WorldWideScience

Sample records for program include water

  1. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsedek Irit

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136. Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88 with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training

  2. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  3. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  4. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  5. Service water assistance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munchausen, J.H. [EPRI Plant Support Engineering, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Service Water Assistance Program was developed to provide utility service water system engineers with a mechanism to quickly and efficiently address service water issues. Since its inception, its ability to assist utilities has resulted in a reduction in the operations and maintenance costs associated with service water systems and has provided a medium for EPRI awareness of industry service water issues.

  6. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  7. Diversity: Including People with Disabilities in Outdoor Adventure Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Deb

    1996-01-01

    Organizations that offer outdoor adventure activities can integrate programs to include individuals with disabilities. The paper describes how one organization includes diverse groups of people with and without disabilities in its outdoor activities, focusing on each member's strengths and encouraging cooperation. (SM)

  8. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  9. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... impoundments; (c) Water treatment facilities for potable water supplies, including desalination facilities; (d... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included...

  10. SWEEP - Save Water & Energy Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hillman, Tim C.; Hadley, Adam; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Payson, David R.

    2001-05-03

    The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits.

  11. Dynamic Programming Applications in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakowitz, Sidney

    1982-08-01

    The central intention of this survey is to review dynamic programming models for water resource problems and to examine computational techniques which have been used to obtain solutions to these problems. Problem areas surveyed here include aqueduct design, irrigation system control, project development, water quality maintenance, and reservoir operations analysis. Computational considerations impose severe limitation on the scale of dynamic programming problems which can be solved. Inventive numerical techniques for implementing dynamic programming have been applied to water resource problems. Discrete dynamic programming, differential dynamic programming, state incremental dynamic programming, and Howard's policy iteration method are among the techniques reviewed. Attempts have been made to delineate the successful applications, and speculative ideas are offered toward attacking problems which have not been solved satisfactorily.

  12. Biofilms from a Brazilian water distribution system include filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, V M; Oliveira, H M B; Santos, C; Paterson, R R M; Gusmão, N B; Lima, N

    2013-03-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water can block water pipes, can cause organoleptic biodeterioration, and are a source of pathogens. There are increasing reports of the involvement of the organisms in biofilms. This present study describes a sampling device that can be inserted directly into pipes within water distribution systems, allowing biofilm formation in situ. Calcofluor White M2R staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization with morphological analyses using epifluorescent microscopy were used to analyse biofilms for filamentous fungi, permitting direct observation of the fungi. DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) was applied to detect bacteria. Filamentous fungi were detected in biofilms after 6 months on coupons exposed to raw water, decanted water and at the entrance of the water distribution system. Algae, yeast, and bacteria were also observed. The role of filamentous fungi requires further investigations.

  13. Hearing of Personnel Included in the USAF Hearing Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    ORGNIZTIO NAE AN ADRES - 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK 9. PFORINGORGAIZAIONNAMEANDADDESSAREA ft WORK UNIT NUMBERS USAF School of Aerospace Medicine...0 0)~’ to (00w " 0 -q N~ m M VC0 CO~j 0 N 01) a)inUjU) tD -4 N o O 0 N 0 a) m m~0 di .. 0 alO1 O0- cn cO N - m -4N (0-00N (0 it) W N n N . o4Ca 0 0

  14. BSN Program Admittance Criteria: Should Emotional Intelligence Be Included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to identify and monitor emotions and remain aware of how emotions affect thoughts and actions. Emotional intelligence has been discussed as a better predictor of personal and occupational success than performance on intellectual intelligence tests. Despite the importance of one's emotional intelligence, BSN (Bachelor of Science in Nursing) nursing schools routinely admit candidates based on the student's cumulative college course grade point average (GPA). Nursing is a profession that requires one's ability to empathize, care, and react in emotionally sound manners. Is the GPA enough to determine if a student will evolve into a professional nurse? This article will explore the routine admittance criteria for BSN nursing programs and propose the concept of using the emotional intelligence tool as an adjunct to the cumulative college course GPA. The emotional intelligence theory will be identified and applied to the nursing profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Information to Include in Curriculum Vitae | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applicants are encouraged to use their current curriculum vitae and to add any necessary information. Please include your name and a page number on each page of the curriculum vitae. Some of the information requested below will not be applicable to all individuals. Please do not print or type your information on this page. Personal Information Name (First middle last) Gender (optional) Race (optional) Date of birth Place of birth (city,

  16. Water Conservation and Reuse. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.

    Described is a learning session on water conservation intended for citizen advisory groups interested in water quality planning. Topics addressed in this instructor's manual include water conservation needs, benefits, programs, technology, and problems. These materials are components of the Working for Clean Water Project. (Author/WB)

  17. Optimization Program for Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Area-Wide Optimization Program (AWOP) provides tools and approaches for drinking water systems to meet water quality optimization goals and provide an increased – and sustainable – level of public health protection to their consumers.

  18. 34 CFR 263.4 - What training costs may a Professional Development program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What training costs may a Professional Development... GRANT PROGRAMS Professional Development Program § 263.4 What training costs may a Professional Development program include? (a) A Professional Development program may include, as training costs, assistance...

  19. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region. CIMS is an organized, distributed library of information and software tools designed to increase basin-wide public access to Chesapeake Bay information. The information delivered by CIMS includes technical and public information, educational material, environmental indicators, policy documents, and scientific data. Through the use of relational databases, web-based programming, and web-based GIS a large number of Internet resources have been established. These resources include multiple distributed on-line databases, on-demand graphing and mapping of environmental data, and geographic searching tools for environmental information. Baseline monitoring data, summarized data and environmental indicators that document ecosystem status and trends, confirm linkages between water quality, habitat quality and abundance, and the distribution and integrity of biological populations are also available. One of the major features of the CIMS network is the Chesapeake Bay Program's Data Hub, providing users access to a suite of long- term water quality and living resources databases. Chesapeake Bay mainstem and tidal tributary water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, toxics, plankton, and fluorescence data can be obtained for a network of over 800 monitoring stations.

  20. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-08-18

    The Water Power Peer Review Meeting was held February 24-28, 2014 in Arlington, VA. Principle investigators from the Energy Department National Laboratories, academic, and industry representatives presented the progress of their DOE-funded research. This report documents the formal, rigorous evaluation process and findings of nine independent reviewers who examined the technical, scientific, and business results of 96 projects of the Water Power Program, as well as the productivity and management effectiveness of the Water Power Program itself.

  1. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  2. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This

  3. 34 CFR 86.100 - What must the IHE's drug prevention program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the IHE's drug prevention program include? 86.100 Section 86.100 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.100 What must the IHE's drug prevention program include? The...

  4. Assessment of potable water quality including organic, inorganic, and trace metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Shamsun; Zhang, Jing

    2012-02-01

    The quality of drinking water (tap, ground, and spring) in Toyama Prefecture, Japan was assessed by studying quality indicators including major ions, total carbon, and trace metal levels. The physicochemical properties of the water tested were different depending on the water source. Major ion concentrations (Ca(2+), K(+), Si(4+), Mg(2+), Na(+), SO(4)(2-), HCO(3)(-), NO(3)(-), and Cl(-)) were determined by ion chromatography, and the results were used to generate Stiff diagrams in order to visually identify different water masses. Major ion concentrations were higher in ground water than in spring and tap water. The relationship between alkaline metals (Na(+) and K(+)), alkaline-earth metals (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)), and HCO(3)(-) showed little difference between deep and shallow ground water. Toyama ground, spring, and tap water were all the same type of water mass, called Ca-HCO(3). The calculated total dissolved solid values were below 300 mg/L for all water sources and met World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. Trace levels of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Zn, Sr, and Hg were detected in ground, spring, and tap water sources using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and their levels were below WHO and Japanese water quality standard limits. Volatile organic carbon compounds were quantified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the measured concentrations met WHO and Japanese water quality guidelines. Total trihalomethanes (THMs) were the major contaminant detected in all natural drinking water sources, but the concentration was highest in tap water (37.27 ± 0.05 μg/L). Notably, THMs concentrations reached up to 1.1 ± 0.05 μg/L in deep ground water. The proposed model gives an accurate description of the organic, inorganic, and trace heavy metal indicators studied here and may be used in natural clean water quality management. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  5. 36 CFR 1223.14 - What elements must a vital records program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What elements must a vital... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT MANAGING VITAL RECORDS § 1223.14 What elements must a vital records program include? To achieve compliance with this section, an agency's vital records program must...

  6. Efficacy of an Individualized Prevention Program Including Social Media Support on University Students with Gingivitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Alberto Serrano Méndez; Karen Andrea Avendaño Calderón; Paula Andrea Moreno Caro

    2017-01-01

    ...: Thirty-eight students with gingivitis participated in a program that included: Individualized oral hygiene instruction, professional removal of plaque and calculus and, recall and support on oral hygiene through the use of social media...

  7. Overview of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P.P.; Thompson, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Nation's water resources are the basis for life and our economic vitality. These resources support a complex web of human activities and fishery and wildlife needs that depend upon clean water. Demands for good-quality water for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry are rising, and as a result, the American public is concerned about the condition and sustainability of our water resources. The American public is asking: Is it safe to swim in and drink water from our rivers or lakes? Can we eat the fish that come from them? Is our ground water polluted? Is water quality degrading with time, and if so, why? Has all the money we've spent to clean up our waters, done any good? The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was designed to provide information that will help answer these questions. NAWQA is designed to assess historical, current, and future water-quality conditions in representative river basins and aquifers nationwide. One of the primary objectives of the program is to describe relations between natural factors, human activities, and water-quality conditions and to define those factors that most affect water quality in different parts of the Nation. The linkage of water quality to environmental processes is of fundamental importance to water-resource managers, planners, and policy makers. It provides a strong and unbiased basis for better decisionmaking by those responsible for making decisions that affect our water resources, including the United States Congress, Federal, State, and local agencies, environmental groups, and industry. Information from the NAWQA Program also will be useful for guiding research, monitoring, and regulatory activities in cost effective ways.

  8. Comprehensive Adolescent Health Programs That Include Sexual and Reproductive Health Services: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Özge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert William

    2014-01-01

    We systematically reviewed peer-reviewed and gray literature on comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs (1998–2013), including sexual and reproductive health services. We screened 36 119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. We synthesized data into descriptive characteristics and assessed quality by evidence level. We extracted data on 46 programs, of which 19 were defined as comprehensive. Ten met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Mexico. Three programs displayed rigorous evidence; 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. Those with rigorous or strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. The long-term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven because of insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects. PMID:25320876

  9. Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program (review), including a report of the Reservoir Engineering Technical Advisory Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, D.L. (ed.)

    1979-12-01

    The FY 1979 Program, recommended seismic surveys in conjunction with DOE/DGE's industry coupled program in the Northern Basin and Range Province, and the objectives of the Marina del Rey conference are presented. Final reports of six committees which met to define the state-of-the-art in geothermal exploration and to recommend exploration technology development are included. These committees are: structure, stratigraphy, and igneous processes; exploration architecture; electrical methods; seismic methods; thermal methods; water/rock interaction; and reservoir engineering. (MHR)

  10. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State water management... STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State... major elements of the State water management program, which should address but not be limited to: (i...

  11. The Role of Communicative Feedback in Successful Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tauchus, Gail; Williams, Jared; Tong, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The Sacramento County Water Agency has made available 2 water conservation programs to its customers. The Data Logger Program attaches the Meter Master Model 100 EL data logger to the customer's water meter for 1 week and provides a detailed report of water usage from each fixture. The Water Wise House Call Program provides findings and…

  12. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Systems Division has the primary responsibility for the Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the NASA Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses major problems facing water resources managers, including having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA's science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA's Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  13. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  14. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Programs. RUS, through the Water and Environmental Programs, provides loan and grant funds for... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.30 Section... Assistant Administrator, Water and Environmental Programs, develops and institutes plans, procedures, and...

  15. USGS Water Availability and Use Science Program - research Towards a national water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, M.

    2016-12-01

    A key part of achieving the US Department of the Interior's sustainability goals is informing the public and decision makers about the status and trends of the Nation's water resources. To achieve these goals the USGS has implemented a National Water Census (NWC) to provide a more accurate picture of the quantity of the Nation's water resources and improve forecasting of water availability for current and future economic, energy production, and environmental uses. In 2016, to streamline water sustainability activities, the USGS realigned all water availability and use oriented research, including the NWC, within a new Program - the Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP). WAUSP supports producing a current, comprehensive scientific assessment of the factors that influence water availability through development of nationally consistent datasets on the status and trends of water budget components (precipitation, streamflow, groundwater, and evapotranspiration), as well as human water use; improving the current understanding of flow requirements for ecological purposes; and evaluating water-resource conditions in selected river basins, or Focus Area Studies, where competition for water is a local concern. In addition to supporting research that provides water budget component estimates at the smallest possible spatial and temporal scale, WAUSP has supported the development of new methods and techniques to improve estimation of water use through the National Water Use Science project. These efforts include developing a heat budget-based model to improve estimates of thermoelectric water use, evaluating direct and indirect water use associated with unconventional oil and gas production, and developing methods to estimate irrigation consumptive use at both the local and regional scale. Additionally, WAUSP collaborates with federal, State, local, and University partners on a number of other water use related research including the new Water Use Data and

  16. 29 CFR 1472.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 1472.215 Section 1472.215 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND... of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any...

  17. 29 CFR 94.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 94.215 Section 94.215 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a...

  18. 31 CFR 20.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 20.215 Section 20.215 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than...

  19. 38 CFR 17.255 - Applications for grants for programs which include construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications for grants... Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.255 Applications for grants for programs which include construction projects. In addition to the documents and...

  20. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes the Use of Informatics Tools, GIS and SAS Software Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning…

  1. The economic value of Quebec's water fluoridation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouaket, Eric; Brousselle, Astrid; Fansi, Alvine; Dionne, Pierre Alexandre; Bertrand, Elise; Fortin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a major public health problem worldwide, with very significant deleterious consequences for many people. The available data are alarming in Canada and the province of Quebec. The water fluoridation program has been shown to be the most effective means of preventing caries and reducing oral health inequalities. This article analyzes the cost-effectiveness of Quebec's water fluoridation program to provide decision-makers with economic information for assessing its usefulness. An approach adapted from economic evaluation was used to: (1) build a logic model for Quebec's water fluoridation program; (2) determine its implementation cost; and (3) analyze its cost-effectiveness. Documentary analysis was used to build the logic model. Program cost was calculated using data from 13 municipalities that adopted fluoridation between 2002 and 2010 and two that received only infrastructure grants. Other sources were used to collect demographic data and calculate costs for caries treatment including costs associated with travel and lost productivity. The analyses showed the water fluoridation program was cost-effective even with a conservatively estimated 1 % reduction in dental caries. The benefit-cost ratio indicated that, at an expected average effectiveness of 30 % caries reduction, one dollar invested in the program saved $71.05-$82.83 per Quebec's inhabitant in dental costs (in 2010) or more than $560 million for the State and taxpayers. The results showed that the drinking-water fluoridation program produced substantial savings. Public health decision-makers could develop economic arguments to support wide deployment of this population-based intervention whose efficacy and safety have been demonstrated and acknowledged.

  2. QMRAcatch: Microbial Quality Simulation of Water Resources including Infection Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Derx, Julia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2015-09-01

    Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of , a human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, , and as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. Diffuse agricultural sources of TMVs that discharge into the main river are not included in this stage of development. The floodplain river is fed by the main river and may flood the plain. Discharged TMVs in the river are subject to dilution and temperature-dependent degradation. River travel times are calculated using the Manning-Gauckler-Strickler formula. Fecal deposits from wildlife, birds, and visitors in the floodplain are resuspended in flood water, runoff to the floodplain river, or infiltrate groundwater. Fecal indicator and MST marker data facilitate calibration. Infection risks from exposure to the pathogenic TMVs by swimming or drinking water consumption are calculated, and the required pathogen removal by treatment to meet a health-based quality target can be determined. Applicability of QMRAcatch is demonstrated by calibrating the tool for a study site at the River Danube near Vienna, Austria, using field TMV data, including a sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the model outcomes. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. National water-quality assessment program : the Albemarle- Pamlico drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Barnes, C.R.; Woodside, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. Study-unit investigations constitute a major component of the NAWQA program, forming the principal building blocks on which national-level assessment activities are based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems. These study units cover areas of 1,200 to more than 65,000 square miles and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for study under the full-scale implementation plan. The Albemarle-Pamlico drainage study will examine the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of water quality issues in a coordinated investigation of surface water and ground water in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin. The quantity and quality of discharge from the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin contribute to some water quality problems in the biologically sensitive waters of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. A retrospective analysis of existing water quality data will precede a 3-year period of intensive data-collection and analysis activities. The data resulting from this study and the improved understanding of important processes and issues in the upstream part of the study unit will enhance understanding of the quality of

  4. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to...

  5. 77 FR 38277 - Wind and Water Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program AGENCY: Office of Energy... Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program is planning a coordination workshop to exchange... in Washington, DC on June 13, 2012. Mark Higgins, Wind and Water Power Acting Program Manager, Office...

  6. 77 FR 5002 - Wind and Water Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program AGENCY: Office of Energy..., request for comment. SUMMARY: The Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP) within the U.S. Department of Energy...: Michael Hahn, Wind and Water Power Program, 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401. Please submit one signed...

  7. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  8. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon AGENCY... that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term...

  9. Region 9 Tribal Clean Water Act Programs and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Tribal Water Office in Region 9 manages all grants related to the Clean Water Act for over 100 federally recognized tribes and provides programmatic and technical assistance for water quality standards and CWA grant programs.

  10. Annual Water Program 1969 : Pungo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual water program covers water management activities for Pungo National Wildlife Refuge for calendar year 1969. The plan covers water flow regime,...

  11. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water management Program [1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Management Program summarizes last year's -water receipts, distribution and general marsh conditions . Anticipated water flows are made from cooperative...

  12. 75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... AGENCY Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Drinking Water Infrastructure Grant Tribal Set-Aside (DWIG TSA) program. The Federal drinking water regulations require some system operators to be ``qualified.'' Participation in EPA's Tribal Drinking Water...

  13. 20 CFR 627.220 - Coordination with programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. 627.220 Section 627.220 Employees' Benefits... of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. (a) Coordination. Financial assistance programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA) (the Pell Grant program, the...

  14. Universal cell frame for high-pressure water electrolyzer and electrolyzer including the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Edwin W.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-08

    Universal cell frame generic for use as an anode frame and as a cathode frame in a water electrolyzer. According to one embodiment, the universal cell frame includes a unitary annular member having a central opening. Four trios of transverse openings are provided in the annular member, each trio being spaced apart by about 90 degrees. A plurality of internal radial passageways fluidly interconnect the central opening and each of the transverse openings of two diametrically-opposed trios of openings, the other two trios of openings lacking corresponding radial passageways. Sealing ribs are provided on the top and bottom surfaces of the annular member. The present invention is also directed at a water electrolyzer that includes two such cell frames, one being used as the anode frame and the other being used as the cathode frame, the cathode frame being rotated 90 degrees relative to the anode frame.

  15. WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; McNeil, Michael; Dunham_Whitehead, Camilla; Letschert, Virginie; della_Cava, Mirka

    2008-02-28

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) influences the market for plumbing fixtures and fittings by encouraging consumers to purchase products that carry the WaterSense label, which certifies those products as performing at low flow rates compared to unlabeled fixtures and fittings. As consumers decide to purchase water-efficient products, water consumption will decline nationwide. Decreased water consumption should prolong the operating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities.This report describes the method used to calculate national water savings attributable to EPA?s WaterSense program. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet model, the National Water Savings (NWS) analysis model, accompanies this methodology report. Version 1.0 of the NWS model evaluates indoor residential water consumption. Two additional documents, a Users? Guide to the spreadsheet model and an Impacts Report, accompany the NWS model and this methodology document. Altogether, these four documents represent Phase One of this project. The Users? Guide leads policy makers through the spreadsheet options available for projecting the water savings that result from various policy scenarios. The Impacts Report shows national water savings that will result from differing degrees of market saturation of high-efficiency water-using products.This detailed methodology report describes the NWS analysis model, which examines the effects of WaterSense by tracking the shipments of products that WaterSense has designated as water-efficient. The model estimates market penetration of products that carry the WaterSense label. Market penetration is calculated for both existing and new construction. The NWS model estimates savings based on an accounting analysis of water-using products and of building stock. Estimates of future national water savings will help policy makers further direct the focus of WaterSense and calculate stakeholder impacts from the program.Calculating the total gallons of water the

  16. Water dimer equilibrium constant calculation: a quantum formulation including metastable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leforestier, Claude

    2014-02-21

    We present a full quantum evaluation of the water second virial coefficient B(T) based on the Takahashi-Imada second order approximation. As the associated trace T r[e(-βH(AB)) - e(-βH(0)(AB))] is performed in the coordinate representation, it does also include contribution from the whole continuum, i.e., resonances and collision pairs of monomers. This approach is compared to a Path Integral Monte Carlo evaluation of this coefficient by Schenter [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 6573 (2002)] for the TIP4P potential and shown to give extremely close results in the low temperature range (250-450 K) reported. Using a recent ab initio flexible potential for the water dimer, this new formulation leads to very good agreement with experimental values over the whole range of temperatures available. The virial coefficient is then used in the well known relation Kp(T) = -(B(T) - bM)/RT where the excluded volume bM is assimilated to the second virial coefficient of pure water monomer vapor and approximated from the inner repulsive part of the interaction potential. This definition, which renders bM temperature dependent, allows us to retrieve the 38 cm(3) mol(-1) value commonly used, at room temperature. The resulting values for Kp(T) are in agreement with available experimental data obtained from infrared absorption spectra of water vapor.

  17. Transportation R and D included in thermal and mechanical sciences program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is a multiprogram research and development laboratory operated by The University of Chicago for the US Department of Energy. At Argonne, applied research in thermal and mechanical sciences is performed within the Thermal and Mechanical Sciences Section of the Energy Technology Division. Current program areas include compact evaporators and condensers for the process and transportation industries, ice slurries for district cooling, advanced fluids for improved heat transfer and reduced pressure drop, flow-induced vibration and flow distribution in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, and dynamics and control of maglev systems. In general, the objective of the research is to extend the technology base in each of these areas and to facilitate its application in solving problems of importance to US industries and utilities. This is accomplished by developing validated design correlations and predictive methods. The staff of the Thermal and Mechanical Sciences Section have extensive experimental and analytical experience in heat transfer, multiphase flow, structural dynamics and control, fluid-structure interaction, transient flow and mixing, thermally driven flows, and flow visualization using ultra-high-speed video. Large, general-purpose test facilities and smaller, single-purpose test apparatuses are available for experiments and component design evaluation. A world-class capability in the study of flow-induced vibrations exists within the Section. Individual fact sheets, describing currently active research program areas, related facilities, and listing, as a contact, the principal investigator, are included.

  18. A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zanchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.

  19. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  20. Water dimer equilibrium constant calculation: A quantum formulation including metastable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leforestier, Claude, E-mail: claude.leforestier@univ-montp2.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt, CNRS 5253, CC 15.01, Université Montpellier II-CNRS, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France)

    2014-02-21

    We present a full quantum evaluation of the water second virial coefficient B(T) based on the Takahashi-Imada second order approximation. As the associated trace Tr[e{sup −βH{sub A}{sub B}}−e{sup −βH{sub A}{sub B}{sup o}}] is performed in the coordinate representation, it does also include contribution from the whole continuum, i.e., resonances and collision pairs of monomers. This approach is compared to a Path Integral Monte Carlo evaluation of this coefficient by Schenter [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 6573 (2002)] for the TIP4P potential and shown to give extremely close results in the low temperature range (250–450 K) reported. Using a recent ab initio flexible potential for the water dimer, this new formulation leads to very good agreement with experimental values over the whole range of temperatures available. The virial coefficient is then used in the well known relation K{sub p}(T) = −(B(T) − b{sub M})/RT where the excluded volume b{sub M} is assimilated to the second virial coefficient of pure water monomer vapor and approximated from the inner repulsive part of the interaction potential. This definition, which renders b{sub M} temperature dependent, allows us to retrieve the 38 cm{sup 3} mol{sup −1} value commonly used, at room temperature. The resulting values for K{sub p}(T) are in agreement with available experimental data obtained from infrared absorption spectra of water vapor.

  1. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that these...

  2. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory Revisions...

  3. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interpreting the results of scientific and engineering research on water-resources problems. (10) Providing... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM...

  4. GateWay Community College Water Resources Program Partnerships: An Opportunity for Program Success and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, M.

    2012-12-01

    GateWay Community College Water Resources Technologies (WRT) Program offers Certificate of Completions and Associate Degrees on Hydrologic Studies, Water Treatment and Wastewater Treatment. The program has been in existence since 1998 and has gone through several updates to meet the demand for professionals in those areas. The program includes theoretical and practical hands-on training in the monitoring of water quality and quantity as well as in water and industrial wastewater treatment. The WRT program offers online, face-to-face, and hybrid courses to address different student's needs for training. The program only Full-time faculty is supported by 15 adjunct- faculty professionals. Adjunct faculty is usually hired from a wide variety of professional people already working in the industry that have shown interest on teaching. Adjunct faculty also provide free tutoring to the WRT students when they are not teaching courses. The college Learning Center provides funding to support these tutoring activities. The program has an active Advisory Committee that provides guidance and recommends program changes to meet their training needs. This Advisory Committee is made of professionals from different federal, state, county agencies, and municipalities, private industry and consulting companies in the area. The Advisory Committee meets every year to provide feedback to GateWay on curriculum changes and commit to potential internship opportunities for the WRT students. Those internships (or voluntary work) are paid directly by the municipalities or agencies or can be paid by the GateWay WRT program. These internship jobs provides with an opportunity to actively promote the WRT program throughout the valley. The GateWay WRT program considers the Advisory Committee an essential component for the program success: the committee supports the program in recommending and acquiring the latest field equipment needed for the hands-on training. One of the main WRT program

  5. Body Image and quality of life of senior citizens included in a cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vargas Amaral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people who have to live with some kind of disease tend to adopt healthy habits and create new ways of seeing themselves. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the index of quality of life and self perception of patients included in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program in Florianopolis/Brazil. The sample consists of 24 subjects of 62 ± 1.3 years of age, who have coronary artery disease. The Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ was used to assess the quality of life, and to identify the degree of body image discontentment the Stunkard and Sorensen questionnaire (1993 was applied. Statistical analysis was made through statistics programs and the software SPSS 11.0. The degree of association between variables was studied with Kendall test. It was verified that the higher the BMI and the current body shape, the greatest the degree of body image dissatisfaction. The emotional symptoms also appear to be significantly correlated with a desire for a smaller body shape and with indicators of lower quality of life (r = 0474 = 0735, p major 0.05. The physical symptoms were also considerably associated with the emotional symptoms. These results suggest that the variables concerning the quality of life are meaningful to significant body image and satisfaction, which seems to correlate with fewer emotional problems and better facing of the disease. Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Programs that implement physical activity in daily habits proves to be a suitable tool for improving these ailments in this post-acute phase

  6. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  7. Reliability Analysis of Brittle Material Structures - Including MEMS(?) - With the CARES/Life Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.

    2002-01-01

    Brittle materials are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts. thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The CARES/Life code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. For this presentation an interview of the CARES/Life program will be provided. Emphasis will be placed on describing the latest enhancements to the code for reliability analysis with time varying loads and temperatures (fully transient reliability analysis). Also, early efforts in investigating the validity of using Weibull statistics, the basis of the CARES/Life program, to characterize the strength of MEMS structures will be described as as well as the version of CARES/Life for MEMS (CARES/MEMS) being prepared which incorporates single crystal and edge flaw reliability analysis capability. It is hoped this talk will open a dialog for potential collaboration in the area of MEMS testing and life prediction.

  8. A tool to include gamma analysis software into a quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Christina E; McGarry, Conor K

    2016-03-01

    To provide a tool to enable gamma analysis software algorithms to be included in a quality assurance (QA) program. Four image sets were created comprising two geometric images to independently test the distance to agreement (DTA) and dose difference (DD) elements of the gamma algorithm, a clinical step and shoot IMRT field and a clinical VMAT arc. The images were analysed using global and local gamma analysis with 2 in-house and 8 commercially available software encompassing 15 software versions. The effect of image resolution on gamma pass rates was also investigated. All but one software accurately calculated the gamma passing rate for the geometric images. Variation in global gamma passing rates of 1% at 3%/3mm and over 2% at 1%/1mm was measured between software and software versions with analysis of appropriately sampled images. This study provides a suite of test images and the gamma pass rates achieved for a selection of commercially available software. This image suite will enable validation of gamma analysis software within a QA program and provide a frame of reference by which to compare results reported in the literature from various manufacturers and software versions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Water Quality: Water Education for Teachers. A 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, G. Morgan; Kling, Emily B.

    This looseleaf notebook is a teacher resource package that is designed for enrichment program use. It contains five units dealing with water quality: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Our Water Supply; (3) Waste/Water Treatment; (4) Water Conservation; (5) Water Pollution. The units provide background information, experiments, stories, poems, plays, and…

  10. 78 FR 67369 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All Vaccines Against Seasonal Influenza AGENCY: Health... vaccines against seasonal influenza are covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program...

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Griffith; Robert Youngblood; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Cathy Barnard; Kathryn McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans.

  12. Including nonadditive genetic effects in mating programs to maximize dairy farm profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliloo, H; Pryce, J E; González-Recio, O; Cocks, B G; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J

    2017-02-01

    We compared the outcome of mating programs based on different evaluation models that included nonadditive genetic effects (dominance and heterozygosity) in addition to additive effects. The additive and dominance marker effects and the values of regression on average heterozygosity were estimated using 632,003 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 7,902 and 7,510 Holstein cows with calving interval and production (milk, fat, and protein yields) records, respectively. Expected progeny values were computed based on the estimated genetic effects and genotype probabilities of hypothetical progeny from matings between the available genotyped cows and the top 50 young genomic bulls. An index combining the traits based on their economic values was developed and used to evaluate the performance of different mating scenarios in terms of dollar profit. We observed that mating programs with nonadditive genetic effects performed better than a model with only additive effects. Mating programs with dominance and heterozygosity effects increased milk, fat, and protein yields by up to 38, 1.57, and 1.21 kg, respectively. The inclusion of dominance and heterozygosity effects decreased calving interval by up to 0.70 d compared with random mating. The average reduction in progeny inbreeding by the inclusion of nonadditive genetic effects in matings compared with random mating was between 0.25 to 1.57 and 0.64 to 1.57 percentage points for calving interval and production traits, respectively. The reduction in inbreeding was accompanied by an average of A$8.42 (Australian dollars) more profit per mating for a model with additive, dominance, and heterozygosity effects compared with random mating. Mate allocations that benefit from nonadditive genetic effects can improve progeny performance only in the generation where it is being implemented, and the gain from specific combining abilities cannot be accumulated over generations. Continuous updating of genomic predictions and mate

  13. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and...

  14. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Program [1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Management Program summarizes last year's water receipts, distribution, and general marsh conditions. Using past records of waterfowl use and productivity...

  15. The Five Star and Urban Waters Restoration Grant Program - 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about a grants program funded by EPA Urban Waters and sponsored by the Urban Waters Federal Partnership. The request for proposals is open from November 3 2015 - February 3 2016.

  16. 2015 Key Water Power Program and National Laboratory Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Water Power Program is committed to developing and deploying a portfolio of innovative technologies and market solutions for clean, domestic power generation from water resources across the United States.

  17. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  18. Educational program in crisis management for cardiac surgery teams including high realism simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Raemer, Daniel B; Schneider, Robert C; Frankel, Allan S; Berry, William R; Agnihotri, Arvind K

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac surgery demands effective teamwork for safe, high-quality care. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a comprehensive program to sharpen performance of experienced cardiac surgical teams in acute crisis management. We developed and implemented an educational program for cardiac surgery based on high realism acute crisis simulation scenarios and interactive whole-unit workshop. The impact of these interventions was assessed with postintervention questionnaires, preintervention and 6-month postintervention surveys, and structured interviews. The realism of the acute crisis simulation scenarios gradually improved; most participants rated both the simulation and whole-unit workshop as very good or excellent. Repeat simulation training was recommended every 6 to 12 months by 82% of the participants. Participants of the interactive workshop identified 2 areas of highest priority: encouraging speaking up about critical information and interprofessional information sharing. They also stressed the importance of briefings, early communication of surgical plan, knowing members of the team, and continued simulation for practice. The pre/post survey response rates were 70% (55/79) and 66% (52/79), respectively. The concept of working as a team improved between surveys (P = .028), with a trend for improvement in gaining common understanding of the plan before a procedure (P = .075) and appropriate resolution of disagreements (P = .092). Interviewees reported that the training had a positive effect on their personal behaviors and patient care, including speaking up more readily and communicating more clearly. Comprehensive team training using simulation and a whole-unit interactive workshop can be successfully deployed for experienced cardiac surgery teams with demonstrable benefits in participant's perception of team performance. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Algorithms and Programs for Strong Gravitational Lensing In Kerr Space-time Including Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie; Maddumage, Prasad

    2015-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  20. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad [Research Computing Center, Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie, E-mail: bchen3@fsu.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans. For the LWRS Program, sustainability is defined as the ability to maintain safe and economic operation of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants for a longer-than-initially-licensed lifetime. It has two facets with respect to long-term operations: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the industry to implement technology to exceed the performance of the current labor-intensive business model.

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn McCarthy; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Curtis Smith; Cathy Barnard

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

  3. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Kathryn A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Busby, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Barnard, Cathy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

  4. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems occupy approximately 1% of the earth's surface yet possess about 12% of all known animal species. By virtue of their position in the landscape they connect terrestrial and coastal marine biomes and provide and sustain ecosystem services vital to the health and persistence of human communities. These services include the supply of water for food production, urban and industrial consumption, among others. Over the past century many freshwater ecosystems around the world have been heavily modified or lost due to the alteration of flow regimes (e.g. damming, canalization, diversion, over-abstraction). The synergistic impacts of land use change, changes in flows, chemical deterioration, and climate change have left many systems and their species very little room to adjust to change, while future projections indicate a steady increase imbalance in water demand for food and energy production and water supply to suit the needs of a growing world population. In Mexico, the focus has been to secure water for human development and maximize economic growth, which has resulted in allocation of water beyond available amounts, and that in many river basins has led imbalance of water in nature. As a consequence episodic water scarcity severely constrains freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Climatic change and variability are presenting serious challenges to a country that already is experiencing serious strain on its water resources. However, freshwater ecosystems are recognized by law as legitimate user of water, and mandate a flow allocation for the environment ('water reserve' or 'environmental flows'). Based on this legal provision the Mexican government through the National Water Commission (Conagua), with support of the Alliance WWF - Fundación Gonzalo Río Arronte, and the Interamerican Development Bank, has launched a national program to identify and implement 'water reserves': basins where environmental flows will be secured and

  5. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  6. 78 FR 56695 - Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... EPA's proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in.../index.html . Dated: August 29, 2013. Tim Henry, Acting Director, Water Division, EPA Region 5. BILLING... Under the Clean Water Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Reopening of comment...

  7. 34 CFR 84.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy... assistance programs; and (d) The penalties that you may impose upon them for drug abuse violations occurring in the workplace. (Authority: E.O.s 12549 and 12689; 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec...

  8. National Irrigation Water Quality Program data-synthesis data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Under the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) of the U.S. Department of the Interior, researchers investigated contamination caused by irrigation drainage in 26 areas in the Western United States from 1986 to 1993. From 1992 to 1995, a comprehensive relational data base was built to organize data collected during the 26-area investigations. The data base provided the basis for analysis and synthesis of these data to identify common features of contaminated areas and hence dominant biologic, geologic, climatic, chemical, and physiographic factors that have resulted in contamination of water and biota in irrigated areas in the Western United States. Included in the data base are geologic, hydrologic, climatological, chemical, and cultural data that describe the 26 study areas in 14 Western States. The data base contains information on 1,264 sites from which water and bottom sediment were collected. It also contains chemical data from 6,903 analyses of surface water, 914 analyses of ground water, 707 analyses of inorganic constituents in bottom sediments, 223 analyses of organochlorine pesticides in bottom sediments, 8,217 analyses of inorganic constituents in biota, and 1,088 analyses for organic constituents in biota. The data base is available to the public and can be obtained at the NIWQP homepage http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp as dBase III tables for personal-computer systems or as American Standard Code for Information Exchange structured query language (SQL) command and data files for SQL data bases.

  9. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00 a.m...

  10. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance agreement...

  11. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen S.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, our Nation has sought to improve its water quality; however, many water-quality issues remain unresolved. To address the need for consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program is unique compared with other national water-quality assessment studies in that it integrates the monitoring of the quality of surface and ground waters with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units. These study units represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The island of Oahu, Hawaii, is one such study unit designed to supplement water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation while addressing issues relevant to the island of Oahu.

  12. Offshore marine observation of Willow Ptarmigan, including water landings, Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola; Burril, Sean E.; St. Peters, Michelle A.; Wetzel, Jennifer D.

    2005-01-01

    We report an observation of Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) encountered 8 to 17 km from the nearest shoreline on Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska, on 30 August 2003. The ptarmigan were observed flying, landing on our research vessel, and landing and taking off from the water surface. We also report on one other observation of ptarmigan sitting on the water surface and other marine observations of ptarmigan from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database. These observations provide evidence that Willow Ptarmigan are capable of dispersing across large bodies of water and landing and taking off from the water surface.

  13. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  14. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Includes May 1979 edition and Supplements 1-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracts/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  15. Increasing the technical and economic performance of wind diesel systems by including fresh water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many remote regions of the world there is a lack of both electricity and potable water. In order to increase the standard of living and thus maintain the population both power and water have to be supplied at reasonable prices. A good option at many of these places are wind diesel systems...

  16. [Michigan Technological University Pre-Service Teacher Enhancement Program]. [Includes a copy of the Student Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.S.; Yarroch, W.L.

    1993-04-27

    The Michigan Technological University Teacher Education Program received funding from the US Department of Energy for the purpose of providing capable and suitably inclined, MTU Engineering and Science students a chance to explore high school level science and mathematics teaching as a career option. Ten undergraduate students were selected from nominations and were paired with mentor teachers for the study. This report covers the experience of the first ten nominees and their participation in the program.

  17. ECO: A Generic Eutrophication Model Including Comprehensive Sediment-Water Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Johannes G. C.; van Beek, Jan K. L.

    2013-01-01

    The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO’s calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction. PMID:23844160

  18. ECO: a generic eutrophication model including comprehensive sediment-water interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Johannes G C; van Beek, Jan K L

    2013-01-01

    The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO's calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction.

  19. ECO: a generic eutrophication model including comprehensive sediment-water interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G C Smits

    Full Text Available The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si, phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands. Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO's calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction.

  20. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; comparison to hot water extraction, including purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Huurman, Sander

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a practical comparison of an acidified water extraction of freshly harvested Stevia
    plants (the NewFoss method) to the hot water extraction of dried Stevia plants, the industry standard. Both
    extracts are subsequently purified using lab-/bench scale standard industrial

  1. 2005/2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Peace River South (including Carter Creek)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  2. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  3. 77 FR 61012 - Expansion of Importer Self-Assessment Program To Include Qualified Importers of Focused...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ..., and to discuss the scope and methodology of the self-testing plan developed by the company. Companies... assessment methodology used by the company; the testing methodology; the frequency of self-testing activities... conducted at least annually. ( www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/trade/trade_programs/importer_self_assessment/ ). Once...

  4. Program Review - Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program; Including a Report of the Reservoir Engineering Technical Advisory Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Dennis L., ed.

    1979-12-01

    In 1978, The Division of Geothermal Energy of the Department of Energy established the Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program. The purpose of this program is to ''provide assistance to the Nation's industrial community by helping to remove technical and associated economic barriers which presently inhibit efforts to bring geothermal electric power production and direct heat application on line''. In the near term this involves the adaptation of exploration and assessment techniques from the mineral and petroleum industry to geothermal applications. In the near to far term it involves the development of new technology which will improve the cost effectiveness of geothermal exploration.

  5. Puerto Rico water resources planning model program description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D.W.; Maddock, Thomas; Karlinger, M.R.; Lloyd, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    Because the use of the Mathematical Programming System -Extended (MPSX) to solve large linear and mixed integer programs requires the preparation of many input data cards, a matrix generator program to produce the MPSX input data from a much more limited set of data may expedite the use of the mixed integer programming optimization technique. The Model Definition and Control Program (MODCQP) is intended to assist a planner in preparing MPSX input data for the Puerto Rico Water Resources Planning Model. The model utilizes a mixed-integer mathematical program to identify a minimum present cost set of water resources projects (diversions, reservoirs, ground-water fields, desalinization plants, water treatment plants, and inter-basin transfers of water) which will meet a set of future water demands and to determine their sequence of construction. While MODCOP was specifically written to generate MPSX input data for the planning model described in this report, the program can be easily modified to reflect changes in the model's mathematical structure.

  6. Coupled modeling of land hydrology–regional climate including human carbon emission and water exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Hui Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions and water use are two major kinds of human activities. To reveal whether these two activities can modify the hydrological cycle and climate system in China, we conducted two sets of numerical experiments using regional climate model RegCM4. In the first experiment used to study the climatic responses to human carbon emissions, the model were configured over entire China because the impacts of carbon emissions can be detected across the whole country. Results from the first experiment revealed that near-surface air temperature may significantly increase from 2007 to 2059 at a rate exceeding 0.1 °C per decade in most areas across the country; southwestern and southeastern China also showed increasing trends in summer precipitation, with rates exceeding 10 mm per decade over the same period. In summer, only northern China showed an increasing trend of evapotranspiration, with increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade; in winter, increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade were observed in most regions. These effects are believed to be caused by global warming from human carbon emissions. In the second experiment used to study the effects of human water use, the model were configured over a limited region—Haihe River Basin in the northern China, because compared with the human carbon emissions, the effects of human water use are much more local and regional, and the Haihe River Basin is the most typical region in China that suffers from both intensive human groundwater exploitation and surface water diversion. We incorporated a scheme of human water regulation into RegCM4 and conducted the second experiment. Model outputs showed that the groundwater table severely declined by ∼10 m in 1971–2000 through human groundwater over-exploitation in the basin; in fact, current conditions are so extreme that even reducing the pumping rate by half cannot eliminate the groundwater depletion cones observed in the area

  7. The case for including reach as a key element of program theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Steve; Porteous, Nancy L

    2013-02-01

    This paper suggests that there is a need to build reach in the logic models and results frameworks of public health initiatives. A lack of explicit thinking about reach in logic models can lead to problems such as narrow/constricted understanding of impacts chain, favoring of 'narrow and efficient' initiatives over 'wide and engaging' initiatives and biased thinking against equity considerations. An alternative approach described in this paper that explicitly considers reach demonstrates that an explicit description of reach in program theory and results logic depictions can improve equity in health and social systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF Co (II IN WATER INCLUDING THREE-BODY CORRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyorini Kusumawardani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the cobalt-water interaction correctly, a new ab initio potential was developed consisting of pair interaction terms as well as three-body contributions. Within this approach, it was possible to correct for the well-known failures of pair potentials in describing solvation phenomena of such ions. A first-shell coordination number of 6 in agreement with experimental data were obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of a single cobalt (II ion in water. The structure of hydrated ion is discussed in terms of radial density functions and coordination number, energy and angular distributions.   Keywords: MC Simulations, cobalt(II, hydration, three-body correction

  9. Including everyone: A peer learning program that works for under-represented minorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques van der Meer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer learning has long been recognised as an effective way to induct first-year students into the academic skills required to succeed at university. One recognised successful model that has been extensively researched is the Supplemental Instruction (SI model; it has operated in the US since the mid-1970s. This model is commonly known in Australasia as the Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS program. Although there is a considerable amount of research into SI and PASS, very little has been published about the impact of peer learning on different student groups, for example indigenous and other ethnic groups. This article reports on the results from one New Zealand university of the effectiveness of PASS for Māori and Pasifika students. The questions this article seeks to address are whether attendance of the PASS program results in better final marks for these two groups of students, and whether the number of sessions attended has an impact on the final marks.

  10. 78 FR 35929 - Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain state water quality standards and for...) list, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. As an... which existing technology-based pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain state...

  11. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality management with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth......-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water......-economic optimiza-tion model can be used to assess costs of meeting additional constraints such as minimum water qual-ity or to economically prioritize investments in waste water treatment facilities based on economic criteria....

  12. A Public Education Program in Water Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, John R.; Armold, Anita A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a program designed to improve public awareness/understanding of major factors in managing water resources. Use is made of an interactive computer simulator to place lay people and teachers in decision-making situations involving real variables and alternatives and to project for them the probable consequences of their water management…

  13. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of water and ammonia over. ZrO2 and sulphated ZrO2 prepared by different methods has been investigated for measuring strong acidity and acidity distribution on sulphated zirconia-type solid super-acid catalysts. The TPD of water provides a simple reliable method for ...

  14. 42 CFR 137.275 - May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Purpose and Scope § 137.275 May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding...

  15. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  16. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  17. 76 FR 9283 - Medicaid Program; Payment Adjustment for Provider-Preventable Conditions Including Health Care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... base of an OPPC, we propose to define OPPC to include, at a minimum, wrong surgical or other invasive... experience serious injury and/or death if they undergo erroneous surgical or other invasive procedures and.... Under these NCDs, Medicare does not cover a particular surgical or other invasive procedure to treat a...

  18. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program works within NASA Earth sciences to leverage investment of satellite and information systems to increase the benefits to society through the widest practical use of NASA research results. Such observations provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as land cover type, vegetation type and health, precipitation, snow, soil moisture, and water levels and radiation. Observations of this type combined with models and analysis enable satellite-based assessment of numerous water resources management activities. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, model results, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. Water resources is one of eight elements in the Applied Sciences Program and it addresses concerns and decision making related to water quantity and water quality. With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands requires using existing resources more efficiently. The potential crises and conflicts arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. but also in many parts of the world. In addition to water availability issues, water quality related

  19. Aids to Navigation for US waters, including territories, as of April 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Structures intended to assist a navigator to determine position or safe course, or to warn of dangers or obstructions to navigation. This dataset includes lights,...

  20. Industrial Water Analysis Program: A Critical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    The effect that time has on the boiler water constituents is an important aspect which must be considered when reviewing the results of the independent...an independent laboratory [2:441. Research Objectives The objectives of this study are the following: 1. Review the current Air Force practice of...any substance which tends to keep a compound, mixture, or solution from changing its form or chemical nautre [6:964]. Quebracho tannin : [a chemical

  1. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  2. Palliative sedation for cancer patients included in a home care program: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Espinos, Claudio; Ruiz de Gaona, Estefania; Gonzalez, Cristina; Ruiz de Galarreta, Lucia; Lopez, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Palliative sedation is a common treatment in palliative care. The home is a difficult environment for research, and there are few studies about sedation at home. Our aim was to analyze this practice in a home setting. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study in a home cohort during 2011. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 18 years or older and enrolled in the Palliative Home Care Program (PHCP) with advanced cancer. The variables employed were: sex, age, primary tumor location, and place of death. We also registered indication, type, drug and dose, awareness of diagnosis and prognosis, consent, survival, presence or absence of rales, painful mouth, and ulcers in patients sedated at home. We also collected the opinions of family members and professionals about the suffering of sedated patients. A total of 446 patients (56% at home) of the 617 admitted to the PHCP between January and December of 2011 passed away. The typical patient in our population was a 70-year-old man with a lung tumor. Some 35 (14%) home patients required sedation, compared to 93 (49%) at the hospital. The most frequent indication was delirium (70%), with midazolam the most common drug (mean dose, 40 mg). Survival was around three days. Rales were frequent (57%) as well as awareness of diagnosis and prognosis (77 and 71%, respectively). Perception of suffering after sedation was rare among relatives (17%) and professionals (8%). In most cases, the decision was made jointly by professionals and family members. Our study confirmed the role of palliative sedation as an appropriate therapeutic tool in the home environment.

  3. Modification of a fire drought index for tropical wetland ecosystems by including water table depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Muh; Setiawan, B.I.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how an existing empirical drought index, i.e. the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) that is commonly used for assessing forest fire danger, has been adjusted and modified for improved use in tropical wetland ecosystems. The improvement included: (i) adjustment of the

  4. A Call to Include Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in Newborn Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raz Somech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs has recently emerged as a useful non-invasive clinical and research tool to investigate thymic activity. It allows the identification of T cell production by the thymus. Quantification of TREC copies has recently been implemented as the preferred test to screen neonates with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID or significant lymphopenia. Neonatal genetic screening for SCID is highly important in countries with high rates of consanguinous marriages, such as Israel, and can be used for early diagnosis, enabling prompt therapeutic intervention that will save lives and improve the outcome of these patients. TREC measurement is also applicable in clinical settings where T cell immunity is involved, including any T cell immunodeficiencies, HIV infection, the aging process, autoimmune diseases, and immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation.

  5. Using remotely sensed data to estimate river characteristics including water-surface velocity and discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Legleiter, Carl; McDonald, Richard R.; Overstreet, Brandon; Conaway, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a project combining field studies and analyses directed at providing an assessment of the accuracy of remotely sensed methods for determining river characteristics such as velocity and discharge. In particular, we describe a remote sensing method for surface velocities using mid-wave thermal camera videography combined with image analysis. One of the critical problems in this work is determining a method for relating remotely measured water-surface velocities to vertically averaged velocities through a velocity index. We explore three similarity profiles that allow a relationship between surface and vertically averaged velocity to be found either using empirical results or simple roughness-to-depth ratios. To test the approaches we compare them in a situation where vertical structure is known over most of the flow depth through ADCP measurements. By determining best-fit profiles through the ADCP profiles, average values of the velocity index are found for the cross-sections where measurement were made. By comparing these to the predicted velocity indices from the three similarity profiles, we find that, although the differences between the various similarity profiles are substantial, they are smaller than differences associated with local nonuniformity and nonhydrostatic flow. Nevertheless, the velocity indices are accurate to about +/-5%, meaning that remotely sensed vertically averaged velocities can be computed to well within the current accuracy standard for such values when used for river gaging.

  6. Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program including the adjunct programs of design reconstitution and material condition and aging management. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. This Part 2 includes chapters on implementation guidance for operational configuration management, implementation guidance for design reconstitution, and implementation guidance for material condition and aging management. Appendices are included on design control, examples of design information, conduct of walkdowns, and content of design information summaries.

  7. Framework for a ground-water quality monitoring and assessment program for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Burow, Karen; Jurgens, Bryant C.; John, Tyler

    2003-01-01

    developed a framework for a comprehensive ground-water-quality monitoring and assessment program for California. The proposed framework relies extensively on previous work conducted by the USGS through its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. In particular, the NAWQA program defines three types of ground-water assessment: (1) status, the assessment of the current quality of the ground-water resource; (2) trends, the detection of changes in water quality, and (3) understanding, assessing the human and natural factors that affect ground-water quality. A Statewide, comprehensive ground-water quality-monitoring and assessment program is most efficiently accomplished by applying uniform and consistent study-design and data-collection protocols to the entire State. At the same time, a comprehensive program should be relevant at a variety of scales, and therefore needs to retain flexibility to address regional and local issues. Consequently, many of the program components include a predominant element that will be consistently applied in all basins, and a secondary element that may be applied in specific basins where local conditions warrant attention.

  8. Including arm exercise during a cold water immersion recovery better assists restoration of sprint cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, D; Egaña, M; Donne, B; Warmington, S A

    2014-08-01

    Sprint (high-intensity) exercise performance is reduced when immediately preceded by cold water immersion (CWI). We aimed to investigate whether this performance effect could be attenuated by combining an active recovery (arm exercise) with hip-level CWI, and whether this attenuation may be related to an effect on core temperature (Tcore ). Participants (n = 8) completed three Wingate tests before (Ex1) and after (Ex2) four different 30-min recovery interventions: CWI at 15 °C (CW15), arm exercise during CWI at 15 °C (CW15+AE), arm exercise during thermoneutral immersion at 34 °C (TW34+AE) and non-immersed arm exercise (AE). After AE and TW34+AE, performance during Ex2 was not different from Ex1; while after CW15+AE and CW15, performance was reduced by 4.9% and 7.6%, respectively. Arm exercise maintained Tcore during recovery in CW15+AE, while it declined to a larger extent upon commencement of Ex2 (-0.9 °C) when compared with CW15 (-0.6 °C). This suggests similar leg muscle cooling during recovery in CW15 and CW15+AE. Without any other significant effects (e.g., on blood lactate), these data suggest that the improvement in sprint performance following an active CWI recovery, over CWI alone, may be related to maintained Tcore and its effect on neurophysiological mechanisms that drive muscle activation, but not by reduced muscle cooling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The ground water monitoring program. Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm; Ergebnisse der Beprobung 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm-Strele, J.; Burk, K.; Barufke, K.P.; Feuerstein, W.; Heidland, S.; Kaltenbach, D.; Maisch, M.; Regner, B.; Schuhmann, D.; Seifert, D.; Stekker, D.; Weiller-Schaefer, M.; Werner, K.

    1993-05-01

    The Baden-Wuerttemberg monitoring network for assessment of the actual state of the ground water and of possible development trends is part of a preventive ground water pollution abatement program. The monitoring network was extended considerably in 1992. The organizational structure was changed through takeover of the monitoring networks owned by Verdichtungsmessnetz Wasserversorgung by the water supply utilities. The analytical data compiled in 1992 are presented placing emphasis on the ground water data obtained for critical substances such as nitrates, herbicides, pesticides, and highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. Numerous further results from different types of measuring points are compiled in concise statistical surveys. (orig.)

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Digital Architecture Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Digital Architecture effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The LWRS program is performed in close collaboration with industry research and development (R&D) programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Therefore, a major objective of the LWRS program is the development of a seamless digital environment for plant operations and support by integrating information from plant systems with plant processes for nuclear workers through an array of interconnected technologies. In order to get the most benefits of the advanced technology suggested by the different research activities in the LWRS program, the nuclear utilities need a digital architecture in place to support the technology. A digital architecture can be defined as a collection of information technology (IT) capabilities needed to support and integrate a wide-spectrum of real-time digital capabilities for nuclear power plant performance improvements. It is not hard to imagine that many processes within the plant can be largely improved from both a system and human performance perspective by utilizing a plant wide (or near plant wide) wireless network. For example, a plant wide wireless network allows for real time plant status information to easily be accessed in the control room, field workers’ computer-based procedures can be updated based on the real time plant status, and status on ongoing procedures can be incorporated into smart schedules in the outage command center to allow for more accurate planning of critical tasks. The goal

  11. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development staff...

  12. Experiences of Students with Specific Learning Disorder (Including ADHD) in Online College Degree Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Seleta LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…

  13. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... principles of personal financial management, banking operations, or the benefits of saving for the future... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services. 303.46 Section 303.46 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE...

  14. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's definition... ``Indian country'' as defined by 18 U.S.C. 1151, nor does it intend to limit existing rights of the State...

  15. Nutrient Assimilation Services for Water Quality Credit Trading Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Kurt; Shabman, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Water quality trading programs envision regulated point sources meeting discharge control requirements and then being allowed to increase their nutrient discharge if they secure nutrient reduction credits from other pollutant sources in the watershed. Reduction credits can be created when agricultural land managers implement best management practices and regulators predict that those practices will result in water quality conditions equivalent to controlling discharges at the regulated source...

  16. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge: 1965 Annual Water Program and 1964 Water Use Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the plan for managing waters on Tewaukon National Wildlfie Refuge for calendar year 1965. Water use data for the year 1964 is included in the...

  17. Communicating How Water Works: Results from a Community Water Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerill, Kristan

    2010-01-01

    Based on feedback from attendees at an environmental summit who requested information about regional water sources, a team comprised of a local nonprofit, a state university, and a cooperative extension office created a community water education program. Undergraduate student interns worked with the author to develop a 20-minute science-based…

  18. Specific balance training included in an endurance-resistance exercise program improves postural balance in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.

  19. Summary of DOE/PERF water program review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Gasper, J.; Puder, M.; Leath, P.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    For many years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported and sponsored various types of water research relating to the oil and gas industry through its Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In early 2005, the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) submitted a proposal to DOE for funding an upcoming PERF meeting that would feature water research in the petroleum industry. PERF is a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to provide a stimulus to and a forum for the collection, exchange, and analysis of research information related to the development of technology concerning the petroleum industry, and a mechanism for establishing joint research projects in that field. Additional information on PERF can be accessed at http://www.perf.org. DOE agreed to provide funding to hold a review of its water research program in conjunction with the fall 2005 PERF meeting. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) was asked to coordinate and host the meeting, which was referred to as the DOE/PERF Water Program Review. The program review was held on November 1-4, 2005, in Annapolis, Maryland, at the Historic Inns of Annapolis. The purpose of the program review was to provide a forum for sharing information, reviewing current programs (especially recent unpublished research), and reviewing industry and regulatory needs regarding water use and reuse issues. PERF and DOE/NETL can use this information to plan for future water-related research projects. The water program review provided a unique opportunity in several ways. First, DOE was able to have all of the contractors currently receiving DOE funds for water research present in one room at the same time. Each contractor described his or her research and was able to learn about the research being conducted by the other researchers. Second, this forum allowed representatives of many large oil and gas companies to hear about the DOE research projects and offer their reactions to DOE

  20. ENCOURAGING THE USE OF WETLANDS IN WATER QUALITY TRADING PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in water quality trading (WQT) has grown in recent years because of its potential to meet nutrient reduction goals at lower costs. However, one problem identified by researchers in most WQT programs has been few actual trades, usually associated with low numbers of ...

  1. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for ... Author Affiliations. Vasant R Choudhary1 Abhijeet J Karkamkar1. Chemical Engineering Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008, India ...

  2. Affective Aspects of an Age-Integrated Water Exercise Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Caroline R.; Jamieson, Nancy B.

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed 88 female participants of community-based age-integrated water exercise program designed to enhance comfort and social interaction. Affective measures and observation of membership as a support group elicited few differences by age. Members endorsed having age integration in classes and there was little indication that subgroups of…

  3. Our World of Water. A Spring Program for Fifth Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on water in the built and…

  4. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... conservation standards for residential water heaters (other than tabletop and electric instantaneous models...

  5. A density-functional theory-based neural network potential for water clusters including van der Waals corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawietz, Tobias; Behler, Jörg

    2013-08-15

    The fundamental importance of water for many chemical processes has motivated the development of countless efficient but approximate water potentials for large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, from simple empirical force fields to very sophisticated flexible water models. Accurate and generally applicable water potentials should fulfill a number of requirements. They should have a quality close to quantum chemical methods, they should explicitly depend on all degrees of freedom including all relevant many-body interactions, and they should be able to describe molecular dissociation and recombination. In this work, we present a high-dimensional neural network (NN) potential for water clusters based on density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, which is constructed using clusters containing up to 10 monomers and is in principle able to meet all these requirements. We investigate the reliability of specific parametrizations employing two frequently used generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation functionals, PBE and RPBE, as reference methods. We find that the binding energy errors of the NN potentials with respect to DFT are significantly lower than the typical uncertainties of DFT calculations arising from the choice of the exchange-correlation functional. Further, we examine the role of van der Waals interactions, which are not properly described by GGA functionals. Specifically, we incorporate the D3 scheme suggested by Grimme (J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 154104) in our potentials and demonstrate that it can be applied to GGA-based NN potentials in the same way as to DFT calculations without modification. Our results show that the description of small water clusters provided by the RPBE functional is significantly improved if van der Waals interactions are included, while in case of the PBE functional, which is well-known to yield stronger binding than RPBE, van der Waals corrections lead to overestimated binding energies.

  6. Description of a multifaceted rehabilitation program including overground gait training for a child with cerebral palsy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Elizabeth; Naber, Erin; Geigle, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This case describes the outcomes of a multifaceted rehabilitation program including body weight-supported overground gait training (BWSOGT) in a nonambulatory child with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of this treatment on the child's functional mobility. The patient is a nonambulatory 10-year-old female with CP who during an inpatient rehabilitation stay participated in direct, physical therapy 6 days per week for 5 weeks. Physical therapy interventions included stretching of her bilateral lower extremities, transfer training, bed mobility training, balance training, kinesiotaping, supported standing in a prone stander, two trials of partial weight-supported treadmill training, and for 4 weeks, three to five times per week, engaged in 30 minutes of BWSOGT using the Up n' go gait trainer, Lite Gait Walkable, and Rifton Pacer gait trainer. Following the multifaceted rehabilitation program, the patient demonstrated increased step initiation, increased weight bearing through bilateral lower extremities, improved bed mobility, and increased participation in transfers. The child's Gross Motor Functional Measure (GMFM) scores increased across four dimensions and her Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale (PAMS) increased significantly. This case report illustrates that a multifaceted rehabilitation program including BWSOGT was an effective intervention strategy to improve functional mobility in this nonambulatory child with CP.

  7. MSTor: A program for calculating partition functions, free energies, enthalpies, entropies, and heat capacities of complex molecules including torsional anharmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Mielke, Steven L.; Clarkson, Kenneth L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2012-08-01

    We present a Fortran program package, MSTor, which calculates partition functions and thermodynamic functions of complex molecules involving multiple torsional motions by the recently proposed MS-T method. This method interpolates between the local harmonic approximation in the low-temperature limit, and the limit of free internal rotation of all torsions at high temperature. The program can also carry out calculations in the multiple-structure local harmonic approximation. The program package also includes six utility codes that can be used as stand-alone programs to calculate reduced moment of inertia matrices by the method of Kilpatrick and Pitzer, to generate conformational structures, to calculate, either analytically or by Monte Carlo sampling, volumes for torsional subdomains defined by Voronoi tessellation of the conformational subspace, to generate template input files, and to calculate one-dimensional torsional partition functions using the torsional eigenvalue summation method. Catalogue identifier: AEMF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 77 434 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 264 737 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, C, and Perl Computer: Itasca (HP Linux cluster, each node has two-socket, quad-core 2.8 GHz Intel Xeon X5560 “Nehalem EP” processors), Calhoun (SGI Altix XE 1300 cluster, each node containing two quad-core 2.66 GHz Intel Xeon “Clovertown”-class processors sharing 16 GB of main memory), Koronis (Altix UV 1000 server with 190 6-core Intel Xeon X7542 “Westmere” processors at 2.66 GHz), Elmo (Sun Fire X4600 Linux cluster with AMD Opteron cores), and Mac Pro (two 2.8 GHz Quad-core Intel Xeon

  8. Bisphenol A and other bisphenol analogues including BPS and BPF in surface water samples from Japan, China, Korea and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, James; Lam, Paul K S; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Jeong, Yunsun; Kannan, Pranav; Achyuthan, Hema; Munuswamy, Natesan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of eight bisphenol analogues (BPs) including BPA, BPS, and BPF were determined in surface waters collected from select rivers in Japan, Korea, China, and India. BPA was found at a concentration in the range of several tens to several hundreds of nanograms per liter in most of the rivers surveyed and some of the highest concentrations (54-1950 ng/L) were found in rivers in Chennai, India. Concentrations of BPF were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of BPA in river and sea waters collected from Japan, Korea and China, which suggested that BPF is a major contaminant in surface waters in several Southeast Asian countries. BPF concentrations as high as 2850 ng/L were found in the Tamagawa River in Japan. The flux of BPs through riverine discharges into Tokyo Bay was calculated to be approximately 5.5 t per year. Based on the flux estimates and the mass of BPF found in water column and sediment in Tokyo Bay, it was found that BPF degrades faster than BPA in the environment. Elevated concentrations of BPF found in surface waters suggest the need for further studies to determine the fate and toxicity of this compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacteriological Methods in Water Quality Control Programs. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This instructor's manual presents material on basic bacteriological laboratory procedures as required by Federal Register Water Quality Guidelines. Course topics include: characteristics, occurrences, and significance of bacterial indicators of pollution; bacteriological water quality standards and criteria; collection and handling of samples;…

  10. Bacteriological Methods in Water Quality Control Programs. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on basic bacteriological laboratory procedures as required by Federal Register Water Quality Guidelines. Course topics include: characteristics, occurrences, and significance of bacterial indicators of pollution; bacteriological water quality standards and criteria; collection and handling of samples;…

  11. Urban Stormwater Runoff. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Robert A.

    Urban stormwater runoff collects pollutants from many parts of a city and is an important consideration in water quality planning. Presented is an instructor's guide for a learning session covering various aspects of urban runoff including pollutant sources, management practices, and regulatory programs. Intended for citizen advisory groups, this…

  12. Liquid-vapor equilibrium in systems which include paraffins, naphthenes, olefins, benzene, N-methylpyrrolidone, and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miroshnichenko, A.A.

    1983-07-20

    The selection of efficient separating agents for the extractive fractionation of aliphatic-aromatic hydrocarbon systems has fundamental importance in technology of preparing pure aromatic hydrocarbons. It has been shown previously that N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) can be used as an efficient separating agent for paraffin-aromatic hydrocarbon, naphthene-aromatic hydrocarbon, or olefin-aromatic hydrocarbon systems. It was previously shown that the presence of water in the NMP increases its selectivity in the heptane-benzene system. However, the limited number of systems studied which contain heptane does not allow one to make a judgment about the relative volatility of paraffins, naphthenes, olefins, and benzene in mixtures with NMP containing water. Moreover, the complexity of the indicated systems causes definite difficulties in the experimental study of the isobaric liquid-vapor equilbrium for determining the relative volatility ..cap alpha../sub i-j/ of nonaromatic hydrocarbons, i, and benzene, j, as a function of the concentration of an extractant containing water, X/sub r/. The author has previously made studies of methods of calculating liquid-vapor equilibrium in the analogous systems with anhydrous NMP from a limited amount of information about liquid-vapor equilibrium. Therefore the objective of this work was to perform analytical calculations and an experimental check of liquid-vapor equilibrium in systems which included paraffins, naphthenes, olefins, benzene, NMP, and water.

  13. The Role of Endothelial Dysfunction Markers in Pregnant Women with Chorion Detachment, Included in the Program of Auxiliary Reproductive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Lytvyn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An urgent medical and social problem is the restoration of reproductive function of womenwho suffer from infertility, which became possible due to auxiliary reproductive technologies. Women with induced pregnancy make thegroup of a high-risk on miscarriage, due to interrelated processes –immunological disorders and endothelial dysfunction that occur in the body of pregnant women after the use of extracorporal fertilization programs, and can lead to the chorion detachment and the formation of subchorionic hematomas. The purpose of the study is to determine the role of endothelial dysfunction as one of the leading factors that determine the development of a local non-progressive chorion detachment in infertile patients included in the program of auxiliary reproductive technologies. Materials and methods. We have examined 130 pregnant women, who were divided into groups: the control group included 30 women, whose pregnancy occurred in the natural cycle and with uncomplicated gestational course; the main group – 50 patients with induced pregnancy and risk factors of the occurrence of chorion detachment, who wereperformed the proposed pre-gravidapreparation; the comparative group – 50 pregnant women who received a standard scheme of pregnancy management before and after in-vitro fertilization. A general clinical examination, ultrasound examination, homocysteine level determination, endothelin-1 and nitrogen oxide metabolites were performed. Results. In women included into the program of auxiliary reproductive technologies with local chorion detachment were recorded changes of vascular endothelial function with a possible increase in endothelin-1 production and a decrease of the nitric oxidesynthesis. During the induced pregnancy with the presence of subchorionic hematoma, an increase of the level of endothelium-damaging factor of homocysteine was noted. Conclusions.This study identifies the parameters that reflect the main links of endothelial

  14. Hampton roads regional Water-Quality Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Aaron J.; Jastram, John D.

    2016-12-02

    IntroductionHow much nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids are contributed by the highly urbanized areas of the Hampton Roads region in Virginia to Chesapeake Bay? The answer to this complex question has major implications for policy decisions, resource allocations, and efforts aimed at restoring clean waters to Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. To quantify the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids delivered to the bay from this region, the U.S. Geological Survey has partnered with the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD), in cooperation with the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC), to conduct a water-quality monitoring program throughout the Hampton Roads region.

  15. Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

  16. Hydraulic Model for Drinking Water Networks, Including Household Connections; Modelo hidraulico para redes de agua potable con tomas domiciliarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero Angulo, Jose Oscar [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa (Mexico); Arreguin Cortes, Felipe [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents a hydraulic simulation model for drinking water networks, including elements that are currently not considered household connections, spatially variable flowrate distribution pipelines, and tee secondary network. This model is determined by solving the equations needed for a conventional model following an indirect procedure for the solution of large equations systems. Household connection performance is considered as dependent of water pressure and the way in which users operate the taps of such intakes. This approach allows a better a acquaintance with the drinking water supply networks performance as well as solving problems that demand a more precise hydraulic simulation, such as water quality variations, leaks in networks, and the influence of home water tanks as regulating devices. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo de simulacion hidraulica para redes de agua potable en el cual se incluyen elementos que no se toman en cuenta actualmente, como las tomas domiciliarias, los tubos de distribucion con gastos espacialmente variado y la red secundaria, resolviendo el numero de ecuaciones que seria necesario plantear en un modelo convencional mediante un procedimiento indirecto para la solucion de grandes sistemas de ecuaciones. En las tomas domiciliarias se considera que su funcionamiento depende de las presiones y la forma en que los usuarios operan las llaves de las mismas. Este planteamiento permite conocer mejor el funcionamiento de las redes de abastecimiento de agua potable y solucionar problemas que requieren de una simulacion hidraulica mas precisa, como el comportamiento de la calidad del agua, las fugas en las redes y la influencia reguladora de los tinacos de las casas.

  17. 30 CFR 402.7 - Water-Resources Technology Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-Resources Technology Development Program. 402.7 Section 402.7 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of Water-Resources...

  18. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial water...

  19. South Asian Water (SAWA) Leadership Program on Climate Change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Asian Water (SAWA) Leadership Program on Climate Change. Selon le cinquième rapport du Groupe d'experts intergouvernemental sur l'évolution du climat, les principaux risques en Asie du Sud seraient une augmentation du débordement des rivières, des inondations côtières et des inondations en milieu urbain ...

  20. Do Baseline Requirements Hinder Trades in Water Quality Programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Gaurav; Ribaudo, Marc; Shortle, James

    2009-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are promoting point/nonpoint trading as a way of reducing the costs of meeting water quality goals while giving nonpoint sources a larger role in meeting those goals. Farms can create offsets or credits in a point/nonpoint trading program by implementing management practices such as conservation tillage, nutrient management, and buffer strips. To be eligible to sell credits, farmers must first comply with baseline requ...

  1. Do baseline requirements hinder trades in water quality trading programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Ghosh, Gaurav S.; Shortle, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are promoting point/nonpoint trading as a way of reducing the costs of meeting water quality goals while giving nonpoint sources a larger role in meeting those goals. Farms can create offsets or credits in a point/nonpoint trading program by implementing management practices such as conservation tillage, nutrient management, and buffer strips. To be eligible to sell credits, farmers must first comply with baseline requ...

  2. Genetic Programming and Standardization in Water Temperature Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Arganis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An application of Genetic Programming (an evolutionary computational tool without and with standardization data is presented with the aim of modeling the behavior of the water temperature in a river in terms of meteorological variables that are easily measured, to explore their explanatory power and to emphasize the utility of the standardization of variables in order to reduce the effect of those with large variance. Recorded data corresponding to the water temperature behavior at the Ebro River, Spain, are used as analysis case, showing a performance improvement on the developed model when data are standardized. This improvement is reflected in a reduction of the mean square error. Finally, the models obtained in this document were applied to estimate the water temperature in 2004, in order to provide evidence about their applicability to forecasting purposes.

  3. Remote sensing programs and courses in engineering and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The content of typical basic and advanced remote sensing and image interpretation courses are described and typical remote sensing graduate programs of study in civil engineering and in interdisciplinary environmental remote sensing and water resources management programs are outlined. Ideally, graduate programs with an emphasis on remote sensing and image interpretation should be built around a core of five courses: (1) a basic course in fundamentals of remote sensing upon which the more specialized advanced remote sensing courses can build; (2) a course dealing with visual image interpretation; (3) a course dealing with quantitative (computer-based) image interpretation; (4) a basic photogrammetry course; and (5) a basic surveying course. These five courses comprise up to one-half of the course work required for the M.S. degree. The nature of other course work and thesis requirements vary greatly, depending on the department in which the degree is being awarded.

  4. 45 CFR 284.30 - What information must the State include in its assessment of the impact of the TANF program(s) in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... program(s); (2) The total amount of State and Tribal spending on TANF cash assistance payments; (3) The... Food Stamp Program or other State supportive and assistance programs; (4) The proportion of students...

  5. CD4+ T Cell Help Confers a Cytotoxic T Cell Effector Program Including Coinhibitory Receptor Downregulation and Increased Tissue Invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrends, Tomasz; Spanjaard, Aldo; Pilzecker, Bas; Bąbała, Nikolina; Bovens, Astrid; Xiao, Yanling; Jacobs, Heinz; Borst, Jannie

    2017-11-21

    CD4+ T cells optimize the cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response in magnitude and quality, by unknown molecular mechanisms. We here present the transcriptomic changes in CTLs resulting from CD4+ T cell help after anti-cancer vaccination or virus infection. The gene expression signatures revealed that CD4+ T cell help during priming optimized CTLs in expression of cytotoxic effector molecules and many other functions that ensured efficacy of CTLs throughout their life cycle. Key features included downregulation of PD-1 and other coinhibitory receptors that impede CTL activity, and increased motility and migration capacities. "Helped" CTLs acquired chemokine receptors that helped them reach their tumor target tissue and metalloprotease activity that enabled them to invade into tumor tissue. A very large part of the "help" program was instilled in CD8+ T cells via CD27 costimulation. The help program thus enhances specific CTL effector functions in response to vaccination or a virus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrography, Surface water within Sedgwick County including rivers, streams, lakes, ponds and floodways. Some additional drainage ways and aqueducts are also included., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Hydrography dataset current as of 2008. Surface water within Sedgwick County including rivers, streams, lakes, ponds and floodways. Some additional drainage ways and...

  7. Evaluation design of a reactivation care program to prevent functional loss in hospitalised elderly: A cohort study including a randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asmus-Szepesi, Kirsten; Vreede, Paul; Nieboer, Anna; Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Bakker, Ton; Steyerberg, Ewout; Mackenbach, Johan

    2011-01-01

    ... patients by comparing a new intervention program to two usual care programs. Methods/Design. This study will include an effect, process and cost evaluation using a mixed methods design of quantitative and qualitative methods...

  8. Report: Source Water Assessment and Protection Programs Show Initial Promise, But Obstacles Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2005-P-00013, March 28, 2005. Source water assessments are being used by (1) some States to improve the overall drinking water protection program by prioritizing protection efforts and program resources.

  9. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1985 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1984 water management program for Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen...

  10. Probing the structural and dynamical properties of liquid water with models including non-local electron correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-08-07

    Water is a ubiquitous liquid that displays a wide range of anomalous properties and has a delicate structure that challenges experiment and simulation alike. The various intermolecular interactions that play an important role, such as repulsion, polarization, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions, are often difficult to reproduce faithfully in atomistic models. Here, electronic structure theories including all these interactions at equal footing, which requires the inclusion of non-local electron correlation, are used to describe structure and dynamics of bulk liquid water. Isobaric-isothermal (NpT) ensemble simulations based on the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) yield excellent density (0.994 g/ml) and fair radial distribution functions, while various other density functional approximations produce scattered results (0.8-1.2 g/ml). Molecular dynamics simulation in the microcanonical (NVE) ensemble based on Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) yields dynamical properties in the condensed phase, namely, the infrared spectrum and diffusion constant. At the MP2 and RPA levels of theory, ice is correctly predicted to float on water, resolving one of the anomalies as resulting from a delicate balance between van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. For several properties, obtaining quantitative agreement with experiment requires correction for nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), highlighting their importance, for structure, dynamics, and electronic properties. A computed NQE shift of 0.6 eV for the band gap and absorption spectrum illustrates the latter. Giving access to both structure and dynamics of condensed phase systems, non-local electron correlation will increasingly be used to study systems where weak interactions are of paramount importance.

  11. Application of dynamic programming to control khuzestan water resources system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, M.; Heidari, M.

    1977-01-01

    An approximate optimization technique based on discrete dynamic programming called discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP), is employed to obtain the near optimal operation policies of a water resources system in the Khuzestan Province of Iran. The technique makes use of an initial nominal state trajectory for each state variable, and forms corridors around the trajectories. These corridors represent a set of subdomains of the entire feasible domain. Starting with such a set of nominal state trajectories, improvements in objective function are sought within the corridors formed around them. This leads to a set of new nominal trajectories upon which more improvements may be sought. Since optimization is confined to a set of subdomains, considerable savings in memory and computer time are achieved over that of conventional dynamic programming. The Kuzestan water resources system considered in this study is located in southwest Iran, and consists of two rivers, three reservoirs, three hydropower plants, and three irrigable areas. Data and cost benefit functions for the analysis were obtained either from the historical records or from similar studies. ?? 1977.

  12. Prediction of thermophysical and transport properties of ternary organic non-electrolyte systems including water by polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The description and prediction of the thermophysical and transport properties of ternary organic non-electrolyte systems including water by the polynomial equations are reviewed. Empirical equations of Radojković et al. (also known as Redlich-Kister, Kohler, Jacob-Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao-Smith, Toop, Scatchard et al. and Rastogi et al. are compared with experimental data of available papers appeared in well know international journals (Fluid Phase Equilibria, Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, Journal of Solution Chemistry, Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Journal of Molecular Liquids, Thermochimica Acta, etc.. The applicability of empirical models to estimate excess molar volumes, VE, excess viscosities, ηE, excess free energies of activation of a viscous flow,

  13. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  14. Remote sensing inputs to National Model Implementation Program for water resources quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, J. C.; Schmer, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    The Lake Herman watershed in southeastern South Dakota has been selected as one of seven water resources systems in the United States for involvement in the National Model Implementation Program (MIP). MIP is a pilot program initiated to illustrate the effectiveness of existing water resources quality improvement programs. The Remote Sensing Institute (RSI) at South Dakota State University has produced a computerized geographic information system for the Lake Herman watershed. All components necessary for the monitoring and evaluation process were included in the data base. The computerized data were used to produce thematic maps and tabular data for the land cover and soil classes within the watershed. These data are being utilized operationally by SCS resource personnel for planning and management purposes.

  15. An economic inquisition of water quality trading programs, with a case study of Jordan Lake, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motallebi, Marzieh; Hoag, Dana L; Tasdighi, Ali; Arabi, Mazdak; Osmond, Deanna L

    2017-05-15

    A water quality trading (WQT) program was promulgated in North Carolina to address water quality issues related to nutrients in the highly urbanizing Jordan Lake Watershed. Although WQT programs are appealing in theory, the concept has not proved feasible in several attempts between point and nonpoint polluters in the United States. Many application hurdles that create wedges between success and failure have been evaluated in the literature. Most programs, however, face multiple hurdles; eliminating one may not clear a pathway to success. Therefore, we identify and evaluate the combined impact of four different wedges including baseline, transaction cost, trading ratio, and trading cost in the Jordan Lake Watershed program. Unfortunately, when applied to the Jordan Lake program, the analysis clearly shows that a traditional WQT program will not be feasible or address nutrient management needs in a meaningful way. The hurdles individually would be difficult to overcome, but together they appear to be unsurmountable. This analysis shows that there is enough information to pre-identify potential hurdles that could inform policy makers where, and how, the concept might work. It would have saved time, energy, and financial resources if North Carolina had done so before embarking to implement their program in the Jordan Lake Watershed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and... Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.319 Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums... been associated with the ingestion of water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids...

  17. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  18. Developing an environmental water quality monitoring program for Haraz River in Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mitra; Arjmandi, Reza; Shayeghi, Mansoureh; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Karbassi, Abdolreza

    2017-08-01

    Water quality management plans are an indispensable strategy for conservation and utilization of water resources in a sustainable manner. One common industrial use of water is aquaculture. The present study is an attempt to use statistical analyses in order to prepare an environmental water quality monitoring program for Haraz River, in Northern Iran. For this purpose, the analysis of a total number of 18 physicochemical parameters was performed at 15 stations during a 1-year sampling period. According to the results of the multivariate statistical methods, the optimal monitoring would be possible by only 3 stations and 12 parameters, including NH 3 , EC, BOD, TSS, DO, PO 4 , NO 3 , TDS, temperature, turbidity, coliform, and discharge. In other words, newly designed network, with a total number of 36 measurements (3 stations × 12 parameters = 36 parameters), could achieve exactly the same performance as the former network, designed based on 234 measurements (13 stations × 18 parameters = 234 parameters). Based on the results of cluster, principal component, and factor analyses, the stations were divided into three groups of high pollution (HP), medium pollution (MP), and low pollution (LP). By clustering the stations, it would be possible to track the water quality of Haraz River, only by one station at each cluster, which facilitates rapid assessment of the water quality in the river basin. Emphasizing on three main axes of monitoring program, including measurement parameters, sampling frequency, and spatial pattern of sampling points, the water quality monitoring program was optimized for the river basin based on natural conditions of the study area, monitoring objectives, and required financial resources (a total annual cost of about US $2625, excluding the overhead costs).

  19. Sensitivity-Informed De Novo Programming for Many-Objective Water Portfolio Planning Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Kirsch, B. R.; Characklis, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    Risk-based water supply management presents severe cognitive, computational, and social challenges to planning in a changing world. Decision aiding frameworks must confront the cognitive biases implicit to risk, the severe uncertainties associated with long term planning horizons, and the consequent ambiguities that shape how we define and solve water resources planning and management problems. This paper proposes and demonstrates a new interactive framework for sensitivity informed de novo programming. The theoretical focus of our many-objective de novo programming is to promote learning and evolving problem formulations to enhance risk-based decision making. We have demonstrated our proposed de novo programming framework using a case study for a single city’s water supply in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas. Key decisions in this case study include the purchase of permanent rights to reservoir inflows and anticipatory thresholds for acquiring transfers of water through optioning and spot leases. A 10-year Monte Carlo simulation driven by historical data is used to provide performance metrics for the supply portfolios. The three major components of our methodology include Sobol globoal sensitivity analysis, many-objective evolutionary optimization and interactive tradeoff visualization. The interplay between these components allows us to evaluate alternative design metrics, their decision variable controls and the consequent system vulnerabilities. Our LRGV case study measures water supply portfolios’ efficiency, reliability, and utilization of transfers in the water supply market. The sensitivity analysis is used interactively over interannual, annual, and monthly time scales to indicate how the problem controls change as a function of the timescale of interest. These results have been used then to improve our exploration and understanding of LRGV costs, vulnerabilities, and the water portfolios’ critical reliability constraints. These results

  20. [Study of the nutritional status of patients over 65 years included in the home care program in an urban population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Díaz, Belén; Arenas de Larriva, Antonio P; Molina-Recio, Guillermo; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Martínez de la Iglesia, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    To analyse the nutritional status of patients older than 65 years included in the home care program (PAD). Croos-sectional study. 3 urban health centers. 218 patients in the PAD. Mini Nutritional Assessment questionnaire (MNA) was applied. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, dependency, emotional and cognitive status and analytical parameters: 57 variables were collected. Possible associations were analysed by applying the chi square and variance analysis. The level of significance was considered to be Pnutritional status and older age, lower BMI, greater dependence on basic and instrumental activities of daily living and greater cognitive impairment. The lowest mean hemoglobin, albumin, and iron levels were also associated with malnutrition and risk of malnutrition. More than half of PAD patients are malnourished or at risk for it, and a high proportion of them some laboratory abnormality susceptible to be corrected. Most cognitive impairment and functional dependence are closely related to malnutrition; so patients with these characteristics should receive more attention from the nutritional point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students

    OpenAIRE

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height we...

  2. Hot Water Distribution System Program Documentation and Comparison to Experimental Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Evelyn [GE Infrastructure Energy; Craddick, William G [ORNL; Lenarduzzi, Roberto [ORNL; Wendt, Robert L [ORNL; Woodbury, Professor Keith A. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

    2007-09-01

    In 2003, the California Energy Commission s (CEC s) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program funded Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to create a computer program to analyze hot water distribution systems for single family residences, and to perform such analyses for a selection of houses. This effort and its results were documented in a report provided to CEC in March, 2004 [1]. The principal objective of effort was to compare the water and energy wasted between various possible hot water distribution systems for various different house designs. It was presumed that water being provided to a user would be considered suitably warm when it reached 105 F. Therefore, what was needed was a tool which could compute the time it takes for water reaching the draw point to reach 105 F, and the energy wasted during this wait. The computer program used to perform the analyses was a combination of a calculational core, produced by Dr. Keith A. Woodbury, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director, Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, University of Alabama, and a user interface based on LabVIEW, created by Dr. Roberto Lenarduzzi of ORNL. At that time, the computer program was in a relatively rough and undocumented form adequate to perform the contracted work but not in a condition where it could be readily used by those not involved in its generation. Subsequently, the CEC provided funding through Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to improve the program s documentation and user interface to facilitate use by others, and to compare the program s results to experimental data generated by Dr. Carl Hiller. This report describes the program and provides user guidance. It also summarizes the comparisons made to experimental data, along with options built into the program specifically to allow these comparisons. These options were necessitated by the fact that some of the experimental data required options and features not originally included in the program

  3. US scientific contributions to the water resources program of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Schneider, V. R.

    2007-12-01

    It is well recognized that a better understanding of the water cycle and increased availability of hydrological information for surface and groundwater resources are key factors in the ability to sustainably manage water resources. Since its inception in 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has played a critical role in developing isotope applications for hydrology and building scientific capacity in developing countries. Through an active technical cooperation program with a funding of nearly $8M per biennium, the IAEA assists developing countries in using isotope techniques for the assessment and monitoring of water resources, in particular, groundwater resources. In addition, substantial human resources and institutional capacity are built through the provision of training and appropriate equipment for monitoring. The water resources program of the IAEA is implemented with the support of a number of experts and the United States contributes extensively to this program. Although spanning the entire 50 year history of the IAEA, the contribution of US scientists, and particularly those from the US Geological Survey, has been substantial over the past 10 years. These contributions have included assistance in technical cooperation projects in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as internationally coordinated research projects in vadose zone hydrology, surface water - groundwater interactions, and regional aquifer studies. In Ethiopia, a national groundwater assessment program was formulated and a computer database was provided to manage hydrological information. A robust program of capacity building in cooperation with the USGS and Argonne National Laboratory has provided training to a number of IAEA-sponsored candidates from Africa and Latin America. This paper will describe the objectives and results of some of these cooperative efforts.

  4. Building an Interdisciplinary Research Program in Water Conservation: Approach, preliminary findings, and next steps

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, David E.; Endter-Wada, Joanna; Caplan, Arthur; Glenn, Diana T.; Ballard, Guy; Henderson, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Effective urban water conservation programs must harness a synergy of new technologies, public policies, social cost pricing, information dissemination, citizen engagement, and coordinated actions across decision making scales. Together, these factors affect the volume of water an individual user ultimately saves and the overall success of a conservation program or programs. Over the past 18 months, we have started building an interdisciplinary research program in urban water conservation to ...

  5. 75 FR 81642 - Long-Term North to South Water Transfer Program, Sacramento County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... amount of water for transfer, method to make water available, and price. The EIS/EIR will identify... Bureau of Reclamation Long-Term North to South Water Transfer Program, Sacramento County, CA AGENCY... joint EIS/EIR to analyze the effects of water transfers from water agencies in northern California to...

  6. 78 FR 9047 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule... Environmental Quality, Water Supply Division, Public Drinking Water Section (MC-155), Building F, 12100 Park 35... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas AGENCY: United States...

  7. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  8. 75 FR 63466 - Flat Water Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Flat Water Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Flat Water Wind Farm, LLC's application for market...

  9. Isolation and molecular characterization of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotypes from diverse water resources including household drinking water from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Tania; Hameed, Abdul; Muazzam, Ambreen Gul; Jung, Suk-Yul; Gul, Asma; Matin, Abdul

    2013-08-01

    Acanthamoeba, an opportunistic protozoan pathogen, is ubiquitous in nature, and therefore plays a predatory role and helps control microbial communities in the ecosystem. These Acanthamoeba species are recognized as opportunistic human pathogens that may cause blinding keratitis and rare but fatal granulomatous encephalitis. To date, there is not a single report demonstrating Acanthamoeba isolation and identification from environmental sources in Pakistan, and that is the aim of this study. Acanthamoeba were identified by morphological characteristics of their cysts on non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli. Additionally, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with genus-specific primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product for molecular identification. Furthermore, our PCR and sequencing results confirmed seven different pathogenic and nonpathogenic genotypes, including T2-T10, T4, T5, T7, T15, T16, and T17. To the best of our knowledge, we have identified and isolated Acanthamoeba sp., for the first time, from water resources of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. There is an urgent need to address (1) the pathogenic potential of the identified genotypes and (2) explore other environmental sources from the country to examine the water quality and the current status of Acanthamoeba species in Pakistan, which may be a potential threat for public health across the country.

  10. Ca analysis: An Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. PMID:24125908

  11. Ca analysis: an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Expanding the Lessons Learned Program to Include Corps Support Command Commanders and Theater Army Area Command Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-10

    INTRODUCTION The Oral History Program’s purpose is to supplement oFficial histories , to isolate successful command, leadership and managerial...of -the program is to capture the experience of senior leaders in the areas of command, leadership , and management . The individual is interviewed...used to gain insight into command and management techniques and to further research in military history . In June of 1984, the Chief of Staff, General

  13. Sustainable urban stormwater management in the tropics: An evaluation of Singapore's ABC Waters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Lu, X. X.

    2016-07-01

    The Active Beautiful Clean (ABC) Waters Program was implemented in 2006 as part of Singapore's stormwater management strategy and reflects the country's move towards Water Sensitive Urbanism through the adoption of Low-Impact Development (LID) ideology and practices. It is the first holistic and comprehensive LID program in the tropics and holds promise for extension to other tropical cities. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of the goals, LID practices (ABC design features) and design considerations as well as results of several monitored sites, including a constructed wetland, two rain gardens, green roofs and three canal restoration projects. We evaluate the ABC Waters Program based on these initial results and consider the challenges, issues and the research needs for it to meet its hydrological and water quality remediation goals. So far, the ABC design features evaluated perform well in removing particulates. Performance in nutrient removal is poor. With over 60 projects completed within 10 years, post-project monitoring and evaluation is necessary and complements on-going laboratory and modelling research projects conducted by local academic institutions.

  14. Materials Inventory Database for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi Ahmed; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-08-01

    Scientific research involves the purchasing, processing, characterization, and fabrication of many sample materials. The history of such materials can become complicated over their lifetime – materials might be cut into pieces or moved to various storage locations, for example. A database with built-in functions to track these kinds of processes facilitates well-organized research. The Material Inventory Database Accounting System (MIDAS) is an easy-to-use tracking and reference system for such items. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), which seeks to advance the long-term reliability and productivity of existing nuclear reactors in the United States through multiple research pathways, proposed MIDAS as an efficient way to organize and track all items used in its research. The database software ensures traceability of all items used in research using built-in functions which can emulate actions on tracked items – fabrication, processing, splitting, and more – by performing operations on the data. MIDAS can recover and display the complete history of any item as a simple report. To ensure the database functions suitably for the organization of research, it was developed alongside a specific experiment to test accident tolerant nuclear fuel cladding under the LWRS Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels Pathway. MIDAS kept track of materials used in this experiment from receipt at the laboratory through all processes, test conduct and, ultimately, post-test analysis. By the end of this process, the database proved to be right tool for this program. The database software will help LWRS more efficiently conduct research experiments, from simple characterization tests to in-reactor experiments. Furthermore, MIDAS is a universal tool that any other research team could use to organize their material inventory.

  15. Conewago Stream Teams - including youth in watershed restoration creates local watershed connections, prompts community service, and increases water literacy in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Fetter; Sanford Smith; Matt Royer

    2016-01-01

    Youth in Pennsylvania’s Dauphin, Lebanon, and Lancaster Counties were invited to be part of a unique opportunity: a chance to learn, hands-on, about the water in their own community and how their daily lives impact that water. This is the mission of the 4-H Stream Teams program, which was piloted within the Conewago Creek Watershed and surrounding communities in 2010-...

  16. TRAC-PF1: an advanced best-estimate computer program for pressurized water reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1984-02-01

    The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in light water reactors. The TRAC-PF1 program provides this capability for pressurized water reactors and for many thermal-hydraulic experimental facilities. The code features either a one-dimensional or a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and its associated internals; a two-phase, two-fluid nonequilibrium hydrodynamics model with a noncondensable gas field; flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment; optional reflood tracking capability for both bottom flood and falling-film quench fronts; and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. This report describes the thermal-hydraulic models and the numerical solution methods used in the code. Detailed programming and user information also are provided.

  17. 77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear...-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling- Water Reactors.'' This... testing features of emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs). DATES...

  18. Are Water-Related Leadership Development Programs Designed to Be Effective? An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Mark E.; Floress, Kristin; Kaufman, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource professionals and others involved in managing water resources face increasingly complex challenges. Effective leadership development programs are needed to produce water leaders who can address these challenges. Leadership programs must be designed not simply to increase participants' environmental and leadership knowledge but to…

  19. 77 FR 26245 - Household Water Well System Grant Program Announcement of Application Deadlines and Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... with low to moderate incomes finance the costs of household water wells that they own or will own. The... Rural Utilities Service Household Water Well System Grant Program Announcement of Application Deadlines... in grant funds to be competitively awarded for the Household Water Well System (HWWS) Grant Program...

  20. Physical measurements including temperature profiles of coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006 (NODC Accession 0019214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical measurements of Coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, Technical Report NPS-OC-07-002. This...

  1. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  2. Designing and piloting a program to provide water filters and improved cookstoves in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina K Barstow

    Full Text Available In environmental health interventions addressing water and indoor air quality, multiple determinants contribute to adoption. These may include technology selection, technology distribution and education methods, community engagement with behavior change, and duration and magnitude of implementer engagement. In Rwanda, while the country has the fastest annual reduction in child mortality in the world, the population is still exposed to a disease burden associated with environmental health challenges. Rwanda relies both on direct donor funding and coordination of programs managed by international non-profits and health sector businesses working on these challenges.This paper describes the design, implementation and outcomes of a pilot program in 1,943 households across 15 villages in the western province of Rwanda to distribute and monitor the use of household water filters and improved cookstoves. Three key program design criteria include a. an investment in behavior change messaging and monitoring through community health workers, b. free distributions to encourage community-wide engagement, and c. a private-public partnership incentivized by a business model designed to encourage "pay for performance". Over a 5-month period of rigorous monitoring, reported uptake was maintained at greater than 90% for both technologies, although exclusive use of the stove was reported in only 28.5% of households and reported water volume was 1.27 liters per person per day. On-going qualitative monitoring suggest maintenance of comparable adoption rates through at least 16 months after the intervention.High uptake and sustained adoption of a water filter and improved cookstove was measured over a five-month period with indications of continued comparable adoption 16 months after the intervention. The design attributes applied by the implementers may be sufficient in a longer term. In particular, sustained and comprehensive engagement by the program implementer

  3. Molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of electrosprayed water nanodroplets including sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Giovanna; Ceselli, Alberto; Fornili, Sandro L.; Turco Liveri, Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    The behavior of aqueous solutions of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOTNa) under conditions of electrospray ionization (ESI) has been investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) and well-tempered metadynamics (WTM) simulations at 300 K and 400 K. We have examined water droplets with initial fixed numbers of water molecules (1000) and AOT- anions (100), and with sodium cations in the range of 70-130. At 300 K, all charged droplets show the water evaporation rate increasing with the absolute value of the initial droplet charge state (Z), accompanied by ejection of an increasing number of solvated sodium ions or by expulsion of AOT- anions depending on the sign of Z and by fragmentation in the case of high |Z|. At 400 K, the water evaporation becomes more rapid and the fission process more extensive. In all cases, the AOTNa molecules, arranged as a direct micelle inside the aqueous system, undergo a rapid inversion in vacuo so that the hydrophilic heads and sodium ions surrounded by water molecules move toward the droplet interior. At the end of the 100-ns MD simulations, some water molecules remain within the aggregates at both temperatures. The subsequent metadynamics simulations accelerate the droplet evolution and show that all systems become anhydrous, in agreement with the experimental results of ESI mass spectrometry. This complete water loss is accompanied by sodium counterion emission for positively charged aggregates at 300 K. The analysis shows how the temperature and droplet charge state affect the populations of the generated surfactant aggregates, providing information potentially useful in designing future ESI experimental conditions.

  4. Pilot monitoring program: geologic input for the hillslope component (includes a discussion of Caspar Creek geology and geomorphology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. E. Spittler

    1995-01-01

    The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) is submitting this report and accompanying maps to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF) to fulfill Interagency Agreement number 8CA38400, Pilot Monitoring Program -- Geologic Input for the Hillslope Component. Under this agreement, DMG has assisted CDF in the...

  5. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marquis-Gravel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  6. Quick Reference Guide: Working with Stakeholders to Identify Potential Improvement Strategies for Program Improvement (Including the SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 quick reference guide is designed to assist states in understanding what information needs to be available in order for stakeholders to assist in selecting potential improvement strategies that will increase capacity of Local Education Agencies (LEAs), Early Intervention Services (EIS) programs, and practitioners to improve results for…

  7. Building a Steganography Program Including How to Load, Process, and Save JPEG and PNG Files in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Mary F.; Stix, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Instructors teaching beginning programming classes are often interested in exercises that involve processing photographs (i.e., files stored as .jpeg). They may wish to offer activities such as color inversion, the color manipulation effects archived with pixel thresholding, or steganography, all of which Stevenson et al. [4] assert are sought by…

  8. 77 FR 22790 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various... backgrounds, or (3) individuals from ``low-income'' families. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The various health..., public or private nonprofit schools which offer graduate programs in behavioral health and mental health...

  9. 76 FR 14417 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various... backgrounds, or (3) individuals from ``low-income'' families. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The various health..., public or private nonprofit schools which offer graduate programs in behavioral health and mental health...

  10. Characterizing the Breadth and Depth of Volunteer Water Monitoring Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Genskow, Kenneth D.

    2018-01-01

    A survey of 345 volunteer water monitoring programs in the United States was conducted to document their characteristics, and perceived level of support for data to inform natural resource management or policy decisions. The response rate of 86% provided information from 46 states. Programs represented a range of ages, budgets, objectives, scopes, and level of quality assurance, which influenced data uses and perceived support by sponsoring agency administrators and external decision makers. Most programs focused on rivers, streams, and lakes. Programs had not made substantial progress to develop EPA or state-approved quality assurance plans since 1998, with only 48% reporting such plans. Program coordinators reported feeling slightly more support for data to be used for management as compared to policy decisions. Programs with smaller budgets may be at particular risk of being perceived to lack credibility due to failure to develop quality assurance plans. Over half of programs identified as collaborative, in that volunteers assisted scientists in program design, data analysis and/or dissemination of results. Just under a third were contributory, in which volunteers primarily collected data in a scientist-defined program. Recommendations to improve perceived data credibility, and to augment limited budgets include developing quality assurance plans and gaining agency approval, and developing partnerships with other organizations conducting monitoring in the area to share resources and knowledge. Funding agencies should support development of quality assurance plans to help ensure data credibility. Service providers can aid in plan development by providing training to program staff over time to address high staff turnover rates.

  11. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height were 20.8 years and 161.9 cm, respectively. After 8 weeks, there were significant reductions in body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and BMI. The dietary habit score such as a balanced diet, regularity of mealtime, overeating, eating while watching TV or using the computer and eating salty food were increased significantly. Serum lipid levels such as total cholesterol level, LDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were decreased but not significantly. There were decreases in intake of energy, protein and fat and increases in intakes of dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and potassium from the beginning to the end of the program. There were significant improvements on subcomponents of quality of life; physical functioning, general-health and vitality. The limitation of this study was the fact that there was no control group, but an overall evaluation suggests the 8-week body weight control program consisting of diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification with supplementation of sea tangle would be helpful to improve the body composition, dietary habits, daily nutrient intakes and quality of life in Korean female college students.

  12. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the effects of the 1988 water levels, water supply and water use on the ecology at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1989. The report also...

  13. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the effects of the 1987 water levels, water supply and water use on the ecology at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The report also...

  14. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the effects of the 1989 water levels, water supply and water use on the ecology at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1990. The report also...

  15. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the effects of the 1990 water levels, water supply and water use on the ecology at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1991. The report also...

  16. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Annual Water Management Program : January 1, 1972 to December 31, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1972 Annual Water Management Program for the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area summarizes the water receipts, distribution, and marsh conditions attributed to...

  17. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Annual Water Management Program : January 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1973 Annual Water Management Program for the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area summarizes the water receipts, distribution, and marsh conditions attributed to...

  18. DIADORIM: a Monte Carlo Program for liquid simulations including quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) facilities: applications to liquid ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,Luiz Carlos Gomide

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) computer program developed to simulate liquids and solutions including QM/MM facilities: the energy from intermolecular interactions is calculated with classical force field functions and the internal molecular energies are calculated using Quantum Chemistry methods. The following facilities were implemented: (i) the semiempirical MOPAC 6 quantum chemistry package was included as a subroutine of the main MMC simulation program; (ii) alternati...

  19. Strategies of Voshmgir Dam Water Allocation Using Two-Stage Stochastic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elham kalbali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the present study, dealing with water deficit challenges for Gorgan River Basin has been considered. Golestan province's economy is dependent on agriculture but the occurrence of drought periods reduced the agricultural production and consequently the region's economy is in crisis. Therefore, performing studies for programming and management of the water resources of the province and the water allocation in the margin of Voshmgir dam in Gorganrood basin has a great deal of importance. The issue of the allocation of water resources is proposed in order to maximize the expected profit of the water system. According to the regional water organization policy, one of the main goals of Voshmgir dam water management is the allocation of water between the competing consumers. If the amount of promised water is released in the future, the expected net profit of the system will be realized and if it is not released, the system will experience losses. Materials and Methods: In this studyWater supply is considered stochasticand objective function of the model is to maximize the system (Agriculture, Aquaculture and Environment profit and optimal allocation of water during the programming period using a two-stage stochastic model as follows: Constraint of the available land: Constraint of the available water in each of the main canals: Constraint of the available water: Constraint of the amount of inflow water Reservoir capacity constraint Constraint on the maximum and minimum water demand for environmental sector Constraint on the maximum and minimum water demand for crops Constraint on the maximum and minimum water demand for warm-water fish Constraint on non-negativity of the decision variables in the model Results and Discussion: The length of the right main canal of this network is about 17.76 km and the length of the left main canal is about 21.338 km. In this study, is considered for the right main canal and is considered for left main

  20. Overview of the US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. A. McCarthy; D. L. Williams; R. Reister

    2012-05-01

    The US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is focused on the long-term operation of US commercial power plants. It encompasses two facets of long-term operation: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the nuclear industry that support implementation of performance improvement technologies. An important aspect of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is partnering with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The Department of Energy research, development, and demonstration role focuses on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and/or unique Department of Energy laboratory expertise and facilities and are applicable to all operating reactors. This paper gives an overview of the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, including vision, goals, and major deliverables.

  1. 75 FR 27575 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... encourages regional cooperation among institutes in research into areas of water management, development, and... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program... Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as amended (42 U.S.C. 10301 et seq.), authorizes a water resources...

  2. 76 FR 68499 - Draft WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program Funding Opportunity Announcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... and time. Water shortage and water-use conflicts have become more commonplace in many areas of the... Office of the Secretary Draft WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program Funding Opportunity Announcement AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Water and Science, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating Systems...

  4. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-0042] RIN 1904-AC53 Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct... energy efficiency of electric instantaneous water heaters. c. Storage Water Heaters With Very Large... Approach to Predicting the Energy Efficiency of Residential Water Heaters-- Testing of Gas Tankless and...

  5. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

  6. Pulmonary rehabilitation program including respiratory conditioning for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Improved hyperinflation and expiratory flow during tidal breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Kaku; Ueki, Jun; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takizawa, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Seiko; Kitahara, Eriko; Fukazawa, Shinji; Takahama, Yukiko; Ichikawa, Masako; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke

    2012-06-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation has generally relieved symptoms, strengthened exercise endurance and improved health-related quality of life (QOL) in patients with COPD, but recovery of pulmonary function remains questionable. This analysis of our innovative rehabilitation program is directed at documenting changes in patients' expiratory airflow limitation, pulmonary symptoms and QOL. This program is designed to provide "respiratory conditioning", a physical therapist-assisted intensive flexibility training that focuses on stretching and rib cage mobilization. Thirty-one patients with COPD who attended rehabilitation sessions at Juntendo University Hospital from 1999 to 2006 were analyzed. Pulmonary function, expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing, six minute walk distance (6MWD), respiratory muscle strength, and St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were measured before and after pulmonary rehabilitation. In participants ages 68±7 years, the FEV(1)% predicted was 39.3±15.7%. 6MWD, SGRQ and respiratory muscle strength were significantly improved after pulmonary rehabilitation. Although neither FEV(1)% predicted nor FEV(1)/FVC was affected to a significant extent, indicating little effect on airflow limitation, expiratory flow limitation in supine as well as seated during tidal breathing improved significantly. Moreover, rehabilitation significantly diminished TLC% predicted, FRC% predicted, RV% predicted and RV/TLC values, thus indicating a reduction of hyperinflation of the lungs at rest. The present results suggest that our rehabilitation program with respiratory conditioning significantly lowered the hyperinflation of lungs at rest as well as the expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing. In patients with COPD, overall pulmonary function improved, exercise endurance increased and health-related QOL was enhanced.

  7. The Case for Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH Structures in the Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Oehr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize a mechanistic model of how negatively-charged exclusion zones (EZs are created. While the growth of EZs is known to be associated with the absorption of ambient photonic energy, the molecular dynamics giving rise to this process need greater elucidation. We believe they arise due to the formation of oxy-subhydride structures (OH−(H2O4 with a tetrahedral (sp3 (OH−(H2O3 core. Five experimental data sets derived by previous researchers were assessed in this regard: (1 water-derived EZ light absorbance at specific infrared wavelengths, (2 EZ negative potential in water and ethanol, (3 maximum EZ light absorbance at 270 nm ultraviolet wavelength, (4 ability of dimethyl sulphoxide but not ether to form an EZ, and (5 transitory nature of melting ice derived EZs. The proposed tetrahedral oxy-subhydride structures (TOSH appear to adequately account for all of the experimental evidence derived from water or other polar solvents.

  8. Laurentian Great Lakes Phytoplankton and Their Water Quality Characteristics, Including a Diatom-Based Model for Paleoreconstruction of Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavie, Euan D.; Heathcote, Adam J.; Shaw Chraïbi, Victoria L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent shifts in water quality and food web characteristics driven by anthropogenic impacts on the Laurentian Great Lakes warranted an examination of pelagic primary producers as tracers of environmental change. The distributions of the 263 common phytoplankton taxa were related to water quality variables to determine taxon-specific responses that may be useful in indicator models. A detailed checklist of taxa and their environmental optima are provided. Multivariate analyses indicated a strong relationship between total phosphorus (TP) and patterns in the diatom assemblages across the Great Lakes. Of the 118 common diatom taxa, 90 (76%) had a directional response along the TP gradient. We further evaluated a diatom-based transfer function for TP based on the weighted-average abundance of taxa, assuming unimodal distributions along the TP gradient. The r2 between observed and inferred TP in the training dataset was 0.79. Substantial spatial and environmental autocorrelation within the training set of samples justified the need for further model validation. A randomization procedure indicated that the actual transfer function consistently performed better than functions based on reshuffled environmental data. Further, TP was minimally confounded by other environmental variables, as indicated by the relatively large amount of unique variance in the diatoms explained by TP. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the transfer function by hindcasting TP concentrations using fossil diatom assemblages in a Lake Superior sediment core. Passive, multivariate analysis of the fossil samples against the training set indicated that phosphorus was a strong determinant of historical diatom assemblages, verifying that the transfer function was suited to reconstruct past TP in Lake Superior. Collectively, these results showed that phytoplankton coefficients for water quality can be robust indicators of Great Lakes pelagic condition. The diatom-based transfer function can be used in

  9. Longterm performance of polyolefins in different environments including chlorinated water: antioxidant consumption and migration and polymer degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Lundbäck, Marie

    2005-01-01

    The long-term performance of stabilized polyolefins in different environments was studied with focus on antioxidant consumption and migration. Plaques of linear polyethylene (LPE) and branched polyethylene (BPE) were stabilized with Santonox® R (4,4'-Thiobis(6-tert-butyl-3-methylphenol)), Irganox® 1081 (2,2’-Thiobis(4-methyl-6-tertbutylphenol)), or Lowinox® 22M46 (2,2’-Methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol)). The samples were aged in water and nitrogen at 75, 90 and 95°C. Antioxidant conce...

  10. Modifications to the steady-state 41-node thermoregulatory model including validation of the respiratory and diffusional water loss equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    After the simplified version of the 41-Node Stolwijk Metabolic Man Model was implemented on the Sigma 3 and UNIVAC 1110 computers in batch mode, it became desirable to make certain revisions. First, the availability of time-sharing terminals makes it possible to provide the capability and flexibility of conversational interaction between user and model. Secondly, recent physiological studies show the need to revise certain parameter values contained in the model. Thirdly, it was desired to make quantitative and accurate predictions of evaporative water loss for humans in an orbiting space station. The result of the first phase of this effort are reported.

  11. Integrated Water Basin Management Including a Large Pit Lake and a Water Supply Reservoir: The Mero-Barcés Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jordi; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo; Hernández-Anguiano, Horacio; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water resource managers attempt to minimize conflicts among users, preserve the environment as much as possible, and satisfy user necessities at a minimum cost. Several European directives indirectly address mine restoration policies, with a goal of minimizing negative impacts and adding social and environmental value where possible. Water management must consider water sources, ecological flows, flood control, and variability in the demands for urban, industrial, and agricultural uses. In the context of the present study, the city of A Coruña is located in Galicia (NW Spain). The water supply system for this city and surrounding municipalities (~400.000 inhabitants) is based on the Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir. In cases when precipitation is scarce (e.g. no rain for more than seven consecutive months) and there is a seasonal increase in demand significantly stress the supply system so that, as occurred in 2010, shortages and water supply restrictions need to be considered. This is a clear indication of that, at present, the Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir has not enough capacity to cope with a scenario of increasing water demand (due to the vegetative and seasonal increase of population) and hydric stress likely connected with the widely acknowledged climate change. In the present context of monetary resources scarcity and society concern with respect large new public work projects, the construction of a new dam is challenging. However the opportunity provided by the recent flooding of the Meirama open pit (a large mine void that has been forced-flooded for its reclamation and it is located in the headwaters of one of the rivers draining towards the Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir) proves to be a significant new asset that will help to improve the future water management scenarios under the acknowledged uncertain conditions. In this study we have studied in detail the hydrochemistry of the affected systems (lake, river and reservoir) in order to make clear whether or not the

  12. EPA approves Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Water Quality Standards program Clean Water Act program a foundation for pollution control and watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    (2/18/15)- ATLANTA - The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (Tribe) in western North Carolina has been granted the authority by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to administer the Water Quality Standards program under the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  13. In-situ Modelisation of a Greenhouse Climate Including Sensible Heat, Water Vapour and CO2 Balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi-Triki N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While thermal structures such as greenhouses are complex to model under transient conditions because of coupled heat and mass (H2O and CO2 exchanges between their different parts, systems theory allows a simple analysis of the input/output behaviour of the model. In particular, parameters of the reduced dynamic models can be derived from in-situ measurements on these systems. This paper describes an application of the systems approach to a greenhouse climate model which incorporates CO2 balance, crop transpiration and photosynthesis and the effects of heating, CO2 enrichment, natural ventilation and evaporative cooling. In a first stage, system parameters such as the equivalent thermal mass, the wind dependent coefficient of natural ventilation and the various heat exchange coefficients were identified in situ from sequences of input-output data concerning the heat and water vapour balance, recorded over the crop production period from December to July. Good agreement between measured and computed values of air temperature, air humidity was observed. In a second stage, we have considered simultaneously the sensible heat, water vapour and CO2 exchanges and tested the model against experimental data measured using a commercial greenhouse climate control computer. The identified values of the physical and physiological parameters are close the theoretical values and the accuracy of temperature, humidity and CO2 content is rather good.

  14. Traveltime and dispersion data, including associated discharge and water-surface elevation data, Kanawha River West Virginia, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Virginia Environmental Endowment, Marshall University Research Corporation, and the West Virginia Depart- ment of Environmental Protection, to evaluate traveltime of a soluble dye on the Kanawha River. The Kanawha River originates in south-central West Virginia and flows northwestward to the Ohio River. Knowledge of traveltime and dispersion of a soluble dye could help river managers mitigate effects of an accidental spill. Traveltime and dispersion data were collected from June 20 through July 4, 1991, when river discharges decreased from June 24 through July 3, 1991. Daily mean discharges decreased from 5,540 ft 3/s on June 24 to 2,790 ft3/s on July 2 at Kanawha Falls and from 5,680 ft3/s on June 24 to 3,000 ft3/s on July 2 at Charleston. Water-surface elevations in regulated pools indicated a loss of water storage during the period. A spill at Gauley Bridge under similar streamflow conditions of this study is estimated to take 15 days to move beyond Winfield Dam. Estimated time of passage (elapsed time at a particular location) at Marmet Dam and Winfield Dam is approximately 2.5 days and 5.5 days, respectively. The spill is estimated to spend 12 days in the Winfield pool.

  15. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children and Children With Disabilities (3-21 years Inclusive) B... Related Services) for Preschool Children and Children With Disabilities (3-21 years Inclusive) A... of a parent of each preschool child or child, evaluate all preschool children or children who are...

  16. Inventory of forest resources (including water) by multi-level sampling. [nine northern Virginia coastal plain counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Dana, R. W.; Roberts, E. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A stratified random sample using LANDSAT band 5 and 7 panchromatic prints resulted in estimates of water in counties with sampling errors less than + or - 9% (67% probability level). A forest inventory using a four band LANDSAT color composite resulted in estimates of forest area by counties that were within + or - 6.7% and + or - 3.7% respectively (67% probability level). Estimates of forest area for counties by computer assisted techniques were within + or - 21% of operational forest survey figures and for all counties the difference was only one percent. Correlations of airborne terrain reflectance measurements with LANDSAT radiance verified a linear atmospheric model with an additive (path radiance) term and multiplicative (transmittance) term. Coefficients of determination for 28 of the 32 modeling attempts, not adverseley affected by rain shower occurring between the times of LANDSAT passage and aircraft overflights, exceeded 0.83.

  17. Scaling Up a Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Program in Rural Bangladesh: The Role of Program Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Sultana, Sonia; Halder, Amal K; Ahsan, Mohammed Ali; Arnold, Benjamin F; Hubbard, Alan E; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P; Colford, John M

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate whether the quality of implementation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene program called SHEWA-B and delivered by UNICEF to 20 million people in rural Bangladesh was associated with health behaviors and sanitation infrastructure access. We surveyed 33 027 households targeted by SHEWA-B and 1110 SHEWA-B hygiene promoters in 2011 and 2012. We developed an implementation quality index and compared the probability of health behaviors and sanitation infrastructure access in counterfactual scenarios over the range of implementation quality. Forty-seven percent of households (n = 14 622) had met a SHEWA-B hygiene promoter, and 47% of hygiene promoters (n = 527) could recall all key program messages. The frequency of hygiene promoter visits was not associated with improved outcomes. Higher implementation quality was not associated with better health behaviors or infrastructure access. Outcomes differed by only 1% to 3% in scenarios in which all clusters received low versus high implementation quality. SHEWA-B did not meet UNICEF's ideal implementation quality in any area. Improved implementation quality would have resulted in marginal changes in health behaviors or infrastructure access. This suggests that SHEWA-B's design was suboptimal for improving these outcomes.

  18. 77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes the general scope and depth that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. DATES...

  19. 77 FR 76034 - National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... AGENCY National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental Protection... publishing the final ``National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change'' (2012 Strategy... light of climate change and charts key strategic actions to be taken to achieve the goals in 2012 and...

  20. Empirical Evidence in Support of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Serna, Victoria Faubion

    2016-01-01

    Based on results from a 2008 research study of regional citizen knowledge concerning watershed issues, a water conservation education program was designed and implemented. Findings from the initial study demonstrated program success as evidenced by knowledge gain and willingness to "commit" to water saving behaviors in 94% of students. A…

  1. 75 FR 9921 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... the Draft Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan (NCCP/HCP...

  2. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management of water levels is basic to the requirements of waterfowl. Water levels will be maintained to provide maximum nesting, resting, and feeding areas for...

  3. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Water Management Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the refuge's water management plan is to create water conditions that will result in an ecologically diverse wetland community....

  4. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management of water levels is essential to meet refuge objectives. These objectives are to control water levels to: (1) provide resting and feeding habitat for...

  5. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management of water levels is essential to meet refuge objectives. These objectives are to control water levels to: (1) provide resting and feeding habitat for...

  6. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the effects of the 1999 water levels on the ecology of Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and it proposes the water surface elevations of the...

  7. Progress report on the ground-water, surface-water, and quality-of-water monitoring program, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G.W.; Sottilare, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The N aquifer is an important source of water in the 5,400 sq-mi Black Mesa area on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations. The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to monitor long-term effects on the groundwater resources of the mesa as a result of withdrawals from the aquifer by the strip-mining operation of Peabody Coal Company. Withdrawals from the N aquifer by the mine increased from 95 acre-ft in 1968 to more than 4,480 acre-ft in 1986. Water levels in the confined area of the aquifer declined as much as 90 ft from 1965 to 1987 in some municipal and observation wells within about a 15-mi radius of the mine well field. Part of the drawdown in municipal wells is due to local pumpage. Water levels have not declined in wells tapping the unconfined area of the aquifer. Chemical analyses indicate no significant changes in the quality of water from wells that tap the N aquifer or from springs that discharge from several stratigraphic units, including the N aquifer, since pumping began at the mine. (USGS)

  8. Waterway wide area tactical coverage and homing (WaterWATCH) program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Gerald; Cleveland, Tammy; Araujo, Lisa; Spohr, Robert; Umansky, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The Congressional and Army sponsored WaterWATCH TM Program has developed and demonstrated a fully integrated shallow water port and facility monitoring system. It provides fully automated monitoring of domains above and below the surface of the water using primarily off-the-shelf sensors and software. The system is modular, open architecture and IP based, and elements can be mixed and matched to adapt to specific applications. The sensors integrated into the WaterWATCH TM system include cameras, radar, passive and active sonar, and various motion detectors. The sensors were chosen based on extensive requirements analyses and tradeoffs. Descriptions of the system and individual sensors are provided, along with data from modular and system level testing. Camera test results address capabilities and limitations associated with using "smart" image analysis software with stressing environmental issues such as bugs, darkness, rain and snow. Radar issues addressed include achieving range and resolution requirements. The passive sonar capability to provide near 100% true positives with zero false positives is demonstrated. Testing results are also presented to show that inexpensive active sonar can be effective against divers with or without SCUBA gear and that false alarms due to fish can be minimized. A simple operator interface has also been demonstrated.

  9. 20 CFR 664.410 - Must local programs include each of the ten program elements listed in WIA section 129(c)(2) as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... school completion, including dropout prevention strategies; (2) Alternative secondary school offerings... 664.470; (5) Occupational skill training; (6) Leadership development opportunities, which include... individual service strategy. (WIA sec. 129(c)(2).) ...

  10. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  11. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Developing a program to identify and track corrosion in nuclear plant raw water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spires PE, G.V. [KTA - Tator Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pickles PE, S.B. [Senior Engineer, Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Findings derived from a comprehensive plant performance survey at Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) nuclear units convinced management that it would be prudent to expand the ongoing power piping Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) induced wall thinning base-lining and tracking program to encompass the raw cooling water systems as well. Such systems are subject to a distinctly different class of pipe wall thinning (PWT) mechanisms than the FAC that degrades high-energy power piping. This paper describes the PWT corrosion assessment and tracking program that has been developed and is currently being implemented by OPG for the raw cooling water (i.e., Service Water) systems within it's nuclear generating stations. Interim databases are used prior to initial inspection rounds to catalogue the prospective locations. For each piping system being surveyed, these interim databases include physical coordinates for the candidate locations, the type and wall thickness of the components comprising each location, ranking indications and recommended NDE methodologies as a function of the anticipated corrosion mechanisms. Rationales for assessing corrosion susceptibility and ranking prospective inspection sites are expounded by way of notations built into the database. (authors)

  13. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-2022: Part 1: Framework of Water-Quality Issues and Potential Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lynch, Dennis D.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to develop long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. Congress recognized the critical need for this information to support scientifically sound management, regulatory, and policy decisions concerning the increasingly stressed water resources of the Nation. The long-term goals of NAWQA are to: (1) assess the status of water-quality conditions in the United States, (2) evaluate long-term trends in water-quality conditions, and (3) link status and trends with an understanding of the natural and human factors that affect water quality. These goals are national in scale, include both surface water and groundwater, and include consideration of water quality in relation to both human uses and aquatic ecosystems. Since 1991, NAWQA assessments and findings have fostered and supported major improvements in the availability and use of unbiased scientific information for decisionmaking, resource management, and planning at all levels of government. These improvements have enabled agencies and stakeholders to cost-effectively address a wide range of water-quality issues related to natural and human influences on the quality of water and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/xrel.pdf). NAWQA, like all USGS programs, provides policy relevant information that serves as a scientific basis for decisionmaking related to resource management, protection, and restoration. The information is freely available to all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, industry, academia, and the public, and is readily accessible on the NAWQA Web site and other diverse formats to serve the needs of the water-resource community at different technical levels. Water-quality conditions in streams and groundwater are described in more than 1,700 publications (available

  14. An Approach for Including Uncertainty in Integrated Water Resources Assessments within Large River Basins of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D.

    2015-12-01

    There are many large basins in southern Africa that are mostly ungauged but may have some streamflow observations either on the main river or on tributaries. Many of the streamflow records are, however, of poor quality or impacted by largely unquantified and non-stationary development impacts. All water resources assessments are therefore uncertain and model setups are difficult to validate in traditional ways. The paper presents a method for practical uncertainty assessment using a semi-distributed (sub-basin) model. The method uses a 2-stage approach where the first stage involves obtaining 'behavioural' parameter sets to represent the incremental natural streamflow for each sub-basin. The criteria for 'behavioural' are based on a series of constraints on model output that can be developed from the available gauged data or from regional assessments of natural hydrological functioning. The second stage simulates the whole basin based on sampling the 'behavioural' incremental flow parameter sets, as well as samples of additional individual parameter values representing downstream routing parts of the model and development impacts. One of the perceived advantage of the method is that all the ensembles at the total basin outlet are made up of behavioural inputs for all sub-basins. The method is also flexible in terms of the uncertainty range of the constraints, which might be expected to be narrow (low uncertainty) in well gauged sub-basins, or areas where our understanding of flow regime characteristics is good, but much wider (higher uncertainty) in other parts of the basin. The paper briefly explains the approach and discusses some of the issues associated with its application using examples from southern Africa.

  15. 78 FR 36183 - State Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., non-tribal water systems (each serving less than 3,301 people), the 2011 assessment extrapolated the... AGENCY State Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program AGENCY... Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the revised Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) allotments that...

  16. 78 FR 46597 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... research into areas of water management, development, and conservation that have a regional or national....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research... Water Resources (NIWR) USGS Competitive Grant Program. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA...

  17. 78 FR 23288 - Proposed Information Collection: State Water Resources Research Institute Program; Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... research into areas of water management, development, and conservation that have a regional or national... Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection: State Water Resources Research Institute Program; Annual... collection (IC) to renew approval of the paperwork requirements for ``National Institutes for Water Resources...

  18. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  19. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability AGENCY: Bureau... for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply projects intended to serve... helps rural communities assess their potable water needs and identify options to address those needs...

  20. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... application, and notice of public meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water Authority...

  1. 78 FR 12349 - Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 et seq... discussed in detail in the Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program Federal Financial...

  2. Using Home Irrigation Users' Perceptions to Inform Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Lamm, Alexa J.; Rumble, Joy N.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Targeted agricultural education programs can play a role in solving complex water issues. This article applies importance-performance analysis to examine dimensions of water resources that may inform local water conservation campaigns in the United States. The purpose of this study was to generate a deep understanding of home irrigation users'…

  3. ORD Water Quality Research Program Mid-Cycle Review - June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC) completed a mid-cycle review of the Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Water Quality Research Program (WQRP), focusing on Agency efforts to enhance the program following the 2006 BOSC program review.

  4. Appraisal and analysis of opportunities for a joint DOE/DOD energy demonstration program. Final report. [Includes possible site information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziem, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The basic objective of this study was to assess the potential for cooperative projects between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD) in areas concerned with the development of Total Energy (TE) Systems and to do the groundwork and liaison necessary to initiate those projects. The scope of the potential joint projects includes cooperative effort in the development and test of a variety of heat engines (prime movers) capable of utilizing coal as well as synthetic liquid fuels derived from coal and oil shale; as well as the indication of potential Military Department sites which would be suitable for the demonstration of TE systems based on a variety of such prime movers. In order to accomplish the objective of the study, it was necessary to review a large number of DOD studies and plans and to discuss the objective of the TETAS studies with a large number of Military Department people. The DOD recognizes the requirement for an assured energy supply and the need to learn how to use the synthetic fuels from coal and shale being developed by the DOE. The need to modify engine systems to adapt them to differing fuel characteristics and make those engines more flexible relative to the range of fuels they will accept is clear. What is not so clear is the fact that the DOD has a much greater opportunity to conserve energy in now inefficient facility operations than it has in mobility operations which must continue to stress mission and high performance. This report indicates guidelines for the conduct of joint projects between the DOE and the DOD which can aid both in meeting their energy objective.

  5. Water Wizards: School Program on Water Conservation for Third and Fourth Grade Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    Water is precious. It is also easy to take for granted. Many people recognize that water is scarce in desert areas. but it is harder to realize that places like Massachusetts could face a shortage of pure drinking water. This manual provides teachers with curriculum resources to introduce concepts of water supply and water conservation to third…

  6. A sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 35 micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Scheurer, Marco; Iglesias, Mònica; Sacher, Frank; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Salvadó, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive, multi-residue method using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine a representative group of 35 analytes, including corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and pharmaceuticals such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, five iodinated contrast media, β-blockers and some of their metabolites and transformation products in water samples. Few other methods are capable of determining such a broad range of contrast media together with other analytes. We studied the parameters affecting the extraction of the target analytes, including sorbent selection and extraction conditions, their chromatographic separation (mobile phase composition and column) and detection conditions using two ionisation sources: electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). In order to correct matrix effects, a total of 20 surrogate/internal standards were used. ESI was found to have better sensitivity than APCI. Recoveries ranging from 79 to 134 % for tap water and 66 to 144 % for surface water were obtained. Intra-day precision, calculated as relative standard deviation, was below 34 % for tap water and below 21 % for surface water, groundwater and effluent wastewater. Method quantification limits (MQL) were in the low ng L(-1) range, except for the contrast agents iomeprol, amidotrizoic acid and iohexol (22, 25.5 and 17.9 ng L(-1), respectively). Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 56 real water samples as part of the validation procedure. All of the compounds were detected in at least some of the water samples analysed. Graphical Abstract Multi-residue method for the determination of micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in waters by LC-MS/MS.

  7. Water allocation for agriculture in southwestern Iran using a programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Shahsavari, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Water pricing can play a major role in improving water allocation, encouraging users to conserve scarce water resources, and promoting improvements in productivity. In this study, the economic values of water in farms under Dorodzan Dam in southwestern Iran were calculated using linear programming models. The method was applied to three samples of farms that drew irrigation water from a canal, a well, and both a well and a canal. The results of this study revealed that the shadow prices of water in farms varied based on the water sources and time of year. Additionally, the estimated price for water is obviously higher than the price that farmers currently pay for water in the study area. Due to the different economic values of water calculated for different months, it is recommended that the price of irrigation water be adjusted accordingly during various seasons in a fashion similar to that of electrical energy.

  8. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Water Adequacy and Suitability of the Water Quality Laboratory. The panel also agreed that Quality Procedures Manual the potential for obtaining formal ... formally recognize the high level of work being performed 5 in LTRMP water quality and increase the national from the LTRMP field stations. However...transmission as the primary method for obtaining findings to external peer review is the final steptranmision s te prmar metod or otaiing in quality

  9. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David M; Houser, Jeffrey N

    2006-01-01

    ...) adequacy and suitability of the water quality procedures manual, (4) adequacy and efficiency of procedures for quality assurance and quality control in data collection and laboratory analyses, (5...

  10. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  11. Introduction to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) of ground-water quality trends and comparison to other national programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R; Lapham, Wayne W

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of temporal trends in national ground-water quality networks are rarely published in scientific journals. This is partly due to the fact that long-term data from these types of networks are uncommon and because many national monitoring networks are not driven by hypotheses that can be easily incorporated into scientific research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) since 1991 has to date (2006) concentrated on occurrence of contaminants because sufficient data for trend analysis is only just becoming available. This paper introduces the first set of trend assessments from NAWQA and provides an assessment of the success of the program. On a national scale, nitrate concentrations in ground water have generally increased from 1988 to 2004, but trends in pesticide concentrations are less apparent. Regionally, the studies showed high nitrate concentrations and frequent pesticide detections are linked to agricultural use of fertilizers and pesticides. Most of these areas showed increases in nitrate concentration within the last decade, and these increases are associated with oxic-geochemical conditions and well-drained soils. The current NAWQA plan for collecting data to define trends needs to be constantly reevaluated to determine if the approach fulfills the expected outcome. To assist this evaluation, a comparison of NAWQA to other national ground-water quality programs was undertaken. The design and spatial extent of each national program depend on many factors, including current and long-term budgets, purpose of the program, size of the country, and diversity of aquifer types. Comparison of NAWQA to nine other national programs shows a great diversity in program designs, but indicates that different approaches can achieve similar and equally important goals.

  12. Seasonal distribution and abundance of cetaceans within French waters- Part I: The North-Western Mediterranean, including the Pelagos sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Sophie; Pettex, Emeline; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; David, Léa; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is undergoing important changes. Cetaceans, as top predators, are an important component of marine ecosystems. The seasonal distribution and abundance of several cetacean species were studied with a large aerial survey over the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, including the international Pelagos sanctuary, the largest Marine Protected Area (MPA) designed for marine mammals in the Mediterranean. A total of 8 distinct species of cetaceans were identified, and their occurrence within the sanctuary was investigated. Abundance estimates were obtained for three groups of species: the small delphinids (striped dolphins mainly), the bottlenose dolphin and the fin whale. There was a seasonal variation in striped dolphin abundance between winter (57,300 individuals, 95% CI: 34,500-102,000) and summer (130,000, 95% CI: 76,800-222,100). In contrast, bottlenose dolphin winter abundance was thrice that of summer. It was also the only species to exhibit any preference for the Pelagos sanctuary. Fin whale abundance had the reverse pattern with winter abundance (1000 individuals, 95% CI: 500-2500) and summer (2500 individuals, 95% CI: 1500-4300), without any preference for the sanctuary. Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales did not exhibit strong seasonal pattern in their abundance. These results provide baseline estimates which can be used to inform conservation policies and instruments such as the Habitats Directive or the recent European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  13. International Programs and Centers for Instruction, Research and Public Service in the Western States (Including Instruction in Less Common Foreign Languages).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Frank C., Ed.

    Programs of education and research on international economy and trade, foreign cultures and languages, and other aspects of international affairs and located in the western states are listed in an annotated directory. The units are of varying types and include informal interdepartmental committees within academic institutions, well-established…

  14. DOD/COCOM Water Security Program Strategy Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    and bridges within flood zones, and optimization of drainage or surface water channels.  Train host country on common water-borne pathogens , modes...produce 60% of the nation’s vegetables and 25% of its fruits and nuts . The Bureau of Reclamation is also the second largest producer of

  15. A review of mathematical programming models of irrigation water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crops modelled influence water values, but there is no apparent relationship between objective function specification and average value. Nor does the number of irrigation options seem to influence water value either. The policy implication is that while similar models for the same region produce consistent estimates, each ...

  16. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Status of Silicon Carbide Joining Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Advanced, accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems are currently being investigated for potential application in currently operating light water reactors (LWR) or in reactors that have attained design certification. Evaluation of potential options for accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) relative to Zr-based alloys, including increased corrosion resistance, reduced oxidation and heat of oxidation, and reduced hydrogen generation under steam attack (off-normal conditions). If demonstrated to be applicable in the intended LWR environment, SiC could be used in nuclear fuel cladding or other in-core structural components. Achieving a SiC-SiC joint that resists corrosion with hot, flowing water, is stable under irradiation and retains hermeticity is a significant challenge. This report summarizes the current status of SiC-SiC joint development work supported by the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Significant progress has been made toward SiC-SiC joint development for nuclear service, but additional development and testing work (including irradiation testing) is still required to present a candidate joint for use in nuclear fuel cladding.

  17. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  18. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  19. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  20. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  1. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The “big flood” occurred in 1993. Late March and early April found Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge literally awash in water. The major flooding which resulted...

  2. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge has a total of four impounded wetlands. The water levels are manageable to a limited degree in three of them: Cranberry Pool,...

  3. Annual Water Management Program 1987 Erie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management of water levels on refuge impoundments is critical in meeting refuge waterfowl objectives. These objectives are: 1) Provide nesting habitat for...

  4. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  5. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  6. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  7. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  8. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  9. Annual Water Management Program : Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge : 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  10. Annual Water Management Program : Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  11. Annual Water Management Program : Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  12. Military Land-Based Water Purification and Distribution Program (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dusenbury, James S

    2003-01-01

    .... During World War II, it became increasingly apparent that this technology was only partially effective in providing potable and uncontaminated water for drinking, washing, culinary, bathing and laundering purposes...

  13. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  14. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  15. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  16. Predicting compliance with an information-based residential outdoor water conservation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Adam C.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Kaiser, Ronald A.

    2016-05-01

    Residential water conservation initiatives often involve some form of education or persuasion intended to change the attitudes and behaviors of residential consumers. However, the ability of these instruments to change attitudes toward conservation and their efficacy in affecting water use remains poorly understood. In this investigation the authors examine consumer attitudes toward complying with a persuasive water conservation program, the extent to which those attitudes predict compliance, and the influence of environmental contextual factors on outdoor water use. Results indicate that the persuasive program was successful in developing positive attitudes toward compliance, and that those attitudes predict water use. However, attitudinal variables explain a relatively small proportion of the variance in objectively measured water use behavior. Recommendations for policy are made stressing the importance of understanding both the effects of attitudes and environmental contextual factors in behavior change initiatives in the municipal water sector.

  17. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a

  18. Microbiological monitoring for the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Myers, Donna N.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2000-01-01

    Data to characterize the microbiological quality of the Nation?s fresh, marine, and estuarine waters are usually collected for local purposes, most often to judge compliance with standards for protection of public health in swimmable or drinkable waters. Methods and procedures vary with the objectives and practices of the parties collecting data and are continuously being developed or modified. Therefore, it is difficult to provide a nationally consistent picture of the microbial quality of the Nation?s waters. Study objectives and guidelines for a national microbiological monitoring program are outlined in this report, using the framework of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. A national program is designed to provide long-term data on the presence of microbiological pathogens and indicators in ground water and surface water to support effective water policy and management. Three major groups of waterborne pathogens affect the public health acceptability of waters in the United States?bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Microbiological monitoring in NAWQA would be designed to assess the occurrence, distribution, and trends of pathogenic organisms and indicators in surface waters and ground waters; relate the patterns discerned to factors that help explain them; and improve our understanding of the processes that control microbiological water quality.

  19. Water quality studied in areas of unconventional oil and gas development, including areas where hydraulic fracturing techniques are used, in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susong, David D.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic oil and gas production and clean water are critical for economic growth, public health, and national security of the United States. As domestic oil and gas production increases in new areas and old fields are enhanced, there is increasing public concern about the effects of energy production on surface-water and groundwater quality. To a great extent, this concern arises from the improved hydraulic fracturing techniques being used today, including horizontal drilling, for producing unconventional oil and gas in low-permeability formations.

  20. Principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan WU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation was developed based on the principle of coordinated and sustainable development of different regions and water sectors within a basin. With the precondition of strictly controlling maximum emissions rights, initial water rights were allocated between the first and the second levels of the hierarchy in order to promote fair and coordinated development across different regions of the basin and coordinated and efficient water use across different water sectors, realize the maximum comprehensive benefits to the basin, promote the unity of quantity and quality of initial water rights allocation, and eliminate water conflict across different regions and water sectors. According to interactive decision-making theory, a principal-subordinate hierarchical interactive iterative algorithm based on the satisfaction degree was developed and used to solve the initial water rights allocation model. A case study verified the validity of the model.

  1. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  2. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Sub-basin Analysis Flow Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — VERSION 5/15/2012 HYDROLOGICAL INFORMATION PRODUCTS FOR THE OFF-PROJECT WATER PROGRAM OF THE KLAMATH BASIN RESTORATION AGREEMENT By Daniel T. Snyder, John C. Risley,...

  3. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of Prime Hook's water management program is to increase the carrying capacity of the refuge's marshes by maximizing the annual production of diverse...

  4. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the results of Prime Hook's 1994 Water Management. Program and delineates plans for 1995. 1994 marked the third year that asynchronous...

  5. Annual Marsh and Water Management Program: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Marsh and water management activities have been conducted for nearly thirty years at Back Bay NWR. Annual programs were submitted for many years. In the early 1970's...

  6. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This program describes the results of the marsh and water level management actions of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge in 1993 and outlines the planned strategies...

  7. Annual Marsh and Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This program describes the results of the marsh and water level management actions of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge in 1999 and outlines the planned strategies...

  8. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge’s 1996 annual water management program and describes plans for 1997. The main objective of...

  9. Marsh and Water Management Program Evaluation 1987 Bombay Hook, Montezuma, Missisquoi NWR's

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Attached is a copy of the Marsh and Water Management Program Evaluation conducted by the three division field biologists in Region 5 last fall. The report consists...

  10. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality man-agement with stochastic dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Engelund Holm, Peter; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water quality module can handle conservative pollutants, first order depletion and non-linear reactions. For demonstration purposes, we model pollutant releases as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and use the Streeter-Phelps equation for oxygen deficit to compute the resulting min-imum dissolved oxygen concentrations. Inelastic water demands, fixed water allocation curtailment costs and fixed wastewater treatment costs (before and after use) are estimated for the water users (agriculture, industry and domestic). If the BOD concentration exceeds a given user pollution thresh-old, the user will need to pay for pre-treatment of the water before use. Similarly, treatment of the return flow can reduce the BOD load to the river. A traditional SDP approach is used to solve one-step-ahead sub-problems for all combinations of discrete reservoir storage, Markov Chain inflow clas-ses and monthly time steps. Pollution concentration nodes are introduced for each user group and untreated return flow from the users contribute to increased BOD concentrations in the river. The pollutant concentrations in each node depend on multiple decision variables (allocation and wastewater treatment) rendering the objective function non-linear. Therefore, the pollution concen-tration decisions are outsourced to a genetic algorithm, which calls a linear program to determine the remainder of the decision

  11. 75 FR 13537 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Notice of Call for Public Comment on 303(d) Program and Ocean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ..., Tribal, and Territorial managers of water quality programs, including the Total Maximum Daily Load... measure ocean acidification impacts? i. Are there emerging remote sensing technologies that might be... States to make attainment determinations consistent with water quality standards related to ocean...

  12. Water use practices limit the effectiveness of a temephos-based Aedes aegypti larval control program in Northern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M Garelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A five-year citywide control program based on regular application of temephos significantly reduced Aedes aegypti larval indices but failed to maintain them below target levels in Clorinda, northern Argentina. Incomplete surveillance coverage and reduced residuality of temephos were held as the main putative causes limiting effectiveness of control actions.The duration of temephos residual effects in household-owned water-holding tanks (the most productive container type and main target for control was estimated prospectively in two trials. Temephos was applied using spoons or inside perforated small zip-lock bags. Water samples from the study tanks (including positive and negative controls were collected weekly and subjected to larval mortality bioassays. Water turnover was estimated quantitatively by adding sodium chloride to the study tanks and measuring its dilution 48 hs later.The median duration of residual effects of temephos applied using spoons (2.4 weeks was significantly lower than with zip-lock bags (3.4 weeks, and widely heterogeneous between tanks. Generalized estimating equations models showed that bioassay larval mortality was strongly affected by water type and type of temephos application depending on water type. Water type and water turnover were highly significantly associated. Tanks filled with piped water had high turnover rates and short-lasting residual effects, whereas tanks filled with rain water showed the opposite pattern. On average, larval infestations reappeared nine weeks post-treatment and seven weeks after estimated loss of residuality.Temephos residuality in the field was much shorter and more variable than expected. The main factor limiting temephos residuality was fast water turnover, caused by householders' practice of refilling tanks overnight to counteract the intermittence of the local water supply. Limited field residuality of temephos accounts in part for the inability of the larval control program to

  13. Water use practices limit the effectiveness of a temephos-based Aedes aegypti larval control program in Northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelli, Fernando M; Espinosa, Manuel O; Weinberg, Diego; Trinelli, María A; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2011-03-22

    A five-year citywide control program based on regular application of temephos significantly reduced Aedes aegypti larval indices but failed to maintain them below target levels in Clorinda, northern Argentina. Incomplete surveillance coverage and reduced residuality of temephos were held as the main putative causes limiting effectiveness of control actions. The duration of temephos residual effects in household-owned water-holding tanks (the most productive container type and main target for control) was estimated prospectively in two trials. Temephos was applied using spoons or inside perforated small zip-lock bags. Water samples from the study tanks (including positive and negative controls) were collected weekly and subjected to larval mortality bioassays. Water turnover was estimated quantitatively by adding sodium chloride to the study tanks and measuring its dilution 48 hs later. The median duration of residual effects of temephos applied using spoons (2.4 weeks) was significantly lower than with zip-lock bags (3.4 weeks), and widely heterogeneous between tanks. Generalized estimating equations models showed that bioassay larval mortality was strongly affected by water type and type of temephos application depending on water type. Water type and water turnover were highly significantly associated. Tanks filled with piped water had high turnover rates and short-lasting residual effects, whereas tanks filled with rain water showed the opposite pattern. On average, larval infestations reappeared nine weeks post-treatment and seven weeks after estimated loss of residuality. Temephos residuality in the field was much shorter and more variable than expected. The main factor limiting temephos residuality was fast water turnover, caused by householders' practice of refilling tanks overnight to counteract the intermittence of the local water supply. Limited field residuality of temephos accounts in part for the inability of the larval control program to further reduce

  14. Water Use Practices Limit the Effectiveness of a Temephos-Based Aedes aegypti Larval Control Program in Northern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelli, Fernando M.; Espinosa, Manuel O.; Weinberg, Diego; Trinelli, María A.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Background A five-year citywide control program based on regular application of temephos significantly reduced Aedes aegypti larval indices but failed to maintain them below target levels in Clorinda, northern Argentina. Incomplete surveillance coverage and reduced residuality of temephos were held as the main putative causes limiting effectiveness of control actions. Methodology The duration of temephos residual effects in household-owned water-holding tanks (the most productive container type and main target for control) was estimated prospectively in two trials. Temephos was applied using spoons or inside perforated small zip-lock bags. Water samples from the study tanks (including positive and negative controls) were collected weekly and subjected to larval mortality bioassays. Water turnover was estimated quantitatively by adding sodium chloride to the study tanks and measuring its dilution 48 hs later. Principal Findings The median duration of residual effects of temephos applied using spoons (2.4 weeks) was significantly lower than with zip-lock bags (3.4 weeks), and widely heterogeneous between tanks. Generalized estimating equations models showed that bioassay larval mortality was strongly affected by water type and type of temephos application depending on water type. Water type and water turnover were highly significantly associated. Tanks filled with piped water had high turnover rates and short-lasting residual effects, whereas tanks filled with rain water showed the opposite pattern. On average, larval infestations reappeared nine weeks post-treatment and seven weeks after estimated loss of residuality. Conclusions Temephos residuality in the field was much shorter and more variable than expected. The main factor limiting temephos residuality was fast water turnover, caused by householders' practice of refilling tanks overnight to counteract the intermittence of the local water supply. Limited field residuality of temephos accounts in part for the

  15. Method of reducing environmental pollution by utilizing stack gases, resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, and water, including sea water and waste water, to manufacture hydrocarbon energy fuel, potable water and other commercial products. [processing of flue gases and seawater or waste water to produce methane and useful by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, R.V.

    1974-06-28

    A method and apparatus is described for treating smoke stack gases diverted to minimize air pollution to recover from the stack gases the individual constituents thereof, namely, carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), water (H/sub 2/O) and nitrogen (N/sub 2/) freed of other products, such as oxides; and to recover from water (including nonpotable water such as sea water, waste water and even polluted water sources) the individual constituents thereof of interest here, namely, hydrogen (H/sub 2/); and delivering the recovered carbon dioxide and the recovered hydrogen into a catalytic reaction chamber under sufficiently high temperature conditions in the presence of a suitable catalyst to establish therein a reaction temperature to support a Sabatier catalytic reaction (CO/sub 2/ + 4H/sub 2/ = CH/sub 4/ + 2H/sub 2/O) hydrogenating the carbon dioxide to form methane for use as fuel, and potable water for commercial usage. (Official Gazette)

  16. Effects of a water aerobics program on the body composition of active middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Manzano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe and analyze changes in body composition of middle-aged women after participating in a water aerobics physical activity program and a subsequent detraining period. Materials and Methods: The group analyzed consisted of 17 women from Arroyo de San Serván (Badajoz, who were physically active (had participated in fitness gymnastics programs one to three sessions per week for the past three months, with an average age of 53.6 ± 9.1 years. The program was comprised of sixty minute-sessions five days a week, for 6 weeks, with a 4-week detraining period. Three anthropometric evaluations were conducted: at the beginning and at the end of the program and after the detraining period. Size and weight were recorded during each measurement, including six skinfolds, four body circumferences and three bone diameters. Fat percentage was obtained from four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and abdominal using the Yuhasz formula modified by Faulkner (1968. The muscle percentage was calculated from total mass percentage less bone percentage (Rocha, 1975, body fat percentage (Faulkner, 1968 and the residual percentage using the Wurch ́s equation (Esparza, 1993 of subjects measured, based on Matiegka ́s basic proposal (four components model. Results: after the program a significant increase was observed in muscle percentage: 32.69 ± 2.69% vs. 33.44 ± 2.89% (p <0.05, in muscle weight: 23.45 ± 3.53 kg vs. 24.02 ± 3.33 kg (p <0.05, as well as a significant decrease in the fat component reflected in the sum of skinfolds: 193.66 ± 25.54 mm vs. 188.38 ± 25.67 mm (p <0.05 and more specifically in the suprailiac skinfold, 30.47 ± 8.49 mm. vs 28.00 ± 8.78 mm (p <0.05. These trends were maintained during the detraining period, specifically in muscle percentage: 33.44 ± 2.89% vs. 34.25 ± 3.04% (p <0.01 compared to initial measurement, muscle weight: 24.02 ± 3.33 kg vs 24.74 ± 3.64 kg (p <0.01 compared to initial measurement, the sum

  17. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review: Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies, Compiled Presentations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Marine and Hydrokinetic Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  18. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review: Hydropower Technologies, Compiled Presentations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Hydropower Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  19. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines current and past water management efforts at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It starts with the history of water management, including the...

  20. HyMeX, a 10-year multidisciplinary program on the Mediterranean water cycle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    binski, P; Ducrocq, V.P; Alpert, P; Anagnostou, A; Béranger, K; Borga, M; Braud, I; Chanzy, A; Davolio, S; Delrieu, G; Estournel, C; Filali Boubrahmi, N; Uijlenhoet, R; Font, J; Grubisic, V; Gualdi, S; Homar, V; Ivancan-Picek, B; Kottmeier, C; Kotroni, V; Lagouvardos, K; Lionello, P; Llasat, M.C; Ludwig, W; Lutoff, C; Mariotti, A; Richard, E; Romero, R; Rotunno, R; Roussot, O; Ruin, I; Somot, S; Taupier-Letage, L; Tintore, J; Wernli, H

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean countries are experiencing important challenges related to the water cycle, including water shortages and floods, extreme winds, and ice/snow storms, that impact critically the socio...

  1. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines current and past water management efforts at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It starts with the history of water management, including the...

  2. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines current and past water management efforts at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It starts with the history of water management, including the...

  3. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines current and past water management efforts at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It starts with the history of water management, including the...

  4. Assessing marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems via stochastic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Pinte, D.; Goor, Q.

    2008-12-01

    The International Conference on Water and the Environment held in Dublin in 1992 emphasized the need to consider water as an economic good. Since water markets are usually absent or ineffective, the value of water cannot be directly derived from market activities but must rather be assessed through shadow prices. Economists have developed various valuation techniques to determine the economic value of water, especially to handle allocation issues involving environmental water uses. Most of the nonmarket valuation studies reported in the literature focus on long-run policy problems, such as permanent (re)allocations of water, and assume that the water availability is given. When dealing with short-run allocation problems, water managers are facing complex spatial and temporal trade-offs and must therefore be able to track site and time changes in water values across different hydrologic conditions, especially in arid and semiarid areas where the availability of water is a limiting and stochastic factor. This paper presents a stochastic programming approach for assessing the statistical distribution of marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems where hydropower generation and irrigation crop production are the main economic activities depending on water. In the absence of a water market, the Lagrange multipliers correspond to shadow prices, and the marginal water values are the Lagrange multipliers associated with the mass balance equations of the reservoirs. The methodology is illustrated with a cascade of hydroelectric-irrigation reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin in Turkey and Syria.

  5. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Due to seasonal variation of river flow, the assimilative capacity of the river system also varies within a year. A seasonal fraction-removal policy has to be specified based on varying assimilative capacity of the river rather than on a single value of river flow for the entire year. Seasonal waste water discharge programmes.

  6. Evaluation of water, sanitation and hygiene program outcomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross-sectional results from the follow-up data were also reported. Results: Statistically significant improvements from baseline were observed in the proportions of respondents with latrine access at home, who washed their hands after defecation, who treated their household drinking water and the average time to collect ...

  7. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  8. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with development of a seasonal fraction-removal policy model for waste load allocation in streams addressing uncertainties due to randomness and fuzziness. A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model is developed to arrive at the steady-state seasonal fraction-removal policy. A fuzzy decision model ...

  9. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  10. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  11. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  12. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  13. 77 FR 8865 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois; Tentative Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... to this determination are available for inspection at the following offices: Illinois Pollution... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois; Tentative Approval... State of Illinois submitted a primacy application for its approved Public Water System Supervision...

  14. 77 FR 19661 - Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... will address climate change challenges to its mission of protecting human health and the environment. Climate change alters the hydrological background in which EPA's programs function. Depending upon the... AGENCY Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental...

  15. Five Years Later: Predicting Student Use of Journals in a New Water Resources Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Andrea A.; Mellinger, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Using citation analysis, the authors examined the journals cited in theses and dissertations over the first five years of the Water Resources Graduate Program at Oregon State University. These journal titles were compared to the titles predicted as being important in the 2003 Oregon State University Libraries new program (Category I) review. A…

  16. Water-saving interventions assessment framework: an application for the Urmia Lake Restoration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Oel, Pieter; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2017-04-01

    Increasing water demand often results in unsustainable water use leaving insufficient amounts of water for sustaining natural environments. Therefore, to save natural resources water-saving interventions have been introduced to the environmental policy agenda in many (semi)-arid regions. Many policies, however, have failed reaching their objectives to increase water availability for the environment. This calls for a comprehensive tool to assess water-saving policies. Therefore, this study introduces a constructive framework to assess the policies by estimating five components: 1) Total water demand under socio-economic scenarios, 2) Water supply under climate change scenarios, 3) Water withdrawal for different sectors, 4) Water depletion and 5) Environmental flow. The framework, was applied to assess Urmia Lake Restoration Program (ULRP), which aims to restore the drying Urmia Lake in north-western Iran by increasing the lake inflow by 3.1×106m3yr-1. Results suggest that although the ULRP helps to increase inflow by up to 57% it is unlikely to fully reach its target. The analysis shows that there are three main reasons for the potential poor performance. The first reason is decreasing return flows due to increasing irrigation efficiency. This means that the expected increase in lake inflow volume is smaller than the volume saved by increasing irrigation efficiency. The second reason is increased depletion which is due to neglecting the fact that agricultural water demand is currently higher than available water for agriculture. As a result, increasing water use efficiency may result in increased water depletion. The third reason is ignoring the potential impact of climate change, which might decrease future water availability by 3% to 15%. Our analysis suggests that to reach the intervention target, measures need to focus on reducing Water demand and Water depletion rather than on reducing Water withdrawals. The assessment framework can be used to comprehensively

  17. Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xinguo

    2014-01-01

    to head-dependent pumping costs. These dynamic pumping costs strongly affect the total costs and can lead to non-convexity of the future cost function. The water user groups (agriculture, industry, domestic) are characterized by inelastic demands and fixed water allocation and water supply curtailment......Optimal management of conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater has been attempted with different algorithms in the literature. In this study, a hydro-economic modelling approach to optimize conjunctive use of scarce surface water and groundwater resources under uncertainty is presented....... A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) approach is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocations and water curtailments. Dynamic allocation problems with inclusion of groundwater resources proved to be more complex to solve with SDP than pure surface water allocation problems due...

  18. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  19. Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).

  20. A dynamic programming approach to water allocation for seasonally dry area, based on stochastic soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    seasonally dry areas, which are widely distributed in the world, are usually facing an intensive disparity between the lack of natural resource and the great demand of social development. In dry seasons of such areas, the distribution/allocation of water resource is an extremely critical and sensitive issue, and conflicts often occur due to lack of appropriate water allocation scheme. Among the many uses of water, the need of agricultural irrigation water is highly elastic, but this factor has not yet been made full use to free up water from agriculture use. The primary goal of this work is to design an optimal distribution scheme of water resource for dry seasons to maximize benefits from precious water resources, considering the high elasticity of agriculture water demand due to the dynamic of soil moisture affected by the uncertainty of precipitation and other factors like canopy interception. A dynamic programming model will be used to figure out an appropriate allocation of water resources among agricultural irrigation and other purposes like drinking water, industry, and hydropower, etc. In this dynamic programming model, we analytically quantify the dynamic of soil moisture in the agricultural fields by describing the interception with marked Poisson process and describing the rainfall depth with exponential distribution. Then, we figure out a water-saving irrigation scheme, which regulates the timetable and volumes of water in irrigation, in order to minimize irrigation water requirement under the premise of necessary crop yield (as a constraint condition). And then, in turn, we provide a scheme of water resource distribution/allocation among agriculture and other purposes, taking aim at maximizing benefits from precious water resources, or in other words, make best use of limited water resource.

  1. Application of an Environmental Decision Support System to a Water Quality Trading Program Affected by Surface Water Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obropta, Christopher C.; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon’s (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions.

  2. Inexact Multistage Stochastic Chance Constrained Programming Model for Water Resources Management under Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to formulate water allocation schemes under uncertainties in the water resources management systems, an inexact multistage stochastic chance constrained programming (IMSCCP model is proposed. The model integrates stochastic chance constrained programming, multistage stochastic programming, and inexact stochastic programming within a general optimization framework to handle the uncertainties occurring in both constraints and objective. These uncertainties are expressed as probability distributions, interval with multiply distributed stochastic boundaries, dynamic features of the long-term water allocation plans, and so on. Compared with the existing inexact multistage stochastic programming, the IMSCCP can be used to assess more system risks and handle more complicated uncertainties in water resources management systems. The IMSCCP model is applied to a hypothetical case study of water resources management. In order to construct an approximate solution for the model, a hybrid algorithm, which incorporates stochastic simulation, back propagation neural network, and genetic algorithm, is proposed. The results show that the optimal value represents the maximal net system benefit achieved with a given confidence level under chance constraints, and the solutions provide optimal water allocation schemes to multiple users over a multiperiod planning horizon.

  3. An Object Oriented Programming Tool for Optimal Management of Water Systems under Uncertainty by use of Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Luciano; Dorchies, David; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    We developed an Objective Oriented Programming (OOP) tool for optimal management of complex water systems by use of Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP). OOP is a powerful programming paradigm. OOP minimizes code redundancies, making code modification and maintenance very effective. This is especially welcome in research, in which, often, code must be modified to meet new requirements that were not initially considered. SDDP is an advanced method for optimal operation of complex dynamic systems under uncertainty. SDDP can deal with large and complex systems, such as a multi-reservoir system. The objective of this tool is making SDDP usable for Water Management Analysts. Thanks to this tool, the Analyst can bypass the SDDP programming complexity, and his/her task is simplified to the definition of system elements, topology and objectives, and experiments characteristics. In this tool, the main classes are: Experiment, System, Element, and Objective. Experiments are run on a system. A system is made of many elements interconnected among them. Class Element is made of the following sub-classes: (stochastic) hydrological scenario, (deterministic) water demand scenario, reservoir, river reach, off-take, and irrigation basin. Objectives are used in the optimization procedure to find the optimal operational rules, for a given system and experiment. OOP flexibility allows the Water Management Analyst to extend easily existing classes in order to answer his/her specific research questions. The tool is implemented in Python, and will be initially tested on two applications: the Senegal River water system, in West Africa, and the Seine River, in France.

  4. An Inventory-Theory-Based Inexact Multistage Stochastic Programming Model for Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Q. Suo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory-theory-based inexact multistage stochastic programming (IB-IMSP method is developed for planning water resources systems under uncertainty. The IB-IMSP is based on inexact multistage stochastic programming and inventory theory. The IB-IMSP cannot only effectively handle system uncertainties represented as probability density functions and discrete intervals but also efficiently reflect dynamic features of system conditions under different flow levels within a multistage context. Moreover, it can provide reasonable transferring schemes (i.e., the amount and batch of transferring as well as the corresponding transferring period associated with various flow scenarios for solving water shortage problems. The applicability of the proposed IB-IMSP is demonstrated by a case study of planning water resources management. The solutions obtained are helpful for decision makers in not only identifying different transferring schemes when the promised water is not met, but also making decisions of water allocation associated with different economic objectives.

  5. Statistical analysis of the water-quality monitoring program, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and optimization of the program for 2013 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Sara L. Caldwell; Wherry, Susan A.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2014-01-01

    Upper Klamath Lake in south-central Oregon has become increasingly eutrophic over the past century and now experiences seasonal cyanobacteria-dominated and potentially toxic phytoplankton blooms. Growth and decline of these blooms create poor water-quality conditions that can be detrimental to fish, including two resident endangered sucker species. Upper Klamath Lake is the primary water supply to agricultural areas within the upper Klamath Basin. Water from the lake is also used to generate power and to enhance and sustain downstream flows in the Klamath River. Water quality in Upper Klamath Lake has been monitored by the Klamath Tribes since the early 1990s and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 2002. Management agencies and other stakeholders have determined that a re-evaluation of the goals for water-quality monitoring is warranted to assess whether current data-collection activities will continue to adequately provide data for researchers to address questions of interest and to facilitate future natural resource management decisions. The purpose of this study was to (1) compile an updated list of the goals and objectives for long-term water-quality monitoring in Upper Klamath Lake with input from upper Klamath Basin stakeholders, (2) assess the current water-quality monitoring programs in Upper Klamath Lake to determine whether existing data-collection strategies can fulfill the updated goals and objectives for monitoring, and (3) identify potential modifications to future monitoring plans in accordance with the updated monitoring objectives and improve stakeholder cooperation and data-collection efficiency. Data collected by the Klamath Tribes and the USGS were evaluated to determine whether consistent long-term trends in water-quality variables can be described by the dataset and whether the number and distribution of currently monitored sites captures the full range of environmental conditions and the multi-scale variability of water

  6. Workshop 3 (synthesis): water, poverty alleviation and social programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A K; Shady, A; Lundqvist, J; Takahashi, K

    2003-01-01

    Poverty is a complex issue, which must be understood in a holistic manner. Low and variable income is certainly a key element, but it is far from enough to portray poverty. The various characteristics of poverty and their relative strength are determined through contextually specific circumstances, in terms of history, environmental preconditions, socio-cultural traits, etc. Much of this context is made up of local and national circumstances. The consequences of globalisation must, however, increasingly to be taken into account. At a larger scale, it is also relevant to mention that climate change will have a negative, although largely unpredictable, impact for the people in some parts of the world. For those who are already living on marginal lands or who are exposed to water problems, climate change is likely to create considerable adverse effects.

  7. [The marine coastal water monitoring program of the Italian Ministry of the Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Irene

    2003-01-01

    The Ministry of the Environment carries out marine and coastal monitoring programs with the collaboration of the coastal Regions. The program in progress (2001-2003), on the basis of results of the previous one, has identified 73 particulary significant areas (57 critical areas and 16 control areas). The program investigates several parameters on water, plancton, sediments, mollusks and benthos with analyses fortnightly, six-monthly and annual. The main aim of these three year monitoring programs is to assess the quality of national marine ecosystem.

  8. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  9. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  10. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... energy conservation standards adopted pursuant to EPCA, and for making representations about the... product literature, product markings, product marketing, or product installation and operation..., and allow for an accurate representation of efficiency of a wide range of different water heaters...

  11. Control of water distribution networks with dynamic DMA topology using strictly feasible sequential convex programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert; Abraham, Edo; Parpas, Panos; Stoianov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    The operation of water distribution networks (WDN) with a dynamic topology is a recently pioneered approach for the advanced management of District Metered Areas (DMAs) that integrates novel developments in hydraulic modeling, monitoring, optimization, and control. A common practice for leakage management is the sectorization of WDNs into small zones, called DMAs, by permanently closing isolation valves. This facilitates water companies to identify bursts and estimate leakage levels by measuring the inlet flow for each DMA. However, by permanently closing valves, a number of problems have been created including reduced resilience to failure and suboptimal pressure management. By introducing a dynamic topology to these zones, these disadvantages can be eliminated while still retaining the DMA structure for leakage monitoring. In this paper, a novel optimization method based on sequential convex programming (SCP) is outlined for the control of a dynamic topology with the objective of reducing average zone pressure (AZP). A key attribute for control optimization is reliable convergence. To achieve this, the SCP method we propose guarantees that each optimization step is strictly feasible, resulting in improved convergence properties. By using a null space algorithm for hydraulic analyses, the computations required are also significantly reduced. The optimized control is actuated on a real WDN operated with a dynamic topology. This unique experimental program incorporates a number of technologies set up with the objective of investigating pioneering developments in WDN management. Preliminary results indicate AZP reductions for a dynamic topology of up to 6.5% over optimally controlled fixed topology DMAs. This article was corrected on 12 JAN 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  12. Inorganic Analysis in Water Quality Control Programs. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Audrey

    This two-part instructor's guide was designed for a five-day course for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in inorganic analyses. Part I provides information on course planning and management including course description, staff responsibilities, suggested course plan and agenda, timeline for planning and conducting the course,…

  13. Application of multiple geochemical indicators, including the stable isotopes of water, to differentiate water quality evolution in a region influenced by various agricultural practices and domestic wastewater treatment and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas W

    2007-12-15

    Spatial and temporal variations in groundwater chemistry indicate that the use of low TDS lake water for irrigation, on land located just south of the City of Dixon, Solano County, California, is primarily responsible for improving groundwater quality with regards to salts. The stable isotopes of water further support this finding and suggest that TDS concentrations decrease as groundwater evolves to a more highly evaporated state. This seemingly contradictory finding was primarily attributed to infiltration of low TDS Lake Berryessa surface water, which has an isotopic signature indicative of an evaporated source and is used extensively for irrigation in the area, mixing with poorer quality locally recharged shallow groundwater. Geochemical modeling using the program PHREEQC further supports the anthropogenic aquifer freshening hypotheses through computed reductions in the saturation state of carbonate minerals in the vicinity of land irrigated by lake derived water, which is undersaturated with regards to modeled carbonates. Additionally, delta(18)O and delta(2)H were found to be useful in estimating climatic variables such as temperature and humidity, illustrating the potential for applying these models in hydrologic investigations within the area. It was however found that USDA NRCS soils data and measured water chemistry were not well correlated and thus the use of soils classifications to assess potential groundwater quality impacts was of limited utility.

  14. Treadmill training combined with water and land-based exercise programs: Effects on Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayan, Carlos; Varela, Silvia; Vila, M Helena; Seijo-Martinez, Manuel; Cancela, José M

    2016-06-30

    There is a need for studies about the effects of treadmill training (TT) on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients when combined with other exercise training modalities. To identify the effects of a multicomponent rehabilitation program on the illness impact, quality of life and fitness level in Parkinson's disease. Participants were assigned to two exercise groups: water and land-based exercise (WL) or water and land-based exercise plus treadmill training (TWL). The water and land-based exercise group performed one water-based exercise and one land-based exercise session per week for 15 weeks. Participants in the water and land-based exercise plus treadmill training added two sessions of treadmill training to this schedule. The Senior Fitness Test (SFT) was used to assess the sample's fitness level. Participants in the water and land-based exercise Group experienced significant benefits in the disease impact (UPDRS t = 3.083; p = 0.029) and quality of life (PDQ-39 t = 2.942; p = 0.036). The addition of treadmill training did not have any significant effect on these variables. Both programs showed similar effects on the fitness components evaluated. Adding treadmill training to a combination of water and land-based exercise programs may have limited effects on quality of life and the impact on the disease.

  15. The Role of Counseling in an Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program: Counseling in a Work Oriented Setting (The Importance of Including Counseling Courses within the Curriculum of the Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program at the Community College Level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Bruce

    This research had a two-fold purpose: (1) to assess the need for a labor studies program at the community college level; and (2) to consider the advisability of including within such a curriculum a cross-section of adult/family/worker-oriented counseling and guidance courses. The study employed a questionnaire completed by union delegates, which…

  16. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Digital Architecture Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    There are many technologies available to the nuclear power industry to improve efficiency in plant work activities. These range from new control room technologies to those for mobile field workers. They can make a positive impact on a wide range of performance objectives – increase in productivity, human error reduction, validation of results, accurate transfer of data, and elimination of repetitive tasks. It is expected that the industry will more and more turn to these technologies to achieve these operational efficiencies to lower costs. At the same time, this will help utilities manage a looming staffing problem as the inevitable retirement wave of the more seasoned workers affects both staffing levels and knowledge retention. A barrier to this wide-scale implementation of new technologies for operational efficiency is the lack of a comprehensive digital architecture that can support the real-time information exchanges needed to achieve the desired operational efficiencies. This project will define an advanced digital architecture that will accommodate the entire range of system, process, and plant worker activity to enable the highest degree of integration, thereby creating maximum efficiency and productivity. This pilot project will consider a range of open standards that are suitable for the various data and communication requirements of a seamless digital environment. It will map these standards into an overall architecture to support the II&C developments of this research program.

  17. 78 FR 63516 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY... Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors.'' This RG describes testing methods the NRC staff...)-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors.'' DG-1277...

  18. Evaluating the impacts of membrane type, coating, fouling, chemical properties and water chemistry on reverse osmosis rejection of seven nitrosoalklyamines, including NDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle-Darling, Eva; Zedda, Marco; Plumlee, Megan H; Ridgway, Harry F; Reinhard, Martin

    2007-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment has been found to be effective for a wide range of organics but generally small, polar, uncharged molecules such as N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) can be poorly rejected. The rejection of seven N-nitrosoalkylamines with molecular masses in the range of 78-158Da, including NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip) by three commercial brackish-water reverse osmosis membranes was studied in flat-sheet cells under cross-flow conditions. The membranes used were ESPA3 (Hydranautics), LFC3 (Hydranautics) and BW-30 (Dow/Filmtec), commonly used in water reuse applications. The effects of varying ionic strength and pH, dip-coating membranes with PEBAX 1657, a hydrophilic polymer, and artificial fouling with alginate on nitrosamine rejection were quantified. Rejection in deionized (DI) water increased with molecular mass from 56 to 70% for NDMA, to 80-91% for NMEA, 89-97% for NPyr, 92-98% for NDEA, and to beyond the detection limits for NPip, NDPA and NDBA. For the nitrosamines with quantifiable transmission, linear correlations (r(2)>0.97) were found between the number of methyl groups and the log(transmission), with factor 0.35 to 0.55 decreases in transmission per added methyl group. A PEBAX coating lowered the ESPA3 rejection of NDMA by 11% but increased the LFC3 and BW30 rejection by 6% and 15%, respectively. Artificially fouling ESPA3 membrane coupons with 170g/m(2) alginate decreased the rejection of NDMA by 18%. A feed concentration of 100mM NaCl decreased rejection of NDMA by 15% and acidifying the DI water feed to pH=3 decreased the rejection by 5%, whereas increasing the pH to 10 did not have a significant (p<0.05) effect.

  19. Evaluation of a multi-faceted diabetes care program including community-based peer educators in Takeo province, Cambodia, 2007-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Taniguchi

    Full Text Available Early detection and treatment for diabetes are essential for reducing disability and death from the disease. Finding effective screening and treatment for individuals living with diabetes in resource-limited countries is a challenge. MoPoTsyo, a Cambodian non-governmental organization, addressed this gap by utilizing a multi-pronged approach with community-based peer educators, access to laboratory procedures, local outpatient medical consultation, and a revolving drug fund. This study evaluated outcomes of MoPoTsyo's diabetes program in Takeo Province by assessing glycemic and blood pressure outcomes for individuals diagnosed with diabetes over a 24-month follow-up period between 2007-2013.This is a retrospective cohort analysis of records without a comparison group. We calculated the mean fasting blood glucose (FBG and blood pressure (BP at regular intervals of follow-up. The proportion of patients reaching recommended treatment targets for FBG and BP was assessed.Of the 3411 patients enrolled in the program, 2230 were included in the study. The cohort was predominantly female (68.9% with a median age of 54 years. Median follow-up time in the program was 16 months (4.9-38.4 months. Mean FBG decreased 63.9 mg/dl in mean FBG (95% CI 58.5 to 69.3 at one year of follow-up (p<0.001. After one year, 45% (321/708 of patients achieved goal FBG < 126. Of the 41.6% (927/2230 with elevated BP at enrollment, systolic and diastolic BP levels significantly decreased (p<0.001 by 16.9 mmHg (95% CI 1.2 to 22.9 and 10 mm Hg (95% CI 0.7 to 12.9 respectively between enrollment and one year of follow-up. At one year of follow-up, 51.1%% (183/355 of these patients reached the BP goal < 140/90.The improved outcome indicators of diabetes care for MoPoTsyo's Takeo program evaluation showed promise. The program demonstrated a reasonable and practical approach to delivering effective diabetes care in a rural area and may serve as a model for other low-income communities

  20. Evaluation of a multi-faceted diabetes care program including community-based peer educators in Takeo province, Cambodia, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Dawn; LoGerfo, James; van Pelt, Maurits; Mielcarek, Bessie; Huster, Karin; Haider, Mahri; Thomas, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Early detection and treatment for diabetes are essential for reducing disability and death from the disease. Finding effective screening and treatment for individuals living with diabetes in resource-limited countries is a challenge. MoPoTsyo, a Cambodian non-governmental organization, addressed this gap by utilizing a multi-pronged approach with community-based peer educators, access to laboratory procedures, local outpatient medical consultation, and a revolving drug fund. This study evaluated outcomes of MoPoTsyo's diabetes program in Takeo Province by assessing glycemic and blood pressure outcomes for individuals diagnosed with diabetes over a 24-month follow-up period between 2007-2013. This is a retrospective cohort analysis of records without a comparison group. We calculated the mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) and blood pressure (BP) at regular intervals of follow-up. The proportion of patients reaching recommended treatment targets for FBG and BP was assessed. Of the 3411 patients enrolled in the program, 2230 were included in the study. The cohort was predominantly female (68.9%) with a median age of 54 years. Median follow-up time in the program was 16 months (4.9-38.4 months). Mean FBG decreased 63.9 mg/dl in mean FBG (95% CI 58.5 to 69.3) at one year of follow-up (p<0.001). After one year, 45% (321/708) of patients achieved goal FBG < 126. Of the 41.6% (927/2230) with elevated BP at enrollment, systolic and diastolic BP levels significantly decreased (p<0.001) by 16.9 mmHg (95% CI 1.2 to 22.9) and 10 mm Hg (95% CI 0.7 to 12.9) respectively between enrollment and one year of follow-up. At one year of follow-up, 51.1%% (183/355) of these patients reached the BP goal < 140/90. The improved outcome indicators of diabetes care for MoPoTsyo's Takeo program evaluation showed promise. The program demonstrated a reasonable and practical approach to delivering effective diabetes care in a rural area and may serve as a model for other low-income communities

  1. Limites e possibilidades dos programas de aceleração de aprendizagem The limits and possibilities of including students from remedial learning programs in regular schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarilza Prado de Sousa

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Pretendi neste trabalho analisar os limites e possibilidades da escola integrar alunos com atraso de escolaridade em processos de educação regular, que receberam apoio de programas de aceleração da aprendizagem. Baseada nas avaliações realizadas desses programas por professores do Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Psicologia da Educação da PUCSP e por pesquisadores do Núcleo de Avaliação Educacional da Fundação Carlos Chagas, discuto os resultados efetivamente alcançados considerando duas categorias de análise. Na primeira categoria, analiso os efeitos da estratégia pedagógica promovida pelos programas, nas aprendizagens e progressos dos alunos participantes. Na segunda categoria, procuro analisar as possibilidades de integração/inclusão desses alunos no processo de educação regular. Finalmente, à guisa de conclusão, procuro fazer algumas considerações teórico-metodológicas. Distinguindo integração de inclusão, discuto os limites e possibilidades que as ações dos programas têm de realmente promoverem o desenvolvimento de uma escola sem exclusão.This article analyzes the limits and possibilities for schools to include students with schooling deficits who receive support from the accelerated learning programs, in their regular education processes. Based on evaluations of these programs done by professors from the Post Graduate Program in Educational Psychology of the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo and by researchers from the Nucleus for Educational Evaluation of the Carlos Chagas Foundation, the results will be discussed in two analytical categories. In the first category, I analyze the effects of the teaching strategies promoted by the programs on the learning and progress of the participating students. In the second category, I seek to analyze the possibilities for integration/inclusion of these students in the regular educational process. Finally by way of conclusion, I try to make some

  2. Benefits of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise on albuminuria in diabetic and non-diabetic Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Kabasawa, Keiko; Hosojima, Michihiro; Yata, Yusuke; Saito, Mariko; Tanaka, Noriko; Tanaka, Junta; Tanabe, Naohito; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Saito, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Albuminuria is a biomarker for chronic kidney disease and an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. A recent meta-analysis concluded that these risks increase with urinary albumin concentration, even when below the microalbuminuria threshold. Thus, minimizing urinary albumin may be a valuable therapeutic goal regardless of disease status. We investigated the benefits and safety of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise for reducing albuminuria in 295 normoalbuminuric or microalbuminuric Japanese adults, including 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 104 with metabolic syndrome (MS), and 145 with hypertension (HT). In the study population, the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was reduced significantly (ΔUACR -3.8 ± 16.8 mg/g, P < 0.001) with no change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ΔeGFR -0.4 ± 7.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.343). The reduction in UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05). The UACR was also reduced in the T2DM, MS, and HT groups with no change in eGFR. Reduced UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose in the MS group and decreased systolic blood pressure in the HT group. The UACR was also reduced in 46 subjects using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with no change in eGFR. Our 12-week lifestyle modification program reduced UACR, maintained eGFR, and improved multiple fitness findings in Japanese subjects including T2DM, MS, and HT patients.

  3. Optimal supervisory control of a central chilled water plant with heuristic search sequential quadratic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian

    2010-09-01

    A new methodology for adapting rigorous simulation programs to optimal supervisory control of a central chilled water plant is proposed in this article, which solves plant operation mode optimization and set points optimization by combining heuristic search with sequential quadratic programming. The mathematical basis of this algorithm is developed. A new derivative calculation strategy is introduced in set points optimization. This approach is applied to a central chilled water plant which consists of three chillers, two 3-cell cooling towers, three chilled water pumps and three condenser water pumps. Model verification study is performed. The optimal sequence of operation, set points of the decision variables at given load demand and weather condition are calculated. The plant performance and optimal control results are discussed.

  4. Inexact nonlinear improved fuzzy chance-constrained programming model for irrigation water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Shanshan; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Ping

    2018-01-01

    An inexact nonlinear mλ-measure fuzzy chance-constrained programming (INMFCCP) model is developed for irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. Techniques of inexact quadratic programming (IQP), mλ-measure, and fuzzy chance-constrained programming (FCCP) are integrated into a general optimization framework. The INMFCCP model can deal with not only nonlinearities in the objective function, but also uncertainties presented as discrete intervals in the objective function, variables and left-hand side constraints and fuzziness in the right-hand side constraints. Moreover, this model improves upon the conventional fuzzy chance-constrained programming by introducing a linear combination of possibility measure and necessity measure with varying preference parameters. To demonstrate its applicability, the model is then applied to a case study in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. An interval regression analysis method is used to obtain interval crop water production functions in the whole growth period under uncertainty. Therefore, more flexible solutions can be generated for optimal irrigation water allocation. The variation of results can be examined by giving different confidence levels and preference parameters. Besides, it can reflect interrelationships among system benefits, preference parameters, confidence levels and the corresponding risk levels. Comparison between interval crop water production functions and deterministic ones based on the developed INMFCCP model indicates that the former is capable of reflecting more complexities and uncertainties in practical application. These results can provide more reliable scientific basis for supporting irrigation water management in arid areas.

  5. Building leadership capacity to drive sustainable water management: the evaluation of a customised program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A C

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a customised, six-month, leadership development program (LDP) that was designed for emerging leaders in the Australian water industry who were promoting sustainable urban water management (SUWM). It also presents results from an evaluation of the program's benefits, costs and overall 'return on investment' (ROI). The program was designed to help build emergent leadership capacity in the water industry, given strong evidence that this form of leadership plays an important role in advancing SUWM. It involved '360-degree feedback' processes, training, individual leadership development plans, and coaching sessions. Its design was informed by a review of the literature, and its content was informed by local empirical research involving effective SUWM leaders. The evaluation used a seven-tier assessment framework that examined different dimensions of the program's performance using source and methodological triangulation. The results indicate that such LDPs can produce a range of positive outcomes, such as promoting desired leadership behaviours and generating a positive ROI estimate. Specifically, the program's estimated ROI was approximately 190% after only one year. The primary conclusion is that evidence-based LDPs which are highly customised for specific types of leaders in the water industry represent a promising type of intervention to build forms of leadership capacity which are needed to successfully promote SUWM.

  6. 1994 Environmental monitoring drinking water and nonradiological effluent programs annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.D.; Brock, T.A.; Meachum, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated monitoring programs for drinking water in 1988 and for nonradiological parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents in 1985. These programs were initiated for the facilities operated by EG&G Idaho for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. On October 1, 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) replaced EG&G Idaho as the prime contractor at the INEL and assumed responsibility for these programs. Section I discusses the general site characteristics, the analytical laboratories, and sampling methodology general to both programs. Section 2, the Drinking Water Program, tracks the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters required by State and Federal regulations. This section describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at 17 LITCO-operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters detected and the regulatory limits exceeded during calendar year 1994. In addition, groundwater quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for LITCO production wells. Section 3 discusses the nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring results for 27 liquid effluent streams. These streams are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1994 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  7. FAR EAST TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS OF U.S. NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (INCLUDING VOLUNTARY AGENCIES, MISSIONS, AND FOUNDATIONS), DIRECTORY - 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURGESS, MARY ELLEN, ED.

    PART 1 OF THIS PROGRAM GUIDE LISTS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AGENCIES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE FAR EAST, TOGETHER WITH ADDRESSES, TELEPHONE NUMBERS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS, PROGRAM DIRECTORS, COUNTRIES SERVED, AND ESTIMATED COSTS. PART 2 GIVES PROGRAM DATA (ORGANIZATIONS, OPERATING AND SUPPORT PROGRAMS, TYPES OF ASSISTANCE, REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES,…

  8. Effects of Water and Land-based Sensorimotor Training Programs on Static Balance among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolhamid Daneshjoo; Ashril Yusof

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of sensorimotor training on static balance in two different environments; in water and on land. Thirty non-clinical university male students (aged 22±0.85 years) were divided randomly into three groups; water, land and control groups. The experimental groups performed their respective sensorimotor training programs for 6 weeks (3 times per week). The Stork Stand Balance Test was used to examine the static balance at pre- and post-time points. Significant main ef...

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Seismic Soil Structure Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Risk calculations should focus on providing best estimate results, and associated insights, for evaluation and decision-making. Specifically, seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRAs) are intended to provide best estimates of the various combinations of structural and equipment failures that can lead to a seismic induced core damage event. However, in some instances the current SPRA approach has large uncertainties, and potentially masks other important events (for instance, it was not the seismic motions that caused the Fukushima core melt events, but the tsunami ingress into the facility). SPRA’s are performed by convolving the seismic hazard (this is the estimate of all likely damaging earthquakes at the site of interest) with the seismic fragility (the conditional probability of failure of a structure, system, or component given the occurrence of earthquake ground motion). In this calculation, there are three main pieces to seismic risk quantification, 1) seismic hazard and nuclear power plants (NPPs) response to the hazard, 2) fragility or capacity of structures, systems and components (SSC), and 3) systems analysis. Two areas where NLSSI effects may be important in SPRA calculations are, 1) when calculating in-structure response at the area of interest, and 2) calculation of seismic fragilities (current fragility calculations assume a lognormal distribution for probability of failure of components). Some important effects when using NLSSI in the SPRA calculation process include, 1) gapping and sliding, 2) inclined seismic waves coupled with gapping and sliding of foundations atop soil, 3) inclined seismic waves coupled with gapping and sliding of deeply embedded structures, 4) soil dilatancy, 5) soil liquefaction, 6) surface waves, 7) buoyancy, 8) concrete cracking and 9) seismic isolation The focus of the research task presented here-in is on implementation of NLSSI into the SPRA calculation process when calculating in-structure response at the area

  10. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Community Observer Program including the Science Enhancement Option Box (SEO Box) - 12 TB On-board Flash Memory for Serendipitous Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingler, Robert; Villasenor, J. N.; Ricker, G. R.; Latham, D. W.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ennico, K. A.; Lewis, B. S.; Bakos, G.; Brown, T. M.; Burgasser, A. J.; Charbonneau, D.; Clampin, M.; Deming, L. D.; Doty, J. P.; Dunham, E. W.; Elliot, J. L.; Holman, M. J.; Ida, S.; Jenkins, J. M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Kawai, N.; Laughlin, G. P.; Lissauer, J. J.; Martel, F.; Sasselov, D. D.; Seager, S.; Torres, G.; Udry, S.; Winn, J. N.; Worden, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will perform an all-sky survey in a low-inclination, low-Earth orbit. TESS's 144 GB of raw data collected each orbit will be stacked, cleaned, cut, compressed and downloaded. The Community Observer Program is a Science Enhancement Option (SEO) that takes advantage of the low-radiation environment, technology advances in flash memory, and the vast amount of astronomical data collected by TESS. The Community Observer Program requires the addition of a 12 TB "SEO Box” inside the TESS Bus. The hardware can be built using low-cost Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components and fits within TESS's margins while accommodating GSFC gold rules. The SEO Box collects and stores a duplicate of the TESS camera data at a "raw” stage ( 4.3 GB/orbit, after stacking and cleaning) and makes them available for on-board processing. The sheer amount of onboard storage provided by the SEO Box allows the stacking and storing of several months of data, allowing the investigator to probe deeper in time prior to a given event. Additionally, with computation power and data in standard formats, investigators can utilize data-mining techniques to investigate serendipitous phenomenon, including pulsating stars, eclipsing binaries, supernovae or other transient phenomena. The Community Observer Program enables ad-hoc teams of citizen scientists to propose, test, refine and rank algorithms for on-board analysis to support serendipitous science. Combining "best practices” of online collaboration, with careful moderation and community management, enables this `crowd sourced’ participatory exploration with a minimal risk and impact on the core TESS Team. This system provides a powerful and independent tool opening a wide range of opportunity for science enhancement and secondary science. Support for this work has been provided by NASA, the Kavli Foundation, Google, and the Smithsonian Institution.

  11. [Effects of a smoking cessation program including telephone counseling and text messaging using stages of change for outpatients after a myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jung-Hyeon; Ha, Yeongmi

    2013-08-01

    This study was done to identify effects of a smoking cessation program including telephone counseling and text messaging using stages of change for outpatients who have had a myocardial infarction (MI). This research was a quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest. The participants were 48 outpatients (experimental group=24, control group=24) recruited from one university hospital. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) an experimental group with telephone counseling (once a week) and text messaging (five times a week) using stages of change, and (b) a control group with traditional telephone counseling (once a month). Efficacy of the intervention was measured by comparing the two groups on smoking-related variables at 3 weeks and 12 weeks. At the 3-week and 12-week measurements, there were significant differences between the experimental and control groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy (pstages of change is effective for outpatients after a MI. Further attention should be paid to the intensity of the smoking cessation program and periods for long-term follow-up.

  12. Is expanding HPV vaccination programs to include school-aged boys likely to be value-for-money: a cost-utility analysis in a country with an existing school-girl program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Wilson, Nick; Smith, Megan; Canfell, Karen; Blakely, Tony

    2014-06-26

    Similar to many developed countries, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is provided only to girls in New Zealand and coverage is relatively low (47% in school-aged girls for dose 3). Some jurisdictions have already extended HPV vaccination to school-aged boys. Thus, exploration of the cost-utility of adding boys' vaccination is relevant. We modeled the incremental health gain and costs for extending the current girls-only program to boys, intensifying the current girls-only program to achieve 73% coverage, and extension of the intensive program to boys. A Markov macro-simulation model, which accounted for herd immunity, was developed for an annual cohort of 12-year-olds in 2011 and included the future health states of: cervical cancer, pre-cancer (CIN I to III), genital warts, and three other HPV-related cancers. In each state, health sector costs, including additional health costs from extra life, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were accumulated. The model included New Zealand data on cancer incidence and survival, and other cause mortality (all by sex, age, ethnicity and deprivation). At an assumed local willingness-to-pay threshold of US$29,600, vaccination of 12-year-old boys to achieve the current coverage for girls would not be cost-effective, at US$61,400/QALY gained (95% UI $29,700 to $112,000; OECD purchasing power parities) compared to the current girls-only program, with an assumed vaccine cost of US$59 (NZ$113). This was dominated though by the intensified girls-only program; US$17,400/QALY gained (95% UI: dominant to $46,100). Adding boys to this intensified program was also not cost-effective; US$128,000/QALY gained, 95% UI: $61,900 to $247,000).Vaccination of boys was not found to be cost-effective, even for additional scenarios with very low vaccine or program administration costs - only when combined vaccine and administration costs were NZ$125 or lower per dose was vaccination of boys cost-effective. These results suggest that

  13. How does the WFD address cumulative stress (including mixture toxicity) of pollutants to achieve good chemiscal and ecological status of water bodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is now more than ten years ago that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was adopted by the European Parliament. The main objectives of the WFD are (i) to achieve good ecological and chemical status for inland surface waters, transitional waters and coastal waters in EU Member States, (ii) to

  14. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming model for sustainable irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Fu, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Ma, Mingwei; Liu, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity causes conflicts among natural resources, society and economy and reinforces the need for optimal allocation of irrigation water resources in a sustainable way. Uncertainties caused by natural conditions and human activities make optimal allocation more complex. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming (IFMONLP) model for irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions is developed to help decision makers mitigate water scarcity. The model is capable of quantitatively solving multiple problems including crop yield increase, blue water saving, and water supply cost reduction to obtain a balanced water allocation scheme using a multi-objective non-linear programming technique. Moreover, it can deal with uncertainty as well as hesitation based on the introduction of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Consideration of the combination of dry and wet conditions for water availability and precipitation makes it possible to gain insights into the various irrigation water allocations, and joint probabilities based on copula functions provide decision makers an average standard for irrigation. A case study on optimally allocating both surface water and groundwater to different growth periods of rice in different subareas in Heping irrigation area, Qing'an County, northeast China shows the potential and applicability of the developed model. Results show that the crop yield increase target especially in tillering and elongation stages is a prevailing concern when more water is available, and trading schemes can mitigate water supply cost and save water with an increased grain output. Results also reveal that the water allocation schemes are sensitive to the variation of water availability and precipitation with uncertain characteristics. The IFMONLP model is applicable for most irrigation areas with limited water supplies to determine irrigation water strategies under a fuzzy environment.

  15. Groundwater and streamflow information program Kansas Cooperative Water Science since 1895

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Colin C.; Kramer, Ariele R.; Kelly, Brian P.

    2017-05-10

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, local, and other Federal agencies, operates a network of streamgages throughout the State of Kansas. Data provided by this network are used to forecast floods, operate reservoirs, develop water policy, administer regulation of water, and perform interpretive analyses of streamflow. This data collection and analysis effort has been sustained since 1895 through cooperative matching fund programs that allow the USGS to work with cooperative agencies to solve groundwater and surface water challenges that affect citizens locally and throughout the Nation.  

  16. Quarterly technical report on water reactor safety programs sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Reactor Safety Research, July--September 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    Light water reactor safety activities performed during July through September 1975 are summarized. The isothermal blowdown test series of the Semiscale Mod-1 test program has provided data for evaluation of break flow phenomena and analyses of piping flow regimes and pump performance. In the LOFT Program, measurement uncertainties were evaluated. The Thermal Fuels Behavior Program completed two power-cooling-mismatch tests on PWR-type fuel rods to investigate critical heat flux characteristics. Model development and verification efforts of the Reactor Behavior Program included development of the SPLEN1 computer code, subroutines for the FRAP-T code, verification of RELAP4, and results of the Halden Recycle Plutonium Experiment.

  17. Algal Attributes: An Autecological Classification of Algal Taxa Collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    Algae are excellent indicators of water-quality conditions, notably nutrient and organic enrichment, and also are indicators of major ion, dissolved oxygen, and pH concentrations and stream microhabitat conditions. The autecology, or physiological optima and tolerance, of algal species for various water-quality contaminants and conditions is relatively well understood for certain groups of freshwater algae, notably diatoms. However, applications of autecological information for water-quality assessments have been limited because of challenges associated with compiling autecological literature from disparate sources, tracking name changes for a large number of algal species, and creating an autecological data base from which algal-indicator metrics can be calculated. A comprehensive summary of algal autecological attributes for North American streams and rivers does not exist. This report describes a large, digital data file containing 28,182 records for 5,939 algal taxa, generally species or variety, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The data file includes 37 algal attributes classified by over 100 algal-indicator codes or metrics that can be calculated easily with readily available software. Algal attributes include qualitative classifications based on European and North American autecological literature, and semi-quantitative, weighted-average regression approaches for estimating optima using regional and national NAWQA data. Applications of algal metrics in water-quality assessments are discussed and national quartile distributions of metric scores are shown for selected indicator metrics.

  18. Application of artificial neural network for vapor liquid equilibrium calculation of ternary system including ionic liquid: Water, ethanol and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazlali, Alireza; Koranian, Parvaneh [Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beigzadeh, Reza [Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi, Masoud [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    A feed forward three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for VLE prediction of ternary systems including ionic liquid (IL) (water+ethanol+1-butyl-3- methyl-imidazolium acetate), in a relatively wide range of IL mass fractions up to 0.8, with the mole fractions of ethanol on IL-free basis fixed separately at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 0.98. The output results of the ANN were the mole fraction of ethanol in vapor phase and the equilibrium temperature. The validity of the model was evaluated through a test data set, which were not employed in the training case of the network. The performance of the ANN model for estimating the mole fraction and temperature in the ternary system including IL was compared with the non-random-two-liquid (NRTL) and electrolyte non-random-two- liquid (eNRTL) models. The results of this comparison show that the ANN model has a superior performance in predicting the VLE of ternary systems including ionic liquid.

  19. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errina labrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae, with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errina labrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms. There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water.

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  1. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for May 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  2. The Politics of Extension Water Programming: Determining if Affiliation Impacts Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2017-01-01

    Research has found levels of engagement in environmental behaviors and participation in Extension programming around environmental issues are directly associated with political affiliation. Democrat and Independent parties encourage members to vote for stricter environmental regulations, such as water conservation efforts, while Republicans…

  3. Biological assessment: water hyacinth control program for the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed Biological Assessment was developed for the proposed Areawide Water Hyacinth Control Program to outline the procedures that will be used to control this invasive aquatic plant in the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta, and to help determine if this action is expected to threaten endanger...

  4. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for September 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  5. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for October 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  6. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for April 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  7. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for July 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  8. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for April 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  9. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for June 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  10. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for October 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  11. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for August 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  12. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for May 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  13. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Distance to Perennial Streams and Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  14. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for August 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  15. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for September 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  16. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for July 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  17. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Sub-basin Analysis Flow Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  18. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for June 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  19. Preferences for Wastewater Management Programs in Rhode Island: Accounting for Shellfish, Drinking Water, and Strategic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Christopher J.; Swallow, Stephen K.; Sutinen, Jon G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses resistance to wastewater management programs in coastal communities. Innovative stated preference survey responses are used to rank the importance of private onsite benefits, water quality protection, environmental perceptions, and treatment responsibility. Resistance becomes strategic when treatment responsibility is heterogeneous and environmental values compete with private onsite benefits.

  20. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Distance to Gaining Streams and Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  1. Studying the Water Cycle in an Environmental Context: The "Blue Planet" Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-zvi-assaraf, Orit; Orion, Nir

    The Blue Planet program aims to develop an understanding of and insight into the environment among students by introducing environmental problems such as pollution. This paper presents a study investigating junior high school students' previous knowledge and understanding of environmental issues and perceptions on the nature of the water cycle.…

  2. Groundwater Contamination. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles A.

    Described is a presentation and learning session on groundwater, which is intended to educate advisory groups interested in improving water quality decision making. Among the areas addressed are the importance of groundwater, sources of contamination, and groundwater pollution control programs. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  3. Design and Implementation of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Coe, Alice; Klaver, Irene; Dickson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Informed by the results of a baseline research study of regional citizen knowledge and understanding concerning watershed issues, a team of university faculty and classroom teachers designed and implemented a water conservation education program to address lacking areas of watershed knowledge. The authors developed age-appropriate, hands-on…

  4. 76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA; Final Environmental Impact Statement and Habitat Conservation Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  5. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on...

  6. Nutritional status and feeding-tube placement in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozec, Alexandre; Benezery, Karen; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Ettaiche, Marc; Vandersteen, Clair; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Riss, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun-Lévi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Leysalle, Axel; Saada, Esma; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Hebert, Christophe; Falewee, Marie-Noelle; Demard, François; Santini, José; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional status and determine its impact on clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy (ICT)-based larynx preservation program without prophylactic feeding-tube placement. All patients with locally advanced (T3/4, N0-3, M0) hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, technically suitable for total pharyngolaryngectomy, treated by docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF)-ICT for larynx preservation at our institution between 2004 and 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Patients' nutritional status was closely monitored. Enteral nutrition was used if and when a patient was unable to sustain per-oral nutrition and hydration. The impact of nutritional status on clinical outcomes was investigated in univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 53 patients (42 men and 11 women, mean age = 58.6 ± 8.2 years) were included in this study. Six (11.3 %) patients had lost more than 10 % of their usual body weight before therapy. Compared with patients' usual weight, the mean maximum patient weight loss during therapeutic management was 8.7 ± 4.5 kg. Enteral nutrition was required in 17 patients (32 %). We found no influence of the tested nutritional status-related factors on response to ICT, toxicity of ICT, overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival, and on post-therapeutic swallowing outcome. Maximum weight loss was significantly associated with a higher risk of enteral tube feeding during therapy (p = 0.03) and of complications (grade ≥3, p = 0.006) during RT. Without prophylactic feeding-tube placement, approximately one-third of the patients required enteral nutrition. There was no significant impact of nutritional status on oncologic or functional outcomes.

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As the current Light Water Reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) degradations or failures that initiate safety-significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated, primarily based on “engineering judgment.”

  8. Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals Including Rare Earth Elements, Thorium, and Uranium in Sludge from Industry Water Treatment Plant and Recovery Method of Metals by Biosurfactants Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90–100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution. PMID:22693485

  9. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  10. Water in Star-forming Regions with the Herschel Space Observatory (WISH). I. Overview of Key Program and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Aikawa, Y.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Brinch, C.; Bruderer, S.; Chavarría, L.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; Deul, E.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Dubernet, M. L.; Encrenaz, P.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Fich, M.; Frieswijk, W.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Helmich, F. P.; Herczeg, G. J.; Jacq, T.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Karska, A.; Kaufman, M. J.; Keto, E.; Larsson, B.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Olberg, M.; Pagani, L.; Panić, O.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Salter, D.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Stäuber, P.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Viti, S.; Walmsley, M.; Wampfler, S. F.; Yıldız, U. A.

    2011-02-01

    Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) is a key program on the Herschel Space Observatory designed to probe the physical and chemical structures of young stellar objects using water and related molecules and to follow the water abundance from collapsing clouds to planet-forming disks. About 80 sources are targeted, covering a wide range of luminosities—from low (105 L⊙)—and a wide range of evolutionary stages—from cold prestellar cores to warm protostellar envelopes and outflows to disks around young stars. Both the HIFI and PACS instruments are used to observe a variety of lines of H2O, H218O and chemically related species at the source position and in small maps around the protostars and selected outflow positions. In addition, high-frequency lines of CO, 13CO, and C18O are obtained with Herschel and are complemented by ground-based observations of dust continuum, HDO, CO and its isotopologs, and other molecules to ensure a self-consistent data set for analysis. An overview of the scientific motivation and observational strategy of the program is given, together with the modeling approach and analysis tools that have been developed. Initial science results are presented. These include a lack of water in cold gas at abundances that are lower than most predictions, strong water emission from shocks in protostellar environments, the importance of UV radiation in heating the gas along outflow walls across the full range of luminosities, and surprisingly widespread detection of the chemically related hydrides OH+ and H2O+ in outflows and foreground gas. Quantitative estimates of the energy budget indicate that H2O is generally not the dominant coolant in the warm dense gas associated with protostars. Very deep limits on the cold gaseous water reservoir in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks are obtained that have profound implications for our understanding of grain growth and mixing in disks.

  11. Development of a 2-h suicide prevention program for medical staff including nurses and medical residents: A two-center pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Yukako; Kubo, Hiroaki; Katsuki, Ryoko; Sakai, Tomomichi; Sugihara, Genichi; Naito, Chisako; Oda, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Suzuki, Yuriko; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Naoki; Kobara, Keiji; Cho, Tetsuji; Kuga, Hironori; Takao, Kiyoshi; Kawahara, Yoko; Matsumura, Yumi; Murai, Toshiya; Akashi, Koichi; Kanba, Shigenobu; Otsuka, Kotaro; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-01-01

    Suicide is a crucial global health concern and effective suicide prevention has long been warranted. Mental illness, especially depression is the highest risk factor of suicide. Suicidal risk is increased in people not only with mental illness but also with physical illnesses, thus medical staff caring for physically-ill patients are also required to manage people with suicidal risk. In the present study, we evaluated our newly developed suicide intervention program among medical staff. We developed a 2-h suicide intervention program for medical staff, based on the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), which had originally been developed for the general population. We conducted this program for 74 medical staff members from 2 hospitals. Changes in knowledge, perceived skills, and confidence in early intervention of depression and suicide-prevention were evaluated using self-reported questionnaires at 3 points; pre-program, immediately after the program, and 1 month after program. This suicide prevention program had significant effects on improving perceived skills and confidence especially among nurses and medical residents. These significant effects lasted even 1 month after the program. Design was a single-arm study with relatively small sample size and short-term follow up. The present study suggests that the major target of this effective program is nurses and medical residents. Future research is required to validate the effects of the program with control groups, and also to assess long-term effectiveness and actual reduction in suicide rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development plan for the External Hazards Experimental Group. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Burns, Douglas Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the development plan for a new multi-partner External Hazards Experimental Group (EHEG) coordinated by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) technical pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Currently, there is limited data available for development and validation of the tools and methods being developed in the RISMC Toolkit. The EHEG is being developed to obtain high-quality, small- and large-scale experimental data validation of RISMC tools and methods in a timely and cost-effective way. The group of universities and national laboratories that will eventually form the EHEG (which is ultimately expected to include both the initial participants and other universities and national laboratories that have been identified) have the expertise and experimental capabilities needed to both obtain and compile existing data archives and perform additional seismic and flooding experiments. The data developed by EHEG will be stored in databases for use within RISMC. These databases will be used to validate the advanced external hazard tools and methods.

  13. Building capacity for water, sanitation, and hygiene programming: Training evaluation theory applied to CLTS management training in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Shields, Katherine F; Venkataramanan, Vidya; Saywell, Darren; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor. We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating training in WaSH by reviewing and adapting concepts from literature. Our framework includes three target outcomes: learning, individual performance, and improved programming; and two sets of influences: trainee and context factors. We applied the framework to evaluate a seven-month community-led total sanitation (CLTS) management training program delivered to 42 government officials in Kenya from September 2013 to May 2014. Trainees were given a pre-training questionnaire and were interviewed at two weeks and seven months after initial training. We qualitatively analyzed the data using our conceptual framework. The training program resulted in trainees learning the CLTS process and new skills, and improving their individual performance through application of advocacy, partnership, and supervision soft skills. The link from trainees' performance to improved programming was constrained by resource limitations and pre-existing rigidity of trainees' organizations. Training-over-time enhanced outcomes and enabled trainees to overcome constraints in their work. Training in soft skills is relevant to managing public health programs beyond WaSH. We make recommendations on how training programs can be targeted and adapted to improve outcomes. Our conceptual framework can be used as a tool both for planning and evaluating training programs in WaSH. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. User's manual for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Invertebrate Data Analysis System (IDAS) software, version 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Brightbill, Robin A.

    2011-01-01

    The Invertebrate Data Analysis System (IDAS) software was developed to provide an accurate, consistent, and efficient mechanism for analyzing invertebrate data collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The IDAS software is a stand-alone program for personal computers that run Microsoft Windows(Registered). It allows users to read data downloaded from the NAWQA Program Biological Transactional Database (Bio-TDB) or to import data from other sources either as Microsoft Excel(Registered) or Microsoft Access(Registered) files. The program consists of five modules: Edit Data, Data Preparation, Calculate Community Metrics, Calculate Diversities and Similarities, and Data Export. The Edit Data module allows the user to subset data on the basis of taxonomy or sample type, extract a random subsample of data, combine or delete data, summarize distributions, resolve ambiguous taxa (see glossary) and conditional/provisional taxa, import non-NAWQA data, and maintain and create files of invertebrate attributes that are used in the calculation of invertebrate metrics. The Data Preparation module allows the user to select the type(s) of sample(s) to process, calculate densities, delete taxa on the basis of laboratory processing notes, delete pupae or terrestrial adults, combine lifestages or keep them separate, select a lowest taxonomic level for analysis, delete rare taxa on the basis of the number of sites where a taxon occurs and (or) the abundance of a taxon in a sample, and resolve taxonomic ambiguities by one of four methods. The Calculate Community Metrics module allows the user to calculate 184 community metrics, including metrics based on organism tolerances, functional feeding groups, and behavior. The Calculate Diversities and Similarities module allows the user to calculate nine diversity and eight similarity indices. The Data Export module allows the user to export data to other software packages (CANOCO, Primer

  15. Medium term effects of including manual therapy in a pulmonary rehabilitation program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Roger Mark; Gonski, Peter; Beath, Ken; Vemulpad, Subramanyam

    2016-05-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To investigate the effect of including manual therapy (MT) in a pulmonary rehabilitation program for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The primary source of exercise limitation in people with COPD is dyspnea. The dyspnea is partly caused by changes in chest wall mechanics, with an increase in chest wall rigidity (CWR) contributing to a decrease in lung function. As MT is known to increase joint mobility, administering MT to people with COPD carries with it the potential to influence CWR and lung function. Thirty-three participants with COPD, aged between 55 and 70 years (mean = 65·5±4 years), were randomly assigned to three groups: pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) only, soft tissue therapy (ST) and PR, and ST, spinal manipulative therapy (SM), and PR. Outcome measures including forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), 6-minute walking test (6MWT), St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ), and the hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale were recorded at 0, 8, 16, and 24 weeks. There was a significant difference in FVC between the three groups at 24 weeks (P = 0·04). For the ST+SM+PR group versus PR only the increase was 0·40 l (CI: 0·02, 0·79; P = 0·03). No major or moderate adverse events (AE) were reported following the administration of 131 ST and 272 SM interventions. The increase in FVC is a unique finding. Although the underlying mechanisms responsible for this outcome are not yet understood, the most likely explanation is the synergistic effect resulting from the combination of interventions. These results support the call for a larger clinical trial in the use of MT for COPD.

  16. A Recourse-Based Type-2 Fuzzy Programming Method for Water Pollution Control under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a recourse-based type-2 fuzzy programming (RTFP method is developed for supporting water pollution control of basin systems under uncertainty. The RTFP method incorporates type-2 fuzzy programming (TFP within a two-stage stochastic programming with recourse (TSP framework to handle uncertainties expressed as type-2 fuzzy sets (i.e., a fuzzy set in which the membership function is also fuzzy and probability distributions, as well as to reflect the trade-offs between conflicting economic benefits and penalties due to violated policies. The RTFP method is then applied to a real case of water pollution control in the Heshui River Basin (a rural area of China, where chemical oxygen demand (COD, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, and soil loss are selected as major indicators to identify the water pollution control strategies. Solutions of optimal production plans of economic activities under each probabilistic pollutant discharge allowance level and membership grades are obtained. The results are helpful for the authorities in exploring the trade-off between economic objective and pollutant discharge decision-making based on river water pollution control.

  17. A Stochastic Multi-Objective Chance-Constrained Programming Model for Water Supply Management in Xiaoqing River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a stochastic multi-objective chance-constrained programming model (SMOCCP was developed for tackling the water supply management problem. Two objectives were included in this model, which are the minimization of leakage loss amounts and total system cost, respectively. The traditional SCCP model required the random variables to be expressed in the normal distributions, although their statistical characteristics were suitably reflected by other forms. The SMOCCP model allows the random variables to be expressed in log-normal distributions, rather than general normal form. Possible solution deviation caused by irrational parameter assumption was avoided and the feasibility and accuracy of generated solutions were ensured. The water supply system in the Xiaoqing River watershed was used as a study case for demonstration. Under the context of various weight combinations and probabilistic levels, many types of solutions are obtained, which are expressed as a series of transferred amounts from water sources to treated plants, from treated plants to reservoirs, as well as from reservoirs to tributaries. It is concluded that the SMOCCP model could reflect the sketch of the studied region and generate desired water supply schemes under complex uncertainties. The successful application of the proposed model is expected to be a good example for water resource management in other watersheds.

  18. Simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances including ultrashort-chain C2 and C3 compounds in rain and river water samples by ultra performance convergence chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Leo W Y; Stadey, Christopher; Mabury, Scott A

    2017-11-03

    An analytical method using ultra performance convergence chromatography (UPC 2 ) coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer operated in negative electrospray mode was developed to measure perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including the ultrashort-chain PFASs (C2-C3). Compared to the existing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using an ion exchange column, the new method has a lower detection limit (0.4pg trifluoroacetate (TFA) on-column), narrower peak width (3-6s), and a shorter run time (8min). Using the same method, different classes of PFASs (e.g., perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated phosphonates (PFPAs) and phosphinates (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs)) can be measured in a single analysis. Rain (n=2) and river water (n=2) samples collected in Toronto, ON, were used for method validation and application. Results showed that short-chain PFAS (C2-C7 PFCAs and C4 PFSA) contributed to over 80% of the detectable PFASs in rain samples and the C2-C3 PFASs alone accounted for over 40% of the total. Reports on environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs are relatively scarce. Relatively large contribution of these ultrashort-chain PFASs to the total PFASs indicate the need to include the measurement of short-chain PFASs, especially C2 and C3 PFASs, in environmental monitoring. The sources of TFA and other short-chain PFASs in the environment are not entirely clear. The newly developed analytical method may help further investigation on the sources and the environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF COMBINATION NON-MEDICAL TREATMENT INCLUDING FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMED ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON THE CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of physical disability in pediatric  age. The search for new methods and improvement of old rehabil- itation techniques is ongoing, due to low efficacy of the latter. Aim: To assess the efficacy of a func- tional programmed electrical muscle stimulation as a part  of combination treatment of patients with cerebral palsy in the form of spastic diplegia. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of 71 children with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia, who had  been  randomized  into two groups  depending on the type of treatment. In  the  first group,  the  patients  (n = 38 received a course of functional programmed electric stim- ulation  in combination with  other  non-medical treatment  methods.  The  second   group   (n = 33 underwent a usual  course  of electrical  stimula- tion in combination with non-medical  treatment, similar to that  in the first group. The third group (control   included   41   children   without    cere- bral palsy. Clinical and  instrumental parameters were  assessed  in all study  participants. Results: After the course of combination treatment in the group  1, the  tonus  of m. gastrocnemius was de- creased significantly by 41%, that of the posterior group  of femur muscles by 43%, adductor group of femur muscles by 36%. In the group  2, the re- spective parameters decreased by 24, 21 and 21%. Muscle power  endurance was  increased  signifi- cantly in patients of both groups: that of long back extensors by 12.5 and 6.2 sec, of m. rectus abdomi- nis by 10.6 sec and 5.2 sec, of gluteal muscles by 9.3 and 4.6 sec, of m. quadriceps  by 19.8 and 7.2 sec, of m. anterior  tibialis by 12.1 and 4.6 sec, respec- tively. After the  treatment, the  active movement volume in the large joints of lower extremities  in the group 1 patients  improved as follows: by 15.6° in hip joints, by 11.1° in knee joints and by

  20. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Michael P

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin.

  1. Computer Programs for Obtaining and Analyzing Daily Mean Steamflow Data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2009-01-01

    Streamflow information is important for many planning and design activities including water-supply analysis, habitat protection, bridge and culvert design, calibration of surface and ground-water models, and water-quality assessments. Streamflow information is especially critical for water-quality assessments (Warn and Brew, 1980; Di Toro, 1984; Driscoll and others, 1989; Driscoll and others, 1990, a,b). Calculation of streamflow statistics for receiving waters is necessary to estimate the potential effects of point sources such as wastewater-treatment plants and nonpoint sources such as highway and urban-runoff discharges on receiving water. Streamflow statistics indicate the amount of flow that may be available for dilution and transport of contaminants (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986; Driscoll and others, 1990, a,b). Streamflow statistics also may be used to indicate receiving-water quality because concentrations of water-quality constituents commonly vary naturally with streamflow. For example, concentrations of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (such as nutrients, trace elements, and many organic compounds) commonly increase with increasing flows, and concentrations of many dissolved constituents commonly decrease with increasing flows in streams and rivers (O'Connor, 1976; Glysson, 1987; Vogel and others, 2003, 2005). Reliable, efficient and repeatable methods are needed to access and process streamflow information and data. For example, the Nation's highway infrastructure includes an innumerable number of stream crossings and stormwater-outfall points for which estimates of stream-discharge statistics may be needed. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow data-collection program is designed to provide streamflow data at gaged sites and to provide information that can be used to estimate streamflows at almost any point along any stream in the United States (Benson and Carter, 1973; Wahl and others, 1995; National

  2. ERTS program of the US Army Corps of Engineers. [water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers research and development efforts associated with the ERTS Program are confined to applications of investigation, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of water resource projects. Problems investigated covered: (1) resource inventory; (2) environmental impact; (3) pollution monitoring; (4) water circulation; (5) sediment transport; (6) data collection systems; (7) engineering; and (8) model verification. These problem areas were investigated in relation to bays, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, coasts, and regions. ERTS-1 imagery has been extremely valuable in developing techniques and is now being used in everyday applications.

  3. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  4. Water Resources Research program: nearshore currents and water temperatures in southwestern Lake Michigan. Progress report, June--December 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, K.D.; Van Loon, L.S.

    1976-05-01

    Nearshore currents and water temperatures were measured almost continuously from June 23 through December 22, at five moorings in an array centered 4 km offshore of south Chicago. The mooring array was square, each side 1.6 km long. A current-meter mooring was placed at each corner, with one mooring in the center. One Bendix Q-15 current meter and one YSI temperature sensor were fixed to each mooring line. Each meter and associated temperature sensor was placed at middepth; the water depth averaged about 12 m. The following types of graphs are presented for current and wind observations: (1) U, V flow components versus time, (2) specific kinetic energy versus time, (3) flow speeds and directions versus time, (4) composite velocity histograms and associated U, V-component histograms, and (5) progressive-vector diagrams. Also presented are listings of the component programs used to reduce the data. Currents in the region were dominantly shore-parallel. Water temperatures reflected several episodes of upwelling and downwelling. Detailed analyses of the data will be presented in subsequent reports.

  5. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Reactor Safety Technologies Pathway Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Peko, D. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Farmer, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Humrickhouse, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Osborn, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    “end user” of the results from this DOE-sponsored work. The response to the Fukushima accident has been global, and there is a continuing multinational interest in collaborations to better quantify accident consequences and to incorporate lessons learned from the accident. DOE will continue to seek opportunities to facilitate collaborations that are of value to the U.S. industry, particularly where the collaboration provides access to vital data from the accident or otherwise supports or leverages other important R&D work. The purpose of the Reactor Safety Technology R&D is to improve understanding of beyond design basis events and reduce uncertainty in severe accident progression, phenomenology, and outcomes using existing analytical codes and information gleaned from severe accidents, in particular the Fukushima Daiichi events. This information will be used to aid in developing mitigating strategies and improving severe accident management guidelines for the current light water reactor fleet.

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Reactor Safety Technologies Pathway Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-01

    “end user” of the results from this DOE-sponsored work. The response to the Fukushima accident has been global, and there is a continuing multinational interest in collaborations to better quantify accident consequences and to incorporate lessons learned from the accident. DOE will continue to seek opportunities to facilitate collaborations that are of value to the U.S. industry, particularly where the collaboration provides access to vital data from the accident or otherwise supports or leverages other important R&D work. The purpose of the Reactor Safety Technology R&D is to improve understanding of beyond design basis events and reduce uncertainty in severe accident progression, phenomenology, and outcomes using existing analytical codes and information gleaned from severe accidents, in particular the Fukushima Daiichi events. This information will be used to aid in developing mitigating strategies and improving severe accident management guidelines for the current light water reactor fleet.

  7. Ceftazidime-avibactam Versus Doripenem for the Treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections, Including Acute Pyelonephritis: RECAPTURE, a Phase 3 Randomized Trial Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, Florian M; Sobel, Jack D; Newell, Paul; Armstrong, Jon; Huang, Xiangning; Stone, Gregory G; Yates, Katrina; Gasink, Leanne B

    2016-09-15

    The global emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae highlights the urgent need to reduce carbapenem dependence. The phase 3 RECAPTURE program compared the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam and doripenem in patients with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), including acute pyelonephritis. Hospitalized adults with suspected or microbiologically confirmed cUTI/acute pyelonephritis were randomized 1:1 to ceftazidime-avibactam 2000 mg/500 mg every 8 hours or doripenem 500 mg every 8 hours (doses adjusted for renal function), with possible oral antibiotic switch after ≥5 days (total treatment duration up to 10 days or 14 days for patients with bacteremia). Of 1033 randomized patients, 393 and 417 treated with ceftazidime-avibactam and doripenem, respectively, were eligible for the primary efficacy analyses; 19.6% had ceftazidime-nonsusceptible baseline pathogens. Noninferiority of ceftazidime-avibactam vs doripenem was demonstrated for the US Food and Drug Administration co-primary endpoints of (1) patient-reported symptomatic resolution at day 5: 276 of 393 (70.2%) vs 276 of 417 (66.2%) patients (difference, 4.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -2.39% to 10.42%]); and (2) combined symptomatic resolution/microbiological eradication at test of cure (TOC): 280 of 393 (71.2%) vs 269 of 417 (64.5%) patients (difference, 6.7% [95% CI, .30% to 13.12%]). Microbiological eradication at TOC (European Medicines Agency primary endpoint) occurred in 304 of 393 (77.4%) ceftazidime-avibactam vs 296 of 417 (71.0%) doripenem patients (difference, 6.4% [95% CI, .33% to 12.36%]), demonstrating superiority at the 5% significance level. Both treatments showed similar efficacy against ceftazidime-nonsusceptible pathogens. Ceftazidime-avibactam had a safety profile consistent with that of ceftazidime alone. Ceftazidime-avibactam was highly effective for the empiric treatment of cUTI (including acute pyelonephritis), and may offer an alternative to carbapenems in

  8. International academic program in technologies of light-water nuclear reactors. Phases of development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskin, N. I.; Glebov, V. B.

    2017-01-01

    The results of implementation of European educational projects CORONA and CORONA II dedicated to preserving and further developing nuclear knowledge and competencies in the area of technologies of light-water nuclear reactors are analyzed. Present article addresses issues of design and implementation of the program for specialized training in the branch of technologies of light-water nuclear reactors. The systematic approach has been used to construct the program for students of nuclear specialties, which corresponding to IAEA standards and commonly accepted nuclear principles recognized in the European Union. Possibilities of further development of the international cooperation between countries and educational institutions are analyzed. Special attention is paid to e-learning/distance training, nuclear knowledge preservation and interaction with European Nuclear Education Network.

  9. Water in Star-forming Regions with the Herschel Space Observatory (WISH) : I. Overview of Key Program and First Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Aikawa, Y.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Brinch, C.; Bruderer, S.; Chavarria, L.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; Deul, E.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Dubernet, M. L.; Encrenaz, P.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Fich, M.; Frieswijk, W.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Helmich, F. P.; Herczeg, G. J.; Jacq, T.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Karska, A.; Kaufman, M. J.; Keto, E.; Larsson, B.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Olberg, M.; Pagani, L.; Panic, O.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Salter, D.; Santiago-Garcia, J.; Saraceno, P.; Staeuber, P.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Viti, S.; Walmsley, M.; Wampfler, S. F.; Yildiz, U. A.

    Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) is a key program on the Herschel Space Observatory designed to probe the physical and chemical structures of young stellar objects using water and related molecules and to follow the water abundance from collapsing clouds to planet-forming disks.

  10. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  11. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program. Joint Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Don

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation’s electrical generation capability. By the end of 2014, about one-third of the existing domestic fleet will have passed their 40th anniversary of power operations, and about one-half of the fleet will reach the same 40-year mark within this decade. Recognizing the challenges associated with pursuing extended service life of commercial nuclear power plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs (DOE-NE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability [LWRS] Program and EPRI’s Long-Term Operations [LTO] Program) to address these challenges. To ensure that a proper linkage is maintained between the programs, DOE-NE and EPRI executed a memorandum of understanding in late 2010 to “establish guiding principles under which research activities (between LWRS and LTO) could be coordinated to the benefit of both parties.” This document represents the third annual revision to the initial version (March 2011) of the plan as called for in the memorandum of understanding.

  12. Light-water-reactor safety research program: quarterly progress report, July--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Progress is summarized on the Argonne National Laboratory work performed during July, August, and September 1977 on water-reactor-safety problems. The following research and development areas are covered: (1) loss-of-coolant accident research: heat transfer and fluid dynamics; (2) transient fuel response and fission-product release program; (3) mechanical properties of Zircaloy containing oxygen; and (4) steam-explosion studies.

  13. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  14. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago in 2014 (NCEI Accession 0157596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data provided in this data set were collected as part of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) led NCRMP...

  17. Baseline requirements can hinder trades in water quality trading programs: Evidence from the Conestoga watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Gaurav; Ribaudo, Marc; Shortle, James

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are promoting point/nonpoint trading as a way of reducing the costs of meeting water quality goals. Farms can create offsets by implementing management practices such as conservation tillage, nutrient management and buffer strips. To be eligible to sell offsets or credits, farmers must first comply with baseline requirements. USEPA guidance recommends that the baseline for nonpoint sources be management practices that are consistent with the water quality goal. A farmer would not be able to create offsets until the minimum practice standards are met. An alternative baseline is those practices being implemented at the time the trading program starts, or when the farmer enters the program. The selection of the baseline affects the efficiency and equity of the trading program. It has major implications for which farmers benefit from trading, the cost of nonpoint source offsets, and ultimately the number of offsets that nonpoint sources can sell to regulated point sources. We use a simple model of the average profit-maximizing dairy farmer operating in the Conestoga watershed in Pennsylvania to evaluate the implications of baseline requirements on the cost and quantity of offsets that can be produced for sale in a water quality trading market, and which farmers benefit most from trading. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Evaluation of Localized Cable Test Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-30

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test (NDE) methods focusing particularly on local measurements that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As NPPs consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal (SLR) to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs (AMPs) to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. Most utilities already have a program associated with their first life extension from 40 to 60 years. Regrettably, there is neither a clear guideline nor a single NDE that can assure cable function and integrity for all cables. Thankfully, however, practical implementation of a broad range of tests allows utilities to develop a practical program that assures cable function to a high degree. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other NDE tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. These cable NDE programs vary in rigor and methodology. As the industry gains experience with the efficacy of these programs, it is expected that implementation practice will converge to a more common approach. This report addresses the range of local NDE cable tests that are

  19. Estimates of cloud water deposition at mountain acid deposition program sites in the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph E. Baumgardner, Jr.; Selma S. Isil; Thomas F. Lavery; Christopher M. Rogers; Volker A. Mohnen [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2003-03-01

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high-elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY; Whitetop Mountain, VA; and Clingman s Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). This paper provides a summary of cloud water chemistry, cloud liquid water content, cloud frequency, estimates of cloud water deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species, and estimates of total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen at these sites. Other cloud studies in the Appalachians and their comparison to MADPro are also summarized. Whiteface Mountain exhibited the lowest mean and median concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen ions in cloud water, while Clingman s Dome exhibited the highest mean and median concentrations. This geographic gradient is partly an effect of the different meteorological conditions experienced at northern versus southern sites in addition to the difference in pollution content of air masses reaching the sites. All sites measured seasonal cloud water deposition rates of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} greater than 50 kg/ha and NO{sub 3}{sup -} rates of greater than 25 kg/ha. These high-elevation sites experienced additional deposition loading of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} on the order of 6 20 times greater compared with lower elevation Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) sites. Approximately 80 90% of this extra loading is from cloud deposition. 56 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs., 1 app.

  20. Role of Conservation Adoption Premiums on Participation in Water Quality Trading Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Motallebi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over half of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds in the United States are threatened or impaired, mostly by nutrients. One policy to improve water quality is water quality trading (WQT. While the concept is appealing, adoption of conservation practices in these programs has been anemic at best. Using a case study in the newly-formed WQT market in Jordan Lake, North Carolina, we propose that part of the problem is a large adoption premium (AP for this program. AP is the amount that farmers require over and above direct adoption costs to participate. In this study, farmers were asked at in-person interviews about their willingness to accept (WTA a payment to adopt a particular conservation practice (riparian buffers in order to generate and sell credits. We compared farmers’ WTA to their direct cost of participation, which allowed us to estimate an AP. On average, the AP more than doubles the cost of purchasing credits. The AP sums all of the known indirect costs already cited in the literature, and more, into a single value and is relatively simple to estimate. Knowing the AP would improve the ability of policy makers to accurately estimate what is needed to boost adoption rates in WQT programs and other conservation programs as well.

  1. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  3. Integron, Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Included in the Norwegian Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Sunde

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (n=331 isolates from humans with bloodstream infections were investigated for the presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons. The integron cassettes arrays were characterized and the findings were compared with data from similar investigations on resistant E. coli from meat and meat products (n=241 produced during the same time period. All isolates were obtained from the Norwegian monitoring programs for antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens and in the veterinary sector. Methods used included PCR, sequencing, conjugation experiments, plasmid replicon typing and subtyping, pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis and serotyping. Integrons of class 1 and 2 occurred significantly more frequently among human isolates; 45.4% (95% CI: 39.9-50.9 than among isolates from meat; 18% (95% CI: 13.2 -23.3, (p<0.01, Chi-square test. Identical cassette arrays including dfrA1-aadA1, aadA1, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, oxa-30-aadA1 (class 1 integrons and dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 (class 2 integrons were detected from both humans and meat. However, the most prevalent cassette array in human isolates, dfrA17-aadA5, did not occur in isolates from meat, suggesting a possible linkage between this class 1 integron and a subpopulation of E. coli adapted to a human host. The drfA1-aadA1 and aadA1 class 1 integrons were found frequently in both human and meat isolates. These isolates were subjected to further studies to investigate similarities with regard to transferability, plasmid and host strain characteristics. We detected incF plasmids with pMLST profile F24:A-:B1 carrying drfA1-aadA1 integrons in isolates from pork and in a more distantly related E. coli strain from a human with septicaemia. Furthermore, we showed that most of the class 1 integrons with aadA1 were located on incF plasmids with pMLST profile F51:A-:B10 in human isolates. The plasmid was present in unrelated as well as closely related host strains, demonstrating that dissemination

  4. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Research and Development 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for research and development, including residential and commercial integration, lighting, HVAC and water heating, envelope, windows, and analysis tools.

  5. Space shuttle solid rocket booster recovery system definition. Volume 3: SRB water impact loads computer program, user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This user's manual describes the FORTRAN IV computer program developed to compute the total vertical load, normal concentrated pressure loads, and the center of pressure of typical SRB water impact slapdown pressure distributions specified in the baseline configuration. The program prepares the concentrated pressure load information in punched card format suitable for input to the STAGS computer program. In addition, the program prepares for STAGS input the inertia reacting loads to the slapdown pressure distributions.

  6. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Elisa, E-mail: Elisa.Andresen@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Opitz, Judith, E-mail: Daniela.Opitz@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Thomas, George, E-mail: George.Thomas@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: Ha-Jo.Staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dienemann, Holger, E-mail: Holger.Dienemann@smul.sachsen.de [Saxon State Company for Environment and Agriculture, Business Domain 5 (Laboratory), Department 53, Bitterfelder Str. 25, D-04849 Bad Düben (Germany); Jenemann, Kerstin, E-mail: Kerstin.Jenemann@smul.sachsen.de [Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Abteilung Wasser, Boden, Wertstoffe, Zur Wetterwarte 11, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: Bryan.Dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: Hendrik.Kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.

  7. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  8. NMR measurement system including two synchronized ring buffers, with 128 rf coils for in situ water monitoring in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Aoki, Masaru; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Morisaka, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Seitaro

    2017-01-01

    A small radio-frequency (rf) coil inserted into a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) can be used to acquire nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from the water in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) or in oxygen gas channels in the PEFC. Measuring the spatial distribution of the water in a large PEFC requires using many rf probes, so an NMR measurement system which acquires NMR signals from 128 rf probes at intervals of 0.5 s was manufactured. The system has eight rf transceiver units with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for modulation of the excitation pulse and quadrature phase detection of the NMR signal, and one control unit with two ring buffers for data control. The sequence data required for the NMR measurement were written into one ring buffer. The acquired NMR signal data were then written temporarily into the other ring buffer and then were transmitted to a personal computer (PC). A total of 98 rf probes were inserted into the PEFC that had an electrical generation area of 16 cm × 14 cm, and the water generated in the PEFC was measured when the PEFC operated at 100 A. As a result, time-dependent changes in the spatial distribution of the water content in the MEA and the water in the oxygen gas channels were obtained.

  9. NMR measurement system including two synchronized ring buffers, with 128 rf coils for in situ water monitoring in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Aoki, Masaru; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Morisaka, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Seitaro

    2017-01-01

    A small radio-frequency (rf) coil inserted into a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) can be used to acquire nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from the water in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) or in oxygen gas channels in the PEFC. Measuring the spatial distribution of the water in a large PEFC requires using many rf probes, so an NMR measurement system which acquires NMR signals from 128 rf probes at intervals of 0.5 s was manufactured. The system has eight rf transceiver units with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for modulation of the excitation pulse and quadrature phase detection of the NMR signal, and one control unit with two ring buffers for data control. The sequence data required for the NMR measurement were written into one ring buffer. The acquired NMR signal data were then written temporarily into the other ring buffer and then were transmitted to a personal computer (PC). A total of 98 rf probes were inserted into the PEFC that had an electrical generation area of 16 cm × 14 cm, and the water generated in the PEFC was measured when the PEFC operated at 100 A. As a result, time-dependent changes in the spatial distribution of the water content in the MEA and the water in the oxygen gas channels were obtained.

  10. Integrating Evolution Algorithms with Linear Programming to the Conjunctive Use of Surface and Subsurface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L.; Chen, Y.; Pan, C.

    2009-12-01

    Surface water resources are strongly influenced by hydrological conditions, and using only surface water resources as water supplies may have higher shortage risk than before because of the climate change caused by the global warming. Conjunctive use of surface and subsurface water is one of the most effective water resource practices to increase water supply reliability with minimal cost and environmental impact. Therefore, this paper presents a novel stepwise optimization model for optimizing the conjunctive use of surface and subsurface water resources management. At each time step, a two level decomposition approach was proposed to divide the nonlinear optimal conjunctive use problem into a linear surface water subproblem and a nonlinear groundwater subproblem. Because of the two level decomposition approach, a hybrid framework is used for the implementation of the conjunctive use model. In the hybrid framework, evolution algorithms, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Linear Programming (LP) are used for model solving. GA and LP are respectively used for determining the optimal pumping quantities and reservoir allocation, and ANN is used for the groundwater simulation. In the groundwater simulation, this study uses an ANN to simulate groundwater response and greatly reduce computational loading for unconfined aquifers, unlike conventional “response matrix method” or “embedding method”. Because of the very high performance of LP, the usage of LP for the linear surface water subproblem can significantly decrease the computational burden of entire model. In this study, four cases have been demonstrated. Case #1 is a pure surface water case and others are conjunctive use cases. In Case #2, “surface water supply firstly” is the supply principle between surface water. In Case #3 and #4, the “Index Balance” theory is the supply principle and different operation curves used in different cases respectively. The case result

  11. Trace Elements in Water, Sediments and the Elongate Tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii (Cuvier 1819) from Lake Turkana, Kenya Including a Comprehensive Health Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otachi, Elick O; Plessl, Christof; Körner, Wilfried; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè; Jirsa, Franz

    2015-09-01

    This study presents the distribution of 17 major and trace elements in surface water, sediments and fish tissues from Lake Turkana, Kenya. Eight sediment and ten water samples from the west bank of the lake, as well as 34 specimens of the elongate tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii caught in that region were examined. It is the first report for Li, Rb, Sr, Mo from the lake and the first report on most of the trace elements for this fish species. The concentrations of elements in the water and sediments showed no sign of pollution. In fish muscle, Li, Zn and Cd showed relatively high abundances, with mean concentrations of 206, 427 and 0.56 mg/kg dw, respectively. The calculated target hazard quotient values for Li, Zn, Sr and Cd were 138.7, 1.9, 4.1 and 0.76, respectively; therefore the consumption of these fish poses a health risk to humans in the area.

  12. Depth intensity relations of muons in the standard rock, the K. G. F. rock and the sea water, and their related problems including prompt muon production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobusuke; Kujirai, Hideyuki; Adachi, Atsuko; Ogita, Naofumi; Misaki, Akeo.

    1984-07-01

    In order to analyze world wide data of muon fluxes in the standard rock, the K.G.F. flux and expected data in the sea water which will be obtained from future Dumand project, depth intensity relations of muons are calculated in the Monte Carlo method in which rigorous techniques are utilized as much as possible. Calculational results obtained here are as follows: Depth intensity relations of muon in the standard rock, the K.G.F. rock and the sea water are obtained, in which the powers of differential energy spectra at sea level are changed from 3.6 to 3.9 in unit of 0.05. (author).

  13. Emergent Toxins in North Atlantic Temperate Waters: A Challenge for Monitoring Programs and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB are complex to manage due to their intermittent nature and their severe impact on the economy and human health. The conditions which promote HAB have not yet been fully explained, though climate change and anthropogenic intervention are pointed as significant factors. The rise of water temperature, the opening of new sea canals and the introduction of ship ballast waters all contribute to the dispersion and establishment of toxin-producing invasive species that promote the settling of emergent toxins in the food-chain. Tetrodotoxin, ciguatoxin, palytoxin and cyclic imines are commonly reported in warm waters but have also caused poisoning incidents in temperate zones. There is evidence that monitoring for these toxins exclusively in bivalves is simplistic and underestimates the risk to public health, since new vectors have been reported for these toxins and as well for regulated toxins such as PSTs and DSTs. In order to avoid public health impacts, there is a need for adequate monitoring programs, a need for establishing appropriate legislation, and a need for optimizing effective methods of analysis. In this review, we will compile evidence concerning emergent marine toxins and provide data that may indicate the need to restructure the current monitoring programs of HAB.

  14. Emergent toxins in North Atlantic temperate waters: a challenge for monitoring programs and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Pratheepa, Vijaya K; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-03-16

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) are complex to manage due to their intermittent nature and their severe impact on the economy and human health. The conditions which promote HAB have not yet been fully explained, though climate change and anthropogenic intervention are pointed as significant factors. The rise of water temperature, the opening of new sea canals and the introduction of ship ballast waters all contribute to the dispersion and establishment of toxin-producing invasive species that promote the settling of emergent toxins in the food-chain. Tetrodotoxin, ciguatoxin, palytoxin and cyclic imines are commonly reported in warm waters but have also caused poisoning incidents in temperate zones. There is evidence that monitoring for these toxins exclusively in bivalves is simplistic and underestimates the risk to public health, since new vectors have been reported for these toxins and as well for regulated toxins such as PSTs and DSTs. In order to avoid public health impacts, there is a need for adequate monitoring programs, a need for establishing appropriate legislation, and a need for optimizing effective methods of analysis. In this review, we will compile evidence concerning emergent marine toxins and provide data that may indicate the need to restructure the current monitoring programs of HAB.

  15. [Education reform with the support of the faculty--introduction of a supplementary education program including teacher support and individual guidance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keiji; Yoshimura, Teruki

    2015-01-01

      To deal with declining levels of academic ability and motivation among students (a situation attributable to fewer high school graduates, a greater number of universities, and the diversification of entrance examination methods), one must comprehend the conditions of faculties collectively, and take appropriate measures. Using the results of examinations carried out in each grade as indices, we examined levels of academic ability and established various support programs based on the results. Basic chemistry, biology, and physics courses were designed to help first-year students acquire essential academic skills. For second, third, and fourth-year students, two types of support programs were implemented: supplementary instruction to help students improve their understanding of basic topics in pharmaceutical sciences, and an e-learning system to promote self-study, requiring minimal assistance from teachers. Although educational benefits were observed in many students, the number of learners whose understanding failed to improve as a result of the support programs continued to increase. Consequently, The Support Section for Pharmaceutical Education opened in October 2011 to address these concerns. The support section functions mainly to provide individual assistance to students who lack strong academic abilities, and provides teachers with information useful for educational reform. Here, we describe the educational support provided by our faculty and its effectiveness.

  16. Atlantic salmon and eastern oyster breeding programs at the National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (NCWMAC) focuses on the coldwater marine aquaculture industry’s highest priority research needs including development of improved genetic stocks. Coldwater aquaculture production has potential for expansion, and both Atlantic salmon and Eas...

  17. Municipal Wastewater Processes. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Lorna

    Described is a one-hour overview of the unit processes which comprise a municipal wastewater treatment system. Topics covered in this instructor's guide include types of pollutants encountered, treatment methods, and procedures by which wastewater treatment processes are selected. A slide-tape program is available to supplement this component of…

  18. Altering Practices to Include Bimodal-bilingual (ASL-Spoken English) Programming at a Small School for the Deaf in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Karen; Enns, Charlotte; Arbuckle, Shauna

    2018-01-01

    Bimodal-bilingual programs are emerging as one way to meet broader needs and provide expanded language, educational and social-emotional opportunities for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Paludneviciene & Harris, R. (2011). Impact of cochlear implants on the deaf community. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.), Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 3-19). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press). However, there is limited research on students' spoken language development, signed language growth, academic outcomes or the social-emotional factors associated with these programs (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Nussbaum, D & Scott, S. (2011). The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.) Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludnevicience & Leigh (Eds). Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press; Spencer, P. & Marschark, M. (Eds.) (2010). Evidence-based practice in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students. New York, NY: Oxford University Press). The purpose of this case study was to look at formal and informal student outcomes as well as staff and parent perceptions during the first 3 years of implementing a bimodal-bilingual (ASL and spoken English) program within an ASL milieu at a small school for the deaf. Speech and language assessment results for five students were analyzed over a 3-year period and indicated that the students made significant positive gains in all areas, although results were variable. Staff and parent

  19. FAA Energy Order 1053.1A - Energy and Water Management Program For FAA Buildings and Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-27

    This order provides Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) policies, procedures, and organizational responsibilities, in a focused and expanded agency energy and water planning and conservation program, for complying with the national mandates for the...

  20. Report: New Hampshire Clean Water State Revolving Fund Program Financial Statements with Independent Auditor’s Report, June 30, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2003-1-00086, March 26, 2003. The audit contains reports on the financial statements, internal controls, and compliance requirements applicable to the Clean Water State Revolving Fund program in New Hampshire for the year ended June 30, 2002.

  1. Effects of a water-based program on women 65 years and over: a randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Devereux, Kathryn; Robertson, Dianne; Briffa, N Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a water-based exercise and self-management program on balance, fear of falling, and quality of life in community-dwelling women 65 years of age...

  2. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Marsh and Water Management Program Evaluation Field Tour: 14-16 July 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The evaluation was part of a region-wide review of marsh and water management programs on national wildlife refuges throughout the northeastern United States. Good...

  3. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and

  4. Ex-Stream: A MATLAB program for calculating fluid flux through sediment-water interfaces based on steady and transient temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Travis E.; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2011-10-01

    Temperature is a useful environmental tracer for quantifying movement and exchange of water and heat through and near sediment-water interfaces (SWI). Heat tracing involves analyzing temperature time series or profiles from temperature probes deployed in sediments. Ex-Stream is a MATLAB program that brings together two transient and two steady one-dimensional coupled heat and fluid flux analytical models. The program includes a graphical user interface, a detailed user manual, and postprocessing capabilities that enable users to extract fluid fluxes from time-series temperature observations. Program output is written to comma-separated values files, displayed within the MATLAB command window, and may be optionally plotted. The models that are integrated into Ex-Stream can be run collectively, allowing for direct comparison, or individually.

  5. Cl app: android-based application program for monitoring the residue chlorine in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaravanne, Yuttana; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Chaitavon, Kosom; Vuttivong, Sirajit

    2015-07-01

    A farmer usually uses a cheap chemical material called chlorine to destroy the cell structure of unwanted organisms and remove some plant effluents in a baby shrimp farm. A color changing of the reaction between chlorine and chemical indicator is used to monitor the residue chlorine in water before releasing a baby shrimp into a pond. To get rid of the error in color reading, our previous works showed how a smartphone can be functioned as a color reader for estimating the chlorine concentration in water. In this paper, we show the improvement of interior configuration of our prototype and the distribution to several baby shrimp farms. In the future, we plan to make it available worldwide through the online market as well as to develop more application programs for monitoring other chemical substances.

  6. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 2: Large scale moisture and passive microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. The research program consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components are explained in general and activities performed within the passive microwave research component are summarized. The microwave theory is discussed taking into account: soil dielectric constant, emissivity, soil roughness effects, vegetation effects, optical depth, single scattering albedo, and wavelength effects. The study site is described. The soil moisture data and its processing are considered. The relation between observed large scale soil moisture and normalized brightness temperatures is discussed. Vegetation characteristics and inverse modeling of soil emissivity is considered.

  7. Interval multistage joint-probabilistic integer programming approach for water resources allocation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, J J; Huang, G H; Guo, P; Shen, N

    2013-10-15

    In this study, an interval multistage joint-probabilistic integer programming method was developed to address certain problems in water resource regulation. This method effectively deals with data in the form of intervals and probability distribution. It can also process uncertain data in the form of joint probabilities. The proposed method can also reflect the linkage and dynamic variability between particular stages in multi-stage planning. Sensitivity analysis on moderate violations and security constraints showed that the degree of constraint violation was closely linked to the final benefits of the system. The developed method was applied in the case study of the joint-operation of the Tianzhuang and Bashan Reservoirs in Huaihe River, China. In this case study, the proposed method can deal with the water shortage problems downstream and the distribution problems caused by excess water in the reservoir. It can also guarantee the optimization of long-term water usage of both Reservoirs and the river downstream. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. WATRE: a program for computing water and gas released from heated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claybrook, S.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The WATRE computer program calculates the rate and quantity of water and carbon dioxide gas released from heated concrete. Recent development efforts have improved the numerical solution scheme, resulting in increased computational efficiency. The WATRE model is presented and the numerical procedure used to solve the governing equations is outlined. Validation of the WATRE model by comparison with extensive experimental data is emphasized. Results of a sensitivity study which investigated the effects that changes in input data have on WATRE calculations are also discussed.

  9. Control of a line of E. tenella, partly resistant to monensin, by including toltrazuril discontinuously in the drinking water of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D

    1987-01-01

    Discontinuous medication with toltrazuril, given in the drinking water at a concentration of 50 ppm, was effective in controlling infection resulting from repeated inoculation of oocysts of a line of E. tenella partly resistant to monensin. Treatment was very effective when the drug was given for periods of 3 days, on two or three occasions at weekly intervals. Monensin, at a concentration of 120 ppm, given continuously in the feed was only partially effective. Following treatment with toltrazuril, birds inoculated with high doses of oocysts were immune to subsequent challenge. It is suggested that discontinuous medication with toltrazuril in the drinking water might provide an alternative to the current practice of incorporating drugs continuously in the feed.

  10. Groundwater quality in Geauga County, Ohio: status, including detection frequency of methane in water wells, 2009, and changes during 1978-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Kula, Stephanie P.; Mailot, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic wells that are not safeguarded by regular water-quality testing provide drinking water for 79 percent of the residents of Geauga County, in northeastern Ohio. Since 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has worked cooperatively with the Board of Commissioners and Geauga County Planning Commission to monitor the quality of groundwater in four commonly used aquifers in county—the glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. A 33-percent growth in population from 1980 to 2009 increased the potential for humans to influence groundwater resources by withdrawing more groundwater, disposing of more human waste near the land surface, treating an expanded network of township roads with deicing salt, and likely using more solvents, pesticides, and other chemicals on the land surface than were used in preceding decades.

  11. Water versus land-based exercises as physical training programs in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Elvira; Campoli, Francesca; Manzi, Vincenzo; Panzarino, Michele; Lombardo, Mauro; Melchiorri, Giovanni; Tancredi, Virginia; Lebone, Pietro; Palazzo, Francesco; Annino, Giuseppe

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to analyze and quantify the improvements of some physical skills in a group of subjects over 65 years old who practice regular activities in the gym and in a microgravity environment. 132 subjects (68.9 ± 5.5 yrs, 72.7 ± 14.4 kg, 155.3 ± 9.2, 30.6 ± 5 kg/m2) who perform regular physical activity adapted and controlled for the elderly twice a week (50' per session) for a period of 8 months. The tests evaluate flexibility, abdominal and leg strength and balance. The groups, in baseline, are homogeneous between them to anthropometric parameters and the initial performance of motor skills analyzed. A mixed between-within subject ANOVA was conducted to assess the impact of the training regimens. Data from this study showed an increase in muscular strength (leg and abdominal muscles), body balance and muscular flexibility after 8 months of both training methods. Both experimental groups had significant improvements in motor skills considered and interesting results were observed in water activity, overall, in balance (+66%, P<0,001) and abdominal muscular strength (+16%, P<0,001) where the water group showed a significant within and between improvement. current results indicate that the water and land programs improved motor skills in the elderly. Furthermore, when the effectiveness of the training programs was compared, it was verified that the water group has recorded major changes, overall on abdominal strength and balance test statistically significant versus the land group.

  12. Providing International Research Experiences in Water Resources Through a Distributed REU Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, J.; Sahrawat, K.; Mylavarapu, R.

    2012-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates offer training in problem solving and critical thinking via hands-on projects. The goal of the distributed Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program in the Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department (ABE) at the University of Florida (UF) is to provide undergraduate students a unique opportunity to conduct research in water resources using interdisciplinary approaches, integrating research and extension, while the cohort is not co-located. The eight-week REU Program utilizes the extensive infrastructure of UF - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) through the Research and Education Centers (RECs). To provide international research and extension experience, two students were located at the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), in India. Prior to the beginning of the Program, the students worked closely with their research mentors at University of Florida and ICRISAT to develop a project plan for understanding the water quality issues in two watersheds. The students were co-located during the Orientation week at the University of Florida. During the Program, they achieved an enriching cohort experience through social networking, daily blogs, and weekly video conferences to share their research and other REU experiences. The group meetings and guest lectures are conducted via synchronously through video conferencing. The students who were distributed across Florida benefited from the research experiences of the students who were located in India, as their project progressed. They described their challenges and achievements during the group meetings and in the blogs. This model of providing integrated research and extension opportunities in hydrology where not all the REU participants are physically co-located, is unique and can be extended to other disciplines.

  13. [A mental health awareness anti-stigma program including user-trainers has a significant impact on knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of job centre professionals in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouet, E; Moineville, M; Favriel, S; Leriche, P; Greacen, T

    2014-04-01

    Developing programs and actions to fight stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders is a priority both internationally and in France. Involving mental health service users in these anti-stigma programs has proved to be a key element for effective programs. The present study evaluates the impact of user-trainers in an anti-stigma campaign with job counselors on their knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance with regard to mental illness and the mentally ill. Eighty-nine professionals participated in eight mental health awareness days from December 2008 to June 2009. Each training day was built around two pedagogical units: firstly, a psychiatrist providing a theoretical overview of mental illness and care and secondly, user-trainers describing their point of view on mental illness and exchanging with participants. A questionnaire administered at the beginning and at the end of the mental health awareness day assessed the impact of the day on participants' knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance. Answers to open questions were evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. The intervention had statistically significant positive effects on all three training objectives: knowledge, beliefs and desire for social distance. Analysis of qualitative data confirmed participants' need for information and training with regard to providing support to clients with mental health problems; participants frequently attributed their improved self-confidence at the end of the day with regard to providing job coaching for this population group to the presence of user-trainers. A mental health awareness day using mental health service users and psychiatrists as trainers had significant positive effects in terms of reducing stigma with regard to people with mental illness. Further research is needed to understand whether the impact of such awareness approaches can be maintained in everyday professional practice over time. Copyright © 2013

  14. Computer Program for Design and Analysis of Sheet Pile Walls by Classical Methods (CWALSHT) Including Rowe’s Moment Reduction. User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    plf Positive downward Strip, ramp, triangular, variable psf Positive downward or uniform surcharges Water unit weight pcf Earthquake acceleration G’s...Numeric data values are elther real or integer according to standard FORTRAN variable naming conventions. A2 f. Data items enclosed in brackets [ ] may not...2) Definicions ’Uil’ - section title (’side’) - ’Rightside’, ’.Leftside’, or ’loth’ (’type’) - ’§trengths’ if internal friction and/or soil cohesions

  15. Origin and biogeography of the deep-water Mediterranean Hydromedusae including the description of two new species collected in submarine canyons of Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gili

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of hydromedusae (Foersteria antoniae and Cunina simplex are described from plankton collected in sediment traps placed in the Lacaze-Duthiers Submarine Canyon and along Banyuls-sur-Mer coast (northwestern Mediterranean. The Mediterranean hydromedusan deep-water fauna contains 41 species which represent 45.5 % of the world-wide deep-sea hydromedusae fauna (90 and 20% of the total number of Mediterranean hydromedusae (204. The Mediterranean deep-water hydromedusan fauna is characterised by a large percentage of holoplanktonic species (61%, mainly Trachymedusae. Nevertheless, contrary to the general opinion, the percentage of meroplanktonic species is equally high. The most original features of this fauna lies however in the importance of the number of endemic species (22% and in the fact that the majority of them are meroplanktonic Leptomedusae with a supposed bathybenthic stage. Some of the endemic species could still represent relics of the primitive Tethys fauna having survived to the Messinian crisis. The origin of the Mediterranean deep-water hydromedusan fauna is discussed and a general hypothesis is proposed.

  16. [Investigation of the educational effectiveness of including small group discussion as part of a drug abuse prevention program for junior high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Junichi; Takayanagi, Risa; Yokoyama, Haruko; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sinohara, Satomi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of small group discussion (SGD) in association with a drug abuse prevention program for junior high school students. The students first received a lecture about drug abuse prevention, then participated in SGD. The discussion focused on how to take action when tempted to abuse drugs. We gave a questionnaire 3 times; before and after the lecture (before SGD), and after SGD. Seventy-seven students replied to these questionnaires. After the lecture, knowledge about drug abuse was improved and all students answered that they had never abused drugs. However, in answer to a different question, a few students noted that they might use drugs in some situations. We consider it necessary to give more consideration to this problem. After the lecture, 35.5% of the students felt that they had definitely acquired skills for drug abuse prevention, whereas after the SGD this was increased to 73.7%. In addition, more than 75% of the students answered that the SGD program was useful since the opinions of other students could be heard. These results suggest that more students acquired skills to prevent drug abuse by participation in SGD. Our findings showed that SGD was useful and that the students were able to more effectively understand important concepts related to drug abuse prevention.

  17. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  18. Water Quality Assessment Simulation Program (WASP8): Upgrades to the Advanced Toxicant Module for Simulating Dissolved Chemicals, Nanomaterials, and Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) is a dynamic, spatially-resolved, differential mass balance fate and transport modeling framework. WASP is used to develop models to simulate concentrations of environmental contaminants in surface waters and sediments. As a mo...

  19. Determination of drugs in surface water and wastewater samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Methods and preliminary results including toxicity studies with Vibrio fischeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, M.; Ferrer, I.; Ginebreda, A.; Figueras, M.; Olivella, L.; Tirapu, L.; Vilanova, M.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work a combined analytical method involving toxicity and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water samples. The drugs investigated were the analgesics: ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac, the decomposition product of the acetyl salicylic acid: salicylic acid and one lipid lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The selected compounds are acidic substances, very polar and all of them are analgesic compounds that can be purchased without medical prescription. The developed protocol consisted, first of all, on the use Microtox?? and ToxAlert??100 toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri for the different pharmaceutical drugs. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values and the toxicity units (TU) were determined for every compound using both systems. Sample enrichment of water samples was achieved by solid-phase extraction procedure (SPE), using the Merck LiChrolut?? EN cartridges followed by LC-ESI-MS. Average recoveries loading 1 l of samples with pH=2 varied from 69 to 91% and the detection limits in the range of 15-56 ng/l. The developed method was applied to real samples from wastewater and surface-river waters of Catalonia (north-east of Spain). One batch of samples was analyzed in parallel also by High Resolution Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HRGC-MS) and the results have been compared with the LC-ESI-MS method developed in this work. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical-experimental contrast of a mathematical model that simulates the movement of a fluid under shallow water conditions including energy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balaguer-Beser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In  this  paper,  a  comparison  between  the  results  obtained  in  laboratory  experiments  and  those  calculated  by  a numerical  simulation  of  shallow  water  equations  in  an  open  channel  is  performed,  considering  the  energy  losses that  occur  as  it  passes  through  a  local  narrowing  of  the  cross  section.  The mathematical model that simulates this physical phenomenon is governed by a partial differential equations system whose solution provides the water depth and the flow rate per unit of width, which is related to the velocity of the water. Such movement is controlled primarily  by  the  force  of  gravity,  being  fundamental  the  relationship  between  it  and  the  inertial  forces.  In the present study we have also taken into account energy losses caused by friction of the water with the contours and local losses caused by obstacles or changes in the width of the channel. A numerical scheme based on a high-order finite  volume  method  has  been  used  for  obtaining  the  solutions  of  such  model.  Two type of laboratory tests have been simulated.  The   first  type  represents  a  slow  transition  regime,  upstream  and  downstream  of  a  narrowing  in the channel. The second type represents a subcritical flow upstream, a narrowing that works as a control (regime change and a downstream supercritical flow. Numerical-experimental comparison demonstrates the importance of adequately modeling of the different physical phenomena involved in the process, and the proper imposition of the boundary conditions of the problem.

  1. Water gymnastics program for elderly: motivation, self-steam and self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lima de Aguiar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated self-esteem and self-image of older adults and its relationship with motivational factors of entering and staying in water exercise program (WEP. The sample was composed by 60 elderly subjects - 53 females and 7 males ( = 69.5 years of age, SD=5,9 yrs, participants of WEP at GETI (Study Group on Elderly at the State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC. A questionnaire of self-esteem and selfimage for elders, developed by Steglich (1978, was applied in form of interview. The statistical procedures included descriptives and non-parametric tests. The level of significance was set at p RESUMO Esta pesquisa verificou a auto-estima e a auto-imagem e a sua relação com os fatores motivacionais de ingresso e de permanência dos idosos em um programa de hidroginástica. A amostra foi constituída por 60 idosos, 53 do sexo feminino e 7 do sexo masculino, com = 69,5 anos de idade (SD=5,9 participantes do programa de hidroginástica do Grupo de Estudos da Terceira Idade (GETI da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC. O instrumento foi um questionário de auto-estima e auto-imagem para idosos, desenvolvido por Steglich (1978, aplicado em forma de entrevista individual. O tratamento estatístico foi descritivo e com testes não-paramétricos. O nível de significância de p<0.05. A maioria dos idosos foi considerado idoso jovem (81,6%, casado e/ou viúvo (43,3%, do sexo feminino (88,3%, participa do programa de 3 a 4 anos (40%, e pratica outra atividade física (78,3% como a caminhada (56,7%. O principal motivo de ingresso no programa foi para melhorar a saúde física e mental e de permanência neste foi o gosto pela atividade física no meio líquido e a sensação de bem-estar. O grupo apresentou elevada auto-estima e auto-imagem. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os motivos de permanência no programa e a auto-imagem corporal (p=0,008. O programa de hidroginástica trata-se de um meio para melhoria

  2. Critical heat flux experiments in a circular tube with heavy water and light water. (AWBA Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.L.; Beus, S.G.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were performed to establish the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristics of heavy water and light water. Testing was performed with the up-flow of heavy and of light water within a 0.3744 inch inside diameter circular tube with 72.3 inches of heated length. Comparisons were made between heavy water and light water critical heat flux levels for the same local equilibrium quality at CHF, operating pressure, and nominal mass velocity. Results showed that heavy water CHF values were, on the average, 8 percent below the light water CHF values.

  3. Integrating Research and Extension for the Nsf-Reu Program in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, J.; Migliaccio, K.; Gao, B.; Shukla, S.; Ehsani, R.; McLamore, E.

    2011-12-01

    Providing positive and meaningful research experiences to students in their undergraduate years is critical for motivating them to pursue advanced degrees or research careers in science and engineering. Such experiences not only offer training for the students in problem solving and critical thinking via hands-on projects, but also offer excellent mentoring and recruiting opportunities for the faculty advisors. The goal of the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program in the Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department (ABE) at the University of Florida (UF) is to provide eight undergraduate students a unique opportunity to conduct research in water resources using interdisciplinary approaches, integrating research and extension. The students are selected from diverse cultural and educational backgrounds. The eight-week REU Program utilizes the extensive infrastructure of UF - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) through the Research and Education Centers (RECs). Two students are paired to participate in their own project under the direct supervision of one of the four research mentors. Four of the eight students are located at the main campus, in Gainesville, Fl, and four remaining students are located off-campus, at the RECs, where some of the ABE faculty are located. The students achieve an enriching cohort experience through social networking, daily blogs, and weekly video conferences to share their research and other REU experiences. The students are co-located during the Orientation week and also during the 5-day Florida Waters Tour. Weekly group meetings and guest lectures are conducted via synchronously through video conferencing. The integration of research and extension is naturally achieved through the projects at the RECs, the guest lectures, Extension workshops, and visits to the Water Management Districts in Florida. In the last two years of the Program, we have received over 80 applicants, from four-year and advanced

  4. 2005-2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Polk County (Including Hampton, Judy, Lake Wales, Peace River (North), and Polk District Remainder Tracts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the SWFWMD Polk District. This record includes information about the LiDAR data for the following...

  5. Pelvic floor muscle training included in a pregnancy exercise program is effective in primary prevention of urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Mireia; Gonzalez-Cerron, Silvia; Montejo, Rocío; Barakat, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) taught in a general exercise class during pregnancy on the prevention of urinary incontinence (UI) in nulliparous continent pregnant women. This was a unicenter two armed randomized controlled trial. One hundred sixty-nine women were randomized by a central computer system to an exercise group (EG) (exercise class including PFMT) (n = 73) or a control group (CG) (n = 96). 10.1% loss to follow-up: 10 from EG and 7 from CG. The intervention consisted of 70-75 sessions (22 weeks, three times per week, 55-60 min/session including 10 min of PFMT). The CG received usual care (which included follow up by midwifes including information about PFMT). Questions on prevalence and degree of UI were posed before (week 10-14) and after intervention (week 36-39) using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF). At the end of the intervention, there was a statistically significant difference in favor of the EG. Reported frequency of UI [Never: CG: 54/60.7%, EG: 60/95.2% (P prevention of UI in primiparous pregnant women. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. User's instructions for ORCENT II: a digital computer program for the analysis of steam turbine cycles supplied by light-water-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-02-01

    The ORCENT-II digital computer program will perform calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. Turbine performance calculations are based on a method published by the General Electric Company. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. The program is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM System 360 digital computers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Quarterly technical progress report on water reactor safety programs sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Reactor Safety Research, October--December 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Light water reactor safety activities performed during October--December 1975 are reported. The blowdown heat transfer tests series of the Semiscale Mod-1 test program was completed. In the LOFT Program, preparations were made for nonnuclear testing. The Thermal Fuels Behavior Program completed a power-cooling-mismatch test and an irradiation effects test on PWR-type fuel rods. Model development and verification efforts of the Reactor Behavior Program included developing new analysis models for the RELAP4 computer code, subroutines for the FRAP-S and FRAP-T codes, and new models for predicting reactor fuel restructuring and zircaloy cladding behavior; an analysis of post-CHF fuel behavior was made using FRAP-T.

  8. Effect of pH, water activity and gel micro-structure, including oxygen profiles and rheological characterization, on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, T E; Geeraerd, A H; Verhulst, A; Poot, K; Van Bree, I; Devlieghere, F; Moldenaers, P; Wilson, D; Brocklehurst, T; Van Impe, J F

    2008-11-30

    In this study, the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tryptic Soy Broth was examined at different pH (4.50-5.50), water activity a(w) (0.970-0.992) and gelatin concentration (0%, 1% and 5% ) at 20 degrees C. Experiments in TSB with 0% gelatin were carried out in shaken erlenmeyers, in the weak 1% gelatin media in petri plates and in the firm 5% gelatin media in gel cassettes. A quantification of gel strength was performed by rheological measurements and the influence of oxygen supply on the growth of S. Typhimurium was investigated. pH, as well as a(w) as well as gelatin concentration had an influence on the growth rate. Both in broth and in gelatinized media, lowering pH or water activity caused a decrease of growth rate. In media with 1% gelatin a reduction of growth rate and maximal cell density was observed compared to broth at all conditions. However, the effects of decreasing pH and a(w) were less pronounced. A further increase in gelatin concentration to 5% gelatin caused a small or no additional drop of growth rate. The final oxygen concentration dropped from 5.5 ppm in stirred broth to anoxic values in petri plates, also when 0% and 5% gelatin media were tested in this recipient. Probably, not stirring the medium, which leads to anoxic conditions, has a more pronounced effect on the growth rate of S. Typhimurium then medium solidness. Finally, growth data were fitted with the primary model of Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J. and Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294]. An additional factor was introduced into the secondary model of Ross et al. [Ross, T. and Ratkowsky, D. A. and Mellefont, L. A. and McMeekin, T. A., 2003. Modelling the effects of temperature, water activity, pH and lactic acid concentration on the growth rate of Escherichia coli. International Journal of Food Microbiology 82, 33-43.] to incorporate the effect of gelatin concentration, next to

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Grizzly Year-End Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Spencer; Yongfeng Zhang; Pritam Chakraborty; S. Bulent Biner; Marie Backman; Brian Wirth; Stephen Novascone; Jason Hales

    2013-09-01

    The Grizzly software application is being developed under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to address aging and material degradation issues that could potentially become an obstacle to life extension of nuclear power plants beyond 60 years of operation. Grizzly is based on INL’s MOOSE multiphysics simulation environment, and can simultaneously solve a variety of tightly coupled physics equations, and is thus a very powerful and flexible tool with a wide range of potential applications. Grizzly, the development of which was begun during fiscal year (FY) 2012, is intended to address degradation in a variety of critical structures. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) was chosen for an initial application of this software. Because it fulfills the critical roles of housing the reactor core and providing a barrier to the release of coolant, the RPV is clearly one of the most safety-critical components of a nuclear power plant. In addition, because of its cost, size and location in the plant, replacement of this component would be prohibitively expensive, so failure of the RPV to meet acceptance criteria would likely result in the shutting down of a nuclear power plant. The current practice used to perform engineering evaluations of the susceptibility of RPVs to fracture is to use the ASME Master Fracture Toughness Curve (ASME Code Case N-631 Section III). This is used in conjunction with empirically based models that describe the evolution of this curve due to embrittlement in terms of a transition temperature shift. These models are based on an extensive database of surveillance coupons that have been irradiated in operating nuclear power plants, but this data is limited to the lifetime of the current reactor fleet. This is an important limitation when considering life extension beyond 60 years. The currently available data cannot be extrapolated with confidence further out in time because there is a potential for additional damage mechanisms (i

  10. Proton inelastic mean free path in a group of bioorganic compounds and water in 0.05-10 MeV range - Including higher-order corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Zhenyu, E-mail: tzy@sdu.edu.c [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China); Xia Yueyuan; Zhao Mingwen; Liu Xiangdong [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, Shandong (China)

    2010-07-15

    The systematic calculations of the inelastic mean free paths (MFP) of 0.05-10 MeV protons in a group of eleven important bioorganic compounds, i.e. DNA, five bases, three fatty acids, cellulose and {beta}-carotene, have been performed. The expressions for the calculations are derived from the Ashley's optical-data model and from the higher-order correction terms in stopping power calculations. Especially, the Bloch correction for the inelastic MFP is proposed empirically in this work. The inelastic MFPs for energetic protons in water are also evaluated and compared with other theoretical calculations. The proton inelastic MFPs for these 11 bioorganic compounds in the energy range from 0.05 to 10 MeV are presented here for the first time, and might be useful for studies of various radiation effects in these materials.

  11. Comparison of LC–MS-MS and GC–MS Analysis of Benzodiazepine Compounds Included in the Drug Demand Reduction Urinalysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Erick Roman; Knapp, Joshua A.; Horn, Carl K.; Stillman, Stedra L.; Evans, James E.; Arfsten, Darryl P.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) offers specific advantages over gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) such as the ability to identify and measure a broader range of compounds with minimal sample preparation. Comparative analysis of LC–MS-MS versus GC–MS was performed for urinalysis detection of five benzodiazepine compounds currently part of the Department of Defense (DoD) Drug Demand Reduction Program (DDRP) testing panel; alpha-hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, lorazepam, nordiazepam and temazepam. In the analyses of internally prepared control urine samples at concentrations around the DDRP administrative decision point for benzodiazepines (100 ng/mL), both technologies produced comparable results with average accuracies between 99.7 and 107.3% and average coefficients of variation (%CV) MS-MS analysis. However, the effects were controlled by using deuterated internal standards (ISTDs). Additionally, there was a 39% increase in nordiazepam mean concentration analyzed by LC–MS-MS due to suppression of the ISTD ion by the flurazepam metabolite 2-hydroxyethylflurazepam. The ease and speed of sample extraction, the broader range of compounds that can be analyzed and shorter run time make the LC–MS-MS technology a suitable and expedient alternative confirmation technology for benzodiazepine testing. PMID:26755538

  12. Tomato Ribonuclease LX with the Functional Endoplasmic Reticulum Retention Motif HDEF Is Expressed during Programmed Cell Death Processes, Including Xylem Differentiation, Germination, and Senescence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Karin; Hause, Bettina; Altmann, Dorit; Köck, Margret

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the subcellular localization of the acid S-like ribonuclease (RNase) LX in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cells using a combination of biochemical and immunological methods. It was found that the enzyme, unexpectedly excluded from highly purified vacuoles, accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum. The evidence that RNase LX is a resident of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is supported by an independent approach showing that the C-terminal peptide HDEF of RNase LX acts as an alternative ER retention signal in plants. For functional testing, the cellular distribution of chimeric protein constructs based on a marker protein, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) 2S albumin, was analyzed immunochemically in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Here, we report that the peptide motif is necessary and sufficient to accumulate 2S albumin constructs of both vacuolar and extracellular final destinations in the ER. We have shown immunochemically that RNase LX is specifically expressed during endosperm mobilization and leaf and flower senescence. Using immunofluorescence, RNase LX protein was detected in immature tracheary elements, suggesting a function in xylem differentiation. These results support a physiological function of RNase LX in selective cell death processes that are also thought to involve programmed cell death. It is assumed that RNase LX accumulates in an ER-derived compartment and is released by membrane disruption into the cytoplasma of those cells that are intended to undergo autolysis. These processes are accompanied by degradation of cellular components supporting a metabolic recycling function of the intracellular RNase LX. PMID:11598219

  13. Water Distribution Lines, Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation and does not contain attribution. Has annotation and is converted to GIS semi-anually. Only available upon permission., Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Distribution Lines dataset current as of 2011. Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation...

  14. Muscle function in aged women in response to a water-based exercises program and progressive resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a water-based exercise program on muscle function compared with regular high-intensity resistance training. Older women (n = 87) were recruited from the local community. The inclusion criteria were, to be aged 60 years or older, able to walk and able to carry out daily living activities independently. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: water-based exercises (WBG), resistance training (RTG) or control (CG). The experimental groups carried out 12 weeks of an excise program performed on water or on land. The dynamic strength, the isometric peak, and rate of torque development for the lower limbs were assessed before and after interventions. The water-based program provided a similar improvement in dynamic strength in comparison with resistance training. The isometric peak torque increased around the hip and ankle joints in the water-based group, and around the knee joint in the resistance-training group (P < 0.05). The rate of torque development increased only in the water-based group around the hip extensors muscles (P < 0.05). Water-based programs constitute an attractive alternative to promote relevant strength gains using moderate loads and fast speed movements, which were also effective to improve the capacity to generate fast torques. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. An Interval-Parameter Fuzzy Linear Programming with Stochastic Vertices Model for Water Resources Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An interval-parameter fuzzy linear programming with stochastic vertices (IFLPSV method is developed for water resources management under uncertainty by coupling interval-parameter fuzzy linear programming (IFLP with stochastic programming (SP. As an extension of existing interval parameter fuzzy linear programming, the developed IFLPSV approach has advantages in dealing with dual uncertainty optimization problems, which uncertainty presents as interval parameter with stochastic vertices in both of the objective functions and constraints. The developed IFLPSV method improves upon the IFLP method by allowing dual uncertainty parameters to be incorporated into the optimization processes. A hybrid intelligent algorithm based on genetic algorithm and artificial neural network is used to solve the developed model. The developed method is then applied to water resources allocation in Beijing city of China in 2020, where water resources shortage is a challenging issue. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been obtained, which are helpful and useful for decision makers. Although the amount of water supply from Guanting and Miyun reservoirs is declining with rainfall reduction, water supply from the South-to-North Water Transfer project will have important impact on water supply structure of Beijing city, particularly in dry year and extraordinary dry year.

  16. European demonstration program on the effect-based and chemical identification and monitoring of organic pollutants in European surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousova, Zuzana; Oswald, Peter; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Blaha, Ludek; Muz, Melis; Hu, Meng; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin; Di Paolo, Carolina; Tarcai, Zsolt; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Hollert, Henner; Koprivica, Sanja; Ahel, Marijan; Schollée, Jennifer E; Hollender, Juliane; Suter, Marc J-F; Hidasi, Anita O; Schirmer, Kristin; Sonavane, Manoj; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Creusot, Nicolas; Brion, Francois; Froment, Jean; Almeida, Ana Catarina; Thomas, Kevin; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Tufi, Sara; Ouyang, Xiyu; Leonards, Pim; Lamoree, Marja; Torrens, Victoria Osorio; Kolkman, Annemieke; Schriks, Merijn; Spirhanzlova, Petra; Tindall, Andrew; Schulze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Growing concern about the adverse environmental and human health effects of a wide range of micropollutants requires the development of novel tools and approaches to enable holistic monitoring of their occurrence, fate and effects in the aquatic environment. A European-wide demonstration program (EDP) for effect-based monitoring of micropollutants in surface waters was carried out within the Marie Curie Initial Training Network EDA-EMERGE. The main objectives of the EDP were to apply a simplified protocol for effect-directed analysis, to link biological effects to target compounds and to estimate their risk to aquatic biota. Onsite large volume solid phase extraction of 50 L of surface water was performed at 18 sampling sites in four European river basins. Extracts were subjected to effect-based analysis (toxicity to algae, fish embryo toxicity, neurotoxicity, (anti-)estrogenicity, (anti-)androgenicity, glucocorticoid activity and thyroid activity), to target analysis (151 organic micropollutants) and to nontarget screening. The most pronounced effects were estrogenicity, toxicity to algae and fish embryo toxicity. In most bioassays, major portions of the observed effects could not be explained by target compounds, especially in case of androgenicity, glucocorticoid activity and fish embryo toxicity. Estrone and nonylphenoxyacetic acid were identified as the strongest contributors to estrogenicity, while herbicides, with a minor contribution from other micropollutants, were linked to the observed toxicity to algae. Fipronil and nonylphenol were partially responsible for the fish embryo toxicity. Within the EDP, 21 target compounds were prioritized on the basis of their frequency and extent of exceedance of predicted no effect concentrations. The EDP priority list included 6 compounds, which are already addressed by European legislation, and 15 micropollutants that may be important for future monitoring of surface waters. The study presents a novel simplified

  17. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  18. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Bird, Julia K

    2017-08-05

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age (n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations (p omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p omega-3 index (+0.21, p omega-3 supplement.

  19. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. McBurney

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3 are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18–30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%. At baseline, the average age (n = 834 was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8% than women (5.2%, as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA concentrations (p < 0.05. Baseline omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p < 0.01 at the second test as did the omega-3 index (+0.21, p < 0.02. In this employed population, only 1% redeemed a coupon for an omega-3 supplement.

  20. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    , cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.