. The focus groups sought to capture firefighters' experiences with and opinions about the canvassing program and how to improve it as well as challenges to canvassing work. We conducted 10 focus groups with 65 participants. Firefighters' perspectives on the canvassing program and their recommendations for improving it were expressed through 3 categories of themes concerning program management, canvassing challenges, and attitudes about the program and the community. We also discuss the process of presenting these findings and recommendations to the participants and the fire department leadership, and describe how implementation of some of the recommendations has progressed. Both the process and outcomes of this formative work inform how to develop and implement community-based public health interventions in real-world settings through academic-community partnerships. The findings also have implications for how canvassing programs are being implemented.

  7. The influence of loyalty programs on customer´s loyalty with a focus on branded clothing stores

    OpenAIRE

    Běhounková, Klára

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor statement deals with the influence of loyalty programs on customer's loyalty with a focus on branded clothing stores. It defines a customer, his behavior, decision-making process and his loyalty to a firm. Also it defines marketing communication with customer,sales promotion, loyalty programs including species and benefits. It states specific loyalty programs Blažek, Reserved, Orsay, Marks&Spencer a S. Oliver. Final part evaluates the research of loyalty cards and their usage of...

  8. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  9. Implementation of electronic data interchange in the Department of Defense: lessons learned from private industry

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Robert B.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The Department of Defense (DoD) has emphasized Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) since 1988 when the Deputy Secretary of Defense issued a policy directive that EDI was to become 'the way of doing business' for DoD in the future. The focus of this research is on how private industry is implementing EDI, and specifically how EDI is being used in the procurement and acquisitions environment. The results from a survey of private industry s...

  10. Developmental Immunotoxicity, Perinatal Programming, and Noncommunicable Diseases: Focus on Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental immunotoxicity (DIT is a term given to encompass the environmentally induced disruption of normal immune development resulting in adverse outcomes. A myriad of chemical, physical, and psychological factors can all contribute to DIT. As a core component of the developmental origins of adult disease, DIT is interlinked with three important concepts surrounding health risks across a lifetime: (1 the Barker Hypothesis, which connects prenatal development to later-life diseases, (2 the hygiene hypothesis, which connects newborns and infants to risk of later-life diseases and, (3 fetal programming and epigenetic alterations, which may exert effects both in later life and across future generations. This review of DIT considers: (1 the history and context of DIT research, (2 the fundamental features of DIT, (3 the emerging role of DIT in risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs and (4 the range of risk factors that have been investigated through human research. The emphasis on the human DIT-related literature is significant since most prior reviews of DIT have largely focused on animal research and considerations of specific categories of risk factors (e.g., heavy metals. Risk factors considered in this review include air pollution, aluminum, antibiotics, arsenic, bisphenol A, ethanol, lead (Pb, maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke, paracetamol (acetaminophen, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polyfluorinated compounds.

  11. Effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in a community-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konanur, Sheila; Muller, Robert T; Cinamon, Julie S; Thornback, Kristin; Zorzella, Karina P M

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a widely used treatment model for trauma-exposed children and adolescents (Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006). The Healthy Coping Program (HCP) was a multi-site community based intervention carried out in a diverse Canadian city. A randomized, waitlist-control design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of TF-CBT with trauma-exposed school-aged children (Muller & DiPaolo, 2008). A total of 113 children referred for clinical services and their caregivers completed the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (Briere, 1996) and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (Briere, 2005). Data were collected pre-waitlist, pre-assessment, pre-therapy, post-therapy, and six months after the completion of TF-CBT. The passage of time alone in the absence of clinical services was ineffective in reducing children's posttraumatic symptoms. In contrast, children and caregivers reported significant reductions in children's posttraumatic stress (PTS) following assessment and treatment. The reduction in PTS was maintained at six month follow-up. Findings of the current study support the use of the TF-CBT model in community-based settings in a diverse metropolis. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Promotion and Education: A Study of the Effectiveness of Programs Focusing on the Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Kenio Costa; Caldas, Celia Pereira; Veras, Renato Peixoto; Correa, Renata de Freitas; Bonfada, Diego; de Souza, DyegoLeandro Bezerra; Jerez-Roig, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Considering the population aging and the failure of biologistic and hospital-based treatment model, health promotion programs based on scientific evidence are necessary. A comprehensive review of literature was performed, aiming to identify and analyze health promotion and education experiments focused on the aging process. Papers published in eight databases, together with the database of the Pan-American Health Organization, were selected based on review of titles and abstracts, followed by a full text review conducted by two independent reviewers. A total of 22 studies were included, the majority of which adopted a quantitative approach, with a sample larger than 100 elderly or pre-retirement individuals. The majority of studies reported positive results in terms of health promotion and education. One study obtained minimum improvement and one reported that no statistically significant improvement had occurred. The positive effects most indicated by authors were: general or self-perceived improvement in physical health, improvement in psychosocial aspects and in relation to the aging process, improvement in adherence to preventative actions and in healthy conduct and lifestyle, increase in level of physical activity, improvement in quality of life and/or physical well-being, and improvement in activities of daily living or reduction of the risk of developing disabilities.

  13. Modernizing Public Transport Interchanges : Rotterdam Centraal Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the aims, topics, findings and main deliverables of the EU-funded NODES project. The NODES project investigates and evaluates tools that support the innovative design and operation of new or upgraded efficient urban transport interchanges. The key topics that are

  14. An O([Formula: see text]) algorithm for sorting signed genomes by reversals, transpositions, transreversals and block-interchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuzhi; Hao, Fanchang; Leong, Hon Wai

    2016-02-01

    We consider the problem of sorting signed permutations by reversals, transpositions, transreversals, and block-interchanges. The problem arises in the study of species evolution via large-scale genome rearrangement operations. Recently, Hao et al. gave a 2-approximation scheme called genome sorting by bridges (GSB) for solving this problem. Their result extended and unified the results of (i) He and Chen - a 2-approximation algorithm allowing reversals, transpositions, and block-interchanges (by also allowing transversals) and (ii) Hartman and Sharan - a 1.5-approximation algorithm allowing reversals, transpositions, and transversals (by also allowing block-interchanges). The GSB result is based on introduction of three bridge structures in the breakpoint graph, the L-bridge, T-bridge, and X-bridge that models goodreversal, transposition/transreversal, and block-interchange, respectively. However, the paper by Hao et al. focused on proving the 2-approximation GSB scheme and only mention a straightforward [Formula: see text] algorithm. In this paper, we give an [Formula: see text] algorithm for implementing the GSB scheme. The key idea behind our faster GSB algorithm is to represent cycles in the breakpoint graph by their canonical sequences, which greatly simplifies the search for these bridge structures. We also give some comparison results (running time and computed distances) against the original GSB implementation.

  15. Data Science Programs in U.S. Higher Education: An Exploratory Content Analysis of Program Description, Curriculum Structure, and Course Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rong; Sae-Lim, Watinee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an exploratory content analysis of 30 randomly selected Data Science (DS) programs from eight disciplines revealed significant gaps in current DS education in the United States. The analysis centers on linguistic patterns of program descriptions, curriculum requirements, and DS course focus as pertaining to key skills and domain…

  16. Initial validation of a training program focused on laparoscopic radical nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, S; Díaz-Güemes, I; Serrano, Á; Bachiller, J; Rioja, J; Usón, J; Sánchez-Margallo, F M

    2016-05-01

    To assess a training model focused on laparoscopic nephrectomy. 16 residents participated in the study, who attended a training program with a theoretical session (1hour) and a dry (7hours) and a wet lab (13hours). During animal training, the first and last nephrectomies were assessed through the completion time and the global rating scale "Objective and Structured Assessment of Technical Skills" (OSATS). Before and after the course, they performed 3 tasks on the virtual reality simulator LAPMentor (1) eye-hand coordination; 2) hand-hand coordination; and 3) transference of objects), registering time and movement metrics. All participants completed a questionnaire related to the training components on a 5-point rating scale. The participants performed the last nephrectomy faster (P<.001) and with higher OSATS scores (P<.001). After the course, they completed the LAPMentor tasks faster (P<.05). The number of movements decreased in all tasks (1) P<.001, 2) P<.05, and 3) P<.05), and the path length in tasks 1 (P<.05) and 2 (P<.05). The movement speeds increased in tasks 2 (P<.001) and 3 (P<.001). With regards to the questionnaire, the usefulness of the animal training and the necessity of training on them prior to their laparoscopic clinical practice were the questions with the highest score (4.92±.28). The combination of physical simulation and animal training constitute an effective training model for improving basic and advanced skills for laparoscopic nephrectomy. The component preferred by the urology residents was the animal training. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Training Program for Cardiology Residents to Perform Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Examination with Portable Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Vicente N; Mancuso, Frederico J N; Campos, Orlando; De Paola, Angelo A; Carvalho, Antonio C; Moises, Valdir A

    2015-10-01

    Training requirements for general cardiologists without echocardiographic expertise to perform focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) with portable devices have not yet been defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate a training program to instruct cardiology residents to perform FCU with a hand-carried device (HCD) in different clinical settings. Twelve cardiology residents were subjected to a 50-question test, 4 lectures on basic echocardiography and imaging interpretation, the supervised interpretation of 50 echocardiograms and performance of 30 exams using HCD. After this period, they repeated the written test and were administered a practical test comprising 30 exams each (360 patients) in different clinical settings. They reported on 15 parameters and a final diagnosis; their findings were compared to the HCD exam of a specialist in echocardiography. The proportion of correct answers on the theoretical test was higher after training (86%) than before (51%; P = 0.001). The agreement was substantial among the 15 parameters analyzed (kappa ranging from 0.615 to 0.891; P < 0.001). The percentage of correct interpretation was lower for abnormal (75%) than normal (95%) items, for valve abnormalities (85%) compared to other items (92%) and for graded scale (87%) than for dichotomous (95%) items (P < 0.0001, for all). For the final diagnoses, the kappa value was higher than 0.941 (P < 0.001; 95% CI [0.914, 0.955]). The training proposed enabled residents to perform FCU with HCD, and their findings were in good agreement with those of a cardiologist specialized in echocardiography. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. The focus of this document will be the overall range of DOE's structural materials research activities being conducted to support VHTR development. By far, the largest portion of material's R&D supporting VHTR development is that being performed directly as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Supplementary VHTR materials R&D being performed in the DOE program, including university and international research programs and that being performed under direct contracts with the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, will also be described. Specific areas of high-priority materials research that will be needed to deploy the NGNP and provide a basis for subsequent VHTRs are described, including the following: (1) Graphite: (a) Extensive unirradiated materials characterization and assessment of irradiation effects on properties must be performed to qualify new grades of graphite for nuclear service, including thermo-physical and mechanical properties and their changes, statistical variations from billot-to-billot and lot-to-lot, creep, and especially, irradiation creep. (b) Predictive models, as well as codification of the requirements and design methods for graphite core supports, must be developed to provide a basis for licensing. (2) Ceramics: Both fibrous and load-bearing ceramics must be qualified for environmental and radiation service as insulating materials. (3) Ceramic Composites: Carbon-carbon and SiC-SiC composites must be qualified for specialized usage in selected high-temperature components, such as core stabilizers, control rods, and insulating covers and ducting. This will require development of component-specific designs and fabrication processes, materials characterization, assessment of environmental and irradiation effects, and establishment of codes and standards for materials testing and design

  19. On Becoming an Entrepreneurial Leader: A Focus on the Impacts of University Entrepreneurship Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Bagheri; Zaidatol A.L. Pihie

    2011-01-01

    Despite the significant influences of university entrepreneurship programs in developing students entrepreneurial intention and abilities, there is little knowledge about how such programs shape students abilities to successfully lead entrepreneurial activities. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the impacts of university entrepreneurship programs in developing students entrepreneurial leadership competencies. A sample of 14 undergraduate entrepreneurial leaders defined...

  20. Integrating Program Assessment and a Career Focus into a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Mary Scheuer

    2017-01-01

    Sociology research methods students in 2013 and 2016 implemented a series of "real world" data gathering activities that enhanced their learning while assisting the department with ongoing program assessment and program review. In addition to the explicit collection of program assessment data on both students' development of sociological…

  1. Digital Video Assignments: Focusing a New Lens on Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Leah Holland

    2004-01-01

    Since NCATE requires teacher preparation programs to integrate technology, this article begins the dialogue for sharing start-up strategies. This article shows how one program (Adelphi University) has integrated digital video assignments into the teacher preparation program. It is hoped that this will spur interest and effort from other teacher…

  2. Focus Group Evaluation of the LIVE Network-An Audio Music Program to Promote ART Adherence Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Baumann, Maya; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Logwood, Steven J

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of 3 focus groups conducted to assess the utility, appeal, and feasibility of the LIVE Network (LN), a 70-minute audio music program developed to educate and motivate HIV-infected persons to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and self-manage medication-related side effects. Participants included 15 African American, 2 caucasian, and 1 race unknown HIV-infected persons who had been taking ART for at least 6 months. In general, the LN was well liked, relevant, educational, and motivational. It empowered and motivated participants to be responsible for their adherence self-care. One of the more surprising findings was how freely focus group participants shared the program with family and friends as a means of education and also as a means of disclosure. Moreover, the positive reception of the LN by individuals outside of the focus groups, especially children and adolescents, speaks well for the potential broad appeal of this type of program.

  3. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the two...

  4. Community Impacts of International Service-Learning and Study Abroad: An Analysis of Focus Groups with Program Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Wood

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ethical practice of international service-learning requires participants and institutions to examine their potential impacts on vulnerable host communities. This study reports on a series of focus groups with leaders of short-term international service-learning and other study abroad programs. The results of these focus groups suggests that while program leaders do not generally take into account the potential impacts of their programs on local communities in the design or implementation of their programs, they are very open to considering ways to mitigate negative impacts and promote positive ones once the issue has been raised. Program leaders are also collectively able to generate many excellent and creative strategies for improving their programs with respect to effects on communities, and are enthusiastic about engaging in this dialogue. We conclude that more research as well as substantial institutional commitment to addressing the community impacts of international service-learning and other study abroad programs are necessary for positive change, including training and other support to program leaders. KEYWORDSinternational service-learning, community impacts, civic engagement, community partnerships

  5. U.S. Marine Corps strategic campaign plan for implementation of Electronic Commerce/Electronic Data Interchange

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Frank E.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The focus of this research is to examine the Electronic Commerce/Electronic Data Interchange (EC/EDI) implementation plans within the Marine Corps and its various procurement offices. The primary intent is to evaluate the plan and determine if the Marine Corps can meet the Presidential Mandate that agencies adopt EC/EDI by 1997. This research analyzes, compares, and contrasts the plan to commercial EC/EDI implementation practies. Addit...

  6. Redefining leadership education in graduate public health programs: prioritization, focus, and guiding principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lachance, Jennifer A; Oxendine, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    .... Leadership development initiatives should be practice based, process focused, interdisciplinary, diversity based, adaptive, experimental, innovative, and empowering, and they should encourage authenticity...

  7. Inhibitions and implications associated with celebrity participation in social marketing programs focusing on HIV prevention: an exploratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Casais; João F. Proença

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses celebrity participation in social marketing programs focusing on public health, especially on HIV programs. The research identifies the inhibitions of celebrity people and implications that this involvement may have upon their lives. The paper analysis data from in-depth interviews made to twenty-seven Portuguese celebrities from arts, show business and sports. The results show absence of prejudice against HIV. Famous people feel motivated to join public health and HIV ca...

  8. The Specification of Science Education Programs in the Local Public Library: Focusing on the Programs In G-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ja Ahn*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of 'G' has been made a number of achievements with its science program as a part of public library's cultural program during the last 5 years. Recently, the national science centre has been established in the same city, the debate is now needed whether the science program in the public library have reasons to be maintained or to be reduced. The aim of this research is on the operating strategies of the science program in the public library. The research methods include case studies of operational strategies in domestic and foreign science centre, the level of satisfaction of local citizen on the science program, the vision of science program in the advancement of public library in the century. In results, the research proposes that the science program in public library should be maintained, but with locally characterised programs. In addition, the study also advised on the provision of scientific information, the strengthened search functions, and the development of user-centred services for those in science fields.

  9. An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David K; Peterson, Bryan G; Hart, Grant W

    2010-01-01

    A simplified vacuum arc design [based on metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) concepts] is employed as a plasma source for a study of a (7)Be non-neutral plasma. The design includes a mechanism for interchanging the cathode source. Testing of the plasma source showed that it is capable of producing on the order of 10(12) charges at confinable energies using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs for lower energy and lower density applications by using only the trigger spark rather than the full vacuum arc in high current ion beam designs. The interchangeability of the cathode design gives the source the ability to replace only the source sample, simplifying use of radioactive materials in the plasma source. The sample can also be replaced with a completely different conductive material. The design can be easily modified for use in other plasma confinement or full MeVVA applications.

  10. Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.

  11. Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O.

    2012-09-01

    The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C =-∂ ln B/∂x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.

  12. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    working with these materials, we present chemical structures wherever possible, but do not emphasize organic nomenclature or functional group chemistry beyond identifying, as appropriate, acidic and basic groups and other key structural features. 3. As can be appreciated from Table 1, the course organization is overtly based on the nature of the materials themselveshousehold "chemicals", food and beverages, pills, and plasticsrather than on abstract chemical principles. Organizing the course on the basis of the materials studied emphasizes their relevance to students and focuses interest on the actual results obtained by the individual students. Nevertheless, a coherent sequence of development of laboratory techniques and gradually increasing opportunity for less tightly directed student experiences is maintained. Laboratory exercises cover most of the usual topics, including stoichiometry, qualitative analysis, quantitative analyses by acid-base and redox titrations, and colorimetry. We have not, however, found or devised exercises dealing with thermochemistry or electrochemistry; readers' suggestions in these areas would be welcome. 4. The instruments, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory initially were the same as previously used, so that we have been able to introduce this program without initial capital expenditure. The exercises rely substantially upon mass measurements and titrations, with pH meters and colorimeters brought into use as the year progresses. We are now in the process of introducing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) methods into the laboratories. This will add a very powerful tool to the students' repertoire. Its use will greatly expand the opportunities for directed-inquiry investigations of real-world samples in the context of the course. 5. Some of the exercises in Table 1 will be recognized by readers of this Journal as standard ones, found in many lab manuals or available as commercial modules (2). To provide a comprehensive focus on

  13. Qualitative exploration of rural focus group members' participation in the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, I S; Janke, M

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of rural residents in the USA have at least one chronic condition, and meeting the complex needs of these individuals has become a challenge for the current healthcare system. A self-management approach enables individuals with chronic illnesses to gain skills needed to improve the management of their conditions. Rural areas have a higher proportion of individuals who are likely to be affected by chronic conditions. Based on these factors, it is necessary to provide programs to help rural residents self-manage their health. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study is to explore the benefits perceived by rural residents due to their participation in six weekly group sessions, which are referred to as the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). Individuals who completed the CDSMP were recruited to participate in a focus group regarding their experience with the program. Thirty-four of the 45 respondents (75%) who completed the CDSMP participated in six focus groups. When the respondents returned for the scheduled focus groups, they were asked to share their experience with the CDSMP. Each focus group was located at the same site that housed the program in their community. Phenomenological and consensual qualitative approaches were used in the data analysis for the present study. The majority (91%) of the participants were female. Of those, 97% were non-Hispanic whites. The mean number of chronic conditions was two, with a range between one and eight chronic conditions per participant. Two prominent themes emerged from the six focus groups: respondent interaction in behavior change and prioritizing health behavior change. The study findings support that chronic disease self-management programs can initiate positive behavioral changes, and those lifestyle changes can influence and improve the health of rural populations. Similar programs can yield beneficial results on important behavior change for the rural communities, an underserved

  14. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  15. Electronic data interchange in U.S. Navy contracting activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Paul T

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) the computer-to-computer or more specifically the application-to-application exchange of business data in a standard format. Achieving the large savings mandated by Defense Management Review Decision (DMRD) 941 requires integration of EDI capability into Navy automated procurement systems. This thesis examines the use of EDI in the U.S. Navy procurement function, as well as areas for expanded utiliza...

  16. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  17. Market structure and credit card pricing: what drives the interchange?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the credit card industry, where oligopolistic card networks price their products in a complex marketplace with competing payment instruments, rational consumers/merchants, and competitive card issuers/acquirers. The analysis suggests that card networks demand higher interchange fees to maximize card issuers' profits as card payments become more efficient. At equilibrium, consumer rewards and card transaction volume also increase, while consumer surplus and merc...

  18. Residual turbulence from velocity shear stabilized interchange instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B. [University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The stabilizing effect of velocity shear on the macroscopic, broad bandwidth, ideal interchange instability is studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. A 2D dissipative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is employed to simulate the system. For a given flow shear, V Prime , linear growth rates are shown to be suppressed to below the shear-free level at both the small and large wavelengths. With increasing V Prime , the unstable band in wavenumber-space shrinks so that the peak growth results for modes that correspond to relatively high wavenumbers, on the scale of the density gradient. In the nonlinear turbulent steady state, a similar turbulent spectrum obtains, and the convection cells are roughly circular. In addition, the density fluctuation level and the degree of flattening of the initial inverted density profile are found to decrease as V Prime increases; in fact, unstable modes are almost completely stabilized and the density profile reverts to laminar when V Prime is a few times the classic interchange growth rate. Moreover, the turbulent particle flux diminishes with increasing velocity shear such that all the flux is carried by the classical diffusive flux in the asymptotic limit. The simulations are compared with measurements of magnetic fluctuations from the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, MCX, which investigated interchange modes in the presence of velocity shear. The experimental spectral data, taken in the plasma edge, are in general agreement with the numerical data obtained in higher viscosity simulations for which the level of viscosity is chosen consistent with MCX Reynolds numbers at the edge. In particular, the residual turbulence in both cases is dominated by elongated convection cells. Finally, concomitant Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the system are also examined. Complete stability to interchanges is obtained only in the parameter space wherein the generalized Rayleigh inflexion theorem is satisfied.

  19. Socio-Cultural Influences in Eating Disorders: Focus on Sports/Fitness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    This report notes that eating disorders are frequently described as a diet and fitness program gone wild. It outlines and describes five sociocultural influences which have been identified for eating disorders: (1) emphasis on thinness; (2) glorification of youth; (3) changing roles of women; (4) emphasis on fitness and sport programs; and (5) the…

  20. Examining the Presence of Congregational Programs Focused on Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R

    2016-06-01

    Religious congregations are uniquely poised to provide programs to support survivors of violence against women; yet little is known regarding the prevalence of such programs. In this study, we used data from three waves of the National Congregation Study (N = 3334) to examine change across time in the presence of a congregational program to support survivors of sexual assault or domestic violence. We also explored results among different Christian religious traditions across time. Given the gendered nature of this violence, we also tested whether the (a) gender of the head clergy (i.e., religious leader), and (b) ability of women to serve in congregational leadership roles predicted the presence of programs. As points of comparison, we also examined the total number of congregational social service programs and food programs in particular. Overall, we found different patterns of change across religious traditions for the different programs. Moreover, clergy gender and the ability of women to serve in leadership roles predicted the presence of different types of programs. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research also are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  1. Applying Coaching Strategies to Support Youth- and Family-Focused Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Smith, Burgess; Perkins, Daniel F.; Borden, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe how a peer-coaching model has been applied to support community-based Extension programming through the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) initiative. We describe the general approaches to coaching that have been used to help with CYFAR program implementation, evaluation, and sustainability efforts; we…

  2. "La Familia" HIV prevention program: a focus on disclosure and family acceptance for Latino immigrant MSM to the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Rita M; Zepeda, Jorge; Samaniego, Rafael; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Alaniz, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to pilot test and evaluate a HIV prevention program that used a Freirean approach to engage Latino immigrant MSM (men who have sex with men) on issues of sexual orientation, family acceptance, stigma as well as HIV prevention and sexual risk behaviors. Participants were evaluated using a survey before and after participation in the program and compared to a control group. Focus groups where participants discussed their experiences in the program as well as perceptions of the program were held and analyzed. Survey results indicate that after their participation in the program, participants increased their safer sex behaviors, comfort disclosing their sexual orientation and support from friends. HIV prevention needs to incorporate cultural, social and structural factors.

  3. Report: Environmental Job Training Program Implemented Well, But Focus Needed on Possible Duplication With Other EPA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #12-P-0843, September 21, 2012. EPA effectively established and adhered to competitive criteria that resulted in the selection of job training proposals that addressed the broad goals of the Environmental Job Training program.

  4. Family and Consumer Sciences Focus on the Human Dimension: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Katherine L.; Chipman, Helen; Forstadt, Leslie A.; Rasco, Mattie R.; Sellers, Debra M.; Stephenson, Laura; York, De'Shoin A.

    2017-01-01

    The history of family and consumer sciences (FCS) and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is discussed with an emphasis on the critical importance of the human dimension. EFNEP's focus on people, education for change, accountability, strategic partnerships, and public value are highlighted as an example and model for…

  5. An Intervention Program Focused on Self-Understanding and Interpersonal Interactions to Prevent Psychosocial Distress among Japanese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Mikayo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a preventive intervention program focused on self-understanding and interpersonal interactions to prevent psychosocial distress among Japanese university students. Two hundred and twenty-two undergraduate students were divided into a treatment group and a control group to complete Time 1 and Time 2 surveys. The…

  6. Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Manualized Intervention for Parents of Teens at Risk for Aggressive Behaviour: The Connect Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…

  7. Comparing an Emotion- and a Behavior-Focused Parenting Program as Part of a Multsystemic Intervention for Child Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.

  8. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Program Overview - A Focus on RPS Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; McCallum, Peter W.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. To meet this goal, the RPS Program manages investments in RPS technologies and RPS system development, working closely with the Department of Energy. This paper provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status, its collaborations with potential RPS users, and the approach employed to maintain the readiness of RPS to support future NASA mission concepts.

  9. Parasites of freshwater fishes and the Great American Biotic Interchange: a bridge too far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A; García-Varela, M; Pérez-Ponce de León, G

    2017-03-01

    We examine the extent to which adult helminths of freshwater fishes have been part of the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), by integrating information in published studies and new data from Panama with fish biogeography and Earth history of Middle America. The review illustrates the following: (1) the helminth fauna south of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and especially south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, shows strong Neotropical affinities; (2) host-parasite associations follow principles of the 'biogeographic core fauna' in which host-lineage specificity is pronounced; (3) phylogenetic analysis of the widespread freshwater trematode family Allocreadiidae reveals a complex history of host-shifting and co-diversification involving mainly cyprinodontiforms and characids; (4) allocreadiids, monogeneans and spiruridan nematodes of Middle American cyprinodontiforms may provide clues to the evolutionary history of their hosts; and (5) phylogenetic analyses of cryptogonimid trematodes may reveal whether or how cichlids interacted with marine or brackish-water environments during their colonization history. The review shows that 'interchange' is limited and asymmetrical, but simple narratives of northward isthmian dispersal will likely prove inadequate to explain the historical biogeography of many host-parasite associations in tropical Middle America, particularly those involving poeciliids. Finally, our study highlights the urgent need for targeted survey work across Middle America, focused sampling in river drainages of Colombia and Venezuela, and deeper strategic sampling in other parts of South America, in order to develop and test robust hypotheses about fish-parasite associations in Middle America.

  10. Reflective Practice: Using Focus Groups to Determine Family Priorities and Guide Social Pragmatic Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theadore, Geraldine; Laurent, Amy; Kovarsky, Dana; Weiss, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Reflective practice requires that professionals carefully examine and integrate multiple sources of information when designing intervention and evaluating its effectiveness. This article describes the use of focus group discussion as a form of qualitative research for understanding parents' perspectives of a university-based intervention program…

  11. The Role of Regulatory Focus in Determining Career-Development Training Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weide, Jeffrey Lee

    2014-01-01

    American organizations spend over $135 billion annually on training with an unknown return on investment. When budgets decline, leaders typically reduce training, despite the known influence of such training on employee motivation. To explore the perceptions of government-focused project managers regarding the effect of a lack of standardized…

  12. Building Evidence for a Prevention-Focused Education Program Targeting Parents of Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Whitney E.; Tomasello, Nicole M.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    A lack of parenting skills puts young children at greater risk of maltreatment, and impedes healthy child development. Using a combination of a pre-post and post-only design, a prevention-focused parenting education workshop series was assessed to determine its influence on parenting knowledge and self-efficacy. Outcome measures indicated that…

  13. Engaging Students and Parents in Transition-Focused Individualized Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavendish, Wendy; Connor, David J.; Rediker, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The reauthorizations of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act emphasize that students and parents are to be considered equal partners in the individualized education program (IEP) process. This article addresses how to move from compliance with the law to facilitating meaningful involvement of high school students and their parents in…

  14. Developing an Undergraduate International Business Program: Context, Rationale, Process and Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jim; Gray, Brendan; McNaughton, Rod

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent development of a new undergraduate international business program at the University of Otago in New Zealand. Firstly, it describes the context of the initiative in terms of the New Zealand business environment, the university sector in New Zealand and recent global trends in international business education.…

  15. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

    2010-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

  16. Development of a Unique, Culturally Focused Family Science Program in the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Deborah; Keino, Leah; Mayers, Gloysis

    2006-01-01

    Empowering women and allowing them to provide community leadership in a rapidly changing and increasingly complex society is essential. Offering a sound family science curriculum is one way to facilitate empowerment of women in a developing country. Conceptualizing, planning, and developing strong programs became an opportunity to review existing…

  17. Development and Implementation of Worksite Health and Wellness Programs: A Focus on Non-Communicable Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalin, Lawrence P; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Briggs, Paige; Cahalin, Brendan L; Myers, Jonathan; Forman, Daniel E; Patel, Mahesh J; Pinkstaff, Sherry O; Arena, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The development and implementation of worksite health and wellness programs (WHWPs) in the United States (US) hold promise as a means to improve population health and reverse current trends in non-communicable disease incidence and prevalence. However, WHWPs face organizational, economic, systematic, legal, and logistical challenges which have combined to impact program availability and expansion. Even so, there is a burgeoning body of evidence indicating WHWPs can significantly improve the health profile of participating employees in a cost effective manner. This foundation of scientific knowledge justifies further research inquiry to elucidate optimal WHWP models. It is clear that the development, implementation and operation of WHWPs require a strong commitment from organizational leadership, a pervasive culture of health and availability of necessary resources and infrastructure. Since organizations vary significantly, there is a need to have flexibility in creating a customized, effective health and wellness program. Furthermore, several key legal issues must be addressed to facilitate employer and employee needs and responsibilities; the US Affordable Care Act will play a major role moving forward. The purposes of this review are to: 1) examine currently available health and wellness program models and considerations for the future; 2) highlight key legal issues associated with WHWP development and implementation; and 3) identify challenges and solutions for the development and implementation of as well as adherence to WHWPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigating a Developmentally Focused Youth Sports Program for Girls in Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feathers, Rebecca Zarzycki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the impact the Girls on the Run (GOTR) program had on the New Castle County, Delaware, third, fourth, and fifth grade girls who participated in the spring 2011 season. Specifically, this study examined short-term changes in the participants as they related to self-esteem, body image, physical activity…

  19. Undergraduate Rural Medical Education Program Development: Focus Group Consultation with the NRHA Rural Medical Educators Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura H.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; Florence, Joseph A.; Boulger, James G.; Hunsaker, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Over a decade ago, leaders in rural medical education established the Rural Medical Educators (RME) Group, an interest group within the National Rural Health Association, to support faculty in rural medical education programs. This group has convened an annual RME conclave since 2006. In 2008, this conclave convened 15 national leaders in…

  20. What Do Stakeholders Know about School Library Programs? Results of a Focus Group Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Supporting the "Infrastructure Needs of 21st Century School Library Programs," also known as the Pennsylvania School Library Project, was a one-year project conducted in Pennsylvania to better identify and understand what stakeholders--teachers, administrators, parents, school and community leaders, and education associations--expect…

  1. Using Technology To Bring Abstract Concepts into Focus: A Programming Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Thad; Butterfield, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the three-step implementation of an instructional technology tool and associated pedagogy to support teaching and learning computer programming concepts. The Flowchart Interpreter (FLINT) was proven through experiments to support novice programmers better than the traditional textbook approach. (EV)

  2. Benefits of Informal Learning Environments: A Focused Examination of STEM-Based Program Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Cameron D.; Austin Stallworth, Chandra; Hailey, Christine; Householder, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines STEM-based informal learning environments for underrepresented students and reports on the aspects of these programs that are beneficial to students. This qualitative study provides a nuanced look into informal learning environments and determines what is unique about these experiences and makes them beneficial for students. We…

  3. 77 FR 61012 - Expansion of Importer Self-Assessment Program To Include Qualified Importers of Focused...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ..., and to discuss the scope and methodology of the self-testing plan developed by the company. Companies... assessment methodology used by the company; the testing methodology; the frequency of self-testing activities... conducted at least annually. ( www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/trade/trade_programs/importer_self_assessment/ ). Once...

  4. An Online Adult-Learner Focused Program: An Assessment of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Curtis L.; Ravi, Kokila; Akoh, Harry; Gray, Vance

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of higher education has significantly changed. Methods of instructional delivery, student profiles and degree offerings have transformed traditional brick and mortar institutions. Distance educational courses and programs, either fully online or hybrid, have been a major contributing factor in this shift. While a high percentage of…

  5. Help Increase the Peace, A Youth-Focused Program in Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mary Lee; Austad, Carol Shaw; Cota, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated specific attitudes and beliefs, related to the concepts of peace education, of participants in an "Introductory, basic help increase the peace program" (HIPP) workshop. Pre- and post-workshop ratings showed significant differences on two important attitudinal variables: first, the importance of being familiar with the…

  6. An "Evidence-Based" Professional Development Program for Physics Teachers Focusing on Knowledge Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hana

    This dissertation is concerned with the design and study of an evidence-based approach to the professional development of high-school physics teachers responding to the need to develop effective continuing professional development programs (CPD) in domains that require genuine changes in teachers' views, knowledge, and practice. The goals of the thesis were to design an evidence-based model for the CPD program, to implement it with teachers, and to study its influence on teachers' knowledge, views, and practice, as well as its impact on students' learning. The program was developed in three consecutive versions: a pilot, first, and second versions. Based on the pilot version (that was not part of this study), we developed the first version of the program in which we studied difficulties in employing the evidence-based and blended-learning approaches. According to our findings, we modified the strategies for enacting these approaches in the second version of the program. The influence of the program on the teachers and students was studied during the enactment of the second version of the program. The model implemented in the second version of the program was characterized by four main design principles: 1. The KI and evidence aspects are acquired simultaneously in an integrated manner. 2. The guidance of the teachers follows the principles of cognitive apprenticeship both in the evidence and the KI aspects. 3. The teachers experience the innovative activities as learners. 4. The program promotes continuity of teachers' learning through a structured "blended learning" approach. The results of our study show that this version of the program achieved its goals; throughout the program the teachers progressed in their knowledge, views, and practice concerning the knowledge integration, and in the evidence and learner-centered aspects. The results also indicated that students improved their knowledge of physics and knowledge integration skills that were developed

  7. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintaining a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.

  8. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Toit, Nola Cora Du

    2010-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women—the notion that certain limitations may make women poor marriage partners. Like their male counterparts, we find women also possess qualities that are not consider...

  9. Implementation of a pediatric critical care focused bedside ultrasound training program in a large academic PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Thomas W; Himebauch, Adam S; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Chen, Aaron E; Dean, Anthony J; Panebianco, Nova; Darge, Kassa; Cohen, Meryl S; Greeley, William J; Berg, Robert A; Nishisaki, Akira

    2015-03-01

    To determine the feasibility and describe the process of implementing a pediatric critical care bedside ultrasound program in a large academic PICU and to evaluate the impact of bedside ultrasound on clinical management. Retrospective case series, description of program implementation. Single-center quaternary noncardiac PICU in a children's hospital. Consecutive patients from January 22, 2012, to July 22, 2012, with bedside ultrasounds performed and interpreted by pediatric critical care practitioners. A pediatric critical care bedside ultrasound program consisting of a 2-day immersive course followed by clinical performance with internal quality assurance review was implemented. Studies performed in the PICU following training were documented and reviewed against reference standards including subspecialist-performed ultrasound or clinical response. Seventeen critical care faculties and eight fellows recorded 201 bedside ultrasound studies over 6 months in defined core applications: 57 procedural (28%), 76 hemodynamic (38%), 35 thoracic (17%), and 33 abdominal (16%). A quality assurance review identified 23 studies (16% of all nonprocedural studies) as critical (affected clinical management or gave valuable information). Forty-eight percent of those studies (11/23) were within the hemodynamic core. The proportion of critical studies were not significantly different across the applications (hemodynamic, 11/76 [15%] vs thoracic and abdominal, 12/68 [18%]; p = 0.65). Examples of critical studies include evidence of tamponade secondary to pleural effusions, identification of pulmonary hypertension, hemodynamic assessment before tracheal intubation, recognition of hypovolemia and systemic vascular resistance abnormalities, determination of pneumothorax, location of chest tube and urinary catheter, and differentiation of pleural fluid from pulmonary consolidation. Implementation of a critical care bedside ultrasound program for critical care providers in a large

  10. The NIH Science of Behavior Change Program: Transforming the science through a focus on mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Riddle, Melissa; King, Jonathan W; Aklin, Will M; Chen, Wen; Clark, David; Collier, Elaine; Czajkowski, Susan; Esposito, Layla; Ferrer, Rebecca; Green, Paige; Hunter, Christine; Kehl, Karen; King, Rosalind; Onken, Lisa; Simmons, Janine M; Stoeckel, Luke; Stoney, Catherine; Tully, Lois; Weber, Wendy

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation. These principles serve as the foundation for our vision for a unified science of behavior change at the NIH and in the broader research community. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Technical program plan for the transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Hundreds of aging nuclear materials processing facilities within the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Complex are now being shut down and deactivated. These facilities, situated throughout the United States, will require a monumental effort to clean up safely and with minimal environmental insult. Current cleanup technologies tend to be labor intensive and expensive, they produce an unacceptably large volume of waste, and they expose workers to radioactive and other hazardous substances. This document describes an emerging program designed to develop and demonstrate new technical approaches to the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) program for DOE`s nuclear materials processing facilities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), the program seeks to integrate the strengths of DOE`s technical, managerial, and systems engineering capabilities with those of industry, universities, and other government agencies. Once developed, these technologies will help to provide US industry with a competitive edge in the worldwide market that exists for improved environmental restoration and D&D services.

  12. Interchange: Highways and Displacement in the Postwar American City

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Elihu

    2006-01-01

    Though its route cleaved to a 19th century rail corridor, building the urban extension of the Massachusetts Turnpike (1962-1965) was an unsettling experience. The six-lane highway overflowed the tight dimensions presented by the Boston & Albany Railroad’s graded right-of-way. The result was significant land-takings and human displacement, on either side of the rail bed and especially at the interchanges within the limited-access road network. In West Newton, an African-American community (in ...

  13. NNSA Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program 2008 Symposium--Focus on Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotta, P R; Sketchley, J A

    2008-08-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program was authorized by Congress in 1991 to fund leading-edge research and development central to the national laboratories core missions. LDRD anticipates and engages in projects on the forefront of science and engineering at the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, and has a long history of addressing pressing national security needs at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories. LDRD has been a scientific success story, where projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published and cited in peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media coverage, and patents granted. The LDRD Program is also a powerful means to attract and retain top researchers from around the world, to foster collaborations with other prominent scientific and technological institutions, and to leverage some of the world's most technologically advanced assets. This enables the LDRD Program to invest in high-risk and potentially high-payoff research that creates innovative technical solutions for some of our nation's most difficult challenges. Worldwide energy demand is growing at an alarming rate, as developing nations continue to expand their industrial and economic base on the back of limited global resources. The resulting international conflicts and environmental consequences pose serious challenges not only to this nation, but to the international community as well. The NNSA and its national security laboratories have been increasingly called upon to devote their scientific and technological capabilities to help address issues that are not limited solely to the historic nuclear weapons core mission, but are more expansive and encompass a spectrum of national security missions, including energy security. This year's symposium highlights some of the exciting areas of research in alternative fuels and technology, nuclear power, carbon

  14. “Getting Ready for School:” A Preliminary Evaluation of a Parent-Focused School-Readiness Program

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Helena Duch; Maria Eugenia Darvique; Alexandra Grundleger; Carmen Rodriguez; Cassie Landers

    2012-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to start school with fewer school readiness skills than their more advantaged peers. Emergent literacy and math skills play an important role in this gap. The family is essential in helping children build these skills, and the active involvement of families is crucial to the success of any intervention for young children. The Getting Ready for School (GRS) program is a parent-focused curriculum designed to help parents equip their children with the...

  15. Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, M; Obsuth, I

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. ‘Connect’ is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment: parental sensitivity, cooperation, reflective capacity, and effective dyadic affect regulation. Through didactic and experiential activities, parents ...

  16. Outcomes of a rheumatoid arthritis disease therapy management program focusing on medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockl, Karen M; Shin, Jennifer S; Lew, Heidi C; Zakharyan, Armen; Harada, Ann S M; Solow, Brian K; Curtis, Bradford S

    2010-10-01

    A national pharmacy benefits management company implemented a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease therapy management (DTM) program as an enhanced offering to patients receiving specialty pharmacy services. The program was designed to improve medication adherence, maximize therapeutic outcomes, and enhance physical functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by empowering patients and improving their knowledge of RA. To evaluate (a) adherence to injectable RA medications for patients participating in an RA DTM program compared with nonparticipating patients receiving injectable RA medications at specialty or community pharmacies and (b) HRQOL, work productivity, and physical functioning before versus after completing the RA DTM program. Patients who had an RA diagnosis and a pharmacy claim for an injectable RA medication during the identification period (August 2007 through September 2008) and were continuously enrolled with the plan from 4 months before through 8 months after the identification date were stratified into 3 patient cohorts: DTM, specialty pharmacy, and community pharmacy. DTM patients were further categorized into a DTM intent-to-treat (ITT) cohort (all 340 DTM-enrolled patients) and a DTM completer cohort (subset of 266 ITT patients who completed the month 6 consultation). DTM completer, specialty, and community pharmacy cohorts were matched 1:1:1 (n = 244 in each cohort after matching) using a propensity score that represented the likelihood of completing the DTM program. The primary outcome was adherence to injectable RA medications, measured as the proportion of days covered (PDC) over an 8-month post-identification period. Patient-reported outcomes (short form [SF]-12, Work Productivity Activity Impairment [WPAI], and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index [HAQ-DI]) were evaluated among all 371 DTM patients who completed the month 0 and month 6 consultations regardless of whether they met continuous enrollment requirements

  17. Effect of a focused and directed continuing education program on prehospital skill maintenance in key resuscitation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Robert A; Abbott, Cynthia A

    2007-10-01

    US Army Medics (formerly MOS 91B) received training similar to EMT-B level but were not required to be certified. Medics additionally received training in such skills as intravenous (i.v.) line insertion and fluid resuscitation. Continuing education, although encouraged, was not required. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a focused and directed psychomotor skills continuing education program in maintaining skills performance over a 6-month period in four key resuscitation areas. The education effect was the focus of the analysis. The study population was a convenience sample of medics with 1-4 years experience assigned to field units at Ft. Hood, TX. Subjects received a pretest evaluation of skills performance in four key areas using standard NREMT skill sheets. Scores on skill evaluations represent the percentage of steps correctly performed. After pretest evaluations, subjects were required to complete a comprehensive and focused continuing education program that emphasized skill practice. After the 6-month pretest, a post-test was conducted. Pre- and post-test scores for each student were matched. A one-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare results before and after the intervention, with statistical significance set at p skills of i.v. insertion, airway management, patient assessment, and bleeding control was 79 +/- 11, 73 +/- 14, 44 +/- 22, and 57 +/- 13, respectively. The post-test performance for these same skills increased (p education program that emphasizes skill practice in key resuscitation areas can improve skills performance.

  18. Prospects for an Accelerator Program in Mexico Focused on Photon Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Mauro Napsuciale

    2011-05-01

    Recent interest in developing an accelerator-based light source in Mexico has driven several actions by the Division of Particles and Fields in Mexico, and by the electron accelerator community in the United States. We report on activities over the past two years that are very encouraging and offer a variety of possibilities to start the development of an accelerator program in Mexico. A suggested path towards this goal that would eventually lead to building, commissioning and operating a third or fourth generation light source will also be presented

  19. Student Focused Geospatial Curriculum Initiatives: Internships and Certificate Programs at NCCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovic, G.; Malhotra, R.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports recent efforts by the Department of Environmental, Earth and Geospatial Sciences faculty at North Carolina Central University (NCCU) to develop a leading geospatial sciences program that will be considered a model for other Historically Black College/University (HBCU) peers nationally. NCCU was established in 1909 and is the nation’s first state supported public liberal arts college funded for African Americans. In the most recent annual ranking of America’s best black colleges by the US News and World Report (Best Colleges 2010), NCCU was ranked 10th in the nation. As one of only two HBCUs in the southeast offering an undergraduate degree in Geography (McKee, J.O. and C. V. Dixon. Geography in Historically Black Colleges/ Universities in the Southeast, in The Role of the South in Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004), NCCU is uniquely positioned to positively affect talent and diversity of the geospatial discipline in the future. Therefore, successful creation of research and internship pathways for NCCU students has national implications because it will increase the number of minority students joining the workforce and applying to PhD programs. Several related efforts will be described, including research and internship projects with Fugro EarthData Inc., Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia, Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis and the City of Durham. The authors will also outline requirements and recent successes of ASPRS Provisional Certification Program, developed and pioneered as collaborative effort between ASPRS and NCCU. This certificate program allows graduating students majoring in geospatial technologies and allied fields to become provisionally certified by passing peer-review and taking the certification exam. At NCCU, projects and certification are conducted under the aegis of the Geospatial Research, Innovative Teaching and

  20. The Afya Bora Fellowship: An Innovative Program Focused on Creating an Interprofessional Network of Leaders in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Wendy M; Farquhar, Carey; Mashalla, Yohana

    2017-09-01

    Most current health professions education programs are focused on the development of clinical skills. As a result, they may not address the complex and interconnected nature of global health. Trainees require relevant clinical, programmatic, and leadership skills to meet the challenges of practicing in an increasingly globalized environment. To develop health care leaders within sub-Saharan Africa, the Afya Bora Consortium developed a one-year fellowship for medical doctors and nurses. Fellows from nine institutions in the United States and sub-Saharan Africa participate in 12 learning modules focused on leadership development and program management. Classroom-based training is augmented with an experiential apprenticeship component. Since 2011, 100 fellows have graduated from the program. During their apprenticeships, fellows developed projects beneficial to their development and to host organizations. The program has developed fellows' skills in leadership, lent expertise to local organizations, and built knowledge in local contexts. Most fellows have returned to their countries of origin, thus building local capacity. U.S.-based fellows examine global health challenges from regional perspectives and learn from sub-Saharan African experts and peers. The Consortium provides ongoing support to alumni through career development awards and alumni network engagement with current and past fellow cohorts. The Consortium expanded from its initial network of five countries to six and continues to seek opportunities for geographical and institutional expansion.

  1. Avoiding the A.B.D. Abyss: A Grounded Theory Study of a Dissertation-Focused Course for Doctoral Students in an Educational Leadership Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leslie Ann Locke; Melanie Boyle

    2016-01-01

    ...) phase of the process. This grounded theory study focused on the perceptions and experiences of doctoral students in an educational leadership program, who were ABD, regarding their participation in a dissertation-focused...

  2. An analysis of potential costs of adverse events based on Drug Programs in Poland. Pulmonology focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkultecka-Debek Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The project was performed within the Polish Society for Pharmacoeconomics (PTFE. The objective was to estimate the potential costs of treatment of side effects, which theoretically may occur as a result of treatment of selected diseases. We analyzed the Drug Programs financed by National Health Fund in Poland in 2012 and for the first analysis we selected those Programs where the same medicinal products were used. We based the adverse events selection on the Summary of Product Characteristics of the chosen products. We extracted all the potential adverse events defined as frequent and very frequent, grouping them according to therapeutic areas. This paper is related to the results in the pulmonology area. The events described as very common had an incidence of ≥ 1/10, and the common ones ≥ 1/100, <1/10. In order to identify the resources used, we performed a survey with the engagement of clinical experts. On the basis of the collected data we allocated direct costs incurred by the public payer. We used the costs valid in December 2013. The paper presents the estimated costs of treatment of side effects related to the pulmonology disease area. Taking into account the costs incurred by the NHF and the patient separately e calculated the total spending and the percentage of each component cost in detail. The treatment of adverse drug reactions generates a significant cost incurred by both the public payer and the patient.

  3. Focusing on the "T" in LGBT: an online survey of related content in texas nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David; Hendrickson, Sherry Garrett

    2015-06-01

    As nurses, we advocate for the most vulnerable and underserved, who, within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, are transgender individuals. Yet, the existence of LGBT education in nursing schools has not been examined. After approval by the university institutional review board, 113 nursing programs in Texas were surveyed between November 2013 and January 2014, with a 12-question, Web-based questionnaire. A Verisign certificate and 128-bit encryption program supported compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. Nineteen percent of the surveys were returned. Ten (47.62%) of 21 respondents addressed transgender or transsexual individuals. Fifteen (71.43%) of 21 answered a free-text question to estimate the number of hours spent addressing LGBT content, reporting an average of 1.6 hours. Our study suggests that, in Texas, nursing students may not be receiving sufficient content, nor do they understand transgender health needs or how to best deliver competent, compassionate care to this population. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Pharmacist-Physician Collaboration at a Family Medicine Residency Program: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Hager

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In response to transforming healthcare and pursuit of the Triple Aim, many health systems have added team members to expand the capabilities and effectiveness of the team to facilitate these aims. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and perceptions of pharmacist-physician collaboration among family medicine residents (FMR, family medicine faculty (FMF, and pharmacist faculty and residents in a practice where clinical pharmacy services were relatively new. Understanding the nuances of pharmacist-physician interactions will provide insight into how to improve FMR education to prepare learners for patient-centered, team-based practice. Methods: An exploratory descriptive qualitative study design was used to articulate perceptions of professional roles and team-based care in an interprofessional family medicine community-based clinical practice. Five, 60-minute focus groups were conducted in a clinical training setting that focuses on preparing family medicine physicians for collaborative rural primary care practice. Results: Twenty-one FMRs, eight FMF, and six clinical pharmacists participated. Three themes emerged from the focus groups and were consistent across the groups: 1 roles of pharmacists recognized by physicians in different settings, 2 benefits to collaboration, and 3 keys to successful pharmacist-physician collaboration which include a developing the relationship, b optimizing communication, c creating beneficial clinical workflow, d clarifying roles and responsibilities, and e increasing opportunities for meaningful interactions. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that by co-locating physicians and pharmacists in the same environment, and providing a basic structure for collaboration, a collaborative working relationship can be initiated. Practices looking to have more effective collaborative working relationships should strive to increase the frequency of interactions of the professions, help the

  5. Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs in rural communities: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubby, David; Bonfine, Natalie; Novisky, Meghan; Munetz, Mark R; Ritter, Christian

    2013-12-01

    The Crisis Intervention Teams model (CIT) was originally developed as an urban model for police officers responding to calls about persons experiencing a mental illness crisis. Literature suggests that there is reason to believe that there may be unique challenges to adapting this model in rural settings. This study attempts to better understand these unique challenges. Thematic analysis of focus group interviews revealed that there were both external and internal barriers to developing CIT in their respective communities. Some of these barriers were a consequence of working in small communities and working within small police departments. Participants actively overcame these barriers through the realization that CIT was needed in their community, through collaborative efforts across disciplines, and through the involvement of mental health advocacy groups. These results indicate that CIT can be successfully implemented in rural communities.

  6. The impact on attitudes towards cultural difference of participation in a health focused study abroad program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, A; Rolls, C; Kristy, S

    2000-01-01

    The changes in attitudes towards cultural difference of seventeen participants in a three-week community health study abroad program to Nepal were compared with the changes in attitudes of a similar group who did not participate in the tour. Participants in the tour group were surveyed eight weeks prior to departure and in the last week of the tour using a twenty-six item questionnaire employing a six-point forced-choice response scale. The responses of participants in the tour group showed significant shifts in relation to eight items compared while the responses for the control group showed no significant shifts. Observed student advantages of participation in this study tour included the development of independent behaviour and positive cultural adjustment and adaptation.

  7. The evaluation of a clinical development unit leadership preparation program by focus group interviews - part 2: negative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Jennifer; Parsons, Myra

    2002-10-01

    In Western Sydney, Australia, in 1996, the Area Health Service and the University of Western Sydney entered a strategic alliance to develop a nursing research culture in the health services. One of the strategies implemented to achieve this was the establishment of a network of research-receptive environments known as Clinical Development Units (CDUs). In terms of research receptivity, evidence at the time suggested that it could only be developed in units where the leadership style is democratic and participatory. In terms of CDUs, evidence suggested that their successful development depended critically on the effective management of CDU leadership stressors. In light of this, it was agreed to conduct a CDU leadership preparation program in Western Sydney. The program aimed to furnish CDU leaders with the participatory leadership skills required to develop and manage their units. It was expected that the acquisition of such leadership skills would serve to minimize the leadership stessors they could expect to experience. This is the second of two papers which report course evaluation data. The first focused on the more positive evaluation data; this paper focuses on the negative evaluation data and outlines how the current program has been modified in light of these data. In addition, it discusses two themes which emerged during data analysis. These were nurses' apparent mutual lack of trust and their pressing needs to be recognized as valuable and merit-worthy.

  8. Lacunae in noncommunicable disease control program: Need to focus on adherence issues!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarundeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic non communicable diseases in India have increased in magnitude with earlier onset and more likelihood of complications. Much emphasis is given to early diagnosis and timely treatment. Additionally, tertiary prevention through medication adherence is needed to limit disability and prevent early onset of complications. This study was aimed to assess the magnitude of medication and lifestyle adherence among elderly patients suffering from diabetes and hypertension in rural areas of Punjab. Methodology: This was a clinic based study in district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab. Patients were subjected to regular blood pressure and blood glucose monitoring. Thereafter they were offered free medications through weekly clinic held at Community Health Center, Bassi Pathana. Along with treatment, Public Health Nurse conducted counselling on diet and lifestyle. Frequency and process of taking medications was explained in local language and records duly maintained during visits. Results: Nearly 70% of study subjects were more than 50 years old. Males constituted 26% of the sample and 60% of subjects were illiterate. Large majority of study subjects did not consumed tobacco (98.08% or alcohol (89.42% in past thirty days. In-sufficient physical activity and poor compliance to diet was reported by 10.5% (Males: 7.4%, Females: 11.7% and 23.5% (Males: 31.5%, Females: 20.8% subjects. Nearly 46.15% of study subjects reported missing prescribed medications. Nearly 61.54% of study subjects were very sure that they will be able to take medicines as directed by physician. Conclusion: National Program for Control of Diabetes, Cardio-vascular Disease and Stroke relies on early diagnosis and treatment non- communicable diseases. However, with reported levels of adherence to medication and lifestyle interventions, there is an urgent need of exploring innovative ways to ensure compliance and improve treatment outcomes.

  9. Assessing the effectiveness of a place-based conservation education program by applying utilization-focused evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Alice Blood

    Lack of personal connection to the natural world by most American youth builds reason for assessing effectiveness of conservation education programs. Place-based learning is important in helping youth understand how their personal and societal well-being are linked and dependent upon their local habitats. Across Montana 2277 students in grades 3--10 participate in an interactive year long fishing education program with their teachers called Hooked on Fishing (HOF). The purpose of my study was to assess the effectiveness of HOF, a place-based conservation education program established in 1996, and modeled after the national Hooked on Fishing, Not on Drugs program. Using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent group study design, students received a pre-survey during the beginning of the program, a post-survey after the program, and an extended post-survey 12 to 14 weeks later. Teachers voluntarily participated in an Internet survey during May 2006, and program instructors voluntarily participated in a structured open-ended telephone interview in June 2006. A key component of my study was the decision to conduct the evaluation process using an approach which included stakeholders in the development of the instruments to measure student outcomes. This approach is called utilization-focused evaluation and was developed by Michael Q. Patton. The motive of this approach is to promote the usability of the evaluation results. The results are considered to have a better chance to be applied by the program stakeholders to not only gauge program effectiveness, but to be used to improve the program. Two research questions were: (1) does the frequency of outdoor experiences have significant affects on students' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and intended stewardship behaviors; and (2) does improved knowledge of local natural resources have significant affects on students' skills, attitudes and intended stewardship behavior. Nonparametric statistical analyses calculated statistical

  10. Qualitative evaluation of Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong: focus groups based on Secondary 3 program implementers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-18

    Ten focus groups comprising 42 program implementers recruited from 10 schools were conducted to evaluate the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 3) of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs) in the 2008/09 school year. Results showed that a majority of the program implementers used positive descriptors and metaphors to represent the program and they perceived that the program benefited the program participants in various psychosocial domains. In conjunction with the previous research findings, the present study provides further support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S.

  11. Report of an equity-focused health impact assessment of a proposed universal parenting program in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benita E; Ateah, Christine A; Chartier, Mariette J; Anderson DeCoteau, Marcia; Harris, Elizabeth; Serwonka, Karen

    2016-06-27

    To assess potential inequitable impacts of a proposed Teen Triple P Positive Parenting Program (Teen PPP) in Manitoba to achieve equity of access and outcomes for families of diverse backgrounds; recommend (if required) alternative actions to promote greater equity of access and outcomes for families participating in Teen PPP; and evaluate the influence of recommendations on implementation of the proposed program. An equity-focused health impact assessment (EfHIA) of the proposed Teen PPP was conducted, using a standard EfHIA framework. Methods used to assess potential Teen PPP impacts included: a literature review, key informant interviews and 14 community consultations. Evidence was analyzed, summarized and presented to the project Steering Committee (SC), along with draft recommendations for ensuring that equity is considered in Teen PPP planning and rollout. The SC prioritized 12 possible inequitable impacts of Teen PPP with potential to prevent certain parents/caregivers either from accessing the proposed program or benefitting adequately from the program, causing them to drop out prematurely. Recommendations for avoiding these impacts were finalized by the SC and presented to provincial government officials responsible for the proposed program. Follow-up interviews with these individuals indicated that the recommendations were well received and raised equity-related issues that will be considered in future program planning decisions. EfHIA is a proven planning tool for ensuring that health equity is considered in all policies, which is one of the necessary conditions for reducing inequities and closing the health equity gap throughout Canada within a generation.

  12. Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Inform the Development of a Peer-Supported Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program: DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj; Camp, Pat; Shum, Jessica; Afshar, Rowshanak; Tang, Tricia; FitzGerald, John Mark

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited research on the role of peer support in self-management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs. This research explored patient acceptability of "peer supporters" in promoting sustained self-management practices after PR and to assess their perceived self-efficacy to manage their disease. This qualitative study used focus groups and individual interviews to identify perspectives of peer supporters and benefits of participation in a PR program. The analysis included systematically reading and reviewing transcripts of the sessions, establishing themes, and sorting responses into thematic categories. A total of 28 patients with COPD (15 males) participated in either a focus group or interview. The majority of participants considered peer supporters to be good facilitators for motivating ongoing exercise after completing PR. Exercise sessions were viewed as extremely beneficial for disease management, and many were satisfied with the care they had received. Most subjects wanted to receive followup sessions with either a professional or peer after the intensive phase of PR. Overall, the concept of having a peer supporter involved in ongoing maintenance of self-management efforts after PR was generally viewed as positive. Integrating a peer support model into PR programs may improve better long-term health outcomes for COPD management as many participants endorsed the need for continued support after the program. It also improved our understanding of the role of "peer supports" in exercise and self-care maintenance after PR. The selection of peers and the specific model used warrants further investigation in a randomized controlled trial.

  13. Guidelines for Provision and Interchange of Geothermal Data Assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-03

    The US Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) is funding and overseeing the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed information system providing access to integrated data in support of, and generated in, all phases of geothermal development. NGDS is being built in an open paradigm and will employ state-of-the-art informatics approaches and capabilities to advance the state of geothermal knowledge in the US. This document presents guidelines related to provision and interchange of data assets in the context of the National Geothermal Data System. It identifies general specifications for NGDS catalog metadata and data content, and provides specific instructions for preparation and submission of data assets by OGT-funded projects.

  14. BDNF and NT4 play interchangeable roles in gustatory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Krimm, Robin F

    2014-02-15

    A limited number of growth factors are capable of regulating numerous developmental processes, but how they accomplish this is unclear. The gustatory system is ideal for examining this issue because the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT4) have different developmental roles although both of them activate the same receptors, TrkB and p75. Here we first investigated whether the different roles of BDNF and NT4 are due to their differences in temporal and spatial expression patterns. Then, we asked whether or not these two neurotrophins exert their unique roles on the gustatory system by regulating different sets of downstream genes. By using Bdnf(Nt4/Nt4) mice, in which the coding region for BDNF is replaced with NT4, we examined whether the different functions of BDNF and NT4 are interchangeable during taste development. Our results demonstrated that NT4 could mediate most of the unique roles of BDNF during taste development. Specifically, caspase-3-mediated cell death, which was increased in the geniculate ganglion in Bdnf(-/-) mice, was rescued in Bdnf(Nt4/Nt4) mice. In BDNF knockout mice, tongue innervation was disrupted, and gustatory axons failed to reach their targets. However, disrupted innervation was rescued and target innervation is normal when NT4 replaced BDNF. Genome wide expression analyses revealed that BDNF and NT4 mutant mice exhibited different gene expression profiles in the gustatory (geniculate) ganglion. Compared to wild type, the expression of differentiation-, apoptosis- and axon guidance-related genes was changed in BDNF mutant mice, which is consistent with their different roles during taste development. However, replacement of BDNF by NT4 rescued these gene expression changes. These findings indicate that the functions of BDNF and NT4 in taste development are interchangeable. Spatial and temporal differences in BDNF and NT4 expression can regulate differential gene expression in vivo and determine

  15. Effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyechi, Kay C N; Eseadi, Chiedu; Umoke, Prince C I; Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, Amaka B; Otu, Mkpoikanke S; Obidoa, Jaachimma C; Agu, Fedinand U; Nwaubani, Okechukwu O; Utoh-Ofong, Anthonia N; Ncheke, Chijioke D; Ugwuozor, Felix O

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a learned habit that has an impact on the psychological and biochemical health of individuals. It is the leading preventable cause of chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program (GCBHEP) on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners. The study used a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Twenty inmates were identified through self-reporting, 1-to-1 counseling, and observation. The treatment group took part in a GCBHEP for 10 weeks, while the control group received 10 weeks' conventional counseling. After the intervention program, both the treatment and control groups were evaluated. The repeated measures analysis of variance was used for data analysis and partial η was also used as a measure of effect size. The findings showed that the GCBHEP had a strong effect on cigarette-smoking habits among the inmates in the treatment group compared with those in the control group. The effect of the GCBHEP by age was moderate, and modest by educational qualification. Group-focused cognitive behavioral health education is effective in breaking the habit of cigarette smoking among Nigerian prisoners. Therefore, future researchers are encouraged to adopt this approach in helping individuals with a smoking problem and other drug-abuse behaviors in Nigerian prisons.

  16. Attitudes of older adults in a group-based exercise program towards a blended intervention; a focus-group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mehra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.

  17. 76 FR 44897 - Columbia Gulf Transmission Company and Energy Interchange, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... in the blanket certificate Regulations in 18 CFR subpart F; and (5) authority for Energy Interchange...] [FR Doc No: 2011-18916] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. CP11-509-000; CP11-510-000] Columbia Gulf Transmission Company and Energy Interchange, LLC; Notice of...

  18. USING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES TO ASSESS THE EFFICIENCY OF TRANSPORT INTERCHANGES FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Samchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The expediency of using the sustainable development principles for assessing the efficiency of public transport interchange functioning is shown. The passenger waiting time, the probable number of accidents in the area of transport interchanges, the queuing delay, and the amount of total emissions as CO2 equivalent were chosen as indicators that the efficiency criterion includes.

  19. Investigation into the interchangeability of generic formulations using immunosuppressants and a broad selection of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.; Teerenstra, S.; Neef, C.; Burger, D.M.; Maliepaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To date, the interchangeability of generic drugs has only been investigated for a limited number of medicines. The objective of this study was to investigate generic-generic drug interchangeability in a large subset of generic formulations in order to cover a broad spectrum of drugs.

  20. Interchangeability of generic anti-epileptic drugs: a quantitative analysis of topiramate and gabapentin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.; Banishki, N.; Gispen-de Wied, C.C.; Teerenstra, S.; Elferink, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine whether the so-called "shift" or "drift" problem might occur when generic anti-epileptic drugs are interchanged, and thus to assess if generic anti-epileptic drugs are interchangeable and can be used in an efficacious and safe way on the basis of

  1. Automatic detection of ECG cable interchange by analyzing both morphology and interlead relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Gregg, Richard E; Feild, Dirk Q; Babaeizadeh, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    ECG cable interchange can generate erroneous diagnoses. For algorithms detecting ECG cable interchange, high specificity is required to maintain a low total false positive rate because the prevalence of interchange is low. In this study, we propose and evaluate an improved algorithm for automatic detection and classification of ECG cable interchange. The algorithm was developed by using both ECG morphology information and redundancy information. ECG morphology features included QRS-T and P-wave amplitude, frontal axis and clockwise vector loop rotation. The redundancy features were derived based on the EASI™ lead system transformation. The classification was implemented using linear support vector machine. The development database came from multiple sources including both normal subjects and cardiac patients. An independent database was used to test the algorithm performance. Common cable interchanges were simulated by swapping either limb cables or precordial cables. For the whole validation database, the overall sensitivity and specificity for detecting precordial cable interchange were 56.5% and 99.9%, and the sensitivity and specificity for detecting limb cable interchange (excluding left arm-left leg interchange) were 93.8% and 99.9%. Defining precordial cable interchange or limb cable interchange as a single positive event, the total false positive rate was 0.7%. When the algorithm was designed for higher sensitivity, the sensitivity for detecting precordial cable interchange increased to 74.6% and the total false positive rate increased to 2.7%, while the sensitivity for detecting limb cable interchange was maintained at 93.8%. The low total false positive rate was maintained at 0.6% for the more abnormal subset of the validation database including only hypertrophy and infarction patients. The proposed algorithm can detect and classify ECG cable interchanges with high specificity and low total false positive rate, at the cost of decreased sensitivity for

  2. “Getting Ready for School:” A Preliminary Evaluation of a Parent-Focused School-Readiness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly G. Noble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to start school with fewer school readiness skills than their more advantaged peers. Emergent literacy and math skills play an important role in this gap. The family is essential in helping children build these skills, and the active involvement of families is crucial to the success of any intervention for young children. The Getting Ready for School (GRS program is a parent-focused curriculum designed to help parents equip their children with the skills and enthusiasm necessary for learning when they start school. Parents meet in weekly workshops led by a trained facilitator and implement the curriculum at home with their children. The objective of this pilot study was to assess the promise of the GRS intervention in children participating in an urban Head Start program and to explore parents' responses to the intervention. We hypothesized that participation in GRS would improve school readiness in literacy and math skills, relative to participation in business-as-usual Head Start. Four Head Start classrooms (two randomly selected “intervention” and two “comparison” classrooms participated in this study. Preliminary analyses suggest that GRS improves school readiness over and above a Head Start-as-usual experience. Implications for early childhood programs and policies are discussed.

  3. Effect of therapeutic interchange on medication reconciliation during hospitalization and upon discharge in a geriatric population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Wang

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interchange of a same class medication for an outpatient medication is a widespread practice during hospitalization in response to limited hospital formularies. However, therapeutic interchange may increase risk of medication errors. The objective was to characterize the prevalence and safety of therapeutic interchange.Secondary analysis of a transitions of care study. We included patients over age 64 admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2009-2010 with heart failure, pneumonia, or acute coronary syndrome who were taking a medication in any of six commonly-interchanged classes on admission: proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2 blockers, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. There was limited electronic medication reconciliation support available. Main measures were presence and accuracy of therapeutic interchange during hospitalization, and rate of medication reconciliation errors on discharge. We examined charts of 303 patients taking 555 medications at time of admission in the six medication classes of interest. A total of 244 (44.0% of medications were therapeutically interchanged to an approved formulary drug at admission, affecting 64% of the study patients. Among the therapeutically interchanged drugs, we identified 78 (32.0% suspected medication conversion errors. The discharge medication reconciliation error rate was 11.5% among the 244 therapeutically interchanged medications, compared with 4.2% among the 311 unchanged medications (relative risk [RR] 2.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-5.19.Therapeutic interchange was prevalent among hospitalized patients in this study and elevates the risk for potential medication errors during and after hospitalization. Improved electronic systems for managing therapeutic interchange and medication reconciliation

  4. Advancing Telephone Focus Groups Method Through the Use of Webinar: Methodological Reflections on Evaluating Ontario, Canada's Healthy Babies Healthy Children Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Eunice; Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne; Webel-Edgar, Lori; Muir, Sarah; Manson, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Telephone focus groups have been increasingly popular in public health research and evaluation. One of the main concerns of telephone focus groups is the lack of nonverbal cues among participants, which could limit group interactions and dynamics during the focus group discussion. To overcome this limitation, we supplemented telephone focus groups with webinar technology in a recent evaluation of a provincial public health program in Ontario, Canada. In this article, we share the methods used and our experiences in conducting telephone focus groups supplemented with webinar technology, including advantages and challenges. Our experience will inform other researchers who may consider using telephone focus groups with webinars in future research and evaluation.

  5. HERO: Program Status and Fist Images from a Balloon-Borne Focusing Hard-X-ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Alexander, C. D.; Apple, J. A.; Benson, C. M.; Dietz, K. L.; Elsner, R. F.; Engelhaupt. D. E.; Ghosh, K. K.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; ODell, S. L.; hide

    2001-01-01

    HERO is a balloon payload featuring shallow-graze angle replicated optics for hard-x-ray imaging. When completed, the instrument will offer unprecedented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region, giving thousands of sources to choose from for detailed study on long flights. A recent proof-of-concept flight captured the first hard-x-ray focused images of the Crab Nebula, Cygnus X-1 and GRS 1915+105. Full details of the HERO program are presented, including the design and performance of the optics, the detectors and the gondola. Results from the recent proving flight are discussed together with expected future performance when the full science payload is completed.

  6. Impact of Ramadan focused education program on hypoglycemic risk and metabolic control for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourkmani, Ayla M; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alharbi, Turki J; Alkhashan, Hesham I; Alobikan, Aljoharah H; Bakhiet, Ahmed H; Alqahtani, Hala B; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Alawwad, Ahmed D; Mishriky, Adel M; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan could lead to acute complications and increased hypoglycemic risk of patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, diabetes is one of the diseases that need careful observation and special considerations during Ramadan including patients' education and counseling. To evaluate the impact of Ramadan focused education program on acute complications and biomedical parameters. A prospective nonrandomized interventional controlled design was run on three phases: before, during, and after Ramadan on 262 type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention group (n=140) received focused individualized diabetic education sessions and antidiabetic medications adjustment before and after Ramadan, while the control group (n=122) received standard diabetic care. A validated hypoglycemia questionnaire was used in both groups to assess the change of the risk. Patients were advised to adjust the dosage and timing of antidiabetic agents according to the recommendations for management of diabetes during Ramadan. Primary outcomes were postintervention change of hypoglycemia score and HbA1c over 6-month follow-up. Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation. HbA1c was expressed in percentage. The hypoglycemic scores before, during, and after Ramadan were 14.21±8.50, 6.36±6.17, and 5.44±5.55 in the intervention group, respectively (PRamadan in the intervention group, respectively (PRamadan reductions of HbA1c and hypoglycemic scores were significantly higher in the intervention group (-13.0% vs -4.5%, P=0.004 for HbA1c and -61.7% vs -33.8%, PRamadan to 2.28±0.68 mmol/L after Ramadan (PRamadan educational program had a positive impact with reduction of hypoglycemic risk, HbA1c, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Therefore, it could be recommended for patients with increased risk of hypoglycemia during Ramadan fasting.

  7. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC.The study team populated the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0 with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM, as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20-34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15-24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15-29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15-34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program's cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections.The VMMC program's impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15-34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25-34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them insufficient to support geographic targeting.

  8. Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marlene M; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-12-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. 'Connect' is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment: parental sensitivity, cooperation, reflective capacity, and effective dyadic affect regulation. Through didactic and experiential activities, parents develop the competence necessary to identify, understand and respond to the needs of their teen in a manner that provides structure and safety while safeguarding the quality of the parent-teen relationship. In Study 1, twenty parents reported significant increases in perceived parenting satisfaction and efficacy and reductions in adolescents' aggression, antisocial behaviour and other mental health problems following completion of Connect as compared to a waitlist control period. These effects were sustained and additional small effects were noted in decreases in conduct problems, depression and anxiety at a 12-month follow-up. The program was then transported to 17 communities serving 309 parents through standardized training and supervision of group leaders. Study 2 summarizes significant pre- to post-treatment reductions in teen externalizing and internalizing problems; enhanced social functioning; and improvements in affect regulation. Parents also reported significant increases in parenting satisfaction and perceived efficacy and reductions in caregiver burden.

  9. Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material: Probability Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benton C.

    2001-02-01

    It is now well-accepted that both lunar and martian materials are represented in the meteorite collections. Early suggestions that viable organisms might survive natural transport between planets have not yet been thoroughly examined. The concept of Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material (PIBM) is potentially relevant to the conditions under which life originated. PIBM has been also invoked to infer that the potential danger to Earth from martian materials is non-existent, an inference with, however, many pitfalls. Numerous impediments to efficient transfer of viable organisms exist. In this work, the lethality of space radiation during long transients and the biasing of launched objects toward materials unlikely to host abundant organisms are examined and shown to reduce the likelihood of successful transfer by orders of magnitude. It is also shown that martian meteorites studied to date assuredly have been subjected to sterilizing levels of ionizing radiation in space. PIBM considerations apply to both the solar system locale(s) of the origin of life and to the applicability of planetary protection protocols to preserve the biospheres of planetary bodies, including our own.

  10. An harmonised vocabulary for communicating and interchanging biofilms experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Azevedo, Nuno F; Lourenço, Anália

    2014-10-23

    Biofilm studies are at the crossroads of Biology, Chemistry, Medicine, Material Science and Engineering, among other fields. Data harmonisation in Biofilms is therefore crucial to allow for researchers to collaborate, interchange, understand, and replicate studies at an inter-laboratory and inter-domain scale. The international Minimum Information About a Biofilms Experiment initiative has prepared a set of guidelines for documenting biofilms experiments and data, namely the minimum information checklist. This paper goes a step forward and describes a new ontology for the broad description of biofilm experiments and data. In such an interdisciplinary context we chose to rely on a common integration framework provided by a foundational ontology that facilitates the addition and extension of various sub-domain modules, and the consistent integration of terminology extracted from several existing ontologies, e.g. EXPO and ChEBI. The community is participating actively in the production of this resource, and it is already used by public biofilms-centred databases, such as BiofOmics, and bioinformatics tools, such as the Biofilms Experiment Workbench. This practical validation serves the purpose of disseminating the controlled vocabulary among researchers and identifying current limitations, glitches, and inconsistencies. Information branches will be added, extended or refactored according to user feedback and group discussions.

  11. Sorting by reversals, block interchanges, tandem duplications, and deletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding sequences of evolutionary operations that transform one genome into another is a classic problem in comparative genomics. While most of the genome rearrangement algorithms assume that there is exactly one copy of each gene in both genomes, this does not reflect the biological reality very well – most of the studied genomes contain duplicated gene content, which has to be removed before applying those algorithms. However, dealing with unequal gene content is a very challenging task, and only few algorithms allow operations like duplications and deletions. Almost all of these algorithms restrict these operations to have a fixed size. Results In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm to sort an ancestral genome (with unique gene content into a genome of a descendant (with arbitrary gene content by reversals, block interchanges, tandem duplications, and deletions, where tandem duplications and deletions are of arbitrary size. Conclusion Experimental results show that our algorithm finds sorting sequences that are close to an optimal sorting sequence when the ancestor and the descendant are closely related. The quality of the results decreases when the genomes get more diverged or the genome size increases. Nevertheless, the calculated distances give a good approximation of the true evolutionary distances.

  12. Using electronic data interchange to report product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Donald F.; Frank, Donald T.

    1993-03-01

    The Product Quality Deficiency Report (PQDR) is a Department of Defense form that identifies deficiencies in the manufacture, repair, or procurement of materiel. It may be used by DoD employees or contractors to identify defects at any point in the item's life. DoD generates nearly 75,000 such deficiency reports each year. In most cases, when a defect is identified, Standard Form (SF) 368 is completed and sent to the activity managing the contract under which the materiel was procured. That activity, usually in conjunction with the contractor, investigates the complaint, attempts to determine a cause and a corrective action, and must make some disposition of the defective materiel. The process is labor- and paper-intensive and time-consuming. Technology can reduce the costs of the process and at the same time improve timeliness by electronically exchanging discrepancy data between activities. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is one technology for electronically passing PQDR data. It is widely used in industry and increasingly within DoD. DMRD 941 defines DoD's commitment to use EDI and cites the PQDR and other discrepancy reports as early candidates for EDI. In this report, we describe how EDI can be linked to changes in PQDR processing practices to provide further improvements.

  13. Summary of Work for Joint Research Interchanges with DARWIN Integrated Product Team 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus

    1999-01-01

    The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available under the Joint Research Interchange for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching and vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.

  14. Summary of Work for Joint Research Interchanges with DARWIN Integrated Product Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus

    1999-01-01

    The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available un- der the Joint Research Interchange for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching an@ vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.

  15. The Integration of Language and Content: Form-Focused Instruction in a Content-Based Language Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Valeo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This comparative, classroom-based study investigated the effect and effectiveness of introducing a focus on form approach to a content-based, occupation-specific language program for adults. Thirty-six adults in two classes participated in a 10-week study. One group of 16 adults received content-based instruction that included a focus on form component while the other group of 20 adults received the same content-based instruction with a focus on meaning only. Pre-tests/post-tests/delayed post-tests measured learning of two grammatical forms, the present conditional and the simple past tense, as well as occupational content knowledge. Results indicated significant gains on most of the language measures for both learner groups but significant advantages for the form-focused group on the content knowledge tests. The results are discussed in relation to the impact of specific strategies designed to focus on form and the relationship between attention to form and comprehension of content in the context of content-based language programs. Résumé Cette étude comparative menée en salle de classe a examiné l'effet et l'efficacité d’un enseignement mettant l’accent sur ​​la forme dans un programme de langues professionnelles pour adultes. Trente-six apprenants de deux classes intactes ont participé à cette recherche pendant 10 semaines. Un groupe de 16 personnes a reçu les instructions qui se concentraient sur la forme, tandis que l'autre groupe de 20 personnes a reçu les mêmes instructions qui portaient sur ​​le sens seulement. Des pré-tests, des post-tests ainsi que des post-tests retardés ont mesuré l'apprentissage de la langue et du contenu de deux traits grammaticaux; premièrement, la connaissance du conditionnel et du passé et, deuxièmement, la connaissance du contenu professionnel. Les résultats ont indiqué une amélioration sensible de la plupart des compétences linguistiques pour les deux groupes d

  16. A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne infant program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioret Sandrine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. Objective To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers’ diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. Methods The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn’s first 18 months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers’ diet (food frequency questionnaire, physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (−0.42;-0.02 and −0.25 (−0.50;-0.01, respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. “Fruits and vegetables” and “Cereals and sweet foods”. Conclusions These findings suggest that

  17. A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne inFANT program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2012-08-28

    The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children's habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent's own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers' diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn's first 18 months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers' diet (food frequency questionnaire), physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire) were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (-0.42;-0.02) and -0.25 (-0.50;-0.01), respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. "Fruits and vegetables" and "Cereals and sweet foods". These findings suggest that supporting first-time mothers to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in their infants impacts maternal

  18. Implementation of an Education-Focused PhD Program in Anatomy and Cell Biology at Indiana University: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, James J.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Indiana University School of Medicine, in collaboration with the School of Education, admitted its first student to a newly approved PhD program in Anatomy and Cell Biology focusing on educational research rather than biomedical research. The goal of the program is twofold: (1) to provide students with extensive training in all of the…

  19. The impact of a Latino outreach project on science museums: A program evaluation focused on institutional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Mario E.

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to determine the impact of the Community Science Festivals Project on the science museums that participated. This project, also known as Celebra la Ciencia (CLC), was a federally funded effort to engage the Latino communities throughout the United States in activities promoting appreciation of the importance of science education. The festivals brought together various educational, community, and scientific organizations that collaborated in producing community-hosted interactive educational events to which students and their families were invited. The evaluation takes the form of a qualitative study based on interviews of key individuals at 1 museum in each of the 5 festival cities. The evaluation focuses on the museums' changes in: (a) their view of their roles as involving the Latino population in their service area, (b) publicity efforts aimed at the Latino population, (c) outreach toward the Latino population, and (d) accommodation of Latinos within the museums. The results for each site are listed separately then are discussed jointly. Implications for practice include the following: (a) intensive and long-term programming, as opposed to one-time events, are likely more effective for creating direct impact on student achievement, although the festivals had many positive effects; (b) funding for smaller organizations (or individual departments within larger organization) seemed to have a more observable impact, enabling them to create Latino-oriented advertising, outreach, and accommodations that would not have been possible otherwise; and (c) Spanish-language media was an effective advertising tool, especially radio, but use of public service announcements should be monitored to ensure that they are aired at times that are effective for reaching the target audience. Recommendations for future studies are made.

  20. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  1. Instructional Methods for Human Anatomy and Cell Biology in Nurse Anesthesia Graduate Programs: A Survey with a Focus on Regional Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    instructional techniques is warranted. INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS FOR HUMAN ANATOMY AND CELL BIOLOGY IN NURSE ANESTHESIA GRADUATE PROGRAMS: A SURVEY...FOR HUMAN ANATOMY AND CELL BIOLOGY IN NURSE ANESTHESIA GRADUATE PROGRAMS: A SURVEY WITH A FOCUS ON REGIONAL ANESTHESIA 6. AUTHOR(S) Adrienne Grant...DIOR, Ott 94 r~ Thesis Approval Form INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS FOR HUMAN ANATOMY AND CELL BIOLOGY IN NURSE ANESTHESIA GRADUATE PROGRAMS: A SURVEY WITH

  2. Developing A Priority-Based Decision Making Mod To Evaluate Geometric Configuration Of Urban Interchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeimi, M.; Alimoradi, Z.; Razi, M.; Monajjem, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present article involves in evaluation and engineering judgment of various geometric configurations for highway interchanges by considering substantial parameters over the discretion process. The geometric, economical and architectural criteria as the fundamental indicators are divided into

  3. Computer Analysis of Air Pollution from Highways, Streets, and Complex Interchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    A detailed computer analysis of air quality for a complex highway interchange was prepared, using an in-house version of the Environmental Protection Agency's Gaussian Highway Line Source Model. This analysis showed that the levels of air pollution n...

  4. Interchanges in popcorn (Zea mays L. involving the nucleolus organizer chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suely Pagliarini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of microsporogenesis in endogamous plants of popcorn (S5 to S7 showed several and distinctinterchanges which involve the nucleolus organizer (chromosome 6. The detection of cells with interchanges was facilitatedby the presence of two nucleoli of different sizes in contrast to normal ones with a single big nucleolus. Interchange points donot always seem to be at the same place. Whereas in several situations the interchange point clearly involved more than twochromosome pairs, a simple terminal translocation seemed to occur in others. During diplotene, a cross-shaped configurationconnected with the nucleoli was observed in some meiocytes. Some heteromorphic bivalents were found during diakinesis,after which meiosis progressed normally to the end and gave rise to apparently normal tetrads with one normal nucleolus ineach microspore. Tests of pollen viability in fixed pollen grains showed 100% stainability in normal and in affected plants.This is the first report on chromosome interchanges in popcorn.

  5. Acquisition and Transfer of Values and Social Skills through a Physical Education Program Focused in the Affective Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gil Madrona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a physical education (PE program focused on the affective domain for 6th to 8th grade students with respect to the acquisition and transfer of social skills and values. Further, the extent that general classroom teachers and parents perceived if the learned skills where transferred to other context outside the PE class was examined in a sample of 274 students (ages 11 to 13 years old. One hundred and forty-five males (53% and 129 females (47% from five urban schools in Albacete Spain were studied. Three questionnaires were used (pre and post rating scales as data collection instruments for students, teachers and parents. Results demonstrated encouraging estimates of reliability for the subscales of PE teachers’ perceptions of students’ values and regular education teaches perceptions with very strong values of internal consistency .82 and .93 respectively. Posttest values were slightly higher. Further, findings demonstrated positive outcomes after the intervention in teacher perceptions about students values levels (t =-8,05; p < .01, enjoyment, (t =-7.10; p < .01, fair play (t = -8.09; p < .01, social relation (t = -6.48; p < .01, good habits (t = -7.43; p < .01 and emotional control (t = -6.03; p < .01 in favor of the intervention group. These results support previous studies evidencing that integrating social skills and values intervention in the PE class increase students’ development in the affective domain.

  6. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Fifth technical information interchange meeting, Minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fifth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  7. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Technical Information Interchange Meeting, Minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fourth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  8. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Using Electronic Commerce to Enhance Defense Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    AD-A238 559 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Using Electronic Commerce to Enhance Defense Logistics Judith E. Payne, Robert H. Anderson N STATEN= A... electronic commerce to enhance defense logistics / Judith L. Payne and Robert H, Anderson. "Prepared for the Assistant Sccretary of Defense (Production and...by RAND 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 | ,! R-4030-P&L Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Using Electronic Commerce to

  9. Assessing safety and immunogenicity of post-exposure prophylaxis following interchangeability of rabies vaccines in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Annadani, Rachana R; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Anandaiah, Gangaboraiah; Vijayashankar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Rabies post exposure prophylaxis with cell culture vaccines by either intramuscular route or intradermal route spans over a period of one month. World Health Organization recommends completing post exposure prophylaxis against rabies with the same cell culture or embryonated egg rabies vaccine and with same route of administration and any deviation from this shall be an exception. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was studied prospectively in 90 animal bite cases that had interchangeability of rabies vaccines either by route of administration or brand/type and such changes had occurred due to logistical/financial problems. Among them, 47 had change in route of administration from intramuscular to intradermal or vice versa and 43 had change in the brand/type of cell culture rabies vaccine. All of them had category III rabies exposure and received equine rabies immunoglobulin along with the rabies vaccine. None of the study subjects had any adverse reactions. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers was assessed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and all the vaccinees had titers ≥0.5 IU per mL on day 14 which is considered as adequate for protection against rabies. Thus, the present study showed that, rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic despite changes in the route of administration and brand/type of rabies vaccine.

  10. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Rachlis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based care (CBC can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were ‘HIV’ or ‘AIDS’ and ‘community-based care’ or ‘CBC’. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.

  11. Development and Assessment of an HIV-focused E-learning Flipped Classroom Curriculum in an Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Sara; Sandkovsky, Uriel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Most of the care of HIV-infected patients is now provided in the clinic where there is less time for bedside teaching than in the inpatient setting. We sought to augment the clinical experience by developing an HIV-focused e-learning flipped classroom curriculum in our ID fellowship program. Methods Six e-learning modules were developed using Articulate Storyline. Topics included: HIV Diagnosis, Evaluation of the HIV-infected Patient, When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy, What to Start, HIV Resistance, and HIV Drug-Drug Interactions. Modules were made available 1 week in advance, lasted 20 minutes, and included interactive questions. Class time was spent discussing clinical cases related to the module. The IDSA “HIV Medicine in Clinical Practice” exam and pre and post-course surveys were administered to measure changes in both objective and self-perceived knowledge before and after completion of the curriculum. Wilcoxon-signed rank test was used to compare test results between the 2 periods. Results Seven fellows participated in the curriculum and 10 fellows completed the pre and post-tests (3 fellows tested only with pretest as they were finishing fellowship, 4 fellows took both pre and post- test, and 3 fellows only took the post-test). Overall scores between pre-and post-test were not significantly different between pooled pre- and post-test results (7 fellows took each test) (P = 0.8). Among the 4 fellows who completed both tests, there was a trend to improved scores (P = 0.06). 7 of 7 fellows completed the pre- and post-curriculum surveys. All agreed or strongly agreed that the flipped classroom model enhanced their learning of the material and self-perceived knowledge improved in all assessed areas following participation in the curriculum (see Figure). Conclusion The introduction of the e-learning modules in a flipped classroom format was well received by fellows and allowed for better preparation and discussion of HIV-related topics

  12. Family forest landowners' interest in forest carbon offset programs: Focus group findings from the Lake States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Mike A. Kilgore; Mae A. Davenport

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were...

  13. Impact of Ramadan focused education program on hypoglycemic risk and metabolic control for patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourkmani AM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ayla M Tourkmani,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Turki J Alharbi,1 Hesham I Alkhashan,1 Aljoharah H Alobikan,1 Ahmed H Bakhiet,1 Hala B Alqahtani,1 Alian A Alrasheedy,3 Ahmed D Alawwad,1 Adel M Mishriky,1 Hisham Aljadhey4 1Family and Community Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Unaizah College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Qassim Saudi Arabia; 4Medication Safety Research Chair, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Fasting during the month of Ramadan could lead to acute complications and increased hypoglycemic risk of patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, diabetes is one of the diseases that need careful observation and special considerations during Ramadan including patients’ education and counseling. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of Ramadan focused education program on acute complications and biomedical parameters. Methods: A prospective nonrandomized interventional controlled design was run on three phases: before, during, and after Ramadan on 262 type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention group (n=140 received focused individualized diabetic education sessions and antidiabetic medications adjustment before and after Ramadan, while the control group (n=122 received standard diabetic care. A validated hypoglycemia questionnaire was used in both groups to assess the change of the risk. Patients were advised to adjust the dosage and timing of antidiabetic agents according to the recommendations for management of diabetes during Ramadan. Primary outcomes were postintervention change of hypoglycemia score and HbA1c over 6-month follow-up. Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation. HbA1c was expressed in percentage. Results: The hypoglycemic scores before, during, and after Ramadan were 14

  14. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  15. A Comprehensive Nutrition-Focused Quality Improvement Program Reduces 30-Day Readmissions and Length of Stay in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Krishnan; Sulo, Suela; VanDerBosch, Gretchen; Partridge, Jamie; Feldstein, Josh; Hegazi, Refaat A; Summerfelt, Wm Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Although screening patients for malnutrition risk on hospital admission is standard of care, nutrition shortfalls are undertreated. Nutrition interventions can improve outcomes. We tested effects of a nutrition-focused quality improvement program (QIP) on hospital readmission and length of stay (LOS). QIP included malnutrition risk screening at admission, prompt initiation of oral nutrition supplements (ONS) for at-risk patients, and nutrition support. A 2-group, pre-post design of malnourished adults with any diagnosis was conducted at 4 hospitals: QIP-basic (QIPb) and QIP-enhanced (QIPe). Comparator patients had a malnutrition diagnosis and ONS orders. For QIPb, nurses screened all patients on admission using an electronic medical record (EMR)-cued Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST); ONS was provided to patients with MST scores ≥2 within 24-48 hours. QIPe had ONS within 24 hours, postdischarge nutrition instructions, telephone calls, and ONS coupons. Primary outcome was 30-day unplanned readmission. We used baseline (January 1-December 31, 2013) and validation cohorts (October 13, 2013-April 2, 2014) for comparison. Patients (n = 1269) were enrolled in QIPb (n = 769) and QIPe (n = 500). Analysis included baseline (n = 4611) and validation (n = 1319) comparator patients. Compared with a 20% baseline readmission rate, post-QIP relative reductions were 19.5% for all QIP, 18% for QIPb, and 22% for QIPe, respectively. Compared with a 22.1% validation readmission rate, relative reductions were 27.1%, 25.8%, and 29.4%, respectively. Similar reductions were noted for LOS. Thirty-day readmissions and LOS were significantly lowered for malnourished inpatients by use of an EMR-cued MST, prompt provision of ONS, patient/caregiver education, and sustained nutrition support.

  16. Learning Leadership Abroad: An Overview of a Short-Term Leadership-Focused Study Abroad Program in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Haber-Curran, Paige

    2013-01-01

    We provide a brief description of a leadership-oriented short-term (nine days) study abroad program offered in May 2012. The program centered in Rome, Italy, combined classroom curricula with field experiences in the city as well as in Bologna and Florence. Initial quantitative and qualitative assessment suggested the program helped student…

  17. [Effects of a yoga-focused prenatal program on stress, anxiety, self confidence and labor pain in pregnant women with in vitro fertilization treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Chung Sin; Lee, Young-Sook

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a Yoga-focused prenatal program on the stress, anxiety, self confidence and labor pain of pregnant women who had in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. A quasi experimental study with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The data collection period and meditation program were between January 9 and August 31, 2009. Forty-six women who were pregnant following IVF, and were between 12-20 weeks gestation, participated in the study (23 experimental group, 23 control group). Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U Test, ANCOVA, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients with the SPSS 12.0 for Windows Program. Although the sample size was limited, women who participated in the program showed statistically significant improvements in stress, anxiety, labor pain, and labor confidence for women pregnant after IVF. The result indicate that this 12-week Yoga-focused educational program can be utilized for women pregnant following IVF to reduce their stress, anxiety, and labor pain, and to increase delivery confidence. It is suggested that the Yoga-focused educational program be offered to every pregnant woman.

  18. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  19. A Cross-Classified CFA-MTMM Model for Structurally Different and Nonindependent Interchangeable Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Jeon, Minjeong; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Eid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multirater (multimethod, multisource) studies are increasingly applied in psychology. Eid and colleagues (2008) proposed a multilevel confirmatory factor model for multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data combining structurally different and multiple independent interchangeable methods (raters). In many studies, however, different interchangeable raters (e.g., peers, subordinates) are asked to rate different targets (students, supervisors), leading to violations of the independence assumption and to cross-classified data structures. In the present work, we extend the ML-CFA-MTMM model by Eid and colleagues (2008) to cross-classified multirater designs. The new C4 model (Cross-Classified CTC[M-1] Combination of Methods) accounts for nonindependent interchangeable raters and enables researchers to explicitly model the interaction between targets and raters as a latent variable. Using a real data application, it is shown how credibility intervals of model parameters and different variance components can be obtained using Bayesian estimation techniques.

  20. Linear Programming and Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization for the Weighting Scheme of a Value Focused Thinking Hierarchy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thawley, David

    2003-01-01

    .... When historical data exists on evaluation measures and performance of alternatives, linear programming and genetic algorithm based optimization may be used to derive historically optimal weights for a hierarchy...

  1. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  2. Efficacy of formative evaluation using a focus group for a large classroom setting in an accelerated pharmacy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolette, Shaun; Nguyen, Alyssa; Kogan, David; Oswald, Catherine; Whittaker, Alana; Chakraborty, Arup

    2017-07-01

    Formative evaluation is a process utilized to improve communication between students and faculty. This evaluation method allows the ability to address pertinent issues in a timely manner; however, implementation of formative evaluation can be a challenge, especially in a large classroom setting. Using mediated formative evaluation, the purpose of this study is to determine if a student based focus group is a viable option to improve efficacy of communication between an instructor and students as well as time management in a large classroom setting. Out of 140 total students, six students were selected to form a focus group - one from each of six total sections of the classroom. Each focus group representative was responsible for collecting all the questions from students of their corresponding sections and submitting them to the instructor two to three times a day. Responses from the instructor were either passed back to pertinent students by the focus group representatives or addressed directly with students by the instructor. This study was conducted using a fifteen-question survey after the focus group model was utilized for one month. A printed copy of the survey was distributed in the class by student investigators. Questions were of varying types, including Likert scale, yes/no, and open-ended response. One hundred forty surveys were administered, and 90 complete responses were collected. Surveys showed that 93.3% of students found that use of the focus group made them more likely to ask questions for understanding. The surveys also showed 95.5% of students found utilizing the focus group for questions allowed for better understanding of difficult concepts. General open-ended answer portions of the survey showed that most students found the focus group allowed them to ask questions more easily since they did not feel intimidated by asking in front of the whole class. No correlation was found between demographic characteristics and survey responses. This may

  3. Determination of rate of customer focus in educational programs at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences(1) based on students' viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Assadollah; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hosein; Abbarik, Hadi Hayati

    2012-01-01

    Today, the challenges of quality improvement and customer focus as well as systems development are important and inevitable matters in higher education institutes. There are some highly competitive challenges among educational institutes, including accountability to social needs, increasing costs of education, diversity in educational methods and centers and their consequent increasing competition, and the need for adaptation of new information and knowledge to focus on students as the main customers. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the rate of costumer focus based on Isfahan University of Medical Sciences students' viewpoints and to suggest solutions to improve this rate. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in 2011. The statistical population included all the students of seven faculties of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. According to statistical formulae, the sample size consisted of 384 subjects. Data collection tools included researcher-made questionnaire whose reliability was found to be 87% by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Finally, using the SPSS statistical software and statistical methods of independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Likert scale based data were analyzed. The mean of overall score for customer focus (student-centered) of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was 46.54. Finally, there was a relation between the mean of overall score for customer focus and gender, educational levels, and students' faculties. Researcher suggest more investigation between Medical University and others. It is a difference between medical sciences universities and others regarding the customer focus area, since students' gender must be considered as an effective factor in giving healthcare services quality. In order to improve the customer focus, it is essential to take facilities, field of study, faculties, and syllabus into consideration.

  4. Determination of rate of customer focus in educational programs at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences1 based on students’ viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Assadollah; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hosein; Abbarik, Hadi Hayati

    2012-01-01

    Background: Today, the challenges of quality improvement and customer focus as well as systems development are important and inevitable matters in higher education institutes. There are some highly competitive challenges among educational institutes, including accountability to social needs, increasing costs of education, diversity in educational methods and centers and their consequent increasing competition, and the need for adaptation of new information and knowledge to focus on students as the main customers. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the rate of costumer focus based on Isfahan University of Medical Sciences students’ viewpoints and to suggest solutions to improve this rate. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in 2011. The statistical population included all the students of seven faculties of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. According to statistical formulae, the sample size consisted of 384 subjects. Data collection tools included researcher-made questionnaire whose reliability was found to be 87% by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Finally, using the SPSS statistical software and statistical methods of independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Likert scale based data were analyzed. Results: The mean of overall score for customer focus (student-centered) of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was 46.54. Finally, there was a relation between the mean of overall score for customer focus and gender, educational levels, and students’ faculties. Researcher suggest more investigation between Medical University and others. Conclusion: It is a difference between medical sciences universities and others regarding the customer focus area, since students’ gender must be considered as an effective factor in giving healthcare services quality. In order to improve the customer focus, it is essential to take facilities, field of study, faculties, and syllabus into consideration. PMID

  5. Freezing vibrational energy flow: a fitness function for interchangeable computational and experimental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, D; Engel, M F; Gruebele, M

    2009-04-23

    We develop a fitness functional for freezing molecular energy flow that relies only on experimental observables. The functional allows us to implement a modular control algorithm where simulation data and experimental data can be used interchangeably. This interchangeability could be useful as a spectroscopic tool and for reactive control because the controllability of the experimental system and its model can be compared directly. The fitness functional performs as well as functionals based on complete knowledge of the wave function. We compare our simulation results with an analytical theory of control, and find good agreement between the simulated and predicted times over which the system can be controlled.

  6. Pro EDI in BizTalk Server 2006 R2 electronic document interchange solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Beckner, Mark

    2008-01-01

    As business becomes more dependent on working with partners, suppliers, and other organizations in a streamlined way, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is one of the next big waves in connected systems. Microsoft BizTalk Server 2006 R2 offers an efficient, integrated way to deploy EDI solutions, and with the help of this book, readers will see how EDI can be used in their business and how best to get it set up with BizTalk. This book offers insights into the brand-new Biztalk 2006 R2--based EDI functionality, including the far greater flexibility in handling interchange. It gives advice coveri

  7. Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. Interchange No. 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Hall, Stuart

    Research was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people, primarily between the ages of 13 and 16. Four complementary methods were adopted: (1) a survey of secondary school students; (2) a series of focus group interviews with young people with experience of youth work; (3) interviews with…

  8. Qualitative Investigation of the "Cooking with Kids" Program: Focus Group Interviews with Fourth-Grade Students, Teachers, and Food Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Catherine V.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Focus group (FG) interviews with students and adults were used to obtain a rich understanding of the "Cooking with Kids" classroom experience from the child and adult participant perspectives. Methods: FG topics included students' cooking experiences at school and home and perceptions of "Cooking with Kids". Verified transcripts of…

  9. Family Forest Landowners' Interest in Forest Carbon Offset Programs: Focus Group Findings from the Lake States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristell A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Mike A.; Davenport, Mae A.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were held per state with an average of eight participants each (49 total). While landowner participant types varied, overall convergence was reached on several key issues. In general, discussion results found that the current payment amounts offered for carbon credits are not likely, on their own, to encourage participation in carbon markets. Landowners are most interested in other benefits they can attain through carbon management (e.g., improved stand species mix, wildlife, and trails). Interestingly, landowner perceptions about the condition of their own forest land were most indicative of prospective interest in carbon management. Landowners who felt that their forest was currently in poor condition, or did not meet their forest ownership objectives, were most interested in participating. While the initial survey sought landowner opinions about carbon markets, a majority of focus group participants expressed interest in general carbon management as a means to achieve reduced property taxes.

  10. A new algorithm for histopathological diagnosis of periprosthetic infection using CD15 focus score and computer program CD15 Quantifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krenn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A simple microscopic diagnostic quantification system for neutrophile granulocytes (NG was developed evaluating a single focal point (CD15 focus score which enables the detection of bacterial infection in SLIM (synoviallike interface membrane Additionally a diagnostic algorithm is proposed how to use the CD15 focus score and the quantification software (CD15 Quantifier. Methods. 91 SLIM removed during revision surgery for histopathological diagnosis (hip; n=59 and knee; n=32 underwent histopathological classification according to the SLIM-consensus classification. NG where identified immunohistochemically by means of a CD15-specific monoclonal antibody exhibiting an intense granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. This pattern is different from CD15 expression in macrophages showing a pale and homogenous expression in mononuclear cells. The quantitative evaluation of CD15-positive neutrophils granulocytes (CD15NG used the principle of maximum focal infiltration (focus together with an assessment of a single focal point (approximately 0.3 mm2. This immunohistochemical data made it possible to develop CD15 Quantifier software which automatically quantifies CD15NG. Results. SLIM-cases with positive microbiological diagnosis (n=47 have significantly (p<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test more CD15NG/focal point than cases with negative microbiological diagnosis (n=44. 50 CD15NG/focal point were identified as the optimum threshold when diagnosing infection of periprosthetic joints using the CD15 focus score. If the microbiological findings are used as a ‘gold standard’ the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.83, specificity is 0.864. (PPV: 0.87; NPV: 0.83; accuracy 0.846; AUC: 0.878. The evaluation findings for the preparations using the CD15 Quantifier (n=31 deviated in an average of 12 cells from the histopathological evaluation findings (CD15focus score. From a cell-count greater 62 CD15 Quantifier needs on average 32 seconds less than the

  11. GRADIENCE AND VARIATION IN FOCUS CONSTRUCTIONS IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Braga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we exemplify and analyze eight different types of cleft constructions in Brazilian Portuguese. We show that the differences among the constructions, with regard to their morphosyntactic properties, are quantitative, which explains their potential mutual interchangeability. We show that some of the constructions display a higher degree of grammaticalization and function as focus marker in simple clauses.

  12. Professional development of teachers in the implementation of a strategy-focused writing intervention program for elementary students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.P.; Bouwer, I.R.; van den Bergh, H.H.

    In this study we examined the effectiveness of Tekster [Texter], a comprehensive program for writing for the upper elementary grades, combining strategy instruction, text structure instruction, and the teaching of self-regulation skills with observational learning, explicit instruction, and (guided)

  13. Evaluation of a Numeracy Intervention Program Focusing on Basic Numerical Knowledge and Conceptual Knowledge: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Liane; Handl, Pia; Thony, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    In this study, six elementary grade children with developmental dyscalculia were trained individually and in small group settings with a one-semester program stressing basic numerical knowledge and conceptual knowledge. All the children showed considerable and partly significant performance increases on all calculation components. Results suggest…

  14. Evaluating a Novel Sleep-Focused Mind-Body Rehabilitative Program for Veterans with mTBI and Other Polytrauma Symptoms: An RCT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0385 TITLE: Evaluating a Novel Sleep-Focused Mind -Body Rehabilitative Program for Veterans with mTBI and Other...3. DATES COVERED 31Aug 2014 - 30 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0385 Evaluating a Novel Sleep-Focused Mind -Body...study is still ongoing. There is no finding to report from the study as of 30/09/2015. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mind -body intervention, awareness training

  15. Handoffs in the era of duty hours reform: a focused review and strategy to address changes in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Common Program Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRienzo, Christopher M; Frush, Karen; Barfield, Michael E; Gopwani, Priya R; Griffith, Brian C; Jiang, Xiaoyin; Mehta, Ankit I; Papavassiliou, Paulie; Rialon, Kristy L; Stephany, Alyssa M; Zhang, Tian; Andolsek, Kathryn M

    2012-04-01

    With changes in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Common Program Requirements related to transitions in care effective July 1, 2011, sponsoring institutions and training programs must develop a common structure for transitions in care as well as comprehensive curricula to teach and evaluate patient handoffs. In response to these changes, within the Duke University Health System, the resident-led Graduate Medical Education Patient Safety and Quality Council performed a focused review of the handoffs literature and developed a plan for comprehensive handoff education and evaluation for residents and fellows at Duke. The authors present the results of their focused review, concentrating on the three areas of new ACGME expectations--structure, education, and evaluation--and describe how their findings informed the broader initiative to comprehensively address transitions in care managed by residents and fellows. The process of developing both institution-level and program-level initiatives is reviewed, including the development of an interdisciplinary minimal data set for handoff core content, training and education programs, and an evaluation strategy. The authors believe the final plan fully addresses both Duke's internal goals and the revised ACGME Common Program Requirements and may serve as a model for other institutions to comprehensively address transitions in care and to incorporate resident and fellow leadership into a broad, health-system-level quality improvement initiative.

  16. [Impulsivity-focused Group Intervention to reduce Binge Eating Episodes in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder - A Group Training Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Skoda, Eva-Maria; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2016-11-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is an eating disorder where cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) could already show reliable efficacy. Relying on basic research, CBT interventions which especially focus on impulsivity could be effective, because binge eating episodes represent highly impulsive eating behaviour. For this reason, we developed a treatment concept about an impulsivity-focused behavioural group intervention for patients with BED, called IMPULS. The efficacy of IMPULS is currently investigated in a randomised controlled trial 1. IMPULS is drafted as a weekly group training programme with 5-6 participants per group. The essential interventions are food-related cue exposure with response prevention and the development of self-control strategies. These interventions are adapted onto the impulsivity concept from conventional treatment of addictive disorders and BED. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. The influence of steepness of dominance hierarchies on reciprocity and interchange in captive groups of bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, J.M.G.; Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, L. van

    2005-01-01

    Biological market models explain variability in reciprocity and interchange between groups. In groups with a shallow dominance gradient, grooming will be mostly exchanged for itself (i.e. exchange will occur). In groups with steep dominance hierarchies, interchange is expected: individuals will

  18. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville, Virginia... approvals for the following project in the State of Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

  19. Factors That Influence Running Intensity in Interchange Players in Professional Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-11-01

    Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (P met ) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and P met . As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.

  20. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  1. New concepts in the abstract format of the Compositional Interchange Format

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. van Beek; P.J. Collins (Pieter); D.E. Nadales Agut; J.E. Rooda (Jacobus); R.R.H. Schiffelers; A. Giua; M. Silva (Manuel); J. Zaytoon

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe compositional interchange format for hybrid systems (CIF) supports inter-operability of a wide range of tools by means of model transformations to and from the CIF. Work on the CIF takes place in the FP7 Multiform project, and in several other European projects. The CIF consists of

  2. Fitting anxious emotion-focused intervention into the ecology of schools: results from a test anxiety program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Scott, Brandon G; Graham, Rebecca A; Banks, Donice M; Russell, Justin D; Taylor, Leslie K; Cannon, Melinda F; Varela, R Enrique; Scheeringa, Michael A; Perry, Andre M; Marino, Reshelle C

    2015-02-01

    Emotion-focused prevention and intervention efforts in schools have been promoted as a significant developmental and public health priority. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study testing central premises of a school-based prevention model aimed at promoting positive emotional development through targeting test anxiety. Test anxiety interventions may be a practical strategy for conducting emotion-focused prevention and intervention efforts because of a natural fit within the ecology of the school setting. At-risk youth (n = 1,048) from urban public schools were screened and 325 with elevated test anxiety were offered the intervention in one of two waves (immediate intervention vs. waitlist). The intervention was associated with decreases in test anxiety, anxiety disorder, and depression symptoms. Critically, results suggest high participant satisfaction and growth curve analysis of follow-up assessments (end of the year, the next school year, and a subsequent school year) demonstrated positive developmental trajectories consistent with predictions (e.g., initial change in test anxiety predicted change in other symptoms). Findings provide evidence for the ecological validity of targeting test anxiety in school-based, emotion-focused prevention efforts.

  3. Using a creativity-focused science program to foster general creativity in young children: A teacher action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Joan Julieanne Mariani

    The importance of thinking and problem-solving skills, and the ability to integrate and analyze information has been recognized and yet may be lacking in schools. Creativity is inherently linked to problem finding, problem solving, and divergent thinking (Arieti, 1976; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Milgram, 1990). The importance of early childhood education and its role in the formation of young minds has been recognized (Caine & Caine, 1991; Montessori, 1967a, 1967b; Piaget, 1970). Early childhood education also impacts creativity (Gardner, 1999). The features of brain-based learning (Caine & Caine, 1991; Jensen, 1998; Sousa, 2001; Wolfe, 2001) have a clear connection to nurturing the creative potential in students. Intrinsic motivation and emotions affect student learning and creativity as well (Hennessey & Amabile, 1987). The purpose of this study was to discern if a creativity-focused science curriculum for the kindergarteners at a Montessori early learning center could increase creativity in students. This action research study included observations of the students in two classrooms, one using the creativity-focused science curriculum, and the other using the existing curriculum. The data collected for this interpretive study included interviews with the students, surveys and interviews with their parents and teachers, teacher observations, and the administration of Torrance's (1981) Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM) test. The interpretation of the data indicated that the enhanced science curriculum played a role in enhancing the creativity of the children in the creativity-focused group. The results of the TCAM (Torrance, 1981) showed a significant increase in scores for the children in the creativity-focused group. The qualitative data revealed a heightened interest in science and the observation of creative traits, processes, and products in the creativity-focused group children. The implications of this study included the need for meaningful

  4. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary university-based disease state management program focused on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, David R; Kroustos, Kelly R; Thompson, Rhonda E; Swanson, Scott C; Terrell, Sara L; Dipietro, Natalie A

    2012-04-01

    To describe the implementation and evaluation of a pilot multidisciplinary disease state management (DSM) program for diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia at a private, self-insured university (over 900 covered lives). Enrollees met with a pharmacist, nurse, exercise physiologist, and students in these disciplines to improve clinical outcomes and fitness parameters. Clinical values, quality of life, patient knowledge of disease states, and patient satisfaction were assessed. Of the 20 patients in the pilot program, 17 completed 1 nursing and 2 pharmacist visits; 8 completed exercise physiology visits. At baseline, elevated blood pressure readings were observed in 64.7% (11 of 17) of patients, 20% of those with diabetes (1 of 5) had an elevated hemoglobin A1c value (HbA1c), and 82.4% (14 of 17) had a cholesterol value that was not at goal. At least 1 medication-related problem was observed in 16 patients (94.1%). At 3 months, all patients with diabetes achieved HbA1c levels at or below 7%, 4 patients attained blood pressure control, and 1 achieved normal cholesterol readings. Patients characterized participation in the program as valuable and convenient. Patients involved in the multidisciplinary DSM showed improved clinical outcomes after 3 months. Ongoing analysis of patient outcomes will determine the long-term effectiveness of the DSM.

  5. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!') has been developed. This program includes specific therapeutic factors focused on emotion awareness and expression, increasing feelings of emotional security, teaching specific coping strategies, developing a trauma narrative, improving parent-child interaction and psycho-education. The main study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the specific therapeutic factors in the program. A secondary objective is to study mediating and moderating factors. Methods/design This study is a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial across cities in the Netherlands. Participants (N = 140) are referred to the secondary preventive intervention program by police, social work, women shelters and youth (mental health) care. Children, aged 6-12 years, and their parents, who experienced interparental violence are randomly assigned to either the intervention program or the control program. The control program is comparable on nonspecific factors by offering positive attention, positive expectations, recreation, distraction, warmth and empathy of the therapist, and social support among group participants, in ways that are similar to the intervention program. Primary outcome measures are posttraumatic stress symptoms and emotional and behavioral problems of the child. Mediators tested are the ability to differentiate and express emotions, emotional security, coping strategies, feelings of guilt and parent-child interaction. Mental health of the parent, parenting stress, disturbances in parent-child attachment, duration and severity of the domestic violence and demographics are examined for their moderating effect. Data are collected one week before the program starts (T1), and one week

  6. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Mathilde M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!' has been developed. This program includes specific therapeutic factors focused on emotion awareness and expression, increasing feelings of emotional security, teaching specific coping strategies, developing a trauma narrative, improving parent-child interaction and psycho-education. The main study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the specific therapeutic factors in the program. A secondary objective is to study mediating and moderating factors. Methods/design This study is a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial across cities in the Netherlands. Participants (N = 140 are referred to the secondary preventive intervention program by police, social work, women shelters and youth (mental health care. Children, aged 6-12 years, and their parents, who experienced interparental violence are randomly assigned to either the intervention program or the control program. The control program is comparable on nonspecific factors by offering positive attention, positive expectations, recreation, distraction, warmth and empathy of the therapist, and social support among group participants, in ways that are similar to the intervention program. Primary outcome measures are posttraumatic stress symptoms and emotional and behavioral problems of the child. Mediators tested are the ability to differentiate and express emotions, emotional security, coping strategies, feelings of guilt and parent-child interaction. Mental health of the parent, parenting stress, disturbances in parent-child attachment, duration and severity of the domestic violence and demographics are examined for their moderating effect. Data are collected one week before the program

  7. Analysis of satisfaction factors at urban transport interchanges: Measuring travelers’ attitudes to information, security and waiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois Garcia, D.; Monzon de Caceres, A.; Hernandez del Olmo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Transport interchanges can be considered as a node, where people transfer from one mode to another, and as a place to stay, using facilities and services as well as waiting areas. Reducing disruption of transfer in multimodal trips is a key element for assuring seamless mobility in big cities. Based on previous research (Hernández & Monzón, 2016) this paper aims to explore the predictive capacity of attitudes towards several service factors on general satisfaction with transport interchange. Complementary, it was analyzing how personal and trip characteristics are related to evaluation of some variables, and examining the influence of waiting time on the perceived quality. To that end, a two steps methodology was conducted (personal and on-line interview) in a representative sample of 740 users (54% female, 55% work purpose trip). We performed path analysis to test the model showing a satisfactory statistical fit. The model developed show good performance for predicting general satisfaction at Moncloa Transport Interchange (Madrid, Spain). The outputs of the model indicate that Information and Safety and Security factors predicted 49% of general satisfaction. Furthermore, the results showed also a strong association between evaluation of Design and Environmental quality, factors that not affect directly general satisfaction but do so through Information and Safety & Security perception, acting the last as mediator variables. Nevertheless, spending time queuing inside the interchange show a negative influence on Information and Safety & Security, while age of participants affect negatively to Information, which mean that elder have some cognitive accessibility problems. Moreover, our data shows gender differences in safety perception, since women feel less safe (particularity the youngest) inside the interchange. The results indicate a number of priority measures to enhance. (Author)

  8. Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai GN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guan-nan Bai,1 Yu-feng Wang,2,3 Li Yang,2,3 Wen-yi Niu1 1Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Peking University Sixth Hospital/Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for parents of children with ADHD in enhancing adherence to pharmacological treatment and improving clinical symptoms. Methods: We developed a psychoeducation program based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Eighty-nine children with ADHD were cluster randomly assigned for their families to receive 3 months of well-structured psychoeducation (intervention group, n=44 or only general clinical counseling (control group, n=45. Parents in the intervention group were given an expert lecture (with slides and a parent manual, attended two expert-guided parent group sessions, and were invited to join a professional-guided online community. Measurement of parents’ knowledge about ADHD, components of the TPB model, and child ADHD symptoms were taken before and after intervention. Medication adherence was assessed thoroughly at the end of the first and third months. Satisfaction with the psychoeducation program was assessed only in the intervention group. Two-independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test were employed to compare differences between groups. Results: Compared to the control group, medication adherence in the intervention group was significantly higher after 1 and 3 months (97.7% intervention vs 75.6% control, P=0.002, and 86.4% intervention vs 53.3% control, P=0.001, respectively. Accordingly, the ADHD rating scale scores were lower in the intervention group than the control group after

  9. Estimating Lives Saved by Achieving Dietary Micronutrient Adequacy, with a Focus on Vitamin A Intervention Programs in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Perkins, Amanda; Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff; Haskell, Marjorie J; Vosti, Stephen A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-11-01

    Background: We previously compared the potential effects of different intervention strategies for achieving dietary vitamin A (VA) adequacy. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) permits estimates of lives saved through VA interventions but currently only considers periodic VA supplements (VASs).Objective: We aimed to adapt the LiST method for estimating the mortality impact of VASs to estimate the impact of other VA interventions (e.g., food fortification) on child mortality and to estimate the number of lives saved by VA interventions in 3 macroregions in Cameroon.Methods: We used national dietary intake data to predict the effects of VA intervention programs on the adequacy of VA intake. LiST parameters of population affected fraction and intervention coverage were replaced with estimates of prevalence of inadequate intake and effective coverage (proportion achieving adequate VA intake). We used a model of liver VA stores to derive an estimate of the mortality reduction from achieving dietary VA adequacy; this estimate and a conservative assumption of equivalent mortality reduction for VAS and VA intake were applied to projections for Cameroon.Results: There were 2217-3048 total estimated VA-preventable deaths in year 1, with 58% occurring in the North macroregion. The relation between effective coverage and lives saved differed by year and macroregion due to differences in total deaths, diarrhea burden, and prevalence of low VA intake. Estimates of lives saved by VASs (the intervention common to both methods) were similar with the use of the adapted method (in 2012: North, 743-1021; South, 280-385; Yaoundé and Douala, 146-202) and the "usual" LiST method (North: 697; South: 381; Yaoundé and Douala: 147).Conclusions: Linking effective coverage estimates with an adapted LiST method permits estimation of the effects of combinations of VA programs (beyond VASs only) on child mortality to aid program planning and management. Rigorous program monitoring and evaluation are

  10. What Have We Learned about Preventing Child Abuse? An Overview of the "Community and Minority Group Action to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect" Program. Prevention Focus Working Paper No. 009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Ellen

    Results from the evaluation of 11 demonstration programs designed to prevent child abuse are summarized in this working paper. The programs were of three types: perinatal programs; community-wide education, information, and referral projects; and culturally relevant parent education efforts. The four perinatal programs focused on extended…

  11. Interchangeable Positions in Interaction Sequences in Science Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Rees

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Triadic dialogue, the Initiation, Response, Evaluation sequence typical of teacher /student interactions in classrooms, has long been identified as a barrier to students’ access to learning, including science learning. A large body of research on the subject has over the years led to projects and policies aimed at increasing opportunities for students to learn through interactive dialogue in classrooms. However, the triadic dialogue pattern continues to dominate, even when teachers intend changing this. Prior quantitative research on the subject has focused on identifying independent variables such as style of teacher questioning that have an impact, while qualitative researchers have worked to interpret the use of dialogue within the whole context of work in the classroom. A recent paper offers an alternative way to view the triadic dialogue pattern and its origin; the triadic dialogue pattern is an irreducible social phenomenon that arises in a particular situation regardless of the identity of the players who inhabit the roles in the turn-taking sequence (Roth & Gardner, 2012. According to this perspective, alternative patterns of dialogue would exist which are alternative irreducible social phenomena that arise in association with different situations. The aim of this paper is to examine as precisely as possible, the characteristics of dialogue patterns in a seventh-eighth grade classroom during science inquiry, and the precise situations from which these dialogue patterns emerge, regardless of the staffing (teacher or students in the turn-taking sequence. Three different patterns were identified each predominating in a particular situation. This fine-grained analysis could offer valuable insights into ways to support teachers working to alter the kinds of dialogue patterns that arise in their classrooms.

  12. Eye conditions and blindness in children: Priorities for research, programs, and policy with a focus on childhood cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major causes of blindness in children encompass intrauterine and acquired infectious diseases, teratogens and developmental and molecular genetics, nutritional factors, the consequences of preterm birth, and tumors. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore needed. In terms of the major avoidable causes (i.e., those that can be prevented or treated the available evidence shows that these vary in importance from country to country, as well as over time. This is because the underlying causes closely reflect socioeconomic development and the social determinants of health, as well as the provision of preventive and therapeutic programs and services from the community through to tertiary levels of care. The control of blindness in children therefore requires not only strategies that reflect the local epidemiology and the needs and priorities of communities, but also a well functioning, accessible health system which operates within an enabling and conducive policy environment. In this article we use cataract in children as an example and make the case for health financing systems that do not lead to ′catastrophic health expenditure′ for affected families, and the integration of eye health for children into those elements of the health system that work closely with mothers and their children.

  13. Eye conditions and blindness in children: priorities for research, programs, and policy with a focus on childhood cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clare; Muhit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The major causes of blindness in children encompass intrauterine and acquired infectious diseases, teratogens and developmental and molecular genetics, nutritional factors, the consequences of preterm birth, and tumors. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore needed. In terms of the major avoidable causes (i.e., those that can be prevented or treated) the available evidence shows that these vary in importance from country to country, as well as over time. This is because the underlying causes closely reflect socioeconomic development and the social determinants of health, as well as the provision of preventive and therapeutic programs and services from the community through to tertiary levels of care. The control of blindness in children therefore requires not only strategies that reflect the local epidemiology and the needs and priorities of communities, but also a well functioning, accessible health system which operates within an enabling and conducive policy environment. In this article we use cataract in children as an example and make the case for health financing systems that do not lead to 'catastrophic health expenditure' for affected families, and the integration of eye health for children into those elements of the health system that work closely with mothers and their children.

  14. The role of neuropathological markers in the interpretation of neuropsychiatric disorders: Focus on fetal and perinatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Rais, Monica; Ravarino, Alberto; Van Eyken, Peter; Fanos, Vassilios; Faa, Gavino

    2016-11-03

    The study of neuropathological markers in patients affected by mental/psychiatric disorders is relevant for the comprehension of the pathogenesis and the correlation with the clinical symptomatology. The neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizes intraneuronal and extracellular neurofibrillary formation responsible for neuronal degeneration. Immunohistochemical studies discovered many interesting results for a better interpretation of the AD pathogenesis, while the "metal hypothesis" supports that metal ions might differentially influence the formation of amyloid aggregates. The most relevant pathological findings reported in schizophrenia originate from computer assisted tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), suggesting the brain abnormalities involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The theory of fetal programming illustrates the epigenetic factors that may act during the intrauterine life on brain development, with relevant consequences on the susceptibility to develop AD or schizophrenia later in life. The neuropathological interpretation of AD and schizophrenia shows that the presence of severe neuropathological changes is not always associated with severe cognitive impairment. A better dialogue between psychiatrics and pathologists might help to halt insurgence and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Environmental education with a local focus: The development of action competency in community leaders through participation in an environmental leadership program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Karen Jean

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation is a historical and theoretical examination of environmental education to promote community leadership in local environmental issues. It begins with an overview of the history of environmental education, historical perspectives of the beginning of the field, ongoing differences in perspectives of practitioners, and its relationship to the larger field of education. Using a prevalent definition of environmental education as education with an aim of promoting actions, which are environmentally responsible and careful, I examine a variety of educational approaches and their results in achieving this objective. Reasons for using a local focus in terms of promotion of community sustainability are explored, and the literature review ends with a discussion of the value of community action through participatory democratic processes. The dissertation is divided into five chapters, covering an introduction to the purpose and significance of the study, literature review, methodology, results and analysis, and conclusion and implications of the research. Two programs, one at a city or urban level and one at a state level, and outcomes for their participants are explored and compared through data collected from interviews, field observation, and program documents. Findings demonstrated the value of a local focus for environmental education programs, plus the importance of experiential learning, or learning through some sort of personal connection and involvement. Examples of the types of experiential learning involved are tours or field trips, role-playing, and games illustrating concepts. Results emphasized the importance of educational process over content, information, or factual knowledge. The urban leadership program demonstrated the value of a local focus and experiential process in increasing motivation for action. The state program demonstrated the value of education of environmental leaders in democratic processes, especially collaboration, inclusion

  16. Fiscal 1998 engineer interchange project on the engineer interchange project (coal mine technology field), international interchange project. Preliminary study in Russia; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the engineer interchange project (coal mine technology field), field survey for collecting information was made on the level and trend of production technology through visits to some coal industry organizations by specialists in Russia which is one candidate for the engineer training project by sending and receiving. Although coal is positioned as an important energy resource in Russia, poor business performance and a decrease in production are reported because of privatization and cur off of subsidies during a transfer period to a market economy. In addition, severe environment surrounding the Russian coal industry such as a delay of facility renewal due to poor funds, overage facilities, and moral reduction of workers due to a rationing delay has a potential for further reduction of production. The research group thus surveyed the current state of the Russian coal industry such as actual production structures, actual coal mines, technical levels, and various problem points in Moscow and Baykal districts. (NEDO)

  17. Sick-listed persons' experiences with taking part in an in-patient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: a qualitative focus group interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rise, Marit B; Gismervik, Sigmund Ø; Johnsen, Roar; Fimland, Marius S

    2015-11-27

    Occupational medicine has shifted emphasis from disease treatment to disability rehabilitation and management. Hence, newly developed occupational rehabilitation programs are often generic and multicomponent, aiming to influence the sick-listed persons' perception on return to work, and thereby support the return to work process. The aim of this study was to explore sick-listed persons' experiences with taking part in an in-patient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Twenty-nine adults on sickness benefit or work assessment allowance due to musculoskeletal and/or common mental health disorders participated in this study. They were interviewed in focus groups at the beginning and at the end of a 3.5 week inpatient group-based occupational rehabilitation program in Central Norway. Key elements in the program were Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), physical exercise and creating a work-participation plan. The program was mainly group-based including participants with different diagnoses. Data was analyzed according to a phenomenological approach. At the start of the program most participants expressed frustration regarding being sick-listed, external anticipations as well as hindrances towards returning to work, and described hope that the program would provide them with the skills and techniques necessary to cope with health problems and being able to return to work. At the end of the program the participants described that they had embarked upon a long process of increased awareness. This process encompassed four areas; an increased awareness of what was important in life, realizing the strain from external expectations and demands, a need to balance different aspects of life, and return to work as part of a long and complex process. The occupational rehabilitation program induced a perceived meaningful reorientation encompassing several aspects of life. However, the return to work process was described as diffuse

  18. USA Standard for a Format for Bibliographic Information Interchange on Magnetic Tape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    American Standards Institute Sectional Subcommittee Z39

    1969-05-01

    Full Text Available The Chairman of the United States of America Standards Institute, Sectional Committee Z39, Library Work and Documentation, has approved publication of the following draft "USA Standard for a Format for Bibliographic Information Interchange on Magnetic Tape" to hasten availability of this fundamental contribution to bibliographic standardization. Two important implementations follow the Standard. Part B of Appendix I is "Preliminary Guidelines for the Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine, and National Agricultural Library Implementation of the Proposed American Standard for a Format for Bibliographic Information Interchange on Magnetic Tape as Applied to Records Representing Monographic Materials in Textual Printed Form (Books" - more succinctly known as MARC II. Part C is a Committee working paper entitled "Preliminary Committee on Scientific and Technical Information (COSATI Guidelines for Implementation of the USA Standard."

  19. Several benthic species can be used interchangeably in integrated sediment quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Romero, A; Khosrovyan, A; Del Valls, T A; Obispo, R; Serrano, F; Conradi, M; Riba, I

    2013-06-01

    The selection of the best management option for contaminated sediments requires the biological assessment of sediment quality using bioindicator organisms. There have been comparisons of the performance of different test species when exposed to naturally occurring sediments. However, more research is needed to determine their suitability to be used interchangeably. The sensitivity of two amphipod species (Ampelisca brevicornis and Corophium volutator) to sediments collected from four different commercial ports in Spain was tested. For comparison the lugworm, Arenicola marina, which is typically used for bioaccumulation testing, was also tested. Chemical analyses of the sediments were also conducted. All species responded consistently to the chemical exposure tests, although the amphipods, as expected, were more sensitive than the lugworm. It was found that C. volutator showed higher vulnerability than A.brevicornis. It was concluded that the three species can be used interchangeably in the battery of tests for integrated sediment quality assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanism of interchange between the reflections in a channel of communications with the power spectral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Cárdenas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical limit given by the Shannon Capacity equation has been the origin of communications systems based on the interchange between bandwidth and power. This article explores the interchange between the power spectral density and the reflections that can be generated in a communications channel, with the ultimate aim of being able to decrease the power spectral density for the same capacity. The reflections can be expressed as a number of controlled reflections or by a reflection coefficient. The channels studied show that this exchange is possible. A new model based on feedback circuits was found to represent a transmission line, which was useful to study the MISO channel formed by several transmission lines of different length. A geometric elliptic dispersion model to represent a SISO channel was studied too.

  1. The influence of finite Larmor radius effects on the radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Garcia, Odd E.; Larsen, Jeppe Stærk

    2011-01-01

    The influence of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the perpendicular convection of isolated particle density filaments driven by interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated using a two-moment gyrofluid model. By means of numerical simulations on a two-dimensional, bi-periodic do......The influence of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the perpendicular convection of isolated particle density filaments driven by interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated using a two-moment gyrofluid model. By means of numerical simulations on a two-dimensional, bi...... and eventually become fragmented. After having traveled approximately five times their initial widths, coherent blobs carry 2–3 times the particle density of fragmented blobs. It is shown that FLR effects reduce mixing, stretching, and generation of small spatial scales in the particle density field by setting...

  2. Complex patterning by vertical interchange atom manipulation using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Pou, Pablo; Custance, Oscar; Jelinek, Pavel; Abe, Masayuki; Perez, Ruben; Morita, Seizo

    2008-10-17

    The ability to incorporate individual atoms in a surface following predetermined arrangements may bring future atom-based technological enterprises closer to reality. Here, we report the assembling of complex atomic patterns at room temperature by the vertical interchange of atoms between the tip apex of an atomic force microscope and a semiconductor surface. At variance with previous methods, these manipulations were produced by exploring the repulsive part of the short-range chemical interaction between the closest tip-surface atoms. By using first-principles calculations, we clarified the basic mechanisms behind the vertical interchange of atoms, characterizing the key atomistic processes involved and estimating the magnitude of the energy barriers between the relevant atomic configurations that leads to these manipulations.

  3. Apparatus, System and Method for Fast Detection of Genetic Information by PCR in an Interchangeable Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Weijia

    2011-03-03

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA includes an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component, and an optical detection system. The DNA amplification is performed on an interchangeable chip with volumes as small as 1.25 µl, while the heating and cooling rate may be as fast as 12.7 °C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 minutes to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. The PCR may be performed according to a two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific SRY gene marker by utilizing raw saliva may be achieved. The genetic identification may be in-situ detected after PCR by the optical detection system.

  4. Fast detection of genetic information by an optimized PCR in an interchangeable chip.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we report the construction of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA. This device consists of an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component as well as an optical detection system. The DNA amplification happens on an interchangeable chip with the volumes as low as 1.25 μl, while the heating and cooling rate was as fast as 12.7°C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 min to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. An optimized PCR with two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA was also formulated with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific sex determining region Y (SRY) gene marker by utilizing raw saliva was successfully achieved and the genetic identification was in-situ detected right after PCR by the optical detection system.

  5. Ion finite Larmor radius effects on the interchange instability in an open system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katanuma, I.; Sato, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Kato, S.; Kubota, R. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    A particle simulation of an interchange instability was performed by taking into account the ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects. It is found that the interchange instability with large FLR grows in two phases, that is, linearly growing phase and the nonlinear phase subsequent to the linear phase, where the instability grows exponentially in both phases. The linear growth rates observed in the simulation agree well with the theoretical calculation. The effects of FLR are usually taken in the fluid simulation through the gyroviscosity, the effects of which are verified in the particle simulation with large FLR regime. The gyroviscous cancellation phenomenon observed in the particle simulation causes the drifts in the direction of ion diamagnetic drifts.

  6. Solar Wind Driven Magnetotail Ballooning-interchange Evolves to Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, W., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Theory and 3D simulations for the mid-tail dynamics showing a proposed solution to the 3-minute problem are presented motivated by the CLUSTER and THEMIS substorm data [ Nakamura et al. 2006]. The model shows that the ballooning-interchange starts the dynamics and then after a suitably long period of minutes in the nonlinear state there is a change in structure to that of magnetic reconnections. While these two eigenmodes have opposite symmetries in the classic symmetric geotail geometry [Prichett-Coroniti-Pellat (1997)], the symmetry is broken for typical solar winds on to a tilted Earth magnetic dipole. The model includes distinct north IN(t) and south IS(t) magnetopause closing currents with corresponding N-S magnetopause boundary conditions. Small asymmetric perturbations are sufficient in the quasi-stationary nonlinear state of the ballooning interchange dynamics to have the structures evolve into fast magnetic reconnection events. The classic measure of interchange called delta-prime is stable during this simuations. The nonlinear growth rates are obtained with nonlinear FLR-fluid two component fluid simulations. When the mid-tail Bz (x,z,t) structure is such as to give the fast ballooning-interchange instability we show that in the nonlinear stage the dynamics changes the structure producing magnetic islands of the scale observed in the CLUSTER substorm data. We conclude that asymmetric geotail models give more reliable forecasting of the onset of subtorms. We discuss the effect of the dynamics on magnetospheric structures as they propagate to the inner magnetospheric-tail boundary layer.

  7. Interchangeability between Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapponi, Agustín; Lee, Alison; Bardach, Ariel; Glujovsky, Demián; Rey-Ares, Lucila; Luisa Cafferata, María; Valanzasca, Pilar; García Martí, Sebastián

    2016-12-01

    To assess the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety related to the interchangeability between pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and vaccination schedules in pediatric population. Systematic searches were conducted in December 2010 and April 2015 for economic evaluations in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Web sites and databases from medical societies, experts, and associations related to the topic, proceedings or congressional annals, and doctoral theses were also searched. No language or temporal restriction was applied. We included randomized controlled trials, economic evaluations, and systematic reviews evaluating antibody response, cost-effectiveness, and effectiveness of PCVs' interchangeability. A Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-based checklist was used to assess the risk of bias in observational studies and a Cochrane approach for experimental/quasi-experimental studies. Pairs of reviewers independently selected (through the Web-based Early Reviewer Organizer Software), assessed the quality, and extracted the data of the studies. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We planned to perform meta-analysis whenever appropriate. Forty-six of 202 studies were included. There was no direct information available on the interchangeability between PCVs. The immunogenicity and safety between the 10-valent PCV (PCV10) and the 7-valent PCV were similar when both vaccines were coadministered with other routine pediatric vaccines. PCV10 and 13-valent PCV (PCV13) were consistently more cost-effective than 7-valent PCV. There was no direct comparative information available on the interchangeability among PCVs, but they have pretty similar immunogenicity and safety. PCV10 versus PCV13 cost-effectiveness varied according to price, indirect effects, and indirect costs. PCV10 gains more quality-adjusted life-years because of the prevention of more frequent yet less

  8. Interchangeability of generic anti-epileptic drugs: a quantitative analysis of topiramate and gabapentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliepaard, Marc; Banishki, Nikola; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; Teerenstra, Steven; Elferink, André J

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the so-called "shift" or "drift" problem might occur when generic anti-epileptic drugs are interchanged, and thus to assess if generic anti-epileptic drugs are interchangeable and can be used in an efficacious and safe way on the basis of their bioequivalence to one and the same reference product. The bioequivalence of topiramate and gabapentin generics was evaluated. For proper interstudy comparison, individual exposure data (AUC and C(max)) for each bioequivalence study present in the registration dossier was normalized based on the absolute exposure data of one of two innovators. The exposure-normalized plasma concentration curves of the generic product arms between studies were compared, providing indirect evidence of bioequivalence of the different generics. Additionally, comparisons were made for generic-generic as well as innovator-innovator exchange based on absolute exposure data from individual bioequivalence studies. In almost all cases, estimated 90% confidence intervals of the AUC and C(max) ratios for generic-generic interchange were within the routine 80-125% criterion. When absolute, non-corrected exposure data were used for this interstudy comparison, in a number of cases 90% confidence intervals outside the 80-125% criterion were found upon interchanging generics from two studies. However, a similar pattern of 90% confidence intervals outside the 80-125% criterion was observed for the comparison of innovator arms, despite the fact that the innovator was identical in all studies. Our results strongly indicate that the so-called drifting problem upon generic-generic substitution does not result in important differences in exposure upon exchanging topiramate generics or gabapentin generics.

  9. Comparison and interchangeability of macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT in myopic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng; Qiu, Kun-Liang; Lu, Xue-Hui; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the difference of macular thickness measurements between stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Cirrus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) in the same myopic patient and to develop a conversion equation to interchange macular thickness obtained with these two OCT devices. Eighty-nine healthy Chinese adults with spherical equivalent (SE) ranging from -1.13 D to -9.63 D were recruited. The macular thickness was measured by Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT. The correlation between macular thickness and axial length and the agreement between two OCT measurements were evaluated. A formula was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. Average macular thickness measured with Stratus OCT (r=-0.280, P=0.008) and Cirrus OCT (r=-0.224, P=0.034) were found to be negatively correlated with axial length. No statistically significant correlation was found between axial length and central subfield macular thickness (CMT) measured with Stratus OCT (r=0.191, P=0.073) and Cirrus OCT (r=0.169, P=0.113). The mean CMT measured with Cirrus OCT was 53.63±7.94 µm thicker than with Stratus OCT. The formula CMTCirrus OCT=78.328+0.874×CMTStratus OCT was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. Macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT were thicker than with Stratus OCT in myopic eyes. A formula can be used to interchange macular thickness measured with two OCT devices in myopic eyes. Studies with different OCT devices and larger samples are warranted to enable the comparison of macular values measured with different OCT devices.

  10. Implementing electronic data interchange (EDI) with small business suppliers in the pre-award acquisition process

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeson, Robert B.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the implementation of electronic data interchange (EDI) with small business suppliers in the pre-award acquisition process. The general history and concept of EDI is discussed along with the pre- award acquisition process. The results of a small business survey are analyzed to provide insight on the barriers and impediments to implementing EDI with small business concerns. Additionally, interviews and discussions ...

  11. Do physical capacity and interchange rest periods influence match exercise-intensity profile in Australian football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mitchell; Cormack, Stuart; O'Brien, Brendan; Coutts, Aaron J

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the number of interchange rotations affected the match activity profile of elite Australian footballers. Fifteen elite Australian footballers completed the Yo-Yo IR2 before the beginning of the season and played across 22 matches in which match activity profiles were measured via microtechnology devices containing a global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer. An interchange rotation was counted when a player left the field and was replaced with another player. Yo-Yo IR2 results were further split into high and low groups. Players match speed decreased from 1st to 4th quarter, while average-speed (m/min: P = .05) and low-speed activity (LSA, 15 km/h) per minute (HSR m/min) and accelerometer load/min throughout the entire match. The number of interchanges significantly influenced the HSR m/min and m/min throughout the match except in the 2nd quarter. Furthermore, the low Yo-Yo IR2 group had significantly less LSA m/min in the 4th quarter than the high Yo-Yo IR2 group (92.2 vs 96.7 m/min, P = .06). Both the Yo-Yo IR2 and number of interchanges contribute to m/min and HSR m/min produced by elite Australian footballers, affecting their match activity. However, while it appears that improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance prevents reductions in LSA m/min during a match, higher-speed activities (HSR m/min) and overall physical activity (m/min and load/min) are still reduced in the 4th quarter compared with the 1st quarter.

  12. Methane Hydrate Field Program. Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Tim [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Bahk, Jang-Jun [Korea Inst. of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea); Frye, Matt [U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Sterling, VA (United States); Goldberg, Dave [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Husebo, Jarle [Statoil ASA, Stavenger (Norway); Koh, Carolyn [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Malone, Mitch [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shipp, Craig [Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Torres, Marta [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Myers, Greg [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Divins, David [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Morell, Margo [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-31

    This topical report represents a pathway toward better understanding of the impact of marine methane hydrates on safety and seafloor stability and future collection of data that can be used by scientists, engineers, managers and planners to study climate change and to assess the feasibility of marine methane hydrate as a potential future energy resource. Our understanding of the occurrence, distribution and characteristics of marine methane hydrates is incomplete; therefore, research must continue to expand if methane hydrates are to be used as a future energy source. Exploring basins with methane hydrates has been occurring for over 30 years, but these efforts have been episodic in nature. To further our understanding, these efforts must be more regular and employ new techniques to capture more data. This plan identifies incomplete areas of methane hydrate research and offers solutions by systematically reviewing known methane hydrate “Science Challenges” and linking them with “Technical Challenges” and potential field program locations.

  13. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. MR thermometry analysis program for laser- or high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced heating at a clinical MR scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ju; Jeong, Ki Young; Oh, Seung Jae; Park, Eun Hae; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Hong [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry is a noninvasive method for monitoring local temperature change during thermal therapy. In this study, a MR temperature analysis program was established for a laser with gold nanorods (GNRs) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced heating MR thermometry. The MR temperature map was reconstructed using the water proton resonance frequency (PRF) method. The temperature-sensitive phase difference was acquired by using complex number subtraction instead of direct phase subtraction in order to avoid another phase unwrapping process. A temperature map-analyzing program was developed and implemented in IDL (Interactive Data Language) for effective temperature monitoring. This one program was applied to two different heating devices at a clinical MR scanner. All images were acquired with the fast spoiled gradient echo (fSPGR) pulse sequence on a 3.0 T GE Discovery MR750 scanner with an 8-channel knee array coil or with a home-built small surface coil. The analyzed temperature values were confirmed by using values simultaneously measured with an optical temperature probe (R{sup 2} = 0.996). The temperature change in small samples induced by a laser or by HIFU was analyzed by using a raw data, that consisted of complex numbers. This study shows that our MR thermometry analysis program can be used for thermal therapy study with a laser or HIFU at a clinical MR scanner. It can also be applied to temperature monitoring for any other thermal therapy based on the PRF method.

  15. Safety Assessment of Auxiliary Lanes in Freeway Interchange Weaving Areas based on Traffic Conflict Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary lanes can provide an improved weaving environment rather than a forced or direct merge or diverse for vehicles entering and departing freeway weaving segments. Considering China's traffic composition and operational status, this paper proposed safety assessment of auxiliary lanes in freeway interchange weaving areas based on traffic conflict technique in order to estimate its safety impacts and related influential factors considered in design. Based on freeway interchange weaving areas data and actual traffic characteristics, simulation models were built with VISSIM. This paper used Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM to calculate conflicts by inputting vehicle trajectories from VISSIM, analysed the influence of ramp spacing, lane number of mainline, traffic volume, weaving ratio and percentage of heavy vehicles on safety performance of auxiliary lanes in freeway weaving areas. Finally, Traffic Conflict Modification Factor was presented to evaluate effectiveness of implementing auxiliary lanes. The paper found the safety impacts and related influential factors of auxiliary lanes. T he findings can provide support to effective decision making with regards to constructing future auxiliary lanes in freeway interchange weaving areas.

  16. A 2-Approximation Scheme for Sorting Signed Permutations by Reversals, Transpositions, Transreversals, and Block-Interchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, FanChang; Zhang, Melvin; Leong, Hon Wai

    2017-06-27

    We consider the problem of sorting signed permutations by reversals, transpositions, transreversals, and block-interchanges and give a 2-approximation scheme, called the GSB (Genome Sorting by Bridges) scheme. Our result extends 2-approximation algorithm of He and Chen [12] that allowed only reversals and block-interchanges, and also the 1.5 approximation algorithm of Hartman and Sharan [11] that allowed only transreversals and transpositions. We prove this result by introducing three bridge structures in the breakpoint graph, namely, the L-bridge, T-bridge, and X-bridge and show that they model "proper" reversals, transpositions, transreversals, and block-interchanges, respectively. We show that we can always find at least one of these three bridges in any breakpoint graph, thus giving an upper bound on the number of operations needed. We prove a lower bound on the distance and use it to show that GSB has a 2-approximation ratio. An O(n^3) algorithm called GSB-I that is based on the GSB approximation scheme presented in this paper has recently been published by Yu, Hao and Leong in [17]. We note that our 2-approximation scheme admits many possible implementations by varying the order we search for proper rearrangement operations.

  17. Parameter-space survey of linear G-mode and interchange in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, E. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2017-10-01

    The extended magnetohydrodynamic stability of interchange modes is studied in two configurations. In slab geometry, a local dispersion relation for the gravitational interchange mode (g-mode) with three different extensions of the MHD model [Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 085005 (2008)] is analyzed. Our results delineate where drifts stablize the g-mode with gyroviscosity alone and with a two-fluid Ohm's law alone. The two-fluid Ohm's law produces an ion drift wave that interacts with the g-mode. This interaction gives rise to a second instability at finite ky. A second instability is also observed in numerical extended MHD computations of linear interchange in cylindrical screw-pinch equilibria, the second configuration. Particularly with incomplete models, this mode limits the regions of stability for physically realistic conditions. However, applying a consistent two-temperature extended MHD model that includes the diamagnetic heat flux density ( q→ * ) makes the onset of the second mode occur at a larger Hall parameter. For conditions relevant to the SSPX experiment [E. B. Hooper, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 113001 (2012)], significant stabilization is observed for Suydam parameters as large as unity ( Ds ≲ 1 ).

  18. FDA Guidance on Biosimilar Interchangeability Elicits Diverse Views: Current and Potential Marketers Complain About Too-High Hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical industry sectors are at odds as the Food and Drug Administration seeks to define "interchangeability" for biosimilars. The battle lines vary by topic, but biosimilar marketers, health plans, and drugstores are generally urging lower hurdles.

  19. DoD Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Convention: ASC X12 Transaction Set 832 Price Sales Catalog (Version 003030)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Executhre Age"t for Eketronic Conmnerce/Electmnlc Dots lnterchange/Protection of Logistica Undaasslfled/Serssltlve Systerr Executive Agent for EC/EDI...PRICEISALES CATALOG ANSI ASC X12 VERSIONIRELEASE 003030DOD_ 7 Communications Transport Protocol ISA /_Interchange Control Header GS/ Functional Group Header...Set Trailer GE • ’Functional Group Trailer lEA Interchange Control Troller SCommunications Transport Protocol Figure 3.2-1. Hierarchical Structure

  20. Implementation of a worksite educational program focused on promoting healthy eating habits [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/32x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Tanagra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the effectiveness of a short-term educational-counseling worksite program focused on lipid intake, by monitoring the possible change on nutrition knowledge and eating habits. Methods: an 8-week educational program based on the Health Belief Model was implemented in a honey packaging and sales company in Greece. 20 out of the 29 employees initially enrolled completed the program. Knowledge level and eating habits were evaluated prior and after the intervention by the “Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire” and the “Food Habits Questionnaire”. ANOVA, Spearman rho test and paired Wilcoxon test were employed in statistical analysis. Results: Non smokers and those with higher educational level had healthier eating habits. Knowledge following the intervention was significantly improved concerning recommendations and basic food ingredients but as far as eating habits were concerned, scores were not improved significantly, while intake of fried food was increased. Conclusions and Implications: Short-term interventions may produce substantial improvement in knowledge but not necessarily modifications in unhealthy eating habits.

  1. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E; Hall, Seth E; Wieland, Jamie R; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C; Mulligan, Christopher C

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E.; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L.; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E.; Hall, Seth E.; Wieland, Jamie R.; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Teaching Explicitly and Reflecting on Elements of Nature of Science: a Discourse-Focused Professional Development Program with Four Fifth-Grade Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Plakitsi, Katerina; Seroglou, Fanny; Papantoniou, Georgia

    2017-06-01

    The nature of science (NOS) has become a central goal of science education in many countries. This study refers to a developmental work research program, in which four fifth-grade elementary in-service teachers participated. It aimed to improve their understandings of NOS and their abilities to teach it effectively to their students. The 1-year-long, 2012-2013, program consisted of a series of activities to support teachers to develop their pedagogical content knowledge of NOS. In order to accomplish our goal, we enabled teacher-researchers to analyze their own discourse practices and to trace evidence of effective NOS teaching. Many studies indicate the importance of examining teachers' discussions about science in the classroom, since it is teachers' understanding of NOS reflected in these discussions that will have a vital impact on students' learning. Our proposal is based on the assumption that reflecting on the ways people form meanings enables us to examine and seek alternative ways to communicate aspects of NOS during science lessons. The analysis of discourse data, which has been carried out with the teacher-researchers' active participation, indicated that initially only a few aspects of NOS were implicitly incorporated in teacher-researchers' instruction. As the program evolved, all teacher-researchers presented more informed views on targeted NOS aspects. On the whole, our discourse-focused professional development program with its participatory, explicit, and reflective character indicated the importance of involving teacher-researchers in analyzing their own talk. It is this involvement that results in obtaining a valuable awareness of aspects concerning pedagogical content knowledge of NOS teaching.

  4. Collaborative, Early-undergraduate-focused REU Programs at Savannah State University have been Vital to Growing a Demographically Diverse Ocean Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, M. R.; Cox, T. M.; Hintz, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Formal support for undergraduates to participate in marine/ocean science research at Savannah State University (SSU), a historically-Black unit of the University System of Georgia, began in 1989 with funding from the National Science Foundation for an unsolicited proposal (OCE-8919102, 34,935). Today SSU, which has offered B.S degrees since 1979 and M.S. degrees since 2001 in Marine Sciences, is making major contributions nationally to demographic diversity in ocean sciences. 33% of Master's degrees in marine/ocean sciences earned by African Americans in the U.S. from 2004-2007 were earned at SSU. 10% of African American Master's and Doctoral students in marine/ ocean sciences in 2007 were either enrolled in the Master's program at SSU or were former SSU students enrolled in Doctoral programs elsewhere. Collaborative REU programs that focus on early (freshman and sophomore) undergraduate students have been a consistent and vital part of that success. In the most recent iteration of our summer REU program we used six of the best practices outlined in the literature to increase success and retention of underrepresented minority students in STEM fields: early intervention, strong mentoring, research experience, career counseling, financial support, workshops and seminars. The early intervention with strong mentoring has proven successful in several metrics: retention in STEM majors (96%), progression to graduate school (50%), and continuation to later research experiences (75%). Research mentors include faculty at staff at SSU, the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary and Georgia Tech-Savannah. Formal collaborative and cooperative agreements, externally-funded grants, and contracts in support of student research training have proven to be critical in providing resources for growth and improvement marine science curricular options at the University. Since 1981 the program has had four formal partnerships and 36 funded grant awards

  5. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  6. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  7. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF. PMID:26849126

  8. Recommendations regarding technical standards for follow-on biologics: comparability, similarity, interchangeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregory C; Beals, John M; Johnson, Craig; Mayer, Mark H; Meiklejohn, Bruce I; Mitlak, Bruce H; Roth, Jody L; Towns, John K; Veenhuizen, Melissa

    2009-07-01

    Policy makers around the world are currently considering the creation of a regulatory pathway for follow-on biologics (FOB), which will have to account for the substantial technical challenges associated with FOB development. These challenges will likely involve more complexity than comparability assessments of process changes made by the same manufacturer. The history of industry-regulator comparability discussions helps explain why the same degree of testing and flexibility now applied to change-control within a manufacturer's own process, at this time, cannot be extrapolated to the observed and possibly unknown differences between two manufacturing processes that are independently developed by different (non-collaborating) parties. This commentary provides recommendations on the technical aspects that should be considered in the creation of an approval pathway for FOB products. In the authors' view, analytical methodology in its current state cannot alone provide full assurance that the FOB is sufficiently similar to the innovator product. Moreover, the FOB manufacturer will not have access to the extensive knowledge accumulated by the innovator manufacturer from early development through marketing. Thus, extensive clinical evaluation will likely be necessary to provide assurance that the FOB is safe and efficacious. If such testing demonstrates the FOB is safe and efficacious per existing regulatory standards, the product should receive marketing approval as a 'similar' product. Since 'similarity' is a fundamentally different determination than establishing interchangeability between the two products, an interchangeability determination must be based on additional testing and market experience to ensure patient safety. Post-marketing surveillance of the FOB should be conducted to ensure that the approved molecule has similar clinical safety and efficacy as the innovator product, prior to any consideration of interchangeability.

  9. Experimental observation of the blob-generation mechanism from interchange waves in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furno, I; Labit, B; Podestà, M; Fasoli, A; Müller, S H; Poli, F M; Ricci, P; Theiler, C; Brunner, S; Diallo, A; Graves, J

    2008-02-08

    The mechanism for blob generation in a toroidal magnetized plasma is investigated using time-resolved measurements of two-dimensional structures of electron density, temperature, and plasma potential. The blobs are observed to form from a radially elongated structure that is sheared off by the E x B flow. The structure is generated by an interchange wave that increases in amplitude and extends radially in response to a decrease of the radial pressure scale length. The dependence of the blob amplitude upon the pressure radial scale length is discussed.

  10. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Transaksi Elektronik Ritel Pupuk Dengan Metode Electronic Data Interchange (EDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Oktavia Adiwijaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer distribution from distributor to agents, are required to be responsive in addressing the demand for fertilizers. Distributors are also required to be able to manage inventory in the warehouse, to avoid overstocking of fertilizer. Design and implementation of a fertilizer retail electronic commerce applications using electronic data interchange (EDI method is applied in this study. The system is built to help distributors to control the existence of the stock of fertilizer so no excess stock. In addition, the use of EDI can provide information quickly (real-time without having to go directly to the warehouse locations.

  11. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  12. A Multimethod Latent State-Trait Model for Structurally Different And Interchangeable Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Holtmann, Jana; Geiser, Christian; Eid, Michael

    2017-03-01

    A new multiple indicator multilevel latent state-trait (LST) model for the analysis of multitrait-multimethod-multioccasion (MTMM-MO) data is proposed. The LST-COM model combines current CFA-MTMM modeling approaches of interchangeable and structurally different methods and LST modeling approaches. The model enables researchers to specify construct and method factors on the level of time-stable (trait) as well as time-variable (occasion-specific) latent variables and analyze the convergent and discriminant validity among different rater groups across time. The statistical performance of the model is scrutinized by a simulation study and guidelines for empirical applications are provided.

  13. Development of shoulders and plumes in the frame of the interchange instability mechanism for plasmapause formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, V.; Lemaire, J. F.

    2004-03-01

    The mechanism of plasmapause formation based on interchange instability and a Kp-dependent magnetospheric electric field model, enables us to determine the position of the plasmapause as a function of Kp and local time. We illustrate here how this physical mechanism is able to account for the formation of shoulders like those observed by EUV on IMAGE. A wide variety of other structures observed by IMAGE like tails (also called plumes), and notches are also obtained with this mechanism for the formation of a ``knee'' in the high altitude cross-L distribution of the cold plasma density distribution.

  14. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory for localized interchange modes in toroidal anisotropic plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Tonghui, E-mail: thshi@ipp.ac.cn; Wan, B. N.; Sun, Y.; Shen, B.; Qian, J. P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Zheng, L. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory for localized interchange modes is developed for toroidal plasmas with anisotropic pressure. The work extends the existing theories of Johnson and Hastie [Phys. Fluids 31, 1609 (1988)], etc., to the low n mode case, where n is the toroidal mode number. Also, the plasma compressibility is included, so that the coupling of the parallel motion to perpendicular one, i.e., the so-called apparent mass effect, is investigated in the anisotropic pressure case. The singular layer equation is obtained, and the generalized Mercier's criterion is derived.

  15. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paccagnella, R. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione and Istituto Gas Ionizzati del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Padova (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate {beta}'s, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high {beta}, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  16. Developing Energy Technology Course for Undergraduate Engineering Management Study Program in Lake Toba Area with Particular Focus to Sustainable Energy Systems in Development Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, Yosef; Sinaga, Rizal; Saragi, Hadi

    2018-02-01

    Undergraduate Engineering Management Study Program of Institut Teknologi Del is one of the pioneers for its field in Indonesia. Located in Lake Toba Area, this study program has a mission to provide high quality Engineering Management education that produces globally competitive graduates who in turn will contribute to local development. Framing the Energy Technology course—one of the core subjects in Engineering Management Body of Knowledge—in the context of sustainable development of Lake Toba Area is very essential. Thus, one particular focus in this course is sustainable energy systems in local development context that incorporates identification and analysis of locally available energy resources. In this paper we present our experience in designing such course. In this work, we introduce the domains that shape the Engineering Management Body of Knowledge. Then, we explain the results of our evaluation on the key considerations to meet the rapidly changing needs of society in local context. Later, we present the framework of the learning outcomes and the syllabus as a result of mapping the road map with the requirement. At the end, the summary from the first two semesters of delivering this course in academic year 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 are reported.

  17. A Longitudinal Multilevel CFA-MTMM Model for Interchangeable and StructurallyDifferent Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eKoch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key interests in the social sciences is the investigation of change and stability of a given attribute. Although numerous models have been proposed in the past for analyzing longitudinal data including multilevel and/or latent variable modeling approaches, only few modeling approaches have been developed for studying the construct validity in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM measurement designs. The aim of the present study was to extend the spectrum of current longitudinal modeling approaches for MTMM analysis. Specifically, a new longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for measurement designs with structurally different and interchangeable methods (called Latent-State-Combination-Of-Methods model, LS-COM is presented. Interchangeable methods are methods that are randomly sampled from a set of equivalent methods (e.g., multiple student ratings for teaching quality, whereas structurally different methods are methods that cannot be easily replaced by one another (e.g., teacher, self-ratings, principle ratings. Results of a simulation study indicate that the parameters and standard errors in the LS-COM model are well recovered even in conditions with only 5 observations per estimated model parameter. The advantages and limitations of the LS-COM model relative to other longitudinal MTMM modeling approaches are discussed.

  18. A longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for interchangeable and structurally different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Eid, Michael; Geiser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    One of the key interests in the social sciences is the investigation of change and stability of a given attribute. Although numerous models have been proposed in the past for analyzing longitudinal data including multilevel and/or latent variable modeling approaches, only few modeling approaches have been developed for studying the construct validity in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) measurement designs. The aim of the present study was to extend the spectrum of current longitudinal modeling approaches for MTMM analysis. Specifically, a new longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for measurement designs with structurally different and interchangeable methods (called Latent-State-Combination-Of-Methods model, LS-COM) is presented. Interchangeable methods are methods that are randomly sampled from a set of equivalent methods (e.g., multiple student ratings for teaching quality), whereas structurally different methods are methods that cannot be easily replaced by one another (e.g., teacher, self-ratings, principle ratings). Results of a simulation study indicate that the parameters and standard errors in the LS-COM model are well recovered even in conditions with only five observations per estimated model parameter. The advantages and limitations of the LS-COM model relative to other longitudinal MTMM modeling approaches are discussed.

  19. Single-Molecule FRET States, Conformational Interchange, and Conformational Selection by Dye Labels in Calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Matthew S; Braimah, Adebayo; Benson, David R; Johnson, Carey K

    2016-05-19

    We investigate the roles of measurement time scale and the nature of the fluorophores in the FRET states measured for calmodulin, a calcium signaling protein known to undergo pronounced conformational changes. The measured FRET distributions depend markedly on the measurement time scale (nanosecond or microsecond). Comparison of FRET distributions measured by donor fluorescence decay with FRET distributions recovered from single-molecule burst measurements binned over time scales of 90 μs to 1 ms reveals conformational averaging over the intervening time regimes. We find further that, particularly in the presence of saturating Ca(2+), the nature of the measured single-molecule FRET distribution depends markedly on the identity of the FRET pair. The results suggest interchange between conformational states on time scales of hundreds of microseconds or less. Interaction with a fluorophore such as the dye Texas Red alters both the nature of the measured FRET distributions and the dynamics of conformational interchange. The results further suggest that the fluorophore may not be merely a benign reporter of protein conformations in FRET studies, but may in fact alter the conformational landscape.

  20. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  1. Emergency medical services response to active shooter incidents: provider comfort level and attitudes before and after participation in a focused response training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jerrilyn; Kue, Ricky; Mitchell, Patricia; Eblan, Gary; Dyer, K Sophia

    2014-08-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) routinely stage in a secure area in response to active shooter incidents until the scene is declared safe by law enforcement. Due to the time-sensitive nature of injuries at these incidents, some EMS systems have adopted response tactics utilizing law enforcement protection to expedite life-saving medical care. Describe EMS provider perceptions of preparedness, adequacy of training, and general attitudes toward active shooter incident response after completing a tactical awareness training program. An unmatched, anonymous, closed-format survey utilizing a five-point Likert scale was distributed to participating EMS providers before and after a focused training session on joint EMS/police active shooter rescue team response. Descriptive statistics were used to compare survey results. Secondary analysis of responses based on prior military or tactical medicine training was performed using a chi-squared analysis. Two hundred fifty-six providers participated with 88% (225/256) pretraining and 88% (224/256) post-training surveys completed. Post-training, provider agreement that they felt adequately prepared to respond to an active shooter incident changed from 41% (92/225) to 89% (199/224), while agreement they felt adequately trained to provide medical care during an active shooter incident changed from 36% (82/225) to 87% (194/224). Post-training provider agreement that they should never enter a building with an active shooter changed from 73% (165/225) to 61% (137/224). Among the pretraining surveys, significantly more providers without prior military or tactical experience agreed they should never enter a building with an active shooter until the scene was declared safe (78% vs 50%, P = .002), while significantly more providers with prior experience felt both adequately trained to provide medical care in an active shooter environment (56% vs 31%, P = .007) and comfortable working jointly with law enforcement within a building if a

  2. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Malawi: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Focusing the Program by Client Age and Geography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness. As Malawi prepared its national operational plan for VMMC, it sought to examine the impacts of focusing on specific subpopulations by age and region.We used the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit, Version 2.0, to study the impact of scaling up VMMC to different target populations of Malawi. National MC prevalence by age group from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey was scaled according to the MC prevalence for each district and then halved, to adjust for over-reporting of circumcision. In-country stakeholders advised a VMMC unit cost of $100, based on implementation experience. We derived a cost of $451 per patient-year for antiretroviral therapy from costs collected as part of a strategic planning exercise previously conducted in- country by UNAIDS.Over a fifteen-year period, circumcising males ages 10-29 would avert 75% of HIV infections, and circumcising males ages 10-34 would avert 88% of infections, compared to the current strategy of circumcising males ages 15-49. The Ministry of Health's South West and South East health zones had the lowest cost per HIV infection averted. Moreover, VMMC met WHO's definition of cost-effectiveness (that is, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY] saved was less than three times the per capita gross domestic product in all health zones except Central East. Comparing urban versus rural areas in the country, we found that circumcising men in urban areas would be both cost

  3. Proposed guidelines for international clinical education in US-based physical therapist education programs: results of a focus group and Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechak, Celia M; Black, Jill D

    2014-04-01

    Physical therapist students are increasingly engaging in international clinical education (ICE). The growth of international engagement has been accompanied by appeals to ensure that these experiences are conducted in an ethical manner. Although detailed guidelines have been developed to guide global health training in general, they do not specifically address all aspects relevant to ICE in physical therapist education. The purpose of this study was to systematically develop recommendations for the implementation of ICE in physical therapist education to promote ethical practice. An initial virtual focus group of 5 physical therapist faculty with expertise in ICE provided input to review and revise global health training guidelines previously developed by non-physical therapists. The revised guidelines were distributed to a pool of 19 physical therapist faculty with ICE experience for additional review and revision through 3 online Delphi survey rounds. The participants accepted 31 of the original guidelines with or without revisions, rejected 2 guidelines, and developed 10 new guidelines or subguidelines. Most notably, they rejected a guideline related to students pursuing training outside of a structured program, stressing that ICE should never be done outside of a formal program. The primary limitation is that the study included only faculty from sending institutions and thus lacked the voices of the host institutions, students, partner organizations, or funders. This study systematically produced guidelines for ICE in physical therapist education using a range of ICE experts from sending institutions. The recommendations may be used by educators and other decision makers to optimally design new ICE opportunities or to improve existing ones. Additional validation should be done to ensure relevance for all stakeholders.

  4. Positive Impact on Physical Activity and Health Behaviour Changes of a 15-Week Family Focused Intervention Program: “Juniors for Seniors”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bronikowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of physical activity (PA in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program “Junior for Seniors” by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children (“juniors,” 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M=7.96±0.69 and 22 parents (“seniors,” 14 mothers aged M=38.86±2.96 and 8 fathers aged M=37.38±2.97 were voluntarily enrolled in a study spread across three primary schools in the city of Poznań, Poland. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined according to postintervention behavioural changes in PA in comparison to preintervention levels, as reported by the parents and children. Overall, the study found increases in PA levels and reductions in sedentary time. Although the changes are modest, there are some unrecognized benefits of the intervention which may have occurred, such as improved sport and motor skills, more frequent family social behaviours (walks, meals, and visiting relatives, or simply improved quality of “do-together” leisure time PA.

  5. An XXX male resulting from paternal X-Y interchange and maternal X-X nondisjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerén, G; Andersson, M; Page, D C; Brown, L G; Berg, M; Läckgren, G; Gustavson, K H; de la Chapelle, A

    1987-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy was found to have a 47,XXX karyotype. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism analysis showed that, of his three X chromosomes, one is of paternal and two are of maternal origin. The results of Y-DNA hybridization were reminiscent of those in XX males in two respects. First, hybridization to Southern transfers revealed the presence in this XXX male of sequences derived from the Y-chromosomal short arm. Second, in situ hybridization showed that this Y DNA was located on the tip of the X-chromosomal short arm. We conclude that this XXX male resulted from the coincidence of X-X nondisjunction during maternal meiosis and aberrant X-Y interchange either during or prior to paternal meiosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2889356

  6. Bioanalyzer chips can be used interchangeably for many analyses of DNA or RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jessica; Denyer, Tom; Hadfield, James

    2016-04-01

    The Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer enables small-scale gel electrophoretic separation of nucleic acids on a microfluidic chip; however, a shortage of chips and an excess of reagents are common issues. Here we explore the compatibility of two commonly used Bioanalyzer reagents with three Bioanalyzer chip types. Microfluidic electrophoretic separation of DNA and RNA using DNA High Sensitivity and RNA 6000 Nano reagents, respectively, was successfully performed on multiple chip types following the assay-specific protocols. For RNA quality and next-generation sequencing (NGS) library length estimation, the Bioanalyzer chips we tested can be used interchangeably. These findings will be valuable for any laboratory using the Agilent Bioanalyzer in a shared facility.

  7. Two-dimensional convection and interchange motions in fluids and magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution some recent investigations of two- dimensional thermal convection relevant to ordinary fluids as well as magnetized plasmas are reviewed. An introductory discussion is given of the physical mechanism for baroclinic vorticity generation and convective motions in stratified...... fluids, emphasizing its relation to interchange motions of non- uniformly magnetized plasmas. This is followed by a review of the theories for the onset of convection and quasi-linear saturation in driven-dissipative systems. Non-linear numerical simulations which result in stationary convective states...... deals with the generation of differential rotation by fluctuating motions through tilting of the convective structures. The role of kinetic energy transfer and shearing due to differential advection is pointed out. Numerical simulations for strongly driven systems reveal turbulent states with a bursty...

  8. Interchange and Infernal Fishbone Modes in Plasmas with Tangentially Injected Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnichenko; Ya.I.; Marchenko; V.S.; White; R.B.

    2006-01-01

    New energetic particle mode instabilities of fishbone type are predicted. The considered instabilities are driven by the circulating energetic ions. They can arise in plasmas of tokamaks and spherical tori with weak magnetic shear in the wide core region and strong shear at the periphery, provided that the central safety factor is close to the ratio m/n, where m and n are the poloidal mode number and toroidal mode number, respectively. The instability with m = n = 1 has interchange-like spatial structure, whereas the structure of instabilities with m/n > 1 is similar to that of the infernal MHD mode (except for the region in vicinity of the local Alfvén resonance).

  9. Spaces of phylogenetic networks from generalized nearest-neighbor interchange operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Katharina T; Linz, Simone; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of evolutionary or phylogenetic trees that are used to represent the evolution of species which have undergone reticulate evolution. In this paper we consider spaces of such networks defined by some novel local operations that we introduce for converting one phylogenetic network into another. These operations are modeled on the well-studied nearest-neighbor interchange operations on phylogenetic trees, and lead to natural generalizations of the tree spaces that have been previously associated to such operations. We present several results on spaces of some relatively simple networks, called level-1 networks, including the size of the neighborhood of a fixed network, and bounds on the diameter of the metric defined by taking the smallest number of operations required to convert one network into another. We expect that our results will be useful in the development of methods for systematically searching for optimal phylogenetic networks using, for example, likelihood and Bayesian approaches.

  10. Pre-noon high-latitude auroral arcs as a manifestation of the interchange instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Kozlovsky

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available On 7 December 2000, TV ASC camera in Barentsburg (Svalbard observed pre-noon (at 09:00–10:00 MLT rayed auroral arcs, which occurred at the pole-ward edge of the auroral oval after an IMF transition from By -dominated (By = + 8.8, Bz = + 4.3 to strongly northward dominated (By = + 2.7, Bz = + 8.6. The arcs appeared from the area of enhanced luminosity seen in the western (nightside horizon, and developed to the east, progressing at a velocity of about 1.5 km/s. Simultaneously, the arcs were drifting poleward at a velocity of 300–500 m/s, whose value was equal to the F-region ionospheric plasma drift velocity observed by the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ESR. The arc appearance and motion corresponded well to the poleward expansion of the auroral oval following the IMF shift, which was observed by the UVI on board the Polar satellite. The observed auroras were associated with closed LLBL indicated by the particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites showing also several-keV electrons of PS origin. The observations allow us to suggest that the arcs arise due to the interchange instability that starts to develop at the boundary between the magnetospheric plasma and the magnetosheath flux tubes entering the closed magnetosphere due to the reconnection beyond the cusp after the IMF changes. The interchange instability can be suggested as a possible mechanism for the formation of the LLBL. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  11. Pre-noon high-latitude auroral arcs as a manifestation of the interchange instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Kozlovsky

    Full Text Available On 7 December 2000, TV ASC camera in Barentsburg (Svalbard observed pre-noon (at 09:00–10:00 MLT rayed auroral arcs, which occurred at the pole-ward edge of the auroral oval after an IMF transition from By -dominated (By = + 8.8, Bz = + 4.3 to strongly northward dominated (By = + 2.7, Bz = + 8.6. The arcs appeared from the area of enhanced luminosity seen in the western (nightside horizon, and developed to the east, progressing at a velocity of about 1.5 km/s. Simultaneously, the arcs were drifting poleward at a velocity of 300–500 m/s, whose value was equal to the F-region ionospheric plasma drift velocity observed by the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ESR. The arc appearance and motion corresponded well to the poleward expansion of the auroral oval following the IMF shift, which was observed by the UVI on board the Polar satellite. The observed auroras were associated with closed LLBL indicated by the particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites showing also several-keV electrons of PS origin. The observations allow us to suggest that the arcs arise due to the interchange instability that starts to develop at the boundary between the magnetospheric plasma and the magnetosheath flux tubes entering the closed magnetosphere due to the reconnection beyond the cusp after the IMF changes. The interchange instability can be suggested as a possible mechanism for the formation of the LLBL. 

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  12. Screw loosening with interchangeable abutments in internally connected implants after cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Kyun; Koak, Jai Young; Heo, Seong Joo; Taylor, Thomas D; Ryoo, Sook; Lee, Su Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe and compare any loosening of screws attaching several interchangeable abutments to internally connected implants after cyclic loading. Four different abutment groups mated with Straumann single-stage transmucosal implants (n = 7 each group) were assessed: Straumann solid abutment, Restore COC abutment, Neoplant solid abutment, and AVANA solid abutment. Each implant was fixed rigidly in a special holding jig. Abutments were tightened to 35 Ncm with a torque controller. A cyclic load of 150 N at a 30-degree angle to the long axis was applied to the implants for 1 million cycles. Prior to loading, Periotest values (PTVs) were measured. After cyclic loading, PTVs were measured and removal torque values (RTVs) of abutments were measured with a digital torque gauge. No mechanical failures were noted for the Straumann solid abutment or the Restore COC abutment. Six Neoplant abutment screws fractured (86%), and four implants fractured (57%) in the group restored with AVANA solid abutments. The RTVs of the Straumann solid abutment were significantly higher than those of the other abutments. The final mean PTV of the Straumann solid abutment was significantly lower than the final mean PTVs of the other abutments. The final mean PTV (4.76 ± 5.58) was significantly higher than the initial mean PTV (-4.29 ± 0.47). Although different abutments are interchangeable with each other, they possess different chemical compositions and physical characteristics. The use of an abutment and implant manufactured by the same company is recommended to prevent the loosening of the abutment screw.

  13. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  14. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...... pace, which demand a closer look at the relations between arts and technology. The composers’ understanding of her occupation is challenged – and alongside, mediatisation and changes in distribution mark an incursion on solid conceptions of the artwork. Together, this means changing conditions for both...

  15. Using Family-Focused Garden, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Programs To Reduce Childhood Obesity: The Texas! Go! Eat! Grow! Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears-Lanoix, Erica C; McKyer, E Lisako J; Evans, Alexandra; McIntosh, William Alex; Ory, Marcia; Whittlesey, Lisa; Kirk, Alice; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Warren, Judith L

    2015-12-01

    The TEXAS! GROW! EAT! GO! (TGEG) randomized, control trial is a 5-year study to measure the impact of a nutrition and gardening intervention and/or physical activity (PA) intervention on the weight status of third-grade students. This article describes the results of the pilot study to test the feasibility of two interventions and test the measures to be used in the main trial. The pilot study was conducted in one school with third-grade students and their parents or guardians. The Junior Master Gardner (JMG) and Walk Across Texas (WAT) interventions were implemented over a 5-month period in three third-grade classrooms during spring 2012. The respective interventions focused on improving healthy eating and PA behaviors of children and their families. Baseline and immediate post-test data were collected from students and parents/guardians to measure four child, four parent, and four parent-child interaction behaviors. Process data regarding implementation were also collected from teachers and school administration. Forty-four students and 34 parents or guardians provided both pre- and post-test data. Paired-sample t-tests showed statistically significant changes in student knowledge, vegetable preferences, vegetable consumption, and home food availability (all p obese, 10% overweight, and 31% normal weight. Postintervention, weight status categories included 39% obese, 16% overweight, and normal 45%. Data collected from teachers indicated high levels of implementation fidelity. Implementation of both interventions occurred at a very high fidelity level, which led to positive changes in BMI status, and several dietary and PA behaviors. Although the pilot study indicated feasibility of the two interventions for school implementation, results guided revisions to the TGEG program and its survey instruments.

  16. Effectiveness of the 'Hold me Tight' Relationship Enhancement Program in a Self-referred and a Clinician-referred Sample: An Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Henk Jan; Dingemanse, Pieter; Noordhof, Arjen; Finkenauer, Catrin; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2017-09-04

    While evidence-based couple therapies are available, only a minority of troubled couples seek help and they often do this too late. To reach more couples earlier, the couple relationship education (CRE) group program "Hold me Tight" (HmT) based on Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy (EFCT) was developed. This study is the first to examine the effectiveness of HmT. Using a three-wave (waiting period, treatment, and follow-up) within-subject design, HmT was delivered to 79 self-referred couples and 50 clinician-referred couples. We applied a comprehensive outcome measure battery. Our main findings were that (1) self-referred couples significantly improved during HmT on all measures, that is relationship satisfaction, security of partner-bond, forgiveness, daily coordination, maintenance behavior, and psychological complaints, with a moderate-to-large mean effect size (d = .63), which was maintained (d = .57) during the 3.5 month follow-up; (2) in clinician-referred couples, who were vulnerable in terms of insecure attachment status and psychopathology, the improvement during HmT was moderate (d = .42), but this was reduced during the 3.5-month follow-up to a small effect (d = .22); (3) emotional functioning (typical HmT target) as well as behavioral functioning (typical Behavioral Couples Therapy-based CRE target) improved during HmT; and (4) individual psychological complaints, although not specifically targeted, were reduced during HmT. These findings suggest that HmT is a promising intervention for enhancement of relationship functioning. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  17. Air Quality Analysis of a Multilevel Complex Interchange : Case Study Using the Improved TSC/EPA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    This report describes a case study of an air quality analysis prepared by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Transportation Systems Center (TSC). The site analyzed was the proposed I-83/I-95 interchange in Baltimore, Maryland. This intercha...

  18. An Assessment of Clinical Interchangeability of TEG (R) and RoTEM (R) Thromboelastographic Variables in Cardiac Surgical Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, L.F.; Post, W.J.; Hendriks, H.G.D.; Huet, R.C.G.; de Wolf, J.T.W.; de Vries, A.J.

    BACKGROUND: Bedside thromboelastography is increasingly used, but an assessment of the clinical interchangeability of the 2 major systems, TEG (R) (Hemoscope) and RoTEM (R) (Pentapharm), has not been performed. METHODS: We measured blood samples from 46 cardiac surgical patients after induction of

  19. Evaluation of Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) for Large Datasets and as an Alternative to Binary JSON Encodings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    21 4. Efficient XML Interchange .............................................................. 23 a. Grammar -Based Encoding...Schneider, Rumen Kyusakov, Daniel Peintner and the rest of the EXI working group—thanks for letting a rookie join in the process and teaching me a great...Specification presents a normative description (Schneider et al., 2014). a. Grammar -Based Encoding XML documents have a set of rules governing their structure

  20. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Mathematics-Focused, Instructional Technology Program for Grades 6-8: A 5-Year Trend Analysis of NASA CONNECT(tm) Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Nanci A.; Perry, Jeannine B.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the series over the first five seasons (1998-99 through 2002-03) reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for the grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  1. Small portable interchangeable imager of fluorescence for fluorescence guided surgery and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusanya, Olugbenga T; Madajewski, Brian; Segal, Erin; Judy, Brendan F; Venegas, Ollin G; Judy, Ryan P; Quatromoni, Jon G; Wang, May D; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) is a developing field of surgical and oncologic research. Practically, FGS has shown useful applications in urologic surgery, benign biliary surgery, colorectal cancer liver metastasis resection, and ovarian cancer debulking. Most notably in in cancer surgery, FGS allows for the clear delineation of cancerous tissue from benign tissue. FGS requires the utilization of a fluorescent contrast agent and an intraoperative fluorescence imaging device (IFID). Currently available IFIDs are expensive, unable to work with multiple fluorophores, and can be cumbersome. This study aims to describe the development and utility of a small, cost-efficient, and interchangeable IFID made from commercially available components. Extensive research was done to design and construct a light-weight, portable, and cost-effective IFID. We researched the capabilities, size, and cost of several camera types and eventually decided on a near-infrared (NIR) charged couple device (CCD) camera for its overall profile. The small portable interchangeable imager of fluorescence (SPIIF) is a "scout" IFID system for FGS. The main components of the SPIIF are a NIR CCD camera with an articulating light filter. These components and a LED light source with an attached heat sink are mounted on a small metal platform. The system is connected to a laptop by a USB 2.0 cable. Pixielink © software on the laptop runs the system by controlling exposure time, gain, and image capture. After developing the system, we evaluated its utility as an IFID. The system weighs less than two pounds and can cover a large area. Due to its small size, it is easily made sterile by covering it with any sterile plastic sheet. To determine the system's ability to detect fluorescent signal, we used the SPIIF to detect indocyanine green under ex and in-vivo conditions and fluorescein under ex-vivo conditions. We found the SPIIF was able to detect both ICG and fluorescein under different depths of a

  2. Focus on Youth. National Symposium to Decreasee Violence: Youth Involvement and Juvenile Justice Programs (2nd, Reno, Nevada, January 9-12, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Adele, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph presents summaries of the presentations and of the outstanding youth involvement programs which were described at the National Symposium to Decrease Violence, which was held to recognize the importance of youths' involvement in the solution of their own problems. These summaries, from program directors, educators, and youths, deal…

  3. Implementation and Results of a Survey on Safe Community Programs in Gangbuk-gu, Korea: Focusing on Participants at a Local Public Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of and problems with the Safe Community Programs in Gangbuk-gu, one of the 25 districts of the capital city of Korea.MethodsThe study subjects were 396 individuals who were involved in Safe Community Programs between 2009 and 2011. We examined the effectiveness and willingness of respondents to participate as a safety leader of the Safe Community Program with a questionnaire. We examined the injury death rates of Gangbuk-gu by using of the death certificate data of Korea's National Statistical Office. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests were used.ResultsThe effectiveness of programs did not differ but active participation differed significantly among subjects (p<0.05. The injury death rate of Gangbuk-gu as a whole increased during the implementation period. However, senior safety, in particular, may be a helpful program for reducing injuries in Gangbuk-gu.ConclusionsThis study suggests that the lack of active participation may be a major problem of Safe Community Programs in Gangbuk-gu. Therefore, Safe Community Programs should be expanded to the entire district of Gangbuk-gu and more active participation programs should be developed.

  4. High Performance Computing and Communications: New Program Direction Would Benefit from a More Focused Effort. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Information Management Div.

    The House Armed Services Committee asked the GAO (General Accounting Office) to examine the HPCC (High Performance Computing and Communications) program in terms of: (1) the effectiveness of the program's management structure in setting goals and measuring progress, and (2) how extensively private industry has been involved in the planning and…

  5. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  6. Educational Technology. Hearing of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, on Examining Legislation Authorizing Funds for the Elementary Secondary Education Act, Focusing on Education Technology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.

    This hearing before the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions on examining legislation authorizing funds for the Elementary Secondary Education Act, focusing on educational technology programs, contains statements by: James M Jeffords, Chairman, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions; Barbara Means, Assistant…

  7. Low endemism, continued deep-shallow interchanges, and evidence for cosmopolitan distributions in free-living marine nematodes (order Enoplida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Kelley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematodes represent the most abundant benthic metazoa in one of the largest habitats on earth, the deep sea. Characterizing major patterns of biodiversity within this dominant group is a critical step towards understanding evolutionary patterns across this vast ecosystem. The present study has aimed to place deep-sea nematode species into a phylogenetic framework, investigate relationships between shallow water and deep-sea taxa, and elucidate phylogeographic patterns amongst the deep-sea fauna. Results Molecular data (18 S and 28 S rRNA confirms a high diversity amongst deep-sea Enoplids. There is no evidence for endemic deep-sea lineages in Maximum Likelihood or Bayesian phylogenies, and Enoplids do not cluster according to depth or geographic location. Tree topologies suggest frequent interchanges between deep-sea and shallow water habitats, as well as a mixture of early radiations and more recently derived lineages amongst deep-sea taxa. This study also provides convincing evidence of cosmopolitan marine species, recovering a subset of Oncholaimid nematodes with identical gene sequences (18 S, 28 S and cox1 at trans-Atlantic sample sites. Conclusions The complex clade structures recovered within the Enoplida support a high global species richness for marine nematodes, with phylogeographic patterns suggesting the existence of closely related, globally distributed species complexes in the deep sea. True cosmopolitan species may additionally exist within this group, potentially driven by specific life history traits of Enoplids. Although this investigation aimed to intensively sample nematodes from the order Enoplida, specimens were only identified down to genus (at best and our sampling regime focused on an infinitesimal small fraction of the deep-sea floor. Future nematode studies should incorporate an extended sample set covering a wide depth range (shelf, bathyal, and abyssal sites, utilize additional genetic loci (e

  8. Evaluating the effect of a year-long film focused environmental education program on Ugandan student knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Austin; Lukas, Kristen E; Kendall, Corinne J; Slavin, Michelle A; Ross, Elizabeth A; Robbins, Martha M; van Weeghel, Dagmar; Bergl, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Films, as part of a larger environmental education program, have the potential to influence the knowledge and attitudes of viewers. However, to date, no evaluations have been published reporting the effectiveness of films, when used within primate range countries as part of a conservation themed program. The Great Ape Education Project was a year-long environmental education program implemented in Uganda for primary school students living adjacent to Kibale National Park (KNP) and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP). Students viewed a trilogy of conservation films about great apes, produced specifically for this audience, and participated in complementary extra-curricular activities. The knowledge and attitudes of students participating in the program from KNP, but not BINP were assessed using questionnaires prior to (N = 1271) and following (N = 872) the completion of the program. Following the program, students demonstrated a significant increase in their knowledge of threats to great apes and an increase in their knowledge of ways that villagers and students can help conserve great apes. Additionally, student attitudes toward great apes improved following the program. For example, students showed an increase in agreement with liking great apes and viewing them as important to the environment. These data provide evidence that conservation films made specifically to address regional threats and using local actors and settings can positively influence knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes among students living in a primate range country. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Highly efficient sex chromosome interchanges produced by I-CreI expression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggert, Keith A; Golic, Kent G

    2005-11-01

    The homing endonuclease I-CreI recognizes a site in the gene encoding the 23S rRNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A very similar sequence is present in the 28S rRNA genes that are located on the X and Y chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. In this work we show that I-CreI expression in Drosophila is capable of causing induced DNA damage and eliciting cell cycle arrest. Expression also caused recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in the heterochromatic regions where the rDNA is located, presumably as a result of a high frequency of double-strand breaks in these regions. Approximately 20% of the offspring of males expressing I-CreI showed exceptional inheritance of X- and Y-linked markers, consistent with chromosome exchange at rDNA loci. Cytogenetic analysis confirmed the structures of many of these products. Exchange between the X and Y chromosomes can be induced in males and females to produce derivative-altered Y chromosomes, attached-XY, and attached-X chromosomes. This method has advantages over the traditional use of X rays for generating X-Y interchanges because it is very frequent and it generates predictable products.

  10. DOD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in contracting report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Use of Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) procurement processes has been under consideration for some time. A 1988 Deputy Secretary of Defense memo calls for maximum use of EDI, based on 10 years of DoD EDI investigation and experiments. In 1990, Defense Management Review Decision 941 stated, 'The strategic goal of DoD's current efforts is to provide the department with the capability to initiate, conduct, and maintain its external business related transactions and internal logistics, contracting, and financial activities without requiring the use of hard copy media.' The EC in Contracting PAT membership reflected a broad cross section of Military Services and Defense Agencies working on a full-time basis for 60 days. The diversity of the EC in Contracting PAT ensured that the needs and concerns of all DoD components were addressed during the creation of the report. The resultant plan, therefore, represents a comprehensive approach for implementing EC throughout the DoD.

  11. The effect of Interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2014-06-24

    To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n=21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 y; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had GPS game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00 minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m[BULLET OPERATOR]min) between blocks analysed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over three Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than six per game, clear small to moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football, however players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on field periods achieve similar results.

  12. Implementation and results of a survey on safe community programs in Gangbuk-gu, Korea: focusing on participants at a local public health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Hwang, Se-Min; Lee, In-Young; Cho, Joon-Pil; Kwon, Myoung-Ok; Jung, Jae-Hun; Byun, Ju-Young

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of and problems with the Safe Community Programs in Gangbuk-gu, one of the 25 districts of the capital city of Korea. The study subjects were 396 individuals who were involved in Safe Community Programs between 2009 and 2011. We examined the effectiveness and willingness of respondents to participate as a safety leader of the Safe Community Program with a questionnaire. We examined the injury death rates of Gangbuk-gu by using of the death certificate data of Korea's National Statistical Office. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests were used. The effectiveness of programs did not differ but active participation differed significantly among subjects (pdeveloped.

  13. Match intensity and pacing strategies in rugby league: an examination of whole-game and interchanged players, and winning and losing teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J

    2014-06-01

    There is currently limited information on whether pacing occurs during rugby league match play. In addition, to date no research has investigated whether pacing strategies differ between winning and losing teams. This study investigated the pacing strategies of whole-game and interchanged rugby league players. Furthermore, we investigated the pacing strategies of winning and losing teams. Fifty-two rugby league players, from a sample of 11 teams competing in a semi-elite competition, underwent global positioning system analysis. Performances were divided into match quartiles for whole-game and interchanged players. Total distance, including low- and high-speed distances, and repeated high-intensity effort bouts were recorded. The total distance and low-speed distance covered across all quartiles of the match, but specifically quartiles 1 and 8, were greater for interchanged players than whole-game players. The match outcome differentially affected the pacing strategies of whole-game and interchanged players. Whole-game players from winning teams set a higher pacing strategy than whole-game players from losing teams (effect size [ES] = 1.03 ± 0.77, 96%, very likely), whereas interchanged players from losing teams demonstrated a greater "end-spurt" than interchanged players from winning teams (ES = 0.60 ± 0.52, 96%, very likely). The pacing strategies of interchanged players were higher than whole-game players, irrespective of playing position. The results of this study suggest that pacing strategies differ between interchanged and whole-game rugby league players. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a different pacing strategy between winning and losing teams. These findings suggest that physical preparation for rugby league matches, and recovery from these matches, should be individualized for whole-game and interchanged players. Finally, performing physically intense training on a regular basis is likely to develop the physical and mental qualities required to

  14. Utilization of strategical model of hydro-thermal generation in equivalents sub-systems - NEWAVE - in the evaluation of the interchange explicitly representation; Uso do modelo estrategico de geracao hidrotermica a subsistemas equivalentes - Newave - na avaliacao da representacao explicita do intercambio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macieira, M. Elvira; Costa, Joari; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Suanno, Claudia [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kligerman, Alberto [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario

    1995-12-31

    The basic objective of the long term hydrothermal system operational planning is to determine optimum strategies to thermal generation and optimal interchange among electrical regions, aiming to minimize the expected value of the operation cost. This work presents, thorough a case study, the NEWAVE model, presently being developed by CEPEL, the research center of the Brazilian electric power holding company, based in dual stochastic dynamic programing 7 figs., 14 refs.

  15. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  16. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by vortex density structures associated with interchange instability: Analytical and large scale plasma simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J. [Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RY), Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Paraschiv, I. [University of Nevada at Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Mehlhorn, T. A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics, and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with interchange instability. We will also present particle-in-cell simulation results of electromagnetic scattering on vortex type density structures using the large scale plasma code LSP and compare them with analytical results.

  17. Alliance for NanoHealth (ANH) Training Program for the development of future generations of interdisciplinary scientists and collaborative research focused upon the advancement of nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenstein, David [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this program are to promote the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Program by recruiting students to science and engineering disciplines with the intent of mentoring and supporting the next generation of scientists; to foster interdisciplinary and collaborative research under the sponsorship of ANH for the discovery and design of nano-based materials and devices with novel structures, functions, and properties; and to prepare a diverse work force of scientists, engineers, and clinicians by utilizing the unique intellectual and physical resources to develop novel nanotechnology paradigms for clinical application.

  18. Changes in Psychosocial Factors and Physical Activity Frequency among Third- to Eighth-Grade Girls Who Participated in a Developmentally Focused Youth Sport Program: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debate, Rita D.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Zwald, Marissa; Huberty, Jennifer; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the numerous physiological, psychological, and academic benefits of physical activity (PA), declines in PA levels among girls have been observed over the last decade. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the short-term changes pertaining to Girls on the Run and Girls on Track developmentally focused youth sport…

  19. Gender Rationales in Selecting a Major in Information Technology at the Undergraduate Level of a University Program: A Focus Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sushma; Draus, Peter; Caputo, Donald; Leone, Gregory; Kohun, Frederick; Repack, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Previous research studies of women applying to, enrolling and completing computing degrees at the undergraduate collegiate level suggest a significant underrepresentation of females in the Information Technology domain in the past decade. This study employs a focus group approach to the gender gap that encompasses forays into the qualitative…

  20. An interchangeable Mapleson A-E breathing system is practical and cost effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M; Lighthall, G K

    2006-01-01

    In locations where oxygen and anesthesia gas supplies are limited, and where circle systems are not practical, means to reduce fresh gas flow during maintenance of inhalational anesthesia are of potential value. We investigated whether a common transport breathing apparatus could be modified to allow interchange between Mapleson D (Map-D) and Mapleson A (Map A) configurations. A common Map-D transport system was converted to a Map-A system by switching positions of the exhaust valve and the elbow connector where fresh gas is delivered; these two breathing systems were compared in this study. The key question was whether rebreathing of CO2 could be eliminated at a lower fresh gas flow rate (FGF) with the Map-A design. A structured protocol was followed. A mean decrease in FGF of 2.8 l/min was seen with the Map-A apparatus when compared with the Map-D (P=0.003). With no significant differences in physiologic or anesthetic variables, FGF/V(E) was significantly lower with the Mapleson A configuration than with the Mapleson D system design (1.1 vs. 1.8; P=0.007). The extent to which FGF could be lowered when switching between Mapleson D and A systems correlated strongly with the patients' respiratory rate while under anesthesia (r=0.45, P<0.01). Cost and resource savings can be realized through the use of a breathing system modification that achieves appropriate ventilation at lower fresh gas flows.

  1. Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: Molecular Evidence for Metabolic Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Fiore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to 1 characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs 2 identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, 3 characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin. These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic interchange highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host

  2. “Twisting” Motions in Erupting Coronal Pseudostreamers as Evidence for Interchange Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Hess, P.

    2018-02-01

    Using white-light observations from the COR1 coronagraph during 2008–2013, we have identified ∼50 eruptive events in which a narrow streamer structure appears to rotate about its radial axis as it rises into the field of view beyond r∼ 1.4 {R}ȯ . Extreme-ultraviolet images and potential-field extrapolations suggest that most of these eruptions involve one arcade of a double-lobed pseudostreamer, which is surrounded by open flux of a single polarity. The “twisting” is manifested by the cavity of the erupting lobe, which evolves from a circular to a narrowing oval structure as it is ejected nonradially in the direction of the original X-point. At the same time, the loop legs on the trailing side of the rising cavity/flux rope expand and straighten out, starting at the outer edge of the lobe and progressing inward; this asymmetric opening-up contributes to the impression of a three-dimensional structure twisting away from the observer. On the leading side of the lobe, collapsing cusps are sometimes detected, suggesting the presence of a current sheet where the cavity loops reconnect with the oppositely directed open flux from the adjacent coronal hole. In some events, the inner loops of the cavity/flux rope may continue to expand outward without undergoing interchange reconnection. The transfer of material to open field lines, as well as the lateral confinement of the pseudostreamer by the surrounding coronal holes, acts to produce a relatively narrow, fan-like ejection that differs fundamentally from the large, bubble-shaped ejections associated with helmet streamers.

  3. Learning for Our Common Health: How an Academic Focus on HIV/AIDS Will Improve Education and Health. Program for Health and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. David, Ed.

    This monograph presents eight essays that reflect lessons learned and insights gained from a project of the Association of American Colleges and Universities Program for Health and Higher Education (PHHE) to help leaders improve undergraduate learning by engaging higher education in the solution to preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and…

  4. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.; de Schipper, J.C.; Lamers-Winkelman, F.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!') has

  5. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  6. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  7. Using focus groups in the consumer research phase of a social marketing program to promote moderate-intensity physical activity and walking trail use in Sumter County, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2006-01-01

    The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer research to develop a social marketing program to promote walking and other moderate-intensity physical activities. Two phases of focus groups were conducted. Phase 1 groups, which included both men and women, were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a social marketing program based on social marketing concepts. Phase 1 also determined the intervention's target audience, which was irregularly active women aged 35 to 54. Phase 2 groups, composed of members of the target audience, were asked to further define the product and discuss specific promotion strategies. Phase 1 participants determined that the program product, or target behavior, should be walking. In addition, they identified price, place, and promotion strategies. Phase 2 participants determined that moderate-intensity physical activity is best promoted using the term exercise and offered suggestions for marketing walking, or exercise, to the target audience. There have been few published studies of social marketing campaigns to promote physical activity. In this study, focus groups were key to understanding the target audience in a way that would not have been accomplished with quantitative data alone. The group discussions generated important insights into values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt a product or behavior. The focus group results guided the development of a social marketing program to promote physical activity in the target audience in Sumter County, South Carolina.

  8. Medicare Program; Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) and Alternative Payment Model (APM) Incentive Under the Physician Fee Schedule, and Criteria for Physician-Focused Payment Models. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) repeals the Medicare sustainable growth rate (SGR) methodology for updates to the physician fee schedule (PFS) and replaces it with a new approach to payment called the Quality Payment Program that rewards the delivery of high-quality patient care through two avenues: Advanced Alternative Payment Models (Advanced APMs) and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) for eligible clinicians or groups under the PFS. This final rule with comment period establishes incentives for participation in certain alternative payment models (APMs) and includes the criteria for use by the Physician-Focused Payment Model Technical Advisory Committee (PTAC) in making comments and recommendations on physician-focused payment models (PFPMs). Alternative Payment Models are payment approaches, developed in partnership with the clinician community, that provide added incentives to deliver high-quality and cost-efficient care. APMs can apply to a specific clinical condition, a care episode, or a population. This final rule with comment period also establishes the MIPS, a new program for certain Medicare-enrolled practitioners. MIPS will consolidate components of three existing programs, the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the Physician Value-based Payment Modifier (VM), and the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for Eligible Professionals (EPs), and will continue the focus on quality, cost, and use of certified EHR technology (CEHRT) in a cohesive program that avoids redundancies. In this final rule with comment period we have rebranded key terminology based on feedback from stakeholders, with the goal of selecting terms that will be more easily identified and understood by our stakeholders.

  9. Design, Construction and Evaluation of an Interchangeable Digital System to Measure Slip and Ground Speed of Existing 2WD Tractors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khosravi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of existing tractors in Iran are not equipped with any tools to measure and display slip and ground speed. This is mainly due to the lack of national standards for measuring tools and instruments of tractors. In current research, an interchangeable system for two wheel drive tractors has been designed. Furthermore, it has been assessed after construction. To measure actual and theoretical ground speed, four rotary encoders for sensing the rotation of front and rear wheels have been utilized. Slip and ground speed were measured by means of software which has been developed in an ATmega16PU microprocessor. The measured slip and speed are digitally displayed on tractor dashboard. To evaluate the performance of the system, the measured values of ground speed and slip were compared with their calculated values obtained from conventional method. The Micro-controller has been programmed in such a way that the effect of front wheel sliding on slip is eliminated. In all evaluation conditions (in field and on asphalt, the maximum difference between system measurements for slip and speed and calculated slip and speed via conventional method was 2.4% and 0.2 km h-1, respectively. With slight alteration this system can be fitted on any kind of exiting two wheel drive tractors in the country.

  10. Phylogeny of the Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora): molecules, morphology and the Great American Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Gompper, Matthew E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Ho, Cheuk-Chung; Linden, Leif; Maldonado, Jesus E; Wayne, Robert K

    2007-06-01

    , 709-720] may be due to non-independence among atomized dental characters that does not take into account the high developmental genetic correlation of these characters. Finally, molecular divergence dating analyses using a relaxed molecular clock approach suggest that intergeneric and intrageneric splits in the Procyonidae mostly occurred in the Miocene. The inferred divergence times for intrageneric splits for several genera whose ranges are bisected by the Panamanian Isthmus is significant because they suggest diversification well precedes the Great American Interchange, which has long been considered a primary underlying mechanism for procyonid evolution.

  11. Geoscience terminology for data interchange: the CGI Geoscience Terminology Work Group (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Gtwg, G.

    2013-12-01

    . Petersburg, Russia in June, 2013. The group decided on workflow procedures and discussed technology for vocabulary accessibility, which is still a problem. Eleven new vocabularies were adopted to add to the current portfolio of 31 vocabularies developed for GeoSciML interchange documents. Additional vocabularies are under development for GeoSciML v3, and EarthResourceML https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML. Other outstanding work items include integrating multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, establishing existing vocabularies in a permanent repository under stewardship of the GTWG, and documenting policies for vocabulary management.

  12. Efficacy of a disease management program focused on acquisition of self-management skills in pre-dialysis patients with diabetic nephropathy: 24 months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazawa, Kana; Takeshita, Yae; Yorioka, Noriaki; Moriyama, Michiko

    2015-06-01

    We previously performed a preliminary 6-month controlled trial to examine the effect of a disease management education program on prolongation of the time to renal replacement therapy (RRT) and/or avoidance of RRT for patients with diabetic nephropathy. However, its duration was too short to follow the changes of renal function, so we performed the present study for 24 months. This was a two-group comparative study. The intervention group received self-management education from disease management nurses and was supported by the nurses in cooperation with their primary physicians for 12 months. Then this group was followed for a further 12 months. The control group received standard care and was followed for 24 months. Of the 31 subjects enrolled in each group, 26 subjects in the intervention group and 27 subjects in the control group were analyzed after excluding drop-outs. During the study period, 0 and 2 subjects in the intervention and the control group started RRT, respectively. In the intervention group, renal function was maintained, while significant worsening was observed in the control group. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) improved in the intervention group, but became significantly worse in the control group. In the intervention group, all process indicators of behavior modification increased significantly after intervention. A well-designed disease management program might be useful for maintaining renal function and improving HbA1c in patients with diabetic nephropathy. It is considered that modification of patient behavior contributed to these results.

  13. Investigating Clinical Benefits of a Novel Sleep-Focused Mind-Body Program on Gulf War Illness Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshio; Lipschitz, David L; Donaldson, Gary W; Kida, Yuri; Williams, Samuel L; Landward, Richard; Glover, Don W; West, Gavin; Tuteja, Ashok K

    Mind-Body Bridging (MBB) has been shown to be effective for improving disturbed sleep. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of sleep-focused MBB compared with sleep education control (SED) for improving sleep in previously deployed Gulf War veterans. US military service members with sleep and physical health complaints who were deployed in 1990-1991 were randomized to receive three weekly sessions of either MBB (n = 33) or SED (n = 27) between 2012 and 2015. The primary outcome of Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale was completed at baseline, weekly during treatment, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures for posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, fatigue, quality of life, symptom severity, and mindfulness were completed at baseline, postintervention and 3-month follow-up. Salivary samples were collected at five time points per day at each visit for cortisol and α-amylase assessment. Clinician-administered assessments of sleep and co-occurring conditions were conducted at baseline and postintervention. MBB was significantly more efficacious than SED in reducing disturbed sleep at follow-up (F(1,180.54) = 4.04, p = .046). In addition, self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (F(1,56.42) = 4.50, p = .038) for the treatment effect, depression (F(1,93.70) = 4.44, p = .038), and fatigue symptoms (F(1,68.58) = 3.90, p = .050) at follow-up improved in MBB compared with those in SED. Consistently higher percentages of veterans in MBB reported improvements of sleep, pain, and composite sleep/general co-occurring symptoms at the postclinical evaluation, as compared with veterans in SED. Finally, the mean waking level of salivary α-amylase in the MBB declined to a greater extent than that in the SED, at follow-up (F(1,88.99) = 3.78, p = .055), whereas no effects were found on cortisol. Sleep-focused MBB can improve sleep and possibly also co-occurring symptoms in Gulf War veterans. Clinicaltrials

  14. Neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) circuitry from neuron-glial interactions to function: Focus on gender and HPA-HPG interactions on early programming of the NEI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morale, M C; Gallo, F; Tirolo, C; Testa, N; Caniglia, S; Marletta, N; Spina-Purrello, V; Avola, R; Caucci, F; Tomasi, P; Delitala, G; Barden, N; Marchetti, B

    2001-08-01

    Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems during ontogeny plays a pivotal role in programming the development of neuroendocrine and immune responses in adult life. Signals generated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (i.e. luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, LHRH, and sex steroids), and by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (glucocorticoids (GC)), are major players coordinating the development of immune system function. Conversely, products generated by immune system activation exert a powerful and long-lasting regulation on neuroendocrine axes activity. The neuroendocrine-immune system is very sensitive to preperinatal experiences, including hormonal manipulations and immune challenges, which may influence the future predisposition to several disease entities. We review our work on the ongoing mutual regulation of neuroendocrine and immune cell activities, both at a cellular and molecular level. In the central nervous system, one chief compartment is represented by the astroglial cell and its mediators. Hence, neuron-glial signalling cascades dictate major changes in response to hormonal manipulations and pro-inflammatory triggers. The interplay between LHRH, sex steroids, GC and pro-inflammatory mediators in some physiological and pathological states, together with the potential clinical implications of these findings, are summarized. The overall study highlights the plasticity of this intersystem cross-talk for pharmacological targeting with drugs acting at the neuroendocrine-immune interface.

  15. The Impact of Focusing a Program to Prevent Heavier Drinking on a Preexisting Phenotype, the Low Level of Response to Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Kalmijn, Jelger; Skidmore, Jessica; Clausen, Peyton; Shafir, Alexandra; Saunders, Gretchen; Bystritsky, Hannah; Fromme, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy drinking is common during transitions from high school to college. Optimal programs for diminishing risks for high alcohol consumption often tailor the approach to the specific needs of students. This paper describes the results of an Internet-based prevention protocol that tailors the information to the risk associated with a preexisting phenotype, the Low level of Response (Low LR) to alcohol. Methods Using stratified random assignment, 454 freshmen with Low and High LR values were assigned to two education groups (LR-Based where all examples were given the context of the Low LR model of heavy drinking, or a State of the Art Group where the same lessons were taught but without an emphasis on LR) or a no-intervention Control Group. Individuals in the two education groups viewed 50-minute online videos once per week for four weeks. Changes in drinking patterns were assessed at Baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks using a 2 (LR status) by 3 (education group) by 3 (time points) ANOVA, with additional tests for ethnicity and sex. Results Low LR participants tended to decrease their usual (pdrinks per occasion most prominently when assigned to the LR-Based protocol, while those with High LRs improved more in the State Of The Art Group. The most robust differences were seen when controlling for ethnicity. The effect sizes were small to medium. Conclusions These results support the advantages of carrying out prevention via the Internet and in tailoring the approach to a preexisting phenotype. PMID:25656349

  16. [Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy program on mental health problems in children dealing with trauma: focused on community district victimized by oil spill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Nam; Lee, Yong-Mi

    2012-02-01

    This study was done to evaluate the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in a victimized community district and to determine if the program is an effective nursing intervention to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder symptom, depression and state anxiety. A nonequivalent control group design was used for the study. The participants, 32 elementary school students, were selected from grades 4, 5, 6 and each student was assigned to either the experimental (16) or control (16) group. Cognitive behavioral therapy was used as the experimental treatment from April 9 to May 28, 2009. The experimental group received cognitive behavior therapy intervention 8 times. Data analysis was done using ANCOVA with SPSS 17.0. After the intervention, the experimental group showed significantly lower levels of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms than the control group. The findings from this study suggest that cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective nursing intervention to decrease the level of mental health problems of children in victimized district. Further research is required in order to identify the continuous effects of cognitive behavioral therapy.

  17. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT heterogeneity quantification through textural features in the era of harmonisation programs: a focus on lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnon, Charline [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Biologie et Therapies Innovantes des Cancers Localement Agressifs, Universite de Caen Normandie, INSERM, Caen (France); Normandie University, Caen (France); Majdoub, Mohamed; Lavigne, Brice; Visvikis, Dimitris [LaTIM, INSERM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Do, Pascal [Thoracic Oncology, Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Caen (France); Madelaine, Jeannick [Caen University Hospital, Pulmonology Department, Caen (France); Hatt, Mathieu [LaTIM, INSERM UMR 1101, Brest (France); CHRU Morvan, INSERM UMR 1101, Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), Groupe ' Imagerie multi-modalite quantitative pour le diagnostic et la therapie' , Brest (France); Aide, Nicolas [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Biologie et Therapies Innovantes des Cancers Localement Agressifs, Universite de Caen Normandie, INSERM, Caen (France); Normandie University, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France)

    2016-12-15

    Quantification of tumour heterogeneity in PET images has recently gained interest, but has been shown to be dependent on image reconstruction. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the EANM/EARL accreditation program on selected {sup 18}F-FDG heterogeneity metrics. To carry out our study, we prospectively analysed 71 tumours in 60 biopsy-proven lung cancer patient acquisitions reconstructed with unfiltered point spread function (PSF) positron emission tomography (PET) images (optimised for diagnostic purposes), PSF-reconstructed images with a 7-mm Gaussian filter (PSF{sub 7}) chosen to meet European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) 1.0 harmonising standards, and EANM Research Ltd. (EARL)-compliant ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) images. Delineation was performed with fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) algorithm on PSF images and reported on PSF{sub 7} and OSEM ones, and with a 50 % standardised uptake values (SUV){sub max} threshold (SUV{sub max50%}) applied independently to each image. Robust and repeatable heterogeneity metrics including 1st-order [area under the curve of the cumulative histogram (CH{sub AUC})], 2nd-order (entropy, correlation, and dissimilarity), and 3rd-order [high-intensity larger area emphasis (HILAE) and zone percentage (ZP)] textural features (TF) were statistically compared. Volumes obtained with SUV{sub max50%} were significantly smaller than FLAB-derived ones, and were significantly smaller in PSF images compared to OSEM and PSF{sub 7} images. PSF-reconstructed images showed significantly higher SUVmax and SUVmean values, as well as heterogeneity for CH{sub AUC}, dissimilarity, correlation, and HILAE, and a wider range of heterogeneity values than OSEM images for most of the metrics considered, especially when analysing larger tumours. Histological subtypes had no impact on TF distribution. No significant difference was observed between any of the considered metrics (SUV or heterogeneity features) that we

  18. Reciprocation and interchange of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. Patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the study of the evolution of primate social systems. It is, therefore, essential that exchange behavior is examined in a wide range of species and settings. This article is the first to explore the reciprocation and interchange of grooming in the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). We collected focal data on semi-free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques at Trentham Monkey Forest, England, and analyzed dyadic data using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. We found evidence for the reciprocal exchange of grooming and for the interchange of grooming for agonistic support and tolerance while feeding. There was no evidence that grooming was traded for a reduction in aggression; indeed, we found a positive relationship between aggression given and grooming received. This may reflect the "extortion" of grooming from subordinates by dominant animals. These results will facilitate comparative analyses of exchange behavior by adding to the current database a new species, characterized by a different social style from those macaque species previously investigated. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Acceptability of an internet cognitive behavioural therapy program for people with early-stage cancer and cancer survivors with depression and/or anxiety: thematic findings from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorge, A; Murphy, M J; Newby, J M; Kirsten, L; Andrews, G; Allison, K; Loughnan, S; Price, M; Shaw, J; Shepherd, H; Smith, J; Butow, P

    2017-07-01

    We developed an eight-lesson internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) program targeting anxiety and depression in early-stage cancer and cancer survivors. To explore the acceptability of the program, we showed volunteers the first two lessons and asked for their views. Focus groups (n = 3) and individual interviews (n = 5) were undertaken with 15 participants (11 survivors) with mainly breast (11 of the 15) cancer, who had reviewed intervention materials. Participants were asked to consider the acceptability of the iCBT program content and implementation design (timing, duration). Semi-structured questions guided discussion. Thematic analysis was conducted of participant reactions to the acceptability and/or suitability of materials created for use in a psychological intervention. We took a data-driven (inductive) approach to semantic theme development across the data set. Participants reported high acceptability of the internet delivery format, good engagement and user-friendly material. Participants were broadly supportive of combining depression and anxiety iCBT resources for early-stage cancer patients and survivors. Participants further indicated that a separate course would be needed to address the needs of patients with advanced stage disease. Participants welcomed the general development of an internet-delivered CBT intervention program to treat patients with clinical depression and/or anxiety. Furthermore, the sessions reviewed were highly acceptable to all participants. Study findings informed researchers on the development of iCBT resources for the cancer community.

  20. Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J

    2015-10-01

    Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Symbolic Interactionism and Library Research: Using a Qualitative Methodology To Understand Library Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidishun, Dolores

    2002-01-01

    Explains symbolic interactionism as a theory for analyzing research based on a qualitative interpretive process that can help librarians to understand the way in which the library staff and users view services, training, policy, and other issues. The theory focuses on the symbolic meaning of objects, such as books, and events as they are…

  2. Effect of fast electrons on the stability of resistive interchange modes in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, L. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Ochando, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Milligen, B. Ph. van [CIEMAT - Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B. A. [BACV Solutions, 110 Mohawk Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Carralero, D. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, we report on electromagnetic phenomena in low-β plasmas at the TJ-II stellarator, controlled by external heating. To understand the observations qualitatively, we introduce a simple modification of the standard resistive MHD equations, to include the potential impact of fast electrons on instabilities. The dominant instabilities of the modeling regime are resistive interchange modes, and calculations are performed in a configuration with similar characteristics as the TJ-II stellarator. The main effect of the trapping of fast electrons by magnetic islands induced by MHD instabilities is to increase the magnetic component of the fluctuations, changing the character of the instability to tearing-like and modifying the frequency of the modes. These effects seem to be consistent with some of the experimental observations.

  3. Effect of fast electrons on the stability of resistive interchange modes in the TJ-II stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, L.; Ochando, M. A.; Carreras, B. A.; Carralero, D.; Hidalgo, C.; van Milligen, B. Ph.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on electromagnetic phenomena in low-β plasmas at the TJ-II stellarator, controlled by external heating. To understand the observations qualitatively, we introduce a simple modification of the standard resistive MHD equations, to include the potential impact of fast electrons on instabilities. The dominant instabilities of the modeling regime are resistive interchange modes, and calculations are performed in a configuration with similar characteristics as the TJ-II stellarator. The main effect of the trapping of fast electrons by magnetic islands induced by MHD instabilities is to increase the magnetic component of the fluctuations, changing the character of the instability to tearing-like and modifying the frequency of the modes. These effects seem to be consistent with some of the experimental observations.

  4. Ethnoecology of the interchange of wild and weedy plants and mushrooms in Phurépecha markets of Mexico: economic motives of biotic resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán-Heredia, Berenice; Casas, Alejandro; Moreno-Calles, Ana I; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Castilleja, Aída

    2018-01-15

    Interactions between societies and nature are regulated by complex systems of beliefs, symbolism, customs, and worldviews (kosmos), ecological knowledge (corpus), and management strategies and practices (praxis), which are constructed as product of experiences and communication of people throughout time. These aspects influence social relations, life strategies, and cultural identity, and all of them in turn influence and are influenced by local and regional patterns of interchange. In this study, we analyze the interchange of wild and weedy plants and mushrooms in traditional markets of the Phurépecha region of Mexico. Particularly, the social relations constructed around the interchange of these products; how knowledge, cultural values, and ecological factors influence and are influenced by interchange; and how all these factors influence the type and intensity of biotic resources management. We studied three main traditional markets of the Phurépecha region of Michoacán, Mexico, through 140 visits to markets and 60 semi-structured interviews to sellers of wild and weedy plants and mushrooms. In nearly 2 years, we carried out 80 visits and 30 interviews in the "Barter Market", 20 visits and 15 interviews in the "Phurépecha Tiánguis", and 40 visits and 15 interviews to the "Municipal Market". We documented information about the spaces of interchange that form the markets, the types of interchange occurring there, the cultural and economic values of the resources studied, the environmental units that are sources of such resources, the activities associated to resources harvesting and, particularly, the management techniques practiced to ensure or increase their availability. We analyzed the relations between the amounts of products interchanged, considered as pressures on the resources; the perception of their abundance or scarcity, considered as the magnitude of risk in relation to the pressures referred to; and the management types as response to pressures

  5. Focus group research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael

    2015-05-13

    A focus group is usually understood as a group of people brought together by a researcher to interact as a group. Focus group research explicitly uses interaction as part of its methodology. This article summarises the practice of running focus groups, explores the nature of focus group data and provides an example of focus group analysis.

  6. DoD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in Contracting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-20

    technologies and methods. Centralized management, systems development, and maintenance are essential elements of successful program execution . Accordingly...MADES II executes on a WANG system (BCAS). 2.4.3.4.4 GATEWAY TO DISTRIBUTION POINT PROCESS Data is transferred via the DISN to the gateway. The Air... Manufcturer ~c bIoelb 111 4) Commercial Invoices DeCA implemented a pilot EDI Invoicing project in January 1993 using the Financial Systems Gateway. Upon

  7. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  8. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  9. 76 FR 27062 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Options for a User Fee Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...) user fee program, and not policy issues. B. Industry Stakeholder Meetings The BPCI Act requires FDA to... criteria for design of a fair and adequate 351(k) user fee program. ] Review and discussion of FDA's...; Options for a User Fee Program for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Product Applications for...

  10. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sooner. More science news Help us find a cure. Give to BrightFocus BrightFocus Updates BrightFocus Foundation Lauds Bill Gates Alzheimer’s Initiative “BrightFocus Foundation lauds today’s historic announcement by ...

  11. Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative-Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ent, Maya M V X; Swift, Rachel D; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L

    2017-07-01

    The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, "GPEI-funded personnel") should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted. A survey of approximately 1000 field managers of frontline GPEI-funded personnel was conducted by Boston Consulting Group in the 10 focus countries of the PEESP during 2 phases, in 2013 and 2014, to determine time allocation among frontline staff. Country-specific reports on the training of GPEI-funded personnel were reviewed, and an analysis of the types of tasks that were reported was conducted. A total of 467 managers responded to the survey. Forty-seven percent of the time (range, 23%-61%) of GPEI-funded personnel was dedicated to tasks related to strengthening immunization programs, other than polio eradication. Less time was spent on polio-associated activities in countries that had already interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, compared with findings for WPV-endemic countries. All countries conducted periodic trainings of the GPEI-funded personnel. The types of non-polio-related tasks performed by GPEI-funded personnel varied among countries and included surveillance, microplanning, newborn registration and defaulter tracing, monitoring of routine immunization activities, and support of district immunization task teams, as well as promotion of health behaviors, such as clean-water use and good hygiene and sanitation practices. In all countries, GPEI-funded personnel perform critical tasks in the strengthening of routine

  12. Teachers of mathematics interchanging by a social network: do they comprehend among them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fátima Sgreccia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is framed in a triennial project in the area of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in Mathematics Education. We constituted part of a group of university teachers who engaged in a kind of training teachers in service. In particular we were interested on the use of ICT in two senses: as a means of communication (Facebook and as a teaching tool (GeoGebra. The work consisted on constructing a process of accompaniment to teachers of Mathematics at middle schools of four localities of Argentinean Patagonia. They were distributed in two groups of two schools each one. One group treated contents of algebra y the other one of functions. The process was to co-generate didactical cycles of three phases: priori analysis, commissioning classroom and posteriori analysis. In this presentation we pay attention to some aspects of the communicational use of the ICT which were made in the algebra group, with special focus in the produced levels of confidence and autonomy.

  13. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  14. A workflow for column interchangeability in liquid chromatography using modeling software and quality-by-design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormány, Róbert; Tamás, Katalin; Guillarme, Davy; Fekete, Szabolcs

    2017-11-30

    The goal of the present study was to develop a generic workflow to evaluate the chromatographic resolution in a large design space and easily find some replacement column for the method. To attain this objective from a limited number of initial experiments, modern LC modeling software (Drylab) was employed to study the behaviour of the compounds and visually compare the parts of design spaces obtained with different columns, where a given criterion of critical resolution is fullfilled. A zone of robust space can then easily be found by overlapping design spaces. By using 50×2.1mm columns packed with sub-2μm fully porous particles (UHPLC), the resolution in the entire design space can be modeled on the basis of only 2-3h experimental work per column. To demonstrate the applicability of the developed procedure, amlodipine and its related pharmacopeia impurities were selected as a case study. It was demonstrated that two columns from different providers (Waters Acquity HSS C18, Thermo Hypersil Gold C18) can be interchanged, providing a sufficient resolution at the same working point and a high degree of robustness around this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The acquiring of flexible chip transportation system based on interchangeable containers; Vaihtolavatekniikkaan perustuvan kasettihakekontti- ja vetokaluston hankinta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokko, P. [Muhoksen Biokuljetus Oy, Muhos (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    The waiting time of chip truck is highly reduced when interchangeable containers are used. The truck has not to wait for the chipper while chipping, if there are two container sets. The chipper can fill the empty containers while the truck is transporting full containers to the power plant. To make this possible, there has to be, for example, six containers, if the truck can take three containers at one load. The problem is that the truck must first take the six containers to the felling place in two separate loads. The solution for this is developed in this project. There are two sets of containers, the smaller ones and the bigger ones. The smaller container can be placed inside the bigger one so that all the six containers can be transported in one load. It is estimated that, when the one way transporting distance is 100 km, by using this method it is achieved about 10 % savings in transport costs, compared to the conventional method, where the container sets are transported separately. (orig.)

  16. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Juan D.; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2015-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI. PMID:25601879

  17. Impact of a radio-frequency identification system and information interchange on clearance processes for cargo at border posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Bhero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improved operational efficiency is important to role players in cross-border logistics and trade corridors. Cargo owners and cargo forwarders have been particularly concerned about long delays in the processing and clearing of cargo at border posts. Field studies suggest that these delays are due to a combination of factors, such as a lack of optimum system configurations and non-optimised human-dependent operations, which make the operations prone to corruption and other malpractices.Objectives: This article presents possible strategies for improving some of the operations in this sector. The research hinges on two key questions: (1 what is the impact of information interchange between stakeholders on the cargo transit time and (2 how will cargo transit time be impacted upon by automatic identification of cargo and the status of cargo seals on arriving vehicles at the border?Method: The use of information communication systems enabled by automatic identification systems (incorporating radio-frequency identification technology is suggested.Results: Results obtained by the described simulation model indicate that improvements of up to 82% with regard to transit time are possible using these techniques.Conclusion: The findings therefore demonstrate how operations at border posts can be improved through the use of appropriate technology and configuration of the operations.

  18. [Contribution of electronic data interchange to haemovigilance in a hospital--experience in the University Hospital of Reims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartigue, B; Coffin, S; Pottier, M

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to describe concrete results, in a hospital, of changing a traceability process to an electronic data interchange (EDI) based model. In November 2007, EDI was implemented between the blood bank (French Blood Establishment) and the University Hospital of Reims, concerning distribution data of blood products. We report the effects of this change on electronic traceability, after an 18-month follow-up. Final traceability, after the haemovigilance service interventions, remains satisfying at 99.95 % after change. However, spontaneous traceability by clinical services fell brutally, and remains low at 86.1 % (versus 90.6 % before change). Although EDI concerns the informatic reception stage of traceability, both reception stage and final recording stage (transfusion, return to blood bank or destruction of products) were decreased. The process change itself lead to an increase of bad use dysfunctions, but human causes of omission type also increased at each stage. However, the majority of reception stage dysfunctions are technical causes, supported by EDI itself. Although the new process was supposed to be more efficient and easier for the user, the global result on traceability by users is negative after 18 months.

  19. Reproducibility, interchangeability of measures, time to measure stabilization, and reference values of two tissue oximeters in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyer, Alexis; Denault, André; Cossette, Sylvie; Fortier, Annik; Daoust, Raoul; Iseppon, Massimiliano; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Notebaert, Eric

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to compare two tissue oximeters, the INVOS 5100c and the Equanox 7600, in terms of their reproducibility and the interchangeability of their measures. In a randomized order, three measurements were taken at six different sites on both sides of the body in 53 healthy volunteers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and within-subject standard deviation (Sw) were calculated for each device. The ICCs were compared using Fisher r-to-z transformation and the Sw were compared using paired-sample t-tests. We found no difference between the reproducibility of the INVOS {ICC=0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 0.93]} and Equanox [ICC=0.90 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.93)] in terms of ICCs (p=0.06). However, the Equanox [Sw=1.96 (95% CI 1.91 to 2.02)] showed a better Sw than the INVOS [Sw=2.11 (95% CI 2.05 to 2.17)] (p=0.019). Also, when compared directly to stable condition, the readings produced by the two oximeters varied considerably [ICC 0.43 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.49)]. When taken individually, both tissue oximeters displayed good reproducibility, the Equanox being slightly better than the INVOS in terms of absolute reproducibility. However, when compared, the oximeters showed poor interdevices agreement. Reference values were also described.

  20. Crash Risk Prediction Modeling Based on the Traffic Conflict Technique and a Microscopic Simulation for Freeway Interchange Merging Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the traffic safety of freeway interchange merging areas based on the traffic conflict technique. The hourly composite risk indexes (HCRI was defined. By the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photography and video processing techniques, the conflict type and severity was judged. Time to collision (TTC was determined with the traffic conflict evaluation index. Then, the TTC severity threshold was determined. Quantizing the weight of the conflict by direct losses of different severities of freeway traffic accidents, the calculated weight of the HCRI can be obtained. Calibration of the relevant parameters of the micro-simulation simulator VISSIM is conducted by the travel time according to the field data. Variables are placed into orthogonal tables at different levels. On the basis of this table, the trajectory file of every traffic condition is simulated, and then submitted into a surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM, identifying the number of hourly traffic conflicts in the merging area, a statistic of HCRI. Moreover, the multivariate linear regression model was presented and validated to study the relationship between HCRI and the influencing variables. A comparison between the HCRI model and the hourly conflicts ratio (HCR, without weight, shows that the HCRI model fitting degree was obviously higher than the HCR. This will be a reference to design and implement operational planners.

  1. Implementation of Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)/Financial Electronic Data Interchange (FEDI) in the Department of Defense: lessons learned from private industry

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Albert L.

    1996-01-01

    Acquisition reform has taken center stage within the Department of Defense (DoD) contracting system. A major cornerstone of acquisition reform is the use of technology to streamline and facilitate the procurement process. One primary initiative is the application of information technologies such as Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). One area where EC/EDI technology is being applied is to the DoD electronic payment process through the implementation of EPT/FEDI. This a...

  2. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  3. Trend of digital camera and interchangeable zoom lenses with high ratio based on patent application over the past 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensui, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    Although digitalization has tripled consumer-class camera market scale, extreme reductions in prices of fixed-lens cameras has reduced profitability. As a result, a number of manufacturers have entered the market of the System DSC i.e. digital still camera with interchangeable lens, where large profit margins are possible, and many high ratio zoom lenses with image stabilization functions have been released. Quiet actuators are another indispensable component. Design with which there is little degradation in performance due to all types of errors is preferred for good balance in terms of size, lens performance, and the rate of quality to sub-standard products. Decentering, such as that caused by tilting, sensitivity of moving groups is especially important. In addition, image stabilization mechanisms actively shift lens groups. Development of high ratio zoom lenses with vibration reduction mechanism is confronted by the challenge of reduced performance due to decentering, making control over decentering sensitivity between lens groups everything. While there are a number of ways to align lenses (axial alignment), shock resistance and ability to stand up to environmental conditions must also be considered. Naturally, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to make lenses smaller and achieve a low decentering sensitivity at the same time. 4-group zoom construction is beneficial in making lenses smaller, but decentering sensitivity is greater. 5-group zoom configuration makes smaller lenses more difficult, but it enables lower decentering sensitivities. At Nikon, the most advantageous construction is selected for each lens based on specifications. The AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR II and AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR are excellent examples of this.

  4. Mr Huidong LI Deputy Chairman and Secretary-General, Rev. Committee of Chinese Nationalist Party Vice President, Sun Yat-Sen Culture Interchange Association of China Member, Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs of the National People's Congress of China

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Mr Huidong LI Deputy Chairman and Secretary-General, Rev. Committee of Chinese Nationalist Party Vice President, Sun Yat-Sen Culture Interchange Association of China Member, Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs of the National People's Congress of China

  5. Science Education at Arts-Focused Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, W. Wyatt; Ritchie, Aarika; Murray, Amy Vashlishan; Honea, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Many arts-focused colleges and universities in the United States offer their undergraduate students coursework in science. To better understand the delivery of science education at this type of institution, this article surveys the science programs of forty-one arts-oriented schools. The findings suggest that most science programs are located in…

  6. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  7. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liakus, C. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  8. Hypertext Interchange Using ICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Roy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses extended ICA (Integrated Chameleon Architecture), a public domain toolset for generating text-to-hypertext translators. A system called SGML-MUCH has been developed using E-ICA (Extended Integrated Chameleon Architecture) and is presented as a case study with converters for the hypertext systems MUCH, Guide, Hyperties, and Toolbook.…

  9. Linguistic and Paralinguistic Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    Current linguistic theory rigidly compartmentalizes the "cognitive," linguistic aspects of human communication and the presumed "emotive," paralinguistic elements that occur in both human and nonhuman communication. The segmental phonetic units of human speech, according to this view, are supposed to convey linguistically relevant information,…

  10. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  11. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  12. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  13. Program For Engineering Electrical Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    DFACS is interactive multiuser computer-aided-engineering software tool for system-level electrical integration and cabling engineering. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in and gaining access to data on functional definition of system, details of end-circuit pinouts in systems and subsystems, and data on wiring harnesses. Objective, to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding error-prone, time-consuming, and costly shuttling of data along multiple paths. Designed to operate on DEC VAX mini or micro computer using Version 5.0/03 of INGRES.

  14. Focus Group Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    clarification.  Determine demographics and number needed for focus groups (all male, all female, mixed gender , by rank, by section, etc.; 8–15...members (based on section, rank, race, gender , etc.) view an issue? Are the concerns focused in a single section or do they seem to be unit-wide...Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  15. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  16. Focused critical care echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren-Grinberg, Achikam; Talmor, Daniel; Brown, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Portable ultrasound is now used routinely in many ICUs for various clinical applications. Echocardiography performed by noncardiologists, both transesophageal and transthoracic, has evolved to broad applications in diagnosis, monitoring, and management of critically ill patients. This review provides a current update on focused critical care echocardiography for the management of critically ill patients. Source data were obtained from a PubMed search of the medical literature, including the PubMed "related articles" search methodology. Although studies demonstrating improved clinical outcomes for critically ill patients managed by focused critical care echocardiography are generally lacking, there is evidence to suggest that some intermediate outcomes are improved. Furthermore, noncardiologists can learn focused critical care echocardiography and adequately interpret the information obtained. Noncardiologists can also successfully incorporate focused critical care echocardiography into advanced cardiopulmonary life support. Formal training and proctoring are important for safe application of focused critical care echocardiography in clinical practice. Further outcomes-based research is urgently needed to evaluate the efficacy of focused critical care echocardiography.

  17. The Parent-Child Home Program in Western Manitoba: A 20-Year Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; McLaren, Lorraine; Metcalfe, Arron

    2008-01-01

    This article is a 20-year evaluation of the Parent-Child Home Program (PCHP) of Child and Family Services in Western Manitoba. Following Levenstein's (1979, 1988) approach, home visitors model parent-child interchanges using books and toys to enhance children's cognitive development through appropriate parenting behaviors. The evaluation provides…

  18. Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-29

    An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (Pvaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 μg/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 μg/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 μg/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 μg/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Once-daily dose regimen of ribavirin is interchangeable with a twice-daily dose regimen: randomized open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balk JM

    2015-08-01

    .05. No significant differences in the hematological profile were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: The standard twice-daily RBV regimen is interchangeable with the once-daily regimen. The once-daily regimen will improve compliance and opens the opportunity to combine RBV with other drugs dosed once a day, in a single pill. Keywords: hepatitis C, dose regimen, ribavirin, pegylated interferon

  20. Antiproton focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    This focusing horn was developed in 1992 by Remo Maccaferri, Jean Claude Schnuriger and Lubrano di Scampamorte and is still operating in the AD complex at CERN (as of 2017). This device could pulse at 400 KA (160 KA for the previous version). This enabled an antiproton collection ten times better than the old one. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, the magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, ten antiprotons were captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 - three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. Originally magnetic focusing horns were developed by Simon van der Meer - see for example object AC-022 in this database.

  1. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  2. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  3. Deliberative Discussion Focus Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...

  5. Homework. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  6. Focusing on the Invisible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to answer the question of whether or not the design and development of an educational laboratory really changes when the focus is on nanotechnology. It explores current laboratory building trends and the added considerations for building a nanotechnology laboratory. The author leaves the reader with additional points to consider…

  7. Compassion-Focused EMDR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Angela

    2014-01-01

    ... and reprocessing (EMDR), particularly where shame or attachment trauma is involved or for those traumas that have impacted on the structure of the self, for example, dissociation. A structured compassion-focused EMDR (CF-EMDR) seems likely to be particularly useful for therapists wishing to pay positive attention to strengths and well-being. The primary t...

  8. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-18

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Africa.

  9. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  10. Focus on the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, James M.

    This research attempts to evaluate the YMCA's program in terms of its effect upon the family members it serves. The study was designed to: (1) classify, by descriptive types, the various kinds of YMCA operations which serve the family, identifying their characteristic differences; (2) examine and describe operating practices of family YMCAs…

  11. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen...... and tender joint counts and CRP. DAS28-CRP(4) also includes patient global assessment. Thresholds for low and high disease activity are the same for the two scores. Based on the Bland-Altman method, the interchangeability between DAS28-CRP with three and four variables was examined in 319 RA patients...

  12. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  13. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-12-31

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs.

  14. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  15. A Material Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  16. Ações educativas com enfoque positivo em programa de conservação auditiva e sua avaliação Positive focus in educational interventions in a hearing conservation program and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bramatti

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes on Hearing Loss Prevention" questionnaire were used to assess changes before and after the intervention. Workers who received the training using positive messages showed significant changes in their perception of the benefits and obstacles to preventive action in comparison with the group that did not receive any intervention. RESULTS: the post-test scores for perception of susceptibility to developing a hearing loss and obstacles to preventive actions were significantly associated with gender and tenure; perception of severity of the consequences of a hearing loss was associated with noise level; social norms were associated with tenure; and self-efficacy was associated with audiometric thresholds. CONCLUSION: this study will make easier the development of interventions focused on the areas where workers lack information, and allow for educational materials for hearing loss prevention programs to be appropriately addressed to relevant obstacles. The use of a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes such as the one selected for this study allows the identification of issues that require clarification in educational interventions.

  17. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  18. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  19. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  20. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from Africa are featured here.

  1. Formation of Cm humate complexes in aqueous solution at pH{sub c} 3 to 5.5. The role of fast interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyer, M.; Walther, C.; Buckau, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; Stumpf, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; Physikalisch-Chemisches Inst. Ruprecht-Karls Univ., Heidelberg (Germany); Fanghaenel, T. [Physikalisch-Chemisches Inst. Ruprecht-Karls Univ., Heidelberg (Germany); European Commission, Joint Research Center, Inst. for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal includes determination of the possible impact of natural dissolved organic matter on the transport of actinide ions via groundwater into the biosphere. Thereby, much attention is paid to americium as it dominates the radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste after about 300 y and up to about 1000 y (spent fuel) or 100 000 y (vitrified reprocessing waste). A trustworthy description of the influence benefits from a sound chemical process understanding of the americium humate complexation and transport processes. A problem in this respect is that studies by TRLFS lead to inconclusive results with respect to the nature of the complexes involved. In the present study the outcome of TRLFS measurements in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O, and at room temperature and in liquid nitrogen are compared. It is shown that the Cm{sup 3+} ion interchanges between aquo ion (Cm{sup 3+}{sub aq}) and humate complex (CmHA) on a time scale of milliseconds in a pH range between 3 and 5.5. Taking this interchange into account, the process can be described in the absence of ternary complexes by the 1:1 stoichiometry formation of one curium humate complex, or a sufficiently narrow distribution of complexes to be represented by one average complex. (orig.)

  2. Design and fabrication of a PET/PTFE-based piezoelectric squeeze mode drop-on-demand inkjet printhead with interchangeable nozzle

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2010-09-01

    A PET/PTFE-based piezoelectric squeeze mode drop-on-demand inkjet printhead with interchangeable nozzles is designed and fabricated. The printhead chamber is comprised of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) tubing or PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene, or Teflon) tubing, which of a much softer material, than the conventionally used glass tubing. Applying the same electrical voltage, PET/PTFE-based printhead will generate a larger volume change in the material to be dispensed. The novel printhead fabricated herein has successfully dispensed liquids with viscosities up to 100 cps, as compared to 20 cps for the commercial printheads. Furthermore, PTFE-based printhead provides excellent anti-corrosive property when strongly corrosive inks are involved. The interchangeable nozzle design enables the same printhead to be fitted with nozzles of different orifice size, thus a clogged nozzle can be easily removed for cleaning or replacement. The characteristics of this novel printhead are also studied by dispensing glycerin-water solutions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  4. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  5. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  6. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  7. CERN In Focus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service

    2008-01-01

    First edition 2008 of Cern in Focus. On behalf of the audiovisual team, a selection of the latest videos filmed at CERN. Every six weeks, we will bring you the latest in CERN's activities, from LHC start up to the Computing Grid, featuring the experiments and many other goings-on at CERN. The agenda of this first edition of CERN in Focus features the visit of the prime minister of Malta, Lawrence Gonzi... CMS and the final descent of the YE-1 end cap... The departure of UA1 magnets to Japan... The start up of sectors 4 and 5... And finally, in our sports round up... We'll talk about football. New in brief this month... The final bolt is in place : On 7th November, in the bowels of the LHC tunnel, CERN's Director General Robert Aymar tightened a gold-plated bolt for the last arc interconnection of sector 1-2. This symbolic gesture marks the completion of all the arc interconnections of the LHC. Last welding work: it was never going to be an easy task. On this day last year just one sector had been completed,...

  8. CERN in Focus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service

    2008-01-01

    CERN in Focus 1ère édition. Le Service Audiovisuel vous propose un panorama des dernières vidéos tournées au CERN. En effet, toutes les six semaines, nous vous présenterons l'ensemble des activités, du démarrage du LHC à la grille de calcul, en passant par les différentes expériences. Au sommaire de cette édition, la visite du premier ministre de Malte, CMS et la derniere descente du YE-1 Le depart des aimants UA1 pour le Japon La mise en marche des secteurs 4 et 5 Et enfin, ATLAS et la descente... BREVES Dernieres soudures LHC Derniers boulonnages LHC College leman Appel a candidature Open Day

  9. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic......Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  10. Regadenoson: a focused update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Gopal; Hage, Fadi G; Heo, Jaekyeong; Iskandrian, Ami E

    2013-04-01

    Since its approval by the Food and Drug Administration in 2008, regadenoson has become the most commonly used vasodilator in the United States. Previous reviews have summarized the pre-clinical and clinical data on the use of regadenoson for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Since then, data have emerged on the safety of this agent in special groups of patients such as those with chronic kidney disease, airway disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and liver disease. There has also been recent interest in the use of regadenoson in hybrid protocols with exercise as a way to improve patient tolerance and image quality. Finally, although regadenoson was approved for clinical use based on the agreement rate of regadenoson MPI and adenosine MPI with regards to perfusion abnormalities, data are now available on the prognostic data derived from regadenoson MPI. We will briefly summarize these recent reports here in a focused update on the use of regadenoson for MPI.

  11. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  12. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    of the cognitive training to their everyday lives. Follow-up assessments will be conducted at 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcome is the composite score on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia at cessation of treatment after 6 months. Secondary outcomes are social and daily...... versus standard treatment. The cognitive remediation consists of 24 weekly group-based and manualised sessions targeting neurocognition and social cognition. In addition to the group sessions, the patients will be offered 12 individual sessions aiming at maximising the transfer of the effects......: This is the first trial to evaluate the effects of neurocognitive and social cognitive remediation in UHR patients. The FOCUS trial results will provide evidence on the effect of targeted and comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation on cognition, daily living, and symptomatology as well as long-term outcome...

  13. A Two-Generational Child-Focused Program Enhanced with Employment Services: Eighteen-Month Impacts from the Kansas and Missouri Sites of the Enhanced Services for the Hard-to-Employ Demonstration and Evaluation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, JoAnn; Jacobs, Erin; Farrell, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Children living in poverty face considerable developmental risks. This report presents interim results from an evaluation of parental employment and educational services delivered within a two-generational, early childhood program targeting low-income families who are expecting a child or who have a child under age 3. This study is part of the…

  14. A Two-Generational Child-Focused Program Enhanced with Employment Services: Eighteen-Month Impacts from the Kansas and Missouri Sites of the Enhanced Services for the Hard-to-Employ Demonstration and Evaluation Project. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, JoAnn; Jacobs, Erin; Farrell, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Children living in poverty face considerable developmental risks. This report presents interim results from an evaluation of parental employment and educational services delivered within a two-generational, early childhood program targeting low-income families who are expecting a child or who have a child under age 3. This study is part of the…

  15. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  16. THE ENSURING FUNCTIONAL INTERCHANGEABILITY WHEN FORMING THE CONTROL COMPLEX OF INDICATORS OF THE INITIAL CONDITION OF THE CONSUMER OF SPORTS AND IMPROVING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Khorloohiyn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of key elements of an engineering component quality management system of process of provision of sports and improving services in gyms is the subsystem of diagnostics of physical client state. The aim of the study was to increase in efficiency of functioning of a quality management system of process of provision of sports and improving services in gyms due to development of techniques of incorrect estimation of the initial client state.The task of formation of a complex of indices of the initial status by criterion of necessary informtiveness is formulated. The principle of the functional interchangeability as a methodological basis for its decision is reasonable. The hierarchical structure of an integral assessment of the initial client state of gym is offered. On its basis the hierarchical model of rating of informtiveness of a complex of the single (measured indices, the providing objectivity of an integral assessment of the initial status is developed. The correctness of model is provided at the expense of a formulation of a complex of assumptions and original technology of application of different methods of expert estimation.The result of simulation of informtiveness of an integral assessment of the initial client state for a specific type of service and the purposes of physical enhancement includes: 1 library of sets of single indices, for each of which the technique and a monitoring aid, and also an informtiveness assessment in points, 2 the rules of support of the functional interchangeability of alternative complexes of indices by criterion of sufficiency of informtiveness of a complex based on additive models and the accepted restrictions is defined.The concept of a technique of formation of a complex of the measured and (or evaluated indices of the initial client state for the specific type of sports and improving service adapted under material opportunities of gym on the one hand, and responding to criterion of necessary

  17. Ribosomal genes in focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koberna, Karel; Malínský, Jan; Pliss, Artem; Mašata, Martin; Večeřová, Jaromíra; Fialová, Markéta; Bednár, Jan; Raška, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    T he organization of transcriptionally active ribosomal genes in animal cell nucleoli is investigated in this study in order to address the long-standing controversy with regard to the intranucleolar localization of these genes. Detailed analyses of HeLa cell nucleoli include direct localization of ribosomal genes by in situ hybridization and their indirect localization via nascent ribosomal transcript mappings. On the light microscopy (LM) level, ribosomal genes map in 10–40 fluorescence foci per nucleus, and transcription activity is associated with most foci. We demonstrate that each nucleolar focus observed by LM corresponds, on the EM level, to an individual fibrillar center (FC) and surrounding dense fibrillar components (DFCs). The EM data identify the DFC as the nucleolar subcompartment in which rRNA synthesis takes place, consistent with detection of rDNA within the DFC. The highly sensitive method for mapping nascent transcripts in permeabilized cells on ultrastructural level provides intense and unambiguous clustered immunogold signal over the DFC, whereas very little to no label is detected over the FC. This signal is strongly indicative of nascent “Christmas trees” of rRNA associated with individual rDNA genes, sampled on the surface of thin sections. Stereological analysis of the clustered transcription signal further suggests that these Christmas trees may be contorted in space and exhibit a DNA compaction ratio on the order of 4–5.5. PMID:12034768

  18. The Impact of a Health Information Technology-Focused Patient-centered Medical Neighborhood Program Among Medicare Beneficiaries in Primary Care Practices: The Effect on Patient Outcomes and Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzol, Sean; Keith, Rosalind; Hossain, Mynti; Barna, Michael; Peterson, G Greg; Day, Timothy; Gilman, Boyd; Blue, Laura; Kranker, Keith; A Stewart, Kate; Hoag, Sheila; Moreno, Lorenzo

    2018-02-16

    The Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) tests new models of paying for or delivering health care services and expands models that improve health outcomes while lowering medical spending. CMMI gave TransforMED, a national learning and dissemination contractor, a 3-year Health Care Innovation Award (HCIA) to integrate health information technology systems into physician practices. This paper estimates impacts of TransforMED's HCIA-funded program on patient outcomes and Medicare parts A and B spending. We compared outcomes for Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries served by 87 treatment practices to outcomes for Medicare FFS beneficiaries served by 286 matched comparison practices, adjusting for differences in outcomes between the 2 groups during a 1-year baseline period. We estimated impacts in 3 evaluation outcome domains: quality-of-care processes, service use, and spending. We estimated the program led to a 7.1% reduction in inpatient admissions and a 5.7% decrease in the outpatient emergency department visits. However, there was no evidence of statistically significant effects in outcomes in either the quality-of-care processes or spending domains. These results indicate that TransforMED's program reduced service use for Medicare FFS beneficiaries, but also show that the program did not have statistically significant favorable impacts in the quality-of-care processes or spending domains. These results suggest that providing practices with population health management and cost-reporting software-along with technical assistance for how to use them-can complement practices' own patient-centered medical home transformation efforts and add meaningfully to their impacts on service use.

  19. Focus on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, L T

    1979-01-01

    Prospects for a stable, prospering economy in Malaysia appear threatened by an uneven distribution of wealth among non-Malay, particularly Chinese, residents. Native Malays, Bumiputra, have benefitted from the government's 20 year New Economic Policy, a system of subsidies to correct economic imbalances among the races. Malay corporate ownership has increased from 2.4% in 1970 to 28% in 1979. However, equity must increase by 26% annually to meet NEP targets. Without the GNP expanding 7-8% yearly, the government will be tempted to acquire assets at low prices. 70% of the total Malay ownership was held by public enterprises holding equity in trust. An elite group of Bumiputra will own a fair number of shares reserved by 1970. 1/5 of the population of Kuala Lumpur are squatters. Among these groups, communal tension is high. The Chinese businessmen are most resistant to native management. Since they control private domestic investment, they have political power. The Industrial Coordination Act (ICA), which gives power to civil servants through a licensing system, protects the system. The Asian Foundation supports management training, business development, and university demonstration projects in legal aid, solar energy, and community psychiatry. Malaysian competence in English enables widespread distribution of the Books for Asia program.

  20. Quality program for gynecological brachytherapy; Programa de qualidade em braquiterapia ginecologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregrino, Antonio Augusto F.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Veloso de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria. Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    1996-12-31

    The implementation of a quality program for a gynecological brachytherapy service is proposed. A remote afterloading technique using low dose rate is considered to establish operational procedures, assuring the prescription of the treatment and the safety of the patients and workers. A periodical personnel training program is suggested as well as the implementation of a treatment record for the patients aiming a interchange in future researches in gynecological cancer treatment among several brachytherapy centres in Brazil 2 refs., 2 figs.

  1. An Electronic Commerce Program for the Defence Finance and Accounting Service-Columbus Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    AD-A237 636 JU0 0 u5 11111 IN III III1 m11i AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PROGRAM FOR THE DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE - COLUMBUS CENTER Report...MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 91-04373 LMI Executive Summary AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PROGRAM FOR THE DEFENSE...some Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic data interchange and electronic funds transfer. We believe additional applications of those

  2. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  3. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  4. Issues in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The issues worldwide that deserve attention pertain to international migration, the education of women, family planning, missing female children, and prevention and control of AIDS cases. Migration outside country borders has been increasing due to economic and social disparities, and uncounted and unrecognized refugees are fleeing environmental disasters. The educational status of women has increased over the past 30 years. For example, female illiteracy has declined among women aged 20-24 years from 19% to 8% in Latin America, from 38% to 12% in eastern and western Asia, and from 80% to 49% in Africa. These improvements are significant, but the problem remains, where, for instance in Africa, there is still extensive illiteracy (75% of females aged under 25 years). A 1993 Population Action International Report states that low female educational levels and weak family planning and health programs are related to large family size and high child death rates. During the 1980s family planning was linked with ecological concerns. Progress has been made in the increase in contraceptive users in developing countries from 14% to 53% during 1965-70. Fertility has declined from 6.1 children per woman in the 1950s to 3.7. Kenya is a good example of a country with high fertility that reduced fertility through its emphasis on family planning. Obstacles to increased prevalence of contraception still remain. In Mexico more than 50% of public birth control services are provided to women in secret due to fear of their husband's abuse. Population pressure can result in the loss of girl children through higher mortality, better nutrition, neglect, or gender preference in the early fetal stages. The challenge of AIDS will be in caring for the sick and adjusting to social changes due to the expected increases in orphaned children.

  5. The importance of bioequivalence study: focus on clopidogrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Setiawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioequivalence (BE study is required to show whether a generic copy product can be interchangeable with the brand innovator product. The aim of this article is to provide the rationale for conducting BE studies, the main products requiring BE studies, the design and conduct of BE studies in general, with focus on clopidogrel. All of the clopidogrel generic products in Indonesia have been shown to be BE to the innovator product Plavix® and they contain API (active pharmaceutical ingredient clopidogrel form 1 that complies with USP 30, 1997 requirements: the R-enantiomer content is not more than 1%. A proof that bioequivalence (BE means therapeutic equivalence (TE is also provided for cardiovascular drugs. Clopidogrel has 2 polymorphic forms, form 1 and form 2, which have the same indications. At least one pivotal study of clopidogrel, CAPRIE, used clopidogrel form 1. An atherothrombotic event may be associated with clopidogrel resistance, which occur in about 4 to 30% of patients treated with conventional doses of clopidogrel. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:149-53Keywords: bioequivalent, clopidogrel

  6. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen...... and tender joint counts and CRP. DAS28-CRP(4) also includes patient global assessment. Thresholds for low and high disease activity are the same for the two scores. Based on the Bland-Altman method, the interchangeability between DAS28-CRP with three and four variables was examined in 319 RA patients...... selected for initiating biological treatment. Data were extracted from the Danish registry for biological treatment in rheumatology (DANBIO). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the predictability of the DAS28 scores by several measures of disease activity. The overall mean DAS28-CRP was 4...

  7. Numerical Study of Velocity Shear Stabilization of 3D and Theoretical Considerations for Centrifugally Confined Plasmas and Other Interchange-Limited Fusion Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassam, Adil [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We studied the feasibility of resonantly driving GAMs in tokamaks. A numerical simulation was carried out and showed the essential features and limitations. It was shown further that GAMs can damp by phase-mixing, from temperature gradients, or nonlinear detuning, thus broadening the resonance. Experimental implications of this were quantified. Theoretical support was provided for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, funded in a separate grant by DOE. Plasma diamagnetism from supersonic rotation was established. A theoretical model was built to match the data. Additional support to the experiment in terms of numerical simulation of the interchange turbulence was provided. Spectra from residual turbulence on account of velocity shear suppression were obtained and compared favorably to experiment. A new drift wave, driven solely by the thermal force, was identified.

  8. Biosynthetic studies on the tropane alkaloid hyoscyamine in Datura stramonium; hyoscyamine is stable to in vivo oxidation and is not derived from littorine via a vicinal interchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Stephen; O'Hagan, David

    2002-10-01

    The conversion of littorine to hyoscyamine has been investigated by feeding deuterium labelled (RS)-[2-(2)H]-, [3, 3-(2)H(2)]-, [2, 3, 3-(2)H(3)]- phenyllactic acids to transformed root cultures of Datura stramonium. Isolation and GC-MS analyses of the isotope incorporation into the resultant hyoscyamine does not support the involvement of a vicinal interchange process operating during the isomerisation of littorine to hyoscyamine. Additionally a metabolism study with [1'-13C, 3', 3'-(2)H(2)]-hyoscyamine has established that the alkaloid is metabolically stable at C-3' with no evidence for a reversible in vivo oxidation process to the corresponding aldehyde. The data do not support an S-adenosy-L-methionine (SAM 5)/co-enzyme-B(12) mediated process for the isomerisation of littorine to hyoscyamine.

  9. Role of a Dual Splicing and Amino Acid Code in Myopia, Cone Dysfunction and Cone Dystrophy Associated withL/MOpsin Interchange Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Scott H; Kuchenbecker, James A; Rowlan, Jessica S; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2017-05-01

    Human long ( L ) and middle ( M ) wavelength cone opsin genes are highly variable due to intermixing. Two L / M cone opsin interchange mutants, designated LIAVA and LVAVA , are associated with clinical diagnoses, including red-green color vision deficiency, blue cone monochromacy, cone degeneration, myopia, and Bornholm Eye Disease. Because the protein and splicing codes are carried by the same nucleotides, intermixing L and M genes can cause disease by affecting protein structure and splicing. Genetically engineered mice were created to allow investigation of the consequences of altered protein structure alone, and the effects on cone morphology were examined using immunohistochemistry. In humans and mice, cone function was evaluated using the electroretinogram (ERG) under L / M - or short (S) wavelength cone isolating conditions. Effects of LIAVA and LVAVA genes on splicing were evaluated using a minigene assay. ERGs and histology in mice revealed protein toxicity for the LVAVA but not for the LIAVA opsin. Minigene assays showed that the dominant messenger RNA (mRNA) was aberrantly spliced for both variants; however, the LVAVA gene produced a small but significant amount of full-length mRNA and LVAVA subjects had correspondingly reduced ERG amplitudes. In contrast, the LIAVA subject had no L / M cone ERG. Dramatic differences in phenotype can result from seemingly minor differences in genotype through divergent effects on the dual amino acid and splicing codes. The mechanism by which individual mutations contribute to clinical phenotypes provides valuable information for diagnosis and prognosis of vision disorders associated with L / M interchange mutations, and it informs strategies for developing therapies.

  10. Myopia and Late-Onset Progressive Cone Dystrophy Associate to LVAVA/MVAVA Exon 3 Interchange Haplotypes of Opsin Genes on Chromosome X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Orsolya; Rajta, István; Vajas, Attila; Takács, Lili; Csutak, Adrienne; Fodor, Mariann; Kolozsvári, Bence; Resch, Miklós; Sényi, Katalin; Lesch, Balázs; Szabó, Viktória; Berta, András; Balogh, István; Losonczy, Gergely

    2017-03-01

    Rare interchange haplotypes in exon 3 of the OPN1LW and OPN1MW opsin genes cause X-linked myopia, color vision defect, and cone dysfunction. The severity of the disease varies on a broad scale from nonsyndromic high myopia to blue cone monochromatism. Here, we describe a new genotype-phenotype correlation attributed to rare exon 3 interchange haplotypes simultaneously present in the long- and middle-wavelength sensitive opsin genes (L- and M-opsin genes). A multigenerational family with X-linked high myopia and cone dystrophy was investigated. Affected male patients had infantile onset myopia with normal visual acuity and color vision until their forties. Visual acuity decreased thereafter, along with the development of severe protan and deutan color vision defects. A mild decrease in electroretinography response of cone photoreceptors was detected in childhood, which further deteriorated in middle-aged patients. Rods were also affected, however, to a lesser extent than cones. Clinical exome sequencing identified the LVAVA and MVAVA toxic haplotypes in the OPN1LW and OPN1MW opsin genes, respectively. Here, we show that LVAVA haplotype of the OPN1LW gene and MVAVA haplotype of the OPN1MW gene cause apparently nonsyndromic high myopia in young patients but lead to progressive cone-rod dystrophy with deuteranopia and protanopia in middle-aged patients corresponding to a previously unknown disease course. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the joint effect of these toxic haplotypes in the two opsin genes on chromosome X.

  11. SIAM Workshop: Focus on Diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-12

    The Fourth SlAM Graduate Student Focus on Diversity workshop was held on July 12, 2000 at the Westin Rio Mar Hotel in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. The Department of Energy provided partial support for this event. The day-long workshop consisted of several different activities. The meeting opened with a discussion of some data collected by the American Mathematical Society on Ph.D.'s awarded in the U.S. to citizens and non-citizens, further classified as blacks, latinos, asians and native americans. The activity continued with nine technical talks by underrepresented minority graduate students, informal luncheon and pizza breaks to foster social interaction, and an evening forum chaired by Dr. Richard Tapia (Rice University) in which issues related to the participation of minorities in national meetings and proposal writing where discussed. These sessions were open to the entire SIAM community and served to highlight the progress, achievements, and aspirations of the workshop participants. The students attended as well the three SlAM plenary talks during the day and the community lecture in the evening. The activity had a lively participation of students and representatives from various academic institutions and sponsoring agencies. In particular, we had the participation of 24 undergraduate students from the Mathematics REU program of the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao.

  12. Patient satisfaction: focusing on "excellent".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichiro; Waterman, Brian; Faulkner, Kelly M; Boslaugh, Sarah; Burroughs, Thomas E; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2009-01-01

    In an emerging competitive market such as healthcare, managers should focus on achieving excellent ratings to distinguish their organization from others. When it comes to customer loyalty, "excellent" has a different meaning. Customers who are merely satisfied often do not come back. The purpose of this study was to find out what influences adult patients to rate their overall experience as "excellent." The study used patient satisfaction data collected from one major academic hospital and four community hospitals. After conducting a multiple logistic regression analysis, certain attributes were shown to be more likely than others to influence patients to rate their experiences as excellent. The study revealed that staff care is the most influential attribute, followed by nursing care. These two attributes are distinctively stronger drivers of overall satisfaction than are the other attributes studied (i.e., physician care, admission process, room, and food). Staff care and nursing care are under the control of healthcare managers. If improvements are needed, they can be accomplished through training programs such as total quality management or continuous quality improvement, through which staff employees and nurses learn to be sensitive to patients' needs. Satisfying patients' needs is the first step toward having loyal patients, so hospitals that strive to ensure their patients are completely satisfied are more likely to prosper.

  13. Calor e trabalho: são estes conceitos invariantes sob a permuta sistema-vizinhança? Heat and work concepts: are they invariant under a system-surroundings interchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Anacleto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the invariants associated to the First Law of Thermodynamics and to the concept of identical processes lead to a clear definition of heat and work. The conditions for heat and work to be invariant under a system-surroundings interchange are also investigated. Finally, examples are presented to illustrate the above conditions.

  14. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early

  15. "Everybody brush!": protocol for a parallel-group randomized controlled trial of a family-focused primary prevention program with distribution of oral hygiene products and education to increase frequency of toothbrushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Milgrom, Peter; Shirtcliff, R Michael; Huebner, Colleen E; Ludwig, Sharity; Allen, Gary; Scott, JoAnna

    2015-05-22

    Twice daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is the most widely advocated preventive strategy for dental caries (tooth decay) and is recommended by professional dental associations. Not all parents, children, or adolescents follow this recommendation. This protocol describes the methods for the implementation and evaluation of a quality improvement health promotion program. The objective of the study is to show a theory-informed, evidence-based program to improve twice daily toothbrushing and oral health-related quality of life that may reduce dental caries, dental treatment need, and costs. The design is a parallel-group, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Families of Medicaid-insured children and adolescents within a large dental care organization in central Oregon will participate in the trial (n=21,743). Families will be assigned to one of three groups: a test intervention, an active control, or a passive control condition. The intervention aims to address barriers and support for twice-daily toothbrushing. Families in the test condition will receive toothpaste and toothbrushes by mail for all family members every three months. In addition, they will receive education and social support to encourage toothbrushing via postcards, recorded telephone messages, and an optional participant-initiated telephone helpline. Families in the active control condition will receive the kit of supplies by mail, but no additional instructional information or telephone support. Families assigned to the passive control will be on a waiting list. The primary outcomes are restorative dental care received and, only for children younger than 36 months old at baseline, the frequency of twice-daily toothbrushing. Data will be collected through dental claims records and, for children younger than 36 months old at baseline, parent interviews and clinical exams. Enrollment of participants and baseline interviews have been completed. Final results are expected in early summer

  16. “Everybody Brush!”: Protocol for a Parallel-Group Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family-Focused Primary Prevention Program With Distribution of Oral Hygiene Products and Education to Increase Frequency of Toothbrushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Twice daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is the most widely advocated preventive strategy for dental caries (tooth decay) and is recommended by professional dental associations. Not all parents, children, or adolescents follow this recommendation. This protocol describes the methods for the implementation and evaluation of a quality improvement health promotion program. Objective The objective of the study is to show a theory-informed, evidence-based program to improve twice daily toothbrushing and oral health-related quality of life that may reduce dental caries, dental treatment need, and costs. Methods The design is a parallel-group, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Families of Medicaid-insured children and adolescents within a large dental care organization in central Oregon will participate in the trial (n=21,743). Families will be assigned to one of three groups: a test intervention, an active control, or a passive control condition. The intervention aims to address barriers and support for twice-daily toothbrushing. Families in the test condition will receive toothpaste and toothbrushes by mail for all family members every three months. In addition, they will receive education and social support to encourage toothbrushing via postcards, recorded telephone messages, and an optional participant-initiated telephone helpline. Families in the active control condition will receive the kit of supplies by mail, but no additional instructional information or telephone support. Families assigned to the passive control will be on a waiting list. The primary outcomes are restorative dental care received and, only for children younger than 36 months old at baseline, the frequency of twice-daily toothbrushing. Data will be collected through dental claims records and, for children younger than 36 months old at baseline, parent interviews and clinical exams. Results Enrollment of participants and baseline interviews have been completed. Final

  17. A pragmatic method for transforming clinical research data from the research electronic data capture "REDCap" to Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM): Development and evaluation of REDCap2SDTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keiichi; Ota, Keiko; Akiya, Ippei; Shintani, Ayumi

    2017-06-01

    The Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM) can be used for new drug application studies as well as secondarily for creating a clinical research data warehouse to leverage clinical research study data across studies conducted within the same disease area. However, currently not all clinical research uses Clinical Data Acquisition Standards Harmonization (CDASH) beginning in the set-up phase of the study. Once already initiated, clinical studies that have not utilized CDASH are difficult to map in the SDTM format. In addition, most electronic data capture (EDC) systems are not equipped to export data in SDTM format; therefore, in many cases, statistical software is used to generate SDTM datasets from accumulated clinical data. In order to facilitate efficient secondary use of accumulated clinical research data using SDTM, it is necessary to develop a new tool to enable mapping of information for SDTM, even during or after the clinical research. REDCap is an EDC system developed by Vanderbilt University and is used globally by over 2100 institutions across 108 countries. In this study, we developed a simulated clinical trial to evaluate a tool called REDCap2SDTM that maps information in the Field Annotation of REDCap to SDTM and executes data conversion, including when data must be pivoted to accommodate the SDTM format, dynamically, by parsing the mapping information using R. We confirmed that generating SDTM data and the define.xml file from REDCap using REDCap2SDTM was possible. Conventionally, generation of SDTM data and the define.xml file from EDC systems requires the creation of individual programs for each clinical study. However, our proposed method can be used to generate this data and file dynamically without programming because it only involves entering the mapping information into the Field Annotation, and additional data into specific files. Our proposed method is adaptable not only to new drug

  18. Focusators for laser-branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  19. Advancing Telephone Focus Groups Method Through the Use of Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Eunice; Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne; Webel-Edgar, Lori; Muir, Sarah; Manson, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Telephone focus groups have been increasingly popular in public health research and evaluation. One of the main concerns of telephone focus groups is the lack of nonverbal cues among participants, which could limit group interactions and dynamics during the focus group discussion. To overcome this limitation, we supplemented telephone focus groups with webinar technology in a recent evaluation of a provincial public health program in Ontario, Canada. In this article, we share the methods used and our experiences in conducting telephone focus groups supplemented with webinar technology, including advantages and challenges. Our experience will inform other researchers who may consider using telephone focus groups with webinars in future research and evaluation. PMID:28462318

  20. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  1. Prosodic focus marking in Bai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.Z.H.; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  2. Spatial filters for focusing ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gori, Paola

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally focusing is done by taking out one sample in the received signal from each transducer element and then sum these signals. This method does not take into account the temporal or spatial spread of the received signal from a point scatterer and does not make an optimal focus of the data...... for beamforming the received RF signals from the individual transducer elements. The matched filter is applied on RF signals from individual transducer elements, thus properly taking into account the spatial spread of the received signal. The method can be applied to any transducer and can also be used...... for synthetic aperture imaging for single element transducers. It is evaluated using the Field II program. Data from a single 3 MHz transducer focused at a distance of 80 mm is processed. Far from the transducer focal region, the processing greatly improves the image resolution: the lateral slice...

  3. Process-focused Salary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Shao-zu; LI Wei

    2002-01-01

    Salary often acts as the main incentive by managers to push employees to adjust their behaviors so as to realize organization's goal. With the transfer from function-focused organization to proeess-focused organization, the new relative salary system should be established at the same time. This article is intended to introduce an original salary system-process-focused salary system. After pointing out faults of traditional function-focused salary system, the article explains the design thoughts behind the new process-focused salary system, summaries its three styles: based-on-cost, based-on-quality and based-on-task; and at last defines its application scope.

  4. Consumer Evaluation of Dual Focus Mutual Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Stephen; Villano, Cherie L; Rosenblum, Andrew; Vogel, Howard S; Betzler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a "dual focus," 12 step-based mutual aid program tailored to assist recovery from co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine consumers' perceptions of DTR's usefulness for their recoveries and the relationships between perceived DTR usefulness and self-help processes, self-efficacy to cope with problems in recovery, and changes in behaviors conducive to dual recovery. METHODS: Consumers attending DTR groups, located within a psychiatric day-treatment program, completed anonymous surveys 8 months (N=19) and 20 months (N=61) after DTR was implemented. RESULTS: DTR participants rated DTR favorably and length of DTR attendance was significantly associated with increased self-efficacy for recovery and positive changes in recovery-oriented behaviors. Perceived DTR usefulness was significantly associated with greater engagement in three specific self-help processes and increased self-efficacy for recovery; notably, these associations were independent of consumers' overall satisfaction with the treatment program. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to document consumers' perceived usefulness of DTR in relation to indicators of recovery. Overall, the study provides additional evidence for the benefits of implementing consumer-led dual focus groups in treatment programs.

  5. Advanced General Dentistry Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Douglas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A description of the University of Maryland at Baltimore's one-year postdoctoral program in advanced general dentistry focuses on its goals and objectives, curriculum design, patient population, faculty and staff, finances, and program evaluation measures. (MSE)

  6. Programming Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  7. Micro- and nano-volume samples by electrothermal, near-torch vaporization sample introduction using removable, interchangeable and portable rhenium coiled-filament assemblies and axially-viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, Hamid R.; Lai, Bryant; Karanassios, Vassili

    2012-11-01

    An electrothermal, near-torch vaporization (NTV) sample introduction for micro- or nano-volume samples is described. Samples were pipetted onto coiled-filament assemblies that were purposely developed to be removable and interchangeable and were dried and vaporized into a small-volume vaporization chamber that clips onto any ICP torch with a ball joint. Interchangeable assemblies were also constructed to be small-size (e.g., less than 3 cm long with max diameter of 0.65 cm) and light-weight (1.4 g) so that they can be portable. Interchangeable assemblies with volume-capacities in three ranges (i.e., operated NTV sample introduction was interfaced to an axially-viewed ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry) system and NTV was optimized using ICP-AES and 8 elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, V, Ba, Mg, Be and Ca). Precision was 1.0-2.3% (peak height) and 1.1-2.4% (peak area). Detection limits (obtained using 5 μL volumes) expressed in absolute-amounts ranged between 4 pg for Pb to 0.3 fg (~ 5 million atoms) for Ca. Detection limits expressed in concentration units (obtained using 100 μL volumes of diluted, single-element standard solutions) were: 50 pg/mL for Pb; 10 pg/mL for Cd; 9 pg/mL for Zn; 1 pg/mL for V; 0.9 pg/mL for Ba; 0.5 pg/mL for Mg; 50 fg/mL for Be; and 3 fg/mL for Ca. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Pb in pg/mL levels of diluted natural water Certified Reference Material (CRM) and the determination of Zn in 80 nL volumes of the liquid extracted from an individual vesicle. It is shown that portable and interchangeable assemblies with dried sample residues on them can be transported without analyte loss (for the concentrations tested), thus opening up the possibility for "taking part of the lab to the sample" applications, such as testing for Cu concentration-compliance with the lead-copper rule of the Environmental Protection Agency. It is also shown that interchangeable assemblies with volume

  8. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  9. NEW GUN CAPABILITY WITH INTERCHANGABLE BARRELS TO INVESTIGATE LOW VELOCITY IMPACT REGIMES AT THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH EXPLOSIVES APPLICATIONS FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Behn, A; Gresshoff, M; Jr., L F; Chiao, P I

    2009-09-16

    A new gas gun capability is being activated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). The single stage light gas (dry air, nitrogen, or helium) gun has interchangeable barrels ranging from 25.4 mm to 76.2 mm in diameter with 1.8 meters in length and is being fabricated by Physics Applications, Inc. Because it is being used for safety studies involving explosives, the gun is planned for operation inside a large enclosed firing tank, with typical velocities planned in the range of 10-300 m/s. Three applications planned for this gun include: low velocity impact of detonator or detonator/booster assemblies with various projectile shapes, the Steven Impact test that involves impact initiation of a cased explosive target, and the Taylor impact test using a cylindrical explosive sample impacted onto a rigid anvil for fracture studies of energetic materials. A highlight of the gun features, outline on work in progress for implementing this capability, and discussion of the planned areas of research will be included.

  10. In vivo imaging of HIF-active tumors by an oxygen-dependent degradation protein probe with an interchangeable labeling system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kuchimaru

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF functions as a master transcriptional regulator for adaptation to hypoxia by inducing adaptive changes in gene expression for regulation of proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and energy metabolism. Cancers with high expression of the alpha subunit of HIF (HIFα are often malignant and treatment-resistant. Therefore, the development of a molecular probe that can detect HIF activity has great potential value for monitoring tumor hypoxia. HIF prolyl hydroxylases (HPHDs act as oxygen sensors that regulate the fate of HIFα protein through its oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD domain. We constructed a recombinant protein PTD-ODD-HaloTag (POH that is under the same ODD regulation as HIFα and contains protein transduction domain (PTD and an interchangeable labeling system. Administration of near-infrared fluorescently labeled POH (POH-N to mouse models of cancers allowed successful monitoring of HIF-active regions. Immunohistochemical analysis for intratumoral localization of POH probe revealed its specificity to HIF-active cells. Furthermore, lack of the PTD domain or a point mutation in the ODD domain abrogated the specificity of POH-N to HIF-active cells. Overall results indicate that POH is a practical probe specific to HIF-active cell in cancers and suggest its large potential for imaging and targeting of HIF-related diseases.

  11. Interchange Reconnection Associated with a Confined Filament Eruption: Implications for the Source of Transient Cold-dense Plasma in Solar Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing; Li, Gang; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2017-05-01

    The cold-dense plasma is occasionally detected in the solar wind with in situ data, but the source of the cold-dense plasma remains illusive. Interchange reconnections (IRs) between closed fields and nearby open fields are known to contribute to the formation of solar winds. We present a confined filament eruption associated with a puff-like coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2014 December 24. The filament underwent successive activations and finally erupted, due to continuous magnetic flux cancelations and emergences. The confined erupting filament showed a clear untwist motion, and most of the filament material fell back. During the eruption, some tiny blobs escaped from the confined filament body, along newly formed open field lines rooted around the south end of the filament, and some bright plasma flowed from the north end of the filament to remote sites at nearby open fields. The newly formed open field lines shifted southward with multiple branches. The puff-like CME also showed multiple bright fronts and a clear southward shift. All the results indicate an intermittent IR existed between closed fields of the confined erupting filament and nearby open fields, which released a portion of filament material (blobs) to form the puff-like CME. We suggest that the IR provides a possible source of cold-dense plasma in the solar wind.

  12. Redes de participación e intercambios en la radio pública: los podcasting Networks of Participation and Communicative Interchanges in Public Radio: Podcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Salgado Santamaría

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de los podcasting, como sistema añadido de la ciberradio, impulsa a las redes de participación e intercambios comunicativos de interés social, que exhiben numerosas ventajas frente a las prácticas radiofónicas conocidas. La difusión que la radio pública realiza de los podcasts, la colocan en el actual proceso de convergencia tecnológica, y la sitúan en una sociedad de la información y del conocimiento, capaz de ofrecer diferentes servicios al alcance de todos los ciudadanos. Sólo la introducción de nuevos contenidos y servicios que aporten valor añadido a los existentes y satisfagan las necesidades de sus usuarios, procurarán la rentabilidad de este sistema. The development of podcasting as an additional system of cyberradio stimulates the appearance of networks of participation and communicative interchanges of social interest, and has numerous advantages over conventional radio practices. The spreading of podcasts through public radio situates it within the process of technological convergence and in an Information and Knowledge society which is able to offer different services within reach of all citizens. Only the introduction of new contents and services that contribute added value to the existing ones and satisfy the needs of users will make this system profitable.

  13. Training programming: revisiting terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. Marques

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Does the way the literature presents the classic periodization or programming make sense? In our opinion, the answer is clearly no. To get started, periodization and programming are terms used interchangeably (as synonyms in scientific literature when they actually have different meanings. Thus, to periodize is to set periods for a process (e.g., to a season or the sports life, whereas programming is defined as to devise and order the necessary actions to carry out a project. Accordingly, coaches and physical conditioning professionals should divide or periodize the season in different cycles and then, within each cycle, programming the training sessions. The periodization should not only help to structure the training process, but also to express the goals to achieve, to control the training process evolution and allow a great execution of the action plan. When designing a plan, we simply organize all the “ingredients” that should be part of the work/training design in a concrete and detailed way. From a scientific point of view, the programming is nothing more than an adequate interpretation of the training biological laws (Tschione, 1992; Latonov, 1997, Issurin, 2008 and must have the performance improvement as the major reference criteria (Issurin 2010. In practice, during the last decades, we have followed a set of instructions mainly based on experienced coaches (Matveyev, 1981, Bompa, 1994, Zatsiorsky, 1995 who have obtained relevant results. As a consequence, it is very difficult to accept another solid scientific based vision or proposal since the accumulation of systematic experiences has led to the construction of a theoretical model, even though there are no scientific evidences. The multiplication and implementation of the traditional programming models (Matveyev, 1981, Bompa, 1994 have guided us to a set of erroneous terms, among which we highlight the “micro”, the “meso” and the “macro” cycles, that were never

  14. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  15. Some Remarks on Focus Adverbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Jacob; Zwarts, Frans

    1991-01-01

    Much of what we have to say in the present paper should be thought of as an attempt to get a better understanding of the intricate complexities surrounding focus adverbs. To this end, we discuss a number of restrictions which govern the occurrence of different classes of focus adverbs in Dutch.

  16. Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitzinger, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say.

  17. Dual focus polarisation splitting lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Paul; Savini, Giorgio; Zhang, Jin; Ade, Peter

    2017-10-16

    We have successfully designed and measured a unique polarisation splitting lens which focuses the orthogonal linear polarisations side-by-side in the lens focal plane. This concept can find application in situations where there is limited space for the beam splitters and focusing optics that are required for incoherent detectors.

  18. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  19. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  20. Camera correlation focus: an image-based focusing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg; Hammond, Mike; Binns, Lewis A.

    2005-05-01

    Determining the focal position of an overlay target with respect to an objective lens is an important prerequisite of overlay metrology. At best, an out-of-focus image will provide less than optimal information for metrology; focal depth for a high-NA imaging system at the required magnification is of the order of 5 microns. In most cases poor focus will lead to poor measurement performance. In some cases, being out of focus will cause apparent contrast reversal and similar effects, due to optical wavelengths (i.e. about half a micron) being used; this can cause measurement failure on some algorithms. In the very worst case, being out of focus can cause pattern recognition to fail completely, leading to a missed measurement. Previous systems to date have had one of two forms. In the first, a scan through focus is performed, selecting the optimal position using a direct, image-based focus metric, such as the high-frequency component of a Fourier transform. This always gives an optimal or near-optimal focus position, even under wide process variation, but can be time consuming, requiring a relatively large number of images to be captured for each site visited. It also requires the optimal position to be included in the range of the scan; if initial uncertainty is large, then the focus scan needs to be longer, taking even more time. The second approach is to monitor some property which has a known relationship to focus. This is often calibrated with respect to a scan through focus. On subsequent measurements the output of this secondary system is taken as a focus position. This second system may be completely separate from the imaging system; the primary requirement is only that it is coupled to the imaging system. These systems are generally fast; only one measurement per site is required, and they are typically designed so that only limited image / signal processing is required. However, such techniques are less precise or accurate than performing a scan through

  1. Safety, training focus of combined organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toop, L.

    2006-03-15

    This article presented details of Enform, a company that coordinates safety programs and training for new employees in the oil and gas industry. Enform was created when the Petroleum Industry Training Services merged with the Canadian Petroleum Safety Council. The aim of Enform is to ensure continuous improvements in health and safety within the industry by reducing working injuries and promoting health and safety practices. The companies merged to eliminate duplication of services and allow associates further opportunities for advanced training. In 2005, Enform trained an estimated 155,000 students, and a number of new courses were introduced and updated. A franchise program was extended and a training council was formed to offer direction and guidance to the oil industry. Enform focuses on sharing information among companies, as well as working to harmonize safety regulations across provincial borders. A task force was recently created by the company with a specific focus on drug and alcohol abuse. Other concerns include driver safety and driver interactions with wildlife. Enform is mainly focused on the traditional oil industry, and has had little entry into the oil sands industry. It was concluded that increased activity in the oil and gas industry will remain Enform's biggest challenge in the next few years. Plans for Enform's increased involvement in the offshore oil and gas industry were also discussed. 4 figs.

  2. Focus Cities : Improving the Living Environment in Underserved ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Focus Cities research program brings together researchers, municipal authorities, civil society organizations, the private sector and the poor to engage in urban environmental research with the goal of alleviating urban poverty. This project was selected as one of the four highest ranked in the 2005 Focus Cities ...

  3. FOCUS: a fire management planning system -- final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Bratten; James B. Davis; George T. Flatman; Jerold W. Keith; Stanley R. Rapp; Theodore G. Storey

    1981-01-01

    FOCUS (Fire Operational Characteristics Using Simulation) is a computer simulation model for evaluating alternative fire management plans. This final report provides a broad overview of the FOCUS system, describes two major modules-fire suppression and cost, explains the role in the system of gaming large fires, and outlines the support programs and ways of...

  4. Teacher Training Programs for Gifted Education with Focus on Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Eva; Horváthová, Božena

    2016-01-01

    Scholars, psychologists, and teachers from around the world have been dealing with the topic of giftedness for many years. Also in Slovakia, development of giftedness is a highly topical issue and gifted education has earned its place in the current curricular documents issued by the Ministry of Education. The national curriculum specifies…

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation for the Focus Cities Program in Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    eau, d'assainissement et de collecte des déchets solides à Jakarta. Depuis 2001, le gouvernement de l'Indonésie a entrepris une importante décentralisation, transférant diverses responsabilités aux administrations régionales et locales.

  6. Focused Feasibility Study Final Quality Assurance Program Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    8217 0.007’ Diquat 0.028 0.022 Endothall 0.18 0.16 Endrn 0.0022 0.00021 0.0022 Epichlorohydrin 02 Ethylene dibromide 02 0.00005’ Glyphosate 0.7d 0.7...probable human carcinogens : benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene. dlbenz(a~h)anthracene, and indenopyrene. ,.Public

  7. The standard for program management

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The Standard for Program Management – Fourth Edition differs from prior editions by focusing on the principles of good program management. Program activities have been realigned to program lifecycle phases rather than topics, and the first section was expanded to address the key roles of program manager, program sponsor and program management office. It has also been updated to better align with PMI’s Governance of Portfolios, Programs, and Projects: A Practice Guide.

  8. Focus on training at CAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorbo, S; Muna, C

    1993-01-01

    The training and technical assistance programs of the Center for African Family Studies (CAFS), which is part of the International Planned Parenthood Federation for the African Region, were described. Programs included service delivery, management development, family life education, family planning communication, and research monitoring and evaluation. Several courses were offered: a week-long contraceptive technology update course for trainers and supervisors of family planning programs. Management training needs were filled through a 6-week middle level management course, a 2-week senior level management course, a 4-week community based family planning program course, a 6-week financial management of family planning and reproductive health programs course, and a 5-week course in leadership skills for management of women and health programs. Family life education courses were offered under the CAFS Women and Health Program for teachers, curriculum developers, youth leaders, and those working with young people for 3 weeks. Course issues of discussion included population and development, the family in contemporary African life, and policy legislation and laws to promote young people's health and social psychological and ethical aspects of adolescent sexuality. Family planning communication training programs were directed to strengthening IEC knowledge and skills over a 4-week period for senior and middle level personnel. The 3-week press course aimed to train journalists in print and electronic media for French-speaking countries who could gain cover population and family planning issues. The family planning research and evaluation course over 4 weeks aimed to increase the knowledge and skills of health personnel in project design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, in order to conduct assessment of program effectiveness. The course was directed to senior and middle level manager researchers, population project directors, and personnel of women

  9. VEXAG's Venus Bridge Focus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    VEXAG’s Venus Bridge Focus Group is investigating whether viable Venus missions can be conducted within a $200M cost-cap. Progress reports on mission concept studies of combined in situ and orbiter missions will be presented.

  10. Human and mouse ZFP57 proteins are functionally interchangeable in maintaining genomic imprinting at multiple imprinted regions in mouse ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Sachiko; Wang, Xin; Ray, Chelsea; Vakulenko, Max; Bell, Fong T; Li, Xiajun

    2013-12-01

    Genomic imprinting is a common epigenetic phenomenon in mammals. Dysregulation of genomic imprinting has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. ZFP57 is a master regulator in genomic imprinting. Loss of ZFP57 causes loss of DNA methylation imprint at multiple imprinted regions in mouse embryos, as well as in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Similarly, mutations in human ZFP57 result in hypomethylation at many imprinted regions and are associated with transient neonatal diabetes and other human diseases. Mouse and human Zfp57 genes are located in the same syntenic block. However, mouse and human ZFP57 proteins only display about 50% sequence identity with different number of zinc fingers. It is not clear if they share similar mechanisms in maintaining genomic imprinting. Here we report that mouse and human ZFP57 proteins are functionally interchangeable. Expression of exogenous wild-type human ZFP57 could maintain DNA methylation imprint at three imprinted regions in mouse ES cells in the absence of endogenous mouse ZFP57. However, mutant human ZFP57 proteins containing the mutations found in human patients could not substitute for endogenous mouse ZFP57 in maintaining genomic imprinting in ES cells. Like mouse ZFP57, human ZFP57 and its mutant proteins could bind to mouse KAP1, the universal cofactor for KRAB zinc finger proteins, in mouse ES cells. Thus, we conclude that mouse and human ZFP57 are orthologs despite relatively low sequence identity and mouse ES cell system that we had established before is a valuable system for functional analyses of wild-type and mutant human ZFP57 proteins.

  11. Interchange core/shell assembly of diluted magnetic semiconductor CeO2 and ferromagnetic ferrite Fe3O4 for microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaheng; Zhu, Pengfei; Wang, Jiaqi; Or, Siu Wing; Ho, S. L.; Tan, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Core/shell-structured CeO2/Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/CeO2 nanocapsules are prepared by interchange assembly of diluted magnetic semiconductor CeO2 and ferromagnetic ferrite Fe3O4 as the core and the shell, and vice versa, using a facile two-step polar solvothermal method in order to utilize the room-temperature ferromagnetism and abundant O-vacancies in CeO2, the large natural resonance in Fe3O4, and the O-vacancy-enhanced interfacial polarization between CeO2 and Fe3O4 for new generation microwave absorbers. Comparing to Fe3O4/CeO2 nanocapsules, the CeO2/Fe3O4 nanocapsules show an improved real permittivity of 3-10% and an enhanced dielectric resonance of 1.5 times at 15.3 GHz due to the increased O-vacancy concentration in the CeO2 cores of larger grains as well as the O-vacancy-induced enhancement in interfacial polarization between the CeO2 cores and the Fe3O4 shells, respectively. Both nanocapsules exhibit relatively high permeability in the low-frequency S and C microwave bands as a result of the bi-magnetic core/shell combination of CeO2 and Fe3O4. The CeO2/Fe3O4 nanocapsules effectively enhance permittivity and permeability in the high-frequency Ku band with interfacial polarization and natural resonance at ˜15 GHz, thereby improving absorption with a large reflection loss of -28.9 dB at 15.3 GHz. Experimental and theoretical comparisons with CeO2 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles are also made.

  12. Clinic and ambulatory heart rates in patients with ischaemic heart disease and/or chronic heart failure taking rate-limiting medications: are they interchangeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Omar; Koo, Kenneth; El-Omar, Omar; Allen, Stuart; Squires, Alexander; El-Omar, Magdi

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic benefit from heart rate (HR) reduction in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and/or chronic heart failure (CHF) is now firmly established. Most decisions regarding initiation and/or dose adjustment of HR-limiting medications in such patients are based on clinic HR. Yet, this is a highly variable parameter that may not necessarily reflect HR control over the 24 h period. To examine the level of agreement between mean clinic and mean ambulatory HRs in patients with IHD and/or CHF taking rate-limiting medications. Prospective, observational study. Fifty patients with IHD and/or CHF who attended cardiology outpatient clinics at the Manchester Heart Centre and underwent same-day 24 h continuous ECG recording between March and October 2013 were included in the study. Mean clinic HR was compared with mean 24 h, daytime and night-time HRs. Limits-of-agreement plots were constructed to examine the relationship between the two HR measures in more detail. The mean clinic HR was numerically similar to the mean HRs of all ambulatory time periods examined. However, on Bland-Altman plots, the limits of agreement between clinic and ambulatory HR means were quite wide, with the mean clinic HR ranging between 10.93 and 13.58 bpm below and 8.4 and 18.15 bpm above the mean ambulatory HR. Although numerically similar, the means of clinic and ambulatory HRs in patients with IHD and/or CHF display wide limits of agreement. As such, the two measures cannot be regarded as interchangeable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Interchange core/shell assembly of diluted magnetic semiconductor CeO2 and ferromagnetic ferrite Fe3O4 for microwave absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaheng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell-structured CeO2/Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/CeO2 nanocapsules are prepared by interchange assembly of diluted magnetic semiconductor CeO2 and ferromagnetic ferrite Fe3O4 as the core and the shell, and vice versa, using a facile two-step polar solvothermal method in order to utilize the room-temperature ferromagnetism and abundant O-vacancies in CeO2, the large natural resonance in Fe3O4, and the O-vacancy-enhanced interfacial polarization between CeO2 and Fe3O4 for new generation microwave absorbers. Comparing to Fe3O4/CeO2 nanocapsules, the CeO2/Fe3O4 nanocapsules show an improved real permittivity of 3–10% and an enhanced dielectric resonance of 1.5 times at 15.3 GHz due to the increased O-vacancy concentration in the CeO2 cores of larger grains as well as the O-vacancy-induced enhancement in interfacial polarization between the CeO2 cores and the Fe3O4 shells, respectively. Both nanocapsules exhibit relatively high permeability in the low-frequency S and C microwave bands as a result of the bi-magnetic core/shell combination of CeO2 and Fe3O4. The CeO2/Fe3O4 nanocapsules effectively enhance permittivity and permeability in the high-frequency Ku band with interfacial polarization and natural resonance at ∼15 GHz, thereby improving absorption with a large reflection loss of -28.9 dB at 15.3 GHz. Experimental and theoretical comparisons with CeO2 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles are also made.

  14. Are first ventilatory threshold and 6-minute walk test heart rate interchangeable? A pilot study in healthy elderlies and cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, M D; Bosquet, L; Laroche, D; Joussain, C; Besson, D; Deley, G; Casillas, J M; Gremeaux, V

    2015-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) at the ventilatory threshold (VT) is often used to prescribe exercise intensity in cardiac rehabilitation. Some studies have reported no significant difference between HR at VT and HR measured at the end of a 6-min walk test (6-MWT) in cardiac patients. The aim of this work was to assess the potential equivalence between those parameters at the individual level. Three groups of subjects performed a stress test and a 6-MWT: 22 healthy elderlies (GES, 77 ± 3.7 years), 10 stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (GMI, 50.9 ± 4.2 years) and 30 patients with chronic heart failure (GHF, 63.3 ± 10 years). We analyzed the correlation, mean bias, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the mean bias and the magnitude of the bias between 6-MWT-HR and VT-HR. There was a significant difference between 6-MWT and VT-HR in GHF (99.1 ± 8.8 vs 91.6 ± 18.6 bpm, P=0.016) but not in GES and GMI. The correlation between those 2 parameters was high for GMI (r=0.78, P30%) in GES and GHF and acceptable in GMI (8-12%). 6-MWT-HR and VT-HR do not appear interchangeable at the individual level in healthy elderlies and CHF patients. In CAD patients, further larger studies and/or the development of other walk tests could help in confirming the interest of a training prescription based on walking performance, after an exhaustive study of their cardiometabolic requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Interchange instability of the plasma disk in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere and its relation to the radial plasma density distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bespalov

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the interchange or flute instability of the equatorial plasma disk in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere. Particular attention is paid to wave coupling between the dense plasma in the equatorial disk and the more rarefied plasma at higher latitudes, and between the latter plasma and the conducting ionosphere at the feet of the field lines. It is assumed that the flute perturbations are of small spatial scale in the azimuthal direction, such that a local Cartesian approximation may be employed, in which the effect of the centrifugal acceleration associated with plasma rotation is represented by an "external" force in the "radial" direction, perpendicular to the plasma flow. For such small-scale perturbations the ionosphere can also be treated as a perfect electrical conductor, and the condition is determined under which this approximation holds. We then examine the condition under which flute perturbations are at the threshold of instability, and use this to determine the corresponding limiting radial density gradient within the plasma disk. We find that when the density of the high-latitude plasma is sufficiently low compared with that of the disk, such that coupling to the ionosphere is not important, the limiting radial density profile within the disk follows that of the equatorial magnetic field strength as expected. However, as the density of the high-latitude plasma increases toward that of the equatorial disk, the limiting density profile in the disk falls increasingly steeply compared with that of the magnetic field, due to the increased stabilising effect of the ionospheric interaction. An initial examination of Galileo plasma density and magnetic field profiles, specifically for orbit G08, indicates that the latter effect is indeed operative inside radial distances of ~20 RJ. At larger distances, however, additional density smoothing effects appear to be important.

  16. Technical Communication Programs at Canadian Post-secondary Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Roger; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a survey identifying the location, extent, and focus of technical writing programs at Canadian colleges and universities. Describes representative programs in some detail. Discusses the focus of these programs and the need for more programs. (SR)

  17. Focusing on life beyond numers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, Anne; Christiansen, Anette Wendelboe; Zoffmann, Vibeke

    at home to clarify their difficulties. Shifting the focus from ‘numbers’ to the patients’ life with diabetes can increase attendance and release the potential for change. Conclusion Susan benefitted from this flexible intervention, breaking out of her isolation by focusing on what was personally important...... for her and going through an empowering process with improved HbA1c and psychosocial functioning....

  18. Regulatory focus and human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article connects two approaches to the study of human motivation and behavior: The Schwartz model of human values and Higgins’ regulatory focus theory. Considering a prominent model of human motivation - the Rubicon Model of Action Phases - reveals that although both approaches refer to goals and standards as crucial constructs, human values are specifically relevant concerning the so-called deliberation and evaluation phases whereas selfregulatory orientations are specifically relevant concerning the volitional phases (i.e., planning and action. It may be due to the selective focus on specific aspects of human motivation that up to date hardly any (empirical work has tried to connect human values and selfregulatory orientations. The reported studies assessed the relation between the endorsement of values proposed in the Schwartz model of human values and individual differences in the two self-regulatory orientations (promotion and prevention proposed in regulatory focus theory. Findings reveal that prevention-focused self-regulation is positively related to conservation values (security, conformity and negatively related to values reflecting openness to change (stimulation, self-direction. Moreover, promotion-focused self-regulation was positively related to self-enhancement values (power, achievement and negatively related to values reflecting self-transcendence (universalism, benevolence. In addition, the observed relations were found using different instruments to measure human values and self-regulatory orientations. In combination, the observed findings support the proposed two-dimensional structure of the value system as well as fundamental assumptions of regulatory focus theory.

  19. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  20. NICMOS Optimum Coronagraphic Focus Determinaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Glenn

    2001-07-01

    As originally designed the NICMOS coronagraph had two focii at conjugate points in the optical path with the coronagraphic hole at the f/24 focus of the input OTA beam, and the detector at the reimaged f/45 focus in Camera 2. Because of the forward displacement of the cold optical bench holding the Camera 2 detector, as a result of the larger-than-expected expansion of the solid N2 cryogen {as described and documented by the 'Dewar Anomoly Review Board'}, the two focii are now aconjugate. For direct imaging this is of little concern, and the HST/NICMOS Camera 2 focus interface is established by co-locating the f/45 image plane on the detector. This is done by de-spacing the relayed focus through a translative motion {with compensating comal tilt correction} of the Pupil Alignment Mechanism {PAM}. The mirror which this mechanism drives is upstream of the field divider mirror upon which the coronagraphic hole resides. Therefore, achieving a "best" focus at the detector results in a "soft" focus {in the f/24 image plane} at the coronagraphic hole. This leads to a wavelength-dependent increase in the diffracted energy in the now-defocused unocculted wings of a PSF from a target placed inside of the coronagraphic hole {as the f/24 image plane will fall behind the surface of the camera 2 field divider mirror} increasing the scattered and diffracted background around the target and lowering the field contrast at the detector image plane. In principal the coronagraphic stray light rejection would be most efficient by minimizing the spot size of an input PSF in the hole. This, however, is traded against a small degree of defocus at the detector. Ultimately, the best coronagraphic performance is achieved where the image contrast between an unocculted target and the residual background from an occulted source {both affected differently by focus and subsequent scattering} is maximized. The purpose of this test is to find the optimum PAM position to maximize the coronagraphic