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Sample records for program individualization personalized

  1. Effectiveness of Mental Immunization Program Training on Social Competency and Personality Traits of Individuals With Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ashoori

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion The results of the present research indicated a significant increase in social competency in adolescents with cerebral palsy. Also, desirable changes were found to be developed in the personality traits of these adolescents. In other words, there was a decreased level of neuroticism and significant increase in positive traits such as extroversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The overall results of the present research indicated that mental immunization program training led to improvement in social competency and personality traits of individuals with cerebral palsy. Therefore, paying attention to the mental immunization program training is essential, and planning for providing of psychological immunization program training is of particular importance. Cerebral palsy affects all aspect of an individual’s life and implementing the mental immunization program training has been associated with effective outcomes. Therefore, instructional interventions such as mental immunization program training are required . While a lot of research works have been conducted with regard to the effectiveness of mental immunization program training on social competency and personality traits of normal students, only a few investigations have been carried out for the same in relation to individuals with cerebral palsy. As far as present study used experimental method, could be cautioned in generalization of results . Another limitation of this study is the use of self-reporting questionnaires, wherein individuals do not feel the responsibility to answer correctly and honestly in order to avoid stigma or rejection by the community. It is recommended that the psychological immunization program training, which is very helpful in the instruction  of teenagers with cerebral palsy, be used in primary schools and among various categories of exceptional students.

  2. Planning and Implementing a Comprehensive Career System of Individualized Guidance. Description of a Program for Effective Personal Problem Solving. The CCGS Personal and Social Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. Brian; And Others

    In response to intended future California legislation which would allot state aid to schools on the basis of how well each educational program met its stated objectives, the Comprehensive Career Guidance System (CCGS) was developed. It is a systematic approach to the development and evaluation of guidance oriented objectives and related…

  3. Using health promotion guidelines for persons with disabilities to develop and evaluate a physical activity program for individuals with multiple sclerosis: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Ibarra, Alicia; Nery-Hurwit, Mara; Driver, Simon; MacDonald, Megan

    2017-04-01

    The Health Education for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis (HEMS) program was developed in response to the need for interventions aimed at increasing physical activity for individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). It was developed and evaluated using Drum and colleagues (2009) guidelines for implementing health promotion programs for individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this feasibility study is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of the HEMS program. Thirteen individuals with MS completed the 8-week health education program. A mixed method approach for evaluation was implemented (i.e., survey and focus groups). Process and resource feasibility demonstrated that over half of the participants attended at least 80% of the weekly sessions. Focus group data provided valuable feedback for future iterations of the program including critiques on the delivery, content, and group support provided. Outcome evaluation showed increases in self-efficacy (survey), improvements in theoretical constructs (focus groups), and increased physical activity (focus groups). Results show that health promotion programs for persons with MS can improve physical activity and related constructs. Next steps will be to revise, implement, and reevaluate the HEMS program in a larger randomized control trial. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana NIKOLIKJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion, as a process of enrolling of children with disability in regular schools, demands obligation for adequate preparing regular schools, teachers, pupils and their parents for accepting those children. It, also, means that special services must be prepared to help teachers and children with disability too, in an adequate way. The first and most important step is developing of Individualized education programs (IEP.The purpose of IEP is to provide a disabled child with specialized or individualized assistance in school. In order an IEP to be developed for a child, it is necessary to evaluate a child, and than to determine goals of individual achievements for every pupil with disability.The aim of this paper is to show one of many ways for construction IEP. The paper will give some examples of IEP recommendation (general and special, goals and steps to determine programs and types of services.

  5. Persons : their identity and individuation

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, Roger

    1998-01-01

    This study is about the nature of persons and personal identity. It belongs to a tradition that maintains that in order to understand what it is to be a person we must clarify what personal identity consists in. In this pursuit, I differentiate between the problems (i) How do persons persist? and (ii) What facts, if any, does personal identity consist in? Concerning the first question, I argue that persons persist three-dimensionally (the endurance view), and not four-dimensionally (the perdu...

  6. Personality Characteristics of Trained vs. Non-Trained Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Gerald D.; Schlegelmilch, Ron

    This document presents the results of two studies investiqating (1) the personality traits of physically trained and physically untrained individuals, and (2) the changes effected in personality traits by an exercise program. Training programs consisted of ten-week periods of activity in fencing, body conditioning, and weightlifting. Analysis of…

  7. Personalized medicine for individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B

    2011-01-01

    As the cost of whole genome analysis decreases, we have the opportunity to explore the interactions of various gene changes in an individual that lead to their particular phenotype. This will provide the ability to move from the epidemiologic study of groups, in which, the individuals are treated collectively and homogenously, to personalized medicine, and a model in which the individual is recognized and treated as a distinct entity. We will be applying personalized medicine to individuals with Down syndrome in order to understand and develop biomarkers for increased risk of co-morbidities. Personalized medicine will change the "culture of intractability" of Down syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Readability of Individualized Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lusa

    2014-01-01

    An individualized education program is a legal document that details information regarding the special education program of a student with a disability. For parents to determine whether they agree with the individualized education program that is proposed by the school, they must first be able to read and comprehend the document. This study aimed…

  9. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Cripps

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine if the patterns of within-person responses on a 12 trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999. ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability, which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiralling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of within-person processes at the individual level, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques.

  10. Person identification in TV programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongge; Wei, Gang; Sethi, Ishwar K.; Dimitrova, Nevenka

    2001-10-01

    In this article, we report a study on the problem of person identification in TV programs, such as situation comedy shows. A person identification system is constructed based on the joint use of visual and audio information. The system consists of two modules, namely, the analysis and the fusion modules. The analysis module contains a visual analysis component responsible for detection, tracking, and recognition of faces in video, and the audio analysis component, which operates by speaker identification. Both components have their advantages under different circumstances and we studied how to exploit the interaction between them for improved performance. Two fusion strategies are compared in our research. In the first strategy, the audio-verify-visual fusion strategy, speaker identification is used to verify the face recognition result. The second strategy, the visual-aid-audio fusion strategy, consists of using face recognition and tracking to supplement speaker identification results. By comparing the output from our system with our ground truth database, we evaluate the performance of each individual analysis component and their fusion. The results show that while the audio-verify-visual fusion strategy has slightly lower recall than the original face recognition system, it achieves the best identification precision among different algorithms. This suggests that such a strategy is suitable for applications where precision is much more critical than recall (e.g., security systems). The visual- aid-audio fusion strategy, on the other hand, generates the best overall identification performance. It outperforms either of the individual analysis components greatly in both precision and recall. This strategy is suitable to more general applications, such as, in our case, person identification in TV programs.

  11. Prospective memory, personality, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors.

  12. Personal Computer Transport Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Frank, III; Wobick, Craig; Chapman, Kirt; McCloud, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Personal Computer Transport Analysis Program (PCTAP) is C++ software used for analysis of thermal fluid systems. The program predicts thermal fluid system and component transients. The output consists of temperatures, flow rates, pressures, delta pressures, tank quantities, and gas quantities in the air, along with air scrubbing component performance. PCTAP s solution process assumes that the tubes in the system are well insulated so that only the heat transfer between fluid and tube wall and between adjacent tubes is modeled. The system described in the model file is broken down into its individual components; i.e., tubes, cold plates, heat exchangers, etc. A solution vector is built from the components and a flow is then simulated with fluid being transferred from one component to the next. The solution vector of components in the model file is built at the initiation of the run. This solution vector is simply a list of components in the order of their inlet dependency on other components. The component parameters are updated in the order in which they appear in the list at every time step. Once the solution vectors have been determined, PCTAP cycles through the components in the solution vector, executing their outlet function for each time-step increment.

  13. [Informatization of personalized adaptation medicine programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Bogomolov, A V

    2014-01-01

    State of art of personalized monitoring programs informatization and improvement of human adaptation abilities as one of the preferred direction of personalized (individualized, personalized) medicine which is focused on disclosure of potential and adaptive capabilities of human body and increase of life expectancy by means of directed patient-associated diagnostic and treatment effects on the basis of genetic influences of exogenous and regional factors are described. Biomedical concepts which are the background of monitoring and improvement of the implementation of human adaptation abilities that are designed by experts in the field of aerospace medicine and are the foundation of personalized non-drug medicine are defined: occupational health, preventive health changes cascade concept, concept of similar conditions, biological age, health-related quality of life concept, software risk-metric health information concept and telecommunication technologies for monitoring of human health information technology certification. The characteristics of the present stage of development of personalized non-drug medicine are issued.

  14. Perceived Personality Traits of Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jessica E.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research has found evidence of a general negative personality stereotype for individuals who have anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods: This study examined the expected personality characteristics of individuals with AN using the Five-Factor Model of personality to allow identification of specific personality traits that are part of…

  15. Sharing a Personal Trainer: Personal and Social Benefits of Individualized, Small-Group Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A; McDonald, Rachael L

    2017-11-01

    Wayment, HA and McDonald, RL. Sharing a personal trainer: personal and social benefits of individualized, small-group training. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3137-3145, 2017-We examined a novel personal fitness training program that combines personal training principles in a small-group training environment. In a typical training session, exercisers warm-up together but receive individualized training for 50 minutes with 1-5 other adults who range in age, exercise experience, and goals for participation. Study participants were 98 regularly exercising adult members of a fitness studio in the southwestern United States (64 women and 32 men), aged 19-78 years (mean, 46.52 years; SD = 14.15). Average membership time was 2 years (range, 1-75 months; mean, 23.54 months; SD = 20.10). In collaboration with the program directors, we developed a scale to assess satisfaction with key features of this unique training program. Participants completed an online survey in Fall 2015. Hypotheses were tested with a serial mediator model (model 6) using the SPSS PROCESS module. In support of the basic tenets of self-determination theory, satisfaction with small-group, individualized training supported basic psychological needs, which in turn were associated with greater autonomous exercise motivation and life satisfaction. Satisfaction with this unique training method was also associated with greater exercise self-efficacy. Autonomous exercise motivation was associated with both exercise self-efficacy and greater self-reported health and energy. Discussion focuses on why exercise programs that foster a sense of social belonging (in addition to motivation and efficacy) may be helpful for successful adherence to an exercise program.

  16. Individual and Collective Protection Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franzot, Sarah; Gendron, Anne-Marie; Staffa, Alfredo; Ohayon, David; SansCartier, Marie-Eve; St-Denis, Chantal; Low, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The FY06-07 goal was to advance the development of the Triosyn Super HEPA (TSH) media as an enhanced filtration material to be included in individual protection and collective protection end-use applications...

  17. Natural persons (individuals and legal persons (entities in Serbian medieval law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarkić Srđan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is exposing the concept of natural persons (individuals and legal persons (entities in Serbian mediaeval law. The terms glava (head, caput, kephalē, or sometimes kapa (cap, hood are used in Serbian legal sources to designate natural persons (individuals. In Serbian mediaeval law, it was mostly churches and monasteries that had the trait of legal persons (entities. Beside them, towns, villages, counties and districts, had some characteristics of legal persons.

  18. Intra-individual Change in Personality Stability and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2010-02-01

    The stability of individual differences in personality traits is typically examined at the group level with test-retest correlations across two assessments. For 684 subjects (age range 17-76) we computed individual coefficients from three sequential assessments to evaluate intra-individual (i.e., within-person) change in stability over time. For both trait and profile (ipsative) stability, results indicate that intra-individual stability increases up to age 30 and then plateaus. Neither demographic variables (sex, ethnicity, education, and secular trends), nor the standing on the five major dimensions of personality, were predictors of change in trait stability. Contrary to results from studies of adolescents, personality "maturity" was unrelated to personality stability in adulthood. These findings support the notion that personality stability plateaus early in adulthood.

  19. Individual Differences in Online Personalized Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, Norazrena Abu; Yahaya, Noraffandy; Ali, Mohamad Bilal

    2011-01-01

    The need has arise for the consideration of individual differences, to include their learning styles, learning orientations, preferences and needs in learning to allow learners engage and be responsible for their own learning, retain information longer, apply the knowledge more effectively, have positive attitudes towards the subject, have more…

  20. 32 CFR 700.1120 - Personal privacy and rights of individuals regarding their personal records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal privacy and rights of individuals... REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS General Regulations Standards of Conduct § 700.1120 Personal privacy and rights of individuals regarding their personal records. (a) Except as specifically provided in this...

  1. Is treatment in a day hospital step-down program superior to outpatient individual psychotherapy for patients with personality disorders? 36 months follow-up of a randomized clinical trial comparing different treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullestad, Frida Slagstad; Wilberg, Theresa; Klungsøyr, Ole; Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Urnes, Oyvind; Karterud, Sigmund

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the development of effective treatments for patients with PDs, there is still no consensus about the optimal treatment setting for this group of patients. This study reports the 36 months follow-up of the Ullevål Personality Project (UPP) (n=113), a randomized clinical trial comparing two treatment modalities for patients with PDs: an intensive long-term step-down treatment program, consisting of short-term day hospital treatment followed by combined group and individual psychotherapy organized in a hospital setting, with "ordinary" outpatient individual psychotherapy in private practice for patients with moderate to severe PDs. Patients in both treatment groups showed improvements in several clinical measures after 36 months. However, contrary to our expectations, patients in the outpatient treatment setting improved significantly more. Possible explanations for this surprising finding are discussed. The study cannot exclude the possibility that treatment aspects other than differences in modalities could explain some of the differential effectiveness (e.g. differences between therapists).

  2. The Expected Personality Characteristics of Alcohol-Dependent Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2002-01-01

    Uses the Big Five personality factors as a framework for examining the expected personality characteristics of individuals who are alcohol-dependent. Results help explain prior findings about the social handicap of problem drinking with regard to making friends, dating, marriage, and working. Findings have potential use in alcohol-problem…

  3. The Emotional Lexicon of Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without…

  4. Individual differences in personality change across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaba, Ted; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2017-05-16

    A precise and comprehensive description of personality continuity and change across the life span is the bedrock upon which theories of personality development are built. Little research has quantified the degree to which individuals deviate from mean-level developmental trends. In this study, we addressed this gap by examining individual differences in personality trait change across the life span. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 9,636 Dutch participants who provided Big Five self-reports at five assessment waves across 7 years. We divided our sample into 14 age groups (ages 16-84 at initial measurement) and estimated latent growth curve models to describe individual differences in personality change across the study period for each trait and age group. Across the adult life span, individual differences in personality change were small but significant until old age. For Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, individual differences in change were most pronounced in emerging adulthood and decreased throughout midlife and old age. For Emotional Stability, individual differences in change were relatively consistent across the life span. These results inform theories of life span development and provide future directions for research on the causes and conditions of personality change. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Assessing personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irbha Magotra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study has attempted to explore personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption through the development of an index named as Technology Adoption Index. For developing the index, exploratory factor analysis approach has been employed on the sample of 1201 responses collected from the residents of 12 different cities in India. Accordingly, the results of the index have indicated significant role of seven personal traits, namely, optimism, innovativeness, self-efficacy, risk taking propensity, habit, social influence and psychological resilience while manifesting personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption, i.e., the technology adoption propensity of the individuals. Further, an attempt has also been made to explore the socio-economic characteristics of the individuals possessing distinct level of personal disposition towards technology adoption. Accordingly, the results have unveiled that the personal disposition of the individuals towards technology adoption increases with enhancement in their income and qualification but decreases with enhancement in their age. As a measurement tool, Technology Adoption Index can be used as ready-recknor by practitioners for the identification of technology adoption propensity of the individuals. This will facilitate organizations in developing and designing new products and services which can be readily accepted by the individuals.

  6. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    Persons suffering from dementia progressively loose language skills, cognitive skills, memory function, perception, etc. Still they seem to respond to music and to interact in the music therapy setting. As part of a Ph.D.-research I have worked with 6 persons suffering from middle to last stages...... of dementia in individual music therapy. I have focused on the use of familiar songs in order to create a safe and secure setting and enhance communication and reminiscence. In the presentation I give examples of how the persons respond to the music, how the individual music therapy sessions are build up...

  7. Personality characteristics and body image in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarısoy, Gökhan; Atmaca, Ayşegül; Ecemiş, Gülçin; Gümüş, Kübra; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the personality characteristics of obese and morbidly obese individuals with no psychiatric disorder and the correlation between these characteristics and body image and self-esteem. Sixty-nine obese individuals and 69 healthy controls, matched in age, sex and marital status, were included in the study. Psychiatric disorders were excluded for all participants using SCID-I and II. Obese and healthy volunteers were compared in terms of body image, self-esteem and personality characteristics. TCI harm avoidance scores were higher in obese individuals compared to healthy controls. Harm avoidance scores were also higher in individuals with morbid obesity compared to non-morbid individuals, while self-directedness and persistence scores were lower. Body image dissatisfaction was higher in obese individuals. There was a negative correlation in obese individuals between body image and self-esteem scale scores and harm avoidance scores, and a positive correlation with self-directedness scores. An elevated harm avoidance temperament characteristic may be correlated with obesity. Furthermore, high harm avoidance, low self-directedness and low persistence may be significant personality characteristics in a process leading to morbid obesity. In addition, harm avoidance temperament and self-directedness personality characteristics may be correlated with body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem in obese individuals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Habituation in acoustic startle reflex: individual differences in personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Balada, Ferran; Aluja, Anton

    2014-03-01

    This study analyzed the relationship of individual differences in personality with habituation in the acoustic startle response (ASR). Data from nine trials in ASR to white noise bursts and a personality questionnaire based on the alternative big five personality approach were modelled with a latent growth curve (LCM) including intercept and slope habituation growth factors. There was a negative correlation between the intercept and slope, indicating that individuals with higher initial ASR levels had also a more pronounced and faster decrease in the ASR. Contrary to expectations, Extraversion and Sensation Seeking did not relate with habituation in ASR. Neuroticism and Aggressiveness related asymmetrically with the habituation rate in ASR. Higher levels of Neuroticism were related with faster habituation, whereas higher levels of Aggressiveness were related with slower habituation. Further studies with the LCM should be undertaken to clarify in a greater extent the association of personality with habituation in ASR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Individual personality differences in Port Jackson sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, E E; Brown, C

    2016-08-01

    This study examined interindividual personality differences between Port Jackson sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni utilizing a standard boldness assay. Additionally, the correlation between differences in individual boldness and stress reactivity was examined, exploring indications of individual coping styles. Heterodontus portusjacksoni demonstrated highly repeatable individual differences in boldness and stress reactivity. Individual boldness scores were highly repeatable across four trials such that individuals that were the fastest to emerge in the first trial were also the fastest to emerge in subsequent trials. Additionally, individuals that were the most reactive to a handling stressor in the first trial were also the most reactive in a second trial. The strong link between boldness and stress response commonly found in teleosts was also evident in this study, providing evidence of proactive-reactive coping styles in H. portusjacksoni. These results demonstrate the presence of individual personality differences in sharks for the first time. Understanding how personality influences variation in elasmobranch behaviour such as prey choice, habitat use and activity levels is critical to better managing these top predators which play important ecological roles in marine ecosystems. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Individual Differences in Accurately Judging Personality From Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith A; Goh, Jin X; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Hagedorn, Christian

    2016-08-01

    This research examines correlates of accuracy in judging Big Five traits from first-person text excerpts. Participants in six studies were recruited from psychology courses or online. In each study, participants performed a task of judging personality from text and performed other ability tasks and/or filled out questionnaires. Participants who were more accurate in judging personality from text were more likely to be female; had personalities that were more agreeable, conscientious, and feminine, and less neurotic and dominant (all controlling for participant gender); scored higher on empathic concern; self-reported more interest in, and attentiveness to, people's personalities in their daily lives; and reported reading more for pleasure, especially fiction. Accuracy was not associated with SAT scores but had a significant relation to vocabulary knowledge. Accuracy did not correlate with tests of judging personality and emotion based on audiovisual cues. This research is the first to address individual differences in accurate judgment of personality from text, thus adding to the literature on correlates of the good judge of personality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Individual differences in personality predict how people look at faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B Perlman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the ways in which personality traits interact with contextual determinants to shape social behavior remains an important area of empirical investigation. The specific personality trait of neuroticism has been related to characteristic negative emotionality and associated with heightened attention to negative, emotionally arousing environmental signals. However, the mechanisms by which this personality trait may shape social behavior remain largely unspecified.We employed eye tracking to investigate the relationship between characteristics of visual scanpaths in response to emotional facial expressions and individual differences in personality. We discovered that the amount of time spent looking at the eyes of fearful faces was positively related to neuroticism.This finding is discussed in relation to previous behavioral research relating personality to selective attention for trait-congruent emotional information, neuroimaging studies relating differences in personality to amygdala reactivity to socially relevant stimuli, and genetic studies suggesting linkages between the serotonin transporter gene and neuroticism. We conclude that personality may be related to interpersonal interaction by shaping aspects of social cognition as basic as eye contact. In this way, eye gaze represents a possible behavioral link in a complex relationship between genes, brain function, and personality.

  12. Individual differences in personality predict how people look at faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Susan B; Morris, James P; Vander Wyk, Brent C; Green, Steven R; Doyle, Jaime L; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2009-06-22

    Determining the ways in which personality traits interact with contextual determinants to shape social behavior remains an important area of empirical investigation. The specific personality trait of neuroticism has been related to characteristic negative emotionality and associated with heightened attention to negative, emotionally arousing environmental signals. However, the mechanisms by which this personality trait may shape social behavior remain largely unspecified. We employed eye tracking to investigate the relationship between characteristics of visual scanpaths in response to emotional facial expressions and individual differences in personality. We discovered that the amount of time spent looking at the eyes of fearful faces was positively related to neuroticism. This finding is discussed in relation to previous behavioral research relating personality to selective attention for trait-congruent emotional information, neuroimaging studies relating differences in personality to amygdala reactivity to socially relevant stimuli, and genetic studies suggesting linkages between the serotonin transporter gene and neuroticism. We conclude that personality may be related to interpersonal interaction by shaping aspects of social cognition as basic as eye contact. In this way, eye gaze represents a possible behavioral link in a complex relationship between genes, brain function, and personality.

  13. Individual personalities shape task differentiation in a social spider

    OpenAIRE

    Grinsted, Lena; Pruitt, Jonathan N.; Settepani, Virginia; Bilde, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering the mechanisms involved in shaping social structure is key to a deeper understanding of the evolutionary processes leading to sociality. Individual specialization within groups can increase colony efficiency and consequently productivity. Here, we test the hypothesis that within-group variation in individual personalities (i.e. boldness and aggression) can shape task differentiation. The social spider Stegodyphus sarasinorum (Eresidae) showed task differentiation (significant uneq...

  14. Individual Educational Programs for Handicapped Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbargen, Arthur; Hasbargen, Janet L.

    1978-01-01

    Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, will require home economics teachers to participate in preparing individual educational programs for their handicapped students. The article gives requirements of the law and an example of a teacher-made check list for bathroom skills. (MF)

  15. Students' Individual and Social Behaviors with Physical Education Teachers' Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Sourki, Mehdi Sadeghian; Bonjar, Seyedeh Elaham Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    The main objective for this survey is to assess the relationship between physical education teachers' personality and students' individual with social behaviors. The statistical population of the study was all the teachers of physical education working at high schools in the academic year 2012-2013. The sample consisted of sixty teachers that were…

  16. Behavioural reaction norms : Animal personality meets individual plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, Niels J.; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Reale, Denis; Wright, Jonathan

    Recent studies in the field of behavioural ecology have revealed intriguing variation in behaviour within single populations. Increasing evidence suggests that individual animals differ in their average level of behaviour displayed across a range of contexts (animal 'personality'), and in their

  17. Individual personalities shape task differentiation in a social spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsted, Lena; Pruitt, Jonathan N; Settepani, Virginia; Bilde, Trine

    2013-09-22

    Deciphering the mechanisms involved in shaping social structure is key to a deeper understanding of the evolutionary processes leading to sociality. Individual specialization within groups can increase colony efficiency and consequently productivity. Here, we test the hypothesis that within-group variation in individual personalities (i.e. boldness and aggression) can shape task differentiation. The social spider Stegodyphus sarasinorum (Eresidae) showed task differentiation (significant unequal participation) in simulated prey capture events across 10-day behavioural assays in the field, independent of developmental stage (level of maturation), eliminating age polyethism. Participation in prey capture was positively associated with level of boldness but not with aggression. Body size positively correlated with being the first spider to emerge from the colony as a response to prey capture but not with being the first to attack, and dispersal distance from experimental colonies correlated with attacking but not with emerging. This suggests that different behavioural responses to prey capture result from a complex set of individual characteristics. Boldness and aggression correlated positively, but neither was associated with body size, developmental stage or dispersal distance. Hence, we show that personalities shape task differentiation in a social spider independent of age and maturation. Our results suggest that personality measures obtained in solitary, standardized laboratory settings can be reliable predictors of behaviour in a social context in the field. Given the wealth of organisms that show consistent individual behavioural differences, animal personality could play a role in social organization in a diversity of animals.

  18. Reduced Personal Space in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Asada

    Full Text Available Maintaining an appropriate distance from others is important for establishing effective communication and good interpersonal relations. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disorder associated with social difficulties, and it is thus worth examining whether individuals with ASD maintain typical or atypical degrees of social distance. Any atypicality of social distancing may impact daily social interactions. We measured the preferred distances when individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD individuals approached other people (a male experimenter and objects (a coat rack with clothes or when other people approached them. Individuals with ASD showed reduced interpersonal distances compared to TD individuals. The same tendency was found when participants judged their preferred distance from objects. In addition, when being approached by other people, both individuals with ASD and TD individuals maintained larger interpersonal distances when there was eye contact, compared to no eye contact. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have a relatively small personal space, and that this atypicality exists not only for persons but also for objects.

  19. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1990-01-01

    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  20. Individual differences and reasoning: a study on personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, Luca; Giusberti, Fiorella; Nori, Raffaella; Gambetti, Elisa

    2010-08-01

    Personality can play a crucial role in how people reason and decide. Identifying individual differences related to how we actively gather information and use evidence could lead to a better comprehension and predictability of human reasoning. Recent findings have shown that some personality traits are related to similar decision-making patterns showed by people with mental disorders. We performed research with the aim to investigate delusion-proneness, obsessive-like personality, anxiety (trait and state), and reasoning styles in individuals from the general population. We introduced personality trait and state anxiety scores in a regression model to explore specific associations with: (1) amount of data-gathered prior to making a decision; and (2) the use of confirmatory and disconfirmatory evidence. Results showed that all our independent variables were positively or negatively associated with the amount of data collected in order to make simple probabilistic decisions. Anxiety and obsessiveness were the only predictors of the weight attributed to evidence in favour or against a hypothesis. Findings were discussed in relation to theoretical assumptions, predictions, and clinical implications. Personality traits can predict peculiar ways to reason and decide that, in turn, could be involved to some extent in the formation and/or maintenance of psychological disorders.

  1. The relationship of individual psychological and individual-typological characteristics in individuals with personality disorders, committed socially dangerous acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinsky A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between individual psychological and individually-typological characteristics of patients with personality disorders who committed socially dangerous acts were studied, taking into account the severity of the organic factor and the degree of their social dangerousness. 121 males were surveyed, 70 of them were diagnosed with "organic personality disorder" and 33 - personality disorder. The types of personality disorders were diagnosed. The individual variables, the ratio of processes of system activation of behavior and its inhibition, protective styles, especially coping behaviours that constitute aggression, styles of self-regulation were analyzed. It was revealed that low settings of the system activation behavior found in the group of persons with a high degree of social dangerousness, determines the formation of individual psychological treats related to the rigidity behavior, the instability of the motives, impulsivity, negative emotionality, disinhibition. During comparison of samples of individuals with medium and high degree of social dangerousness it has been discovered that self-centeredness, as a component of self-control, high levels of affective components of aggression – anger and immature defense mechanisms significantly distinguish individuals with a high degree of public danger.

  2. Invasive cane toads: social facilitation depends upon an individual's personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna González-Bernal

    Full Text Available Individual variation in behavioural traits (including responses to social cues may influence the success of invasive populations. We studied the relationship between sociality and personality in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina from a recently established population in tropical Australia. In our field experiments, we manipulated social cues (the presence of a feeding conspecific near a food source. We captured and compared toads that only approached feeding sites where another toad was already present, with conspecifics that approached unoccupied feeding sites. Subsequent laboratory trials showed correlated personality differences (behavioural syndromes between these two groups of toads. For example, toads that approached already-occupied rather than unoccupied feeding sites in the field, took longer to emerge from a shelter-site in standardized trials, suggesting these individuals are 'shy' (whereas toads that approached unoccupied feeding stations tended to be 'bold'. Manipulating hunger levels did not abolish this difference. In feeding trials, a bold toad typically outcompeted a shy toad under conditions of low prey availability, but the outcome was reversed when multiple prey items were present. Thus, both personality types may be favored under different circumstances. This invasive population of toads contains individuals that exhibit a range of personalities, hinting at the existence of a wide range of social dynamics in taxa traditionally considered to be asocial.

  3. Revitalization - an organizational program for the individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    Progressive devitalization is a malady that afflicts many workers resulting in tremendous costs to organizations. This malady has long been recognized by management but little has been done to treat it. A new approach to the problem has been insitituted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in the form of a group program called Revitalization. Early results have been very encouraging. The program will continue to be designed and improved in the hope of bringing more productivity to the organization and self-esteem to the individual.

  4. Using the knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture to predict self-efficacy within individual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James B

    2008-10-01

    The knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture has potential as a theoretical framework for understanding the formation of self-efficacy in individuals. Two patterns were observed within 14 of 17 individual persons: a pattern of strong self-efficacy was displayed across outdoor recreation activities for which a self-descriptive attribute was viewed as an asset to successful performances, and a pattern of relatively weak self-efficacy was observed across outdoor recreation activities for which the same attribute was considered a hindrance to performances. Although the theory predicts self-efficacy within individuals, more research is needed to assess why the theory is not accurate in all cases.

  5. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships.

  6. Personality, emotion, and individual differences in physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, Gerhard; Wacker, Jan

    2010-07-01

    A dominant paradigm in biopsychological personality research seeks to establish links between emotional and motivational traits and habitual, transsituationally consistent individual differences in measures of physiological activity. An alternative approach conceptualizes traits as dispositions that are only operative in certain situational contexts and consequently predicts associations between emotional and motivational traits and physiological activity only for trait-relevant situational contexts in which the physiological systems underlying the traits in question are engaged. In the present paper we first examine and contrast these personistic and interactionistic conceptualizations of personality and personality-physiology associations and then present data from several large studies (N>100) in which electrocortical (e.g., frontal alpha asymmetry) and somatovisceral parameters were measured in various situational contexts (e.g., after the induction of either anger, or fear, or anxiety). As predicted by the interactionistic conceptualization of traits as dispositions the situational context and its subjective representation by the participants moderated the personality-physiology relationships for measures of both central and peripheral nervous system activity. We conclude by outlining the implications of the interactionistic approach for biopsychological personality research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pain and Personality: Do Individuals with Different Forms of Chronic Pain Exhibit a Mutual Personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, Sylvia M; Burke, Lucinda A; Peck, Chris C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A

    2016-04-01

    The role of personality in the experience of chronic pain is a growing field, with endless debate regarding the existence of a "pain personality". This study aims to compare different chronic pain types and consolidate the existence of a common personality. Thirty-two females with chronic orofacial pain and 37 age-matched healthy females were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Chronic pain subjects had either trigeminal neuropathy (neuropathic pain) or temporomandibular disorders (nociceptive pain). This study revealed that individuals with different chronic pain types exhibit a mutual personality profile encompassing significantly higher scores in Harm Avoidance and significantly lower scores in Self-Directedness when compared to healthy subjects. In fact, this combination is associated with Cluster C personality disorders. In conclusion, our study reveals that irrespective of type, chronic pain may be associated with Cluster C personality disorders. Indeed, there has never been empirical evidence in the past to suggest that chronic pain as an overall concept is associated with any particular personality disorders. Therefore, a potential future avenue of chronic pain treatment may lie in targeting particular personality aspects and shift the target of pain-relieving treatments from sensory and psychologically state focused to psychologically trait focused. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  8. Violations of Personal Space by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The ability to maintain an appropriate physical distance (i.e., interpersonal distance) from others is a critical aspect of social interaction and contributes importantly to real-life social functioning. In Study 1, using parent-report data that had been acquired on a large number of individuals (ages 4–18 years) for the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and the Simons Simplex Collection, we found that those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; n = 766) more often violated the space of others compared to their unaffected siblings (n = 766). This abnormality held equally across ASD diagnostic categories, and correlated with clinical measures of communication and social functioning. In Study 2, laboratory experiments in a sample of high-functioning adults with ASD demonstrated an altered relationship between interpersonal distance and personal space, and documented a complete absence of personal space in 3 individuals with ASD. Furthermore, anecdotal self-report from several participants confirmed that violations of social distancing conventions continue to occur in real-world interactions through adulthood. We suggest that atypical social distancing behavior offers a practical and sensitive measure of social dysfunction in ASD, and one whose psychological and neurological substrates should be further investigated. PMID:25100326

  9. Personality traits affect individual interests in day service activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kumiko; Sasaki, Akiko; Tanuma, Tomoko

    2009-12-01

    To assess the association of user interest in various activities with personality traits for the provision of activity programs at adult day centers. A self-reported questionnaire survey of service users was conducted at 25 day centers in Tokyo; 133 men and 344 women, with a mean age of 81.6 +/- 7.9 years, responded. The questionnaire examined their demographics, lifestyles, requested activities, purpose of activity participation, attitudes toward participation, and personality traits by using the BASIC-3 Personality Inventory (PI)-short version. The participants with higher sociability and novelty-seeking scores on the BASIC-3 PI-short version requested significantly more activities than those with lower scores. Music appreciation and singing were significantly associated with both sociability and novelty-seeking facets. The sociability facets were significantly associated with activities, such as walking and interaction with children, while the novelty-seeking facets were significantly associated with contact with animals and the Internet. There was no significant relationship between the neuroticism facets and any specific activity. Flower arrangement, handicrafts, fashion or make up, cooking, and singing were significantly more frequently requested by the women than by the men, while shogi or mahjong was requested significantly more frequently by the men than by the women. Sociability and novelty-seeking facets, sex, and age were significantly associated with an interest in particular activities. We recommend that adult day centers create a system under which nurses and formal caregivers fully assess the elderly in order to provide activity programs based on user needs.

  10. FEMA Registration Intake and Individuals Household Program - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The dataset is composed of Registration Intake and Individuals and Households Program (IHP) Information from the Individual Assistance (IA) reporting authority where...

  11. Using corneal topography design personalized cataract surgery programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ou Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate how to design personalized cataract surgery programs to achieve surgical correction of preoperative corneal astigmatism with surgical astigmatism under the guidance of corneal topography, improve postoperative visual quality and reduce the cost of treatment. METHODS: Totally 202 cases(226 eyescataract patients were divided into randomized treatment group and individualized treatment group. According to the method and location of the incision, randomized treatment group were divided into 8 groups. Surgical astigmatism after different incision were calculated with the use of preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism through vector analysis method. Individualized treatment groups were designed personably for surgical method with reference of every surgically induced astigmatism, the surgical method chooses the type of surgical incision based on close link between preoperative corneal astigmatism and surgically induced astigmatism, and the incision was located in the steep meridian. The postoperative corneal astigmatism of individualized treatment group was observed. RESULTS: Postoperative corneal astigmatism of individualized treatment group were lower than that of 3.0mm clear corneal tunnel incision in the randomized treatment group, there were statistically significance difference, while with 3.0mm sclera tunnel incision group there were no statistically significance difference. After 55.8% of patients with the use of individualized surgical plan could undergo the operation of extracapsular cataract extraction with relatively low cost and rigid intraocular lens implantation, the per capita cost of treatment could be reduced. CONCLUSION: Personalized cataract surgery programs are designed to achieve surgical correction of preoperative corneal astigmatism under the use of corneal topography, improve postoperative visual quality and reduce the cost of treatment.

  12. Predicting Smartphone Operating System from Personality and Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Heather; Ellis, David A; Kendrick, Libby-Rae; Ziegler, Fenja; Wiseman, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Android and iPhone devices account for over 90 percent of all smartphones sold worldwide. Despite being very similar in functionality, current discourse and marketing campaigns suggest that key individual differences exist between users of these two devices; however, this has never been investigated empirically. This is surprising, as smartphones continue to gain momentum across a variety of research disciplines. In this article, we consider if individual differences exist between these two distinct groups. In comparison to Android users, we found that iPhone owners are more likely to be female, younger, and increasingly concerned about their smartphone being viewed as a status object. Key differences in personality were also observed with iPhone users displaying lower levels of Honesty-Humility and higher levels of emotionality. Following this analysis, we were also able to build and test a model that predicted smartphone ownership at above chance level based on these individual differences. In line with extended self-theory, the type of smartphone owned provides some valuable information about its owner. These findings have implications for the increasing use of smartphones within research particularly for those working within Computational Social Science and PsychoInformatics, where data are typically collected from devices and applications running a single smartphone operating system.

  13. PERSONALITY CORRELATES OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ELECTRODERMAL LABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cruz, Maribel H; Larsen, Randy J

    1995-01-01

    ...) and a battery of personality measures. In contrast to previous work, which emphasizes cognitive correlates of EDA lability, in this study a broad-band personality inventory and specific emotion-relevant personality dispositions were administered...

  14. In search of meaning: A reminiscence program for older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, G.J.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Valenkamp, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot evaluation is reported of a reminiscence program aimed at increasing personal meaning. Fifty-seven older persons completed both a sentence completion questionnaire measuring personal meaning and a depression scale administered before and after the program. In comparison to a group from a

  15. A synopsis of the WPA Educational Program on Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Ronningstam, Elsa; Millon, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the headlines of the Educational Program on Personality Disorders produced by the WPA Section on Personality Disorders and the International Society on the Study of Personality Disorders. Lifelong personality traits serve as a substrate and a context for understanding more...... is substantial. Numerous theories, models and methods have been proposed to describe and to understand personality and its disorders: descriptive, statistical, psychoanalytic, evolutionary, neurobiologic. Classification has either taken a prototypical or a polythetic approach, but in recent years dimensional...

  16. Changing Personal Epistemologies in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers Using an Integrated Teaching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Jo; Petriwskyj, Anne; Thorpe, Karen; Stacey, Phillip; Gibson, Megan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated changes in pre-service teachers' personal epistemologies as they engaged in an integrated teaching program. Personal epistemology refers to individual beliefs about the nature of knowing and knowledge and has been shown to influence teaching practice. An integrated approach to teaching, based on both an "implicit"…

  17. 32 CFR 310.17 - Individual access to personal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal information in a system of records to the system manager or to the office designated in the DoD...) The personal uncirculated handwritten notes of unit leaders, office supervisors, or military...

  18. 34 CFR 300.320 - Definition of individualized education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of individualized education program. 300.320... Programs, and Educational Placements Individualized Education Programs § 300.320 Definition of...) of the Act; and (ii) If the IEP Team determines that the child must take an alternate assessment...

  19. Interpretation bias towards vague faces in individuals with paranoid personality disorder traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Doustkam

    2017-10-01

     Conclusion: Individuals with paranoid personality traits have more biases than normal individuals in terms of interpreting vague faces. The results of this study indicated the importance of attention to cognitive biases among individuals with paranoid personality traits or paranoid personality disorder because such biases can significantly influence behavioral patterns in individuals, and consequently degrade their functioning. Also, bias towards the processing of negative signs appears to be the most important cognitive element is involved in interpersonal relationships.

  20. Programs for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, C. J.

    This publication describes the programs and services offered through the Office of Developmental Disabilities of the Illinois Department of Human Services. Introductory information includes an overview of supports and service, a definition of "developmental disability," and a guide to the publication. This is followed by a description of…

  1. Individual difficulties faced by persons with mobility impairments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Disabled persons are experiencing additional difficulties when interacting with systems, applications or devices and also have their own unique requirements that enable them to use a system. If the design of the system does not support...

  2. Multimodal representations of person identity individuated with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzellotti, Stefano; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Recognizing the identity of a person is fundamental to guide social interactions. We can recognize the identity of a person looking at her face, but also listening to her voice. An important question concerns how visual and auditory information come together, enabling us to recognize identity independently of the modality of the stimulus. This study reports converging evidence across univariate contrasts and multivariate classification showing that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), previously known to encode polymodal visual and auditory representations, encodes information about person identity with invariance within and across modality. In particular, pSTS shows selectivity for faces, selectivity for voices, classification of face identity across image transformations within the visual modality, and classification of person identity across modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 34 CFR 300.22 - Individualized education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.22 Individualized education program... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized education program. 300.22 Section 300.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  4. Personal support networks, social capital, and risk of relapse among individuals treated for substance use issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Daria; Gallupe, Owen; Carrington, Peter J; Colozzi, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The success of treatment for substance use issues varies with personal and social factors, including the composition and structure of the individual's personal support network. This paper describes the personal support networks and social capital of a sample of Italian adults after long-term residential therapeutic treatment for substance use issues, and analyses network correlates of post-treatment substance use (relapse). Using a social network analysis approach, data were obtained from structured interviews (90-120 min long) with 80 former clients of a large non-governmental therapeutic treatment agency in Italy providing voluntary residential treatments and rehabilitation services for substance use issues. Participants had concluded the program at least six months prior. Data were collected on socio-demographic variables, addiction history, current drug use status (drug-free or relapsed), and the composition and structure of personal support networks. Factors related to risk of relapse were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. A main goal of this study was to identify differences between the support network profiles of drug free and relapsed participants. Drug free participants had larger, less dense, more heterogeneous and reciprocal support networks, and more brokerage social capital than relapsed participants. Additionally, a lower risk of relapse was associated with higher socio-economic status, being married/cohabiting, and having network members with higher socio-economic status, who have greater occupational heterogeneity, and reciprocate support. Post-treatment relapse was found to be negatively associated with the socioeconomic status and occupational heterogeneity of ego's support network, reciprocity in the ties between ego and network members, and a support network in which the members are relatively loosely connected with one another (i.e., ego possesses "brokerage social capital"). These findings suggest the

  5. Public dental health care program for persons with disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the organization and content of the Danish public oral health care program for persons with disability, and (2) to analyse possible variations in relation to the goals and requirements set by the health authorities. Data were collected by means...... of knowledge of oral health and oral health care for persons with disability were barriers to equal access to the program. Preventive dental services were the most frequent services delivered, although relatively few oral hygienists were involved in the program. Special training was most frequent in large...... municipalities. To secure equal access for persons with disability, it is recommended that joint collaboration between smaller municipalities should be made regarding procedures of such programs. Special training of dental personnel and of the staff responsible for selecting persons for the program should...

  6. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2002-01-01

    of the 6 participants, a view of the clinical music therapy setting, video examples exemplifying different response categories, graphically correlation tendencied between musical and physiological responses, and finally a short case example of the way a person with dementia emotionally profits from......Persons in middle or last stages of dementia seem to respond less and less to music. Experiences from clinical music therapy practise with a structured and safe setting shows that this population responds to music therapy and communicates musically. The presentation consists of a short description...

  7. Personality Type Influences Attentional Bias in Individuals with Chronic Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë C Franklin

    Full Text Available Attentional biases reflect an individual's selective attention to salient stimuli within their environment, for example an experience of back pain. Eysenck suggests that different personality types show different attentional biases to threatening information. This study is the first to test Eysenck's theory within a chronic back pain population by investigating the attentional biases of four different personality types using a back pain specific dot-probe paradigm. Participants were 70 volunteers (45 female recruited from a back rehabilitation program at an NHS Trust. The four groups were selected on their trait anxiety and defensiveness scores: defensive high-anxious; high-anxious; repressor and non-extreme. Participants completed a dot probe task comprising 20 practice trials and 250 experimental trials. The experimental trials contained 100 threat-neutral pairs, 100 positive-neutral pairs and 50 neutral-neutral image pairings. The threat images were taken from the Photograph Series of Daily Activities (PHODA and the neutral and positive images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS image bank. The results provided partial support for Eysenck's theory; defensive high-anxious individuals showed an attentional bias for threatening information compared to high-anxious individuals who demonstrated no bias. Repressors showed an avoidant bias to threatening images and an attentional bias to positive stimuli relative to neutral images. The clear difference in responses demonstrated by high-anxious individuals who vary in defensiveness highlight the need for separate investigation of these heterogeneous groups and help to explain the cognitive processes of defensive high-anxious individuals within a pain population. The demonstration of an attentional bias in this group to threatening information could explain why defensive high-anxious individuals are more likely to re-present for treatment.

  8. Genetic and environmental sources of individual religiousness: the roles of individual personality traits and perceived environmental religiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer

    2013-07-01

    In the current study, we examined the genetic and environmental sources of the links between individual religiousness and individual personality traits, perceived parental religiousness, and perceived peer religiousness. Data from 870 individuals (incl. 394 twin pairs) were analyzed. Variance in individual religiousness was significantly influenced by genetic effects, environmental influences shared by twins reared together, and individual-specific environmental influences. Individual religiousness showed significant associations with age, sex, specific personality traits (e.g., agreeableness, openness to values), and perceived religiousness of important social interaction partners, such as parents, best friends, and spouses. The links to personality traits were relatively small and primarily genetically mediated. The associations between individual religiousness and parental religiousness were substantial and mediated by shared environmental effects. These links significantly decreased across age accompanying a significant decrease of shared environmental influences on individual religiousness. The correlations between individual religiousness and perceived religiousness of spouses and best friends were relatively moderate but increased with age. These associations were mediated by genetic as well as nonshared environmental sources accompanying an increase of nonshared environmental influences on individual religiousness with age. The results suggest that inter-individual differences in religiousness are due to multiple sources.

  9. Nothing personal : algorithmic individuation on music streaming platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prey, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Raymond Williams once wrote, ‘… there are in fact no masses, but only ways of seeing people as masses’. In an age of personalized media, the word ‘masses’ seems like an anachronism. Nevertheless, if Williams were to study contemporary online platforms, he would no doubt conclude that there are in

  10. The relationship between individual personality orientation and principals’ leadership behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faribah Gorkani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between personality types and leadership styles in the city's high school principals. The population of this survey includes all principals of secondary schools in city of Zanjan, Iran. Using a stratified random sampling, 48 principals were surveyed. To assess the reliability of the questionnaire, a pretest was accomplished by distributing 20 questionnaires among the target population and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.79. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics has been used. The study has confirmed that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between personality and leadership style. In addition, the study has confirmed that there were positive and meaningful relationships between task/relationship-oriented leadership style and principals’ competition/ Impatience and restlessness behavior.

  11. Individual Music Therapy with Persons with Frontotemporal Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2007-01-01

    -known songs are applied in order to build up structure and stability and/or as means of arousal regulation. Songs with personal meaning make it possible to acknowledge the person's emotions, breaking the social isolation, and meeting the music therapy participant's psychosocial needs. The clinical approach......It is possible to slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease with pharmacological treatment. When this treatment is given to people with types of dementia that affect the frontal and temporal lobes (Frontotemporal Dementia) the results are discouraging. It is observed that the patients show...... pronounced restlessness and mania. In this article we describe a nonpharmacological psychosocial approach, music therapy, and how it is possible to work with this method when constitutional, regulative, dialogical, and integrative aspects are included. The focus is on therapeutic singing where well...

  12. Individually-Personal Peculiarities of Younger Preschoolers’ Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Novikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying the speech of the younger preschoolers is a major factor in designing educational methods and preparing children for school. There exist individual and gender differences in the way children acquire speech skills. Word comprehension and idea interpretation depend on the child’s upbringing, his or her environment, the interaction within the family. This article submits the research data obtained from the study of the individual peculiarities of the younger preschool children’s speech.

  13. Systematic evaluation of personal genome services for Japanese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Takashi; Kawashima, Minae; Nishino, Seiji; Swan, Melanie; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Butte, Atul J

    2013-11-01

    Disease risk prediction (DRP) is one of the most important challenges in personal genome research. Although many direct-to-consumer genetic test (DTC) companies have begun to offer personal genome services for DRP, there is still no consensus on what constitutes a gold-standard service. Here, we systematically evaluated the distributions of DRPs from three DTC companies, that is, 23andMe, Navigenics and deCODEme, for 22 diseases using three Japanese samples. We systematically quantified and analyzed the differences between each DTC company's DRPs. Our independency test showed that the overall prediction results were correlated with each other, but not perfectly matched; less than onethird mismatching of the opposite direction occurred in eight diseases. Moreover, we found that the differences could mainly be attributed to four factors: (1) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selection, (2) average risk estimation, (3) the disease risk calculation algorithm and (4) ethnicity adjustment. In particular, only 7.1% of SNPs over 22 diseases were reviewed by all three companies. Therefore, development of a universal core SNPs list for non-Caucasian samples will be important for achieving better prediction capacity for Japanese samples. This systematic methodology provides useful insights for improving the capacity of DRPs in future personal genome services.

  14. DOD Personal Property Shipment and Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-10

    standards, and criteria governing the procurement of services required to ship, store, and handle personal property. The term does not include... of Services . Services may be procured only from respon- sible carriers, storage firms, arid contractors. To be determined responsible, carriers, their...standards, efficiency, economy, and cost-effectiveness, and ensure that it is consistent with the following criteria: 4y Vor 3I 3. ...f., 1. Procurement

  15. The Effect of Literature on Personality Development of Individuals Using Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlilioglu, Kasim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate whether literature has effect on the personality development of individuals or not. This works aims to provide answers to the following research questions: "Does literature have effect on individuals' general harmony level, their social cohesion levels, personal harmony level, self-actualization level,…

  16. Effect of personality development program for medical and nursing students: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personal development is an ongoing but complex process and it is crucial for the medical educator to recognize the trait and design the training for optimal development of students. Though importance of human personality is widely recognized for functional efficiency of an individual and organization, but its recognition is grossly missing from medical curriculum. Aim: To organize and evaluate the 'Personality Development Program' for medical and nursing students.Methods: First year medical and nursing students were recruited through total enumeration method. 'Personality development program' was conducted by a trained psychologist and it was evaluated through 'partially open ended anonymous structured feedback'.Results: Majority of the students found this program relevant, comprehensive and purposeful. Again majority had perceived some improvement in their confidence and level of communication, interpersonal relationships, planned time schedule, emotional confidence, and better stress management. They have also narrated shortcomings of the program along with some constructive suggestions.Conclusion: This preliminary attempt for personality development was highly appreciated by the students as well as their supervisors as a means to professional development. It further emphasizes the vital need of ongoing programs both for enhancing personality and professionalism.Key words: Personality development, enhancement, medical and nursing students

  17. Individual Music Therapy with Persons with Frontotemporal Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Aldridge, David

    2005-01-01

    songs are applied in order to build up structure and stability and/or as means of arousal regulation. Songs with personal meaning make it possible to acknowledge the person’s emotions, breaking the social isolation, and meeting the music therapy participant’s psychosocial needs. The clinical approach......It is possible to slow down the progression of Alzheimer’s disease with pharmacological treatment. When this treatment is given to people with types of dementia that affect the frontal and temporal lobes (Frontotemporal Dementia) the results are discouraging. It is observed that the patients show...... pronounced restlessness and mania. In this article we describe a non-pharmacological psychosocial approach, music therapy, and how it is possible to work with this method when constitutional, regulative, dialogical, and integrative aspects are included. The focus is on therapeutic singing where well known...

  18. 34 CFR 300.112 - Individualized education programs (IEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized education programs (IEP). 300.112 Section 300.112 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... education programs (IEP). The State must ensure that an IEP, or an IFSP that meets the requirements of...

  19. End user programming with personally meaningful objects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew Cyrus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available departure point was the domain of computer programming and as we discovered later, the general research domain of psychology would ultimately provide the theoretical underpinnings for our work. These are the theory of Semiotics and the principles... with our experience in this project when we had to access knowledge beyond the research domain of Computer Science by accessing Psychology domain knowledge. We applied Vaishnavi and Kuechler’s (2008) process model since it makes explicit...

  20. 34 CFR 300.23 - Individualized education program team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.23 Individualized... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized education program team. 300.23 Section 300.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  1. Individual Stress Management Coursework in Canadian Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher stress is a significant issue facing the teaching profession. The current paper explores individual stress management as a viable option to address stress in this profession. Specifically, Canadian teacher education programs are examined to identify the prevalence of pre-service teacher education courses focused on individual stress…

  2. A Comparison of the Effects of Command, Task and Individual Program Styles of Teaching on Four Developmental Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschee, Floyd

    This study compares the effects of command, task, and individual program styles of teaching as they affect specific skills in alley soccer, a game knowledge test on alley soccer, and personal and social adjustment. A battery of skills tests, a game knowledge test on alley soccer, and the California Test of Personality were given to 221…

  3. The primipara respons based on individual personality type to the intensity of delivery pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita N Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery period is one of periods that can cause stress to the mother and the fetus. This period is the natural common phenomenon that for some women subjectively can be considered as pain process that can cause simultaneous anxiety and pain. Psychology research has shown that pain is not only connected to physical respond, the culture that teaches and nurtures us also play important role in coping the pain. These two factors shape different personality for each individual. The objective of this study is to find out the primipara respons based on individual personality type to the intensity of delivery pain. The method of this study was analytical method with survey cross sectional approach. The data was collected prospectively from interview and questionnaire in the same time to find out the correlation between individual personality type and the intensity of delivery pain based on inclusive and exclusive period February 1st 2009 to April 30th 2009. The result with chi-square test and spearman rank test showed significant correlation between individual personality type and the intensity of delivery pain (X2= 8,571 ; p = 0,014. There is the negative correlation between extrovert individual personality and intensity of delivery pain (rs= -0,730; p <0,001, and there is the positive correlation between introvert individual personality type and intensity of delivery pain (rs = 0,726; p <0,001. Based on mann whitney, showed significant difference between extrovert personality type and introverts personality type to intensity of delivery pain (Z M-W: 3,050, p: 0,002. Based on chi-square test showed significant correlation between knowledge based on individual personality type to the intensity of delivery pain (X2= 4,418; p = 0,036 The conclusion of these study are the more extrovert individual personality type the less intense the delivery pain would be, the more introvert individual personality type then the more intense delivery pain would be. The

  4. Individual consistencies in behavior: achievement persistence interactions as personality styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes-Iñesta, Emilio; Contreras, Sagrario

    2007-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out to find within-subject consistencies as well as individual differences in a choice situation involving achievement persistence. Four volunteers, two men (21 and 23 years old) and two women (21 and 22 years old) were exposed twice, with a 1-mo. interval, to a filling-patterns task, to evaluate their choices for two options. For one option, task-time and outcomes for every response were constant. For the other option, task-time decreased in correlation with an increase in earnings for every response. Analyses showed reliable profiles for three of the four subjects when percent of responding to each option was compared in independent experiments. Results are discussed in terms of interactive styles.

  5. Effect of neurolinguistic programming training on self-actualization as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R C; Konefal, J; Spechler, M M

    1990-06-01

    Neurolinguistic programming training is based on principles that should enable the trainee to be more "present"-oriented, inner-directed, flexible, self-aware, and responsive to others, that is, more self-actualized. This study reports within-person changes on self-actualization measures of the Personal Orientation Inventory following a 24-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant positive mean changes were found for 18 master practitioners on nine of the 12 scales and for 36 practitioners on 10 of the 12 scales. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that training increases individual self-actualization scores.

  6. Examining differences in developmental work personality across disability category: Implications for individuals with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Strauser, David R; Wong, Alex W K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the differences in levels of work personality for persons with psychiatric disabilities compared to persons with other types of disabilities. Seventy one adults eligible to receive Vocational Rehabilitation services participated; 30 reported a physical disability, 26 reported a psychiatric disability, and 15 reported a learning disability. Eligible participants were recruited through VR offices and volunteered to participate. Results indicate that persons with psychiatric disabilities scored significantly lower on the Work Task and Social Skills subscales of the Developmental Work Personality Scale (DWPS) when compared to individuals with physical disabilities, but scored higher than individuals with physical and learning disabilities on the Role Model subscale. The results of this study provide some initial clarity regarding developmental work personality differences among three broad categories of disability. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  7. Personality as a Source of Individual Differences in Cognition among Older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T; Bichsel, Jacqueline; Allaire, Jason C; Savla, Jyoti; Edwards, Christopher L; Whitfield, Keith E

    2012-10-01

    Previous research suggests that demographic factors are important correlates of cognitive functioning in African Americans; however, less attention has been given to the influence of personality. The present study explored how dimensions and facets of personality predicted individual variability in cognition in a sample of older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging. Cognition was assessed by verbal learning and attention/working memory measures. Personality was measured by the NEO Personality Inventory. Linear regressions controlling for demographic factors showed that Neuroticism, Openness, and Agreeableness were significant regression predictors of cognitive performance. Individual facets of all five personality dimensions were also associated with cognitive performance. These findings suggest personality is important in understanding variability in cognition among older African Americans.

  8. On Individual Differences in Person Perception: Raters' Personality Traits Relate to Their Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Scoring Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K.; Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Murrie, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the…

  9. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  10. Personality dimensions and substance use in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelen, Evelien A P; Schijven, Esmée P; Otten, Roy; Didden, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of the personality dimensions anxiety sensitivity, negative thinking, impulsivity and sensation seeking (as assessed by the revised version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale; SURPS) in substance use in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). We tested the relationship between level of ID and SURPS personality dimensions and the relationship between SURPS personality dimensions and severity of alcohol and drug use. Participants were 118 persons (mean age 20.5 years) with a mean IQ of 71.1 admitted to care facilities for persons with MBID and severe behavioral problems. We found no significant relationship between level of ID and the four personality dimensions. In addition, findings showed that individuals with lower levels of anxiety sensitivity, higher levels of negative thinking, impulsivity and sensation seeking showed more severe alcohol use. Individuals with higher levels of negative thinking and sensation seeking had more severe drug use. The SURPS personality dimensions identify persons at increased risk for substance use disorders and might be useful in developing selective substance use interventions for individuals with MBID. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preference to use aggregators rather than individual deal sites: Impact of Big Five Inventory personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    personality traits on whether respondents prefer visiting individual deal sites, or aggregators, or they do not have any preference and visit both. Gender was used as a control variable. With regards, to the results, conscientiousness agreeableness, and openness to experi-ence influence the preference. Higher...... the values of all three variables, more likely it is that a person prefers aggregators....

  12. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  13. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D.; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor “source of funding”: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors “agreeableness” and “openness” showed moderate to modest – but significant – effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion. PMID:24624100

  14. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne ePrinz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002 lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version. Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor ‘source of funding’: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships had much higher rates of risk aversion (RRA than subjects with support from family (RRAdiff=0.22; p=0.018. Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the IQ significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors ‘agreeableness’ and ‘openness’ showed moderate to modest – but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion.

  15. Personality, foraging behavior and specialization: integrating behavioral and food web ecology at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Benjamin J; Gownaris, Natasha J; Heerhartz, Sarah M; Monaco, Cristián J

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral traits and diet were traditionally thought to be highly plastic within individuals. This view was espoused in the widespread use of optimality models, which broadly predict that individuals can modify behavioral traits and diet across ecological contexts to maximize fitness. Yet, research conducted over the past 15 years supports an alternative view; fundamental behavioral traits (e.g., activity level, exploration, sociability, boldness and aggressiveness) and diet often vary among individuals and this variation persists over time and across contexts. This phenomenon has been termed animal personality with regard to behavioral traits and individual specialization with regard to diet. While these aspects of individual-level phenotypic variation have been thus far studied in isolation, emerging evidence suggests that personality and individual specialization may covary, or even be causally related. Building on this work, we present the overarching hypothesis that animal personality can drive specialization through individual differences in various aspects of consumer foraging behavior. Specifically, we suggest pathways by which consumer personality traits influence foraging activity, risk-dependent foraging, roles in social foraging groups, spatial aspects of foraging and physiological drivers of foraging, which in turn can lead to consistent individual differences in food resource use. These pathways provide a basis for generating testable hypotheses directly linking animal personality to ecological dynamics, a major goal in contemporary behavioral ecology.

  16. The meaning art therapy for the development of individual personality with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    WOHNIGOVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the influence of art therapy on personality development of visually impaired individuals. Art therapy - an expressive therapy - is aimed at changing the behavior, thinking and emotions of a person with the use of art. Drawing is the basic diagnostic means in art therapy. The advantage of such form of therapy is that every individual is to some extent capable of expressing himself or herself through art. The goal of using art therapy with visually imp...

  17. Respiratory exercise program for elderly individuals with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Gomieiro, Ludmila Tais Yazbek; Nascimento, Andréia; Tanno, Luciana Kase; Agondi, Rosana; Kalil, Jorge; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma in older adults is frequently underdiagnosed, as reflected by approximately 60% of asthma deaths occurring in people older than age 65. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluates the effects of a respiratory exercise program tailored for elderly individuals with asthma. We are not aware of any other reports examining breathing exercises in this population. METHODS: Fourteen patients concluded the 16-week respiratory exercise program. All the patients were evaluated with regar...

  18. Intergenerational programs for persons with dementia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Bethany; Larkin, Hannah; Moorhouse, Aynsley; Oomen, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Participation in intergenerational programs can have a positive impact on quality of life and well-being across age groups. We sought to examine the characteristics, goals, and outcomes of intergenerational programs for persons with dementia and children or youth. Six hundred and seventy-nine unique abstracts were identified through a search of 7 medical databases, 16 social science databases, 2 gray literature databases, and other sources. Twenty-seven articles met criteria for review. Articles must have gathered information on program design, goals, outcomes, or participants' perceptions. Overall, 3 themes emerged: program design, outcomes for child or youth participants, and outcomes for persons with dementia. Music, arts-based, and narrative programs were most common. Outcomes include effects on perceptions of aging and dementia, behavior, mood, engagement and sense of self. The use of qualitative and quantitative data, as well as descriptive articles, provided a richer picture of the relational features of intergenerational programs to emerge. The type of program had less of an impact on positive outcomes than if the activity was meaningful for participants and supported shared opportunities for relationship building and growth. The relationship-based skill set and scope of social work practitioners provides opportunity for the development, facilitation, and evaluation of intergenerational programs. The difficulties of establishing best practices due to methodological challenges and implications for further research are presented.

  19. Managing Personal Income: Teacher Guide. Family Financial Education Program 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co., Chicago.

    The teacher's guide is for a high school unit on personal income management, part of a family financial education program which also includes a unit on accepting credit responsibility. It can be used by teachers of any subject attempting to develop in students habits and attitudes in the area of earning, saving, and spending. The unit is based on…

  20. Personality and self-insight in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Roberta A; Robins, Richard W; Solomon, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves widespread difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Consequently, individuals with ASD are believed to exhibit a number of unique personality tendencies, including a lack of insight into those tendencies. However, surprisingly little research has examined these issues. Study 1 compared self-reports of Big Five personality traits in adults with ASD (n = 37) to those of typically developing (TD) adults (n = 42). Study 2 examined whether any observed personality differences replicated in children/adolescents with ASD (n = 50) and TD controls (n = 50) according to self- and parent reports of personality. Study 2 also assessed level of self-insight in individuals with ASD relative to TD individuals by examining the degree to which self-reports converged with parent reports in terms of self-other agreement and self-enhancement (vs. self-diminishment) biases. Individuals with ASD were more Neurotic and less Extraverted, Agreeable, Conscientious, and Open to Experience. These personality differences replicated for (a) children, adolescents, and adults; (b) self- and parent reports; and (c) males and females. However, personality traits were far from perfect predictors of ASD vs. TD group membership, did not predict within-group variability in ASD symptom severity, and had differential links to maladjustment in the ASD and TD groups, suggesting that ASD represents more than just an extreme standing on trait dimensions. Finally, individuals with ASD had a tendency to self-enhance and TD individuals, to self-diminish, but both groups showed comparable self-other agreement. Thus, individuals with ASD exhibit distinct personalities relative to TD individuals but may have a similar level of insight into them.

  1. Designing Culturally Responsive and Relevant Individualized Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Brenda L.; Miller, Darcy; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Dunn, Michael; Petersen, Sara; Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Banks, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Developing culturally responsive and relevant individualized educational programs (IEP) is becoming increasingly more important as the student population becomes more diverse. Current supports available for IEP teams primarily address the technical aspects of the IEP (e.g., writing goals that are measurable) but offer little assistance in…

  2. Avoiding Substantive Errors in Individualized Education Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ennis, Robin Parks; Losinski, Mickey; Christle, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss major substantive errors that school personnel may make when developing students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). School IEP team members need to understand the importance of the procedural and substantive requirements of the IEP, have an awareness of the five serious substantive errors that IEP…

  3. Consensus and experience trump leadership, suppressing individual personality during social foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nicholas D; Rands, Sean A; Hill, Francesca; Elder, Charlotte; Ioannou, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Whether individual behavior in social settings correlates with behavior when individuals are alone is a fundamental question in collective behavior. However, evidence for whether behavior correlates across asocial and social settings is mixed, and no study has linked observed trends with underlying mechanisms. Consistent differences between individuals in boldness, which describes willingness to accept reward over risk, are likely to be under strong selection pressure. By testing three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a risky foraging task alone and repeatedly in shoals, we demonstrate that the expression of boldness in groups is context-specific. Whereas personality is repeatable in a low-risk behavior (leaving a refuge), the collectively made consensus decision to then cross the arena outweighs leadership by bolder individuals, explaining the suppression of personality in this context. However, despite this social coordination, bolder individuals were still more likely to feed. Habituation and satiation over repeated trials degrade the effect of personality on leaving the refuge and also whether crossing the arena is a collective decision. The suppression of personality in groups suggests that individual risk-taking tendency may rarely represent actual risk in social settings, with implications for the evolution and ecology of personality variation.

  4. Privacy Concerns Related to the Collection of Personal Information Under the Personal Identify Verification (PIV) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    identity documents will lead to government tracking of individual movements within and throughout buildings. Specific concern has been noted that...subsequently be used to track purchases, transactions, preferences, and movement . As discussed previously in regard to surveillance, some fear that...articleID=16091179 8 Laban , J. (1996). Privacy issues surrounding personal identification systems. State of Connecticut: Department of Social Services

  5. Personality and Self-Insight in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Roberta A.; Robins, Richard W.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves widespread difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Consequently, individuals with ASD are believed to exhibit a number of unique personality tendencies, including a lack of insight into them. However, surprisingly little research has examined these issues. Study 1 compared self-reports of Big Five personality traits in adults with ASD (N=37) to those of typically developing (TD) adults (N=42). Study 2 examined whether any observed personality differences replicated in children/adolescents with ASD (N=50) and TD controls (N=50) according to self- and parent reports. Study 2 also assessed level of self-insight in individuals with ASD relative to TD individuals by examining the degree to which self-reports converged with parent reports in terms of self-other agreement and self-enhancement (vs. self-diminishment) biases. Individuals with ASD were more Neurotic and less Extraverted, Agreeable, Conscientious, and Open to Experience. These personality differences replicated for (a) children, adolescents, and adults, (b) self- and parent reports, and (c) males and females. However, personality traits were far from perfect predictors of ASD vs. TD group membership, did not predict within-group variability in ASD symptom severity, and had differential links to maladjustment in the ASD and TD groups, suggesting that ASD represents more than just an extreme standing on trait dimensions. Finally, individuals with ASD had a tendency to self-enhance, and TD individuals, to self-diminish, but both groups showed comparable self-other agreement. Thus, individuals with ASD exhibit distinct personalities relative to TD individuals but may have a similar level of insight into them. PMID:24377361

  6. Personal protection and tailor-made deities: the use of individual epithets*

    OpenAIRE

    Wallensten, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The use of epithets was a fundamental component of Greek polytheism. The present study brings attention to a small subgroup of such divine bynames, referred to as individual epithets because they stem from the names of mortal individuals. The function of these epithets is to designate a deity specifically concerned with the individual in question, thereby providing a close relationship and personal benefits for the eponymous worshipper and his or her close kin. The article exemplifies the phe...

  7. The role of personality in aggressive behaviour among individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaïb, L S; Crocker, A G

    2014-11-01

    Aggressive behaviour is associated with certain personality traits in both the general population and among individuals with mental health problems, but little attention has been paid to the relationship between aggressive behaviour and personality among individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The aim of this study was to circumscribe personality profiles associated with aggressive behaviour among individuals with ID. In this cross-sectional study of 296 adults with mild or moderate ID, information on mental health, personality and aggressive behaviour was gathered through structured interviews with the ID participants and their case manager, and a review of client files. The results of the Reiss Profile were submitted to hierarchical cluster analysis method. Subsequently, the distribution of aggressive behaviour, sociodemographic characteristics and clinical characteristics across personality profiles was analysed. The analyses yielded seven distinct personality profiles in relation to patterns of aggressive behaviour: Pacifists, Socials, Confidents, Altruists, Conformists, Emotionals and Asocials. The identification of distinct personality profiles sheds light on the risk factors for aggressive behaviour, and suggests new approaches to improving diagnostic and intervention strategies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  8. Personality prior to disability determines adaptation: agreeable individuals recover lost life satisfaction faster and more completely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2011-11-01

    Personality traits prior to the onset of illness or disability may influence how well an individual psychologically adjusts after the illness or disability has occurred. Previous research has shown that after the onset of a disability, people initially experience sharp drops in life satisfaction, and the ability to regain lost life satisfaction is at best partial. However, such research has not investigated the role of individual differences in adaptation to disability. We suggest that predisability personality determines the speed and extent of adaptation. We analyzed measures of personality traits in a sample of 11,680 individuals, 307 of whom became disabled over a 4-year period. We show that although becoming disabled has a severe impact on life satisfaction, this effect is significantly moderated by predisability personality. After 4 years of disability, moderately agreeable individuals had levels of life satisfaction 0.32 standard deviations higher than those of moderately disagreeable individuals. Agreeable individuals adapt more quickly and fully to disability; disagreeable individuals may need additional support to adapt.

  9. Plasticity, stereotypy, intra-individual variability and personality: handle with care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Malange, Juliana

    2014-11-01

    Only recently, variability within individuals has become of importance to evolutionary thinking. The boom in the literature on behavioural variability has led to the emergence of concepts such as behavioural plasticity, stereotypy, imprecision, and intra-individual variability (IIV). The proliferation of new terms has resulted in overlapping concepts, spreading confusion in understanding the origins of variability. Here we provide a critical overview of the concepts related to behavioural variability within the individual. We conclude that although there is no overlapping between behavioural plasticity and IIV, these concepts do overlap with stereotypy; they also face problems with ideas of abnormality and absence of function in stereotyped behaviour. We further provide a critical overview of the sometimes confusing relationship between (1) within individual variability, and (2) consistent variability across individuals (personality). We point out that personality is logically independent of both activational plasticity and IIV, because personality emerges at the population level, whereas plasticity and IIV emerge at the individual level. We conclude that, in personality studies, the failure to acknowledge the existence of either internal variability or consistent between-individual differences in internal variability will result in mixing different phenomena, and inhibit building unified accounts from heterogeneous databases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prescription Monitoring Program Trends Among Individuals Arrested in Maine for Trafficking Prescription Drugs in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Kenneth; Nichols, Stephanie D; Holt, Christina; Ochs, Leslie; Cattabriga, Gary; Tu, Chunhao

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate controlled substance prescribing trends available in the Maine Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) among individuals arrested for prescription drug "trafficking." The demographic characteristics of the individuals who had matching prescription records in the PMP within 90 days of the arrest were identified. A population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) and the Maine PMP. The study population consisted of persons arrested for trafficking prescription drugs in Maine during the 2014 calendar year from January 1 to December 31. There were 594 trafficking arrests reported by the Maine DAP in 2014. The study population consisted of the 235 persons (40%) with arrests involving controlled prescription medications. The mean age of these persons was 33 years (range 18-77 yrs), and 156 (66%) were male. Arrests involved 154 prescription opioids (65%), seven stimulants (3%), seven benzodiazepines (3%), and 77 unspecified controlled prescription drugs (33%). A minority of individuals (n=57, 24%) had a prescription record in the PMP that matched the substance involved in the arrest. Only one person with matching PMP and arrest records utilized ≥ 5 prescribers, while none used ≥ 5 pharmacies within 90 days before the arrest. Payment methods for matching prescriptions were commercial insurance (n=28, 49%), Medicaid (n=19, 33%), Medicare (n=5, 9%), and cash (n=5, 9%). The majority (76%) of persons arrested for prescription drug trafficking did not have PMP records and did not directly obtain the diverted medication from a licensed pharmacy. Traditional red flags, like cash payment and using multiple prescribers or pharmacies, were uncommon. Therefore, arrest records for diversion and PMPs are distinct and complementary tools for identifying individuals at risk for substance misuse. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  11. Influence of personality traits in coping skills in individuals with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Leonardo de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : Bipolar disorder is marked by alterations in coping skills which in turn impacts the disease course. Personality traits are associated with coping skills and for this reason it has been suggested that personality traits of patients with BD may have influence over their coping skills. Objective : To investigate possible associations between coping skills and personality in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD. Methods : Thirty-five euthymic subjects with BD were compared with 40 healthy controls. Coping skills were evaluated using Ways of Coping Checklist Revised and Brief-COPE. Personality traits were assessed by Neo Personality Inventory. MANCOVA was used for between groups comparison. Results : Regarding coping, individuals with BD reported more frequent use of emotion-focused strategies than problem-focused strategies, and high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extroversion and conscientiousness on personality measures. Neuroticism influenced negatively the use of problem-focused strategies, and positively emotion-focused coping. Conscientiousness influenced the use of problem-focused strategies in both groups. There was a significant difference between emotion focused coping and personality traits between BD and control groups. Discussion : Personality traits seem to modulate coping skills and strategies in BD which may be took into account for further interventions.

  12. Identifying Desistance Pathways in a Higher Education Program for Formerly Incarcerated Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runell, Lindsey Livingston

    2017-06-01

    The link between education and crime is a topic that requires special attention with respect to the converging influence of individual, social, and environmental factors. This article will investigate the educational pathways followed by students in a higher education program for formerly incarcerated individuals at a large state university in the northeastern United States. Specifically, it will explore the extent to which their postincarceration educational experiences served as a "hook for change" and also related impediments tied to street influences, financial constraints, stigma, academic and social development. Data were collected from a sample of 34 current and former students in the program, each of whom participated in a face-to-face interview. The higher education program played a key role in propelling the desistance process for research participants. This article will discuss how personal agency can be sustained through participation in higher education post release and the implications for future research on crime avoidance.

  13. Participation in cooperative prey capture and the benefits gained from it are associated with individual personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, James L L; Wright, Colin M; Luscuskie, Lauren P; Montgomery, Graham A; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2017-10-01

    In animal societies, behavioral idiosyncrasies of the individuals often guide which tasks they should perform. Such personality-specific task participation can increase individual task efficiency, thereby improving group performance. While several recent studies have documented group-level benefits of within-group behavioral (i.e., personality) diversity, how these benefits are realized at the individual level is unclear. Here we probe the individual-level benefits of personality-driven task participation in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola . In S. dumicola , the presence of at least one highly bold individual catalyzes foraging behavior in shy colony members, and all group constituents heavily compete for prey. We assessed boldness by examining how quickly spiders resumed normal movement after a simulated predator attack. We test here whether (1) participants in collective foraging gain more mass from prey items and (2) whether bold individuals are less resistant to starvation than shy spiders, which would motivate the bold individuals to forage more. Next, we assembled colonies of shy spiders with and without a bold individual, added one prey item, and then tracked the mass gain of each individual spider after this single feeding event. We found that spiders that participated in prey capture (whether bold or shy) gained more mass than nonparticipators, and colonies containing a single bold spider gained more total mass than purely shy colonies. We also found that bold spiders participated in more collective foraging events and were more susceptible to starvation than shy spiders, suggesting that the aggressive foraging of bold individuals may represent a strategy to offset starvation risk. These findings add to the body of evidence that animal personality can shape social organization, individual performance, and group success.

  14. Family carers’ experiences of attending a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program for carers and persons with dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Aud; Bruvik, Frøydis Kristine; Hauge, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia and their primary family carers are promising approaches to reducing the challenges associated with care, but, obtaining significant outcomes may be difficult. Even though carers in general are satisfied with such interventions, few studies have evaluated the interventions by means of qualitative methods. Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate family carers’ experiences of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program, and also to offer advice on how to develop the intervention program. Methods Content analyses were taken from individual qualitative interviews conducted in 2012 with 20 carers (aged 50–82 years) who participated in a psychosocial intervention program that included education, individual and family counseling, and parallel group sessions for carers and persons with dementia. Results Two main categories emerged: 1) benefits of the intervention program, which sets out the informants’ experiences for the benefits of participation, described in the subcategories “importance of content and group organization” and “importance of social support”; and 2) missing content in the intervention program, which details the informants’ suggestions for future interventions, contained in the subcategories “need for extended content” and “need for new group organization”. Conclusion The carers found the interventions useful. The importance of even earlier and more flexible interventions for the family carers, the extended family, and the persons with dementia was underscored. PMID:25709469

  15. Family carers' experiences of attending a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program for carers and persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Aud; Bruvik, Frøydis Kristine; Hauge, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia and their primary family carers are promising approaches to reducing the challenges associated with care, but, obtaining significant outcomes may be difficult. Even though carers in general are satisfied with such interventions, few studies have evaluated the interventions by means of qualitative methods. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate family carers' experiences of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program, and also to offer advice on how to develop the intervention program. Content analyses were taken from individual qualitative interviews conducted in 2012 with 20 carers (aged 50-82 years) who participated in a psychosocial intervention program that included education, individual and family counseling, and parallel group sessions for carers and persons with dementia. Two main categories emerged: 1) benefits of the intervention program, which sets out the informants' experiences for the benefits of participation, described in the subcategories "importance of content and group organization" and "importance of social support"; and 2) missing content in the intervention program, which details the informants' suggestions for future interventions, contained in the subcategories "need for extended content" and "need for new group organization". The carers found the interventions useful. The importance of even earlier and more flexible interventions for the family carers, the extended family, and the persons with dementia was underscored.

  16. On individual differences in person perception: raters' personality traits relate to their psychopathy checklist-revised scoring tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K; Rufino, Katrina A; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Jackson, Rebecca L; Murrie, Daniel C

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the PCL-R, and completed a comprehensive measure of their own personality traits. A priori hypotheses specified that raters' personality traits, and their similarity to psychopathy characteristics, would relate to raters' PCL-R scoring tendencies. As hypothesized, some raters assigned consistently higher scores on the PCL-R than others, especially on PCL-R Facets 1 and 2. Also as hypothesized, raters' scoring tendencies related to their own personality traits (e.g., higher rater Agreeableness was associated with lower PCL-R Interpersonal facet scoring). Overall, findings underscore the need for future research to examine the role of evaluator characteristics on evaluation results and the need for clinical training to address evaluators' personality influences on their ostensibly objective evaluations.

  17. Employment of individuals in the Social Security disability programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Paul; Livermore, Gina A; Stapleton, David C

    2011-01-01

    The articles in this special issue present findings from research on the employment and work-related activities of individuals receiving benefits through the Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs, and on the factors that hinder their efforts to work at levels that lead to exiting the disability rolls. This article introduces the other articles, highlights their important findings, and discusses the implications for ongoing efforts to increase the earnings and self-sufficiency of these beneficiaries, such as the Ticket to Work program and the Benefit Offset National Demonstration.

  18. Personal and clinical recovery with the individual placement and support intervention in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Iben Gammelgaard; Stenager, Elsebeth; Eplov, Lene

    Introduction: Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is an evidence-based recovery-oriented intervention where employment specialists (ES) support persons with severe mental illness in achieving competitive employment. IPS is labelled a recovery-oriented intervention; although, the influence of IPS...... on outcomes often referred to as recovery measures i.e. symptoms and self-esteem is ambiguous. One branch of the recovery literature distinguishes between two kinds of recovery. The one, personal recovery is defined by: what helps the individual move beyond the role of being a patient with a mental illness....... The other, clinical recovery is defined as symptom reduction and increased level of functioning. Aim: To investigate how an IPS-intervention influences the personal and clinical recovery in persons with severe mental illness. Method: A qualitative phenomenological study including interview of 12...

  19. In-person and online social participation and emotional health in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, Alica; Stutts, Lauren A; Sanner, Haley; Eijkholt, Marleen M

    2017-11-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) sometimes have barriers to social participation. The advent of the internet has created online support systems for social participation such as websites for individuals with MS. However, minimal research has been conducted about determinants of individuals' in-person and online social participation or how types of social participation contribute to emotional well-being. The present study aims are: (1) to assess the role of access to resources and other determinants as enabling in-person and online social participation, and (2) to analyze the association between social participation and emotional health of individuals with MS. The sample consisted of 508 individuals diagnosed with relapsing/remitting or secondary/progressive MS. Data from NARCOMS registry and data from original questionnaire on determinants of social participation and emotional health were merged. Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Individuals with access to the internet were more likely to participate online with friends (OR 5.47, p participate in in-person social participation with friends reported being happier (B = .38, p participation. Increasing access to in-person social participation with friends will likely have the most positive impact on emotional health. Future research should examine the aspects of online participation that are helpful or harmful.

  20. Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Lucy M; Farine, Damien R; Mann, Richard P; Sheldon, Ben C

    2014-08-22

    There is increasing evidence that animal groups can maintain coordinated behaviour and make collective decisions based on simple interaction rules. Effective collective action may be further facilitated by individual variation within groups, particularly through leader-follower polymorphisms. Recent studies have suggested that individual-level personality traits influence the degree to which individuals use social information, are attracted to conspecifics, or act as leaders/followers. However, evidence is equivocal and largely limited to laboratory studies. We use an automated data-collection system to conduct an experiment testing the relationship between personality and collective decision-making in the wild. First, we report that foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) show strikingly synchronous behaviour. A predictive model of collective decision-making replicates patterns well, suggesting simple interaction rules are sufficient to explain the observed social behaviour. Second, within groups, individuals with more reactive personalities behave more collectively, moving to within-flock areas of higher density. By contrast, proactive individuals tend to move to and feed at spatial periphery of flocks. Finally, comparing alternative simulations of flocking with empirical data, we demonstrate that variation in personality promotes within-patch movement while maintaining group cohesion. Our results illustrate the importance of incorporating individual variability in models of social behaviour.

  1. Emigration dynamics of cockroaches under different disturbance regimes do not depend on individual personalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Sitjà, I; Laurent Salazar, M O; Sempo, G; Deneubourg, J L

    2017-03-16

    Group-level properties, such as collective movements or decisions, can be considered an outcome of the interplay between individual behavior and social interactions. However, the respective influences of individual preferences and social interactions are not evident. In this research, we study the implications of behavioral variability on the migration dynamics of a group of gregarious insects (Periplaneta americana) subjected to two different disturbance regimes (one without disturbances and another one with high frequency of disturbances). The results indicate that individuals presented consistent behavior during the nighttime (active phase of cockroaches) in both conditions. Moreover, we used a modeling approach to test the role of personality during the migration process. The model considers identical individuals (no personality) without memory and no direct inter-attraction between individuals. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results shows that behavioral variability play a secondary role during migration dynamics. Our results showing individual personality during the nighttime (spontaneous decision to forage) but not during the emigration process (induced by environmental disturbances) highlight the plasticity of personality traits.

  2. Older persons' experiences of a home-based exercise program with behavioral change support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkukangas, Marina; Sundler, Annelie J; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2017-12-01

    It is a challenge to promote exercise among older persons. Knowledge is needed regarding the maintenance of exercise aiming at preventing falls and promoting health and well-being in older persons. This descriptive study used a qualitative inductive approach to describe older persons' experiences of a fall-preventive, home-based exercise program with support for behavioral change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 elderly persons aged 75 years or older, and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Four categories emerged: facilitators of performing exercise in everyday life, the importance of support, perceived gains from exercise, and the existential aspects of exercise. With support from physiotherapists (PTs), home-based exercise can be adapted to individual circumstances in a meaningful way. Including exercises in everyday life and daily routines could support the experience of being stronger, result in better physical functioning, and give hope for an extended active life in old age.

  3. Covariation between personalities and individual differences in coping with stress: Converging evidence and hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio CARERE, Doretta CARAMASCHI, Tim W. FAWCETT

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade there has been a profusion of studies highlighting covariation between individual differences in stress physiology and behavioural profiles, here called personalities. Such individual differences in ways of coping with stress are relevant both in biomedicine, since different personalities may experience a different stress and disease vulnerability, and in behavioural ecology, since their adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance are the subject of debate. However, the precise way in which individual stress differences and personalities are linked is unclear. Here we provide an updated overview of this covariation across different species and taxa, consider its functional significance and present working hypotheses for how behavioural and physiological responses to stress might be causally linked, affecting life-history traits such as dispersal and life-span [Current Zoology 56 (6: 728–740, 2010].

  4. Relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C

    2013-08-01

    Two studies investigate relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. Participants completed the Brief Assessment of Individual Motives 1--Revised, a measure of 15 putative evolved motives (i.e., "traits of action"). In Study 1, N = 147 adult participants also completed the Borderline Personality Questionnaire and Self-Report Psychopathy III Questionnaire (SRP III). In Study 2, N = 135 college age participants also completed the SRP III and the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62. Regression analyses suggested that individual differences in motivational traits account for moderate amounts of variance in measures of antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. They also suggested that lower motivation to engage in cooperative behaviors (e.g., sharing resources and forming coalitions) is related to impaired interpersonal relationships and maladjustment.

  5. Institutional profile: University of Florida Health Personalized Medicine Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Larisa H; Weitzel, Kristin W; Elsey, Amanda R; Liu, Xinyue; Mosley, Scott A; Smith, Donald M; Staley, Benjamin J; Winterstein, Almut G; Mathews, Carol A; Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Starostik, Petr; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Nelson, David R; Johnson, Julie A

    2017-04-01

    The University of Florida (UF) Health Personalized Medicine Program launched in 2012 with CYP2C19 genotyping for clopidogrel response at UF Health Shands Hospital. We have since expanded CYP2C19 genotyping to UF Health Jacksonville and established the infrastructure at UF Health to support clinical implementation for five additional gene-drug pairs: TPMT-thiopurines, IFNL3 (IL28B)-PEG IFN-α-based regimens, CYP2D6-opioids, CYP2D6/CYP2C19-antidepressants and CYP2C19-proton pump inhibitors. We are contributing to the evidence based on outcomes with genotype-guided therapy through pragmatic studies of our clinical implementations. In addition, we have developed a broad array of educational programs for providers, trainees and students that incorporate personal genotype evaluation to enhance participant learning.

  6. Personality prototypes in individuals with compulsive buying based on the Big Five Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Steve A; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina

    2010-09-01

    Personality prototypes based on the Big Five factor model were investigated in a treatment-seeking sample of 68 individuals with compulsive buying (CB). Cluster analysis of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) scales yielded two distinct personality clusters. Participants in cluster II scored significantly higher than those in cluster I on neuroticism and lower on the other four personality traits. Subjects in cluster II showed higher severity of CB, lower degree of control over CB symptoms, and were more anxious, interpersonally sensitive and impulsive. Furthermore, cluster II was characterized by higher rates of comorbid anxiety disorders, and cluster B personality disorders. The two personality prototypes did not differ with respect to obsessive-compulsive features. Finally and of considerable clinical significance, participants in cluster II reported lower remission rates after undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy. Implications of the results for treatment are discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Individual differences in personality traits reflect structural variance in specific brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Simona; Cloninger, C Robert; Venneri, Annalena

    2009-06-30

    Personality dimensions such as novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PER) are said to be heritable, stable across time and dependent on genetic and neurobiological factors. Recently a better understanding of the relationship between personality traits and brain structures/systems has become possible due to advances in neuroimaging techniques. This Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) study investigated if individual differences in these personality traits reflected structural variance in specific brain regions. A large sample of eighty five young adult participants completed the Three-dimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and had their brain imaged with MRI. A voxel-based correlation analysis was carried out between individuals' personality trait scores and grey matter volume values extracted from 3D brain scans. NS correlated positively with grey matter volume in frontal and posterior cingulate regions. HA showed a negative correlation with grey matter volume in orbito-frontal, occipital and parietal structures. RD was negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus and in the rectal frontal gyrus. PER showed a positive correlation with grey matter volume in the precuneus, paracentral lobule and parahippocampal gyrus. These results indicate that individual differences in the main personality dimensions of NS, HA, RD and PER, may reflect structural variance in specific brain areas.

  8. Distribution of personality, individual characteristics and internet usage in Swedish older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Jessica; Rennemark, Mikael; Jogréus, Claes; Berglund, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This article investigated factors associated with internet usage in the Swedish older adults ranging in age from 60 to 96. Personality traits and individual characteristics have been previously noted to influence internet usage, where older adults have not been the focus population. In this study, the relationships between personality, individual characteristics and internet usage were investigated. A descriptive analysis of the personality tests of a total of 1402 subjects included in the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care was conducted. Three variables were controlled for: sex, age and education. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, chi-square tests and a logistic regression were used in order to detect the relationships with internet usage. Men differ significantly from women in the personality traits analysis. Those with higher education were more open and neuroticism was lower in the oldest older adults. Internet usage declined significantly with age and those with middle to higher education were using the internet the most. No other associations with internet use were found. Personality traits and individual characteristics do not seem to influence the Swedish older adult and their internet usage. What one needs to account for is the age and education of the person. The more educated and the youngest cohorts were using the internet more frequently.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Unique Subgroups of Chronic Pain Individuals with Dispositional Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study attempted to identify and characterize distinct CP subgroups based on their level of dispositional personality traits. The secondary objective was to compare the difference among the subgroups in mood, coping, and disability. Methods. Individuals with chronic pain were assessed for demographic, psychosocial, and personality measures. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted in order to identify distinct subgroups of patients based on their level of personality traits. Differences in clinical outcomes were compared using the multivariate analysis of variance based on cluster membership. Results. In 229 participants, three clusters were formed. No significant difference was seen among the clusters on patient demographic factors including age, sex, relationship status, duration of pain, and pain intensity. Those with high levels of dispositional personality traits had greater levels of mood impairment compared to the other two groups (p<0.05. Significant difference in disability was seen between the subgroups. Conclusions. The study identified a high risk group of CP individuals whose level of personality traits significantly correlated with impaired mood and coping. Use of pharmacological treatment alone may not be successful in improving clinical outcomes among these individuals. Instead, a more comprehensive treatment involving psychological treatments may be important in managing the personality traits that interfere with recovery.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Unique Subgroups of Chronic Pain Individuals with Dispositional Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Rice, D; McIntyre, A; Getty, H; Speechley, M; Sequeira, K; Shapiro, A P; Morley-Forster, P; Teasell, R W

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The current study attempted to identify and characterize distinct CP subgroups based on their level of dispositional personality traits. The secondary objective was to compare the difference among the subgroups in mood, coping, and disability. Methods. Individuals with chronic pain were assessed for demographic, psychosocial, and personality measures. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted in order to identify distinct subgroups of patients based on their level of personality traits. Differences in clinical outcomes were compared using the multivariate analysis of variance based on cluster membership. Results. In 229 participants, three clusters were formed. No significant difference was seen among the clusters on patient demographic factors including age, sex, relationship status, duration of pain, and pain intensity. Those with high levels of dispositional personality traits had greater levels of mood impairment compared to the other two groups (p disability was seen between the subgroups. Conclusions. The study identified a high risk group of CP individuals whose level of personality traits significantly correlated with impaired mood and coping. Use of pharmacological treatment alone may not be successful in improving clinical outcomes among these individuals. Instead, a more comprehensive treatment involving psychological treatments may be important in managing the personality traits that interfere with recovery.

  11. Significant Personal Qualities Desired of Air Force Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    their surroundings, and the people in that environment. But as Knowles and Saxberg explain, "self-awareness and personal change go deeper than mere...Ibid. 42. Logistics Management Institute, "Introduction to Military Program Management," LMI Task 69-28, March 1971, p. 3. 43. Henry P. Knowles and...Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), p. 46. 45. Ibid, p. 47. 46. Malcom P. McNair, "Thinking Ahead: What Price Human Relations?" The Nature and

  12. Are there meaningful individual differences in temporal inconsistency in self-reported personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-11-01

    The current project had three goals. The first was to examine whether it is meaningful to refer to across-time variability in self-reported personality as an individual differences characteristic. The second was to investigate whether negative affect was associated with variability in self-reported personality, while controlling for mean levels, and correcting for measurement errors. The third goal was to examine whether variability in self-reported personality would be larger among young adults than among older adults, and whether the relation of variability with negative affect would be stronger at older ages than at younger ages. Two moderately large samples of participants completed the International Item Pool Personality questionnaire assessing the Big Five personality dimensions either twice or thrice, in addition to several measures of negative affect. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that within-person variability in self-reported personality is a meaningful individual difference characteristic. Some people exhibited greater across-time variability than others after removing measurement error, and people who showed temporal instability in one trait also exhibited temporal instability across the other four traits. However, temporal variability was not related to negative affect, and there was no evidence that either temporal variability or its association with negative affect varied with age.

  13. Cognitive individualism and the child as scientist program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wringe, Bill

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, I examine the charge that Gopnik and Meltzoff's 'Child as Scientist' program, outlined and defended in their 1997 book Words, Thoughts and Theories is vitiated by a form of 'cognitive individualism' about science. Although this charge has often been leveled at Gopnik and Meltzoff's work, it has rarely been developed in any detail. I suggest that we should distinguish between two forms of cognitive individualism which I refer to as 'ontic' and 'epistemic' cognitive individualism (OCI and ECI respectively). I then argue - contra Ronald Giere - that Gopnik and Meltzoff's commitment to OCI is relatively unproblematic, since it is an easily detachable part of their view. By contrast, and despite their explicit discussion of the issue, their commitment to ECI is much more problematic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of individualized education program for slow learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, P; Geeta, M G; Palat, Ramakrishnan

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an individualized education program for children with scholastic backwardness. Among the children attending a Child Guidance Clinic for scholastic backwardness, 12 of them who were diagnosed as slow learners based on current level of academic functioning and IQ and 6 children having mild mental retardation were given individualized education for a period of two months. Independent assessors evaluated the academic functioning at the beginning of the training and at the end. The results showed that the children had significant improvement in their academic functioning and self esteem after the training. The present experiment can be a model to set up a resource room in normal schools to provide individualized education to children who are slow learners.

  15. Government-sponsored microfinance program: Joint liability vs. individual liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Kusum Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY is a government-sponsored microfinance program. The scheme is based on four features: group lending with joint liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. We propose a new model of SGSY having these features: group lending with individual liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. “Joint liability” clause of the existing model is replaced with individual liability in the new model. The paper shows that problem of adverse selection is removed in both models, i.e. in “SGSY with group lending and joint liability” and “SGSY with group lending and individual liability.” The problem of “moral hazard” is more severe in the existing model of SGSY compared with the proposed model of SGSY. Borrowers are also benefitted from participation in the proposed scheme of SGSY than that in the existing model of SGSY.

  16. Individualized behavior management program for Alzheimer's/dementia residents using behavior-based ergonomic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, Govind; Parikh, Pratik J; Lawhorne, Larry W; VanVlymen, Eric; Bharwani, Meena

    2012-05-01

    Person-centered, nonpharmacological interventions for managing Alzheimer's/dementia-related behavioral disturbances have received significant attention. However, such interventions are quite often of a single type limiting their benefits. We develop a comprehensive nonpharmacological intervention, the Behavior-Based Ergonomic Therapy (BBET), which consists of multiple therapies. This low-cost, 24/7 program uses learning, personality, and behavioral profiles and cognitive function of each resident to develop a set of individualized therapies. These therapies are made available through an accessible resource library of music and video items, games and puzzles, and memory props to provide comfort or stimulation depending on an individual resident's assessment. The quantitative and qualitative benefits of the BBET were evaluated at the dementia care unit in a not-for-profit continuing care retirement community in west central Ohio. The 6-month pilot study reduced falls by 32.5% and markedly reduced agitation through increased resident engagement.

  17. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): training persons with dementia to serve as group activity leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J; Skrajner, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an activity implemented by means of Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP). Four persons with early-stage dementia were trained to serve as leaders for a small-group activity played by nine persons with more advanced dementia. Assessments of leaders' ability to learn the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with this role, were taken, as were measures of players' engagement and affect during standard activities programming and RAMP activities. Leaders demonstrated the potential to fill the role of group activity leader effectively, and they expressed a high level of satisfaction with this role. Players' levels of positive engagement and pleasure during the RAMP activity were higher than during standard group activities. This study suggests that to the extent that procedural learning is available to persons with early-stage dementia, especially when they are assisted with external cueing, these individuals can successfully fill the role of volunteers when working with persons with more advanced dementia. This can provide a meaningful social role for leaders and increase access to high quality activities programming for large numbers of persons with dementia. Copyright 2004 The Gerontological Society of America

  18. Role of personality traits in cocaine craving throughout an outpatient psychosocial treatment program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ismael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cocaine dependence is a major international public health concern. Its chronically relapsing nature is possibly related to craving intensity, which can be influenced by diverse biological and psychological aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the role of different personality traits in craving measured throughout a psychosocial treatment program. Method: The sample comprised 66 cocaine-dependent outpatients who were enrolled in an individual and manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy program. The influence of personality traits on craving intensity, frequency, and duration was analyzed using a generalized estimating equations model with an autoregressive correlation structure. Results: Craving varied during treatment. The personality traits of novelty seeking, reward dependence, and harm avoidance interacted with craving intensity, and the personality trait of persistence interacted with craving duration throughout the treatment period. Furthermore, there were significant interactions between drug use and craving intensity, and between different routes of administration and craving intensity. Participants who used cocaine/crack while in treatment and concurrent users of crack (i.e., freebase cocaine and powder cocaine also had a higher craving intensity. Conclusion: The extent of craving variation can depend on certain personality styles. This study shows that craving is influenced by personality traits, and this may presumably change clinical expression involved in disease.

  19. Human personality traits are associated with individual environmental traits in male adolescents--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Tani, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    The human personality seems to be formed by biological (internal) and environmental (external) factors, which function interactively. This pilot study examined the relationship between fundamental personality traits and individual environmental traits in healthy adolescents. A complex relationship between personality traits and candidate environmental traits was found in this sample. Parental smoking, one of the hypothetical environmental traits, was significantly associated with the sociability personality trait of adolescent offspring. Another hypothetical environmental trait-parent/child attachment status-"was related to novelty-seeking personality. Unexpectedly, these associations were observed only in male but not in female adolescents. The present study suggested that (1) parental smoking behavior might directly or indirectly affect offspring social behavior and related personality by nongenetic transmission; (2) past and present data indicated that the triad of a poor parent/child relationship, novelty-seeking personality, and risky/delinquent behavior is closely connected. Investigations of environmental traits at a nonclinical level may lead us to understand the overall human personality, as with research on genes and biological traits that are implicated in the formation of mental activity.

  20. Individual personalities predict social behaviour in wild networks of great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, L M; Farine, D R; Morand-Ferron, J; Cole, E F; Cockburn, A; Sheldon, B C

    2013-11-01

    Social environments have an important effect on a range of ecological processes, and form a crucial component of selection. However, little is known of the link between personality, social behaviour and population structure. We combine a well-understood personality trait with large-scale social networks in wild songbirds, and show that personality underpins multiple aspects of social organisation. First, we demonstrate a relationship between network centrality and personality with 'proactive' (fast-exploring) individuals associating weakly with greater numbers of conspecifics and moving between flocks. Second, temporal stability of associations relates to personality: 'reactive' (slow-exploring) birds form synergistically stable relationships. Finally, we show that personality influences social structure, with males non-randomly distributed across groups. These results provide strong evidence that songbirds follow alternative social strategies related to personality. This has implications not only for the causes of social network structure but also for the strength and direction of selection on personality in natural populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Personality, Social Support, and Quality of Life as Determinants of Coping Behavior Among Visually Impaired Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Imhonde, Henry O; A. U., Olubuogu; Handayani, Lina

    2017-01-01

    This study examined personality, social support, and quality of life as determinant of coping behaviour among the visually impaired individuals. Fifty (50) visually impaired individuals drawn from Benin City participated in the study. Four hypotheses were stated and tested using independent t. test and regression analysis. The results confirmed three out of the four hypotheses stated. High social support was found to significantly determine high coping behaviour (t = 3.261, df 48, P < 0.0...

  2. Effects of Personality on Social Network Disclosure: Do Emotionally Intelligent Individuals Post Inappropriate Content?

    OpenAIRE

    Chockalingam Viswesvaran; Kerry Newness; Jason Steinert

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of individuals using social networking sites to stay connected has increased considerably in only a few years and the information posted is now being used by organizations for employee selection. The purpose of the current study was to investigating how differences on the Big Five Personality traits, honesty-integrity, and emotional intelligence influence whether individuals post inappropriate social network content. Participants were 506 college students from a large metropoli...

  3. Understanding Effective Higher Education Programs in Prisons: Considerations from the Incarcerated Individuals Program in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Allison Daniel; Noblit, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The North Carolina Workplace and Community Transition Youth Offender Program (YOP), recently renamed the Incarcerated Individuals Program (IPP), has proven to be effective in terms of its growth and expansion, the support of education directors across the correctional facilities, university collaboration, student evaluations, and a low recidivism…

  4. Developmental perspectives on personality: implications for ecological and evolutionary studies of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Judy A; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2010-12-27

    Developmental processes can have major impacts on the correlations in behaviour across contexts (contextual generality) and across time (temporal consistency) that are the hallmarks of animal personality. Personality can and does change: at any given age or life stage it is contingent upon a wide range of experiential factors that occurred earlier in life, from prior to conception through adulthood. We show how developmental reaction norms that describe the effects of prior experience on a given behaviour can be used to determine whether the effects of a given experience at a given age will affect contextual generality at a later age, and to illustrate how variation within individuals in developmental plasticity leads to variation in contextual generality across individuals as a function of experience. We also show why niche-picking and niche-construction, behavioural processes which allow individuals to affect their own developmental environment, can affect the contextual generality and the temporal consistency of personality. We conclude by discussing how an appreciation of developmental processes can alert behavioural ecologists studying animal personality to critical, untested assumptions that underlie their own research programmes, and outline situations in which a developmental perspective can improve studies of the functional significance and evolution of animal personality.

  5. 20 CFR 416.428 - Eligible individual without an eligible spouse has an essential person in his home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spouse has an essential person in his home. 416.428 Section 416.428 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Eligible individual without an eligible spouse has an essential person in his home. When an eligible individual without an eligible spouse has an essential person (as defined in § 416.222 of this part) in his...

  6. Personality and gene expression: Do individual differences exist in the leukocyte transcriptome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedhara, Kavita; Gill, Sana; Eldesouky, Lameese; Campbell, Bruce K; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Cole, Steven W

    2015-02-01

    The temporal and situational stability of personality has led generations of researchers to hypothesize that personality may have enduring effects on health, but the biological mechanisms of such relationships remain poorly understood. In the present study, we utilized a functional genomics approach to examine the relationship between the 5 major dimensions of personality and patterns of gene expression as predicted by 'behavioural immune response' theory. We specifically focussed on two sets of genes previously linked to stress, threat, and adverse socio-environmental conditions: pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in Type I interferon and antibody responses. An opportunity sample of 121 healthy individuals was recruited (86 females; mean age 24 years). Individuals completed a validated measure of personality; questions relating to current health behaviours; and provided a 5ml sample of peripheral blood for gene expression analysis. Extraversion was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and Conscientiousness was associated with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Both associations were independent of health behaviours, negative affect, and leukocyte subset distributions. Antiviral and antibody-related gene expression was not associated with any personality dimension. The present data shed new light on the long-observed epidemiological associations between personality, physical health, and human longevity. Further research is required to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Support in the Structure of Personality Resources in Individuals with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Leontiev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issues of social support of individuals with disabilities and describes its role in the development and maintenance of subjective well-being of persons in situations of disability. A special external resource for overcoming unfavorable developmental conditions, social support is interlocked in a continuous relationship with psychological resources of personality. One of its distinctive features is that it implies the subject's activity aimed at overcoming difficult life situation on his/her own. When the person's bodily resources are insufficient (as it happens in situations of physical disabilities, the role of macro- and microsocial resources in supporting his/her well-being naturally increases. However, when both social and bodily resources are scarce, it is the individual's personality that stands in the gap. The research described in the paper explored the relationship between microsocial resources (support of family and friends, satisfaction with this support and psychological resources of resistance and self-regulation of personality. The sample consisted of 210 subjects (48 students with disabilities, 162 healthy subjects. The outcomes revealed certain differences between the subsamples with low and high rates of social support which suggest that the subjects' perceptions and evaluations of the support contribute to their psychological resources of coping and self-regulation, activating and/or reinforcing the existing potential of their personalities.

  8. Evidence for a cognitive bias of interpretation toward threat in individuals with a Type D personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grynberg, Delphine; Gidron, Yori; Denollet, J.; Luminet, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Biological and behavioral mediators link Type D personality with a poor prognosis in heart disease. However, the mediator role of cognitive biases is still unknown. This study tested whether Type D individuals exhibit an interpretative bias for ambiguous social situations. For this aim we examined

  9. The big five personality traits and individual satisfaction with the team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Miranda A.G.; Rutte, Christel G.; van Tuijl, Harrie F.J.M.; Reymen, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Relationships between team composition in terms of team members' Big Five personality traits and individual satisfaction with the team after project completion were researched. Questionnaires were filled out by 310 undergraduate students (N= 68 teams) working on an engineering design assignment.

  10. Identification of the Predictive Power of Five Factor Personality Traits for Individual Instrument Performance Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Gökhan; Dalkiran, Esra

    2017-01-01

    This study, with the aim of identifying the predictive power of the five-factor personality traits of music teacher candidates on individual instrument performance anxiety, was designed according to the relational screening model. The study population was students attending the Music Education branch of Fine Arts Education Departments in…

  11. Systematic Individualized Narrative Language Intervention on the Personal Narratives of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Douglas B.; Brown, Catherine L.; Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Wise, Christine; Spencer, Trina D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an individualized, systematic language intervention on the personal narratives of children with autism. Method: A single-subject, multiple-baseline design across participants and behaviors was used to examine the effect of the intervention on language features of personal…

  12. Personal Protective Equipment in the humanitarian governance of Ebola: between individual patient care and global biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Personal Protective Equipment in humanitarianism. It takes the recent Ebola outbreak as a case through which to explore the role of objects in saving individual lives and protecting populations. The argument underlines the importance of PPE in mediating between

  13. Teaching Personal Finance Mathematical Problem Solving to Individuals with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jenny; Saunders, Alicia; Spooner, Fred; Brosh, Chelsi

    2017-01-01

    The ability to solve mathematical problems related to purchasing and personal finance is important in promoting skill generalization and increasing independence for individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities (IDs). Using a multiple probe across participant design, this study investigated the effects of modified schema-based instruction…

  14. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing long familiar songs in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit. My...... hypotheses are …  … that singing has an influence on persons with dementia, and that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics.  … that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system of communicative...... signs.  … that music therapy has an influence on aspects in daily life for the person with dementia. Data collection has been based on digital video recording, pulse rate measurements, day-to-day questionnaires, case description and music therapist’s log....

  15. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing familiar songs from long ago in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit....... My hopotheses are - that singing has an influence on persons with dementia - that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics - that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system...... of communicative signs - that music therapy has an influence on aspects in residential daily life for the person with dementia. Data collection has been based on video recording, heart rate measurements, day-to-day questionnaires, case descriptions and music therapist's log....

  16. What types of terms do people use when describing an individual's personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Scharloth, Joachim; Lohse, Oliver; Wood, Dustin

    2014-09-01

    An important yet untested assumption within personality psychology is that more important person characteristics are more densely reflected in language. We investigated how ratings of importance and other term properties are associated with one another and with a term's frequency of use. Research participants were asked to provide terms that described individuals they knew, which resulted in a set of 624 adjectives. These terms were independently rated for importance, social desirability, observability, stateness versus traitness, level of abstraction, and base rate. Terms rated as describing more important person characteristics were in fact used more often by the participants in the sample and in a large corpus of online communications (close to 500 million words). More frequently used terms and more positive terms were also rated as being more abstract, more traitlike, and more widely applicable (i.e., having a greater base rate). We discuss the implications of these findings with regard to person perception in general. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Respiratory exercise program for elderly individuals with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Tais Yazbek Gomieiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asthma in older adults is frequently underdiagnosed, as reflected by approximately 60% of asthma deaths occurring in people older than age 65. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluates the effects of a respiratory exercise program tailored for elderly individuals with asthma. We are not aware of any other reports examining breathing exercises in this population. METHODS: Fourteen patients concluded the 16-week respiratory exercise program. All the patients were evaluated with regard to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, aerobic capacity, quality of life and clinical presentation. RESULTS: After 16 weeks of this open-trial intervention, significant increases in maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure (27.6% and 20.54%, respectively were demonstrated. Considerable improvement in quality of life was also observed. The clinical evaluations and daily recorded-symptoms diary also indicated significant improvements and fewer respiratory symptoms. A month after the exercises were discontinued, however, detraining was observed. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, a respiratory exercise program increased muscle strength and was associated with a positive effect on patient health and quality of life. Therefore, a respiratory training program could be included in the therapeutic approach in older adults with asthma.

  18. Respiratory exercise program for elderly individuals with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomieiro, Ludmila Tais Yazbek; Nascimento, Andréia; Tanno, Luciana Kase; Agondi, Rosana; Kalil, Jorge; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Asthma in older adults is frequently underdiagnosed, as reflected by approximately 60% of asthma deaths occurring in people older than age 65. The present study evaluates the effects of a respiratory exercise program tailored for elderly individuals with asthma. We are not aware of any other reports examining breathing exercises in this population. Fourteen patients concluded the 16-week respiratory exercise program. All the patients were evaluated with regard to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, aerobic capacity, quality of life and clinical presentation. After 16 weeks of this open-trial intervention, significant increases in maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure (27.6% and 20.54%, respectively) were demonstrated. Considerable improvement in quality of life was also observed. The clinical evaluations and daily recorded-symptoms diary also indicated significant improvements and fewer respiratory symptoms. A month after the exercises were discontinued, however, detraining was observed. In conclusion, a respiratory exercise program increased muscle strength and was associated with a positive effect on patient health and quality of life. Therefore, a respiratory training program could be included in the therapeutic approach in older adults with asthma.

  19. Personal Recovery as a Protective Factor Against Suicide Ideation in Individuals With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Drapalski, Amy L; Medoff, Deborah; Dixon, Lisa B

    2016-11-01

    Suicide rates are elevated in individuals with schizophrenia, yet evidence is mixed regarding the roles of positive and negative symptoms as risk factors for suicide in this population, suggesting that there may be other influential variables. One such variable may be personal recovery. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that personal recovery would moderate the relationship between symptoms of schizophrenia and suicide ideation. This hypothesis was tested in a sample of 169 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder using a Poisson regression model. Results suggested that there was no significant interaction between recovery and symptoms of schizophrenia. However, recovery was a significant predictor of suicide ideation after controlling for psychiatric symptoms. These findings indicate that recovery is associated with lower suicide ideation and thus may protect against it. Thus, recovery should be assessed, and potentially intervened upon, to reduce suicide risk in individuals with schizophrenia.

  20. Comprehensive, Individualized, Person-Centered Management of Community-Residing Persons with Moderate-to-Severe Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisberg, Barry; Shao, Yongzhao; Golomb, James; Monteiro, Isabel; Torossian, Carol; Boksay, Istvan; Shulman, Melanie; Heller, Sloane; Zhu, Zhaoyin; Atif, Ayesha; Sidhu, Jaskirat; Vedvyas, Alok; Kenowsky, Sunnie

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to examine added benefits of a Comprehensive, Individualized, Person-Centered Management (CI-PCM) program to memantine treatment. This was a 28-week, clinician-blinded, randomized, controlled, parallel-group study, with a similar study population, similar eligibility criteria, and a similar design to the memantine pivotal trial of Reisberg et al. [N Engl J Med 2003;348:1333-1341]. Twenty eligible community-residing Alzheimer disease (AD) subject-caregiver dyads were randomized to the CI-PCM program (n = 10) or to usual community care (n = 10). Primary outcomes were the New York University Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change Plus Caregiver Input (NYU-CIBIC-Plus), assessed by one clinician set, and an activities of daily living inventory, assessed by a separate clinician set at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, and 28. Primary outcomes showed significant benefits of the CI-PCM program at all post-baseline evaluations. Improvement on the NYU-CIBIC-Plus in the management group at 28 weeks was 2.9 points over the comparator group. The memantine 2003 trial showed an improvement of 0.3 points on this global measure in memantine-treated versus placebo-randomized subjects at 28 weeks. Hence, globally, the management program intervention benefits were 967% greater than memantine treatment alone. These results are approximately 10 times those usually observed with both nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments and indicate substantial benefits with the management program for advanced AD persons. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Differences between individual and societal health state valuations: any link with personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R; Jerant, Anthony

    2009-08-01

    The concept of "adaptation" has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies.

  2. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  3. Subtle alterations in brain anatomy may change an individual's personality in chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia M Gustin

    Full Text Available It is well established that gross prefrontal cortex damage can affect an individual's personality. It is also possible that subtle prefrontal cortex changes associated with conditions such as chronic pain, and not detectable until recent advances in human brain imaging, may also result in subtle changes in an individual's personality. In an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain, subtle prefrontal cortex changes including altered basal dendritic length, resulted in altered decision making ability. Using multiple magnetic resonance imaging techniques, we found in humans, although gray matter volume and on-going activity were unaltered, chronic neuropathic pain was associated with reduced free and bound proton movement, indicators of subtle anatomical changes, in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and mediodorsal thalamus. Furthermore, proton spectroscopy revealed an increase in neural integrity in the medial prefrontal cortex in neuropathic pain patients, the degree of which was significantly correlated to the personality temperament of novelty seeking. These data reveal that even subtle changes in prefrontal cortex anatomy may result in a significant change in an individual's personality.

  4. Systematic individualized narrative language intervention on the personal narratives of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Douglas B; Brown, Catherine L; Ukrainetz, Teresa A; Wise, Christine; Spencer, Trina D; Zebre, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an individualized, systematic language intervention on the personal narratives of children with autism. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design across participants and behaviors was used to examine the effect of the intervention on language features of personal narratives. Three 6- to 8-year-old boys with autism participated in 12 individual intervention sessions that targeted 2-3 story grammar elements (e.g., problem, plan) and 3-4 linguistic complexity elements (e.g., causal subordination, adverbs) selected from each participant's baseline performance. Intervention involved repeated retellings of customized model narratives and the generation of personal narratives with a systematic reduction of visual and verbal scaffolding. Independent personal narratives generated at the end of each baseline, intervention, and maintenance session were analyzed for presence and sophistication of targeted features. Graphical and statistical results showed immediate improvement in targeted language features as a function of intervention. There was mixed evidence of maintenance 2 and 7 weeks after intervention. Children with autism can benefit from an individualized, systematic intervention targeting specific narrative language features. Greater intensity of intervention may be needed to gain enduring effects for some language features.

  5. Changes in personality functioning as a result of group psychotherapy with elements of individual psychotherapy in persons with neurotic and personality disorders - MMPI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyranka, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy A; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Klasa, Katarzyna; Dembińska, Edyta; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Rodziński, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The study of group psychotherapy influence on the personality functioning of patients on treatment for neurotic disorders and selected personality disorders (F4-F6 under ICD-10). The study concerned 82 patients (61 women and 21 men) who underwent intensive short-term group psychotherapy in a day ward. A comprehensive assessment of the patients' personality functioning was carried out at the outset and the end of the psychotherapy utilising the MMPI-2 questionnaire. At the treatment outset the majority of the study patients demonstrated a considerable level of disorders in five MMPI-2 clinical scales (Depression, Hysteria, Psychopathic Deviate, Psychastenia, Schizophrenia) and moderate pathology in Hypochondria. In the Mania scale most patients obtained results comparable to the healthy population when the treatment commenced. Having undergone the psychotherapy treatment, the majority of the examined were observed to demonstrate positive changes in those areas of personality functioning which were classified as severe or moderate pathology. Short-term intensive comprehensive group psychotherapy with elements of individual psychotherapy leads to desirable changes in personality functioning.

  6. Individual Traits, Personal Values, and Conflict Resolution in an Isolated, Confined, Extreme Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneliussen, Jesper G; Leon, Gloria R; Kjærgaard, Anders; Fink, Birgit A; Venables, Noah C

    2017-06-01

    The study of personality traits, personal values, and the emergence of conflicts within groups performing in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment (ICE) may provide insights helpful for the composition and support of space crews for long duration missions. Studied pre/post and over the 2-yr period of the investigation were 10 Danish military personnel deployed to stations in Greenland on a 26-mo staggered rotation. Subjects completed the NEO PI-R, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, and Portrait Values Questionnaire, and participated in structured interviews. During deployment, questionnaires were completed biweekly and a cognitive function test once a month. Personality findings indicated a generally well-adjusted group, above average in positive personality traits [Conscientiousness T-score = 59.4 (11.41); Agreeableness T-score = 54.4 (9.36)] and boldness. Personal values of benevolence and self-direction were highly rated. The decision when to "pick sides" and intervene during disagreements between group members was viewed as an important component of conflict resolution. There were no changes in positive/negative affect or cognitive function over the annual light/dark cycle. The personal values of group members appear highly compatible for living in a small group ICE environment for an extended period. Disagreements between group members impact the functioning of the entire group, particularly in regard to decisions whether to support one of the individuals or let the argument run its course. Extended training in strategies for conflict resolution are needed in planning for future long duration missions to avoid fault lines forming within the group.Corneliussen JG, Leon GR, Kjærgaard A, Fink BA, Venables NC. Individual traits, personal values, and conflict resolution in an isolated, confined, extreme environment. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):535-543.

  7. Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. Methods Participants (N=116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals. We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, a technique commonly used for studies with small sample sizes and large number of predictors, to develop models predicting having a smoking cessation goal, among those currently smoking daily, and ever making a quit attempt, among those who ever smoked. Results Almost all participants reported ever smoking (n = 115, 99%); 70% (n = 80) had made a serious quit attempt in the past; 89% (n = 103) reported current daily smoking; and, 59% (n = 61) had a goal of quitting smoking and staying off cigarettes. Almost all (n = 112, 97%) had clinically significant characteristics of a psychiatric or personality disorder. White race, anxiety, and a negativistic personality facet (expressively resentful) were negative predictors of having a cessation goal. Overall narcissistic personality pattern and a dependent personality facet (interpersonally submissive) were positive predictors of having a cessation goal. Somatoform disorder, overall borderline personality pattern, and a depressive personality facet (cognitively fatalistic) were negative predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Individual histrionic (gregarious self-image), antisocial (acting out mechanism), paranoid (expressively defensive), and sadistic (pernicious representations) personality disorder facets were positive predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Each model provided good discrimination for having a smoking cessation goal or not (C-statistic of .76, 95% CI[0.66, 0

  8. INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL VARIABLES AFFECTING THE USE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUNÇ DEMİRBİLEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Management’s safety approach and commitment are related to occupational health and safety applications in workplaces. However, personal characteristics and attitudes on their health of employees are very influential factors on occupational health and safety applications. For examine of interaction between behaviors and the health and safety applications it is required that determine of employee’s perceptions. For this reason this paper’s purpose is to establish of safety needs, attitudes and behaviors of employees and their perceptions regarding management’s safety approach and applications. The study’s focal point is use of personal protective equipment as an indicator “safety behavior”. In empirical study, assumption variables regarding the use of personal protective equipment are safety effectively, safety need, management attitudes and protective equipment conditions. The fundamental hypothesis of this paper is use of personal protective equipment is related to individual and organizational variables. Implications of research findings are to indicate impelling the workers to safety behaviour or using the personal protective equipment by their feeling of the safety behaviour and availability of personal protective equipment.

  9. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Individualized consideration, innovative organizational climate and proactive personality as antecedents of change-oriented and altruist organizational citizenship behaviors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercedes López-Domínguez; Mihaela Enache

    2009-01-01

    ...). Hence, this study aims at analyzing the individualized consideration of leadership, the innovative organizational climate and the proactive personality, as possible antecedents of change-oriented...

  11. A wellness study of 108 individuals using personal, dense, dynamic data clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nathan D; Magis, Andrew T; Earls, John C; Glusman, Gustavo; Levy, Roie; Lausted, Christopher; McDonald, Daniel T; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Moss, Christopher L; Zhou, Yong; Qin, Shizhen; Moritz, Robert L; Brogaard, Kristin; Omenn, Gilbert S; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Hood, Leroy

    2017-08-01

    Personal data for 108 individuals were collected during a 9-month period, including whole genome sequences; clinical tests, metabolomes, proteomes, and microbiomes at three time points; and daily activity tracking. Using all of these data, we generated a correlation network that revealed communities of related analytes associated with physiology and disease. Connectivity within analyte communities enabled the identification of known and candidate biomarkers (e.g., gamma-glutamyltyrosine was densely interconnected with clinical analytes for cardiometabolic disease). We calculated polygenic scores from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 127 traits and diseases, and used these to discover molecular correlates of polygenic risk (e.g., genetic risk for inflammatory bowel disease was negatively correlated with plasma cystine). Finally, behavioral coaching informed by personal data helped participants to improve clinical biomarkers. Our results show that measurement of personal data clouds over time can improve our understanding of health and disease, including early transitions to disease states.

  12. Teamwork orientation and personal learning: The role of individual cultural values and value congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is a growing body of research that indicates that personal factors such as collectivist value orientation play an important role in individuals’ preference for teamwork, and an individual’s propensity to work in a team is seen as a contributing factor in one’s personal learning.Research purpose: The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, the article aims to explore whether individual-level cultural values of power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity interact with individual collectivist values to influence teamwork orientation. Secondly, the study aims to examine the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning further exploring the role of perceived value congruence in this relationship.Motivation for the study: While an extensive amount of research has been conducted on teamwork orientation, the question of how individual cultural values influence formation of teamwork orientation is still largely unanswered. This lack is especially evident with regard to how the influence of collectivism on the development of positive attitudes towards teamwork is promoted or inhibited by other values such as power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity. Moreover, the current evidence about the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning and the role of personal and contextual factors in such a relationship is still scarce.Research design, approach and method: The study used a cross-sectional survey, with data collected from 120 business students engaged in project teams at a Norwegian university. All the hypothesised relationships were assessed using partial least square structural equation modelling technique.Main findings: The findings indicate that the link between collectivism–teamwork orientation is stronger for team members who scored high on uncertainty avoidance values and the relationship was weaker for team members who endorsed high-power distance

  13. The Army Racial Awareness Program: A Case Study of Program Impact on Personal Values. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Michael R.; Kriner, Richard E.

    The effects of two forms of presentation of the Army Racial Awareness Program (RAP) on the personal values of equality and freedom were assessed. Subjects were Army personnel assigned to RAP at Fort Meade, Md. The research instrument was the Rokeach Value Survey, in pretest-posttest administrations. Results suggested that the official RAP…

  14. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits.

  15. Personality traits and individual differences predict threat-induced changes in postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaback, Martin; Cleworth, Taylor W; Carpenter, Mark G; Adkin, Allan L

    2015-04-01

    This study explored whether specific personality traits and individual differences could predict changes in postural control when presented with a height-induced postural threat. Eighty-two healthy young adults completed questionnaires to assess trait anxiety, trait movement reinvestment (conscious motor processing, movement self-consciousness), physical risk-taking, and previous experience with height-related activities. Tests of static (quiet standing) and anticipatory (rise to toes) postural control were completed under low and high postural threat conditions. Personality traits and individual differences significantly predicted height-induced changes in static, but not anticipatory postural control. Individuals less prone to taking physical risks were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at higher frequencies and smaller amplitudes. Individuals more prone to conscious motor processing were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at larger amplitudes. Individuals more self-conscious about their movement appearance were more likely to sway at smaller amplitudes. Evidence is also provided that relationships between physical risk-taking and changes in static postural control are mediated through changes in fear of falling and physiological arousal. Results from this study may have indirect implications for balance assessment and treatment; however, further work exploring these factors in patient populations is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Establishing a Program for Individuals at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiz, Fernando; Kuerer, Henry M.; Puga, Julio; Camacho, Jamile; Cunill, Eduardo; Arun, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Our need to create a program for individuals at high risk for breast cancer development led us to research the available data on such programs. In this paper, we summarize our findings and our thinking process as we developed our own program. Breast cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. Even though there are known risk factors for breast cancer development, approximately 60% of patients with breast cancer have no known risk factor, although this situation will probably change with further research, especially in genetics. For patients with risk factors based on personal or family history, different models are available for assessing and quantifying risk. Assignment of risk levels permits tailored screening and risk reduction strategies. Potential benefits of specialized programs for women with high breast cancer risk include more cost -effective interventions as a result of patient stratification on the basis of risk; generation of valuable data to advance science; and differentiation of breast programs from other breast cancer units, which can result in increased revenue that can be directed to further improvements in patient care. Guidelines for care of patients at high risk for breast cancer are available from various groups. However, running a high-risk breast program involves much more than applying a guideline. Each high-risk program needs to be designed by its institution with consideration of local resources and country legislation, especially related to genetic issues. Development of a successful high-risk program includes identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; developing a promotion plan; choosing a risk assessment tool; defining “high risk”; and planning screening and risk reduction strategies for the specific population served by the program. The information in this article may be useful for other institutions considering creation of programs for patients with high breast cancer risk. PMID:23833688

  17. Individual differences in personality in laying hens are related to learning a colour cue association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Elske N; Lee, Caroline; Hernandez, Carlos E; Naguib, Marc; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2017-01-01

    Personality can influence how animals perceive and learn cues. The behaviour and physiological responses animals show during stressful events is indicative of their personality. Acute induced stress prior to a cognitive test are known to affect the judgement of a stimulus, but personality of an individual could also affect learning of a specific cognitive paradigm. Here, we assessed if adult laying hens' behaviour and physiological responses, as indicators of their personality, were related to their cognitive performance. We assessed their behavioural responses to a tonic immobility test, an open field test, and a manual restraint test, and measured plasma corticosterone levels after manual restraint. After that, hens (n=20) were trained in a pre-set training schedule to associate a colour-cue with a reward. In a two-choice go-go test, hens needed to choose between a baited or non-baited food container displayed randomly on the left or right side of an arena. Success in learning was related to personality, with better performance of hens which showed a reactive personality type by a long latency to walk, struggle or vocalize during the tests. Only eight out of 20 hens reached the training criteria. The non-learners showed a strong side preference during all training days. Side preferences were strong in hens with high levels of plasma corticosterone and with a long duration of tonic immobility, indicating that fearful, stress-sensitive hens are more prone to develop side biases. Our results show that learning can be hindered by side biases, and fearful animals with a more proactive personality type are more sensitive to develop such biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Group, Individual, and Home Exercise in Persons With Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laurie A; Wilhelm, Jennifer; Chen, Yiyi; Blehm, Ron; Nutt, John; Chen, Zunqiu; Serdar, Andrea; Horak, Fay B

    2015-10-01

    Comparative studies of exercise interventions for people with Parkinson disease (PD) rarely considered how one should deliver the intervention. The objective of this study was to compare the success of exercise when administered by (1) home exercise program, (2) individualized physical therapy, or (3) a group class. We examined if common comorbidities associated with PD impacted success of each intervention. Fifty-eight people (age = 63.9 ± 8 years) with PD participated. People were randomized into (1) home exercise program, (2) individual physical therapy, or (3) group class intervention. All arms were standardized and based on the Agility Boot Camp exercise program for PD, 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the 7-item Physical Performance Test. Other measures of balance, gait, mobility, quality of life, balance confidence, depressions, apathy, self-efficacy and UPDRS-Motor, and activity of daily living scores were included. Only the individual group significantly improved in the Physical Performance Test. The individual exercise showed the most improvements in functional and balance measures, whereas the group class showed the most improvements in gait. The home exercise program improved the least across all outcomes. Several factors effected success, particularly for the home group. An unsupervised, home exercise program is the least effective way to deliver exercise to people with PD, and individual and group exercises have differing benefits. Furthermore, people with PD who also have other comorbidities did better in a program directly supervised by a physical therapist.Video Abstract available for additional insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A112).

  19. Personal therapy for undergraduate music therapy students: a survey of AMTA program coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardstrom, Susan C; Jackson, Nancy A

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to gather information in order to understand if and how various modalities of personal therapy are employed with undergraduate music therapy students in the United States. AMTA degree program coordinators were asked about 3 therapy modalities, in particular: verbal therapy, music therapy, and expressive arts therapy (excluding music therapy). It was predicted that less than a quarter of the respondents would indicate that personal therapy of any modality was required in their undergraduate curricula, but that a larger percentage would indicate that it was encouraged. Both hypotheses were supported, with just over 14% of the respondents indicating that they require some form of personal therapy and 32% indicating that they encourage it, with 73% of this latter subgroup encouraging verbal therapy and 46% encouraging music therapy. It was further predicted that, when therapy was required or encouraged, it was most often provided by an individual who was associated with the college/university and that therapy was usually provided in a group format. Respondent comments related to these 2 questions revealed considerable confusion between experiential exercises and personal therapy, leading to dubious validity of some of the numerical data. Qualitative treatment of narrative responses illuminated 4 salient issues regarding personal therapy for undergraduate music therapy students, as follows: (a) the legal and ethical feasibility of making personal therapy a requirement; (b) the cost and availability of qualified professionals; (c) the benefits of personal therapy as an integral facet of undergraduate music therapy training and education; and (d) the appropriateness of personal therapy at the undergraduate level of training.

  20. Change in Knee Cartilage Volume in Individuals Completing a Therapeutic Exercise Program for Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, Jason D.; Gil, Alexandra B.; Sparto, Patrick; Kwoh, C. Kent; Piva, Sara R.; Farrokhi, Shawn; Powers, Christopher M.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    MF cartilage volume was highly variable and the median loss of cartilage was within the range previously reported. Seven of the 13 individuals did not have cMF cartilage volume loss greater than the SEM. Change in cartilage volume of the cMF may be influenced to a greater extent by personal factors than by completion of a therapeutic exercise program. Additional research is needed to decipher the interactions among therapeutic exercise and personal characteristics that impact knee cartilage loss. PMID:21891881

  1. Individual quality and personality: bolder males are less fecund in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Danielle; Bonner, Simon J; Briffa, Mark

    2015-03-22

    One explanation for animal personality is that different behavioural types derive from different life-history strategies. Highly productive individuals, with high growth rates and high fecundity, are assumed to live life at a fast pace showing high levels of boldness and risk taking, compared with less productive individuals. Here, we investigate among-individual differences in mean boldness (the inverse of the latency to recover from a startling stimulus) and in the consistency of boldness, in male hermit crabs in relation to two aspects of life-history investment. We assessed aerobic scope by measuring the concentration of the respiratory pigment haemocyanin, and we assessed fecundity by measuring spermatophore size. First, we found that individuals investing in large spermatophores also had high concentrations of haemocyanin. Using doubly hierarchical-generalized linear models to analyse longitudinal data on startle responses, we show that hermit crabs vary both in their mean response durations and in the consistency of their behaviour. Individual consistency was unrelated to haemocyanin concentration or spermatophore size, but mean startle response duration increased with spermatophore size. Thus, counter to expectations, it was the most risk-averse individuals, rather than the boldest and most risk prone, that were the most productive. We suggest that similar patterns should be present in other species, if the most productive individuals avoid risky behaviour. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Demystifying animal 'personality' (or not): why individual variation matters to experimental biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Dominique G; Careau, Vincent; Binning, Sandra A

    2016-12-15

    Animal 'personality', defined as repeatable inter-individual differences in behaviour, is a concept in biology that faces intense controversy. Critics argue that the field is riddled with terminological and methodological inconsistencies and lacks a sound theoretical framework. Nevertheless, experimental biologists are increasingly studying individual differences in physiology and relating these to differences in behaviour, which can lead to fascinating insights. We encourage this trend, and in this Commentary we highlight some of the benefits of estimating variation in (and covariation among) phenotypic traits at the inter- and intra-individual levels. We focus on behaviour while drawing parallels with physiological and performance-related traits. First, we outline some of the confusion surrounding the terminology used to describe repeatable inter-individual differences in behaviour. Second, we argue that acknowledging individual behavioural differences can help researchers avoid sampling and experimental bias, increase explanatory power and, ultimately, understand how selection acts on physiological traits. Third, we summarize the latest methods to collect, analyse and present data on individual trait variation. We note that, while measuring the repeatability of phenotypic traits is informative in its own right, it is only the first step towards understanding how natural selection and genetic architecture shape intra-specific variation in complex, labile traits. Thus, understanding how and why behavioural traits evolve requires linking repeatable inter-individual behavioural differences with core aspects of physiology (e.g. neurophysiology, endocrinology, energy metabolism) and evolutionary biology (e.g. selection gradients, heritability). © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. PERSONALITY AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: INDIVIDUAL PARTICIPANT META-ANALYSIS OF 10 COHORT STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Christian; Elovainio, Marko; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Personality is suggested to be a major risk factor for depression but large-scale individual participant meta-analyses on this topic are lacking. Data from 10 prospective community cohort studies with 117,899 participants (mean age 49.0 years; 54.7% women) were pooled for individual participant meta-analysis to determine the association between personality traits of the five-factor model and risk of depressive symptoms. In cross-sectional analysis, low extraversion (pooled standardized regression coefficient (B) = -.08; 95% confidence interval = -0.11, -0.04), high neuroticism (B = .39; 0.32, 0.45), and low conscientiousness (B = -.09; -0.10, -0.06) were associated with depressive symptoms. Similar associations were observed in longitudinal analyses adjusted for baseline depressive symptoms (n = 56,735; mean follow-up of 5.0 years): low extraversion (B = -.03; -0.05, -0.01), high neuroticism (B = .12; 0.10, 0.13), and low conscientiousness (B = -.04; -0.06, -0.02) were associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up. In turn, depressive symptoms were associated with personality change in extraversion (B = -.07; 95% CI = -0.12, -0.02), neuroticism (B = .23; 0.09, 0.36), agreeableness (B = -.09; -0.15, -0.04), conscientiousness (B = -.14; -0.21, -0.07), and openness to experience (B = -.04; -0.08, 0.00). Personality traits are prospectively associated with the development of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, in turn, are associated with changes in personality that may be temporary or persistent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Personality and Depressive Symptoms: Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of 10 Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Christian; Elovainio, Marko; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Personality is suggested to be a major risk factor for depression but large-scale individual-participant meta-analyses on this topic are lacking. Method Data from 10 prospective community cohort studies with a total of 117 899 participants (mean age 49.0 years; 54.7% women) were pooled for individual-participant meta-analysis to determine the association between personality traits of the Five Factor Model and risk of depressive symptoms. Results In cross-sectional analysis, low extraversion (pooled standardized regression coefficient (B)=-0.08; 95 % confidence interval=-0.11, -0.04), high neuroticism (B=0.39; 0.32, 0.45), and low conscientiousness (B=-0.09; -0.10, -0.06) were associated with depressive symptoms. Similar associations were observed in longitudinal analyses adjusted for baseline depressive symptoms (n=56,735; mean follow-up of 5.0 years): low extraversion (B=-0.03; -0.05, -0.01), high neuroticism (B=0.12; 0.10, 0.13), and low conscientiousness (B=-0.04; -0.06, -0.02) were associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up. In turn, depressive symptoms were associated with personality change in extraversion (B=-0.07; 95 % CI=-0.12, -0.02), neuroticism (B=0.23; 0.09, 0.36), agreeableness (B=-0.09; -0.15, -0.04), conscientiousness (B=-0.14; -0.21, -0.07), and openness to experience (B=-0.04; -0.08, 0.00). Conclusions Personality traits are prospectively associated with the development of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, in turn, are associated with changes in personality that may be temporary or persistent. PMID:26014798

  5. Emotional conditions disrupt behavioral control among individuals with dysregulated personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Jenessa; Verona, Edelyn

    2010-05-01

    The current study directly examined emotion-induced behavior dyscontrol among individuals scoring high on dysregulated tendencies, represented by impulsive-antisocial and borderline personality traits, using an emotional-linguistic go/no-go laboratory paradigm (Goldstein et al., 2007). We specifically examined the effects of these personality traits and emotional context on (a) overall behavior dyscontrol (slower reaction times [RTs] to emotional blocks relative to neutral blocks) and (b) duration of the dyscontrol (persistence or habituation of the effect of emotional context on behavior across blocks). We hypothesized that individuals high on borderline-antisocial traits would exhibit greater behavioral dyscontrol (slower RTs or lack of habituation across blocks) when responding during blocks of negative emotional cues. We also examined whether this emotional effect on behavioral control would be exacerbated by exposure to particularly salient emotional stimuli (diagnostically relevant negative affective words; e.g., abandon). Results indicated that high borderline-antisocial individuals showed greater initial behavioral control difficulties (slower RTs) to general negative affective words than to other word contents during the first block of trials, but this effect habituated by the second block. Importantly, slowed responses to diagnostically relevant word blocks persisted across time among high borderline-antisocial individuals, whereas low scorers showed habituated behavioral responses to emotional words across time.

  6. Using Personality Traits to Construct Linear Growth Models of Mental Health in Family Members of Individuals With Severe Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Objective: No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members of individu...

  7. An Online Program for Caregivers of Persons Living With Dementia: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Mariya; Blevins, Lindsey; Griffiths, Patricia C; Hepburn, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    The population of individuals living with dementia and their caregivers and the need to provide caregiver training will increase in the next several decades. In-person caregiver educational programs are delimited by logistical and resource boundaries that could be overcome with online programs. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the acceptability and ways to improve the content and delivery of an online 7-week psychoeducational pilot program-Tele-Savvy. Thirty-six caregivers who completed the pilot were interviewed about their experience with Tele-Savvy and their suggestions for its improvement. Conventional content analysis allowed for the identification of three themes: barriers and facilitators to establishing rapport with participants and instructors, content enrichment and diversification, and structural refinement. These lessons learned directly from the caregivers provide evidence to guide the refinement of analogous online interventions and highlight the need for their wider availability.

  8. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  9. Emergence of leadership in a robotic fish group under diverging individual personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Chen, Xiaojie; Xie, Guangming; Cao, Ming

    2017-05-01

    Variations of individual's personality traits have been identified before as one of the possible mechanisms for the emergence of leadership in an interactive collective, which may lead to benefits for the group as a whole. Complementing the large number of existing literatures on using simulation models to study leadership, we use biomimetic robotic fish to gain insight into how the fish's behaviours evolve under the influence of the physical hydrodynamics. In particular, we focus in this paper on understanding how robotic fish's personality traits affect the emergence of an effective leading fish in repeated robotic foraging tasks when the robotic fish's strategies, to push or not to push the obstacle in its foraging path, are updated over time following an evolutionary game set-up. We further show that the robotic fish's personality traits diverge when the group carries out difficult foraging tasks in our experiments, and self-organization takes place to help the group to adapt to the level of difficulties of the tasks without inter-individual communication.

  10. Personality Patterns in Narcotics Anonymous Members versus Individuals with Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy.This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI. Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test.We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness.People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.

  11. Personal styles and ways of coping in individuals who use wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, G; Krausher, K; Cumming, C; Jung, V; Steadward, R; Cumming, D

    1996-06-01

    To obtain information about the psychological needs of wheelchair users, 45 subjects participating in a university-based drop-in physical activity centre and outpatient rehabilitation program completed the Personal Styles Inventory and the Ways of Coping Inventory. Three groups of subjects were formed, differentiated by etiology for their disability. Results suggested that subjects with brain injury possessed the most limited coping resources. Subjects with multiple sclerosis were highest of the three groups in the frequency of utilization of emotional coping, they also revealed a fundamentally introverted and stability-based personality style. Subjects with spinal cord injuries utilized a predominantly Problem-solving means of coping: and they revealed a basic personality style characterized as extroverted and stable. The findings suggest that disease process (perhaps through common preexisting psychological characteristics, the nature of the onset and progression of the disease process, and/or tissue damage) may modify the ability to adapt and cope with the need to use a wheelchair. The nature of psychological support to be offered should reflect not only the use of a wheelchair but also the underlying personality and its modification by the nature of the disease process.

  12. Helping Individuals With Dementia Live More Fully Through Person-Centered Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Karen; Femia, Elia

    2015-11-01

    Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, is a health condition saddled with social stigmas and is widely misunderstood. Person-centered care practices can positively improve the psychosocial experience of living with dementia and have become the gold standard for care because of the resulting beneficial outcomes. The purpose of the current article is to describe four person-centered principles that form the foundation for dementia care practice: (a) the idea that individuals can and do live fully with dementia; (b) quality of life depends not only on the care received but also on the value that others put on their abilities and life; (c) being meaningfully engaged and having purpose are vital to well-being; and (d) respect, dignity, and choice are not only foundational to person-centered care but for basic human rights. Although efforts have been made to mandate person-centered practices, challenges remain that can direct future research and practice efforts. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(11), 9-14.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Can personality predict individual differences in brook trout spatial learning ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Wagner, T; Gowan, C; Braithwaite, V A

    2017-08-01

    While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Can personality predict individual differences in brook trout spatial learning ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S.L.; Wagner, Tyler; Gowan, C.; Braithwaite, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation.

  15. Individual and household attributes influence the dynamics of the personal skin microbiota and its association network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marcus H Y; Tong, Xinzhao; Wilkins, David; Cheung, Hedwig H L; Lee, Patrick K H

    2018-02-02

    Numerous studies have thus far characterized the temporal dynamics of the skin microbiota of healthy individuals. However, there is no information regarding the dynamics of different microbial association network properties. Also, there is little understanding of how living conditions, specifically cohabitation and household occupancy, may be associated with the nature and extent (or degree) of cutaneous microbiota change within individuals over time. In this study, the dynamics of the skin microbiota, and its association networks, on the skin of urban residents over four seasons were characterized. Similar to western cohorts, the individuals of this cohort show different extents of variations in relative abundance of common skin colonizers, concomitant with individual- and household-associated changes in differential abundances of bacterial taxa. Interestingly, the individualized nature of the skin microbiota extends to various aspects of microbial association networks, including co-occurring and excluding taxa, as well as overall network structural properties. Household occupancy is correlated with the extent of variations in relative abundance of Propionibacterium, Acinetobacter, and Bacillus over multiple skin sites. In addition, household occupancy is also associated with the extent of temporal changes in microbial diversity and composition within a resident's skin. This is the first study investigating the potential roles household occupancy has on the extent of change in one's cutaneous microbiota and its association network structures. In particular, we show that relationships between the skin microbiota of a resident, his/her cohabitants, and those of non-cohabitants over time are highly personal and are possibly governed by living conditions and nature of interactions between cohabitants within households over 1 year. This study calls for increased awareness to personal and lifestyle factors that may govern relationships between the skin microbiota of

  16. Adherence to exercise programs for older people is influenced by program characteristics and personal factors: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Miranda Assumpção Picorelli

    2014-09-01

    [Picorelli AMA, Pereira LSM, Pereira DS, Felicio D, Sherrington C (2014 Adherence to exercise programs for older people is influenced by program characteristics and personal factors: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 151–156

  17. Individual and Social Competence, Personality Factors and Cognitive Abilities of Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorov A.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors studied the connections between individual and social competence, personality factors and cognitive abilities of preschool children with typical development, attending kindergarten (N = 54; age 73, 4  6 months, 31 boys and 23 girls. The following method have been used: "Preschool children's educational competence scale», M5-PS, computer cognitive tests. K-means clustering of cases and Mann-Whitney U Test were used. Revealed that children with a high level of individual social competence development were more open to experience minded (p <0,0001, agreeable (p <0,05, conscientious (p <0,01, with higher level of Extraversion (0,001 and also more successful with the cognitive tests for stimulus sequences understanding (p <0,05, logical multiplication usage (p <0,05, emotional expression and situations of social interaction recognition (p <0,05 and p < 0,01. The obtained results may indicate the possible involvement of both personality and cognitive factors in the formation of individual and social competences.

  18. Phonetic imitation from an individual-difference perspective: subjective attitude, personality and "autistic" traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan C L; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching.

  19. Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and “Autistic” Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

  20. What can we learn from the personal insights of individuals living and coping with multiple sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcomson, K S; Lowe-Strong, A S; Dunwoody, L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the personal accounts of individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Hence the study presents individuals experiences of living with MS to date and the effective self-management strategies employed to cope in day-to-day life. Thematic analysis was used to explore the personal narratives of thirteen individuals with MS in two focus group discussions. Participants in both groups identified similar themes related to the experiences of living and coping with MS. These were: Learning something was wrong (before diagnosis); getting a name (diagnosis); lack of professional support; unchanging family relationships, adjustments to employment circumstances and social life; challenges; successful coping via proactivity, perspective and control (self-management techniques); advice for others, and recommendations as to how services could be improved and developed. The most salient finding is that there is a need for a formal approach to the management of psychosocial problems and challenges associated with MS. This will require both users and health professionals working together to further the development of clinical guidelines and services for this population.

  1. Phonetic imitation from an individual-difference perspective: subjective attitude, personality and "autistic" traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C L Yu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual and the outcome (positive vs. negative of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching.

  2. Can healthy, young adults uncover personal details of unknown target individuals in their dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carlyle

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that undergraduate college students could incubate dreams containing information about unknown target individuals with significant life problems. In Experiment 1, students provided two baseline dreams. They were then exposed to a photo of an individual and invited to dream about a health problem (unknown to them and the experimenter) of that individual and asked to provide two more dreams. From a class of 65 students, 12 dreamers volunteered dreams about the unknown target. In Experiment 2, 66 students were asked to dream about the life problems of a second individual, simply by looking at the photo (experimental group). Another 56 students were exposed to this same paradigm, but the photo that they examined was computer generated and the target individual was fictitious (control group). The dream elements were objectively scored with categories devised using the Hall-Van de Castle system as a model. Data were ordinal, and the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to examine preincubation (baseline) versus postincubation (photo examination and incubation) dream content in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a Z score for proportions was used to compare differences in frequency of devised categories between experimental and control groups. In Experiment 1, the comparison of postincubation dreams (all categories combined) was significant compared with the preincubation dreams (Z = 2.09, P = .036). The postincubation dreams reflected the health problem of the target. In Experiment 2, the proportion of scored categories in experimental and control groups were compared at the preincubation and postincubation conditions. The proportions of "Combined" (all categories) was very significantly larger at the postincubation condition (Z = 6.27, P dreams of the experimental group were related to the problems of the target individual. Young, healthy adults are capable of dreaming details about the personal problems of an unknown individual

  3. Combined group and individual schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhaut, Veronique; Arntz, Arnoud

    2014-06-01

    Schema Therapy (ST) is a highly effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). In a group format, delivery costs could be reduced and recovery processes catalyzed by specific use of group processes. As patients may also need individual attention, we piloted the combination of individual and group-ST. Two cohorts of BPD patients (N = 8, N = 10) received a combination of weekly group-ST and individual ST for 2 years, with 6 months extra individual ST if indicated. Therapists were experienced in individual ST but not in group-ST. The second cohort of therapists was trained in group-ST by specialists. This made it possible to explore the training effects. Assessments of BPD manifestations and secondary measures took place every 6 months up to 2.5 years. Change over time and differences between cohorts were analyzed with mixed regression. Dropout from treatment was 33.3% in Year 1, and 5.6% in Year 2, without cohort differences. BPD manifestations reduced significantly, with large effect sizes, and 77% recovery at 30 months. Large improvements were also found on general psychopathological symptoms, schema (mode) measures, quality of life, and happiness. Cohort-2 tended to improve faster, but there were no differences between cohorts in the long term. The study was uncontrolled, training effects might have been non-specific, and the sample size was relatively small. Combined group-individual ST can be an effective treatment, but dropout might be higher than from individual ST. Addition of specialized group-ST seems to speed up recovery compared to only individual ST. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Motor interactions with another person: Do individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder plan ahead?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gonzalez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal motor interactions (joint-actions occur on a daily basis. In joint-action situations, typically developing (TD individuals consider the end-goal of their partner and adjust their own movements to accommodate the other person. The movement planning processes required for joint-action may, however, be difficult for individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD given documented difficulties in performance on theory of mind (ToM and motor tasks. The goal of this experiment was to determine if individuals with ASD exhibit end-state comfort behaviours similar to their typically developing peers in joint-action situations. Participants were asked to either pass, place, or use three common tools: a wooden toy hammer, a stick, or a calculator. These tools were selected because the degree of affordance they offer (i.e., the physical characteristics they posses to prompt proper use ranges from direct (hammer to indirect (calculator. Participants were asked to pass the tool to a confederate who intended to place the tool down, or use the tool. Variables of interest included beginning and end-state grip orientations of the participant and confederate (comfortable or uncomfortable as a function of task goal, and the side to which the tool was placed or passed. Similar to Gonzalez et al. 2011, some individuals with ASD maximized their partner’s beginning-state comfort by adopting personally uncomfortable postures. That said, their performance was more variable than their TD peers who consistently passed tools in a manner that facilitated comfortable use by the confederate. Therefore, the movement planning processes used to prepare to pass a tool are not stereotypical across all individuals with ASD. We propose that the novel joint-action task described herein provides the basis for testing an important link between motor performance and more complex social and communication behaviours.

  5. Personality characteristics in surgery seeking and non-surgery seeking obese individuals compared to non-obese controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Hjordt, Liv V; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown what makes some obese individuals opt for bariatric surgery whereas others choose not to. The aim of this study was to examine whether personality characteristics differed between obese individuals signed up for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (N=30) and obese individuals...... groups did not differ in terms of personality. The Neuroticism domain and possibly the Extraversion domain may therefore be worthwhile to consider in future studies investigating the outcome of bariatric surgery....

  6. Easy-to-use application programs for decay heat and delayed neutron calculations on personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Application programs for personal computers are developed to calculate the decay heat power and delayed neutron activity from fission products. The main programs can be used in any computers from personal computers to main frames because their sources are written in Fortran. These programs have user friendly interfaces to be used easily not only for research activities but also for educational purposes. (author)

  7. Personality Factors Associated With Resident Performance: Results From 12 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Accredited Orthopaedic Surgery Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donna; Egol, Kenneth A; Maculatis, Martine C; Roloff, Kathryn S; Friedman, Alan M; Levine, Brett; Garfin, Steven; Schwartz, Alexandra; Sterling, Robert; Kuivila, Thomas; Paragioudakis, Steve J; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2017-07-05

    To understand the personality factors associated with orthopedic surgery resident performance. A prospective, cross-sectional survey of orthopedic surgery faculty that assessed their perceptions of the personality traits most highly associated with resident performance. Residents also completed a survey to determine their specific personality characteristics. A subset of faculty members rated the performance of those residents within their respective program on 5 dimensions. Multiple regression models tested the relationship between the set of resident personality measures and each aspect of performance; relative weights analyses were then performed to quantify the contribution of the individual personality measures to the total variance explained in each performance domain. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to examine differences between the personality characteristics of residents and those faculty identified as relevant to successful resident performance. Data were collected from 12 orthopedic surgery residency programs1 throughout the United States. The level of clinical care provided by participating institutions varied. Data from 175 faculty members and 266 residents across 12 programs were analyzed. The personality features of residents were related to faculty evaluations of resident performance (for all, p performance. Particularly, the characteristics of agreeableness, neuroticism, and learning approach were found to be most important for explaining resident performance. Additionally, there were significant differences between the personality features that faculty members identified as important for resident performance and the personality features that residents possessed. Personality assessments can predict orthopedic surgery resident performance. However, results suggest the traits that faculty members value or reward among residents could be different from the traits associated with improved resident performance. Copyright © 2017 Association

  8. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  9. Some Characteristics of the TL Personal Dosemeter used by CPHR Individual Monitoring Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Bernal, E.; Molina-Perez, D. [La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    In order to evaluate the performance characteristics of TL personal dosemeters used by the CPHR individual monitoring service, different performance tests were carried out. Some of the tests were those recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission. The dosemeter consists of LiF:Mg,Ti (model JR1152C) detectors kept in a plastic holder. Important dosimetric characteristics evaluated were batch homogeneity, reproducibility, detection threshold, energy and angular dependence and fading. The result of the tests showed good performance characteristics of the detectors. (author)

  10. Testing Results and Prospects of Educational Module “Individualization and Personalization of Educational Work with Students of Different Types”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaslavskaya O.Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the testing results of educational module “Individualization and Personalization of Educational Work with Students of Different Types” in pedagogical master program, Teacher education (secondary general education teacher training direction. The module based on the professional direction, involving the connection of the objectives, content, forms, tools, and educational results with the main educational results according to Federal State Educational standard, as well as the content of different professional activities of future teachers of secondary education, are contained in the professional standards of the teacher. We characterized the structure and content of module subjects, the kinds of master educational activity organization, assessment tools which were used for the module educational outcomes (competencies, job functions and teacher activity in master students. The article describes the changes and updates that have been made in teaching and guidance documents on the results of the module testing and presents the perspectives of module in master students training.

  11. Connecting Corrections and HIV Care: Building a Care Coordination Program for Recently Incarcerated Persons Living with HIV in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Steven; Gilmore, Kathryn; Yerkes, Lauren; Rhodes, Anne

    2017-12-16

    Incarcerated individuals are disproportionately affected by HIV and often experience risk factors associated with poor maintenance of HIV care upon release. Therefore, the transition period from incarceration to the community is a particularly critical time for persons living with HIV to ensure continuity of care and treatment. By building relationships with Department of Corrections staff and community partners, the Virginia Department of Health developed a program to link recently incarcerated persons living with HIV to care and treatment immediately upon release from correctional facilities across Virginia. Findings show that clients served by the program have better outcomes along the HIV continuum of care than the overall population living with HIV in Virginia. This paper describes the development, implementation and health outcomes of the Care Coordination program for recently incarcerated persons living with HIV in Virginia.

  12. Up Close and Personal: A Statewide Collaborative's Effort to Get Individual Surgeon Quality Improvement Data to the Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Brian J; Cecil, William; Cofer, Joseph B; Clarke, P Chris; Guillamondegui, Oscar

    2016-03-01

    Ranking of surgeons and hospitals focuses on procedure volume and hospitality. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program provides vetted outcomes of surgical quality and therefore can direct improvement. Our statewide collaborative's analysis creates personalized surgeon data to drive quality improvement. Statewide National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data generated specific measures from 103,656 general/vascular cases and identified individual surgeon's outcome of occurrences and length of procedure. We assumed a normal distribution and called the top 2.5 per cent as exemplars and the bottom 2.5 per cent as outliers. For length of operation, a standard duration was calculated, and identified outliers as longer than the 95th percentile of the upper confidence interval/procedure. Since 2009, sharing best practice reduced statewide mortality rate by 31.5 per cent and postoperative morbidity by 33.3 per cent. For length of surgery, long outliers have more complications (urinary tract infection, organ space/surgical site infection, sepsis, septic shock, prolonged intubation, pneumonia, deep venous thrombosis, deep incisional infection, and wound disruption). No significant trends in surgeon performance were seen over 24 months. A statewide collaborative has resulted in substantial risk-adjusted reductions in surgical morbidity and mortality. These results of the individual surgeon demonstrate best practices are shared, a proven tool for improvement in our collaborative.

  13. Chapter 3: The value of individual EERE programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  14. Applying Personality Type Theory to Develop Individualized Wellness Plans for Reducing Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C. Schommer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire are associated with activities people prefer for getting adequate exercise, losing weight, managing stress, quitting smoking, reducing alcohol consumption, and taking medications as prescribed. Methods: The data source for this study was the 2016 National Consumer Survey of the Medication Experience and Pharmacists’ Roles. Data were collected via an on-line, self-administered survey conducted from March 14-30, 2016. Data were obtained from 10,500 adults residing in the United States. Chi-square analysis was used for making comparisons between categories of personality types and how respondents believed they could best reach their personal goals. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Practical significance was set at five or more percentage points above or below the overall mean. Results: Findings showed that (1 there are key differences between individuals that impact their behavior and (2 these differences can be easily and accurately identified using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire. The findings supported the notion that individuals are more likely to experience success in changing health-risk behaviors if they engage in activities that are consistent with (i how they are energized, (ii the kind of information they naturally notice, (iii how they prefer to make decisions, and (iv their preferences to live in a more structured way or in a more spontaneous way. Conclusions: Personality type characteristics can be used to develop and implement successful change strategies and intervention tools, such as individualized wellness plans (IWPTM that help promote intention stability, create implementation intention, resist situational pressure, reduce the impact of past habits on future performances, and improve change maintenance. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of

  15. Personality traits in alcohol-dependent individuals in the context of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-10-31

    The aim of this study was to identify groups of alcohol-dependent individuals differing in the severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse and to find the personality variables that discriminate between those groups. The study included 90 individuals dependent on alcohol. The following questionnaires were used: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Coping Inventory (COPE), the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), Cattell's IPAT Anxiety Scale, and the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). Two groups of subjects addicted to alcohol were identified: group 1 with high and group 2 with low childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse indices. The subjects in Group 1 had significantly higher scores than the subjects in Group 2 on the TCI Temperament scales of NS and HA and lower scores on the TCI character scales of SD, C2 and C4. Group 1 subjects were significantly more likely than those from Group 2 to use avoidant coping strategies; they were also less likely to use problem-focused strategies and had significantly higher scores on general anxiety, overt anxiety, latent anxiety, level of aggression, physical aggression, hostility and anger. The higher severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse in alcoholics is associated with those personality traits that seem to be crucial for maintaining abstinence and the quality of cooperation in therapy.

  16. Individual differences in Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) primary emotional traits and depressive tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Panksepp, Jaak; Kiefer, Markus

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated individual differences in the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS), representing measures of primary emotional systems, and depressive tendencies in two independent samples. In order to be able to find support for a continuum model with respect to the relation of strength in the cross-species "affective neuroscience" taxonomy of primary emotional systems, we investigated ANPS measured personality traits in a psychologically mostly healthy population (n=614 participants) as well as a sample of clinically depressed people (n=55 depressed patients). In both normal and depressed samples robust associations appeared between higher FEAR and SADNESS scores and depressive tendencies. A similar - albeit weaker - association was observed with lower SEEKING system scores and higher depressive tendencies, an effect again seen in both samples. The study is of cross-sectional nature and therefore only associations between primary emotional systems and depressive tendencies were evaluated. These results show that similar associations between ANPS monitored primary emotional systems and tendencies toward depression can be observed in both healthy and depressed participants. This lends support for a continuum of affective changes accompanying depression, potentially reflecting differences in specific brain emotional system activities in both affectively normal as well as clinically depressed individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural correlates of the individual emotional Stroop in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Rullkoetter, Nina; Mensebach, Christoph; Beblo, Thomas; Mertens, Markus; Kreisel, Stefan; Toepper, Max; Driessen, Martin; Woermann, Friedrich G

    2009-05-01

    Emotional dysregulation is a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with altered inhibitory functions having suggested as being crucial. The anterior cingulate cortex and further prefrontal brain regions are crucial for response inhibition. The regulation of emotions is ensured via inhibitory control over the amygdala. The present study aimed to investigate neural correlates of response inhibition in BPD by using an emotional Stroop paradigm extending the task to word stimuli which were related to stressful life events. Twenty BPD patients and 20 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the individual emotional Stroop task. A block design was used with the following word type conditions: neutral words, general negative words, and individual negative words. The individual negative words were recruited from a prior interview conducted with each participant. While BPD patients had overall slower reaction times in the Stroop task compared to healthy controls, there was no increased slowing with emotional interference. Controls exhibited significant fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent signal increases in the anterior cingulate cortex as well as in frontal cortex contrasting generally negative vs. neutral and individual negative vs. neutral conditions, respectively. BPD patients did not show equivalent signal changes. These results provide further evidence for a dysfunctional network of brain areas in BPD, including the ACC and frontal brain regions. These areas are crucial for the regulation of stress and emotions, the core problems of BPD patients.

  18. Developing a Personal Financial Planning Program: More than Just Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles L., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Personal financial planning is considered one of the major growth professions of the coming decade. Besides providing an opportunity for employment, a major in personal financial planning can open the door to a rewarding and challenging career. Career opportunities in the personal financial planning field include opening a private practice or…

  19. Association of personality with the development and persistence of obesity: a meta-analysis based on individual-participant data.

    OpenAIRE

    Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hakulinen, Christian; Batty, G. David; Nabi, Hermann; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Personality is thought to affect obesity risk but before such information can be incorporated into prevention and intervention plans, robust and converging evidence concerning the most relevant personality traits is needed. We performed a meta-analysis based on individual-participant data from nine cohort studies to examine whether broad-level personality traits predict the development and persistence of obesity (n = 78,931 men and women; mean age 50 years). Personalit...

  20. Is the social brain theory applicable to human individual differences? Relationship between sociability personality dimension and brain size

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horváth, Klára; Martos, János; Mihalik, Béla; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-01-01

    .... We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives...

  1. Is the Social Brain Theory Applicable to Human Individual Differences? Relationship between Sociability Personality Dimension and Brain Size

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horváth, Klára; Martos, János; Mihalik, Béla; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-01-01

    .... We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives...

  2. Prolonged grief and post-traumatic stress among relatives of missing persons and homicidally bereaved individuals : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Lonneke I M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411295896; van Denderen, Mariëtte Y; de Keijser, Jos; Wessel, Ineke; Boelen, Paul A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/174011954

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic loss (e.g., homicide) is associated with elevated prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies comparing relatives of missing persons with homicidally bereaved individuals showed inconsistent results about the difference in PGD- and

  3. Role of Ability and Extroversion in Concept Attainment of Individuals Trained in Heterogeneous or Homogeneous Personality Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, E. A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Subjects stratified by ability and extroversion initially achieved concept attainment in homogeneous (all introverts or all extroverts) or heterogeneous (one-half of the members extroverts) personality groups. Concepts were attained individually in a subsequent transfer stage. (Authors/JA)

  4. 20 CFR 404.404 - How reduction for maximum affects insured individual and other persons entitled on his earnings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How reduction for maximum affects insured individual and other persons entitled on his earnings record. 404.404 Section 404.404 Employees' Benefits... other persons entitled on his earnings record. If a reduction of monthly benefits is required under the...

  5. Individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity: Examining the effects of genes, environment, and prenatal hormone transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Mosing, M.A.; Ullén, F.; Madison, G.

    2016-01-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used

  6. Hard exercise, affect lability, and personality among individuals with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstone, Lisa M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Joiner, Thomas E; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Klein, Marjorie H; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2013-12-01

    The current study explores the personality traits of compulsivity (e.g., sense of orderliness and duty to perform tasks completely) and restricted expression (e.g., emotion expression difficulties) as potential moderators of the relation between affect lability and frequency of hard exercise episodes in a sample of individuals with bulimic pathology. Participants were 204 adult females recruited in five Midwestern cities who met criteria for threshold or subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). Compulsivity was found to significantly moderate the relation between affect lability and number of hard exercise episodes over the past 28 days, such that among those with high compulsivity, level of affect lability was associated with the number of hard exercise episodes; whereas, among those with low compulsivity, affect lability was not associated with the number of hard exercise episodes. The same pattern of findings emerged for restricted expression; however, this finding approached, but did not reach statistical significance. As such, it appears that affect lability is differentially related to hard exercise among individuals with BN depending upon the level of compulsivity and, to a more limited extent, restricted expression. These results suggest that, for individuals with BN with either compulsivity or restricted expression, focusing treatment on increasing flexibility and/or verbal expression of emotions may help in the context of intense, fluctuating affect. © 2013.

  7. The Effects of Age, Information, and Personal Contact on Attitudes Toward Individuals With Cleft-Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancher, Adam; Goodwyn, Mary Ann

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how information and brief personal contact with individuals who have a cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) affected attitudes and to compare these effects across two age cohorts. A pretest-posttest design was utilized to determine if accurate information and personal contact with an individual with CLP would affect cognitive, emotional, and behavioral attitudes in participants without CLP. To assess attitudes, 189 participants without cleft lip and palate completed a modified version of the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons with Disabilities ( Findler et al., 2007 ). The study included a child cohort (n = 78; Mean age = 10.01 years) and a young adult cohort (n = 111; Mean age = 19.58 years). Using a mixed MANCOVA, it was found that children's cognitive attitudes were significantly improved (22.54%) by information and personal contact with individuals with CLP. Within the young adult cohort, however, findings were inconsistent with prior research in that information and personal contact did not significantly affect their attitudes. There were no significant differences in attitudes between the age cohorts; however, data suggests that the children responded differently to the experimental intervention. Nonclefted children's attitudes toward individuals with CLP can be significantly improved using educational information and personal contact with individuals with CLP. In the current study, the combination of accurate information and personal contact enhanced the degree of attitude change over and above the provision of information only.

  8. The association between empathy, the Big 5 Dimensions of personality and prosocial behaviour: What causes individuals to act prosocially?

    OpenAIRE

    GRAY, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The topic of whether humans are altruistically motivated to behave in prosocial manner has been at the centre of debate for many years. Feeling empathy for another individual has been found to be crucial in the decision to act prosocially, for example, to help an individual in need. Additional antecedents of prosocial behaviour have been proposed, such as valuing another’s welfare (Batson & Eklund, 2007), perceived oneness the person in need and relationship to the person in need (Cialdini et...

  9. Personality and smoking: individual-participant meta-analysis of nine cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Christian; Hintsanen, Mirka; Munafò, Marcus R; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, George David; Jokela, Markus

    2015-11-01

    To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality and smoking, and test whether socio-demographic factors modify these associations. Cross-sectional and longitudinal individual-participant meta-analysis. Nine cohort studies from Australia, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. A total of 79 757 men and women (mean age = 50.8 years). Personality traits of the five-factor model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience) were used as exposures. Outcomes were current smoking status (current smoker, ex-smoker and never smoker), smoking initiation, smoking relapse and smoking cessation. Associations between personality and smoking were modelled using logistic and multinomial logistic regression, and study-specific findings were combined using random-effect meta-analysis. Current smoking was associated with higher extraversion [odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increase in the score: 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.24], higher neuroticism (1.19; 95% CI = 1.13-1.26) and lower conscientiousness (95% CI = 0.88; 0.83-0.94). Among non-smokers, smoking initiation during the follow-up period was predicted prospectively by higher extraversion (1.22; 95% CI = 1.04-1.43) and lower conscientiousness (0.80; 95% CI = 0.68-0.93), whereas higher neuroticism (1.16; 95% CI = 1.04-1.30) predicted smoking relapse among ex-smokers. Among smokers, smoking cessation was negatively associated with neuroticism (0.91; 95% CI = 0.87-0.96). Socio-demographic variables did not appear to modify the associations between personality and smoking. Adult smokers have higher extraversion, higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness personality scores than non-smokers. Initiation into smoking is associated positively with higher extraversion and lower conscientiousness, while relapse to smoking among ex-smokers is associated with higher neuroticism. © 2015 Society

  10. The Human Factor: Student Reactions to the Integration of Personal Dispositions into a Counseling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Cochran, Jeff L.; Spurgeon, Shawn; Diambra, Joel F.

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored student reactions to the integration of personal dispositions, or characteristic attitudes, into a counseling program. Results suggested participants liked focusing on personal dispositions and were able to identify areas of personal growth related to these characteristics. Integrating humanistic principles by using…

  11. 78 FR 64523 - Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals and Households Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals... gives notice of the maximum amount for assistance under the Individuals and Households Program for... annually adjust the maximum amount for assistance provided under the Individuals and Households Program...

  12. Defining genetically meaningful language and personality traits in relatives of individuals with fragile X syndrome and relatives of individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Molly; Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E; Sideris, John; Parlier, Morgan; Piven, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Substantial phenotypic overlap exists between fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism, suggesting that FMR1 (the gene causing FXS) poses a significant risk for autism. Cross-population comparisons of FXS and autism therefore offer a potentially valuable method for refining the range of phenotypes associated with variation in FMR1. This study adopted a broader phenotype approach, focusing on parents who are at increased genetic liability for autism or FXS. Women who were carriers of FMR1 in its premutation state were compared with mothers of individuals with autism, and controls in an attempt to determine whether subtle features of the broad autism phenotype may express at elevated rates among FMR1 premutation carriers. The principal personality and language features comprising the broad autism phenotype (i.e., rigid and aloof personality, and particular patterns of pragmatic language use) were assessed among 49 premutation carriers who were mothers of individuals with FXS, 89 mothers of individuals with autism, and 23 mothers of typically developing individuals. Relative to controls, the autism and premutation parent groups showed elevated rates of certain personality and language characteristics of the broad autism phenotype. Findings suggest partially overlapping personality and language profiles among autism and premutation parent groups, with rigid personality style and patterns of pragmatic language use emerging as features most clearly shared between groups. These results provide further evidence for the overlap of autism and FXS, and may implicate FMR1 in some of the subtle features comprising the broad autism phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Closing the Distance: Bringing a Personal Librarian Program to Online Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to bridge the gap between the one-on-one attention that students receive when they come into the library and the attention given to online learners, the University of West Florida Libraries added an online learner component to its Personal Librarian Program. Personal librarian programs provide an opportunity for individualized…

  14. The Effect of an Educational Program for Persons with Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Theresa Marie; Thomas, Kimberly; Dow, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss in the United States for persons aged 60 and older. Compared to individuals without disabilities, individuals with low vision demonstrate a 15% to 30% higher dependence on others to perform activities of daily living. In addition, low vision can adversely affect a person's quality of life.…

  15. Individual Risk and Prevention of Complications: Doctors' Advice to Persons Wishing a New Tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Doctors who are consulted about health and tattoo risks have an important role in the prevention of an individual's tattoo complications. Tattooing is a tremendous exposure of the human body to needle operation, particles, and chemicals. The risk is related to a person's health condition, level of insight, decision-making, and to the operation of tattooing, tattoo inks and utensils, tattoo parlour, and the aftercare. Tattooing is painful minor surgery performed without anesthesia. It can be associated with syncope. It is major needle trauma with histamine release and wheal and flare in the operation field. The skin barrier is broken. Bacterial infections come early. Chronically intermittent and mild complaints affect 4/10 of all the tattooed, and 2/10 have sensitivity to sun. Chronic complications with allergy in red tattoos and nodules due to pigment agglomeration and foreign body formation in black tattoos are less common but certainly at the level of cumbersome skin disease. Reactions to black tattoos are strongly associated with sarcoidosis. There are many other distinct entities of tattoo complications. A campaign called 'Tattoo - know your risk' is presented with detailed fact sheets about tattoos, tattoo problems, how to reduce risk, and a checklist for the tattoo customer before decision-making. The sheets with keynote information are useful aids for doctors giving advice to persons curious about acquiring a tattoo. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Recovery from disability for individuals with borderline personality disorder: a feasibility trial of DBT-ACES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtois, Katherine Anne; Kerbrat, Amanda Holland; Atkins, David C; Harned, Melanie S; Elwood, Lynn

    2010-11-01

    Employment and recovery can be difficult goals to reach for individuals with severe borderline personality disorder, even for those who have successfully completed dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and are no longer in crisis. This study examined the feasibility of DBT-Accepting the Challenges of Exiting the System (DBT-ACES), a follow-up to standard DBT (SDBT). A pre-post evaluation was conducted of the outcomes for 30 clients with borderline personality disorder who entered DBT-ACES during the study period (April 2000 to June 2005). Outcomes included employment, exit from the public mental health system, and quality of life, as well as self-inflicted injury and emergency and inpatient admissions. From the end of SDBT to the end of DBT-ACES, the study found a significant improvement in participants' odds of being employed or in school (odds ratio [OR]=3.34, ppersonality disorder with a combination of SDBT and DBT-ACES, but controlled research is needed.

  17. Do personality traits predict individual differences in excitatory and inhibitory learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin eHe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned inhibition (CI is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behaviour - and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioural deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. Conditioned inhibition by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n=176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion. The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically-based personality theories, Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (1982 and Eysenck’s psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism theory (1991. Following the behavioural tasks, participants completed the behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system scales (BIS/BAS and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS. Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioural activation and behavioural inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively.

  18. Do personality traits predict individual differences in excitatory and inhibitory learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhimin; Cassaday, Helen J; Bonardi, Charlotte; Bibby, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned inhibition (CI) is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behavior - and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioral deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. CI by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores) were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n = 176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion). The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically based personality theories, Gray's (1982) reinforcement sensitivity theory and Eysenck and Eysenck (1991) psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism theory. Following the behavioral tasks, participants completed the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) scales and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS). Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale) and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively.

  19. Improving Nutritional Status of Older Persons with Dementia Using a National Preventive Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L; Wijk, H; Christensson, L

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the outcome of change in body weight associated with use of a structured preventive care process among persons with dementia assessed as at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. The preventive care process is a pedagogical model used in the Senior Alert (SA) quality register, where nutrition is one of the prioritized areas and includes four steps: assessment, analysis of underlying causes, actions performed and outcome. An analysis of data from SA with a pre-post design was performed. The participants were living in ordinary housing or special housing in Sweden. 1912 persons, 65 years and older, registered in both SA and the dementia quality register Svedem were included. A national preventive care program including individualized actions. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form was used to assess nutritional status at baseline. Body weight was measured during baseline and follow-up (7-106 days after baseline). 74.3% persons were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Those at risk of malnutrition or malnourished who were registered in all four steps of the preventive care process, increased in body weight from baseline (Md 60.0 kg) to follow-up (Md 62.0 kg) (p=0.013). In those with incomplete registration no increase in body weight was found. Using all steps in the structured preventive care process seems to improve nutritional status of persons with dementia assessed as at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. This study contributes to the development of evidence-based practice regarding malnutrition and persons with dementia.

  20. The Use of Freshmen Seminar Programs to Deliver Personalized Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of delivering personalized feedback to first-semester college freshmen in a group lecture format. Participants enrolled in semester-long courses were randomly assigned to receive either personalized feedback or general information about alcohol. Both lecture conditions were delivered during a standard…

  1. Personalized Learning Environments and Effective School Library Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Personalized learning is defined as "tailoring learning for each student's strengths, needs, and interests--including enabling student voice and choice in what, how, when and where they learn-- to provide flexibility and supports to ensure mastery of the highest standards possible". Personalized learning offers school librarians a way to…

  2. Individual Differences in Personality Masculinity-Femininity: Examining the Effects of Genes, Environment, and Prenatal Hormone Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Five personality inventory data of 9,520 Swedish twins (aged 27 to 54) to create a bipolar M-F personality scale. Using biometrical twin modeling, we estimated the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual differences in a M-F personality score. Furthermore, we tested whether prenatal hormone transfer may influence individuals' M-F scores by comparing the scores of twins with a same-sex versus those with an opposite-sex co-twin. On average, males scored 1.09 standard deviations higher than females on the created M-F scale. Around a third of the variation in M-F personality score was attributable to genetic factors, while family environmental factors had no influence. Males and females from opposite-sex pairs scored significantly more masculine (both approximately 0.1 SD) than those from same-sex pairs. In conclusion, genetic influences explain part of the individual differences in personality M-F, and hormone transfer from the male to the female twin during pregnancy may increase the level of masculinization in females. Additional well-powered studies are needed to clarify this association and determine the underlying mechanisms in both sexes.

  3. Home-based exercise program in TSP/HAM individuals: a feasibility and effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, Lívia D; Araújo, Abelardo Q; Silva, Marcus Tt; Leite, Ana Claudia C; Azevedo, Mariana F; Chequer, Gisele L; Oliveira, Raquel Vc; Ferreira, Arthur S; Lima, Marco Antonio

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a home-based exercise program in TSP/HAM individuals. Twenty-three TSP/HAM individuals divided in two groups according to Timed Up and Go (TUG) score (TSP/HAM.

  4. Do people with borderline personality disorder complicated by antisocial personality disorder benefit from the STEPPS treatment program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Simsek-Duran, Fatma; Blum, Nancee; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We describe results from two data sets on outcome in persons who participated in STEPPS with BPD alone or BPD plus antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In Study 1, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 65 persons with BPD who participated in a randomized controlled trial at an academic medical centre. In Study 2, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 64 offenders with BPD who participated in STEPPS in correctional settings. All subjects were assessed for the presence of BPD and ASPD. In Study 1, subjects with ASPD experienced greater improvement in BPD symptoms, impulsiveness and global symptoms. In Study 2, offenders with ASPD experienced greater improvement in positive and negative behaviours and positive affectivity. We conclude that persons with BPD plus ASPD benefit from STEPPS in community and correctional settings. The findings suggest that persons with BPD plus ASPD show greater improvement in some domains than persons with BPD only. People with ASPD should not be automatically excluded from participation in the program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Individual genetic and genomic variation: a new opportunity for personalized nursing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Cindy L

    2015-01-01

    A discussion of the potential for improving nursing interventions through tailoring in consideration of patients' individual genetic/genomic variation. Nurses have not yet maximized use of genetic/genomic information in planning and delivering nursing care outside of the context of monogenetic disease. Approaches from personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics have not yet been applied to development or delivery of nursing interventions. There are potentially many nursing interventions that would be more effective if they were individually tailored to the patient's genetic/genomic profile. Discussion paper. Published literature from 2008-2014 (one legacy paper from 1994 is also cited); Wellcome Trust and Genome.gov websites. There is a need for development of genetic/genomic research that directly addresses questions vital to nursing science, including biological plausibility studies. Research is also needed to inform the design and delivery of nursing interventions for common complex diseases tailored to consider genetic/genomic variability. Predicting responses to nursing interventions based on genetic/genomic variability may increase the probability that the first intervention employed will lead to optimal outcomes for each patient. Integrating genetic/genomic variability, from biological plausibility research through intervention research into evidence-based practice, has the potential to move nursing forward. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Exploring the impact of personality dimensions in late-life depression: from group comparisons to individual trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kerstin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Canuto, Alessandra

    2011-11-01

    In last years, the concept of personality moved from the stability of categorical models over the lifespan to the complex interactions between gene, environment, and clinical expression according to the dimensional approaches. Within this framework, studies start to explore the impact of personality on the evolution and treatment of depression in old age.(Figure is included in full-text article.) Empirical evidence from younger patients has repeatedly confirmed that personality traits predict treatment course and outcome of depression. Epigenetic changes may partly determine the individual differences in personality changes facing life stresses. The limited number of studies on late-life depression revealed the differential impact of personality in early-onset versus late-onset depression. In this age group, the standardized assessment of personality traits allows predicting treatment outcome in psychotherapeutic settings for depressive outpatients. Studies on the interaction between genetic background and personality expression in late life are still missing. Personality traits emerge as a potentially powerful determinant of the clinical outcome in old-age depression. The integration of psychological and molecular genetics findings offers a new perspective into the personality-depression relationship. Its modulation by the accumulation of individual stressful life-events may play a main role in the outcome of late-life depression.

  7. Formation of tourist specialization students’ creative personality through individual and collective teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Донцов

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article states that due to the active development of tourism in Ukraine training in this area by European standards, principles and criteria becomes particularly relevant. The reform of Higher Education defines training of qualitatively new specialists, highly qualified professionals with a creative type of thinking, culture and citizenship as a priority. The author focuses on reviewing and analyzing aspects of methodological support regarding the combination of individual and collective forms of organization and training sessions, as well as balance of theory and practice. It is noted that at the initial stages of mastering new material is dominated by individual forms of work. This is explained by the need to make psychological and mental effort, to focus the students on study. Using a technique based on independent creative search activity, logical thinking, the construction of certain associations, identifying causal relationships develops the best cognitive activity of students. At the later stage collective learning is more effective for the active search of new knowledge after we consolidate the learned material. At this stage the knowledge of primary factual material of a given subject is not so important as the development of thinking, the ability to formulate and suggest a hypothesis to seek evidence for its solution and thus acquire new knowledge. The necessity to develop teaching methods for the course curriculum is based on innovations in organizing training sessions and is conducted in interactive forms. It has been found out that combination of individual and collective learning promotes the development of students’ personality, creative abilities, skills, readiness for active life position. A number of priority measures that influence the efficiency of educational process, quality training of future specialists for tourism industry have been analyzed.

  8. Candidate Socioemotional Remediation Program for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bronwyn; Lothe, Amelie; Chabloz, Melanie; Dukes, Daniel; Pasca, Catherine; Redoute, Jerome; Eliez, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed a computerized program, Vis-a-Vis (VAV), to improve socioemotional functioning and working memory in children with developmental disabilities. The authors subsequently tested whether participants showed signs of improving the targeted skills. VAV is composed of three modules: Focus on the Eyes, Emotion Recognition and…

  9. Individual Differences in Learning Computer Programming: A Social Cognitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Sacide Guzin Mazman; Altun, Arif

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and conceptualize the ranks of importance of social cognitive variables on university students' computer programming performances. Spatial ability, working memory, self-efficacy, gender, prior knowledge and the universities students attend were taken as variables to be analyzed. The study has been…

  10. 45 CFR 1308.19 - Developing individualized education programs (IEPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... multidisciplinary evaluation team must assure that the evaluation findings and recommendations, as well as... multidisciplinary team which evaluated the child. (g) An LEA representative must be invited in writing if Head Start... education programs (IEPs) (a) When Head Start provides for the evaluation, the multidisciplinary evaluation...

  11. Prefrontal gray matter and motivation for treatment in cocaine dependent individuals with and without personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eMoreno-Lopez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction treatment is a long-term goal and therefore prefrontal-striatal regions regulating goal-directed behaviour are to be associated with individual differences on treatment motivation. We aimed at examining the association between gray matter volumes in prefrontal cortices and striatum and readiness to change at treatment onset in cocaine users with and without personality disorders. Participants included 17 cocaine users without psychiatric comorbidities, 17 cocaine users with Cluster B disorders and 12 cocaine users with Cluster C disorders. They completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale, which measures four stages of treatment change (precontemplation, contemplation, action and maintenance and overall readiness to change, and were scanned in a 3T MRI scanner. We defined three regions-of-interest (ROIs: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (including medial orbitofrontal cortex and subgenual and rostral anterior cingulate cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (i.e., superior medial frontal cortex and the neostriatum (caudate and putamen. We found that readiness to change correlated with different aspects of ventromedial prefrontal gray matter as a function of diagnosis. In cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities, readiness to change positively correlated with gyrus rectus gray matter, whereas in cocaine users without comorbidities it negatively correlated with rostral anterior cingulate cortex gray matter. Moreover, maintenance scores positively correlated with dorsomedial prefrontal gray matter in cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities, but negatively correlated with this region in cocaine users with Cluster B and cocaine users without comorbidities. Maintenance scores also negatively correlated with dorsal striatum gray matter in cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities. We conclude that the link between prefrontal-striatal gray matter and treatment motivation is modulated by co-existence of

  12. Individual differences in response to automation: the five factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L; Taylor, Grant S

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of operator personality (Five Factor Model) and characteristics of the task and of adaptive automation (reliability and adaptiveness-whether the automation was well-matched to changes in task demand) to operator performance, workload, stress, and coping. This represents the first investigation of how the Five Factors relate to human response to automation. One-hundred-sixty-one college students experienced either 75% or 95% reliable automation provided with task loads of either two or four displays to be monitored. The task required threat detection in a simulated uninhabited ground vehicle (UGV) task. Task demand exerted the strongest influence on outcome variables. Automation characteristics did not directly impact workload or stress, but effects did emerge in the context of trait-task interactions that varied as a function of the dimension of workload and stress. The pattern of relationships of traits to dependent variables was generally moderated by at least one task factor. Neuroticism was related to poorer performance in some conditions, and all five traits were associated with at least one measure of workload and stress. Neuroticism generally predicted increased workload and stress and the other traits predicted decreased levels of these states. However, in the case of the relation of Extraversion and Agreeableness to Worry, Frustration, and avoidant coping, the direction of effects varied across task conditions. The results support incorporation of individual differences into automation design by identifying the relevant person characteristics and using the information to determine what functions to automate and the form and level of automation.

  13. Individual and dyadic development of personal growth in couples coping with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzler, Alfred; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Moser, Michael T; Bodenmann, Guy; Kayser, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Couples share distress as well as potential personal growth (PG) after a cancer diagnosis. It is essential for professionals to learn more about the ways couples cope together with adversity. Dyadic results may help to understand controversial results in the PG literature and inform clinicians in optimizing psychological support for couples. We examine the temporal and dyadic development of PG among patients and their intimate partners. In addition, life threat is examined as a potential factor influencing PG after cancer diagnosis. We assessed PG using the Personal Growth Inventory in a clinically representative, mixed-type and mixed-stage cancer cohort (N = 154 couples) 6 and 12 months after cancer diagnosis. Medical data on cancer diagnoses and treatments were collected from physicians. Actor-partner interdependence models were applied. PG was reported by patients and their partners. Women (either as patients or partners) reported more PG than male patients or partners. PG remained relatively stable over 6 months and was related to whether the patient was receiving curative or palliative treatment. Female patients experienced less PG 6 months after the cancer diagnosis and if treatment was curative. Male patients experienced less PG if their partners experienced PG, and the treatment was curative. Dyadic growth is a phenomenon not limited to breast cancer or female patient couples and may represent a form of dyadic coping. Patients and partners seem to develop individual and dyadic growth, depending on a combination of gender and life threat. Psycho-oncology services may want to promote both couple level coping and support in order to optimize cancer care.

  14. Transforming Concepts for the Marine Corps Individual Mobilization Augmentation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    to serve in anIMA billet than they would to fill an SMCR unit billet, making the billet locations inconsequential from a manpower perspective...recent years. Accordingly, the Marine Corps is currently conducting anIMA program review in· order to ensure organizational structure and management...opportunities to Marines in areas who may not otherwise have them. 4. Establish anIMA Detachment for lA Sourcing. Currently, the Marine Corps does

  15. Plate Waste in School Feeding Programs: Individual and Aggregate Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    discarded. For example, banana was weighed without the peels and chicken without the bones. Individual food components were separated from each other as much...radish & onion Mixed Fruit Canned peaches, pineapple , fruit cocktail Fruit Drink Red, orange, green, purple 197.2 d Cookies Six different kinds 14.2...bacon bits, cottage cheese, and salad dressings. Second, cores, seeds, and peels were not separated from the fresh apples and oranges. These

  16. Goal Pursuit in Individuals with Chronic Pain: A Personal Project Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombez, Geert; Lauwerier, Emelien; Goubert, Liesbet; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In individuals with chronic pain (ICPs), controlling pain often is a salient goal, despite the difficulty to achieve it. This situation may bring along frustration and distress. Yet much remains unknown about the content, appraisal, and structure of goals that ICPs pursue. Here, we explore these goals, and specifically focus upon possible differences and interrelations between pain control goals (e.g., “to control my pain”) and non-pain goals (e.g., “to go to work”). Design and Methods: “Personal Project Analysis” was used in 73 ICPs (48 females; 25 males; Mage = 49.85 years; SD = 9.72) to elicit goals and goal appraisals. Interrelations between pain and non-pain goals, namely interference (i.e., negative influence), facilitation (i.e., positive influence), and necessary condition (i.e., conditional relation between pain control goal and non-pain goals) were measured with three items. Self-report measures of pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, problem solving and acceptance were completed. Results: Participants reported a variety of goals. Appraisals of pain control goals were less favorable than appraisals of non-pain goals. ICPs with higher acceptance and meaningfulness of life reported more control over pain goals, and more progress in reaching pain control goals. These individuals also reported an overall much more positive appraisal of non-pain goals (i.e., less stress, difficulty, more progress, control). In contrast, high catastrophizing and the need to solve pain were negatively related to goal appraisals. Importantly, ICP’s with high perceived meaningfulness of life despite pain experienced less necessity to achieve pain control goals in order to achieve non-pain goals. This was opposite for individuals with high levels of catastrophizing. Discussion: An understanding of why ICPs may become stuck in attempts to control their pain does not only require an understanding of how individuals appraise their pain, but also requires an

  17. Assessing the Impact of Business Study Abroad Programs on Cultural Awareness and Personal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H. Tyrone; Duhon, David L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors assessed results from a cultural awareness instrument administered to business student participants at the beginning of a summer study abroad program in London, England, and then again at the program's conclusion. The data indicated that the program enhanced cultural awareness and personal development. Moreover,…

  18. How a Personal Development Program Enhances Social Connection and Mobilises Women in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, Nandila; Marchant, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Gender equity and the empowerment of women is a significant international issue. Successful adult education programs are vital to enhance women's situation. Lessons learned from a personal development program provided for thousands of women are analysed. The program is conducted by community service providers in Australia and internationally, with…

  19. Evaluating methods for estimating space-time paths of individuals in calculating long-term personal exposure to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Dijst, Martin; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major concerns for human health. Associations between air pollution and health are often calculated using long-term (i.e. years to decades) information on personal exposure for each individual in a cohort. Personal exposure is the air pollution aggregated along the space-time path visited by an individual. As air pollution may vary considerably in space and time, for instance due to motorised traffic, the estimation of the spatio-temporal location of a persons' space-time path is important to identify the personal exposure. However, long term exposure is mostly calculated using the air pollution concentration at the x, y location of someone's home which does not consider that individuals are mobile (commuting, recreation, relocation). This assumption is often made as it is a major challenge to estimate space-time paths for all individuals in large cohorts, mostly because limited information on mobility of individuals is available. We address this issue by evaluating multiple approaches for the calculation of space-time paths, thereby estimating the personal exposure along these space-time paths with hyper resolution air pollution maps at national scale. This allows us to evaluate the effect of the space-time path and resulting personal exposure. Air pollution (e.g. NO2, PM10) was mapped for the entire Netherlands at a resolution of 5×5 m2 using the land use regression models developed in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE, http://escapeproject.eu/) and the open source software PCRaster (http://www.pcraster.eu). The models use predictor variables like population density, land use, and traffic related data sets, and are able to model spatial variation and within-city variability of annual average concentration values. We approximated space-time paths for all individuals in a cohort using various aggregations, including those representing space-time paths as the outline of a persons' home or associated parcel

  20. Individualizing characteristics of footprints in Malaysian Malays for person identification from a forensic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nataraja Moorthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the valuable physical evidence that a suspect leaves unintentionally at a crime scene is likely to include footprints. Physical evidence needs to be utilized to express individual characteristics. Very keen analysis of footprints can provide useful information to establish personal identity and ease the crime investigation. The present study aims to analyze and describe the individual characteristics of footprints of Malaysian Malays from a forensic perspective in a sample of 400 adult Malay participants consisting of 200 males and 200 females. The footprints were collected using an inkless shoe print kit (Carolina, USA. Various features of the toes, humps in the toe line, phalange marks, flatfoot condition, pits, cracks, corns, etc., were investigated. The frequency of these characteristics was recorded. The frequency of the fibularis-type foot is the highest, followed by the tibialis-type, the intermediate-type and the midularis-type is found to have the least frequency in both the sexes. This sequence is found to be different from the sequence observed in the north Indian population. Two humps have been found most often in male footprints followed by three humps and zero hump is found to be the least frequent. While in female footprints, three humps have been found, most often followed by two humps and zero hump is found to be the least frequent. Other identifying features are also highlighted using illustrations. This trait shows bilateral variation. The morphological length of toes and some other features in this study are found to be different from footprints of Indian Tamils, North Indian Gujjars and the Thai population.

  1. [Social and personal obstacles in the fight against smoking at group and at individual level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, A

    1990-06-01

    Is it fair to expect the individual to bear alone the responsibility of whether to smoke or not? What are the responsibilities of the community, the environment and of the groups like industry and political figures which influence him? That is the issue addressed by the author in describing (1) the factors determining an individual decision (health danger, personal threat, other disadvantages or advantages) and (2) those factors establishing within a community an environment favorable to smoking (tobacco cultivation and processing, legislation, publicity, media, etc.). In the planning of any educational programme against smoking this author stresses the need to consider above all the social factors which militate for or against smoking (family setting, friends as role models, self-image and the image of the smoker in publicity and the media) rather than the risk factors which often seem remote to the young who have more immediate concerns than imagining themselves ill from tobacco use by age forty. What instructional methods are recommended? Grade school education, which could contribute to instilling an early resistance to smoking, is far from the only or even the principal means of combatting tobacco use. Too much is made of what teachers can accomplish here. School curricula are overloaded and teachers must develop many different abilities among their students. They can still do a great deal to encourage a child to know and respect himself and to trust his instructor. Every academic programme must be incorporated within a wider community programme like those in Norway and Iceland which link legislation and education.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Un Programa Personalizado De Lectura En Un Aula Primaria: Reporte De Un Modelo Comprobado (A Personalized Program of Reading in a First Grade Classroom: Report From a Proven Model.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Susie B.; And Others

    This document written in Spanish describes a personalized reading program and discusses the results of its implementation. The focus of this approach to reading is based on the individual child and his feelings. This model personalizes the child's reading material in the classroom. In personalizing the reading material, the child's attitudes…

  3. [Crisis interventions with patients with borderline personality disorder. Part 1: Preventive and resolving approaches in individual psychodynamic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Suzane

    2004-01-01

    Patients suffering from borderline personality disorder have by definition a poorly functional personality which is readily reacting to changes and psychosocial stressors with recurrent crises. A personality disorder is necessarily fraught with interpersonal difficulties, and it is often within the individual psychotherapeutic encounter that such clashes develop. This article discusses basic principles offering clinicians ways to prevent or structure crisis intervention adapted to borderline personality disorder within the individual psychotherapy context. It thus reviews various clinical issues such as suicidal or homicidal threats, conflicts related to requests expressed by the patient, the absence of the therapist or attempts at breaking the therapeutic framework in order to offer intervention modalities for the resolution of these crises.

  4. Randomized Trial of Dual-Focused versus Single-Focused Individual Therapy for Personality Disorders and Substance Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Samuel A.; Maccarelli, Lisa M.; LaPaglia, Donna M.; Ostrowski, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a randomized comparison of Dual Focus Schema Therapy with Individual Drug Counseling as enhancements to residential treatment for 105 substance dependent patients with versus without specific personality disorders. Both therapies were manual-guided and delivered for 6 months by experienced psychotherapists intensively trained and supervised with independent fidelity assessment. Using Cox Proportional Hazards, we found no psychotherapy differences in retention (days in treatment). Hierarchical Linear Modeling indicated that personality disordered participants started with higher psychiatric, interpersonal, and dysphoria symptoms, and both therapies reduced symptoms over 6 months. Contrary to predictions, Individual Drug Counseling resulted in more sustained reductions than Dual Focus Schema Therapy in several symptoms for several personality disorders. Our findings raised important questions about the added value of integrative or dual-focus therapies for co-occurring personality disorders and substance dependence relative to empirically supported therapies focused more specifically on addiction symptoms. PMID:21543951

  5. Individual differences in personality in laying hens are related to learning a colour cue association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Elske N.; Lee, Caroline; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Naguib, Marc; Rodenburg, Bas

    2017-01-01

    Personality can influence how animals perceive and learn cues. The behaviour and physiological responses animals show during stressful events is indicative of their personality. Acute induced stress prior to a cognitive test are known to affect the judgement of a stimulus, but personality of an

  6. Individual-context interaction as a guide in the treatment of personality disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelen, J.W.; Rokx, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of personality disorders is strongly influenced by personality theories based on trait models, and the influence of the context is relatively neglected. Developments within psychology and neurobiology have led to the awareness that the manner in which personality

  7. Art Therapy for Individuals with Borderline Personality: Using a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drass, Jessica Masino

    2015-01-01

    Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…

  8. Tiflopsihologicheskoe study individual typological characteristics of emotional and personal sphere of primary school children with visual deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Kopceva; Olga Yakimova

    2013-01-01

    Today actively developed divergent systems, programs and technology learner - centered education. However, to date, no tutorials, which would be systematically different views on the development of emotional and personal sphere of younger pupils with visual impairment and options correctional and development work aimed at the prosperous adaptation of children with deprivation of view. On this basis, tiflopsihologicheskoe conducted a study to identify emotional and personality characteristics ...

  9. Chronotype, sport participation, and positive personality-trait-like individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Sylvain; Guillén, Félix; Dosseville, Fabrice; Allen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Chronotype and sport participation have been found to relate to positive personality-trait-like individual differences (PTLID). To date, research has focused exclusively on the morningness-eveningness dimension of chronotype, and little is known about the relationship between chronotype and various characteristics of sport participation (e.g. training time). This investigation had three primary objectives: (1) to extend the current evidence base by exploring how sport participation and PTLID relate to chronotype amplitude, (2) to explore how chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) relates to various characteristics of sport training and competition, and (3) to explore the independent and interrelated contribution of sport participation and chronotype to PTLID. The sample included 976 non-athletes (493 women and 483 men) and 974 athletes (478 women and 496 men). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires targeting sport participation characteristics, six positive PTLID (hope, optimism, perseverance, resilience, self-efficacy and trait emotional intelligence) and chronotype dimensions. Results showed that morningness-eveningness was negatively related to positive PTLID but was unrelated to sport participation. Greater diurnal fluctuations (amplitude dimension) were associated with lower positive PTLID values, lower sport participation, and shorter training durations. Positive PTLID were also associated with better sleep quality and a shorter sleep duration. Chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) and sport participation had independent associations with PTLID. These findings suggest that changes in sport participation and activity times might be a useful approach to developing positive PTLID.

  10. E-Learning and Further Education: How do Individual Learning Paths support Personal Learning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Haack

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The MOPEM project includes two fixed scenarios that have been defined to convey the idea of "learning paths". Our aim in this paper is to demonstrate the contexts and conditions for flexible learning paths that can be tailored to meet individual needs. The concept of this kind of specialised path is to enable learners to individualise the learning process and to adjust it to their personal needs. We will outline the background and pro- vide examples to explain the concept of learning stations which we use in our four courses: Online Marketing, CRM Systems, Business Communications and Event Marketing. This idea of "freely" combining subject matter naturally leads to the ques- tion of multi-applicability for the learning blocks in various educational contexts. The answers to this question are interest- ing not only in terms of the feasibility of learning paths from a content and didactic point of view, but also with regard to the economic viability of E-Learning or Blended Learning Systems, which ultimately require technical implementation. In addition we will present some first thoughts on the design of a prototype "Content Pool". It would, however, only make sense to develop and implement this within the scope of a follow-up project.

  11. The Individual and Joint Performance of Economic Preferences, Personality, and Self-Control in Predicting Criminal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Friehe, Tim; Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    We explore the individual and joint explanatory power of concepts from economics, psychology, and criminology for criminal behavior. More precisely, we consider risk and time preferences, personality traits from psychology (Big Five and locus of control), and a self-control scale from criminology. We find that economic preferences, personality traits, and self-control complement each other in predicting criminal behavior. The most significant predictors stem from all three disciplines: risk a...

  12. Personality characteristics in surgery seeking and non-surgery seeking obese individuals compared to non-obese controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Hjordt, Liv V; Haahr, Mette E; Worm, Dorthe; Hansen, Dorthe L; Mortensen, Erik L; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2014-12-01

    It is currently unknown what makes some obese individuals opt for bariatric surgery whereas others choose not to. The aim of this study was to examine whether personality characteristics differed between obese individuals signed up for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (N=30) and obese individuals not seeking RYGB (N=30) compared to non-obese controls (N=30). All participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. The obese RYGB group displayed higher levels of Neuroticism and borderline lower levels of Extraversion compared to the obese non-RYGB and the non-obese group, while the two latter groups did not differ in terms of personality. The Neuroticism domain and possibly the Extraversion domain may therefore be worthwhile to consider in future studies investigating the outcome of bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual 3D measurements of end users to personalize work wear clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielicka, E.; Napieralska, L.; Jasińska, I.; Jarzyna, V.

    2017-10-01

    selected group of end users. The research was aimed at the improvement of the work wear clothing fitting thanks to personalization based on individual body measurements at the stage of construction design.

  14. Learning to Program with Personal Robots: Influences on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of using robots in introductory programming courses is to increase motivation among learners. There have been several types of robots that have been used extensively in the classroom to teach a variety of computer science concepts. A more recently introduced robot designed to teach programming to novice students is the Institute…

  15. Personal, Social, Psychological and Other Factors in Ridesharing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An in-depth investigation of the ridesharing programs in the Baltimore and : suburban Washington, D.C. areas was needed in light of the apparent difficulty : in increasing ridership on the existing ridesharing programs. Many of the : studies done on ...

  16. Comparison of Image reformation Using Personal Computer with Dentascan Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept of OMF Radiology, School of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-15

    This study was performed to demonstrate the method of image reformation of dental implants, using a personal computer with inexpensive software and to compare the images reformatted using the above method with those using Dentascan software. CT axial slices of 5 mandibles of 5 volunteers from GE Highspeed Advantage (GE Medical systems, U.S.A.) were used, Personal computer used for image reformation was PowerWave 604/120 (Power Computing Co, U.S.A.) and software used were Osiris (Univ. Hospital Of Geneva, Switzerland) and Import ACCESS V1.1(Designed Access Co., U.S.A.) for importing CT image and NIH Image 1.58 (NIH, U.S.A.) for image processing. Seven images were selected among the serial reconstructed cross-sectional images produced by Dentascan (DS group). Seven resliced cross-sectional images at the same position were obtained ned at the personal computer (PC group). Regression analysis of the measurements of PC group was done against those of DS group. Measurements of the bone height and width at the reformed cross-sectional images using Mac-compatible computer were highly correlated with those using workstation with Dentascan software (height : r2=0.999, p<0.001, width : p=0.991, p<0.001). So, it is considered that we can use a personal computer with inexpensive software for the dental implant planning, instead of the expensive software and workstation.

  17. A Personal and Professional Perspective on an Honors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearns, Geoffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Northern Kentucky University (NKU) is a comprehensive public university located just five miles south of Cincinnati, Ohio. At NKU, educators aspire to provide a personal educational experience to the more than 12,000 undergraduate students who enroll each year. Given the demographics of the undergraduate student body--more than 50% are…

  18. 42 CFR 62.6 - How will individuals be selected to participate in the scholarship program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the scholarship program? 62.6 Section 62.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CORPS SCHOLARSHIP AND LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS National Health Service Corps Scholarship Program § 62.6 How will individuals...

  19. 75 FR 62136 - Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals and Households Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals... gives notice of the maximum amount for assistance under the Individuals and Households Program for... annually adjust the maximum amounts for assistance provided under the Individuals and Households (IHP...

  20. Examination of personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals whose driving licenses have been confiscated due to drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymur, Ibrahim; Budak, Ersin; Duyan, Veli; Kanat, Bilgen Biçer; Önen, Sinay

    2017-01-02

    Drunk driving is one of the major behavioral issues connected with problematic alcohol consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals who drive while intoxicated. One hundred forty-four individuals apprehended twice while driving drunk and sent to a driver behavior training program (9 females and 135 males) participated in our study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQ-RA) composed of 4 subscales (Extroversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, and Lying) and the Social Problem Solving Inventory (SPSI) composed of 7 subscales (Cognitive, Emotion, Behavior, Problem Definition and Formulation, Creating Solution Options, Solution Implementation and Verification, and Decision Making) were used to evaluate the participants. A positive relationship was found between the Extroversion subscale of the EPQ-RA and the Cognition subscale (P Behavior subscale (P .05). Drinking and driving behaviors appear to be negative or maladaptive behaviors closely related to personality traits and may represent an effort to avoid negative emotions. Evaluation of negative emotions may have an important place in training programs intended to change drunk driving behavior.

  1. Personality Differences of Adult Men Before and After a Physical Fitness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. John; Ismail, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    While all subjects improved on personality factors measuring social precision, persistence, and control after a physical fitness program of jogging, calisthenics, and recreational activities, a longer and intensified period of regular exercise is necessary to cause a dramatic change in personality parameters.

  2. Controlling Individuals Growth in Semantic Genetic Programming through Elitist Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Mauro; Vanneschi, Leonardo; Popovič, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, Moraglio and coauthors introduced new genetic operators for Genetic Programming, called geometric semantic genetic operators. They have the very interesting advantage of inducing a unimodal error surface for any supervised learning problem. At the same time, they have the important drawback of generating very large data models that are usually very hard to understand and interpret. The objective of this work is to alleviate this drawback, still maintaining the advantage. More in particular, we propose an elitist version of geometric semantic operators, in which offspring are accepted in the new population only if they have better fitness than their parents. We present experimental evidence, on five complex real-life test problems, that this simple idea allows us to obtain results of a comparable quality (in terms of fitness), but with much smaller data models, compared to the standard geometric semantic operators. In the final part of the paper, we also explain the reason why we consider this a significant improvement, showing that the proposed elitist operators generate manageable models, while the models generated by the standard operators are so large in size that they can be considered unmanageable.

  3. Do commencing nursing and paramedicine students differ in interprofessional learning and practice attitudes: evaluating course, socio-demographic and individual personality effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Karen T; Livesay, Karen; Morda, Romana; Sharples, Jenny; Jones, Andi; de Courten, Maximilian

    2016-03-03

    Interprofessional education (IPE) requires health students to learn with, from and about each other in order to develop a modern workforce with client-centred care at its core. Despite the client centred focus of IPE, training programs often utilize standard approaches across student cohorts without consideration of discipline, sociodemographic and personality variability that attract students to different health disciplines. Knowing the students who engage in IPE to tailor training may prove as beneficial as knowing the client to delivered individualized client centred care in interprofessional practice (IPP). This research investigates whether students commencing undergraduate nursing and paramedicine degrees ener training with existing demographic and personality differences and, if these are associated with different attitudes towards health care teams and interprofessional education. This online study recruited 160 nursing and 50 paramedicine students in their first week of their undergraduate course. Students completed questionnaires regarding their background, personality (General Perceived Self Esteem Scale, International Mini Markers) and the attitudes towards health care teams scale (ATHCTS) and interprofessional education perception scale (IEPS). Results show that commencing nursing and paramedicine students are demographically different on education, gender, speaking a language other than English at home (LOTE) and their own experience with healthcare. The results further demonstrate that LOTE, discipline being studied and personality factors play a role in perceptions regarding interprofessional training whilst discipline being studied impacted on attitudes towards health care teams in the workforce. These results highlight a number of existing personal and psychological differences between individuals who choose to train in these selected professions. This suggests a need for tertiary education IPE programs to move towards tailoring their education to

  4. Differential Programming Needs of College Students Preferring Web-Based Versus In-Person Physical Activity Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D

    2017-09-21

    College students report several barriers to exercise, highlighting a need for university-based programs that address these challenges. In contrast to in-person interventions, several web-based programs have been developed to enhance program engagement by increasing ease of access and lowering the necessary level of commitment to participate. Unfortunately, web-based programs continue to struggle with engagement and less-than-ideal outcomes. One explanation for this discrepancy is that different intervention modalities may attract students with distinctive activity patterns, motivators, barriers, and program needs. However, no studies have formally evaluated intervention modality preference (e.g., web-based or in-person) among college students. The current study sought to examine the relationship between intervention modality preference and physical activity programming needs. Undergraduate students (n = 157) enrolled in psychology courses at an urban university were asked to complete an online survey regarding current activity patterns and physical activity program preferences. Participants preferring web-based physical activity programs exercised less (p = .05), were less confident in their abilities to exercise (p = .01), were less likely to endorse the maintenance stage of change (p programming. Findings suggest that students preferring web-based programming may require programs that enhance self-efficacy by fostering goal-setting and problem-solving skills. A user-centered design approach may enhance the engagement (and therefore effectiveness) of physical activity promotion programs for college students.

  5. The effect of the individual's personality on the emergence of burnout among nurses.

    OpenAIRE

    MATLASOVÁ, Hana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on assessing whether the type of personality predisposes the formation of burnout of nurses. The work presents the problem of burnout (stage, symptoms, prevention). It also deals with the personality types and defines the profession and working skills of a nurse. The research part of the thesis seeks to determine whether certain personality type of nurses reports a higher tendency to develop the syndrome. The work also focuses on the findings of the highest presence of bur...

  6. Promoting personal agency and social inclusion through the Clemente Australia Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O'Gorman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A program pioneered by Earl Shorris in New York for educating the poor and marginalised in the humanities has been employed successfully in Australia under the title Clemente Australia for promoting both personal agency and social inclusion. Personal agency and social inclusion are ever present goals for societies and communities but they are particularly relevant today, at a time of increasing number of people who are unemployed, homeless, refugees or are experiencing multiple disadvantage. Students and staff involved in the program have reported upon student self improvements which are indicators of enhanced personal agency and social inclusion. A number of rationales have been advanced for these successes of the program, ranging from empowerment and engagement to changing habitus. The paper, drawing upon social cognitive theory, presents an integrative rationale and framework explaining the development of personal agency and social inclusion promoted by the program and expressed in their becoming “political”, engaged with people at every level of society. In terms of this integrative rationale, Clemente Australia builds ideas of hope, meaning, and identity into the personal narratives of participants through reflection on their personal and vicarious experiences in the program and the competencies and changed expectancies that these bring. This integrative view can illuminate participants’ reports of the program and suggest ways of making it more effective.

  7. An integrated framework of personalized medicine: from individual genomes to participatory health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Andrea W M; Rovers, Maroeska M; Kremer, Jan A M; Veltman, Joris A; Schalken, Jack A; Bloem, Bas R; van Gool, Alain J

    2012-08-01

    Promising research developments in both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics and participatory health care approaches, have generated widespread interest in personalized medicine among almost all scientific areas and clinicians. The term personalized medicine is, however, frequently used without defining a clear theoretical and methodological background. In addition, to date most personalized medicine approaches still lack convincing empirical evidence regarding their contribution and advantages in comparison to traditional models. Here, we propose that personalized medicine can only fulfill the promise of optimizing our health care system by an interdisciplinary and translational view that extends beyond traditional diagnostic and classification systems.

  8. [The development of a treatment program for violent forensic psychiatric patients with a cluster B personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsveld, R H J; Soe-Agnie, S; Donker, J; van der Wal, L

    2008-01-01

    Very few articles have been published in professional journals concerning the design, content, and results of treatment programs for violent forensic psychiatric patients in the Netherlands. To describe the development of a treatment program for forensic psychiatric patients with a cluster B personality disorder. In this program a treatment for aggression was combined with a treatment for substance abuse. Clinical findings obtained with both treatments are discussed, followed by a description of new modules that were added because of recent research results. results The combined treatment program targets the principal dynamic factors that cause individuals to display criminal behaviour. Empirical research is needed in order to find out whether the treatment as a whole produces better results than the two treatments administered separately.

  9. EVALUASI PROGRAM KONSELING INDIVIDU DI SMP LABORATORIUM UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MALANG DENGAN MODEL DISCREPANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the discrepancy between the performance of individual counseling program on SMP Laboratorium Universitas Negeri Malang with standards. This study uses a standard of Guidelines for Performance Based Professional School Counselor Evaluation. Standard reads, “the professional school counselor counsels individual students and small groups of students with identified needs/concerns”. This study is an evaluation research using a discrepancy model. The approach used is a systems approach that is focused on the planning, implementation, and evaluation of individual counseling programs. Based on the data analysis of evaluation of individual counseling program in SMP Laboratorium Universitas Negeri Malang is still far from standard.Keyword: program evaluation, individual counseling, discrepancy model

  10. Individual and Network Correlates of Antisocial Personality Disorder Among Rural Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel V; Young, April M; Mullins, Ursula L; Havens, Jennifer R

    2017-04-01

    Examination of the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with substance use and HIV risk behaviors within the social networks of rural people who use drugs. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to assess substance use, HIV risk behavior, and social network characteristics of drug users (n = 503) living in rural Appalachia. The MINI International Psychiatric Interview was used to determine whether participants met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD and Axis-I psychological comorbidities (eg, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder). Participants were also tested for herpes simplex 2, hepatitis C, and HIV. Multivariate generalized linear mixed modeling was used to determine the association between ASPD and risk behaviors, substance use, and social network characteristics. Approximately one-third (31%) of participants met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD. In multivariate analysis, distrust and conflict within an individual's social networks, as well as past 30-day use of heroin and crack, male gender, younger age, lesser education, heterosexual orientation, and comorbid MDD were associated with meeting diagnostic criteria for ASPD. Participants meeting criteria for ASPD were more likely to report recent heroin and crack use, which are far less common drugs of abuse in this population in which the predominant drug of abuse is prescription opioids. Greater discord within relationships was also identified among those with ASPD symptomatology. Given the elevated risk for blood-borne infection (eg, HIV) and other negative social and health consequences conferred by this high-risk subgroup, exploration of tailored network-based interventions with mental health assessment is recommended. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Identifying individuals with antisocial personality disorder using resting-state FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tang

    Full Text Available Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD is closely connected to criminal behavior. A better understanding of functional connectivity in the brains of ASPD patients will help to explain abnormal behavioral syndromes and to perform objective diagnoses of ASPD. In this study we designed an exploratory data-driven classifier based on machine learning to investigate changes in functional connectivity in the brains of patients with ASPD using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data in 32 subjects with ASPD and 35 controls. The results showed that the classifier achieved satisfactory performance (86.57% accuracy, 77.14% sensitivity and 96.88% specificity and could extract stabile information regarding functional connectivity that could be used to discriminate ASPD individuals from normal controls. More importantly, we found that the greatest change in the ASPD subjects was uncoupling between the default mode network and the attention network. Moreover, the precuneus, superior parietal gyrus and cerebellum exhibited high discriminative power in classification. A voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed and showed that the gray matter volumes in the parietal lobule and white matter volumes in the precuneus were abnormal in ASPD compared to controls. To our knowledge, this study was the first to use resting-state fMRI to identify abnormal functional connectivity in ASPD patients. These results not only demonstrated good performance of the proposed classifier, which can be used to improve the diagnosis of ASPD, but also elucidate the pathological mechanism of ASPD from a resting-state functional integration viewpoint.

  12. Predicting norm enforcement: The individual and joint predictive power of economic preferences, personality, and self-control

    OpenAIRE

    Friehe, Tim; Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the individual and joint predictive power of concepts from economics, psychology, and criminology for individual norm enforcement behavior. More specifically, we consider economic preferences (patience and attitudes towards risk), personality traits from psychology (Big Five and locus of control), and a self-control scale from criminology. Using survey data, we show that the various concepts complement each other in predicting self-reported norm enforcement behavior. The m...

  13. Neurocognitive processing of emotion facial expressions in individuals with self-reported depressive symptoms: the role of personality and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardaga, S; Iakimova, G

    2014-11-01

    Neurocognition may constitute one of the numerous factors that mediate the reciprocal influences between personality and depression. The present study explored the influence of personality and anxiety traits on the neurocognitive processing of emotional faces and specifically focused on personal characteristics related to negative (harm avoidance - HA) and positive affectivity (self-directedness - SD) and to anxiety. Twenty participants with self-reported depressive symptoms and 18 control participants were selected based on their BDI-II scores. Personality (TCI-R), anxiety and attention were measured and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during an implicit emotional face perception task (fear, sadness, happiness, neutrality). The participants who self-reported depressive symptoms had higher HA, lower SD and higher anxiety compared to controls. Controls showed enhanced P300 and LPP amplitudes for fear. Individuals with self-reported depression showed reduced ERPs amplitudes for happiness. HA did not account for the difference between the groups but high HA and high anxiety were positively correlated with enhanced P300 amplitude for fear in participants with depressive symptoms. In contrast, SD accounted for the difference between the groups but was not correlated to the ERP components' amplitudes recorded for facial expressions. Other personality dimensions (reward dependence, cooperativeness) influenced the ERPs recorded for facial emotions. Personality dimensions influence the neurocognitive processing of emotional faces in individuals with self-reported depressive symptoms, which may constitute a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Developmental perspectives on personality : Implications for ecological and evolutionary studies of individual differencese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamps, Judy A.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental processes can have major impacts on the correlations in behaviour across contexts (contextual generality) and across time (temporal consistency) that are the hallmarks of animal personality. Personality can and does change: at any given age or life stage it is contingent upon a wide

  15. Leaders' Personal Wisdom and Leader-Member Exchange Quality : The Role of Individualized Consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Pearce, Liane K.; Rooney, David; McKenna, Bernard

    Business scholars have recently proposed that the virtue of personal wisdom may predict leadership behaviors and the quality of leader-follower relationships. This study investigated relationships among leaders' personal wisdom-defined as the integration of advanced cognitive, reflective, and

  16. Individual differences in the effects of emotion regulation strategies : The role of personality and trait affect intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.; Hanser, W.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    This experimental study examined if (1) emotion experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy (suppression, giving in, neutral) when listening to a well-known rock music fragment, and if (2) personality and trait affect intensity can predict individual differences in

  17. 25 CFR 900.193 - Does FTCA coverage extend to individuals who provide health care services under a personal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does FTCA coverage extend to individuals who provide health care services under a personal services contract providing services in a facility that is owned, operated, or constructed under the jurisdiction of the IHS? 900.193 Section 900.193 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND...

  18. Personal monitoring in complex geometry of photon exposures; Monitoracao individual em geometrias complexas de exposicao a fotons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, P.G.; Drexler, G. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    1996-12-31

    The ratio (effective dose, E) / (personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) ) was calculated for some scenarios set in broad parallel photon beams. Worker`s irradiation condition are shown in which the number and locations of the individual monitor have to be carefully determined in order to avoid that the value of effective dose is underestimated 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Participation in Tertiary Study Abroad Programs: The Role of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalis, Steve; Joiner, Therese A.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing trend for the globalisation of business has highlighted the need for a better understanding of the factors that influence levels of intercultural awareness within organisations. Within the higher education sector, one initiative that aims to address this issue is student study abroad programs. This paper reports on a study that…

  20. How does personality matter? An investigation of the impact of extraversion on individuals' SNS use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengli; Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu; Hu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The fast proliferation of social networking sites (SNS) offers Internet users new possibilities for developing and maintaining their social network. Despite a growing interest in SNS, less research attention has been paid to SNS usage from the perspective of personality, that is, the Big Five personality traits. This study develops a model to elucidate how extraversion, an important dimension of personality, affects the perceptions of SNS users and their continuance intention. The research model is empirically tested with answers gained from 221 usable questionnaires. The results indicate that extraversion positively affects perceived satisfaction, supplementary entertainment, and critical mass directly, and indirectly influences both playfulness and SNS continuance intention.

  1. Efficacy of an Individualized Prevention Program Including Social Media Support on University Students with Gingivitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Alberto Serrano Méndez; Karen Andrea Avendaño Calderón; Paula Andrea Moreno Caro

    2017-01-01

    ...: Thirty-eight students with gingivitis participated in a program that included: Individualized oral hygiene instruction, professional removal of plaque and calculus and, recall and support on oral hygiene through the use of social media...

  2. An intergenerational program for persons with dementia using Montessori methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, C J; Judge, K S; Bye, C A; Fox, K M; Bowden, J; Bell, M; Valencic, K; Mattern, J M

    1997-10-01

    An intergenerational program bringing together older adults with dementia and preschool children in one-on-one interactions is described. Montessori activities, which have strong ties to physical and occupational therapy, as well as to theories of developmental and cognitive psychology, are used as the context for these interactions. Our experience indicates that older adults with dementia can still serve as effective mentors and teachers to children in an appropriately structured setting.

  3. Emergence of leadership in a robotic fish group under diverging individual personality traits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Chen; Chen, Xiaojie; Xie, Guangming; Cao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Variations of individual’s personality traits have been identified before as one of the possible mechanisms for the emergence of leadership in an interactive collective, which may lead to benefits for the group as a whole...

  4. Personalized vascular medicine: tailoring cardiovascular disease management to the individual patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Applying group-level findings to individual patients is an absolute requisite for practicing evidence-based cardiovascular medicine. Yet, because individual patient characteristics may influence the pathophysiology and prognosis of disease and the likelihood of response to therapy, such

  5. Individual Differences in Student Satisfaction: An Investigation of Personality and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore the relationships between student satisfaction, personality and motivation. Satisfaction and importance ratings across the entire university experience were measured and the applicability of Herzberg’s dual-factor theory of motivation was investigated. The Five-Factor Model of personality and the Academic Motivation Scale were used to assess 112 Humanities and Social Sciences undergraduates at the University of Edinburgh. We designed a St...

  6. Individual differences in the relationship between ovarian hormones and emotional eating across the menstrual cycle: a role for personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Sisk, Cheryl L; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L

    2013-04-01

    Within-person changes in estradiol and progesterone predict changes in binge eating tendencies across the menstrual cycle. However, all women have menstrual-cycle fluctuations in hormones, but few experience binge eating. Personality traits may be critical individual difference factors that influence who will engage in emotional eating in the presence of a vulnerable hormonal environment. Women (N=239) provided self-reports of emotional eating and saliva samples for hormone measurement for 45 consecutive days. Negative urgency and negative emotionality were measured once and were examined as moderators of hormone-emotional eating associations. Consistent with prior research, within-person changes in the interaction between estradiol and progesterone predicted emotional eating. Neither negative urgency nor negative emotionality interacted with changes in estradiol and progesterone to predict changes in emotional eating. Additional factors, other than the two personality traits examined, may account for individual differences in within-person associations between hormones and emotional eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of a Targeted Intervention Program Delivered Face-to-Face and by Personal Videoconferencing for Primary and Middle School Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestel, Eugénie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes part of a mixed-methods study comparing the effectiveness of an individual, conceptual instruction based, tuition program delivered face-to-face and by personal videoconferencing (PVC) for 30 upper primary and middle school students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLDs). The experimental intervention targeted number…

  8. Correlation of individual differences in schizotypal personality traits with amphetamine-induced dopamine release in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Neil D; Cowan, Ronald L; Park, Sohee; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Li, Rui; Doop, Mikisha; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2011-04-01

    Schizotypal personality traits are associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders demonstrate increased dopamine transmission in the striatum. The authors sought to determine whether individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits are correlated with dopamine transmission in the striatum and in extrastriatal brain regions. Sixty-three healthy volunteers with no history of psychiatric illness completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and underwent positron emission tomography imaging with [(18)F]fallypride at baseline and after administration of oral d-amphetamine (0.43 mg/kg). Dopamine release, quantified by subtracting each participant's d-amphetamine scan from his or her baseline scan, was correlated with Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and factor scores using region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses. Dopamine release in the striatum was positively correlated with overall schizotypal traits. The association was especially robust in the associative subdivision of the striatum. Voxel-wise analyses identified additional correlations between dopamine release and schizotypal traits in the left middle frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus. Exploratory analyses of Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire factor scores revealed correlations between dopamine release and disorganized schizotypal traits in the striatum, thalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, insula, and inferior frontal cortex. The association between dopamine signaling and psychosis phenotypes extends to individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits and involves dopamine transmission in both striatal and extrastriatal brain regions. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release may be a useful endophenotype for investigating the genetic basis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  9. Association of personality with the development and persistence of obesity: a meta-analysis based on individual-participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, M; Hintsanen, M; Hakulinen, C; Batty, G D; Nabi, H; Singh-Manoux, A; Kivimäki, M

    2013-04-01

    Personality is thought to affect obesity risk but before such information can be incorporated into prevention and intervention plans, robust and converging evidence concerning the most relevant personality traits is needed. We performed a meta-analysis based on individual-participant data from nine cohort studies to examine whether broad-level personality traits predict the development and persistence of obesity (n = 78,931 men and women; mean age 50 years). Personality was assessed using inventories of the Five-Factor Model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience). High conscientiousness - reflecting high self-control, orderliness and adherence to social norms - was associated with lower obesity risk across studies (pooled odds ratio [OR] = 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80-0.88 per 1 standard deviation increment in conscientiousness). Over a mean follow-up of 5.4 years, conscientiousness predicted lower obesity risk in initially non-obese individuals (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.85-0.92; n = 33,981) and was associated with greater likelihood of reversion to non-obese among initially obese individuals (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01-1.14; n = 9,657). Other personality traits were not associated with obesity in the pooled analysis, and there was substantial heterogeneity in the associations between studies. The findings indicate that conscientiousness may be the only broad-level personality trait of the Five-Factor Model that is consistently associated with obesity across populations. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. Individual Attitudes and Social Influences on College Students' Intent to Participate in Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liz C.; Gault, John; Christ, Paul; Diggin, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in study abroad programs (SAPs) is widely viewed as offering important professional and personal benefits for college students. This study applies the "Theory of Reasoned Action" [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980) and "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior," Englewood Cliffs, NJ:…

  11. Evaluation of a Weight Loss Treatment Program for Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Angela B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Johnson, Brigitte; Zetocha, Kim; Egemo, Kristin; Hegstad, Holly

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a major problem for people in the United States. Individuals with mental retardation also are prone to obesity. The most successful programs for treating obesity typically are treatment packages consisting of multiple behavioral components. Research in the area of weight loss and mental retardation has not evaluated programs for…

  12. Individualization of Instruction: A Programmed Approach. Description of Teacher Inservice Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Project on Utilization of Inservice Education R & D Outcomes.

    An inservice teacher education program is described in which participants experience one method of individualizing instruction through use of programmed learning workbooks and in the presence of a group leader. Inservice topics covered include self-appraisal, analysis tools, and Kurt Lewin's theory of force field analysis. Objectives are to deal…

  13. The University of Toledo Competency-Based Teacher Education and Individually Guided Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, George E.

    The cooperative program for competency-based teacher education (CBTE) and individually guided education (IGE) operating in the Toledo, Ohio, area is described. Planning, development, design, and redesign processes of the program (which involves the University of Toledo, and public and private schools in the district) are surveyed. Nineteen forces…

  14. Evaluation of the Leadership Institute: A Program to Build Individual and Organizational Capacity through Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Claire Yueh-Ti; King, Jeff; Cochran, Graham R.; Argabright, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the impact of Leadership Institute, a program designed to strengthen leadership capacity through developing individuals' emotional intelligence (EQ). A pre-and posttest approach was used to collect data from two workshops with identical EQ content, program structure, and evaluation.…

  15. Preventing Smoking among Hispanic Preadolescents: Program Orientation, Participant Individualism-Collectivism, and Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…

  16. Engaging Students and Parents in Transition-Focused Individualized Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavendish, Wendy; Connor, David J.; Rediker, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The reauthorizations of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act emphasize that students and parents are to be considered equal partners in the individualized education program (IEP) process. This article addresses how to move from compliance with the law to facilitating meaningful involvement of high school students and their parents in…

  17. A Mindfulness-Based Health Wellness Program for Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Singh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are often overweight or obese because of their delayed satiety response. Three individuals with PWS participated in a long-term, multicomponent mindfulness-based health wellness program to reduce their obesity by changing their lifestyles. The components included (a) physical exercise, (b) food…

  18. Green Construction and Energy Training Program for At-Risk Individuals: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Carla Lopez; Crowson, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    Training individuals who are at risk of unemployment/underemployment to increase their employability is a mission of many nonprofit agencies. These training programs, often supported by government funding, attempt to reduce these individuals' reliance on government assistance. The purpose of this study is to obtain hard data and an in-depth…

  19. The Use of Individual Education Programs for Children in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian

    2012-01-01

    A cornerstone of special education practice is customising instruction to meet individual students' needs. Individual education programs (IEPs) are used in many countries to document the manner in which such instruction is customised and to provide a record of student outcomes. Using 2009 data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children,…

  20. Barriers to Full Participation in the Individualized Education Program for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamzarian, Arpi; Menzies, Holly M.; Ricci, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) mandates that schools facilitate parent participation in planning the Individual Education Program (IEP). However, culturally and linguistically diverse parents are less likely to feel fully included in the IEP process. In this article we examine three sources of cross-cultural…

  1. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF PERSONAL SELLING PT BANK TABUNGAN NEGARA (PERSERO, TBK IN PROMOTING PROGRAM SUPER UNTUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Eva Natalya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Appearing many types of bank proves that business of banking is growing up rapidly and and competing to compile society’s found. Therefore, each bank does the best promotion in order to get the attention and trust from society. PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero, Tbk is using personal selling in promoting Program Super Untung in 2014, this research focuses on monitoring the process of implementation personal selling in Program Super Untung done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk.This research aims to monitor the implementation of personal selling done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk to promote Program Super Untung by using personal selling process method from Churchill,. Method applied in this research is descriptive qualitative with design of study case and technic of collecting data done by interviewing and compiling documents from the company related with the research. The result of this research discussed about implementation of personal selling done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk in 2014. The steps of personal selling are prospecting for customer, opening the relationship, qualifiying the prospect, presenting the sales message, closing the sales, until servicing the account. This research concludes that personal selling has view steps, every steps have relationship and will influence the other steps. Every steps have substantial points that can influence the success of personal selling, i.e. good communication between seller and candidate of customer.  Muncul banyak jenis bank membuktikan bahwa bisnis perbankan berkembang pesat dan dan bersaing untuk menyusun masyarakat yang ditemukan. Oleh karena itu, setiap bank melakukan promosi terbaik agar mendapat perhatian dan kepercayaan dari masyarakat. PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero, Tbk menggunakan penjualan pribadi dalam mempromosikan Program Super Untung pada tahun 2014, penelitian ini berfokus pada pemantauan proses implementasi personal selling di Program Super Untung

  3. Challenges in assessing personality of individuals with Gender Dysphoria with the SWAP-200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, V; Giovanardi, G

    2017-07-01

    Personality assessment can be useful to better understand the complexity of transgender and transsexual people. In particular, the Shedler Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200) is a measure that provides an accurate dimensional evaluation of personality. When assessing gender non-conforming people, however, clinicians can encounter some difficulties in giving appropriate ratings to all the items. A brief guide to the use of SWAP-200 with transgender patients is provided, taking into account three areas of psychological functioning: identity, relationships and sexuality. The authors review, one by one, the SWAP-200 items related to these areas, and, relying on their clinical experience and on scientific literature on Gender Dysphoria, they propose recommendations for making personality diagnoses meaningful. This paper facilitates a better clinical understanding of transgender people, and help clinicians to be more knowledgeable in the assessment of this heterogeneous population.

  4. Patterns of individual change in a parenting program for child maltreatment and their relation to family and professional environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, S; Rodrigo, M J; Máiquez, M L

    2014-03-01

    In the area of child maltreatment prevention, little is known about the typology of changes that individuals undergo in response to parent-training interventions. In this study, we examined the patterns of change observed in parents immediately after their completion of the Apoyo Personal y Familiar (APF, Personal and Family Support) parenting program. We identified five clusters and classified 496 parents according to two criteria: (a) the amount of pre-post changes (total or partial) as reflected in their self-reports on implicit theories, parental agency and childrearing practices, and (b) the positive, negative or mixed character of these changes. The study also included a follow-up of a subset of 95 participants intended to examine the extent to which the patterns of change identified in the first part of the study might predict the quality of the childrearing environment at home and the successful integration of the APF program into social services structures one year on. In this follow-up study, external evaluators observed families' home environments and collected the parenting program facilitators' self-reports on changes to their work environment. The evaluators found higher-quality childrearing environments and more positive appraisals of the changes to the teams' work with families in those cases where participants had experienced partial or total positive changes as a result of the APF. This approach offers insights into processes of individual change that have practical implications for the successful implementation of parenting programs in child maltreatment prevention services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Person, personality, responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE MIHAI; EMILIA MIHAI

    2005-01-01

    Modern times consider as a person the individual man being endowed with reason and conscience; this man cannot be but person because he shows so many persons. According to the positive law the human individual is considered a person: natural person in civil relations; criminal in criminal relations; public officer in administrative relations, etc. “Natural person”, “criminal”, “public officer” are terms from legal terminology of different branches of law that define the individual in the law,...

  6. Is the Social Brain Theory Applicable to Human Individual Differences? Relationship between Sociability Personality Dimension and Brain Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Horváth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Our study intends to examine whether the social brain theory is applicable to human individual differences. According to the social brain theory primates have larger brains as it could be expected from their body sizes due to the adaptation to a more complex social life. Regarding humans there were few studies about the relationship between theory of mind and frontal and temporal brain lobes. We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives. Our findings support this hypothesis as Sociability correlated positively with the examined brain structures if we control the effects of body size differences and age. These results suggest that the social brain theory can be extended to human interindividual differences and they have some implications to personality psychology too.

  7. Is the social brain theory applicable to human individual differences? Relationship between sociability personality dimension and brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Martos, János; Mihalik, Béla; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-06-17

    Our study intends to examine whether the social brain theory is applicable to human individual differences. According to the social brain theory primates have larger brains as it could be expected from their body sizes due to the adaptation to a more complex social life. Regarding humans there were few studies about the relationship between theory of mind and frontal and temporal brain lobes. We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives. Our findings support this hypothesis as Sociability correlated positively with the examined brain structures if we control the effects of body size differences and age. These results suggest that the social brain theory can be extended to human interindividual differences and they have some implications to personality psychology too.

  8. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  9. The Quantitative and Molecular Genetics of Individual Differences in Animal Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, V.; van Oers, K.; Vonk, Jennifer; Weiss, Alexander; Kuczaj, Stan

    2017-01-01

    One of the main goals in current personality research is to identify genes behind the measured behavioral variations. This is important in order to study how, under the influence of the environment, gene expression changes are translated into the observed phenotypes. The advances, especially in

  10. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymamí, N; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Granero, R; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Fernández-Aranda, F; Claes, L; Sauvaget, A; Grall-Bronnec, M; Gómez-Peña, M; Savvidou, L G; Fagundo, A B; del Pino-Gutierrez, A; Moragas, L; Casas, M; Penelo, E; Menchón, J M

    2015-01-01

    (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18-35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  11. Individual Differences in Response to Automation: The Five Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L.; Taylor, Grant S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of operator personality (Five Factor Model) and characteristics of the task and of adaptive automation (reliability and adaptiveness--whether the automation was well-matched to changes in task demand) to operator performance, workload, stress, and coping. This represents the first investigation of how the Five…

  12. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  13. Similarity between intimate partners for personality traits as related to individual levels of satisfaction with life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, WA; Luteijn, F

    Spousal similarity in terms of personality is advanced as a theoretically important factor to consider in subjective well-being (SWB). This is logically derived from four findings: (1) the consistent relationship between marital status and SWB, with married Ss having the highest SWB scores, which is

  14. Modeling Bivariate Change in Individual Differences: Prospective Associations Between Personality and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounkpatin, Hilda Osafo; Boyce, Christopher J; Dunn, Graham; Wood, Alex M

    2017-09-18

    A number of structural equation models have been developed to examine change in 1 variable or the longitudinal association between 2 variables. The most common of these are the latent growth model, the autoregressive cross-lagged model, the autoregressive latent trajectory model, and the latent change score model. The authors first overview each of these models through evaluating their different assumptions surrounding the nature of change and how these assumptions may result in different data interpretations. They then, to elucidate these issues in an empirical example, examine the longitudinal association between personality traits and life satisfaction. In a representative Dutch sample (N = 8,320), with participants providing data on both personality and life satisfaction measures every 2 years over an 8-year period, the authors reproduce findings from previous research. However, some of the structural equation models overviewed have not previously been applied to the personality-life satisfaction relation. The extended empirical examination suggests intraindividual changes in life satisfaction predict subsequent intraindividual changes in personality traits. The availability of data sets with 3 or more assessment waves allows the application of more advanced structural equation models such as the autoregressive latent trajectory or the extended latent change score model, which accounts for the complex dynamic nature of change processes and allows stronger inferences on the nature of the association between variables. However, the choice of model should be determined by theories of change processes in the variables being studied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Emergence of leadership in a robotic fish group under diverging individual personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chen; Chen, Xiaojie; Xie, Guangming; Cao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Variations of individual’s personality traits have been identified before as one of the possible mechanisms for the emergence of leadership in an interactive collective, which may lead to benefits for the group as a whole. Complementing the large number of existing literatures on using simulation

  16. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aymamí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2 to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3 to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4 to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  17. Individual Focus in an Activity Centre: An Observational Study among Persons with Profound and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, S. J.; Vlaskamp, C.; Wiersma, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are being offered more--and more frequent--day services at activity centres. Little is known about the way direct support persons (DSP) in activity centres divide their time over the various tasks they have to perform and to what extent they are focused on…

  18. An Implementation of a Twitter-Supported Personal Learning Network to Individualize Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyamport, W. H., III.

    2013-01-01

    In this action research study, eight teachers at an elementary school were trained in the use of Twitter to support the development of a personal learning network as a strategy to address non-differentiated professional development at the school. The main research question for this study was: In what ways, if any, can the use of a…

  19. Intersession Telephone Contact with Individuals Diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder: Lessons from Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porath, Denise D.

    2004-01-01

    Therapists often struggle with managing intersession contact with clients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, particularly when dangerous and life-threatening symptoms are communicated (Gunderson, 1996). Difficulties have arisen, in part, because previous phone contacts with this population have failed to recognize the importance of…

  20. Curious Eyes: Individual Differences in Personality Predict Eye Movement Behavior in Scene-Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F.; Anderson, Nicola C.; Lanthier, Sophie; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Visual exploration is driven by two main factors--the stimuli in our environment, and our own individual interests and intentions. Research investigating these two aspects of attentional guidance has focused almost exclusively on factors common across individuals. The present study took a different tack, and examined the role played by individual…

  1. Personality matters: individual variation in reactions of naive bird predators to aposematic prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exnerová, A.; Hotova Svadova, K.; Fucikova, E.; Drent, P.; Stys, P.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in reactions to aposematic prey is common among conspecific individuals of bird predators. It may result from different individual experience but it also exists among naive birds. This variation may possibly be explained by the effect of personality—a complex of correlated, heritable

  2. Genetic programming as alternative for predicting development effort of individual software projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavoya, Arturo; Lopez-Martin, Cuauhtemoc; Andalon-Garcia, Irma R; Meda-Campaña, M E

    2012-01-01

    Statistical and genetic programming techniques have been used to predict the software development effort of large software projects. In this paper, a genetic programming model was used for predicting the effort required in individually developed projects. Accuracy obtained from a genetic programming model was compared against one generated from the application of a statistical regression model. A sample of 219 projects developed by 71 practitioners was used for generating the two models, whereas another sample of 130 projects developed by 38 practitioners was used for validating them. The models used two kinds of lines of code as well as programming language experience as independent variables. Accuracy results from the model obtained with genetic programming suggest that it could be used to predict the software development effort of individual projects when these projects have been developed in a disciplined manner within a development-controlled environment.

  3. Genetic programming as alternative for predicting development effort of individual software projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Chavoya

    Full Text Available Statistical and genetic programming techniques have been used to predict the software development effort of large software projects. In this paper, a genetic programming model was used for predicting the effort required in individually developed projects. Accuracy obtained from a genetic programming model was compared against one generated from the application of a statistical regression model. A sample of 219 projects developed by 71 practitioners was used for generating the two models, whereas another sample of 130 projects developed by 38 practitioners was used for validating them. The models used two kinds of lines of code as well as programming language experience as independent variables. Accuracy results from the model obtained with genetic programming suggest that it could be used to predict the software development effort of individual projects when these projects have been developed in a disciplined manner within a development-controlled environment.

  4. Personalized medicine in human space flight: using Omics based analyses to develop individualized countermeasures that enhance astronaut safety and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael A; Goodwin, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Space flight is one of the most extreme conditions encountered by humans. Advances in Omics methodologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have revealed that unique differences exist between individuals. These differences can be amplified in extreme conditions, such as space flight. A better understanding of individual differences may allow us to develop personalized countermeasure packages that optimize the safety and performance of each astronaut. In this review, we explore the role of "Omics" in advancing our ability to: (1) more thoroughly describe the biological response of humans in space; (2) describe molecular attributes of individual astronauts that alter the risk profile prior to entering the space environment; (3) deploy Omics techniques in the development of personalized countermeasures; and (4) develop a comprehensive Omics-based assessment and countermeasure platform that will guide human space flight in the future. In this review, we advance the concept of personalized medicine in human space flight, with the goal of enhancing astronaut safety and performance. Because the field is vast, we explore selected examples where biochemical individuality might significantly impact countermeasure development. These include gene and small molecule variants associated with: (1) metabolism of therapeutic drugs used in space; (2) one carbon metabolism and DNA stability; (3) iron metabolism, oxidative stress and damage, and DNA stability; and (4) essential input (Mg and Zn) effects on DNA repair. From these examples, we advance the case that widespread Omics profiling should serve as the foundation for aerospace medicine and research, explore methodological considerations to advance the field, and suggest why personalized medicine may become the standard of care for humans in space.

  5. How to tell a happy from an unhappy schizotype: personality factors and mental health outcomes in individuals with psychotic experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia O. Alminhana

    Full Text Available Objective: It is unclear why some individuals reporting psychotic experiences have balanced lives while others go on to develop mental health problems. The objective of this study was to test if the personality traits of harm avoidance, self-directedness, and self-transcendence can be used as criteria to differentiate healthy from unhealthy schizotypal individuals. Methods: We interviewed 115 participants who reported a high frequency of psychotic experiences. The instruments used were the Temperament and Character Inventory (140, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences. Results: Harm avoidance predicted cognitive disorganization (β = 0.319; t = 2.94, while novelty seeking predicted bipolar disorder (β = 0.136, Exp [β] = 1.146 and impulsive non-conformity (β = 0.322; t = 3.55. Self-directedness predicted an overall decrease in schizotypy, most of all in cognitive disorganization (β = -0.356; t = -2.95 and in impulsive non-conformity (β = -0.313; t = -2.83. Finally, self-transcendence predicted unusual experiences (β = 0.256; t = 2.32. Conclusion: Personality features are important criteria to distinguish between pathology and mental health in individuals presenting high levels of anomalous experiences (AEs. While self-directedness is a protective factor, both harm avoidance and novelty seeking were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. We suggest that the impact of AEs on mental health is moderated by personality factors.

  6. Neural and personality correlates of individual differences related to the effects of acute tryptophan depletion on future reward evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoto, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Aoyama, Shiori; Onoda, Keiichi; Munakata, Ayumi; Nomura, Michio; Tanaka, Saori C; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Doya, Kenji; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-01-01

    In general, humans tend to discount the value of delayed reward. An increase in the rate of discounting leads to an inability to select a delayed reward over a smaller immediate reward (reward-delay impulsivity). Although deficits in the serotonergic system are implicated in this reward-delay impulsivity, there is individual variation in response to serotonin depletion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effects of serotonin depletion on the ability to evaluate future reward are affected by individual personality traits or brain activation. Personality traits were assessed using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Temperament and Character Inventory. The central serotonergic levels of 16 healthy volunteers were manipulated by dietary tryptophan depletion. Subjects performed a delayed reward choice task that required the continuous estimation of reward value during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Discounting rates were increased in 9 participants, but were unchanged or decreased in 7 participants in response to tryptophan depletion. Participants whose discounting rate was increased by tryptophan depletion had significantly higher neuroticism and lower self-directedness. Furthermore, tryptophan depletion differentially affected the groups in terms of hemodynamic responses to the value of predicted future reward in the right insula. These results suggest that individuals who have high neuroticism and low self-directedness as personality traits are particularly vulnerable to the effect of low serotonin on future reward evaluation accompanied by altered brain activation patterns. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Individual differences in zoo-housed squirrel monkeys' (Saimiri sciureus) reactions to visitors, research participation, and personality ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Zita; Wood, Lara; Haskell, Marie J

    2017-05-01

    Understanding individual differences in captive squirrel monkeys is a topic of importance both for improving welfare by catering to individual needs, and for better understanding the results and implications of behavioral research. In this study, 23 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), housed in an environment that is both a zoo enclosure and research facility, were assessed for (i) the time they spent by an observation window under three visitor conditions: no visitors, small groups, and large groups; (ii) their likelihood of participating in voluntary research; and (iii) zookeepers, ratings of personality. A Friedman's ANOVA and Wilcoxon post-hoc tests comparing mean times found that the monkeys spent more time by the window when there were large groups present than when there were small groups or no visitors. Thus, visitors do not seem to have a negative effect and may be enriching for certain individuals. Through GLMM and correlational analyses, it was found that high scores on the personality trait of playfulness and low scores on cautiousness, depression, and solitude were significant predictors of increased window approach behavior when visitors were present. The GLMM and correlational analyses assessing the links between personality traits and research participation found that low scores of cautiousness and high scores of playfulness, gentleness, affection, and friendliness, were significant predictors. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to selection bias and its potential confounding effect on cognitive studies with voluntary participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Do the Big Five personality traits predict individual differences in the left cheek bias for emotion perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Samantha; Lindell, Annukka K

    2016-01-01

    Like language, emotion is a lateralized function. Because the right hemisphere typically dominates emotion processing, people express stronger emotion on the left side of their face. This prompts a left cheek bias: we offer the left cheek to express emotion and rate left cheek portraits more emotionally expressive than right cheek portraits. Though the majority of the population show this left cheek bias (60-70%), individual differences exist but remain largely unexplained. Given that people with higher self-rated emotional expressivity show a stronger left cheek bias, personality variables associated with increased emotional expressivity and emotional intelligence, such as extraversion and openness, may help account for individual differences. The present study thus examined whether the Big Five traits predict left cheek preferences. Participants (M = 58, F = 116) completed the NEO-Five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa, P. T. J., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources] and viewed pairs of left and right cheek images (half mirror-reversed); participants made forced-choice decisions, indicating which image in each pair looked happier. Hierarchical regression indicated that neither trait extraversion nor openness predicted left cheek selections, with NEO-FFI personality subscales accounting for negligible variance in preferences. As the Big Five traits have been discounted, exploration of other potential contributors to individual differences in the left cheek bias is clearly needed.

  9. Individual personality differences in goats predict their performance in visual learning and non-associative cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Prentice, Pamela M; McElligott, Alan G

    2017-01-01

    Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk-reward trade-offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits ('exploration' and 'sociability') of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent across time and context. Less explorative goats performed better in a non-associative cognitive task, in which subjects had to follow the trajectory of a hidden object (i.e. testing their ability for object permanence). We also found that less sociable subjects performed better compared to more sociable goats in a visual discrimination task. Good visual learning performance was associated with a preference for feature cues, indicating personality-dependent learning strategies in goats. Our results suggest that personality traits predict the outcome in visual discrimination and non-associative cognitive tasks in goats and that impaired performance in a visual discrimination tasks does not necessarily imply impaired learning capacities, but rather can be explained by a varying preference for feature cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuronal Correlates of Individual Differences in the Big Five Personality Traits: Evidences from Cortical Morphology and Functional Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Yan, Xu; Li, Yuan; Wang, Junjie; Li, Qiang; Li, Hong; Li, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    There have been many neuroimaging studies of human personality traits, and it have already provided glimpse into the neurobiology of complex traits. And most of previous studies adopt voxel-based morphology (VBM) analysis to explore the brain-personality mechanism from two levels (vertex and regional based), the findings are mixed with great inconsistencies and the brain-personality relations are far from a full understanding. Here, we used a new method of surface-based morphology (SBM) analysis, which provides better alignment of cortical landmarks to generate about the associations between cortical morphology and the personality traits across 120 healthy individuals at both vertex and regional levels. While to further reveal local functional correlates of the morphology-personality relationships, we related surface-based functional homogeneity measures to the regions identified in the regional-based SBM correlation. Vertex-wise analysis revealed that people with high agreeableness exhibited larger areas in the left superior temporal gyrus. Based on regional parcellation we found that extroversion was negatively related with the volume of the left lateral occipito-temporal gyrus and agreeableness was negatively associated with the sulcus depth of the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, increased regional homogeneity in the left lateral occipito-temporal gyrus is related to the scores of extroversion, and increased regional homogeneity in the left superior parietal lobule is related to the scores of agreeableness. These findings provide supporting evidence of a link between personality and brain structural mysteries with a method of SBM, and further suggest that local functional homogeneity of personality traits has neurobiological relevance that is likely based on anatomical substrates.

  11. [Effects of an Individual Breast-feeding Promotion Program for Married Immigrant Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Kyoung; Moon, So Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of an individual breast-feeding promotion program to address breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice for married immigrant women. A non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used (experimental group=16, control group=17). The intervention consisted of 3 phases: (1) Within 2 hours of delivery - individual breast-feeding training through video/verbal/practical training education and demonstration (2) After 1~2 days - group training using video, model doll, and breast models (3) After 7 days - family visit, counseling, retraining and reinforcement training. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests with the SPSS program. Married immigrant women who participated in the individual breast-feeding program scored high in knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice compared to the control group. The results indicate that the individual breast-feeding program is very effective in increasing breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practicing breast feeding for married immigrant women. So, nurses are encouraged to aggressively utilize individual breast-feeding programs to help married immigrant women, who are exposed to vulnerability due to various situations.

  12. Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in Clinical Versus Nonclinical Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Sellbom, Martin; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PID-5) was developed for the assessment of pathological traits in clinical settings. However, most research on the PID-5 is derived from nonclinical samples. To date, the comparability and generaliz......The Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PID-5) was developed for the assessment of pathological traits in clinical settings. However, most research on the PID-5 is derived from nonclinical samples. To date, the comparability...... and generalizability of PID-5 constructs across nonclinical and clinical samples have not been adequately investigated. Therefore, we investigated the measurement invariance, five-factor structure, and factor correlations across clinical and nonclinical samples. The clinical sample ( n = 598) comprised patients...

  13. Individual differences in airline captains' personalities, communication strategies, and crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Aircrew effectiveness in coping with emergencies has been linked to captain's personality profile. The present study analyzed cockpit communication during simulated flight to examine the relation between captains' discourse strategies, personality profiles, and crew performance. Positive Instrumental/Expressive captains and Instrumental-Negative captains used very similar communication strategies and their crews made few errors. Their talk was distinguished by high levels of planning and strategizing, gathering information, predicting/alerting, and explaining, especially during the emergency flight phase. Negative-Expressive captains talked less overall, and engaged in little problem solving talk, even during emergencies. Their crews made many errors. Findings support the theory that high crew performance results when captains use language to build shared mental models for problem situations.

  14. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Elderly Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2002-01-01

    To forget your keys, the name of your neighbour, where you put your glasses, or even forgetting your password, is annoying, - but well, it happens to all of us. But when you forget where you live, fail to recognise a close friend, forget what things around you are called, even your own name, then......, then you have a serious problem! The article describes a Ph.D.-research with focus on music therapy with persons suffering from dementia....

  15. Communicating through singing. Individual music therapy with persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2002-01-01

    In degenerative diseases like dementia, persons experience problems in communicating. In Alzheimer's disease the language problems resemble Wernicke's aphasia; in vascular, or other types of dementia, the course can be quite different and have less predictable features. When verbal language...... care where psychological needs are met and validated is developing. This influences music therapy research in gerontology, and inspires to analyses at a pragmatic level which I want to illustrate with clinical case data and video material from my research study in progress....

  16. Psychosocial effects of competitive Boccia program in persons with severe chronic disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sharon; Mendoza-Laiz, Nuria; Fuentes, Maria Teresa Gutierrez; Rubiera, Maria; Huyzler, Yeshayahu

    2016-01-01

    People with severe physical disabilities may experience psychosocial problems. Boccia is one sport that athletes with severe disability can engage in, but no information on the effects of Boccia on psychosocial outcomes for participants with severe disability is available. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of Boccia on psychosocial outcomes in persons with severe disabilities. The study included two competitive Boccia groups: independent competitive (IC) (n = 9) and nonindependent competitive (NIC) (n = 7), as well as a recreational Boccia group (n = 14) and control subjects (n = 13) (mean age = 46.46 +/- 10.75). All participants underwent a rehabilitation program. Between-group differences in change scores were assessed using analysis of variance/multivariate analysis of variance. Within-group differences were compared using t-tests and effect sizes (ESs). Change in psychosocial parameters was not significantly influenced by study group (p > 0.05). All groups presented moderate-to-large ESs in physical and psychological quality of life (ES > 0.51). In comparison to the control group, who presented small-to-trivial ESs in General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Profile of Mood States-Tension, the IC and recreational group presented moderate ESs in GHQ-28, whereas the NIC group presented moderate ESs in anxiety and tension. In conclusion, the rehabilitation program had a general positive effect on the psychosocial status of individuals with severe physical disabilities. However, the competitive Boccia groups demonstrated a greater number of favorable changes, suggesting an added value of participation in Boccia.

  17. Improving outcomes for persons with aphasia in advanced community-based treatment programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aftonomos, L B; Appelbaum, J S; Steele, R D

    1999-01-01

    .... We explore this issue here in an outcome study of individuals with aphasia enrolled in 2 community-based, comparably managed and equipped therapy programs, which use a specially designed computer...

  18. Conceiving "personality": Psychologist's challenges and basic fundamentals of the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-09-01

    Scientists exploring individuals, as such scientists are individuals themselves and thus not independent from their objects of research, encounter profound challenges; in particular, high risks for anthropo-, ethno- and ego-centric biases and various fallacies in reasoning. The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) aims to tackle these challenges by exploring and making explicit the philosophical presuppositions that are being made and the metatheories and methodologies that are used in the field. This article introduces basic fundamentals of the TPS-Paradigm including the epistemological principle of complementarity and metatheoretical concepts for exploring individuals as living organisms. Centrally, the TPS-Paradigm considers three metatheoretical properties (spatial location in relation to individuals' bodies, temporal extension, and physicality versus "non-physicality") that can be conceived in different forms for various kinds of phenomena explored in individuals (morphology, physiology, behaviour, the psyche, semiotic representations, artificially modified outer appearances and contexts). These properties, as they determine the phenomena's accessibility in everyday life and research, are used to elaborate philosophy-of-science foundations and to derive general methodological implications for the elementary problem of phenomenon-methodology matching and for scientific quantification of the various kinds of phenomena studied. On the basis of these foundations, the article explores the metatheories and methodologies that are used or needed to empirically study each given kind of phenomenon in individuals in general. Building on these general implications, the article derives special implications for exploring individuals' "personality", which the TPS-Paradigm conceives of as individual-specificity in all of the various kinds of phenomena studied in individuals.

  19. Within-person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  20. Dopamine response to psychosocial stress in humans and its relationship to individual differences in personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suridjan, Ivonne; Boileau, Isabelle; Bagby, Michael; Rusjan, Pablo M; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Mizrahi, Romina

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have reported inter-individual variability in the dopamine (DA) response to stress. This variability might be related to individual differences in the vulnerability to experience the negative effect of stress. To investigate whether personality traits as measured by the revised NEO personality inventory explain variability in DA response to a psychosocial stress task. Eleven healthy adults, mean age of 26 ± 3.87 underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) scans using the dopamine D(2/3) agonist, [11C]-(+)-PHNO under a control and stress condition. The simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) was used to obtain [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding potential (BP(ND)). Stress-induced DA response was indexed as a percent change in [11C]-(+)-PHNO BP(ND) between control and stress conditions. The regions of interest were defined into D2-rich regions, which included the Associative and Sensorimotor Striatum (AST and SMST); D(2/3) mixed regions, which included the limbic striatum (LST) and globus pallidus (GP); and D3-rich region, which included the Substantia Nigra (SN). Several personality traits within the Neuroticism and Openness to Experience domain were significantly correlated with blunted DA response to stress. Specifically, the Angry-Hostility, Vulnerability, and Depression trait were associated with blunted DA stress response in the AST (r = -0.645, p = 0.032), LST (r = -0.677, p = 0.022) and GP (r = -0.736, p = 0.010), respectively. The Openness to Values was correlated with a decreased DA release in the SN (r = -0.706, p = 0.015). Variability in DA stress response might be related to individual differences in personality. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Personalized Medication Management: Towards a Design of Individualized Support for Elderly Citizens at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Olsen, Jesper Wolff

    2012-01-01

    purpose to help them to manage their medications and recall challenges. We confirm that a considerable number of older adults integrate their medication treatments into their daily life routines, and that the lack of knowledge, caregiver's support, medicine outside the home, forgetting medication intake......Several technologies have been developed to support people's medication management, including pillboxes, specialized software applications, reminders and paper-based medication lists. Several of these technologies were discovered in older adults' homes during user studies carried out with the main...... towards the design of a personalized medication management system. We further describe our initial stage in a participatory design process as part of the ongoing Lev Vel Consortium....

  2. Exploring the Impact of a Library Summer Reading Literacy Coach Program on Teen Personal Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Summer of 2011 The Free Library of Philadelphia (FLP hired 90 teenagers into its six-week Summer Reading Literacy Coach Program (SRLCP as Teen Literacy Coaches (TLCs. Data was collected at Time 1, Time 2 and Time 3. The two study hypotheses were: (1 there will be a significant improvement in TLCs personal development skills from Time 1 to Time 3 and (2 demographic data and program specific skills measured at Time 2 will account for significant variance in each Time 3 personal development skill beyond the Time 1 personal development skills. We did not find support for H1 but did find support for H2. Specific to H2 we found that team-related and higher education interest each had a significant positive impact (p

  3. The effect of a home physiotherapy program for persons with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, A; De Weerdt, W; Dom, R; Truyen, M; Janssens, L; Kamsma, Y

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a home physiotherapy program for persons with Parkinson's disease. Thirty-three patients took part in the study using a within-subject controlled design. Functional activities including walking and carrying out transfers were measured at home

  4. Career Advancement, Career Enhancement, and Personal Growth of Pepperdine University's Educational Leadership Academy Graduate Program Alumni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Ruth I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was two-fold: (a) to explore and describe the perceived impact of Pepperdine University's Educational Leadership Academy (ELA) on 2003-2006 ELA graduates' career advancement, career enhancement, and personal growth; and (b) to obtain ELA graduates' suggestions for ELA program improvement to better prepare…

  5. 41 CFR 109-1.5002 - Personal property management program objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal property management program objectives. 109-1.5002 Section 109-1.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS...

  6. Personal Transformation in RNs Who Recently Graduated from an RN to BSN Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Annette L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore experiences of personal transformation and development of self-authorship in registered nurses (RNs) who recently completed an RN to bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) program. A content analysis was performed on the qualitative data obtained from semistructured interviews with 14 RNs. Experiences of…

  7. 75 FR 3847 - Weatherization Assistance Program for Low-Income Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...-income tenants. 2. Permission of Owner or Owner's Agent Today's final rule will not alleviate the need... familiar with the needs of their communities. (See OH Partners for Affordable Energy, others) Today's final... the Weatherization Assistance Program for Low-Income Persons. As a result of today's final rule, if a...

  8. 78 FR 60874 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal Protective Technology Program and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... program activities. The IOM report identified gaps and inconsistencies in the certification and other... ``demonstration that specified requirements relating to a product, process, system, person or body are fulfilled... following primary components: Certification (ISO/IEC 17065), Inspection (ISO/IEC 17020), Testing (ISO/IEC...

  9. For the Horticulture Teacher--A Personal In-Service Program Can Keep You Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christine D.

    1980-01-01

    To keep current with industry changes, the vocational horticulture instructor can join horticulture industry associations, utilize horticulture outlets for field trips, use horticulture experts as resource persons, work in the industry, participate in university-sponsored inservice programs, attend industry association workshops and seminars, and…

  10. Enhanced Semantic TV-Show Representation for Personalized Electronic Program Guides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musto, C.; Narducci, F.; Lops, P.; Semeraro, G.; Gemmis, M. de; Barbieri, M.; Korst, J.H.M.; Pronk, S.P.P.; Clout, R.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized electronic program guides help users overcome information overload in the TV and video domain by exploiting recommender systems that automatically compile lists of novel and diverse video assets, based on implicitly or explicitly defined user preferences. Inthis context, we assume that

  11. Basic Constructs of a Theory for Personal Professional Development and Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Joseph S.

    The opinion is set forth that intense competition for individual promotion in higher education institutions is counter-productive to the achievement of educational excellence. It is proposed that individual development as well as the development of successful college programs are better served by mutual support, cooperation, and intelligent…

  12. A Rehabilomics framework for personalized and translational rehabilitation research and care for individuals with disabilities: Perspectives and considerations for spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Amy K

    2014-09-01

    Despite many people having similar clinical presentation, demographic factors, and clinical care, outcome can differ for those sustaining significant injury such as spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition to traditional demographic, social, and clinical factors, variability also may be attributable to innate (including genetic, transcriptomic proteomic, epigenetic) biological variation that individuals bring to recovery and their unique response to their care and environment. Technologies collectively called "-omics" enable simultaneous measurement of an enormous number of biomolecules that can capture many potential biological contributors to heterogeneity of injury/disease course and outcome. Due to the nature of injury and complex disease, and its associations with impairment, disability, and recovery, rehabilitation does not lend itself to a singular "protocolized" plan of therapy. Yet, by nature and by necessity, rehabilitation medicine operates as a functional model of "Personalized Care". Thus, the challenge for successful programs of translational rehabilitation care and research is to identify viable approaches to examine broad populations, with varied impairments and functional limitations, and to identify effective treatment responses that incorporate personalized protocols to optimize functional recovery. The Rehabilomics framework is a translational model that provides an "-omics" overlay to the scientific study of rehabilitation processes and multidimensional outcomes. Rehabilomics research provides novel opportunities to evaluate the neurobiology of complex injury or chronic disease and can be used to examine methods and treatments for person-centered care among populations with disabilities. Exemplars for application in SCI and other neurorehabilitation populations are discussed.

  13. The Two Voices of Alzheimer's: Attitudes toward Brain Health by Diagnosed Individuals and Support Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Renee L.; Fetterman, David J.; Wu, Bei; Bryant, Lucinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Most individuals with Alzheimer's are cared for in their homes by unpaid family members. Research on caregiving focuses disproportionally on costs of care, service utilization, and negative psychosocial outcomes. Few narrative accounts of Alzheimer's exist; those that do suffer similar pejorative framings and narrow foci. No studies that…

  14. Group Discussions and Test-Enhanced Learning: Individual Learning Outcomes and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions…

  15. Justification of CT for Individual Health Assessment of Asymptomatic Persons: A World Health Organization Consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, J.; Perez, M. Marza; Friberg, E.G.; Prokop, M.; Jung, S.E.; Griebel, J.; Ebdon-Jackson, S.

    2016-01-01

    An international expert consultation was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO). The purpose of the meeting was to review the use of CT in examining asymptomatic people. This is often referred to as individual health assessment (IHA). IHA was identified as a global phenomenon

  16. Intra-Individual Reaction Time Variability in Schizophrenia, Depression and Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefan; Roth, Alexander; Rentrop, Mirjam; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Bender, Stephan; Weisbrod, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Intra-individual reaction time variability (IIV) in neuropsychological task performance reflects short term fluctuations in performance. Increased IIV has been reported in patients with schizophrenia and could be related to a deficient neural timing mechanism, but the role of IIV in adult patients with other psychiatric disorders has not been…

  17. A lifestyle intervention program for successfully addressing major cardiometabolic risks in persons with SCI: a three-subject case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigford, Gregory E; Mendez, Armando J; Betancourt, Luisa; Burns-Drecq, Patricia; Backus, Deborah; Nash, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    This study is a prospective case series analyzing the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program in three patients with chronic paraplegia having major risks for the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). Individuals underwent an intense 6-month program of circuit resistance exercise, nutrition using a Mediterranean diet and behavioral support, followed by a 6-month extension (maintenance) phase involving minimal support. The primary goal was a 7% reduction of body mass. Other outcomes analyzed insulin resistance using the HOMA-IR model, and plasma levels of fasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. All participants achieved the goal for 7% reduction of body mass and maintained the loss after the MP. Improvements were observed in 2/3 subjects for HOMA-IR and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. All participants improved their risk for plasma triglycerides. We conclude, in a three-person case series of persons with chronic paraplegia, a lifestyle intervention program involving circuit resistance training, a calorie-restrictive Mediterranean-style diet and behavioral support, results in clinically significant loss of body mass and effectively reduced component risks for CMS and diabetes. These results were for the most part maintained after a 6-month MP involving minimal supervision.

  18. Personalized Proteome Profiles of Healthy and Tumor Human Colon Organoids Reveal Both Individual Diversity and Basic Features of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobal, Alba; van den Toorn, Henk W P; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2017-01-03

    Diseases at the molecular level are complex and patient dependent, necessitating development of strategies that enable precision treatment to optimize clinical outcomes. Organoid technology has recently been shown to have the potential to recapitulate the in vivo characteristics of the original individual's tissue in a three-dimensional in vitro culture system. Here, we present a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis and a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human colorectal tumor and healthy organoids derived, in parallel, from seven patients. Although gene and protein signatures can be derived to distinguish the tumor organoid population from healthy organoids, our data clearly reveal that each patient possesses a distinct organoid signature at the proteomic level. We demonstrate that a personalized patient-specific organoid proteome profile can be related to the diagnosis of a patient and with future development contribute to the generation of personalized therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experience of pleasure and emotional expression in individuals with schizotypal personality features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-fang Shi

    Full Text Available Difficulties in feeling pleasure and expressing emotions are one of the key features of schizophrenia spectrum conditions, and are significant contributors to constricted interpersonal interactions. The current study examined the experience of pleasure and emotional expression in college students who demonstrated high and low levels of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD traits on self-report questionnaires. One hundred and seventeen subjects with SPD traits and 116 comparison controls were recruited to participate. Cluster analyses conducted in the SPD group identified negative SPD and positive SPD subgroups. The negative SPD group exhibited deficient emotional expression and anticipatory pleasure, but showed intact consummatory pleasure. The positive SPD group reported significantly greater levels of anticipatory, consummatory and total pleasure compared to the control group. Both SPD groups reported significantly more problems in everyday memory and greater levels of depressive and anxiety-related symptoms.

  20. Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and ?Autistic? Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Alan C L Yu; Carissa Abrego-Collier; Morgan Sonderegger

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-...

  1. Goal pursuit in individuals with chronic pain: a personal project analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Crombez, Geert; Lauwerier, Emelien; Goubert, Liesbet; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In individuals with chronic pain (ICPs), controlling pain often is a salient goal, despite the difficulty to achieve it. This situation may bring along frustration and distress. Yet much remains unknown about the content, appraisal, and structure of goals that ICPs pursue. Here, we explore these goals, and specifically focus upon possible differences and interrelations between pain control goals (e.g., "to control my pain") and non-pain goals (e.g., "to go to work"). Design a...

  2. Consistent Individual Behavioral Variation: The Difference between Temperament, Personality and Behavioral Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. D. MacKay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethologists use a variety of terminology such as “personality”, “temperament” and “behavioral syndromes” almost interchangeably to discuss the phenomenon of individuals within a population of animals consistently varying from one another in their behavioral responses to stimuli. This interchangeable usage of terminology has contributed to confusion within the field of animal behavior and limits the study of the phenomenon. Here we use a rapid, non-exhaustive and repeatable search strategy literature review to investigate where there were unique distinctions between these three terms and where there was an overlap in their usage. We identified three main areas of confusion in terminology: historical usage which is not updated; a lack of precision between different fields of study; and a lack of precision between different levels of variation. We propose a framework with which to understand and define the terms based on the levels of variation ethologists are interested in. Consistent individual animal behavioral variation relates to the different structures of variation of between-individual/between-population and between and across contexts. By formalizing this framework we provide clarity between the three terms which can be easily defined and understood.

  3. 34 CFR 611.41 - Under what circumstances may an individual receive a scholarship of program funds to attend a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scholarship of program funds to attend a teacher training program? 611.41 Section 611.41 Education Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.41 Under what circumstances may an individual receive a scholarship of program funds to attend a teacher training program? (a...

  4. Towards personalized therapy for multiple sclerosis: prediction of individual treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalincik, Tomas; Manouchehrinia, Ali; Sobisek, Lukas; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Horakova, Dana; Havrdova, Eva; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Girard, Marc; Prat, Alexandre; Duquette, Pierre; Grammond, Pierre; Sola, Patrizia; Hupperts, Raymond; Grand'Maison, Francois; Pucci, Eugenio; Boz, Cavit; Alroughani, Raed; Van Pesch, Vincent; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Terzi, Murat; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Iuliano, Gerardo; Granella, Franco; Spitaleri, Daniele; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Slee, Mark; Ampapa, Radek; Verheul, Freek; McCombe, Pamela; Olascoaga, Javier; Amato, Maria Pia; Vucic, Steve; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Flechter, Shlomo; Cristiano, Edgardo; Rozsa, Csilla; Moore, Fraser; Luis Sanchez-Menoyo, Jose; Laura Saladino, Maria; Barnett, Michael; Hillert, Jan; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2017-09-01

    Timely initiation of effective therapy is crucial for preventing disability in multiple sclerosis; however, treatment response varies greatly among patients. Comprehensive predictive models of individual treatment response are lacking. Our aims were: (i) to develop predictive algorithms for individual treatment response using demographic, clinical and paraclinical predictors in patients with multiple sclerosis; and (ii) to evaluate accuracy, and internal and external validity of these algorithms. This study evaluated 27 demographic, clinical and paraclinical predictors of individual response to seven disease-modifying therapies in MSBase, a large global cohort study. Treatment response was analysed separately for disability progression, disability regression, relapse frequency, conversion to secondary progressive disease, change in the cumulative disease burden, and the probability of treatment discontinuation. Multivariable survival and generalized linear models were used, together with the principal component analysis to reduce model dimensionality and prevent overparameterization. Accuracy of the individual prediction was tested and its internal validity was evaluated in a separate, non-overlapping cohort. External validity was evaluated in a geographically distinct cohort, the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. In the training cohort (n = 8513), the most prominent modifiers of treatment response comprised age, disease duration, disease course, previous relapse activity, disability, predominant relapse phenotype and previous therapy. Importantly, the magnitude and direction of the associations varied among therapies and disease outcomes. Higher probability of disability progression during treatment with injectable therapies was predominantly associated with a greater disability at treatment start and the previous therapy. For fingolimod, natalizumab or mitoxantrone, it was mainly associated with lower pretreatment relapse activity. The probability of

  5. Going off Script: Structure and Agency in Individualized Education Program Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Laura E.; Russell, Jennifer Lin

    2016-01-01

    In this comparative case study, we draw from neoinstitutional and structuration theory to examine the individualized education program (IEP) meetings for five high school students identified with specific learning disabilities. Specifically, we examine how participants interacted during the IEP meetings and how learning, instruction, and…

  6. Compliance and Practices in Transition Planning: A Review of Individualized Education Program Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Leena Jo; Zhang, Dalun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which transition components of students’ Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) were compliant with IDEIA 2004; the extent to which transition components provided evidence of best practices; the association among disability, ethnicity, compliance, and practices; and the relationship between compliance and best…

  7. Individualized Health Incentive Program Modules for Physically Disabled Students in Grades Kindergarten Through Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggio, Kathryn D.

    Individualized health incentive program modules were developed for students having severe physical disabilities. Their needs fell into these categories: lack of function of the involuntary nervous system; paralysis or lack of feeling; bracing or confinement to a wheelchair; muscular weakness; arm and joint immobility; prosthetic limbs; brittle…

  8. 10 CFR 26.4 - FFD program applicability to categories of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....4 Section 26.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative... health and safety; (2) Performing health physics or chemistry duties required as a member of the onsite... entity, monitors the fitness of the individuals specified in paragraph (f) of this section; (4) Witnesses...

  9. 78 FR 39271 - Applications for New Awards; Educational Technology, Media, and Materials Program for Individuals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Technology: Providing assistive technology for students with disabilities. Theory Into Practice, 47(3), 212..., and Materials Program for Individuals with Disabilities--Center on Technology and Disability AGENCY... Disabilities--Center on Technology and Disability. Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year...

  10. JobTIPS: A Transition to Employment Program for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Dorothy C.; Coles, Claire D.; Southern, Louise B.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an internet accessed training program that included Theory of Mind-based guidance, video models, visual supports, and virtual reality practice sessions in teaching appropriate job interview skills to individuals with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. In a randomized study, twenty-two youth, ages…

  11. Metabolite profiling of obese individuals before and after a one year weight loss program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geidenstam, N; Al-Majdoub, M; Ekman, M

    2017-01-01

    (BMI) and metabolic risk traits. METHODS: Serum metabolites were analyzed with gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in 91 obese individuals at baseline and after participating in a 1 year non-surgical weight loss program.ResultsA total of 137 metabolites were identified and semi...

  12. Essay-Writing Strategy for Students Enrolled in a Postsecondary Program for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Therrien, William J.; Hua, Youjia; Hendrickson, Jo M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a writing (ANSWER) strategy to improve the essay test responses of students who were enrolled in a campus-based, postsecondary education program for individuals with developmental disabilities. Random assignment to treatment or control groups and a pre- and posttest design were employed. Students used the…

  13. Opinions of Prospective Classroom Teachers about Their Competence for Individualized Education Program (IEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbag, Murat

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the opinions of prospective classroom teachers about preparation and implementation of Individualized Education Program (IEP). In this study, a qualitative research method was used. The participants were 20 classroom-teaching students that had been selected through the purposive sampling method. In the study, the…

  14. Communities of practice : Finally a link between individual and organizational learning in management development programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ropes, D.C.; Thölke, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about helping human resource development professionals to understand how community of practice theory can inform the design of learning-based programs in order to link individual and organizational learning better. Learning is often considered a major contributor to the success or

  15. Communities of Practice : Finally a link between individual and organizational learning in management development programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jürg Thölke; Donald Ropes

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about helping human resource development professionals to understand how community of practice theory can inform the design of learning-based programs in order to link individual and organizational learning better. Learning is often considered a major contributor to the success or

  16. Functional Outcomes and Consumer Satisfaction in the Independent Living Program for Older Individuals Who Are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. Elton; Steinman, Bernard A.; Giesen, J. Martin; Frank, John J.

    2006-01-01

    This study of a national sample of elders served by the Independent Living Program for Older Individuals Who Are Blind found that, overall, they were highly satisfied with the quality and timeliness of services and help in achieving independent living goals. A slight improvement was found in their perceptions of functional outcomes from 1999 to…

  17. An Iceberg Model for Improving Mathematical Understanding and Mindset or Disposition: An Individualized Summer Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westensko, Arla; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Child, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This study describes 3 years of mathematics intervention research examining the effectiveness of a summer individualized tutoring program for rising fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students with low mathematics achievement. Based on an iceberg model of learning, an instructional framework was developed that identified and targeted students'…

  18. Knowledge, Communication, and Advocacy of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents at Individualized Education Program Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews using Cognitive Interview method techniques were conducted with nine Culturally and Linguistically Diverse parents of students with disabilities in this exploratory study. Parents recalled experiences asking questions and making advocacy statements at Individualized Education Program meetings. Four major findings were…

  19. The relationship between colonization resistance of the oral cavity and individual -typological characteristics of personality: dental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushanko, Tetiana A; Chereda, Viktoriia V; Loban', Galina A

    The present article deals with the role of the oral mucosa colonization resistance in the implementation of the influence of individual-typological characteristics of the individual susceptibility to caries and inflammatory periodontal diseases. to study the role of colonization resistance of the oral mucosa in the implementation of the influence of individual-typological characteristics of the individual susceptibility to caries and inflammatory periodontal diseases. The studies were conducted on 182 medical students 19-29 years old. All the examinees had a screening assessment of the oral mucosa colonization resistance by our own method, which received a patent UA 51373. It is shown that psychophysiological features of healthy individuals and patients with dental caries and gingivitis determine the level of resistance to caries and periodontal inflammatory diseases, deviation of personality profile towards high neuroticism is a risk factor for caries and gingivitis. It is reported that the highest resistance to caries and inflammatory periodontal disease had emotionally stable introverts, inflammatory periodontal disease are more common in emotionally unstable introverts. The authors found that oral colonization resistance is a predictor of the risk of caries and inflammatory periodontal diseases. Reducing of the oral cavity colonization resistance most commonly diagnosed in emotionally unstable introverts, that correlated with their low resistance to inflammatory periodontal diseases.

  20. EXAMINATION OF CONSTRAINTS ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAMS PARTICIPATION TO INDIVIDUALS WITH AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail AYDIN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine perceptions of constraints on physical activity participation among people with autism. This qualitative study was conducted on 9 different family of people with autism who participating in physical activity program. The data were collected by using semi - structured interview form. The literature review was done with the purpose of preparing the interview questions and creating conceptual framework. A semi - structured form was developed that consists of 7 items and 7 themes. The data were collected by using face to face interview methods. The descriptive analyses were used to analyze the collected data. The analysis indicated that the most important co nstraints were the economical factors on physical activity participation. The most important reason for this occurring was the lack of such programs in the public schools or in institutions. In addition to, this services carried by only the private sector was the other important factor that affected this reason. Analysis also revealed that central government policies of individuals with autism was insufficient for the participation in such programs in the state (government contact and also does not meet t heir needs. As a result, economic difficulties of individuals with autism to participate in physical activity programs was considered the most important constraints. However, it can be concluded that state (government policies were inadequate that in the social life of individuals with autism use their potential in educational activities that support participation in physical activity programs .

  1. THE EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT BAZED ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE INSTITUTE, SELF-ACTUALIZATION THE IDENTITY OF INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cherkasova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectineness of the enterprise depends on the level of development of the personality, the basis of institutes mainstream. The need for self-development self-actualization – the undamental property of the individual. The idea of self-development and self-fulfilment is extremely meaningful to many modern concepts of human. Relevance of institutions, reality, autonomy, image recognition values allons to speak on the need for development of the institutes mainststreaming in order to enhance its management.

  2. Balancing Social Responsibility and Personal Autonomy: Adolescents' Reasoning About Community Service Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Justin; Helwig, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Many jurisdictions in North America have implemented mandatory community service programs in high schools. However, little research exists examining the reasoning of youth themselves about such programs. This study examined how youth reason about community service programs, and how they balance the prosocial goals of these programs against their personal autonomy. Seventy-two participants between 10 and 18 years old evaluated voluntary community service along with 4 hypothetical mandatory programs that varied according to whether students or the government decided the areas in which students would serve, and whether a structured reflection component was included. The findings reveal that youth are not simply self-focused but rather balance and coordinate considerations of autonomy and community in their judgments and reasoning about community service.

  3. [Development of an adapted leisure education program for persons with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Hélène; Caron, Chantal D; Desrosiers, Johanne

    2009-06-01

    Leisure represents a positive way to keep relationships satisfactory between caregivers and a person with dementia. Adapted leisure education is a promising approach to assist the family to discover new ways to share good times with their relatives. This study aimed to develop an adapted leisure education program. It included an evaluation of the caregivers' needs, the program content development, and a pilot study to experiment with the content of the program. Three focus groups of dementia caregivers (n = 19) were conducted to investigate caregivers needs. Based on content analysis of these focus groups and a literature review, the content of the program was developed. The pilot study (n = 4) included a quasi-experimental trial and an implementation evaluation. This study led to the development of an adapted leisure education program that puts caregiver support in a new perspective, focusing on positive aspects rather than the burden of caregiving.

  4. Consistent Individual Behavioral Variation: The Difference between Temperament, Personality and Behavioral Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Jill R. D.; Haskell, Marie J.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The interchangeable usage of the words “personality”, “temperament” and “behavioral syndromes” in animal behavior research has often led to confusion. In this paper, we devise a framework for describing the behavioral phenomenon, betweenindividual/between-population variation, and between/across context variation. This framework can be used to give unique definitions of the three terms, supported by previous literature, giving clarity moving forward in the field of animal behavior. Abstract Ethologists use a variety of terminology such as “personality”, “temperament” and “behavioral syndromes” almost interchangeably to discuss the phenomenon of individuals within a population of animals consistently varying from one another in their behavioral responses to stimuli. This interchangeable usage of terminology has contributed to confusion within the field of animal behavior and limits the study of the phenomenon. Here we use a rapid, non-exhaustive and repeatable search strategy literature review to investigate where there were unique distinctions between these three terms and where there was an overlap in their usage. We identified three main areas of confusion in terminology: historical usage which is not updated; a lack of precision between different fields of study; and a lack of precision between different levels of variation. We propose a framework with which to understand and define the terms based on the levels of variation ethologists are interested in. Consistent individual animal behavioral variation relates to the different structures of variation of between-individual/between-population and between and across contexts. By formalizing this framework we provide clarity between the three terms which can be easily defined and understood. PMID:26479368

  5. Tracking down a solution: exploring the acceptability and value of wearable GPS devices for older persons, individuals with a disability and their support persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Brittany; Aplin, Tammy; de Jonge, Desleigh; Goyne, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    To explore the acceptability and value of three wearable GPS devices for older persons and individuals with a disability and safety concerns when accessing the community. This pilot study explored six wearers' and their support persons' experience of using three different wearable GPS devices (a pendant, watch, and mini GPS phone), each for a two-week period. Participants identified safety as the main value of using a wearable GPS device. The acceptability and value of these devices was strongly influenced by device features, ease of use, cost, appearance, the reliability of the GPS coordinates, the wearer's health condition and the users familiarity with technology. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred the pendant. Wearable GPS devices are potentially useful in providing individuals who have safety concerns with reassurance and access to assistance as required. To ensure successful utilization, future device design and device selection should consider the user's familiarity with technology and their health condition. This study also revealed that not all wearable GPS devices provide continuous location tracking. It is therefore critical to ensure that the device's location tracking functions address the wearer's requirements and reason for using the device. Implications for Rehabilitation The acceptability and usability of wearable GPS devices is strongly influenced by the device features, ease of use, cost, appearance, the reliability of the device to provide accurate and timely GPS coordinates, as well as the health condition of the wearer and their familiarity with technology. Wearable GPS devices need to be simple to use and support and training is essential to ensure they are successfully utilized. Not all wearable GPS devices provide continuous location tracking and accuracy of location is impacted by line of sight to satellites. Therefore, care needs to be taken when choosing a suitable device, to ensure that the device's location tracking

  6. Individualized Music Program is Associated with Improved Outcomes for U.S. Nursing Home Residents with Dementia.

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    Thomas, Kali S; Baier, Rosa; Kosar, Cyrus; Ogarek, Jessica; Trepman, Alissa; Mor, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare resident outcomes before and after implementation of an individualized music program, MUSIC & MEMORY (M&M), designed to address the behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with dementia (BPSD). 98 nursing homes trained in the M&M program during 2013 and 98 matched-pair comparisons. Long-stay residents with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) residing in M&M participating facilities (N = 12,905) and comparison facilities (N = 12,811) during 2012-2013. M&M is a facility-level quality improvement program that provides residents with music specific to their personal histories and preferences. Discontinuation of anxiolytic and antipsychotic medications, and reductions in behavioral problems and depressed mood in 2012 (pre-intervention) and 2013 (intervention), calculated using Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments. The proportion of residents who discontinued antipsychotic medication use over a 6-month period increased from 17.6% to 20.1% among M&M facilities, while remaining stable among comparison facilities (15.9% to 15.2%). The same trend was observed for anxiolytic medications: Discontinuation of anxiolytics increased in M&M facilities (23.5% to 24.4%), while decreasing among comparison facilities (24.8% to 20.0%). M&M facilities also demonstrated increased rates of reduction in behavioral problems (50.9% to 56.5%) versus comparison facilities (55.8% to 55.9%). No differences were observed for depressed mood. These results offer the first evidence that the M&M individualized music program is associated with reductions in antipsychotic medication use, anxiolytic medication use, and BPSD symptoms among long-stay nursing home residents with ADRD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. An individual rehabilitation program: evaluation by Parkinsonian patients and their physiotherapists.

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    Ory Magne, F; Fabre, N; Gu, C; Pastorelli, C; Tardez, S; Marchat, J-C; Marque, P; Brefel Courbon, C

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of an individual Parkinson disease (PD) rehabilitation program based on each patient's prevalent symptoms and to determine the effects of this program on patient's quality of life as well as the level of patient's and physiotherapist's satisfaction with the program. In association with physiotherapists with expertise in PD, a physical medicine and rehabilitation physician, we elaborated a physical therapy program based on the core areas for physical therapy in PD: transfers; posture; balance and falls; physical capacity and inactivity. Within this program, we selected exercises tailored to each patient's main impairment and proposed this selection to their local physiotherapist for three months. Quality of life was evaluated with PDQ-39 at baseline and after three months of the individualized physical therapy program. We built an anonymous satisfaction questionnaire for patients and physiotherapists that was filled out at the end of the program. One hundred and three individuals with moderately advanced but clinically stable idiopathic PD were included. Significant improvement was found for the emotional well-being, bodily discomfort and stigma domain (P ≤ 0.05). No significant improvement was found for the other PDQ-39 domains. The mean global satisfaction figures for this program were 6.0 ± 2.4 and 7.2 ± 2.1 for patients and physiotherapists respectively. Most of the patients felt improved by the physiotherapy program and especially for transfer, balance, gait, and mobility. Our study found evidence of the potential benefits of a patient-tailored physiotherapy program. Such a program was feasible and had a favorable impact on patients' quality of life and on physiotherapists' practices for PD patients. Specific physiotherapy may be effective to limit physical mobility impairment. Our results also pointed out that physiotherapy may be efficient to confine the negative impact of social isolation, pain and

  8. Personality traits and thinking dispositions: Individual differences call for 'smart' messaging.

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    Medders, Lorilee A; Baisley, Sarah K

    2017-06-01

    This paper reveals potentially innate psychological differences to explain differing responses to the same information that cannot be explained by personal circumstances, such as age, financial situation and physical constraints. The study examines three well-known cognitive, psychological constructs as measures of these innate differences: cognitive reflection, need for cognitive closure and psychological function preferences. The data reveal who innately: (1) makes the best decisions without full information; (2) is the most/least receptive to simple, instructive messages; and (3) is the most credible information intermediary. According to the findings, those who tend to make the best decisions under normal circumstances using uncertain or incomplete information may be the least receptive to the simple, instructive message approach frequently used in emergency preparedness. Furthermore, those who make the best information intermediaries are most likely a subset of this same group - those who respond well to an abundance of information and do not respond well to the concise directive. Nevertheless, once a deadline (or immediate crisis) approaches, people increase in their need to 'decide something', and generally all become more receptive to simple, instructive messages than they may be under normal circumstances (no immediate crisis).These findings are particularly important for business continuity and emergency management communications in promoting optimal emergency preparedness and response.

  9. Negative Affect Instability among Individuals with Comorbid Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiderer, Emily M.; Wang, Ting; Tomko, Rachel L.; Wood, Phillip K.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Stone & Shiffman, 1994) was utilized to examine affective instability (AI) in the daily lives of outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n=78) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A psychiatric control group (n=50) composed of outpatients with major depressive disorder/dysthymia (MDD/DYS) was employed to compare across subgroups: BPD-only, BPD+PTSD, MDD/DYS-only, and MDD/DYS+PTSD. Compared to the BPD-only group, the BPD+PTSD group had significantly greater instability of fear and sadness, but did not significantly differ in instability of hostility or aggregate negative affect. This pattern of elevated instability of fear and sadness was not present—and, in fact, was reversed—in the MDD/DYS group. Results emphasize the importance of examining AI within the context of specific comorbidities and affect types. Treatment and research addressing AI in the context of BPD-PTSD comorbidity may benefit from a focus on fear and sadness as separate from hostility or general negative affect. PMID:26904388

  10. Personality correlates of individual differences in the recruitment of cognitive mechanisms when rewards are at stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Allan J; Long, Laura J; Woodman, Geoffrey F; Zald, David H

    2018-02-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their sensitivity to rewards and punishments. In the extreme, these differences are implicated in a range of psychiatric disorders from addiction to depression. However, it is unclear how these differences influence the recruitment of attention, working memory, and long-term memory when responding to potential rewards. Here, we used a rewarded memory-guided visual search task and ERPs to examine the influence of individual differences in self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity, as measured by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Activation System (BAS) scales, on the recruitment of cognitive mechanisms in conditions of potential reward. Select subscales of the BAS, including the fun seeking and reward responsiveness scales, showed unique relationships with context updating to reward cues and working memory maintenance of potentially rewarded stimuli. In contrast, BIS scores showed unique relationships with deployment of attention at different points in the task. These results suggest that sensitivity to rewards (i.e., BAS) and to punishment (i.e., BIS) may play an important role in the recruitment of specific and distinct cognitive mechanisms in conditions of potential rewards. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Mutz, Julian; Clough, Peter J; Papageorgiou, Kostas A

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a 'mental toughness advantage' with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings.

  12. The Master's program in Advanced Optical Technologies: an interdisciplinary, international and individual approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großmann, Jürgen; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2017-08-01

    The Master's Program in Advanced Optical Technologies (MAOT) was established at the Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg in 2007 as part of the Elite Network of Bavaria (ENB), an initiative by the Bavarian State Government comprising about 40 elite Master's programs and doctoral programs. MAOT can be studied after a Bachelor in physics or an engineering subject. The Master's program realizes an innovative concept combining three core elements: (1) Interdisciplinarity: The program integrates courses and researchers from five engineering subjects and from physics. The degree of interdisciplinarity goes far beyond traditional programs. (2) Internationality: The program is taught entirely in English and special support is given to international students. (3). Individuality: The course curriculum was adapted at several points based on the experience in the initial years. The same is true for the way in which international students are supported and the type of support they need. The students are given an unusually high degree of freedom to develop an individual curriculum and to pursue research projects. Crucial experience and lessons learned are: (1) Lecturers and researchers have to be coordinated and the perspectives of the different disciplines have to be integrated within one program. Students must be guided in order to deal with the demands and challenges of the different disciplines. (2) International students need support with settling in Germany and with learning and working in a German cultural environment. They need support with administrative issues. Furthermore, they need to analyze and understand cultural differences and how they impact on the cooperation between lecturers and students and on the work in research groups. (3) Students must be helped to develop their own curriculum. They must learn how to combine their first-degree qualification with the specialized qualification which they gain after completing their Master's program. They

  13. Effect of the California tobacco control program on personal health care expenditures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Lightwood

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Large state tobacco control programs have been shown to reduce smoking and would be expected to affect health care costs. We investigate the effect of California's large-scale tobacco control program on aggregate personal health care expenditures in the state.Cointegrating regressions were used to predict (1 the difference in per capita cigarette consumption between California and 38 control states as a function of the difference in cumulative expenditures of the California and control state tobacco control programs, and (2 the relationship between the difference in cigarette consumption and the difference in per capita personal health expenditures between the control states and California between 1980 and 2004. Between 1989 (when it started and 2004, the California program was associated with $86 billion (2004 US dollars (95% confidence interval [CI] $28 billion to $151 billion lower health care expenditures than would have been expected without the program. This reduction grew over time, reaching 7.3% (95% CI 2.7%-12.1% of total health care expenditures in 2004.A strong tobacco control program is not only associated with reduced smoking, but also with reductions in health care expenditures.

  14. Self-efficacy and health status improve after a wellness program in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alexander; Kennedy, Patricia; Hutchinson, Brian; Ingram, Anna; Vondrell, Suzanne; Goodman, Terri; Miller, Deborah

    2013-06-01

    To determine if an intensive wellness program for persons with MS results in improved self-efficacy, quality of life (QOL), or physical activity outcomes. 129 subjects participated in one of seven 4-day interdisciplinary educational wellness programs throughout the United States. This intervention was based on the philosophy that health management is important to disease management. The program consisted of psychological and physiological evaluations, lectures and workshops. Before the intervention and after at 1, 3 and 6 months, self-efficacy (MS Self-Efficacy Scale, MSSE, control), health related QOL (SF-36) and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for Persons with Physical Disabilities, PASAID) was assessed. Improvements were noted at 1, 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Those present at 6 months included, MSSE, role physical, vitality and mental health scales of the SF-36. PASAID did not change. Improvements were independent of disability (EDSS). A 4-day multidisciplinary educational wellness program can result in improvement in self-efficacy and health-related QOL in persons with MS and can be stable up to at least 6 months. Improvements do not depend on degree of disability.

  15. Prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHONG, Baoliang; XIANG, Yutao; CAO, Xiaolan; LI, Yan; ZHU, Junhong; CHIU, Helen F. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiction who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treating substance abuse problems. Aim Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. Methods We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R software. Results The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. The pooled lifetime prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30% (95%CI: 23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I2 =95%, p<0.001). Men had a higher prevalence than women (44% vs. 21%), and injection heroin users had higher prevalence than those who smoked heroin (44% vs. 27%). Studies that were methodologically stronger had higher reported prevalence of ASPD among heroin dependent individuals. Conclusions There are substantial methodological problems in the available literature about ASPD in Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence, but we estimate that about one-third of them meet criteria for ASPD. Further work is needed to increase clinicians

  16. Personalized Media: A Genetically Informative Investigation of Individual Differences in Online Media Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorech, Ziada; von Stumm, Sophie; Haworth, Claire M A; Davis, Oliver S P; Plomin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Online media use has become an increasingly important behavioral domain over the past decade. However, studies into the etiology of individual differences in media use have focused primarily on pathological use. Here, for the first time, we test the genetic influences on online media use in a UK representative sample of 16 year old twins, who were assessed on time spent on educational (N = 2,585 twin pairs) and entertainment websites (N = 2,614 twin pairs), time spent gaming online (N = 2,635 twin pairs), and Facebook use (N = 4,333 twin pairs). Heritability was substantial for all forms of online media use, ranging from 34% for educational sites to 37% for entertainment sites and 39% for gaming. Furthermore, genetics accounted for 24% of the variance in Facebook use. Our results support an active model of the environment, where young people choose their online engagements in line with their genetic propensities.

  17. The Relationship between Aggression and Serum Thyroid Hormone Level in Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrensel, Alper; Ünsalver, Barış Önen; Özşahin, Aytekin

    2016-06-01

    Aggression is one of the leading clinical characteristics of antisocial personality disorder (APD). Studies aiming to clarify and control the biological basis of aggression are ongoing. Thyroid hormones have been indicated to play a role in the development of aggression. The aim of this study was to examine the level of aggression and serum thyroid hormone in a sample of APD and to make contributions to this field with the current findings. The sample consisted of 96 subjects with a diagnosis of APD and 97 subjects as a control group. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis (SCID) 1 and 2 were used for the diagnosis, and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was administered. Based on criminal patterns, the APD group was then divided into two subgroups: "criminal" and "noncriminal" APD groups. The day after the interview, after one night of fasting, blood was collected from the subjects between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m.. Thyroid function tests and other biochemical analyses related to the confounding variables were also administered. The study group and the control group were compared in terms of their aggression scores and thyroid hormone levels. The mean score of free T3 level in the criminal APD group was found to be significantly higher than that in the noncriminal APD group. APD subjects with higher free T3 levels also had higher aggression scores. In the noncriminal APD group, as serum free T3 and T4 levels increased, there was also an increment in the aggression scores. However, in the criminal APD group, there was no significant correlation between thyroid hormone levels and aggression. The findings of this study indicated that criminal and noncriminal APD groups actually show different properties.

  18. Exploring individual differences in task switching: Persistence and other personality traits related to anterior cingulate cortex function.

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    Umemoto, A; Holroyd, C B

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in cognitive control and decision-making but its precise function is still highly debated. Based on evidence from lesion, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, we have recently proposed a critical role for ACC in motivating extended behaviors according to learned task values (Holroyd and Yeung, 2012). Computational simulations based on this theory suggest a hierarchical mechanism in which a caudal division of ACC selects and applies control over task execution, and a rostral division of ACC facilitates switches between tasks according to a higher task strategy (Holroyd and McClure, 2015). This theoretical framework suggests that ACC may contribute to personality traits related to persistence and reward sensitivity (Holroyd and Umemoto, 2016). To explore this possibility, we carried out a voluntary task switching experiment in which on each trial participants freely chose one of two tasks to perform, under the condition that they try to select the tasks "at random" and equally often. The participants also completed several questionnaires that assessed personality trait related to persistence, apathy, anhedonia, and rumination, in addition to the Big 5 personality inventory. Among other findings, we observed greater compliance with task instructions by persistent individuals, as manifested by a greater facility with switching between tasks, which is suggestive of increased engagement of rostral ACC. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitudes toward gay and lesbian individuals in Russia: An exploration of the interpersonal contact hypothesis and personality factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon G. Horne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Negative attitudes toward Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual people in Russia are common, and may have become more prevalent due to recent policy changes. Objective. This study explored whether interpersonal contact and personality characteristics predicted Hateful Attitudes Toward GLB people and Endorsement of GLB Rights. Design. The design of the study included 154 heterosexual undergraduate students in Moscow and Volgodonsk who were surveyed about their attitudes toward GLB people as well as their personality characteristics assessed with the NEO-FFI. Results. Results suggested that Moscow students held less hateful attitudes and endorsed greater GLB Rights than Volgodonsk students. Women were also more favorable toward GLB Rights than men. In terms of Hateful Attitudes, having GLB friends or acquaintances was a negative predictor of Hateful Attitudes, while neuroticism and conscientiousness were positive predictors. In conclusion, living in a large urban area, knowing GLB individuals, and low levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness appear to be associated with positive attitudes toward GLB people in Russia, however, personality characteristics and knowing GLB people did not appear to relate to endorsement of GLB Civil Rights. Conclusion. Current sociopolitical policies such as the propaganda ban, and historical censure of GLB rights during the Soviet era, may impact how “out” GLB Russian people can be, particularly outside of large urban centers, and may reinforce general lack of support for GLB Civil Rights in the Russian population.

  20. Toward Independence: An Assessment of Federal Laws and Programs Affecting Persons with Disabilities--with Legislative Recommendations. A Report to the President and to the Congress of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This report reviews federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities and assesses the extent to which they: provide incentives or disincentives to the establishment of community-based services for handicapped individuals; promote the full integration of such individuals in the community, in schools, and in the workplace; and…

  1. Helping War Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Incarcerated Individuals' Role in Therapeutic Animal Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Gennifer

    2016-05-01

    A grassroots movement of nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations is creating programs in which incarcerated individuals train rescued shelter dogs as therapeutic canines for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Driven in part by reports of Veterans not receiving adequate treatment for PTSD, the programs are the latest iteration of prison-based animal programs and are founded on the principles of animal therapy and healing powers of animals. The far-reaching and deleterious collateral consequences of PTSD create social and economic burdens on the country; providing beneficial interventions for Veterans is a pressing social problem. Without oversight, a patchwork of agencies has developed that provides Veterans with dogs with varying levels of training and differing abilities. To best serve the needs of Veterans, the programs need regulation and standardized methods of training. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(5), 49-57.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Happy facial expression processing with different social interaction cues: an fMRI study of individuals with schizotypal personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Wang, Yi; Jin, Zhen; Di, Xin; Yang, Tao; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Shum, David H K; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2013-07-01

    In daily life facial expressions change rapidly and the direction of change provides important clues about social interaction. The aim of conducting this study was to elucidate the dynamic happy facial expression processing with different social interaction cues in individuals with (n=14) and without (n=14) schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) traits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), dynamic happy facial expression processing was examined by presenting video clips depicting happiness appearing and disappearing under happiness inducing ('praise') or reducing ('blame') interaction cues. The happiness appearing condition consistently elicited more brain activations than the happiness disappearing condition in the posterior cingulate bilaterally in all participants. Further analyses showed that the SPD group was less deactivated than the non-SPD group in the right anterior cingulate cortex in the happiness appearing-disappearing contrast. The SPD group deactivated more than the non-SPD group in the left posterior cingulate and right superior temporal gyrus in the praise-blame contrast. Moreover, the incongruence of cues and facial expression activated the frontal-thalamus-caudate-parietal network, which is involved in emotion recognition and conflict resolution. These results shed light on the neural basis of social interaction deficits in individuals with schizotypal personality traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioral variability and consistency: Experimental bases for a psychological theory of personality (Variabilidad y Consistencia individual: Bases experimentales de la teoría de la personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Santacreu Mas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain how and why individual differences emerge despite accounting for biological andsocio-cultural differences, why people behave differently in the same context, and how behavior becomes stable and consistent. We review the experimental work on variability and stereotypy. In animal research, in contrast to expectations, there is interindividual variability in behavior under extreme environmental control. In addition, intraindividual consistency (stereotypy is detected in animals whose behavior is not fully adjusted to the contingencies. The differences in what is learned (the kind of contingency relations among laboratory animals can be explained by: a the differences between effective contingencies and programmed contingencies, and b the relationship between exploration and rate of reinforcement. In experimental studies in humans, learning differences in identical environments depend, further to the above, onwhat was previously learned by the individual (experience and education and the thoroughness and internal consistency of task instructions. From these concepts, we propose a psychological theory of personality that explains: (a how we learn different relationships from the same experience; (b how behavioral individual differences emerge (variability; and (cwhy each individual’s behavior becomes stable and consistent.

  4. The immediate effect of individual manipulation techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Donald R; Johnson, Jane C; Baer, Robert W; Snider, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of manipulation has long been advocated in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few randomized controlled clinical trials have measured the effect of manipulation on pulmonary function. In addition, the effects of individual manipulative techniques on the pulmonary system are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of four osteopathic techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with COPD relative to a minimal-touch control protocol. Methods Persons with COPD aged 50 and over were recruited for the study. Subjects received five, single-technique treatment sessions: minimal-touch control, thoracic lymphatic pump (TLP) with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release. There was a 4-week washout period between sessions. Protocols were given in random order until all five techniques had been administered. Pulmonary function measures were obtained at baseline and 30-minutes posttreatment. For the actual pulmonary function measures and percent predicted values, Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to test within-technique changes from baseline. For the percent change from baseline, Friedman tests were used to test for between-technique differences. Results Twenty-five subjects were enrolled in the study. All four tested osteopathic techniques were associated with adverse posttreatment changes in pulmonary function measures; however, different techniques changed different measures. TLP with activation increased posttreatment residual volume compared to baseline, while TLP without activation did not. Side effects were mild, mostly posttreatment chest wall soreness. Surprisingly, the majority of subjects believed they could breathe better after receiving osteopathic manipulation. Conclusion In persons with COPD, TLP with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release mildly worsened pulmonary function measures

  5. A Data Quality Control Program for Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Squires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers strive to optimize data quality in order to ensure that study findings are valid and reliable. In this paper, we describe a data quality control program designed to maximize quality of survey data collected using computer-assisted personal interviews. The quality control program comprised three phases: (1 software development, (2 an interviewer quality control protocol, and (3 a data cleaning and processing protocol. To illustrate the value of the program, we assess its use in the Translating Research in Elder Care Study. We utilize data collected annually for two years from computer-assisted personal interviews with 3004 healthcare aides. Data quality was assessed using both survey and process data. Missing data and data errors were minimal. Mean and median values and standard deviations were within acceptable limits. Process data indicated that in only 3.4% and 4.0% of cases was the interviewer unable to conduct interviews in accordance with the details of the program. Interviewers’ perceptions of interview quality also significantly improved between Years 1 and 2. While this data quality control program was demanding in terms of time and resources, we found that the benefits clearly outweighed the effort required to achieve high-quality data.

  6. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-07-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

  7. Program Use and Outcome Change in a Web-Based Trauma Intervention: Individual and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyun; Wang, Jianping; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-09-09

    Insight into user adherence to Web-based intervention programs and into its relationship to intervention effect is needed. The objective of this study was to examine use of a Web-based self-help intervention program, the Chinese version of My Trauma Recovery (CMTR), among Chinese traumatized individuals, and to investigate the relationship between program use and user characteristics before the intervention and change in outcomes after the intervention and at 3-months' follow-up. The sample consisted of 56 urban survivors of different trauma types and 90 rural survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, who used the CMTR in 1 month on their own or guided by volunteers in a counseling center. Predictors were demographics (sex, age, highest education, marital status, and annual family income), health problems (trauma duration, posttraumatic symptoms, and depression), psychological factors (coping self-efficacy), and social factors (social functioning impairment and social support). Program use was assessed by general program usage (eg, number of visiting days) and program adherence (eg, webpages completed in modules). Outcome measures were the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS), Symptom Checklist 90-Depression (SCL-D), Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy scale (CSE), Crisis Support Scale (CSS), and Social Functioning Impairment questionnaire (SFI) adopted from the CMTR. (1) Program use: rural participants had a larger total number of visiting days (F1,144=40.50, Psocial factors at pretest. (3) Program use and outcomes change: in general, use of the triggers and self-talk modules showed a consistent positive association with improvement in PDS, SCL-D, SFI, and CSE. The relaxation module was associated with positive change in PDS, but with negative change in CSS and SFI. The professional help module was associated with positive change in SCL-D, but its use on the first day was associated with negative change in CSS and CSE. The unhelpful coping module was associated with

  8. Person-Oriented Organization of Academic Process – the Way of Genuine Flexibility and Individualization of Educational Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Sazonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the necessity for Russian universities to switch over from the conservative stream-group scheduling to progressive individual scheduling of educational process where each particular student becomes an object of planning and implementing the higher educational curricula. The new liberal student- centered form called the «credit system» or in Russian variant the «credit units system» brings forward the students interests and rights. Gradually, such system tends to prevail in the world environment of vocational education, though in Russian higher school it still exist as an experiment and is not fast adopted. The prevailing stream-group model of educational process with steady group division throughout the whole academic period indicates our serious technological lagging behind the leaders of the world educational market. Rejection of traditional stream-group educational model and steady group formation brings about new opportunities for Russian universities providing real flexibility and individualization of educational curricula, giving students the option for individual term planning and scheduling, as well as the right for choosing teachers. Combining the modern approach to students’ assessment and person-oriented organization of academic process, the complete mass adoption of the model in question in bachelor and specialists training can guarantee a qualitative leap in developing Russian higher educational system. 

  9. Explaining Entrepreneurial Status and Success from Personality: An Individual-Level Application of the Entrepreneurial Orientation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Vantilborgh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial orientation is defined as an organization’s strategy, describing its innovativeness, proactivity, risk taking, autonomy and competitiveness. We argue that this concept can be translated to the individual level as a constellation of five personality traits that characterize entrepreneurs. We examine the usefulness of these five traits in explaining entrepreneurial status and success. Our results show that entrepreneurs score higher than non-entrepreneurs on innovativeness, proactivity, and risk taking. In addition, latent growth curve modeling revealed that the individual EO traits were related to objective venture performance, albeit only after introducing venture life cycle as a moderator. In line with a differentiation perspective, risk taking, innovativeness, need for achievement, and need for autonomy were positively related to revenue and number of employees when venture life cycle was high. In line with a situation strength perspective, need for autonomy was positively related with growth in number of employees when venture life cycle was low. We conclude that individual entrepreneurial orientation offers a useful framework to understanding entrepreneurship once situational factors, such as venture life cycle, are taken into consideration.

  10. A longitudinal study of personality disorders in individuals with and without a history of developmental language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally developmental language disorders (DLDs) have been studied with focus on psycholinguistic and cognitive implications, and little is known of the long-term psychosocial outcomes of individuals diagnosed with a DLD as children. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence rates and types of personality disorders (PDs) in a clinical sample of 469 individuals diagnosed as children with DLD, with PDs in 2,345 matched controls from the general population without a known history of DLD, using data from the nation-wide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The average observation time was 34.7 years, and mean age at follow-up was 35.8 years. Of the 469 individuals with DLD, 23 (4.9%) were known in DPCR with a PD diagnosis, compared with 51/2,345 (2.2%) in the control group (P =0.0007). Variables at assessment in childhood (gender, IQ, presence of a receptive language disorder, and degree of receptive and expressive language disorder) were not associated with a PD diagnosis in the DPCR at follow-up. Our results provide additional support to the notion that DLD is a marker of increased vulnerability to the development of a PD in adulthood and emphasizes that more research is needed to understand the links between a diagnosis of DLD in childhood and a PD in adult years.

  11. What I experienced yesterday is who I am today: relationship of work motivations and behaviors to within-individual variation in the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Simon, Lauren S; Hurst, Charlice; Kelley, Ken

    2014-03-01

    Historically, organizational and personality psychologists have ignored within-individual variation in personality across situations or have treated it as measurement error. However, we conducted a 10-day experience sampling study consistent with whole trait theory (Fleeson, 2012), which conceptualizes personality as a system of stable tendencies and patterns of intraindividual variation along the dimensions of the Big Five personality traits (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The study examined whether (a) internal events (i.e., motivation), performance episodes, and interpersonal experiences at work predict deviations from central tendencies in trait-relevant behavior, affect, and cognition (i.e., state personality), and (b) there are individual differences in responsiveness to work experiences. Results revealed that personality at work exhibited both stability and variation within individuals. Trait measures predicted average levels of trait manifestation in daily behavior at work, whereas daily work experiences (i.e., organizational citizenship, interpersonal conflict, and motivation) predicted deviations from baseline tendencies. Additionally, correlations of neuroticism with standard deviations in the daily personality variables suggest that, although work experiences influence state personality, people higher in neuroticism exhibit higher levels of intraindividual variation in personality than do those who are more emotionally stable.

  12. The Effects of Individualized Resistance Strength Programs on Knee Muscular Imbalances in Junior Elite Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwowski, Robert; Jadczak, Łukasz; Hejna, Rafał; Wieczorek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program on the muscular strength of soccer players’ knees that initially presented unilateral and bilateral differences. For this study, a team of 24 male well-trained junior soccer players was divided into two strength program training groups: a Resistance Training Control Group (RTCG) composed of 10 players that did not have muscular imbalances and a Resistance Training Experimental Group (RTEG) composed of 14 players that had muscular imbalances. All players followed a resistance training program for six weeks, two times per week, during the transition period. The program of individualized strength training consisted of two parts. The first part, which was identical in terms of the choice of training loads, was intended for both training groups and contained two series of exercises including upper and lower body exercises. The second part of the program was intended only for RTEG and consisted of two additional series for the groups of muscles that had identified unilateral and bilateral differences. The applied program showed various directions in the isokinetic profile of changes. In the case of RTCG, the adaptations related mainly to the quadriceps muscle (the peak torque (PT) change for the dominant leg was statistically significant (p soccer players. PMID:26630271

  13. Individualized Education Program (IEP Mata Pelajaran Kimia untuk Siswa Slow Learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovik Rovik

    2017-06-01

    [Siswa slow learner menempati populasi tertinggi untuk siswa berkebutuhan khusus. Sebagai salah satu jenis learning disability, slow learner masih dapat belajar dengan teman sebayanya asalkan guru mempersiapkan program pembelajaran khusus yang telah dimodifikasi dari pembelajaran reguler. Program ini disebut Individualized Education Program (IEP. Penelitian ini mencoba mengembangkan IEP mata pelajaran kimia untuk slow learner, mengidentifikasi komponen yang dibutuhkan dalam menyusun IEP untuk slow learner, dan menganalisis judgement reviewers (guru kimia dan guru pendamping khusus dan peer reviewers terhadap IEP yang dikembangkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan slow learner membutuhkan IEP sebagai dokumen utama panduan guru dalam pembelajaran kimia di kelas. Komponen pengembangan IEP meliputi identitas peserta didik, tim pengembangan dan pelaksana, asesmen yang pernah dilakukan, hambatan dan kekuatan, kebutuhan dan perlakuan, faktor pendukung dan penghambat, rencana perlakuan, dan modifikasi terhadap perangkat pembelajaran kimia reguler

  14. Effects of a Statewide Tobacco Cessation Program Among Individuals Involved With Arkansas Community Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver-Apgar, Christine; Young, Susan; Howard, Brenda; Udochi, Ben; Morris, Chad

    2017-07-01

    In response to a critical need for tobacco cessation services among justice-involved populations, Arkansas Community Correction (ACC) partnered with the University of Colorado's Behavioral Health & Wellness Program in 2013 to implement the DIMENSIONS: Tobacco Free Program within all probation, parole, and drug court units. In the first 2 years of this statewide, evidence-based program, more than 1,100 individuals from 33 ACC area office locations attended tobacco-free group sessions and provided data on tobacco use and readiness to quit. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in tobacco use among participants as well as increased knowledge, confidence, and intent to quit. This study provides some of the first evidence that members of this vulnerable population will attend tobacco-free group sessions with regularity and make progress toward tobacco cessation.

  15. Effects of an exercise program in individuals with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Zanini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low back pain is a major cause of medical appointments, work disability and hospitalization. Aim: To measure changes in back pain scores and spinal functional capacity in individuals with low back pain after an exercise program. Methods: Non-randomized controlled trial of 40 participants (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. Patients from both groups were evaluated before and after the program. The program consisted of flexibility training using joint mobilization and stretching exercises for the upper and lower limbs and back, as well as strength training for the abdominal muscles and hamstrings. Participants in the control group did not receive any exercise-related interventions, only medical care. Results: the experimental group showed significant improvements in pain score (P

  16. Stem analysis program (GOAP for evaluating of increment and growth data at individual tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafura Aylak Özdemir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem analysis is a method evaluating in a detailed way data of increment and growth of individual tree at the past periods and widely used in various forestry disciplines. Untreated data of stem analysis consist of annual ring count and measurement procedures performed on cross sections taken from individual tree by section method. The evaluation of obtained this untreated data takes quite some time. Thus, a computer software was developed in this study to quickly and efficiently perform stem analysis. This computer software developed to evaluate untreated data of stem analysis as numerical and graphical was programmed as macro by utilizing Visual Basic for Application feature of MS Excel 2013 program currently the most widely used. In developed this computer software, growth height model is formed from two different approaches, individual tree volume depending on section method, cross-sectional area, increments of diameter, height and volume, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height are calculated depending on desired period lengths. This calculated values are given as table. Development of diameter, height, volume, increments of these variables, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height according to periodic age are given as chart. Stem model showing development of diameter, height and shape of individual tree in the past periods also can be taken from computer software as chart.

  17. The prevalence of DSM-IV personality pathology among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, PV; Van Furth, EF; Lacey, JH; Waller, G

    2003-01-01

    Background. There are numerous reports of personality disorder pathology in different eating disorders. However, few studies have directly compared personality pathology in bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity. The present study examines group differences in DSM-IV personality

  18. How Physician Assistant Programs Use the CASPA Personal Statement in Their Admissions Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, John E; Badur, Michalina; Weis, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    This research surveyed physician assistant (PA) program admissions personnel to determine how the Central Application Service for Physician Assistants (CASPA) personal statements are used, what influence the statements had on certain admissions processes, whether there was any concern about authorship of the statements, and how important certain previously identified content themes were to admissions committees and personnel. The PA programs participating in CASPA were contacted and interviewed using a computer-assisted telephone interview system. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions related to the usefulness of the personal statement and asked to score certain items using a Likert-type scale. The response rate for the telephone survey was 75%. Most of the programs (93%) used the personal statement in the applicant review process, and almost two-thirds (62%) indicated that the statement was useful or very useful. Three-fourths (76%) of respondents sometimes or always used the statement for the selection of candidates for interviews. Only 29% of respondents were very to extremely concerned that the statements were not written by the applicants. Despite the observation that the statements were relatively homogeneous in content, respondents ranked identified content themes as an important influence on decision-making. Almost all respondents used the personal statement in their admissions process, usually in the selection of interviewees. Although there was some concern that the statements were not the original work of the applicant, less than a third of respondents were very concerned about this possibility. The homogeneity of the statements was also a concern, but the importance placed on the identified theme content areas validates the applicants' inclusion of these themes in the statements.

  19. Efficacy of Art Therapy in Individuals With Personality Disorders Cluster B/C: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeyen, Suzanne; van Hooren, Susan; van der Veld, William; Hutschemaekers, Giel

    2017-09-19

    Multidisciplinary treatment programs for patients with personality disorders (PDs) often include art therapy, but the efficacy of this intervention has hardly been evaluated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of an art therapy intervention on psychological functioning of patients with a PD. In this randomized controlled trial, 57 adult participants diagnosed with a PD cluster B/C (SCID-II) were randomly assigned to either weekly group art therapy (1.5 hours, 10 weeks) or a waiting list group. Outcome measures OQ45, AAQ-II, and SMI were assessed at baseline, at post-test (10 weeks after baseline), and at follow-up (5 weeks after post-test). The results show that art therapy is an effective treatment for PD patients because it not only reduces PD pathology and maladaptive modes but it also helps patients to develop adaptive, positive modes that indicate better mental health and self-regulation.

  20. The individual experience of functioning and disability in Switzerland--patient perspective and person-centeredness in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, H; Geyh, S; Baumberger, M E; Dokladal, P; Scheuringer, M; Mäder, M; Cieza, A

    2011-12-01

    Qualitative, multi-center study. The objective of this study is to explore the aspects of functioning and disability that are relevant to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), using a comprehensive approach based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Forty-nine people with SCI from early post-acute and long-term rehabilitation settings participated in nine focus groups. Five open-ended questions based on the ICF were used to initiate discussion about relevant Body Functions and Structures, Activities and Participation, Environmental and Personal Factors. The focus groups were audiotaped and the recording was transcribed verbatim. Qualitative analyses included the identification, extraction and coding of meaningful concepts from the transcribed dialogue. Concepts were coded according to established rules using ICF categories and were summarized semi-quantitatively. In the analysis, 1582 different concepts were identified. For coding one concept, an average of 1.4 ICF categories was used. This resulted in 2235 concept-ICF category links, 1068 in the early post-acute and 1167 in the long-term context, respectively. For the coding, 274 out of the 1454 categories contained in the ICF were used. The ICF coding showed the broad range of relevant aspects in the functioning experience of persons with SCI. Besides body limitations (especially paralysis and pain), the most relevant concepts covered mainly barriers in physical environment, assistive devices and social support, as well as the impact on everyday life regarding leisure and work. The resulting list of ICF categories can be helpful in facilitating person-centered clinical care and research.

  1. How Do Different Ways of Measuring Individual Differences in Zero-Acquaintance Personality Judgment Accuracy Correlate With Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith A; Back, Mitja D; Nestler, Steffen; Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Ruben, Mollie A

    2017-02-13

    This research compares two different approaches that are commonly used to measure accuracy of personality judgment: the trait accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate among targets on a given trait, thus making intertarget comparisons, and the profile accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate between traits for a given target, thus making intratarget comparisons. We examined correlations between these methods as well as correlations among accuracies for judging specific traits. The present article documents relations among these approaches based on meta-analysis of five studies of zero-acquaintance impressions of the Big Five traits. Trait accuracies correlated only weakly with overall and normative profile accuracy. Substantial convergence between the trait and profile accuracy methods was only found when an aggregate of all five trait accuracies was correlated with distinctive profile accuracy. Importantly, however, correlations between the trait and profile accuracy approaches were reduced to negligibility when statistical overlap was corrected by removing the respective trait from the profile correlations. Moreover, correlations of the separate trait accuracies with each other were very weak. Different ways of measuring individual differences in personality judgment accuracy are not conceptually and empirically the same, but rather represent distinct abilities that rely on different judgment processes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 20 CFR 1010.210 - In which Department job training programs do covered persons receive priority of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In which Department job training programs do... job training programs do covered persons receive priority of service? (a) Priority of service applies to every qualified job training program funded, in whole or in part, by the Department, including: (1...

  3. Program to Promote Personal and Social Responsibility in the Secondary Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Miguel A; Martín-Antón, Luis J; Otero, Lourdes; Monsalvo, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    The performance of school children has been studied by considering partial relationships between several personal variables such as the link between cognition and motivation. However, contextual variables, such as a child's willingness to accept social responsibility, also influence students' social and academic performance. Thus, students with greater responsibility have a better attitude toward their studies, resulting in higher academic achievement. This 2-year study aims to reveal to what extent an intervention program affects student performance and is based on the Theory of Positive Action among young people proposed by Don Hellison and the Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen. The program focuses on positive influences on social and personal responsibility, taking into consideration parental styles, gender, and academic performance. The program was a part of the educational curricula in participating schools and it targeted four main areas: (a) teaching units using academic texts about social responsibility, (b) student training in mediation processes, (c) teacher training, and (d) family training and involvement. A total of 271 students took part from first and second year of Secondary Education (12-14 years old). The experimental group was made up of 132 students while the remaining 139 formed the control group. All participants completed the Assessment Scale of Social Responsibility Attitudes in Secondary Education and the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale. Results show that students in the experimental group performed significantly better than those in the control group. Additionally, the issue of social responsibility seems to be related to commitment, self-discipline and perseverance. Regarding gender, males appear to score higher in the factor for well-mannered, friendly and tidy. Finally, a positive relationship has been identified between social responsibility attitudes and parenting with an open communicational style. This paper

  4. Program to Promote Personal and Social Responsibility in the Secondary Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Carbonero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of school children has been studied by considering partial relationships between several personal variables such as the link between cognition and motivation. However, contextual variables, such as a child’s willingness to accept social responsibility, also influence students’ social and academic performance. Thus, students with greater responsibility have a better attitude toward their studies, resulting in higher academic achievement. This 2-year study aims to reveal to what extent an intervention program affects student performance and is based on the Theory of Positive Action among young people proposed by Don Hellison and the Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen. The program focuses on positive influences on social and personal responsibility, taking into consideration parental styles, gender, and academic performance. The program was a part of the educational curricula in participating schools and it targeted four main areas: (a teaching units using academic texts about social responsibility, (b student training in mediation processes, (c teacher training, and (d family training and involvement. A total of 271 students took part from first and second year of Secondary Education (12–14 years old. The experimental group was made up of 132 students while the remaining 139 formed the control group. All participants completed the Assessment Scale of Social Responsibility Attitudes in Secondary Education and the Parent–Adolescent Communication Scale. Results show that students in the experimental group performed significantly better than those in the control group. Additionally, the issue of social responsibility seems to be related to commitment, self-discipline and perseverance. Regarding gender, males appear to score higher in the factor for well-mannered, friendly and tidy. Finally, a positive relationship has been identified between social responsibility attitudes and parenting with an open communicational

  5. Self-Monitoring Utilization Patterns Among Individuals in an Incentivized Program for Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Young; Wineinger, Nathan E; Taitel, Michael; Radin, Jennifer M; Akinbosoye, Osayi; Jiang, Jenny; Nikzad, Nima; Orr, Gregory; Topol, Eric; Steinhubl, Steve

    2016-11-17

    The advent of digital technology has enabled individuals to track meaningful biometric data about themselves. This novel capability has spurred nontraditional health care organizations to develop systems that aid users in managing their health. One of the most prolific systems is Walgreens Balance Rewards for healthy choices (BRhc) program, an incentivized, Web-based self-monitoring program. This study was performed to evaluate health data self-tracking characteristics of individuals enrolled in the Walgreens' BRhc program, including the impact of manual versus automatic data entries through a supported device or apps. We obtained activity tracking data from a total of 455,341 BRhc users during 2014. Upon identifying users with sufficient follow-up data, we explored temporal trends in user participation. Thirty-four percent of users quit participating after a single entry of an activity. Among users who tracked at least two activities on different dates, the median length of participating was 8 weeks, with an average of 5.8 activities entered per week. Furthermore, users who participated for at least twenty weeks (28.3% of users; 33,078/116,621) consistently entered 8 to 9 activities per week. The majority of users (77%; 243,774/315,744) recorded activities through manual data entry alone. However, individuals who entered activities automatically through supported devices or apps participated roughly four times longer than their manual activity-entering counterparts (average 20 and 5 weeks, respectively; Pself-monitoring program. Our results suggest automated health tracking could significantly improve long-term health engagement.

  6. Helping concerned family members of individuals with substance use and concurrent disorders: An evaluation of a family member-oriented treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denomme, William James; Benhanoh, Orry

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing body of research demonstrating that families of individuals with substance use and concurrent disorders (SUCD) experience a wide range of biopsychosocial problems that significantly impedes their quality of life and health. However, there has been a relative lack of treatment programs primarily focused on improving the well-being and quality of life of these family members. The current study assessed the efficacy of such a program at reducing stress, increasing perceived social support from family and friends, and increasing general, dyadic, and self-rated family functioning within these concerned family members. A sample of 125 family members of individuals with SUCDs was recruited, of which 97 participated in the treatment program and 28 were used as the comparison group. Results indicated that the treatment program significantly reduced stress, increased perceived social support from family and friends, and increased general, dyadic and self-rated family functioning. A perceived personal benefits questionnaire demonstrated that participants had a better understanding of SUCDs, better coping capabilities in regard to emotional difficulties, adopted stronger coping methods, participated in more leisure activities, and improved their relationship with the individual with a SUCD. The results of the current study further demonstrate the need to implement more of these family-member oriented psycho-educational treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Agreement of repeated motor and sensory scores at individual myotomes and dermatomes in young persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisa, L; Gaughan, J; Vogel, L; Betz, R R; Mulcahey, M J

    2013-01-01

    A prospective repeated measures multicenter study to determine reliability at individual spinal levels when applied to young persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). To evaluate intra- and inter-rater agreement of repeated motor and sensory scores at individual spinal levels. Shriners Hospitals for Children--Philadelphia and Chicago, USA. A total 189 youth with complete and incomplete SCI underwent four neurological exams by two different raters. Agreement between and within raters for each myotome and dermatome was evaluated for complete and incomplete SCI separately. Intraclass correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Overall, both intra- and inter-rater agreement resulted in moderate-to-high agreement among myotomes. Subjects with complete SCI had moderate agreement for light touch (LT) and pin prick (PP) testing, whereas subjects with incomplete SCI had >60.0% of dermatomes resulting in poor agreement for PP testing. Overall, moderate-to-high agreement was found for muscle strength comparisons and moderate-to-poor agreement was found for PP and LT.

  8. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental toughness (MT is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a ‘mental toughness advantage’ with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings.

  9. [Impact of a training program in full consciousness (mindfulness) in the measure of growth and personal self-realization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Justo, Clemente; de la Fuente Arias, Manuel; Salvador Granados, Margarita

    2011-02-01

    This research focused on the impact of a full awareness (mindfulness) program on the sense of growth and personal self-realization in a sample of secondary school students. A randomized controlled design with an experimental group and waiting-list group was implemented. The Self-concept and Self-actualization Questionnaire (AURE) was used as dependent variable and was administrated before and after running the mindfulness program. The results show a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores on all factors and subfactors of the AURE. It is concluded that a program of meditation, focused on mindfulness training, may be a valid and appropriate instrument to improve a personal sense of self-realization and growth. It is also suggested that the use of such a program could be complementary with the Instructional-Emotive Program for Personal Growth and Self-realization (PIECAP) psycho-educational program.

  10. Playable stories: Making programming and 3D role-playing game design personally and socially relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially relevant narratives. This first study was successful in that students learned to program a narrative game, and they viewed the social problem framing for the practices as an interesting aspect of the experience. The second study provided illustrative examples of how providing less general structure up-front, afforded players the opportunity to produce the necessary structures as needed for their particular design, and therefore had a richer understanding of what those structures represented. This study demonstrates that not only were participants able to use computational thinking skills such as Boolean and conditional logic, planning, modeling, abstraction, and encapsulation, they were able to bridge these skills to social domains they cared about. In particular, participants created stories about socially relevant topics without to explicit pushes by the instructors. The findings also suggest that the rapid uptake, and successful creation of personally and socially relevant narratives may have been facilitated by close alignment between the conceptual tools represented in the platform, and the domain of 3D role-playing games.

  11. Program of professional linguistic personality study in linguo-rhetorical paradigm: scientist-philologist and classic writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexandra A. Vorozhbitova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents program of two types of linguistic personality study: scientist-philologist and classic writer in philological discourse through the perspective of linguo-rhetorical paradigm.

  12. Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jeroen; Goossens, Ferry; Conrod, Patricia; Engels, Rutger; Wiers, Reinout W; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. 699 adolescents aged 13-15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β=0.24, p=0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β=0.25, p=0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β=0.47, p=0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β=-0.19, p=0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β=-0.10, p=0

  13. Reaching out to racial/ethnic minority older persons for elderly nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Smith, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study that was conducted to identify perceived barriers to racial/ethnic minority elders' participation in an elderly nutrition program (ENP) in a large metropolitan area and effective strategies for reaching out to them. The data were collected from a survey with the ENP's staff and volunteers and three focus group discussions with professionals working with minority elders and minority community leaders. The study participants identified as their perceived barriers: the lack of information or misinformation; culturally driven reluctance to ask for outside help; fear and distrust of formal systems; lack of ethnic menus in the program; discomfort due to cultural differences; and inaccessibility and inadequacy of transportation. Recommended outreach strategies included: involvement of family members in the information dissemination process; establishment of good working relationships with community leaders and contact with key older persons; diversification of menus and increased use of food enhancements; increase in cultural activities/programs in congregate dining centers; solicitation of input from current participants; provision of intergenerational programs; recruitment of volunteer drivers from the minority community; location of the program in ethnic enclaves or places where minority elders can easily congregate; and improvement in transportation services.

  14. Interpreting "Personality" Taxonomies: Why Previous Models Cannot Capture Individual-Specific Experiencing, Behaviour, Functioning and Development. Major Taxonomic Tasks Still Lay Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    As science seeks to make generalisations, a science of individual peculiarities encounters intricate challenges. This article explores these challenges by applying the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) and by exploring taxonomic "personality" research as an example. Analyses of researchers' interpretations of the taxonomic "personality" models, constructs and data that have been generated in the field reveal widespread erroneous assumptions about the abilities of previous methodologies to appropriately represent individual-specificity in the targeted phenomena. These assumptions, rooted in everyday thinking, fail to consider that individual-specificity and others' minds cannot be directly perceived, that abstract descriptions cannot serve as causal explanations, that between-individual structures cannot be isomorphic to within-individual structures, and that knowledge of compositional structures cannot explain the process structures of their functioning and development. These erroneous assumptions and serious methodological deficiencies in widely used standardised questionnaires have effectively prevented psychologists from establishing taxonomies that can comprehensively model individual-specificity in most of the kinds of phenomena explored as "personality", especially in experiencing and behaviour and in individuals' functioning and development. Contrary to previous assumptions, it is not universal models but rather different kinds of taxonomic models that are required for each of the different kinds of phenomena, variations and structures that are commonly conceived of as "personality". Consequently, to comprehensively explore individual-specificity, researchers have to apply a portfolio of complementary methodologies and develop different kinds of taxonomies, most of which have yet to be developed. Closing, the article derives some meta-desiderata for future research on individuals' "personality".

  15. Individual and Public-Program Adaptation: Coping with Heat Waves in Five Cities in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Alhassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat Alert and Response Systems (HARS are currently undergoing testing and implementation in Canada. These programs seek to reduce the adverse health effects of heat waves on human health by issuing weather forecasts and warnings, informing individuals about possible protections from excessive heat, and providing such protections to vulnerable subpopulations and individuals at risk. For these programs to be designed effectively, it is important to know how individuals perceive the heat, what their experience with heat-related illness is, how they protect themselves from excessive heat, and how they acquire information about such protections. In September 2010, we conducted a survey of households in 5 cities in Canada to study these issues. At the time of the survey, these cities had not implemented heat outreach and response systems. The study results indicate that individuals’ recollections of recent heat wave events were generally accurate. About 21% of the sample reported feeling unwell during the most recent heat spell, but these illnesses were generally minor. Only in 25 cases out of 243, these illnesses were confirmed or diagnosed by a health care professional. The rate at which our respondents reported heat-related illnesses was higher among those with cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, was higher among younger respondents and bore no relationship with the availability of air conditioning at home. Most of the respondents indicated that they would not dismiss themselves as “not at risk” and that they would cope with excessive heat by staying in air conditioned environments and keeping well hydrated. Despite the absence of heat outreach and education programs in their city, our respondents at least a rough idea of how to take care of themselves. The presence of air conditioning and knowledge of cooling centers is location-specific, which provides opportunities for targeting HARS interventions.

  16. Manpower Implications of New Legislation and New Federal Programs: Utilizing Persons with Engineering Backgrounds in the Health-Related Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecht, Leonard A.; Cobern, Morris

    This study explored the feasibility of using unemployed persons with engineering backgrounds in industries contributing to health care. According to the researchers, nearly 15,000 jobs for persons with engineering backgrounds could be generated in the health field over the next three years if an active program of job development were initiated. In…

  17. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING... Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs based on the following: (a) The...

  18. The effect of the AED and AED programs on survival of individuals, groups and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Nathan Allen; Scapigliati, Andrea; Trammell, Antoine R; Parish, David C

    2012-10-01

    The automated external defibrillator (AED) is a tool that contributes to survival with mixed outcomes. This review assesses the effectiveness of the AED, consistencies and variations among studies, and how varying outcomes can be resolved. A worksheet for the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) 2010 science review focused on hospital survival in AED programs was the foundation of the articles reviewed. Articles identified in the search covering a broader range of topics were added. All articles were read by at least two authors; consensus discussions resolved differences. AED use developed sequentially. Use of AEDs by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) compared to manual defibrillators showed equal or superior survival. AED use was extended to trained responders likely to be near victims, such as fire/rescue, police, airline attendants, and casino security guards, with improvement in all venues but not all programs. Broad public access initiatives demonstrated increased survival despite low rates of AED use. Home AED programs have not improved survival; in-hospital trials have had mixed results. Successful programs have placed devices in high-risk sites, maintained the AEDs, recruited a team with a duty to respond, and conducted ongoing assessment of the program. The AED can affect survival among patients with sudden ventricular fibrillation (VF). Components of AED programs that affect outcome include the operator, location, the emergency response system, ongoing maintenance and evaluation. Comparing outcomes is complicated by variations in definitions of populations and variables. The effect of AEDs on individuals can be dramatic, but the effect on populations is limited.

  19. JobTIPS: A Transition to Employment Program for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Dorothy C.; Coles, Claire D.; Southern, Louise B.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an Internet accessed training program that included Theory of Mind-based guidance, video models, visual supports, and virtual reality practice sessions in teaching appropriate job interview skills to individuals with high functioning ASD. In a randomized study, twenty two youth, ages 16 to 19, were evaluated during two employment interviews. Half received a training intervention following the initial interview and the half who served as a contrast group did not. Their performance pre and post intervention was assessed by four independent raters using a scale that included evaluation of both Content and Delivery. Results suggest that youth who completed the JobTIPS employment program demonstrated significantly more effective verbal content skills than those who did not. PMID:23494559

  20. Probabilistic person identification in TV news programs using image web database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, F.; Carli, M.; Leo, M.; Neri, A.

    2014-02-01

    The automatic labeling of faces in TV broadcasting is still a challenging problem. The high variability in view points, facial expressions, general appearance, and lighting conditions, as well as occlusions, rapid shot changes, and camera motions, produce significant variations in image appearance. The application of automatic tools for face recognition is not yet fully established and the human intervention is needed. In this paper, we deal with the automatic face recognition in TV broadcasting programs. The target of the proposed method is to identify the presence of a specific person in a video by means of a set of images downloaded from Web using a specific search key.

  1. Gender-related differences in social support program for mentally ill persons

    OpenAIRE

    Sawicka, Maryla; Bronowski, Paweł; Charzyńska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The current study is a part of a research program on schizophrenia course in the system of community based assistance and support for mentally ill persons who do not use regular mental health system. The aim of this study was to investigate both the accessibility of the system for gender populations and its applicability in terms of addressing the needs of both males and females.Method. 105 subjects (46 males and 59 females) using home care services in three Warsaw districts were include...

  2. A structural model of treatment program and individual counselor leadership in innovation transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, George W; Becan, Jennifer E; Knight, Danica K; Flynn, Patrick M

    2017-03-23

    A number of program-level and counselor-level factors are known to impact the adoption of treatment innovations. While program leadership is considered a primary factor, the importance of leadership among clinical staff to innovation transfer is less known. Objectives included explore (1) the influence of two leadership roles, program director and individual counselor, on recent training activity and (2) the relationship of counselor attributes on training endorsement. The sample included 301 clinical staff in 49 treatment programs. A structural equation model was evaluated for key hypothesized relationships between exogenous and endogenous variables related to the two leadership roles. The importance of organizational leadership, climate, and counselor attributes (particularly counseling innovation interest and influence) to recent training activity was supported. In a subset of 68 counselors who attended a developer-led training on a new intervention, it was found that training endorsement was higher among those with high innovation interest and influence. The findings suggest that each leadership level impacts the organization in different ways, yet both can promote or impede technology transfer.

  3. Use HCAHPS as a motivator to reenergize your five-star program, and make it personal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, James W; Finkelstein, Maggie M

    2012-01-01

    For many reasons, HCAHPS, short for Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems, is quickly becoming the national standard on evaluating patient experience. This article shows the aligned incentives of hospitals and physicians to enhance patient perceptions of their care experience, provides an overview of the HCAHPS concept for physicians, and discusses using HCAHPS as an opportunity to further individual and group practice five-star goals. The current healthcare environment, with its focus on quality and outcomes and patient perception, provides an incentive for physicians and other healthcare professionals to make five-star service personal.

  4. Blood Pressure and Hemodynamic Adaptations after a Training Program in Young Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Barboza Seron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases affect people worldwide. Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS have an up to sixteen-time greater risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the effects of aerobic and resistance exercises on blood pressure and hemodynamic variables of young individuals with DS. Methods: A total of 29 young individuals with DS participated in the study. They were divided into two groups: aerobic training (AT (n = 14, and resistance training (TR (n = 15. Their mean age was 15.7 ± 2.82 years. The training program lasted 12 weeks, and had a frequency of three times a week for AT and twice a week for RT. AT was performed in treadmill/ bicycle ergometer, at an intensity between 50%-70% of the HR reserve. RT comprised nine exercises with three sets of 12 repetition-maximum. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean blood pressure (MBP and hemodynamic variables were assessed beat-to-beat using the Finometer device before/after the training program. Descriptive analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk test to check the normality of data, and the two-way ANOVA for repeated measures were used to compare pre- and post-training variables. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to correlate hemodynamic variables. The SPSS version 18.0 was used with the significance level set at p < 0.05. Results: After twelve weeks of aerobic and/or resistance training, significant reductions in variables SBP, DBP and MBP were observed. Conclusion: This study suggests a chronic hypotensive effect of moderate aerobic and resistance exercises on young individuals with DS.

  5. Persons with unilateral transfemoral amputation experience larger spinal loads during level-ground walking compared to able-bodied individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Iman; Hendershot, Brad D.; Wolf, Erik J.; Bazrgari, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons with lower limb amputation walk with increased and asymmetric trunk motion; a characteristic that is likely to impose distinct demands on trunk muscles to maintain equilibrium and stability of the spine. However, trunk muscle responses to such changes in net mechanical demands, and the resultant effects on spinal loads, have yet to be determined in this population. Methods Building on a prior study, trunk and pelvic kinematics collected during level-ground walking from 40 males (20 with unilateral transfemoral amputation and 20 matched controls) were used as inputs to a kinematics-driven, nonlinear finite element model of the lower back to estimate forces in 10 global (attached to thorax) and 46 local (attached to lumbar vertebrae) trunk muscles, as well as compression, lateral, and antero-posterior shear forces at all spinal levels. Findings Trunk muscle force and spinal load maxima corresponded with heel strike and toe off events, and among persons with amputation, were respectively 10–40% and 17–95% larger during intact vs. prosthetic stance, as well as 6–80% and 26–60% larger during intact stance relative to controls. Interpretation During gait, larger spinal loads with transfemoral amputation appear to be the result of a complex pattern of trunk muscle recruitment, particularly involving co-activation of antagonistic muscles during intact limb stance; a period when these individuals are confident and likely to use the trunk to assist with forward progression. Given the repetitive nature of walking, repeated exposure to such elevated loading likely increases the risk for low back pain in this population. PMID:26682630

  6. Prefrontal Gray Matter and Motivation for Treatment in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals with and without Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-López, Laura; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Martinez-Gonzalez, José Miguel; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Addiction treatment is a long-term goal and therefore prefrontal-striatal regions regulating goal-directed behavior are to be associated with individual differences on treatment motivation. We aimed at examining the association between gray matter volumes in prefrontal cortices and striatum and readiness to change at treatment onset in cocaine users with and without personality disorders. Participants included 17 cocaine users without psychiatric comorbidities, 17 cocaine users with Cluster B disorders, and 12 cocaine users with Cluster C disorders. They completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale, which measures four stages of treatment change (precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance) and overall readiness to change, and were scanned in a 3 T MRI scanner. We defined three regions of interest (ROIs): the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (including medial orbitofrontal cortex and subgenual and rostral anterior cingulate cortex), the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (i.e., superior medial frontal cortex), and the neostriatum (caudate and putamen). We found that readiness to change correlated with different aspects of ventromedial prefrontal gray matter as a function of diagnosis. In cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities, readiness to change positively correlated with gyrus rectus gray matter, whereas in cocaine users without comorbidities it negatively correlated with rostral anterior cingulate cortex gray matter. Moreover, maintenance scores positively correlated with dorsomedial prefrontal gray matter in cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities, but negatively correlated with this region in cocaine users with Cluster B and cocaine users without comorbidities. Maintenance scores also negatively correlated with dorsal striatum gray matter in cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities. We conclude that the link between prefrontal-striatal gray matter and treatment motivation is modulated by co-existence of personality

  7. A combined stochastic programming and optimal control approach to personal finance and pensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Pisinger, David; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a model that combines a dynamic programming (stochastic optimal control) approach and a multi-stage stochastic linear programming approach (SLP), integrated into one SLP formulation. Stochastic optimal control produces an optimal policy that is easy to understand and implement...... that among the considered practical constraints, the presence of taxes aects the optimal controls the most. Furthermore, the individual's preferences, such as impatience level and risk aversion, have even a higher impact on the controlled processes than the taxes on capital gains........ Two applications are considered: (A) optimal investment, consumption and insured sum for an individual maximizing the expected utility of consumption and bequest, and (B) optimal investment for a pension saver who wishes to maximize the expected utility of retirement benets. Numerical results show...

  8. Impact of an exercise program on physical, emotional, and social aspects of quality of life of individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues de Paula, Fátima; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Coelho de Morais Faria, Christina Danielli; Rocha de Brito, Patrícia; Cardoso, Francisco

    2006-08-01

    We evaluated changes in different domains of quality of life (QL) for persons with Parkinson's disease after a program of physical activity. Twenty subjects with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease classified as Stages 1 to 3 on the Hoehn and Yahr scale and with a mean age of 61.5 +/- 9.8 years participated in 36 group sessions of a combined group program of aerobic conditioning and muscular strengthening. QL was investigated by the Nottingham Health Profile, a generic questionnaire composed of six domains. Student's paired t tests indicated significant gains associated with the program (P physical ability (PA). SI was the domain that showed the greatest program gains (41.4%). The program of physical activity performed with persons with Parkinson's disease at light to moderate stages resulted in improvements in their perception of QL, mainly in the domains of ER, SI, and PA. (c) 2006 Movement Disorder Society

  9. Continuous glucose monitoring technology for personal use: an educational program that educates and supports the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Alison; Trence, Dace; Catton, Sarah; Huynh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development and implementation of an educational program for the initiation of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology for personal use, not 3-day CGMS diagnostic studies. The education program was designed to meet the needs of patients managing their diabetes with either diabetes medications or insulin pump therapy in an outpatient diabetes education center using a team-based approach. Observational research, complemented by literature review, was used to develop an educational program model and teaching strategies. Diabetes educators, endocrinologists, CGM manufacturer clinical specialists, and patients with diabetes were also interviewed for their clinical observations and experience. The program follows a progressive educational model. First, patients learn in-depth about real-time CGM technology by attending a group presensor class that provides detailed information about CGM. This presensor class facilitates self-selection among patients concerning their readiness to use real-time CGM. If the patient decides to proceed with real-time CGM use, CGM initiation is scheduled, using a clinic-centered protocol for both start-up and follow-up. Successful use of real-time CGM involves more than just patient enthusiasm or interest in a new technology. Channeling patient interest into a structured educational setting that includes the benefits and limitations of real-time CGM helps to manage patient expectations.

  10. The Sports Background, Personality, Att Itudes, and Social Competencies of Coaches and Assistant Coaches in the Just Soccer Program for Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliermann Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to empirically analyze the sports background, personality dimensions, attitudes, and social competencies of adult head coaches and young assistant coaches involved in the German Einfach Fußball (Just Soccer program, which promotes the participation of pupils with intellectual disabilities in soccer/sports and society. Methods. The study recruited 28 head coaches and 29 assistant coaches who completed a questionnaire battery of standardized instruments (NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Social Self-Efficacy as well as self-developed instruments. Analysis of the data involved descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. A descriptive comparison of the assistant coaches with a normative sample of males aged 16-20 years was performed. Results. The head coaches were found with little soccer/sports experience with persons with disabilities prior to participation in the Just Soccer program. However, the majority were familiar with these persons through personal/vocational contacts. Overall, the head coaches were differentiated by formal coaching levels and playing backgrounds, with very few holding any additional formal qualifications in special education. The assistant coaches presented below average scores in the analyzed five personality dimensions when compared with the normative sample. Their attitudes and social competencies did not change during their 8-month involvement in Just Soccer. Conclusions. The findings highlight the important role of the coaching staff in the success of the Just Soccer program. Coaches involved in such activities should be familiarized with needs of people with disabilities, be stress-resistant, and possess a balanced set of personality traits. In addition, the results suggest that such individuals should be coaches/players from conventional soccer clubs instead of special school physical education teachers.

  11. Effect of Evidence-Based Practice Programs on Individual Barriers of Workforce Nurses: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Reginald; Carter-Templeton, Heather; Mund, Angela R

    2016-09-01

    . Describe interventions of the programs reviewed in the article that directly affect barriers to clinical nurses' adoption of EBP or the use of research. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the author have any conflicts of interest to disclose. Individual barriers such as a lack of research awareness, electronic database navigation skills, and research comprehension prevent nurses from implementing evidence-based practice (EBP). The aim of this review article is to examine EBP programs and their influence on individual barriers among workforce nurses. A keyword search of online databases was conducted for original research published from 2004- 2015. A review of cited references and footnote searching of significant articles was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. Although there was great variation among EBP programs, the majority of participants reported increased awareness, value, belief, knowledge, and skill as it relates to research utilization and EBP. This review suggests that individual barriers to EBP may be influenced by clinically based EBP programs. However, a lack of randomized controlled studies and inconsistencies in measurement make it difficult to recommend best practices for developing EBP programs for nurses in the clinical setting. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(9):398-406. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Association of Type D personality with cognitive functioning in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease : The Gutenberg health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unterrainer, J.; Michal, M.; Rham, B.; Hadzibegovic, J.; Wild, P.S.; Schulz, A.; Münzel, T.; Blettner, M.; Lackner, K.; Pfeiffer, N.; Blankenberg, S.; Denollet, J.; Beutel, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Distressed (‘Type D’) personality is associated with adverse health outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). While personality traits from the Five-Factor Model are related to cognitive functioning, neither Type D personality nor its underlying traits negative affectivity

  13. Can Trainees Effectively Deliver Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder? Outcomes From a Training Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L; Hughes, Christopher D; Hittman, Alexandra D; Vieira Oliveira, Pedro

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-month course of comprehensive dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) provided in a training clinic with doctoral students as therapists and assessors. Clinical outcomes for 50 individuals with borderline personality disorder (80% female, M age = 29.52 [SD = 9.64]) are reported. Reliable change indices and clinical significance were calculated for measures. Finally, our results were benchmarked against a "gold standard" randomized clinical trial (RCT; McMain et al., 2009). Analyses with both the full sample and the treatment completers indicate significant reductions in mental health symptomatology that were reliable, clinically and statistically significant, and comparable in effect size to the benchmarked RCT. This DBT training clinic produced good outcomes, comparable to that of a large RCT. Results have implications for who can provide DBT treatment, as well as improving access to DBT in community settings where training clinics may be located. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Reward-related genes and personality traits in alcohol-dependent individuals: a pilot case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Sara; Berglund, Kristina; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Fahlke, Claudia; Balldin, Jan; Berggren, Ulf; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Engel, Jörgen A

    2011-01-01

    Components of the brain reward system, i.e. the mesolimbic dopamine, laterodorsal cholinergic and ghrelin signaling systems, have been implicated in alcohol reward in preclinical studies. Genetic variants of these systems have previously been linked to alcohol dependence. Here, we genotyped 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): 1 SNP in the dopamine D₂ receptor (DRD2) gene, 20 SNPs in 5 different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (CHRN*) genes, and 10 SNPs in the genes encoding pro-ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor (GHSR), in a pilot study of type 1 alcoholics (n = 84) and healthy controls (n = 32). These individuals were characterized using the Temperament and Character Inventory. None of the SNPs were associated with risk of alcohol dependence in this population. The GG genotype of SNP rs13261190 in the CHRNB3 was associated with increased novelty seeking, while SNPs of the ghrelin signaling system were associated with decreased self-directedness (AA of rs495225, GHSR) and alterations in self-transcendence (AA of both rs42451 and rs35680, GHRL). In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that reward-related genes are associated with altered personality scores in type 1 alcohol dependence, which warrants future studies of these associations in larger study samples. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. An examination of the mechanisms and personality traits underlying food addiction among individuals with severe obesity awaiting bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Anne-Sophie; Rodrigue, Christopher; Lemieux, Simone; Tchernof, André; Biertho, Laurent; Bégin, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The aetiology underlying addiction has often been investigated to shed more light on the factors contributing to the development and maintenance of various disorders. In the field of addictive eating behaviours, data on the aetiological factors related to food addiction (FA) in the bariatric context remain scarce. The present study aimed to explore mechanisms and variables underlying FA among individuals suffering from severe obesity and awaiting bariatric surgery. Participants (N = 146) were recruited at the Quebec Heart and Lung Institute during their pre-operative visit and were invited to complete questionnaires. Participants with and without FA were compared on reward sensitivity, impulsivity, emotion dysregulation, and personality traits. Findings showed that bariatric candidates with FA (16%) presented more emotion dysregulation, more harm avoidance, and less self-directedness. Further exploration showed that the association between harm avoidance and the number of FA criteria endorsed was mediated by emotion dysregulation, while the association between self-directedness and the number of FA criteria endorsed was mediated by reward sensitivity. These results indicate that an inability to regulate affect by strategies other than eating highly palatable food, in a context where negative affect and long-term goals can hardly be sustained, underlies a diagnostic of FA among bariatric candidates. From a clinical standpoint, the presence of a double vulnerability leading to FA symptomatology could help design better-targeted interventions to maximise weight loss maintenance in the bariatric context. Level V, descriptive study.

  16. Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally-Involved Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to 1) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and 2) self- and other-directed aggression, measured using the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed. PMID:22448731

  17. Career management and advancement from the individual context of the Albanian manager, under the perspectives of professionalism and personality related to business performance

    OpenAIRE

    VISI OLGERTA

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at rendering a tableau of the career management in the Albanian reality in the large and medium enterprises seen from the individual context of the manager. To this objective, a survey was undertaken using the face-to-face approach, focused on communication, measuring two independent variables: the actual professionalism of the manager and the manager personality, considering the Big 5 personality traits, in respect to the dependent variable: business performance. The objective...

  18. Understanding needs is important for assessing the impact of food assistance program participation on nutritional and health status in U.S. elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J S; Frongillo, E A

    2001-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of food assistance programs on nutritional and health status of nutritionally needy elderly persons. Two cross-sectional and one longitudinal data sets were used: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-94), Nutrition Survey of the Elderly in New York State (1994) and Longitudinal Study of Aging (1984-1990). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine whether food assistance participants among food insecure elderly (i.e., those whose needs for food assistance programs are met) have better nutrient intake, skinfold thickness and self-reported health status and less nutritional risk, hospitalization and mortality than nonparticipants (i.e., those whose needs are unmet) and whether the benefit is larger than that among food secure elderly persons. Across three data sets, food insecure elderly persons had poorer nutritional and health status than food secure elderly persons. Contrary to the hypotheses, among food insecure elderly persons, food assistance participants had similar or poorer nutrient intakes, skinfold thickness, nutritional risk, self-reported health status, hospitalization and mortality than nonparticipants. Food secure participants had similar nutritional and health status as food secure nonparticipants. Lack of information on the dynamic nature and changes in needs with program participation in the three data sets likely did not allow accurate estimation of the impact of food assistance participation. Different study designs, as well as theory and knowledge of needs that clarifies need status and its change within each older individual across an appropriate time interval, are necessary to accurately assess impacts of food assistance programs.

  19. Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment: A Rehabilitative Program for Traumatic Brain Injury Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbatore, Ilaria; Sacco, Katiuscia; Angeleri, Romina; Zettin, Marina; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2015-01-01

    To verify the efficacy of Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment (CPT), a new rehabilitation training program for improving communicative-pragmatic abilities. The CPT program consists of 24 group sessions, concerned with improving several communication modalities, theory of mind (ToM), and cognitive components that can affect pragmatic performance, such as awareness and executive functions. A sample of 15 adults with severe traumatic brain injury. Improvements were evaluated before and after training, using the equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo), a tool for evaluating comprehension and production of a wide range of pragmatic phenomena. A neuropsychological and ToM assessment was also conducted. The patients' performance improved after training, in terms of both comprehension and production, in all the communication modalities assessed by the ABaCo, that is, linguistic, extralinguistic, paralinguistic, and social appropriateness abilities. The follow-up showed that the improvement of patients persists after 3 months from the end of the training. The results suggest that the CPT program is efficacious in improving communicative-pragmatic abilities in individuals with TBI, and that improvements at this level are still detectable even in chronic patients years after the injury.

  20. Kinesiology Career Club: Undergraduate Student Mentors' Perspectives on a Physical Activity-Based Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David S.; Veri, Maria J.; Willard, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present university student mentors' perspectives on the impact of a teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model youth program called the Kinesiology Career Club. Data sources in this qualitative case study included program observations, mentoring reflections, and semistructured interviews. Data…

  1. Stress management training as a prevention program for heavy social drinkers: cognitions, affect, drinking, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohsenow, D J; Smith, R E; Johnson, S

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive-affective stress management training (SMT) as a drinking reduction program for heavy social drinking college students was investigated. The SMT package included muscle relaxation and meditation training, cognitive restructuring, and coping skill rehearsal during induced affect. Treated and control subjects rated the frequency and intensity of their anxiety, anger and depression and recorded their alcohol consumption on a daily basis over a 6-month period. SMT significantly reduced posttreatment daily anxiety ratings and was associated with changes in four of ten irrational beliefs and a shift toward more internal locus of control in treated subjects. Reduction in anxiety was no longer evident at the 2 1/2- and 5 1/2-month follow-ups. The men in the SMT group showed a significant decrease in daily drinking rates at posttreatment and at the 2 1/2-month follow-up, but drinking returned to baseline levels by 5 1/2 months for the group as a whole. However, significant improvement variance in daily moods and in drinking rates over all posttreatment periods was accounted for by individual difference variables in the trained subjects but not in the control group, suggesting that these cognitive, personality, and social support variables are associated with response to stress management training. Implications of these results for future prevention research are discussed.

  2. A qualitative assessment of program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrenko, Christie L M; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a major public health problem that affects 2 to 5 percent of the population. Individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. Evidence-based intervention programs are needed to prevent and treat secondary conditions in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify intervention program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with FASD from the perspectives of parents and service providers. This qualitative study utilized a phenomenological approach to identify program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions. Twenty-five parents of children (ages 3 to 33) with FASD and 18 service providers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data was systematically analyzed using a framework approach. Themes did not differ by participant type. Participants emphasized five primary characteristics of intervention programs for individuals with FASD. Programs need to 1) be available to individuals across the lifespan, 2) have a prevention focus, 3) be individualized, 4) be comprehensive, and 5) be coordinated across systems and developmental stages. Participants discussed a variety of specific intervention strategies for each developmental stage and setting. Program characteristics identified in this study are consistent with a positive behavior support framework. This framework is discussed in the context of research on existing interventions for individuals with FASD, and recommendations for future intervention development and evaluation are highlighted.

  3. Survey of body donation programs in the US concerning the use of donor personal information with medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwer, Johanna; Gest, Thomas R

    2017-05-01

    Body donor programs need to balance ethical concerns and educational needs. Among donor programs in the US, there is variability in the amount of donor personal information that is provided to medical students. This study assesses this variability and investigates the reasons for the variability among donor programs. Telephone interviews and email surveys were used to collect information concerning the provision and use of donor personal information with medical students. One hundred fifty-one donor programs in the US were contacted via email or telephone interview or both. Fifty-three donor programs responded to the survey or participated in the telephone interview. The survey results show variation, not only in the amount of donor personal information provided to medical students, but also in the attitudes and beliefs of the donor program personnel concerning donor personal information. This research documents the variability of the educational use of donor personal information. It is hoped that this description of the various approaches to using donor information will encourage the ethical use of donor information within the context of medical education. Clin. Anat. 30:445-449, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A personalized, multi-platform nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle coaching program: A pilot in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Héroux

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to examine if a personalized web-based multi-platform nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle coaching program, supported weight loss and the reduction of chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese women. Twenty-eight women completed the program, which represented 50% of those who provided baseline data. The program consisted of a one-year curriculum with daily exercise, nutritional habits, and health behaviour lessons along with access to a one-on-one coach. The workouts, habits, and lessons were available via computer, tablet, and mobile device which, along with coaching, facilitated self-monitoring and accountability. At baseline and 12-months, weight, waist circumference, fat mass, muscle mass, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins, triglycerides, C reactive protein, and fasting glucose were collected. Over the 12 months, women who completed the program, (average age 49.64 (SD 10.99 years, lost 16.52 (SD 13.63 lbs (P < 0.001, and reduced waist circumference by 3.56 (SD 2.31 in (P < 0.0001. Diastolic blood pressure decreased by 3.77 (SD 7.25 mm Hg (P = 0.02 and high density lipoproteins increased by 0.16 (SD 0.28 mmol/L (P = 0.01. No other risk factors changed significantly. Compliance was a significant predictor of weight loss (P < 0.01. In conclusion, women who completed the web-based program experienced significant weight loss (8.62% of initial body weight coming predominantly from body fat. Chronic disease risk factors also improved.

  5. A Group Kickboxing Program for Balance, Mobility, and Quality of Life in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Kurt; Edginton-Bigelow, Kimberly; Cooper, Christina; Merriman, Harold

    2012-01-01

    ...). The primary purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of a 5-week group kickboxing program and to measure changes in balance, mobility, and quality of life in individuals with MS...

  6. Incorporating person centred care principles into an ongoing comprehensive cancer management program: An experiential account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallath Nandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates a definite positive impact on treatment outcomes when an integrative approach that focuses on symptom control and quality of life is provided along with the standard therapeutic regimens. However implementation or practice of this approach is not seen widely due to the culture of medical training and practice. This article presents the initial development of a program for incorporating integrative care principles into an ongoing comprehensive cancer care program at a tertiary centre. The key purpose of the program being to develop, facilitate, and establish comprehensive and holistic processes including palliative care principles, that would positively enhance the quantity and quality of life of the person with disease, as well as create an environment that reflects and sustains this approach. The vision, objectives, goals, strategies, activities and results within the 7 months of implementation are documented. The new learnings gained during the process have also been noted in the hope that the model described may be used to conceptualize similar care giving facilities in other centres.

  7. Microswitch-aided programs to support physical exercise or adequate ambulation in persons with multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Alberti, Gloria; Perilli, Viviana; Oliva, Doretta; Buono, Serafino

    2014-09-01

    Three microswitch-aided programs were assessed in three single-case studies to enhance physical exercise or ambulation in participants with multiple disabilities. Study I was aimed at helping a woman who tended to have the head bending forward and the arms down to exercise a combination of appropriate head and arms movements. Study II was aimed at promoting ambulation continuity with a man who tended to have ambulation breaks. Study III was aimed at promoting ambulation with appropriate foot position in a girl who usually showed toe walking. The experimental designs of the studies consisted of a multiple probe across responses (Study I), an ABAB sequence (Study II), and an ABABB(1) sequence (Study III). The last phase of each study was followed by a post-intervention check. The microswitches monitored the target responses selected for the participants and triggered a computer system to provide preferred stimuli contingent on those responses during the intervention phases of the studies. Data showed that the programs were effective with each of the participants who learned to exercise head and arms movements, increased ambulation continuity, and acquired high levels of appropriate foot position during ambulation, respectively. The positive performance levels were retained during the post-intervention checks. The discussion focused on (a) the potential of technology-aided programs for persons with multiple disabilities and (b) the need of replication studies to extend the evidence available in the area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oregon's Gun Relief Program for Adjudicated Mentally Ill Persons: The Psychiatric Security Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Juliet; Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the State of Oregon's implementation of two programs designed to comply with federal gun laws regarding reporting individuals who have received mental health adjudications in criminal and civil courts. One mandate requires that states submit names of adjudicated individuals to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) while the second requires that the state establish a qualifying gun restoration program for those disqualified from gun ownership. In 2009, Oregon's Legislature developed an administrative approach to gun restoration and assigned the responsibility for conducting these hearing to the Oregon Psychiatric Security Review Board (PSRB). The PSRB is a state administrative board that has existed since 1977 and has been primarily focused on the supervision and treatment of adult and juvenile insanity acquittees. The gun restoration program began in 2010, but to date has only received three completed petitions requesting restoration of firearm rights. The article concludes with a discussion that surmises why very few of the Oregonians who are listed in NICS have submitted petitions for relief. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. What Happens After the Demonstration Phase? The Sustainability of Canada's At Home/Chez Soi Housing First Programs for Homeless Persons with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Caplan, Rachel; MacLeod, Timothy; Macnaughton, Eric; Cherner, Rebecca; Aubry, Tim; Méthot, Christian; Latimer, Eric; Piat, Myra; Plenert, Erin; McCullough, Scott; Zell, Sarah; Patterson, Michelle; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Goering, Paula

    2017-03-01

    This research examined the sustainability of Canada's At Home/Chez Soi Housing First (HF) programs for homeless persons with mental illness 2 years after the end of the demonstration phase of a large (more than 2000 participants enrolled), five-site, randomized controlled trial. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 142 participants (key informants, HF staff, and persons with lived experience) to understand sustainability outcomes and factors that influenced those outcomes. Also, a self-report HF fidelity measure was completed for nine HF programs that continued after the demonstration project. A cross-site analysis was performed, using the five sites as case studies. The findings revealed that nine of the 12 HF programs (75%) were sustained, and that seven of the nine programs reported a high level of fidelity (achieving an overall score of 3.5 or higher on a 4-point scale). The sites varied in terms of the level of systems integration and expansion of HF that were achieved. Factors that promoted or impeded sustainability were observed at multiple ecological levels: broad contextual (i.e., dissemination of research evidence, the policy context), community (i.e., partnerships, the presence of HF champions), organizational (i.e., leadership, ongoing training, and technical assistance), and individual (i.e., staff turnover, changes, and capacity). The findings are discussed in terms of the implementation science literature and their implications for how evidence-based programs like HF can be sustained. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  10. Dialectical behavior therapy for high suicide risk in individuals with borderline personality disorder: a randomized clinical trial and component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M; Korslund, Kathryn E; Harned, Melanie S; Gallop, Robert J; Lungu, Anita; Neacsiu, Andrada D; McDavid, Joshua; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Murray-Gregory, Angela M

    2015-05-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an empirically supported treatment for suicidal individuals. However, DBT consists of multiple components, including individual therapy, skills training, telephone coaching, and a therapist consultation team, and little is known about which components are needed to achieve positive outcomes. To evaluate the importance of the skills training component of DBT by comparing skills training plus case management (DBT-S), DBT individual therapy plus activities group (DBT-I), and standard DBT which includes skills training and individual therapy. We performed a single-blind randomized clinical trial from April 24, 2004, through January 26, 2010, involving 1 year of treatment and 1 year of follow-up. Participants included 99 women (mean age, 30.3 years; 69 [71%] white) with borderline personality disorder who had at least 2 suicide attempts and/or nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) acts in the last 5 years, an NSSI act or suicide attempt in the 8 weeks before screening, and a suicide attempt in the past year. We used an adaptive randomization procedure to assign participants to each condition. Treatment was delivered from June 3, 2004, through September 29, 2008, in a university-affiliated clinic and community settings by therapists or case managers. Outcomes were evaluated quarterly by blinded assessors. We hypothesized that standard DBT would outperform DBT-S and DBT-I. The study compared standard DBT, DBT-S, and DBT-I. Treatment dose was controlled across conditions, and all treatment providers used the DBT suicide risk assessment and management protocol. Frequency and severity of suicide attempts and NSSI episodes. All treatment conditions resulted in similar improvements in the frequency and severity of suicide attempts, suicide ideation, use of crisis services due to suicidality, and reasons for living. Compared with the DBT-I group, interventions that included skills training resulted in greater improvements in the frequency of NSSI

  11. DOING BUSINESS IN ROMANIA - PART I: PERSPECTIVES ON THE TYPES OF DOING BUSINESS. TYPES OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMPANY ENTITIES WITHOUT LEGAL PERSONALITY. TYPES OF ENTITIES WITH LEGAL PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis in the present study integrates the types of trading entities in order to clearly determine them. A first reference theme when setting-up a business is that of the legal personality it would take. The new Civil Code, acting as common law in the field of trading entities, determines the realignment and balancing of the regulations on types of business. Company Law 31 of 1990 preserves the types of trading entities with legal personality regulated here: general partnership, limited partnership, limited partnership by shares, limited liability company, joint-stock company. The simple partnership which can gain legal personality is widely regulated, and for the partnership are mainly preserved the landmarks drawn by the Commercial Code of 1886 that is presently repealed. In conclusion, the present study analyses and answers the question – who are the legal trading entities and what are the regulated types of business.

  12. WPA ISSPD educational program: Module II. Advances in research and understanding of personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Millon, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in research, clinical observations and treatment have contributed to several major changes in the conceptualization of personality disorders. Featured in an educational programme on personality disorders prepared by the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) Section on Personality Di...

  13. Nutritional status of persons with HIV infection, persons with HIV infection and tuberculosis, and HIV-negative individuals from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Soumya; Padmapriyadarsini, C; Sukumar, B; Iliayas, Sheikh; Kumar, S Ramesh; Triveni, C; Gomathy, P; Thomas, Beena; Mathew, Minnie; Narayanan, P R

    2008-03-15

    We compared the nutritional status of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection alone, individuals with HIV infection and tuberculosis (after completion of antituberculosis treatment), and HIV-negative individuals and found that malnutrition, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia were most pronounced among HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis. Weight loss was associated with loss of fat in female patients and with loss of body cell mass in male patients.

  14. A Long-Term Leisure Program for Individuals with Intellectual Disability in Residential Care Settings: Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Burke, Amie M.; Fung, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effectiveness of an individually-tailored leisure program implemented by direct care staff in a residential program for 28 adults with severe to profound intellectual disability using a multiple baseline design across two homes over a 1.5 year baseline and treatment period followed by another nearly 1.5 year maintenance phase. The…

  15. Evaluation of a DVD-Based Self-Help Program in Highly Socially Anxious Individuals--Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Anna K.; Mehl, Annette; Kiko, Sonja; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Hermann, Christiane; Hoffmann, Torsten; Bohus, Martin; Steil, Regina

    2011-01-01

    High social anxiety is a risk factor for the incidence of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Early diagnosis and intervention may prevent more severe psychiatric courses. Self-help programs may be a convenient, accessible, and effective intervention. This study examined the efficacy of a newly developed self-help program for SAD in individuals with…

  16. Constipation-related symptoms and bowel program concerning individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, D; Sarkarati, M; Gurwitz, J H; McGlinchey-Berroth, G; Minaker, K L

    1997-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of constipation-related symptoms in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), to describe the bowel program as reported by patients and including use of bowel medications and evacuation techniques, and to examine the clinical, functional and pharmacological risks of difficulty with evacuation. This is a cross-sectional study of all in-patients at least 3 months beyond acute injury, on the West Roxbury/Brockton VAMC SCI Service, during a 10 month period (n = 197). Clinical, functional, and medication data were abstracted from medical and nursing records. Individual interviews were conducted with all available participants (n = 161, 82%) regarding bowel-related symptoms and treatment over the previous 1 month period. The study definition of difficulty with evacuation was spending more than 1 h per episode of bowel evacuation. Forty-one percent of the 161 interview responders spent more than 1 h on bowel evacuation, 50% reported abdominal distension and 38% reported abdominal pain, 27% reported headaches or sweats relieved by having a bowel movement, and 33% reported fecal incontinence at least once a month. The bisacodyl suppository was the most commonly used laxative agent, while docusate was the most popular oral agent. Subjects with difficulty with evacuation (n = 66) were compared with those who spent less than 1 h on evacuation (n = 95). Factors associated with difficulty with evacuation were tetraplegia, Frankel grade A/B, laxative use, polypharmacy, previous urinary outlet surgery, and symptoms of abdominal pain and distension. Constipation-related symptoms are highly prevalent in individuals with spinal cord injury, despite considerable laxative use. Our findings suggest that difficulty with evacuation can be predicted on the basis of a patient's clinical profile.

  17. [Gender-related differences in social support program for mentally ill persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Maryla; Bronowski, Paweł; Charzyńska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The current study is a part of a research program on schizophrenia course in the system of community based assistance and support for mentally ill persons who do not use regular mental health system. The aim of this study was to investigate both the accessibility of the system for gender populations and its applicability in terms of addressing the needs of both males and females. 105 subjects (46 males and 59 females) using home care services in three Warsaw districts were included in the study. The following domains of the functioning were assessed: the scope, content and efficiency of the social networks as well as social functioning of home care services users. Males and females differed significantly with regard to several attributes of social networks as well as social functioning. Comparing to males, females had greater opportunity to receive support from more distant categories of persons constituting their social networks. The differences in social functioning of males and females were limited only to stereotypical gender roles and were not noted in other areas of social functioning.

  18. Feasibility of web-based protocol in a 12 weeks home-based IMT program for individuals with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dorthe; Svenningsen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    of a web-based protocol with feedback function using mechanical threshold loading (MTL) as a home-based IMT in individuals with COPD. Thirty-six individuals with inspiratory muscle weakness were randomly selected from a pulmonary rehabilitation program to perform 12 weeks of MTL with either a web...

  19. Question-Asking and Advocacy by African American Parents at Individualized Education Program Meetings: A Social and Cultural Capital Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 mandates parental involvement during Individualized Education Program (IEP) meetings. Several factors including previous IEP experiences, level of ongoing communication between parents and education professionals, or existence of social and cultural capital resources can impact…

  20. Neuropsychology and emotion processing in violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia: The same or different? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Ottilie; Young, Susan; Baumeister, David; Greer, Ben; Das, Mrigendra; Kumari, Veena

    2017-12-01

    To assess whether there are shared or divergent (a) cognitive and (b) emotion processing characteristics among violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder and/or schizophrenia, diagnoses which are commonly encountered at the interface of mental disorder and violence. Cognition and emotion processing are incorporated into models of violence, and thus an understanding of these characteristics within and between disorder groups may help inform future models and therapeutic targets. Relevant databases (OVID, Embase, PsycINFO) were searched to identify suitable literature. Meta-analyses comparing cognitive function in violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder to healthy controls were conducted. Neuropsychological studies not comparing these groups to healthy controls, and emotion processing studies, were evaluated qualitatively. Meta-analyses indicated lower IQ, memory and executive function in both violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder groups compared to healthy controls. The degree of deficit was consistently larger in violent schizophrenia. Both antisocial personality disorder and violent schizophrenia groups had difficulties in aspects of facial affect recognition, although theory of mind results were less conclusive. Psychopathic traits related positively to experiential emotion deficits across the two disorders. Very few studies explored comorbid violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder despite this being common in clinical practice. There are qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, neuropsychological and emotion processing deficits in violent individuals with schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder which could be developed into transdiagnostic treatment targets for violent behaviour. Future research should aim to characterise specific subgroups of violent offenders, including those with comorbid diagnoses.