WorldWideScience

Sample records for program impacts effectiveness

  1. OPORTUNITIES PROGRAM IN MEXICO AND SONORA: IMPACT, EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema Lilian Mancillas-Alvarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of poverty is based on the monetary approach, which is measured by the method of poverty lines (Foster, Greer and Thoerbecke, 1984; Sen, 1976; while the static microsimulation technique (Bourguignon and Spadaro, 2006 helps quantify the impact of Oportunities in reducing poverty in Mexico and Sonora during the years 2010-2012. The information for this study is obtained from the National Survey of Income and Expenditure Household INEGI (2010, 2012.Lower percentages of poverty were found in Sonora in comparison with the country and no significant impact from the program; the greatest impact was seen in the country since food poverty was reduced (-2.14%, capabilities poverty (- 1.86% and patrimonial poverty (-0.81%. In regards to targeting of the program, in the country there is a slight improvement in efficiency but not in effectiveness and Sonora experienced a significant improvement in efficiency and effectiveness.

  2. Program coordinators' perceptions of effective national citizen science programs and their impacts: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The increasing desire to engage the public in science and research has advanced citizen science as a valuable and popular means to this end. Citizen science, a process by which concerned individuals, agencies, industries or community groups collaborate to monitor, track, and respond to issues of common community concerns, has evolved and grown over the past decade. Much of the citizen science research thus far has primarily focused on the public participants (citizen scientists) and/or organizations themselves. This study looks instead at the people, the coordinators, implementing or coordinating citizen science programs and activities, specifically in the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network (CoCoRaHS), and their perceptions for program effectiveness. CoCoRaHS is a national program in which citizens monitor, record, and report precipitation conditions from backyard observations. Semi-structured interviews and an online survey completed by the program's coordinators in the state of Colorado found that the effectiveness of CoCoRaHS depends less on the interactions of the coordinators with each other or funding impacts on program activities, but rather on the interactions between coordinators and citizen scientists. The effectiveness of CoCoRaHS was perceived to depend more significantly on the connections coordinators have with the community of program users and citizen scientists, and a supportive culture within the program. The next step therefore is to explore these interactions between the coordinators and citizen scientists to develop a better understanding of their nature of participation in the citizen science program, and to describe the characteristics of all participants.

  3. Ripple Effect Mapping: A "Radiant" Way to Capture Program Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollock, Debra Hansen; Flage, Lynette; Chazdon, Scott; Paine, Nathan; Higgins, Lorie

    2012-01-01

    Learn more about a promising follow-up, participatory group process designed to document the results of Extension educational efforts within complex, real-life settings. The method, known as Ripple Effect Mapping, uses elements of Appreciative Inquiry, mind mapping, and qualitative data analysis to engage program participants and other community…

  4. Planning for Impact: A Guide to Planning Effective Family Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, James M.

    A document intended to provide program planning guidelines for Young Men's Christian Associations (YMCAs) desirous of working with families, recommends adherence to eight principles and following of five steps. The principles involve planning before action, fact finding and analysis, clear delineation of operational objectives, planning at all…

  5. Population-Level Impact of Ontario's Infant Rotavirus Immunization Program: Evidence of Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Wilson

    Full Text Available To evaluate the direct and indirect population impact of rotavirus (RV immunization on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE in Ontario before and after the publicly-funded RV immunization program.Administrative data was used to identify ED visits and hospitalizations for all Ontarians using ICD-10 codes. We used two outcome definitions: RV-specific AGE (RV-AGE and codes representing RV-, other viral and cause unspecified AGE ("overall AGE". The pre-program and public program periods were August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2011; and August 1, 2011 to March 31, 2013, respectively. A negative binominal regression model that included the effect of time was used to calculate rates and rate ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for RV-AGE and overall AGE between periods, after adjusting for age, seasonality and secular trends. Analyses were conducted for all ages combined and age stratified.Relative to the pre-program period, the adjusted RRs for RV-AGE and overall AGE hospitalizations in the public program period were 0.29 (95%CI: 0.22-0.39 and 0.68 (95%CI: 0.62-0.75, respectively. Significant reductions in RV-AGE hospitalizations were noted overall and for the following age bands: = 65 years (RR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.72-0.90. The program was associated with adjusted RRs of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.20-0.52 for RV-AGE ED visits and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96 for overall AGE ED visits.This large, population-based study provides evidence of the impact of RV vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE, including herd effects.

  6. Economic impact of dengue illness and the cost-effectiveness of future vaccination programs in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R Carrasco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue illness causes 50-100 million infections worldwide and threatens 2.5 billion people in the tropical and subtropical regions. Little is known about the disease burden and economic impact of dengue in higher resourced countries or the cost-effectiveness of potential dengue vaccines in such settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimate the direct and indirect costs of dengue from hospitalized and ambulatory cases in Singapore. We consider inter alia the impacts of dengue on the economy using the human-capital and the friction cost methods. Disease burden was estimated using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and the cost-effectiveness of a potential vaccine program was evaluated. The average economic impact of dengue illness in Singapore from 2000 to 2009 in constant 2010 US$ ranged between $0.85 billion and $1.15 billion, of which control costs constitute 42%-59%. Using empirically derived disability weights, we estimated an annual average disease burden of 9-14 DALYs per 100 000 habitants, making it comparable to diseases such as hepatitis B or syphilis. The proportion of symptomatic dengue cases detected by the national surveillance system was estimated to be low, and to decrease with age. Under population projections by the United Nations, the price per dose threshold for which vaccines stop being more cost-effective than the current vector control program ranged from $50 for mass vaccination requiring 3 doses and only conferring 10 years of immunity to $300 for vaccination requiring 2 doses and conferring lifetime immunity. The thresholds for these vaccine programs to not be cost-effective for Singapore were $100 and $500 per dose respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue illness presents a serious economic and disease burden in Singapore. Dengue vaccines are expected to be cost-effective if reasonably low prices are adopted and will help to reduce the economic and disease burden of dengue in Singapore substantially.

  7. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  8. Educational Impacts and Cost-Effectiveness of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Sandra; Saavedra, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    We meta-analyze for impact and cost-effectiveness 94 studies from 47 conditional cash transfer programs in low- and middle-income countries worldwide, focusing on educational outcomes that include enrollment, attendance, dropout, and school completion. To conceptually guide and interpret the empirical findings of our meta-analysis, we present a…

  9. Effects of 2 physiotherapy programs on pain perception, muscular flexibility, and illness impact in women with fibromyalgia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, M; Alonso, B; Alvarez, M J; Barrientos, M J; Ayán, C; Martín Sánchez, V

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of 2 physiotherapy programs designed to improve flexibility and to reduce the impact of the illness and pain perception in women with the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and compared the effects of the 2 programs in the short and intermediate term. Twenty FMS patients were randomly assigned to 2 training groups, one following a program of kinesiotherapy and active muscular stretching and one using techniques of Global Myofascial Physiotherapy, according to the Mézières method. Both groups met twice a week for 12 weeks, for a total of 150 minutes each week. Flexibility and illness impact were measured by means of a standard test, whereas pain was assessed by means of thumb palpation. Measurements were taken at the beginning and end of the program and 24 weeks after its end. Patients had achieved a statistically significant reduction in the severity of the disease and improved their flexibility level by the end of the program, but had returned to initial values after follow-up. Significant differences were not observed between the 2 treatment groups in the initial values or in the results at the end of the program or after the follow-up, so neither program proved better than the other. The FMS patients in this study improved their flexibility level and general well-being using both kinesiotherapy and stretching exercises techniques.

  10. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messenger, Mike; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Golemboski, Bill; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.

    2010-04-14

    Public and private funding for end-use energy efficiency actions is expected to increase significantly in the United States over the next decade. For example, Barbose et al (2009) estimate that spending on ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs in the U.S. could increase from $3.1 billion in 2008 to $7.5 and 12.4 billion by 2020 under their medium and high scenarios. This increase in spending could yield annual electric energy savings ranging from 0.58% - 0.93% of total U.S. retail sales in 2020, up from 0.34% of retail sales in 2008. Interest in and support for energy efficiency has broadened among national and state policymakers. Prominent examples include {approx}$18 billion in new funding for energy efficiency programs (e.g., State Energy Program, Weatherization, and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants) in the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Increased funding for energy efficiency should result in more benefits as well as more scrutiny of these results. As energy efficiency becomes a more prominent component of the U.S. national energy strategy and policies, assessing the effectiveness and energy saving impacts of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for policymakers and private and public funders of efficiency actions. Thus, it is critical that evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) is carried out effectively and efficiently, which implies that: (1) Effective program evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methodologies and tools are available to key stakeholders (e.g., regulatory agencies, program administrators, consumers, and evaluation consultants); and (2) Capacity (people and infrastructure resources) is available to conduct EM&V activities and report results in ways that support program improvement and provide data that reliably compares achieved results against goals and similar programs in other jurisdictions (benchmarking). The National Action Plan for Energy

  11. The Impact of a District Assistant Principal Leadership Preparation Program on Perceptions of Effective Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    A large, urban school district in the southeastern region of the United States found that leaders supplied by universities lacked skills needed to meet its accountability challenges. Because the school district demands highly effective leaders for its growing schools, an Aspiring Leader Program (ALP) was established to train its future assistant…

  12. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis of a population-based screening program for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pil, L; Fobelets, M; Putman, K; Trybou, J; Annemans, L

    2016-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in Belgium. In Flanders (Belgium), a population-based screening program with a biennial immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) in women and men aged 56-74 has been organised since 2013. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the colorectal population-based screening program in Flanders (Belgium). A health economic model was conducted, consisting of a decision tree simulating the screening process and a Markov model, with a time horizon of 20years, simulating natural progression. Predicted mortality and incidence, total costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) with and without the screening program were calculated in order to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CRC screening. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted, taking into account uncertainty of the model parameters. Mortality and incidence were predicted to decrease over 20years. The colorectal screening program in Flanders is found to be cost-effective with an ICER of 1681/QALY (95% CI -1317 to 6601) in males and €4,484/QALY (95% CI -3254 to 18,163). The probability of being cost-effective given a threshold of €35,000/QALY was 100% and 97.3%, respectively. The budget impact analysis showed the extra cost for the health care payer to be limited. This health economic analysis has shown that despite the possible adverse effects of screening and the extra costs for the health care payer and the patient, the population-based screening program for CRC in Flanders is cost-effective and should therefore be maintained. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investing in Head Start: Impacts and Cost Effectiveness of America's Comprehensive Child Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As part of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the federal Head Start and Early Head Start programs received a significant increase in funding. Head Start is the longest-running program to address systemic poverty in the United States. It is also one of the most heavily researched programs in the nation. Still, debate continues…

  14. Evaluating dosage effects for the positive action program: How implementation impacts internalizing symptoms, aggression, school hassles, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Wu, Qi; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2016-01-01

    Positive Action (PA) is a school-based intervention for elementary-, middle-, and high-school students that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., academic achievement, school engagement). PA has a long history of documented success achieving these aims, making it an Evidence Based Practice (EBP). Intervention research on EBP's has established the importance of implementation fidelity, especially with regard to program dosage; failure to properly implement an EBP can have negative consequences on targeted outcomes, especially if participants are exposed to a low dosage of the program (e.g., fewer lessons than specified). Much of the current research on PA has neglected to examine how program dosage impacts PA's effect on targeted outcomes. Using propensity score models, multiple imputation, and a 2-level hierarchical linear model, the current study fills this gap and examines how different dosages of PA as measured by years participating in PA and number of PA lessons, impacts adolescent internalizing symptoms, aggression, perceptions of school hassles, and self-esteem over a 3-year period. The current sample included middle school students in grades 6, 7, and 8 (N = 5,894). The findings indicate that students who received 3 years of the PA intervention and a high number of PA lessons had a significantly higher self-esteem score than those who received 0 years of PA or zero lessons. Participants who received 1 year of PA also reported significantly lower school hassle scores than those who received 0 years. Dosage had no statistically significant effects on aggression or internalizing score. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Review of demand-side bidding programs: Impacts, costs, and cost-effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01

    In December 1987, Central Maine Power (CMP) instituted the first competitive bidding program that allowed developers to propose installation of conservation measures. Since then, about 30 utilities in 14 states have solicited bids from energy service companies (ESCOs) and customers to reduce energy demand in residential homes and in commercial and industrial facilities. Interest in the use of competitive procurement mechanisms for demand-side resources continues to grow. In this study, the authors build upon earlier work conducted by LBL in collaboration with others (Goldman and Busch 1992; Wolcott and Goldman 1992). They have developed methods to compare bid prices and program costs among utilities. They also characterize approaches used by utilities and developers to allocate risks associated with DSM resources based on their review of a large sample of signed contracts. These contracts are analyzed in some detail because they provide insights into the evolving roles and responsibilities of utilities, customers, and third party contractors in providing demand-side management (DSM) services. The analysis also highlights differences in the allocation of risks between traditional utility rebate programs and DSM bidding programs.

  16. The effect of extremity strength training on fibromyalgia symptoms and disease impact in an existing multidisciplinary treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Tamara; Colby, Megan; Case, Maureen; Vaughn, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of upper and lower body extremity strengthening exercise in patients with Fibromyalgia (FM) within an existing multidisciplinary treatment program. Patients between the ages of 18-65 with the medical diagnosis of FM. Comparative study design. The control and experimental group received the same multidisciplinary treatment except that the experimental group performed upper and lower extremity strengthening exercises. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was administered at evaluation and discharge from the program in order to measure change in quality of life (QOL). Statistically significant changes in FIQ scores were found for both groups. The addition of extremity strengthening in the experimental group produced an average 4 points greater reduction in FIQ score, however, these results are not considered statistically significant. This study appears to validate the success of a multidisciplinary approach in treating patients with FM, with the possibility for further benefit with the addition of extremity strengthening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Impact from Outdoor/Environmental Education Programs: Effects of Frequent Stream Classes on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossley, Jon P.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stewardship is an underlying theme in outdoor education (OE) and environmental education (EE), but maintaining natural areas in a sustainable balance between conservation and preservation requires knowledge about how natural areas respond to anthropogenic disturbance. My five-part study investigated the effects of disturbance on…

  18. Preliminary Effectiveness of Project Impact: A Parent-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Delivered in a Community Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, Nicole A.; Stahmer, Aubyn; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This is a pilot study of the effectiveness of Project ImPACT, a parent-mediated intervention for ASD delivered in a community program. The primary aim was to compare child and parent outcomes between the intervention group and a community comparison for 30 young children with ASD at baseline and 12 weeks. The secondary aim was to identify parent…

  19. Impact of a school-based disordered eating prevention program in adolescent girls: general and specific effects depending on adherence to the interactive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Guimerà, Gemma; Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Fauquet, Jordi; Portell, Mariona; Raich, Rosa M

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed the impact of a school-based program aimed at preventing disordered eating. The program was based on the media-literacy approach and has interactive format. The program was assessed under strong methodological conditions. Seven schools with 263 Spanish adolescent girls in the area of Barcelona, were randomly assigned to either the complete prevention program condition, the partial program condition or the non-treatment control condition, and assessed at pre, post and 6-month follow-up. The program was effective in generating positive changes at follow-up. The effects sizes (ES(d) = 0.29 to ES(d) = 0.38) were greater, on average, than that obtained up to now in selective-universal programs, and similar or greater than that achieved by targeted prevention programs. The results indicate a greater and relevant effect size of the intervention in those participants who completed the inter-session interactive activities (ES(d) = 0.29 to ES(d) = 0.45) although the differences were not significant. These results suggest the importance of monitoring adherence to the activities in all programs defined as "interactive". The implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  20. Impact of Indentation in Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Parvatham, Niranjan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In computer programming languages, indentation formats program source code to improve readability. Programming languages make use of indentation to define program structure .Programmers use indentation to understand the structure of their programs to human readers. Especially, indentation is the better way to represent the relationship between control flow constructs such as selection statements or loops and code contained within and outside them. This paper describes about different indentat...

  1. Management Development Training; Multiple Measurement of Its Effect When Used to Increase the Impact of a Long Term Motivational Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camealy, John Bremer

    This field investigation applied multiple measures to determine effects of management development training when used to increase the benefits from a long term motivational program. Two experimental groups and a control group were used. Instruments applied included the Miner Sentence Completion Scale, the Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ), and…

  2. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  3. Wilderness educators' evaluation of the Impact Monster Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Hendricks; Alan E. Watson

    1999-01-01

    Since its development by Jim Bradley in the late 1970s, the Impact Monster, a wilderness education skit designed to teach minimum impact techniques, has been used as a wilderness education tool by federal land management agencies. This paper reports on an evaluation of the perceived effectiveness of the Impact Monster program and its content. Results indicate that the...

  4. Diffusion of Intervention Effects: The Impact of a Family-Based Substance Use Prevention Program on Friends of Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L; Feinberg, Mark; Gest, Scott D; Osgood, D Wayne

    2015-10-01

    We tested whether effects of the Strengthening Families Program for Youth 10-14 (SFP10-14) diffused from intervention participants to their friends. We also tested which program effects on participants accounted for diffusion. Data are from 5,449 students (51% female; mean initial age = 12.3 years) in the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience community intervention trial (2001-2006) who did not participate in SFP10-14 (i.e., nonparticipants). At each of five waves, students identified up to seven friends and self-reported past month drunkenness and cigarette use, substance use attitudes, parenting practices, and unsupervised time spent with friends. We computed two measures of indirect exposure to SFP10-14: total number of SFP-attending friends at each wave and cumulative proportion of SFP-attending friends averaged across the current and all previous post-intervention waves. Three years post-intervention, the odds of getting drunk (odds ratio = 1.4) and using cigarettes (odds ratio = 2.7) were higher among nonparticipants with zero SFP-attending friends compared with nonparticipants with three or more SFP-attending friends. Multilevel analyses also provided evidence of diffusion: nonparticipants with a higher cumulative proportion of SFP-attending friends at a given wave were less likely than their peers to use drugs at that wave. Effects from SFP10-14 primarily diffused through friendship networks by reducing the amount of unstructured socializing (unsupervised time that nonparticipants spent with friends), changing friends' substance use attitudes, and then changing nonparticipants' own substance use attitudes. Program developers should consider and test how interventions may facilitate diffusion to extend program reach and promote program sustainability. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diffusion of Intervention Effects: The Impact of a Family-based Substance Use Prevention Program on Friends of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Feinberg, Mark; Gest, Scott D.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We tested whether effects of the Strengthening Families Program for Youth 10–14 (SFP10–14) diffused from intervention participants to their friends. We also tested which program effects on participants accounted for diffusion. Methods Data are from 5,449 students (51% female; mean initial age=12.3 years) in the PROSPER community intervention trial (2001–2006) who did not participate in SFP10–14 (i.e., non-participants). At each of 5 waves, students identified up to 7 friends and self-reported past month drunkenness and cigarette use, substance use attitudes, parenting practices, and unsupervised time spent with friends. We computed two measures of indirect exposure to SFP10–14: total number of SFP-attending friends at each wave and cumulative proportion of SFP-attending friends averaged across the current and all previous post-intervention waves. Results Three years post-intervention, the odds of getting drunk (OR=1.4) and using cigarettes (OR=2.7) were higher among non-participants with 0 SFP-attending friends compared to non-participants with 3 or more SFP-attending friends. Multilevel analyses also provided evidence of diffusion: non-participants with a higher cumulative proportion of SFP-attending friends at a given wave were less likely than their peers to use drugs at that wave. Effects from SFP10–14 primarily diffused through friendship networks by reducing the amount of unstructured socializing (unsupervised time that non-participants spent with friends), changing friends’ substance use attitudes, and then changing non-participants’ own substance use attitudes. Conclusions Program developers should consider and test how interventions may facilitate diffusion to extend program reach and promote program sustainability. PMID:26210856

  6. DARTAB: a program to combine airborne radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of predicted health impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.; Eckerman, K.F.; Schlatter, E.C.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1981-08-01

    The DARTAB computer code combines radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of the predicted impact of radioactive airborne effluents. DARTAB is independent of the environmental transport code used to generate the environmental exposure data and the codes used to produce the dosimetric and health effects data. Therefore human dose and risk calculations need not be added to every environmental transport code. Options are included in DARTAB to permit the user to request tabulations by various topics (e.g., cancer site, exposure pathway, etc.) to facilitate characterization of the human health impacts of the effluents. The DARTAB code was written at ORNL for the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs.

  7. Preliminary Effectiveness of Project ImPACT: A Parent-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Delivered in a Community Program

    OpenAIRE

    Stadnick, NA; Stahmer, A; Brookman-Frazee, L

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. This is a pilot study of the effectiveness of Project ImPACT, a parent-mediated intervention for ASD delivered in a community program. The primary aim was to compare child and parent outcomes between the intervention group and a community comparison for 30 young children with ASD at baseline and 12 weeks. The secondary aim was to identify parent factors associated with changes in child outcomes. Results indicated significant improvement in chi...

  8. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: TRP 9732Steel Processing Properties and Their Effect on Impact Deformation of Lightweight Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srdan Simunovic; Gustavo Aramayo

    2002-01-31

    The objective of the research was to perform a comprehensive computational analysis of the effects of material and process modeling approaches on performance of Ultra Light Steel Auto Body (ULSAB) vehicle models. The research addressed numerous material related effects, impact conditions as well as analyzed the performance of the ULSAB vehicles in crashes against designs representing the current US vehicle fleet. Crash modeling simulations show a clear effect of strain-rate sensitivity on high strength steel (HSS) intensive vehicle. The influence of a strain-rate model can be an incremental sensitivity due to the increased flow stress when similar structure collapse modes are predicted. However, significant differences in crash energy management capacity can be predicted if the change in loading on members alters the predicted collapse mode of the structure. From the material substitution study it can be concluded that HSS material substitution cannot be performed on the basis of the material yield point only and that, especially for advanced HSS vehicle designs, the entire region of material plastic response has to be considered. However, the problem of modeling of the overall dynamic crush process still remains open and requires further experimental and theoretical investigation. Crash modeling simulations show a moderate effect of forming on overall crash performance. The design is the determining factor on the vehicle performance and, therefore, the results of this research cannot provide measures that can be used in a general case. However, it has been shown that for materials that have modest strain hardening, the forming effect is observable and that when more complex forming operations are used, especially in combination with rapid strain hardening materials, forming effects should be taken in the consideration in the computational crash models. crash compatibility study between ULSAB and cars of similar geometric characteristics have shown that the U LSAB

  9. Developing Effective Instructional Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Barbara; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing effective instructional programs, is presented in this document. The first paper, entitled "The Organization--A Viable Instrument for Progress" (Barbara Sizemore), addresses the subject of high-achieving, predominantly black elementary schools. Routines in these schools not present in…

  10. Externalities in program evaluation: the impact of a women’s empowerment program on immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, W.

    2011-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programs usually do not explicitly take into account externalities on non-participants. Based on a unique dataset we estimate the direct as well as the spillover effects of Mahila Samakhya, a women's empowerment program in India, on child immunization. The survey

  11. Developmental Relationship Programs: An Empirical Study of the Impact of Peer-Mentoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai, Siamack; Davis, William J.; Root, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the impact and effectiveness of developmental relationships provided through academic intervention programs at a medium-size master's level public university in the Northeastern United States. The programs' curriculum follows the Model of Strategic Learning's four pillars of learning and is administered…

  12. Examining the Impact of Afterschool STEM Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, Anita; Ballard, Melissa; Noam, Gil G.

    2014-01-01

    Afterschool programs that provide strong science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) learning experiences are making an impact on participating youth not only become excited and engaged in these fields but develop STEM skills and proficiencies, come to value these fields and their contributions to society, and--significantly--begin to see…

  13. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  14. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  15. Using Ripple Effect Mapping to Evaluate Program Impact: Choosing or Combining the Methods That Work Best for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Mary; Higgins, Lorie; Chazdon, Scott; Hansen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    A mind mapping approach to evaluation called Ripple Effects Mapping (REM) has been developed and used by a number of Extension faculty across the country recently. This article describes three approaches to REM, as well as key differences and similarities. The authors, each from different land-grant institutions, believe REM is an effective way to…

  16. Within a smoking-cessation program, what impact does genetic information on lung cancer need to have to demonstrate cost-effectiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Louisa G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many smoking-cessation programs and pharmaceutical aids demonstrate substantial health gains for a relatively low allocation of resources. Genetic information represents a type of individualized or personal feedback regarding the risk of developing lung cancer, and hence the potential benefits from stopping smoking, may motivate the person to remain smoke-free. The purpose of this study was to explore what the impact of a genetic test needs to have within a typical smoking-cessation program aimed at heavy smokers in order to be cost-effective. Methods Two strategies were modelled for a hypothetical cohort of heavy smokers aged 50 years; individuals either received or did not receive a genetic test within the course of a usual smoking-cessation intervention comprising nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and counselling. A Markov model was constructed using evidence from published randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses for estimates on 12-month quit rates and long-term relapse rates. Epidemiological data were used for estimates on lung cancer risk stratified by time since quitting and smoking patterns. Extensive sensitivity analyses were used to explore parameter uncertainty. Results The discounted incremental cost per QALY was AU$34,687 (95% CI $12,483, $87,734 over 35 years. At a willingness-to-pay of AU$20,000 per QALY gained, the genetic testing strategy needs to produce a 12-month quit rate of at least 12.4% or a relapse rate 12% lower than NRT and counselling alone for it to be equally cost-effective. The likelihood that adding a genetic test to the usual smoking-cessation intervention is cost-effective was 20.6% however cost-effectiveness ratios were favourable in certain situations (e.g., applied to men only, a 60 year old cohort. Conclusions The findings were sensitive to small changes in critical variables such as the 12-month quit rates and relapse rates. As such, the cost-effectiveness of the genetic testing

  17. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  18. MIPAS-Family-evaluation of a new multi-modal behavioral training program for pediatric headaches: clinical effects and the impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Wolf-Dieter; Petermann, Franz; Gerber-von Müller, Gabriele; Dollwet, Maren; Darabaneanu, Stephanie; Niederberger, Uwe; Schulte, Ilva Elena; Stephani, Ulrich; Andrasik, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Several meta-analyses have demonstrated that the combination of electrical muscle activity and Temperature Biofeedback could be regarded as gold standard in chronic pediatric headaches. However, these techniques seem to be uneconomical and furthermore they are not directed to improve the social competence as well as resolve possible impairments in daily activities of the child. Therefore, multi-modal behavioral techniques have been proposed, but no studies comparing these with the gold standard were conducted. The present study compared the impact of a new multi-modal behavioral education and training program--MIPAS-Family--with a combined Biofeedback treatment, evaluating clinical efficacy as well as the effect on the quality of life (QoL) of children with chronic headaches. Thirty-four children and adolescents with recurrent headache, ranging from 7 to 16 years, were randomly assigned to the MIPAS-Family (N = 19) or the Biofeedback (N = 15) condition. All patients were diagnosed by the criteria of the International Headache Society. The children and their parents completed headache diaries, diaries of daily living activities and a QoL questionnaire (KINDL). Both groups showed significant improvements concerning the headache intensity and headache duration. We found no significant differences in the main headache parameters between both treatments. After the treatments, the children were less disturbed by their headaches in the domains school, homework, and leisure time. In conclusion, MIPAS-Family is as effective as Biofeedback but it is more cost-effective and addresses the whole family and the daily activities.

  19. Impact of integrated programs on general surgery operative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Amanda R; Nickel, Brianne L; Dolejs, Scott C; Canal, David F; Torbeck, Laura; Choi, Jennifer N

    2017-03-01

    Integrated residencies are now commonplace, co-existing with categorical general surgery residencies. The purpose of this study was to define the impact of integrated programs on categorical general surgery operative volume. Case logs from categorical general, integrated plastics, vascular, and thoracic surgery residents from a single institution from 2008 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Integrated residents have increased the number of cases they perform that would have previously been general surgery resident cases from 11 in 2009-2010 to 1392 in 2015-2016. Despite this, there was no detrimental effect on total major cases of graduating chief residents. Multiple integrated programs can co-exist with a general surgery program through careful collaboration and thoughtful consideration to longitudinal needs of individual trainees. As additional programs continue to be created, both integrated and categorical program directors must continue to collaborate to insure the integrity of training for all residents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. "Cooking and Active Leisure" TAS Program, Spain: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Elena; Pareja, Sara Lucía; Milá, Raimon; Cinca, Núria

    2014-09-01

    The "Cooking and Active Leisure" Tu y Alícia por la Salud (CAL-TAS) Program is a school-based pilot that addresses healthy lifestyle needs of Spanish secondary school students with initiatives that research has proven to improve dietary and physical activity behaviors. The objectives were to perform a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis to describe key activities and processes of the CAL-TAS Program, identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs), and identify a suite of common indicators of healthy lifestyles to be applied across participant schools. The CAL-TAS Program designers and implementation team developed this PIP analysis through an iterative process and presented the results for feedback at the seven-country Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The team identified three PIP CCPs: teachers' motivation and training, changes in students' knowledge of healthy lifestyles, and changes in students' healthy lifestyle behavior. The selected indicators of the program's impact on healthy lifestyles are adequacy of food intake, level of knowledge of healthy lifestyles gained, and adequacy of physical activity level according to World Health Organization recommendations. A clear definition of impact indicators, as well as collection of accurate data on healthy lifestyle behaviors and knowledge, is essential to understanding the effectiveness of this program before it can be scaled up. CAL-TAS is an effective secondary school-based program encouraging healthy lifestyles. The PIP analysis was instrumental in identifying CCPs to sustain and improve the quality of the program. The team hopes to sustain and improve the program through these program evaluation recommendations.

  1. Economic impact of the introduction of machine perfusion preservation in a kidney transplantation program in the expanded donor era: cost-effectiveness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, V; Galeano, C; Diez, V; Bueno, C; Díaz, F; Burgos, F J

    2012-11-01

    Kidney transplantations (KT) from expanded criteria donors (ECD) show a higher rate of delayed graft function (DGF) that increases postoperative costs because of the prolonged hospital stay as well as the needs for dialysis and additional diagnostic procedures. Hypothermic machine perfusion (MP) might be superior to cold storage (CS) to reduce the relative risks of DGF and primary nonfunction (PNF) as well as to increase 1-year graft survival. The aim of the study was to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of two different storage methods: MP versus CS. A probabilistic decision tree was developed to compare MP and CS as graft preservation methods. The structure of the model was populated by review of the literature and outcomes of KT from ECD in our center. The model estimated budget impact and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in terms of DGF and PNF cases. The cost comparison of methods for KT preservation included: hospitalization and intermediate care unit stay; post-KT dialysis; graft removal; immunosuppressive regimen; treatment of acute rejection episodes; as well as costs of preservation solutions and pulsatile preservation device or storage containers. Resource consumption for CS stratified by graft function varied from $8,159 for immediate graft function (IGF) recipients to $10,865 for DGF recipients to $25,933 for PNF recipients. Meanwhile, resource consumption for MP varied from $9,522 for IGF to $12,228 for DGF to $27,297 for PNF recipients. The main components of resource consumption were hospitalization stay (41.5%-53.9%); graft explantation (20.2%), and the need for dialysis (16.0%). The budget impact per patient for the introduction of MP was $505. However, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $3,369 for each DGF- or PNF- saved case. The introduction of the MP preservation technology in a KT program form ECD is cost-effective in terms of savings for DGF and PNF cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program: An Impact Evaluation Utilizing a Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their…

  3. Effectiveness evaluation of the food fortification program of Costa Rica: impact on anemia prevalence and hemoglobin concentrations in women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Ascencio, Melany; Tacsan, Luis; Alfaro, Thelma; Young, Melissa F; Addo, O Yaw; Dary, Omar; Flores-Ayala, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Food fortification is one approach for addressing anemia, but information on program effectiveness is limited. We evaluated the impact of Costa Rica's fortification program on anemia in women aged 15-45 y and children aged 1-7 y. Reduced iron, an ineffective fortificant, was replaced by ferrous fumarate in wheat flour in 2002, and ferrous bisglycinate was added to maize flour in 1999 and to liquid and powdered milk in 2001. We used a one-group pretest-posttest design and national survey data from 1996 (baseline; 910 women, 965 children) and 2008-2009 (endline; 863 women, 403 children) to assess changes in iron deficiency (children only) and anemia. Data were also available for sentinel sites (1 urban, 1 rural) for 1999-2000 (405 women, 404 children) and 2008-2009 (474 women, 195 children), including 24-h recall data in children. Monitoring of fortification levels was routine. Foods were fortified as mandated. Fortification provided about one-half the estimated average requirement for iron in children, mostly and equally through wheat flour and milk. Anemia was reduced in children and women in national and sentinel site comparisons. At the national level, anemia declined in children from 19.3% (95% CI: 16.8%, 21.8%) to 4.0% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.9%) and in women from 18.4% (95% CI: 15.8%, 20.9%) to 10.2% (95% CI: 8.2%, 12.2%). In children, iron deficiency declined from 26.9% (95% CI: 21.1%, 32.7%) to 6.8% (95% CI: 4.2%, 9.3%), and iron deficiency anemia, which was 6.2% (95% CI: 3.0%, 9.3%) at baseline, could no longer be detected at the endline. A plausible impact pathway suggests that fortification improved iron status and reduced anemia. Although unlikely in the Costa Rican context, other explanations cannot be excluded in a pre/post comparison. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Small Commercial Program DOE Project: Impact evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathgate, R.; Faust, S. (Energy and Solid Waste Consultants, Montpelier, VT (United States))

    1992-08-12

    In 1991, Washington Electric Cooperative (WEC) implemented a Department of Energy grant to conduct a small commercial energy conservation project. The small commercial Mom, and Pop'' grocery stores within WEC's service territory were selected as the target market for the project. Energy Solid Waste Consultant's (E SWC) Impact Evaluation is documented here. The evaluation was based on data gathered from a variety of sources, including load profile metering, kWh submeters, elapsed time indicators, and billing histories. Five stores were selected to receive measures under this program: Waits River General Store, Joe's Pond Store, Hastings Store, Walden General Store, and Adamant Cooperative. Specific measures installed in each store and description of each are included.

  5. Impact and effectiveness of RotaTeq® vaccine based on 3 years of surveillance following introduction of a rotavirus immunization program in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Uhari, Matti; Renko, Marjo; Hemming, Maria; Salminen, Marjo; Torcel-Pagnon, Laurence; Bricout, Hélène; Simondon, François

    2013-12-01

    Finland introduced universal rotavirus (RV) vaccination in September 2009, with exclusive use of the pentavalent human-bovine reassortant RV vaccine RotaTeq® and following a vaccination schedule at 2, 3 and 5 months of age. This study monitored the impact of RV vaccination on hospitalizations due to RV acute gastroenteritis (RVGE). The results following the first 3 RV seasons after implementation of universal RV vaccination are presented. Prospective hospital-based surveillance identified children with acute gastroenteritis admitted to 2 University Hospitals (Tampere and Oulu, Finland), from December 2009 to August 2012. The surveillance covered a population of approximately 173,000 children from the 2 hospitals' catchment areas. Stool samples were taken and analyzed centrally for RV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with genotyping by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. International Classification of Diseases discharge codes were collected retrospectively pre- and postvaccination. During the 3-year prospective surveillance, 127 RVGE episodes were identified. Of these, 117 were in unvaccinated children and 6 were in fully vaccinated children (RotaTeq, n = 3; Rotarix, n = 3). The vaccine effectiveness against hospitalized RVGE for fully vaccinated children was 92.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 50.0-98.7] among children eligible for the National Immunization Program. When analyzing retrospectively the Tampere and Oulu hospital databases for all children aged <16 years, hospitalizations for RVGE had decreased by 78% in the postvaccination period (2009-2012) compared with the prevaccination data (2001-2006). Severe RVGE requiring hospitalization was virtually eliminated in vaccine-eligible children in the 3 years following implementation of universal RotaTeq vaccination in Finland.

  6. Research Based Science Education: An Exemplary Program for Broader Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Broader impacts are most effective when standing on the shoulders of successful programs. The Research Based Science Education (RBSE) program was such a successful program and played a major role in activating effective opportunities beyond the scope of its program. NSF funded the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) to oversee the project from 1996-2008. RBSE provided primarily high school teachers with on-site astronomy research experiences and their students with astronomy research projects that their teachers could explain with confidence. The goal of most student research projects is to inspire and motivate students to go into STEM fields. The authors of the original NSF proposal felt that for students to do research in the classroom, a foundational research experience for teachers must first be provided. The key components of the program consisted of 16 teachers/year on average; a 15-week distance learning course covering astronomy content, research, mentoring and leadership skills; a subsequent 10-day summer workshop with half the time on Kitt Peak on research-class telescopes; results presented on the 9th day; research brought back to the classroom; more on-site observing opportunities for students and teachers; data placed on-line to reach a wider audience; opportunities to submit research articles to the project's refereed journal; and travel for teachers (and the 3 teachers they each mentored) to a professional meeting. In 2004, leveraging on the well-established RBSE program, the NOAO/NASA Spitzer Space Telescope Research began. Between 2005 and 2008, metrics included 32 teachers (mostly from RBSE), 10 scientists, 15 Spitzer Director Discretionary proposals, 31 AAS presentations and many Intel ISEF winners. Under new funding in 2009, the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program was born with similar goals and thankfully still runs today. Broader impacts, lessons learned and ideas for future projects will be discussed in this presentation.

  7. Impact of a Student Leadership Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effectiveness of the Student Leadership Development Series (SLDS), an academic-year--long, co-curricular approach to developing leadership skills in pharmacy students. Design. Participants met once per month for activities and a college-wide guest speaker session. Students also completed monthly forms regarding what they had learned, participated in poster presentations, and created a personal leadership platform. Assessment. One hundred twenty-three students participated in the program between 2008 and 2013. On monthly evaluation forms and a summative evaluation, students indicated that the program helped them feel prepared for leadership opportunities and increased their desire to pursue leadership. They valued interacting with pharmacy leaders from the community and learning how they could distinguish themselves as leaders. Conclusions. The SLDS provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to explore personal leadership styles and develop broader understanding of leadership, and increased their desire to pursue leadership positions in the future. PMID:24371349

  8. Impact of a student leadership development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, Renae; Tran-Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-12-16

    To assess the effectiveness of the Student Leadership Development Series (SLDS), an academic-year--long, co-curricular approach to developing leadership skills in pharmacy students. Participants met once per month for activities and a college-wide guest speaker session. Students also completed monthly forms regarding what they had learned, participated in poster presentations, and created a personal leadership platform. One hundred twenty-three students participated in the program between 2008 and 2013. On monthly evaluation forms and a summative evaluation, students indicated that the program helped them feel prepared for leadership opportunities and increased their desire to pursue leadership. They valued interacting with pharmacy leaders from the community and learning how they could distinguish themselves as leaders. The SLDS provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to explore personal leadership styles and develop broader understanding of leadership, and increased their desire to pursue leadership positions in the future.

  9. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Viltart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since life emerged on the Earth, the development of efficient strategies to cope with sudden and/or permanent changes of the environment has been virtually the unique goal pursued by every organism in order to ensure its survival and thus perpetuate the species. In this view, evolution has selected tightly regulated processes aimed at maintaining stability among internal parameters despite external changes, a process termed homeostasis. Such an internal equilibrium relies quite heavily on three interrelated physiological systems: the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems, which function as a permanently activated watching network, communicating by the mean of specialized molecules: neurotransmitters, cytokines, and hormones or neurohormones. Potential threats to homeostasis might occur as early as during in utero life, potentially leaving a lasting mark on the developing organism. Indeed, environmental factors exert early-life influences on the structural and functional development of individuals, giving rise to changes that can persist throughout life. This organizational phenomenon, encompassing prenatal environmental events, altered fetal growth, and development of long-term pathophysiology, has been named early-life programming. Over the past decade, increased scientific activities have been devoted to deciphering the obvious link between states of maternal stress and the behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physiological reactivity of the progeny. This growing interest has been driven by the discovery of a tight relationship between prenatal stress and development of short- and long-term health disorders. Among factors susceptible of contributing to such a deleterious programming, nutrients and hormones, especially steroid hormones, are considered as powerful mediators of the fetal organization since they readily cross the placental barrier. In particular, variations in circulating maternal glucocorticoids are known to impact this

  10. A Quasi-Experiment to Assess the Impact of a Scalable, Community-Based Weight Loss Program: Combining Reach, Effectiveness, and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, Paul A; Wilson, Kathryn E; McGuire, Todd J; Harden, Samantha M; Ramalingam, NithyaPriya; Schoepke, Lia; Almeida, Fabio A; Bayer, Amy L

    2017-04-01

    Primary care addresses obesity through physician oversight of intensive lifestyle interventions or referral to external programs with demonstrated efficacy. However, limited information exists on community program reach, effectiveness, and costs across different groups of participants. To evaluate a scalable, community weight loss program using reach, effectiveness, and cost metrics. Longitudinal pre-post quasi-experiment without control. Enrolled participants in Weigh and Win (WAW), a community-based weight loss program. A 12-month program with daily social cognitive theory-based email and/or text support, online access to health coaches, objective weight assessment through 83 community-based kiosks, and modest financial incentives to increase program reach. Number of participants, representativeness, weight loss achievement (3%, 5% of initial weight lost), and cost of implementation. A total of 40,308 adults (79% women; 73% white; BMI = 32.3 ± 7.44, age = 43.9 ± 13.1 years) enrolled in WAW. Women were more likely than men to enroll in the program and continue engagement beyond an initial weigh-in (57% vs. 53%). Based on census data, African Americans were over-represented in the sample. Among participants who engaged in the program beyond an initial weigh-in (n = 19,029), 47% and 34% of participants lost 3% and 5% of their initial body weight, respectively. The average duration for those who achieved 5% weight loss was 1.7 ± 1.3 years. African American participants were more likely to achieve 5% weight loss and remain enrolled in the program longer compared to non-African American participants (2.0 ± 1.3 vs. 1.6 ± 1.2 years). Implementation costs were $2,822,698. Cost per clinically meaningful weight loss for African Americans ($257.97/3% loss; $335.96/5% loss) was lower than that for Hispanics ($318.62; $431.10) and Caucasians ($313.65; $441.87), due to the higher success rate of that subgroup of participants. Weigh and Win

  11. Random Experiment Program Resource Impact (REPRI) program: User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, W. T.; Alford, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A complete user and programmer guide for the REPRI program is presented. This program was developed to perform mission concept, subsystem capability, and experiment support compatibility studies for a space station. The program utilizes Monte Carlo techniques to randomly schedule events in discrete intervals. Resources, logistics, cost, and space station volume are considered.

  12. Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on model approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs. It describes several standard approaches that can be used in order to make these programs more efficient.

  13. Teacher Induction Programs: The Impact of Years Three and Four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, M. Joseph, Jr.; Reiter, Jana; Shackelford, Beth M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a problem-based learning project that focused on a discrepancy in program content and retention rates between two-year teacher induction programs and induction programs that last three or four years. It specifically focused on the impact induction has on new teacher perceptions and teacher retention. The project also examined the influence…

  14. The impact of loyalty programs on customer loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Ištvancová, Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Loyalty programs are one of the tools that serve to create customer loyalty. The aim of this thesis is to determine whether loyalty programs of perfumeries and satisfaction with their impact on customer loyalty. The theoretical research summarizes the available knowledge about consumer behavior, loyalty and loyalty programs. The parfumeria market analysis in the Czech Republic and the content analysis of the MML TGI provide sufficient information about the established loyalty programs and the...

  15. Program Aspires for "Global" Impact Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Christina

    2011-01-01

    During the 2010-2011 school year, Fairfax County Public Schools (FCPS) piloted the After-School Global Language Opportunity Benefiting All Learners (GLOBAL) program for 12 weeks at eight different school sites. This school year the program expanded to 25 weeks and 11 sites. GLOBAL is an approach to learning that allows students to develop basic…

  16. Environmental Impact: University Programs in Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert J.; Schoenfeld, Clay

    1982-01-01

    A questionnaire was designed and used to measure various aspects of environmentally-related materials/activities in curriculum, internship and placement programs, public service, faculty interests, and institutional liaisons in journalism and mass media communications programs at United States colleges and universities. Background information,…

  17. Intergenerational Programs--Impact on Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Carol

    1989-01-01

    Attitude change among older and younger participants in intergenerational programs is investigated. While elderly participants in several programs reported positive feelings resulting from their involvement with children, children's attitudes attributed to intergenerational experiences were mixed. Research should consider longitudinal growth and…

  18. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  19. The effect of an affordable daycare program on health and economic well-being in Rajasthan, India: protocol for a cluster-randomized impact evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arijit; Maloney, Shannon; Agarwal, Parul; Chandrashekar, Anoushaka; Harper, Sam

    2016-06-09

    The provision of affordable and reliable daycare services is a potentially important policy lever for empowering Indian women. Access to daycare might reduce barriers to labor force entry and generate economic opportunities for women, improve education for girls caring for younger siblings, and promote nutrition and learning among children. However, empirical evidence concerning the effects of daycare programs in low-and-middle-income countries is scarce. This cluster-randomized trial will estimate the effect of a community-based daycare program on health and economic well-being over the life-course among women and children living in rural Rajasthan, India. This three-year study takes place in rural communities from five blocks in the Udaipur District of rural Rajasthan. The intervention is the introduction of a full-time, affordable, community-based daycare program. At baseline, 3177 mothers with age eligible children living in 160 village hamlets were surveyed. After the baseline, these hamlets were randomized to the intervention or control groups and respondents will be interviewed on two more occasions. Primary social and economic outcomes include women's economic status and economic opportunity, women's empowerment, and children's educational attainment. Primary health outcomes include women's mental health, as well as children's nutritional status. This interdisciplinary research initiative will provide rigorous evidence concerning the effects of daycare in lower-income settings. In doing so it will address an important research gap and has the potential to inform policies for improving the daycare system in India in ways that promote health and economic well-being. (1) The ISRCTN clinical trial registry (ISRCTN45369145), http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN45369145 , registered on May 16, 2016 and (2) The American Economic Association's registry for randomized controlled trials (AEARCTR-0000774), http://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/774 , registered on July

  20. The effect of an affordable daycare program on health and economic well-being in Rajasthan, India: protocol for a cluster-randomized impact evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Nandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of affordable and reliable daycare services is a potentially important policy lever for empowering Indian women. Access to daycare might reduce barriers to labor force entry and generate economic opportunities for women, improve education for girls caring for younger siblings, and promote nutrition and learning among children. However, empirical evidence concerning the effects of daycare programs in low-and-middle-income countries is scarce. This cluster-randomized trial will estimate the effect of a community-based daycare program on health and economic well-being over the life-course among women and children living in rural Rajasthan, India. Methods This three-year study takes place in rural communities from five blocks in the Udaipur District of rural Rajasthan. The intervention is the introduction of a full-time, affordable, community-based daycare program. At baseline, 3177 mothers with age eligible children living in 160 village hamlets were surveyed. After the baseline, these hamlets were randomized to the intervention or control groups and respondents will be interviewed on two more occasions. Primary social and economic outcomes include women’s economic status and economic opportunity, women’s empowerment, and children’s educational attainment. Primary health outcomes include women’s mental health, as well as children’s nutritional status. Discussion This interdisciplinary research initiative will provide rigorous evidence concerning the effects of daycare in lower-income settings. In doing so it will address an important research gap and has the potential to inform policies for improving the daycare system in India in ways that promote health and economic well-being. Trial registration (1 The ISRCTN clinical trial registry (ISRCTN45369145, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN45369145 , registered on May 16, 2016 and (2 The American Economic Association’s registry for randomized controlled trials

  1. The Impact of a Health Information Technology-Focused Patient-centered Medical Neighborhood Program Among Medicare Beneficiaries in Primary Care Practices: The Effect on Patient Outcomes and Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzol, Sean; Keith, Rosalind; Hossain, Mynti; Barna, Michael; Peterson, G Greg; Day, Timothy; Gilman, Boyd; Blue, Laura; Kranker, Keith; A Stewart, Kate; Hoag, Sheila; Moreno, Lorenzo

    2018-02-16

    The Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) tests new models of paying for or delivering health care services and expands models that improve health outcomes while lowering medical spending. CMMI gave TransforMED, a national learning and dissemination contractor, a 3-year Health Care Innovation Award (HCIA) to integrate health information technology systems into physician practices. This paper estimates impacts of TransforMED's HCIA-funded program on patient outcomes and Medicare parts A and B spending. We compared outcomes for Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries served by 87 treatment practices to outcomes for Medicare FFS beneficiaries served by 286 matched comparison practices, adjusting for differences in outcomes between the 2 groups during a 1-year baseline period. We estimated impacts in 3 evaluation outcome domains: quality-of-care processes, service use, and spending. We estimated the program led to a 7.1% reduction in inpatient admissions and a 5.7% decrease in the outpatient emergency department visits. However, there was no evidence of statistically significant effects in outcomes in either the quality-of-care processes or spending domains. These results indicate that TransforMED's program reduced service use for Medicare FFS beneficiaries, but also show that the program did not have statistically significant favorable impacts in the quality-of-care processes or spending domains. These results suggest that providing practices with population health management and cost-reporting software-along with technical assistance for how to use them-can complement practices' own patient-centered medical home transformation efforts and add meaningfully to their impacts on service use.

  2. Impact of a Student Leadership Development Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shanise Wallace

    2014-01-01

      [...]in a program designed to promote student leadership, it would be optimal to have not only objectives for creating goals and actions plans, but also to establish objectives for identifying problems...

  3. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Loren P.; Yazan Al-Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that pr...

  4. Effective Communication and Neurolinguistic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Bashir (Corresponding Author

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Importance of effective communication can hardly be ignored in any sphere of life. This is achieved through various means. One such instrument is Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP which has now taken roots in various aspects of learning and education. Its potential spans education and learning, language teaching, business management and marketing, psychology, law, and several other fields. In our work, we will briefly explore various facets of NLP with special reference to effective communication.

  5. The impact of banners on digital television: the role of program interactivity and product involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    In a sample of 281 respondents, the effect of a noninteractive and a medium-interactive television program on recall and brand attitudes for low- and high-involvement products advertised in banners during these programs was investigated. Medium-interactive programs resulted in less product and brand recall and recognition of brands in embedded banner advertisements, but generated more positive brand attitudes than noninteractive programs. These effects were more outspoken for a high-involvement product than for a low-involvement product. The impact of perceived program interactivity on brand attitude is fully mediated program valence and involvement for low-involvement products, but not for high-involvement products, for which perceived program interactivity had a direct impact on brand attitude.

  6. The effect of communication change on long-term reductions in child exposure to conflict: impact of the promoting strong African American families (ProSAAF) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Barton, Allen W; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Kogan, Steven M; Hurt, Tera R; Fincham, Frank D; Stanley, Scott M

    2014-12-01

    African American couples (n = 331) with children, 89% of whom were married, were assigned to either (a) a culturally sensitive couple- and parenting-enhancement program (ProSAAF) or (b) an information-only control condition in which couples received self-help materials. Husbands averaged 41 years of age and wives averaged 39 years. We found significant effects of program participation in the short term on couple communication, which was targeted by the intervention, as well as over the long term, on self-reported arguing in front of children. Long-term parenting outcomes were fully mediated by changes in communication for wives, but not for husbands. For husbands, positive change depended on amount of wife reported change. We conclude that wives' changes in communication from baseline to posttest may be more pivotal for the couples' long-term experience of decreased arguing in front of children than are husbands' changes, with wives' changes leading to changes in both partners' reports of arguments in front of children. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  7. Intercollegiate Athletic Programs Deepening Their Educational Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Are athletics a positive or negative educational force? The viewpoint widely shared across academe is that participation in intercollegiate athletics has a positive impact on students and contributes to learning and moral development. Often, this notion is captured in the phrase "character development," a shorthand way to describe the individual…

  8. Program MAMLAC : a mathematical model for impacts against crash barriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giavotto, V.

    1972-01-01

    The digital simulation system that has been developed for impact test against safety barriers has proved to be a valuable tool; it may reduce the cost of a program, or better increase largely the extent of a program without increasing the cost. In fact it may permit to reduce considerably the number

  9. Financial impact of population health management programs: reevaluating the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmeier, Jessica; Terry, Paul E; Anderson, David R; Wright, Steven

    2012-06-01

    Although many employers offer some components of worksite-based population health management (PHM), most do not yet invest in comprehensive programs. This hesitation to invest in comprehensive programs may be attributed to numerous factors, such as other more pressing business priorities, reluctance to intervene in the personal health choices of employees, or insufficient funds for employee health. Many decision makers also remain skeptical about whether investment in comprehensive programs will produce a financial return on investment (ROI). Most peer-reviewed studies assessing the financial impact of PHM were published before 2000 and include a broad array of program and study designs. Many of these studies have also included indirect productivity savings in their assessment of financial outcomes. In contrast, this review includes only peer-reviewed studies of the direct health care cost impact of comprehensive PHM programs that meet rigorous methodological criteria. A systematic search of health sciences databases identified only 5 studies with program designs and study methods meeting these selection criteria published after 2007. This focused review found that comprehensive PHM programs can yield a positive ROI based on their impact on direct health care costs, but the level of ROI achieved was lower than that reported by literature reviews with less focused and restrictive qualifying criteria. To yield substantial short-term health care cost savings, the longer term financial return that can credibly be associated with a comprehensive, prevention-oriented population health program must be augmented by other financial impact strategies.

  10. Tier 3 Certification Fuel Impacts Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent Tier 3 regulations for light duty vehicles introduced a new certification fuel designed to be more characteristic of current market fuels. A laboratory test program was conducted to measure differences in CO2 and fuel economy between the current and future certificatio...

  11. Impact of Government Benefit Programs Declines, Adds to Number of Poor Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    The paper summarizes the results of an analysis of recently issued Census data. Examining the anti-poverty effectiveness of cash and non-cash benefit programs from 1979 to 1986, the analysis focuses on the impacts of those programs on families with children, the group whose poverty rate has risen most rapidly since 1979. The data reveal that…

  12. Evaluating Realized Impacts of DOE/EERE R&D Programs. Standard impact evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc. (United States); O' Connor, Alan C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Loomis, Ross J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments of research and development (R&D) programs for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). It is also targeted at EERE program staff responsible for initiating and managing commissioned impact studies. The guide specifies how to estimate economic benefits and costs, energy saved and installed or generated, environmental impacts, energy security impacts, and knowledge impacts of R&D investments in advanced energy technologies.

  13. [Effectiveness and economic impact of a program of integrated care with telemedicine support on insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients (Study GITDIABE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoriza, Jose M; Ibañez, Annabel; Pérez-Berruezo, Xavier; Inoriza-Nadal, Cristina; Coderch, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate if insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with blood glucose self-monitoring (DIA), included in a program of integrated management of diabetes mellitus (DM), achieve a better level of metabolic control with telemedicine support than with conventional support, after 12 months follow-up. The impact on the use and cost of healthcare services, pharmaceutical expenditure, and consumption of test strips for blood glucose, was also assessed. A prospective parallel cohorts study. Four basic health areas of an integrated healthcare organisation. The study included 126 DIA patients aged 15 or more years, treated with rapid or intermediate Insulin and blood glucose self-monitoring, grouped into 42 cases and 84 controls, matched according to age, sex, level of metabolic control, and morbidity profile. Telematics physician-patient communication and download of blood glucose self-monitoring data through the Emminens eConecta® platform; test strips home delivered according to consumption. Hidden controls with usual follow-up. Glycosylated haemoglobin (%HbA1c); perception of quality of life (EuroQol-5 and EsDQOL); cardiovascular risk; use of healthcare resources; consumption of test strips; pharmaceutical and healthcare expenditure. Reduction of 0.38% in HbA1c in the cases (95% CI:-0.89% to 0.12%). No significant differences with regard to any of the activities registered, or any significant change in the quality of life. The results obtained are similar to other equivalent studies. The profile of the patient is elderly and with multiple morbidities, who still have technological limitations. To surpass these barriers, it would be necessary to devote more time to the training and to the resolution of possible technological problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Shock Mitigating Seat Single Impact Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    suspension system and typically employs springs, pneumatic or hydraulic dampers or a combination of these to decouple the seat occupant and moving...information on human factor issues, the full test and evaluation program, seat suspension configurations, etc. is provided at Reference C and this...with optional equipment installed. 10. The selected seats fall into three general seating categories and, with one exception, two of the suspension

  15. Impact of NASA Stress Laboratory Program on US Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisser, S. P.

    1971-01-01

    A programmatic narrative of the effects of NASA stress lab program on physical education in U.S. schools and colleges is presented. Individual non-structured programs were set up where students participate during his or her free time. The program is also in accordance with the medical history of the student. Preliminary results indicate more student interest and participation in the program and that students are generally more physically fit than in previous structured programs.

  16. Collocation Impact on Team Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eccles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The collocation of software development teams is common, specially in agile software development environments. However little is known about the impact of collocation on the team’s effectiveness. This paper explores the impact of collocating agile software development teams on a number of team effectiveness factors. The study focused on South African software development teams and gathered data through the use of questionnaires and interviews. The key finding was that collocation has a positive impact on a number of team effectiveness factors which can be categorised under team composition, team support, team management and structure and team communication. Some of the negative impact collocation had on team effectiveness relate to the fact that team members perceived that less emphasis was placed on roles, that morale of the group was influenced by individuals, and that collocation was invasive, reduced level of privacy and increased frequency of interruptions. Overall through it is proposed that companies should consider collocating their agile software development teams, as collocation might leverage overall team effectiveness.

  17. Using program impact pathways to understand and improve program delivery, utilization, and potential for impact of Helen Keller International's homestead food production program in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Deanna K; Vicheka, Sao; Kro, Meng; Chakriya, Chhom; Kroeun, Hou; Hoing, Ly Sok; Talukder, Aminzzaman; Quinn, Victoria; Iannotti, Lora; Becker, Elisabeth; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2013-06-01

    Evidence of the impact of homestead food production programs on nutrition outcomes such as anemia and growth is scant. In the absence of information on program impact pathways, it is difficult to understand why these programs, which have been successful in increasing intake of micronutrient-rich foods, have had such limited documented impact on nutrition outcomes. To conduct a process evaluation of Helen Keller International's (HKI's) homestead food production program in Cambodia to assess whether the program was operating as planned (in terms of design, delivery, and utilization) and to identify ways in which the program might need to be strengthened in order to increase its potential for impact. A program theory framework, which laid out the primary components along the hypothesized program impact pathways, was developed in collaboration with HKI and used to design the research. Semistructured interviews and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries (n = 36 and 12, respectively), nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), and program implementers (n = 17 and 2, respectively) and observations of key program delivery points, including health and nutrition training sessions (n = 6), village model farms (n = 6), and household gardens of beneficiaries (n = 36) and nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), were conducted to assess the delivery and utilization of the primary program components along the impact pathways. The majority of program components were being delivered and utilized as planned. However, challenges with some of the key components posited to improve outcomes such as anemia and growth were noted. Among these were a gap in the expected pathway from poultry production to increased intake of eggs and poultry meat, and some weaknesses in the delivery of the health and nutrition training sessions and related improvements in knowledge among the village health volunteers and beneficiaries. Although the program has been successful in delivering the majority of the program

  18. The impact of teaching development programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rump, Camilla Østerberg; Christiansen, Frederik V; Trigwell, Keith

    ), and the development of teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs with respect to teaching (as measured by a modified version of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument). We find significant improvements with respect to both of these dimensions in several recent courses. No significant changes are found with respect...... to the Information Transfer Teacher Focus of the ATI or the outcome expectancy beliefs of STEBI. The paper discusses which elements of our course design we think are conducive for the development of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and conceptual change student focus respectively, and presents a model for relating......University teaching development programs for academic staff typically have a range of different educational goals, ranging from gaining basic proficiency in teaching to the more fundamental goal of changing teachers’ conception of teaching towards student focused conceptions. In the current paper...

  19. From Implementation to Outcomes to Impacts: Designing a Comprehensive Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebby, S.

    2015-12-01

    Funders are often interested in learning about the impact of program activities, yet before the impacts are determined, educational evaluations should first examine program implementation and outcomes. Implementation evaluation examines how and the extent to which program activities are delivered as intended, including the extent to which activities reached the targeted participants. Outcome evaluation is comprised of a systematic examination of the effects that a program has on program participants, such as changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors. In this presentation, presenters will share insights on evaluating the implementation, outcomes, and impacts associated with an online science curriculum for K-2 students. The science curriculum was designed to provide students with access to science concepts and skills in an interactive and innovative environment, and teachers with embedded, aligned, and on-demand professional development. One of the most important—and challenging—steps in this evaluation was to select outcomes that were well-defined, measurable, and aligned to program activities, as well as relevant to program stakeholders. An additional challenge was to measure implementation given limited access to the classroom environment. This presentation will include a discussion of the process evaluators used to select appropriate implementation indicators and outcomes (teacher and student), design an evaluation approach, and craft data collection instruments. Although examples provided are specific to the K-2 science intervention, the best practices discussed are pertinent to all program and event evaluations. Impact evaluation goes beyond implementation and outcome evaluation to inform whether a program is working or not. It requires a comparison group to inform what outcomes would have been in the absence of the intervention. As such, this presentation will also include a discussion of impacts, including how impacts are defined

  20. The Impact of Parental Involvement on a Structured Youth Program Experience: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat D. Duerden

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Parental involvement is an often proposed, but rarely researched, key element of youth programs. Questions remain regarding the impact of parental involvement on program processes and outcomes. Qualitative data were collected over a one-year period with youth participants (n=46, parents (n=26, and teachers (n=5 associated with an international immersion/service learning program for adolescents. Three main research questions guided the data analysis: (1 what role does parental involvement play in the youths’ experience in the program; (2 how does parental involvement in the program influence the parent/child relationship; and (3 what role does parental involvement play in terms of the program’s long-term impact on the youth participants? Findings suggest a relationship between parental involvement in youth programs and improved parent/child communication, bonding, and perceptions of one another. Findings also suggest that having a common ground experience prolonged the experience’s positive post-participation effects.

  1. Selection Effects and Prevention Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura G.; Rosenman, Robert; Tennekoon, Vidhura; Mandal, Bidisha

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of the paper is to provide an example of an evaluation design and analytic method that can be used to strengthen causal inference in nonexperimental prevention research. We used this method in a nonexperimental multisite study to evaluate short-term outcomes of a preventive intervention, and we accounted for effects of two types of selection bias: self-selection into the program and differential dropout. To provide context for our analytic approach, we present an overview of the counterfactual model (also known as Rubin’s causal model or the potential outcomes model) and several methods derived from that model, including propensity score matching, the Heckman two-step approach, and full information maximum likelihood based on a bivariate probit model and its trivariate generalization. We provide an example using evaluation data from a community-based family intervention and a nonexperimental control group constructed from the Washington state biennial Healthy Youth risk behavior survey data (HYS) (HYS n = 68,846; intervention n = 1502). We identified significant effects of participant, program, and community attributes in self-selection into the program and program completion. Identification of specific selection effects is useful for developing recruitment and retention strategies, and failure to identify selection may lead to inaccurate estimation of outcomes and their public health impact. Counterfactual models allow us to evaluate interventions in uncontrolled settings and still maintain some confidence in the internal validity of our inferences; their application holds great promise for the field of prevention science as we scale up to community dissemination of preventive interventions. PMID:23417667

  2. Evaluating Value Chain Development Programs: Assessing Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity Effects of Contract Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Provides insights regarding the possible procedures for assessing welfare, efficiency, and equity effects of value chain development (VCD) programs, taking advantage of available analytical tools derived from impact analysis, transaction cost theory, and contract choice approaches and briefly

  3. Impact of NASA's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise A.; Hasan, H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has through the years developed a diverse portfolio of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) programs that have taken the science of NASA's Astrophysics missions into classrooms, museums, planetaria and other public venues. From lesson plans, teacher workshops, public exhibitions, to social media and citizen science, these programs have reached vast audiences internationally. NASA's Science and Education Outreach Forums have developed valuable resources, such as NASA Wavelength, which is a user friendly website of a catalog of NASA's E/PO programs. A sample of programs and their metrics will be presented to demonstrate the impact of the NASA Science Mission Directorate E/PO program in providing a direct return on the public's investment in NASA science.

  4. Utility green pricing programs: A statistical analysis of program effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Olson, Scott; Bird, Lori; Swezey, Blair

    2004-02-01

    Development of renewable energy. Such programs have grown in number in recent years. The design features and effectiveness of these programs varies considerably, however, leading a variety of stakeholders to suggest specific marketing and program design features that might improve customer response and renewable energy sales. This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs. Statistical analysis is performed on both the residential and non-residential customer segments. Data comes from information gathered through a questionnaire completed for 66 utility green pricing programs in early 2003. The questionnaire specifically gathered data on residential and non-residential participation, amount of renewable energy sold, program length, the type of renewable supply used, program price/cost premiums, types of consumer research and program evaluation performed, different sign-up options available, program marketing efforts, and ancillary benefits offered to participants.

  5. DOE SunShot System Integration Program. Accomplishments and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boynton, Shannon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    During FY15, Sandia National Laboratories executed research and development (R&D) work on a portfolio of 16 SunShot Program Systems Integration (SI) agreements, with a total FY15 budget of $13.2 million. This document summarizes the impact of the Sandia contributions based on Sandia’s direct contributions by DOE.

  6. Impact of weight reduction program on serum alanine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of weight reduction program on serum alanine aminotransferase activity and immunologic response in obese hepatitis B patients. Shehab Mahmoud Abd El- Kader1, Mohammed H Saiem Al-Dahr2. 1. Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi.

  7. Decoupling among CSR policies, programs, and impacts : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few empirical studies on the impacts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and programs. This article addresses the research gap by analyzing the incidence of, and the conditions that affect, decoupling (defined as divergence) among CSR policies, implementation of

  8. Impact of Support Services on Associate Level Nursing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby-Parker, Michelle N.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the research was to show the impact of the implementation of support services on admissions and graduation from nursing programs. The use of support services has been linked to higher levels of success in nursing students in the classroom and the work place. As nursing schools experience pressure to increase the student capacity to…

  9. The Impact of Arbitration Intervention Services on Arbitration Program Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman G.; Cook, Brittany; Schmeidler, James

    2006-01-01

    We report the impact of case management services and youth psychopathy on Juvenile Diversion program completion for youths involved in a clinical trial, and evaluation of an innovative intervention service providing 16 weeks of intensive case management services to youths and their families. The present study examines baseline interview data for…

  10. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Energy Impacts for Large Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasnik, Michael [Blasnik & Associates, Roslindale, MA (United States); Dalhoff, Greg [Dalhoff & Associates, Verona, WI (United States); Carroll, David [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Ucar, Ferit [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report estimates energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness attributable to weatherizing large multifamily buildings under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program during Program Year 2008.

  11. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Energy Impacts for Small Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasnik, Michael [Blasnik & Associates, Roslindale, MA (United States); Dalhoff, Greg [Dalhoff & Associates, Verona, WI (United States); Carroll, David [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); ucar, Ferit [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report estimates energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness attributable to weatherizing small multifamily buildings under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program during Program Year 2008.

  12. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  13. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  14. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Adding Change Impact Analysis to the Formal Verification of C Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autexier, Serge; Lüth, Christoph

    Handling changes to programs and specifications efficiently is a particular challenge in formal software verification. Change impact analysis is an approach to this challenge where the effects of changes made to a document (such as a program or specification) are described in terms of rules on a semantic representation of the document. This allows to describe and delimit the effects of syntactic changes semantically. This paper presents an application of generic change impact analysis to formal software verification, using the GMoC and SAMS tools. We adapt the GMoC tool for generic change impact analysis to the SAMS verification framework for the formal verification of C programs, and show how a few simple rules are sufficient to capture the essence of change management.

  16. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  17. Sport Management Graduate Programs: Characteristics of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…

  18. Worldwide Impact: International Year of Astronomy Dark Skies Awareness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

    2009-12-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, “Dark Skies Awareness” is a global cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs through: - New Technology (website, podcasts, social networking, Second Life) - Educational Materials (Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, brochures, posters, CDs, DVDs, educational kit) - The Arts (photo contest) - Events (Earth Hour, International Dark Sky Week, World Night in Defense of Starlight, Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Sidewalk Astronomy, Nights in the Parks) - Citizen Science Programs (5 star hunting programs & Quiet Skies) Dark Skies Communities (Starlight Initiative, International Dark Sky Communities) Many countries around the world have participated in these programs. We will highlight 24 countries in particular and focus on successful techniques used in aspects of the programs, results and impact on the audience, and plans and challenges for maintaining or extending the program beyond the International Year of Astronomy. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is partially funded from a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Astronomy Division. The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is host to the IYA2009 Dark Skies Awareness programs and is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under cooperative agreement with NSF.

  19. The SmokingPaST Framework: illustrating the impact of quit attempts, quit methods, and new smokers on smoking prevalence, years of life saved, medical costs saved, programming costs, cost effectiveness, and return on investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael P; Roizen, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Describe the specifications of the Smoking Prevalence, Savings, and Treatment (SmokingPaST) Framework and show how it can illustrate the impact of quit attempts, quit method, number of new smokers, smoking rates of immigrants and emigrants, and death rates of smokers and nonsmokers on future smoking prevalence rates, program costs, years of life saved, medical costs saved, cost effectiveness of programs, and return on investment (ROI). FRAMEWORK SPECIFICATIONS: Mathematical relationships among factors in SmokingPaST are described. Input variables include baseline smoking rates among current adults, new adults, immigrants, and emigrants; population counts for these groups; annual quit attempts; and distribution of quit methods. Assumption variables include success rate by quit method, death rates of smokers and nonsmokers, annual medical costs of smoking, costs per person for four tobacco treatment methods, age distribution of quitters, and distribution of medical cost funding by source. Output variables include year-end adult smoking rates, successful quitters, years of life saved by quitting, medical costs saved by quitting and by not hiring smokers, total costs of smoking treatment programs, cost per quitter, cost per life-year saved, distribution of medical cost savings from quitting, and ROI of treatment costs. The Framework was applied at the employer, county, state, and national levels. The SmokingPaST Framework provides a conceptually simple framework that can be applied to any population. It illustrates that significant drops in smoking rates can be achieved and significant savings in medical costs can be captured by employers as well as state and federal governments through tobacco treatment and prevention programs. Savings are especially important for reducing state and federal government deficits and enhancing job competitiveness.

  20. High school sports programs differentially impact participation by sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M. Drake

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Sports participation has previously been shown to confer a number of health benefits; as such, school sports programs may be an important, effective, and underused target for public health efforts, including obesity prevention programs. Efforts to increase physical activity among youth should consider both access and choice in school athletic programs. Schools may need to use different strategies to increase sports participation in boys and girls.

  1. The National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs: program impact on dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, S; Vermeersch, J; Gale, S

    1984-08-01

    This article describes the dietary analysis component of the National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs. It addresses two research questions: 1) do participants and nonparticipants in the school nutrition programs have different calorie and nutrient intakes for 24 h, breakfast, and/or lunch and 2) if there are differences in the nutritional quality or total quantity of food consumed? Students who participate in the School Lunch Program get more than nonparticipants of almost all nutrients that were examined, both at lunch and during 24 h. The superior lunch and 24-h intakes of Lunch Program participants are due to the higher nutritional quality of the School Lunch compared with lunches that nonparticipants eat. The most important impact of the School Breakfast is that when the program is available, it increases the likelihood that children will eat breakfast, and children who eat breakfast have significantly higher intakes of nutrients than children who skip breakfast. The School Breakfast provides more calcium, phosphorus, protein, and magnesium than a non-US Department of Agriculture breakfast, but less vitamin A, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, and iron. The positive impacts of calcium and phosphorus carry over 24 h, while the negative impacts for vitamin A, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, and iron are made up during the remainder of the day. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn about the impact of the Milk Program, milk is an important component of all US Department of Agriculture school nutrition programs and makes a major contribution to student dietary intake. Its presence in the meal patterns probably accounts for some of the greater nutrient intakes associated with participation in the School Lunch Program and most of the greater intakes associated with participation in the School Breakfast Program.

  2. Impact of North Carolina's Early Childhood Programs and Policies on Educational Outcomes in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A; Bai, Yu; Ladd, Helen F; Muschkin, Clara G

    2017-05-01

    North Carolina's Smart Start and More at Four (MAF) early childhood programs were evaluated through the end of elementary school (age 11) by estimating the impact of state funding allocations to programs in each of 100 counties across 13 consecutive years on outcomes for all children in each county-year group (n = 1,004,571; 49% female; 61% non-Latinx White, 30% African American, 4% Latinx, 5% other). Student-level regression models with county and year fixed effects indicated significant positive impacts of each program on reading and math test scores and reductions in special education and grade retention in each grade. Effect sizes grew or held steady across years. Positive effects held for both high- and low-poverty families, suggesting spillover of effects to nonparticipating peers. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Restructuring federalism: the impact of Reagan policies on the family planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, D R; Meier, K J

    1993-01-01

    Through fiscal cutbacks and structural changes, Reagan's federalism assaulted the ethos of public health. In assessing the effects of Reagan policies on a basic public health program, family planning services, we find a substantial decrease in spending for this program, a reduction in the numbers of patients served, and increased variation among the states in the provision of services to low-income women. These effects are comparable with findings from other studies on the impact of Reagan's federalism upon social programs and have manifold implications for public health.

  4. Impact of International Cooperation for Sustaining Space-Science Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Jani, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Space-science programs provide a wide range of application to a nation's key sectors of development: science-technology infrastructure, education, economy and national security. However, the cost of sustaining a space-science program has discouraged developing nations from participating in space activities, while developed nations have steadily cut down their space-science budget in past decade. In this study I investigate the role of international cooperation in building ambitious space-science programs, particularly in the context of developing nations. I devise a framework to quantify the impact of international collaborations in achieving the space-science goals as well as in enhancing the key sectors of development of a nation. I apply this framework on two case studies, (i) Indian Space Research Organization - a case of space-science program from a developing nation that has historically engaged in international collaborations, and (ii) International Space Station - a case for a long term collaboration ...

  5. Factors affecting the impact of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice, student outcomes & efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ingvarson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.

  6. Strong and healthy in Primary School Klasse2000 Program, Germany: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Andrea; Horst, Brigitte

    2014-09-01

    Developing a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) diagram helps identify and clarify the key objectives, processes, activities, and evaluation indicators of school-based nutrition programs. The Mondelēz International Foundation has recently supported the development of PIP analyses for programs in seven countries around the world. The results were shared with other project organizers at a Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The objectives were to develop the PIP assessment of the Strong and Healthy in Primary School Klasse2000 Program in order to refine the primary, secondary, and tertiary objectives of the program; identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs); and identify core indicators of the program's impact on healthy lifestyles. The PIP report was developed based on detailed instructions provided prior to the workshop, taking into account the Klasse2000 Program evaluation reports. The following CCPs were identified: monitoring the qualifications and motivation of teaching staff (external health promoters and schoolteachers); assessing involvement of the students' environmental influences, including families, schools, and sponsors; and assessing the children's healthy lifestyle knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors before and after program exposure. The healthy lifestyle indicators identified were children's knowledge of healthy diets and health-enhancing physical activities; the availability of healthy breakfast and snacks; the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, sweetened and unsweetened drinks,fast food, and sweets, as well as attitudes toward physical activity; and the frequency and extent of physical activity in school and during free time. Body mass index (BMI) was identified as the final outcome indicator. Developing a PIP report helped to focus the objectives of the program. Identifying CCPs helped draw attention to the

  7. Socioeconomic impact assessment in ex ante evaluations: a case study on the rural development programs of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidueira, Pablo; Díaz-Puente, José M; Rivera, María

    2014-08-01

    Ex ante impact assessment has become a fundamental tool for effective program management, and thus, a compulsory task when establishing a new program in the European Union (EU). This article aims to analyze benefits from ex ante impact assessment, methodologies followed, and difficulties encountered. This is done through the case study on the rural development programs (RDPs) in the EU. Results regarding methodologies are then contrasted with the international context in order to provide solid insights to evaluators and program managing authorities facing ex ante impact assessment. All European RDPs from the period 2007 through 2013 (a total of 88) and their corresponding available ex ante evaluations (a total of 70) were analyzed focusing on the socioeconomic impact assessment. Only 46.6% of the regions provide quantified impact estimations on socioeconomic impacts in spite of it being a compulsory task demanded by the European Commission (EC). Recommended methods by the EC are mostly used, but there is a lack of mixed method approaches since qualitative methods are used in substitution of quantitative ones. Two main difficulties argued were the complexity of program impacts and the lack of needed program information. Qualitative approaches on their own have been found as not suitable for ex ante impact assessment, while quantitative approaches-such as microsimulation models-provide a good approximation to actual impacts. However, time and budgetary constraints make that quantitative and mixed methods should be mainly applied on the most relevant impacts for the program success. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, China: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Yao, Xiaoxun; Gu, Lan

    2014-09-01

    Mondelēz Hope Kitchen is a community program initiated jointly in 2009 by Mondelēz International and the China Youth Development Foundation (CYDF). In response to the urgent needs of students, parents, and teachers at primary and middle schools in poverty-stricken rural areas of China, the program addresses the complex and intertwined issues of undernutrition and obesity. By funding both kitchen equipment and teacher training in health and nutrition, the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program improves the capacity of schools to supply healthy meals, helping students to access safe and nutritious foods and, ultimately, to improve their nutritional status and health. In 2011, the Mondelēz International Foundation awarded CYDF a grant to formally assess the impact of the original program design. The Mondelēz International Foundation encouraged CYDF and six other healthy lifestyles-focused community partners around the world to participate in this program evaluation workshop. The goals of this study were to describe the logic model of the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, summarize a recent evaluation of the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, and conduct a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis to identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs) and a suite of impact indicators. The findings were presented at the Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The authors developed the program's PIP diagram based on deliberations involving the program managers and Director and consulting the "Hope Kitchen Management Rules "and "Hope Kitchen Inspection and Acceptance Report". The PIP analyses identified three CCPs: buy-in from schools, kitchen infrastructure, and changes in teachers' knowledge of nutrition after training. In addition, changes in children's knowledge of nutrition will be added to the core suite of impact evaluation indicators that also includes children

  9. Effective Career Exploration Programs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Replicated findings of Wiggins and Moody (1981). Evaluated four types of high school career exploration programs: cluster (N=53), Career Maturity Inventory (N=52), Career Survey (N=57), and Self-Directed Search/Vocational Preference Inventory (N=55). Results favored latter three programs which allowed students to pursue their own interests instead…

  10. The Federal Work-Study Program: Impacts on Academic Outcomes and Employment. CAPSEE Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers may be interested in the extent to which Federal Work-Study programs (FWS) increase students' access to productive employment, and how they impact students' academic and career success. This brief summarizes findings from a recent study using national data and a propensity score matching approach to examine the overall effects of FWS…

  11. The impact of a summer education program on the environmental attitudes and awareness of minority children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Gary T. Green; Steven B. Castleberry

    2009-01-01

    The environmental education (EE) of America's youth is a high priority, but the effect of EE on children's environmental attitudes and awareness remains uncertain. This study used a pretest, post-test approach to investigate the impact of a 1-week EE summer program on children from different age groups and ethnic backgrounds. A survey instrument designed to...

  12. Citations to papers from Brazilian institutions: a more effective indicator to assess productivity and the impact of research in graduate programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meneghini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent assessment of 4400 postgraduate courses in Brazil by CAPES (a federal government agency dedicated to the improvement of the quality of and research at the postgraduate level stimulated a large amount of manifestations in the press, scientific journals and scientific congresses. This gigantic effort to classify 16,400 scientific journals in order to provide indicators for assessment proved to be puzzling and methodologically erroneous in terms of gauging the institutions from a metric point of view. A simple algorithm is proposed here to weigh the scientometric indicators that should be considered in the assessment of a scientific institution. I conclude here that the simple gauge of the total number of citations accounts for both the productivity of scientists and the impact of articles. The effort spent in this exercise is relatively small, and the sources of information are fully accessible. As an exercise to estimate the value of the methodology, 12 institutions of physics (10 from Brazil, one from the USA and one from Italy have been evaluated.

  13. A Computer Program for Assessing Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Through several accidents of NPP including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, a lack of safety culture was pointed out as one of the root cause of these accidents. Due to its latent influences on safety performance, safety culture has become an important issue in safety researches. Most of the researches describe how to evaluate the state of the safety culture of the organization. However, they did not include a possibility that the accident occurs due to the lack of safety culture. Because of that, a methodology for evaluating the impact of the safety culture on NPP's safety is required. In this study, the methodology for assessing safety culture impact is suggested and a computer program is developed for its application. SCII model which is the new methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively by using PSA model. The computer program is developed for its application. This program visualizes the SCIs and the SCIIs. It might contribute to comparing the level of the safety culture among NPPs as well as improving the management safety of NPP.

  14. Implementation and Effectiveness of the Response to Intervention (RTI) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Jessica Elaine; McGahey, James Todd

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether or not student test scores on the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) were positively impacted by the implementation of the Response to Intervention (RTI) program. This paper will review the implementation and effectiveness of the RTI method.

  15. IMPACTS. Industrial Technologies Program: Summary of Program Results for CY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-02

    The Impacts report summarizes benefits resulting from ITP-sponsored technologies, including energy savings, waste reduction, increased productivity, and lowered emissions. It also provides an overview of the activities of the Industrial Assessment Centers, BestPractices Program, and Combined Heat and Power efforts.

  16. Welfare and Child Support Program Knowledge Gaps Reduce Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel R.; Cancian, Maria; Nam, Kisun

    2007-01-01

    There is little research on knowledge of the policy rules that could affect individuals, either in general or in evaluations of new programs. The lack of research is surprising, given that knowledge gaps could limit the effectiveness of reforms or lead to incorrect inferences regarding the effects of a policy change. In this article, we use survey…

  17. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  18. Recommendations for Making Anti-Poaching Programs More Effective in the Southern African Region through the Analysis of Key Variables Impacting Upon the Poaching of Elephants in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    establish an effective defense force within 11 years after independence. Ecotourism also 5 increased due to the abundance of flora and fauna. All these... Ecotourism 3. Botswana Tourism Master Plan 1. Funds from National budget 2. Contributions from Private Sector 3. NGOs/IGOs funding Wildlife...1992 • Tourism Regulations of 1996 • Botswana Tourism Act of 2004 • National Ecotourism Act Provides for the development of tourism in

  19. Effective Practices for Evaluating Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Stephanie Baird Wilkerson, PhD Carol Haden EdD Magnolia Consulting,LLC Education and public outreach (EPO) program developers and providers seeking insights regarding effective practices for evaluating EPO activities programs benefit from understanding why evaluation is critical to the success of EPO activities and programs, what data collection methods are appropriate, and how to effectively communicate and report findings. Based on our extensive experience evaluating EPO programs, we will share lessons learned and examples of how these practices play out in actual evaluation studies. EPO program developers, providers, and evaluators must consider several factors that influence which evaluation designs and data collection methods will be most appropriate, given the nature of EPO programs. Effective evaluation practices of EPO programs take into account a program's phase of development, duration, and budget as well as a program's intended outcomes. EPO programs that are just beginning development will have different evaluation needs and priorities than will well-established programs. Effective evaluation practices consider the 'life' of a program with an evaluation design that supports a program's growth through various phases including development, revision and refinement, and completion. It would be premature and inappropriate to expect the attainment of longer-term outcomes of activities during program development phases or early stages of implementation. During program development, EPO providers should clearly define program outcomes that are feasible and appropriate given a program's scope and expected reach. In many respects, this directly relates to the amount of time, or duration, intended audiences participate in EPO programs. As program duration increases so does the likelihood that the program can achieve longer-term outcomes. When choosing which outcomes are reasonable to impact and measure, program duration should be considered. Effective evaluation

  20. Effectiveness and impact of the cross-border healthcare model as implemented by non-governmental organizations: case study of the malaria control programs by health poverty action on the China-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Jia-Qiang; Li, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Yue; Tian, Yang-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Guang-Yun; Li, Qing-Pu; Xu, Xiao-Yu; Cai, Tao

    2016-09-01

    In the Yunnan province of China, 18 counties in six prefectures border Myanmar. Due to its particular combination of geographic features, climate conditions, and cultural landscape, the area provides a suitable environment for the spread of insect-borne diseases such as malaria. In five identified Myanmar Special Regions along the China-Myanmar border, economic development is lagging, people live in extreme poverty, and the healthcare system is fragile. Coupled with political and other reasons, this precludes malaria control work to be effectively carried out in Myanmar, resulting in a heavy burden of the disease. Frequent population movements and favorable conditions for malaria transmission on the border fuel difficulties in controlling and eliminating the spread of the disease in the area. To reduce the prevalence of malaria in the China-Myanmar border area and improve healthcare services for local residents in this particular environment, Health Poverty Action (HPA) has provided malaria aid in the area since the beginning of 2006, as a sub-recipient of the China Global Fund Malaria Programs. In this case study, we examined HPA's activities as part of its malaria control programs in the area, analyzed and summarized the effectiveness and impact of the cross-border healthcare model as implemented by non-governmental organizations, and put forward suggestions for cross-border health aid models and for the prevention of malaria transmission in the Greater Mekong Subregion. HPA had carried out a great quantity of successful malaria control activities in border areas between China and Myanmar, strengthened the partnership and established the collaboration, coordination and cooperation channels among stakeholders. HPA has laid good groundwork and developed its valuable model that could be highlighted and referenced.

  1. The Food Stamp Program: history, nutrition education, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Patti S

    2007-11-01

    The Food Stamp Program has grown from a modest effort to distribute excess farm commodities during the Great Depression to the nation's largest food assistance and nutrition program, serving almost 27 million persons in fiscal year 2006, at a cost of more than 30 billion dollars to federal taxpayers. In 1990 Congress authorized cost sharing for food stamp nutrition education. Since 1992-when only seven states had approved food stamp nutrition education plans totaling 661,076 dollars in federal dollars-the nutrition education program has grown exponentially. In 2007, there were 52 food stamp nutrition education plans for states and territories approved at a total cost of more than 275 million dollars. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the Food Stamp Program from its inception in May 1939 through 2006, including program milestones, changes that have occurred as the result of legislation, and the growth and effectiveness of nutrition education to Food Stamp Program participants. Future investigations are needed to study processes for development and validation of evaluation measures as required by the US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service and to examine the effects of food stamp nutrition education on behavior changes affecting health and nutrition of Food Stamp Program participants.

  2. Fiscal loss and program fidelity: impact of the economic downturn on HIV/STI prevention program fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Gandelman, Alice A; Narayanan, Vasudha; McKay, Virginia R

    2014-03-01

    The economic downturn of 2007 created significant fiscal losses for public and private agencies conducting behavioral prevention. Such macro-economic changes may influence program implementation and sustainability. We examined how public and private agencies conducting RESPECT, a brief HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) counseling and testing intervention, adapted to fiscal loss and how these adaptations impacted program fidelity. We collected qualitative and quantitative data in a national sample of 15 agencies experiencing fiscal loss. Using qualitative analyses, we examined how program fidelity varied with different types of adaptations. Agencies reported three levels of adaptation: agency-level, program-level, and direct fiscal remedies. Private agencies tended to use direct fiscal remedies, which were associated with higher fidelity. Some agency-level adaptations contributed to reductions in procedural fit, leading to negative staff morale and decreased confidence in program effectiveness, which in turn, contributed to poor fidelity. Findings describe a "work stress pathway" that links program fiscal losses to poor staff morale and low program fidelity.

  3. The impact of intergenerational programs on children and older adults: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Voglino, Gianluca; Bert, Fabrizio; Thomas, Robin; Camussi, Elisa; Siliquini, Roberta

    2017-10-09

    Elderly are at particular risk of social isolation. This condition significantly affects health; on the contrary, social involvement can be extremely advantageous. In this context, intergenerational programs improve interactions between different ages. Then, we conducted a review regarding intergenerational programs, to summarize the effects of these activities on both elderly and children. Our review followed the PRISMA statements. We considered papers reporting data about intergenerational programs involving children (preschool and elementary) and elderly. The final selection obtained 27 sources. Ten studies evaluated children's outcomes outlining the positive impact of intergenerational programs upon children's perception of elderly. The effects on older participants were variegated considering well-being, depression, self-reported health, and self-esteem. Moreover, the retrieved studies outlined the importance of a careful organization and of a specific training for all staff members. The staff involved in similar programs appeared, overall, highly satisfied. The positive impact on children of intergenerational programs is proved at both short- and long-term. Moreover, despite the different outcomes considered and the variable results, these programs resulted overall beneficial on elderly participants. Finally, similar activities resulted feasible even in case of older adults with dementia.

  4. Evaluation of Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant, environmental impact prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Waton, D.G.

    1976-12-01

    A study was undertaken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the nonradiological environmental data obtained from three nuclear power plants operating for a period of one year or longer. The document presented reports the second of three nuclear power plants to be evaluated in detail by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant nonradiological monitoring data were assessed to determine their effectiveness in the measurement of environmental impacts. Efforts were made to determine if: (1) monitoring programs, as designed, can detect environmental impacts, (2) appropriate statistical analyses were performed and if they were sensitive enough to detect impacts, (3) predicted impacts could be verified by monitoring programs, and (4) monitoring programs satisfied the requirements of the Environmental Technical Specifications. Both preoperational and operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the methods used to measure ecological, chemical, and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data sets were available. From this type of analysis, deficiencies in both preoperational and operational monitoring programs may be identified and provide a basis for suggested improvement.

  5. Effects of television programs about Family Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is an observational study, which sought to reflect on the impact of television programs on family health. Thus, from February to July 2011, a Family Health Unit of Barra do Garças - Mato Grosso, the researcher observed the behavior of customers, through spontaneous expressions which referred to the materials or articles about health programs. At the end of the study, it wasfound that such programs stimulated and generated new behaviors, especially in women. But to do so, health professionals must engage with this media education and participate in the conduct of learned information in accordance with the need of the viewer.

  6. Impact evaluation for the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program: Technical appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Taylor, Z.T.; Schrock, D.W.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Chin, R.I.

    1995-10-01

    This document supplements the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) impact evaluation report, Lee et al. (1995). MAP is a voluntary energy-efficiency program for HUD-code manufactured homes conducted in the Pacific Northwest beginning in April 1992. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this and the impact evaluation reports for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville). Lee et al. (1995) presents the objectives, methodology, and findings of the program evaluation. This report presents more details about specific aspects of the analysis. The authors used a three-tier approach to analyze the energy consumption of MAP and baseline homes. Chapter 2 discusses Tier 1, the billing data and simplified regression analysis. Chapter 3 presents the details of the Tier 2 analysis, the PRInceton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). Chapter 4 presents details of the primary analysis technique that they used, a comprehensive regression analysis. Chapter 5 and 6 review two other studies of energy savings associated with MAP. Chapter 5 discusses the simulation model analysis conducted by Ecotope, Inc. Chapter 6 reviews the analysis by Regional Economic Research conducted for three Pacific Northwest investor-owned utilities. The final chapter, Chapter 7, presents details of the Bonneville levelized cost methodology used to estimate the cost of energy savings associated with MAP. Results are presented and discussed in many cases for the three different climate zones found in the Pacific Northwest. 18 refs., 29 tabs.

  7. CIRIR Programs: Drilling and Research Opportunities at the Rochechouart Impact Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, P.; Alwmark, C.; Baratoux, D.; Brack, A.; Bruneton, P.; Buchner, E.; Claeys, P.; Dence, M.; French, B.; Hoerz, F

    2017-01-01

    Owing to its size, accessibility and erosional level, the Rochechouart impact structure, dated at 203 +/- 2 Ma (recalc.), is a unique reser-voir of knowledge within the population of the rare terrestrial analogous to large impacts craters observed on planetary surfaces. The site gives direct access to fundamental mechanisms both in impact-related geology (origin and evolution of planets) and biology (habitability of planets, emergence and evolution of life). For the last decade P. Lambert has been installing Rochechouart as International Natural Laboratory for studying impact processes and collateral effects on planetary surfaces. For this purpose the Center for International Research on Impacts and on Rochechouart (CIRIR) was installed on site in 2016 with twofold objectives and activities. First ones are scientific and dedicated to the scientific community. The second are cultural and educational and are dedi-cated to the public sensu lato. We present here the CIRIR, its scientific programs and the related reseach opportunities.

  8. Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program and its impact on geothermal exploration and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, L.H.

    1978-05-01

    The study showed that the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program has had only a negligible effect on geothermal development and the response to the program was far less than expected. The streamlining of environmental regulations and leasing policies, and the granting of intangible drilling cost write-offs and depletion allowances to operators would have had a greater impact on geothermal energy development. The loan guaranty program did not promote the undertaking of any new projects that would not have been undertaken without it. The program only accelerated the pace for some development which might have commenced in the future. Included in the study are recommendations for improving the operation of the program thereby increasing its attractiveness to potential applicants.

  9. QPEL: Quantum Program and Effect Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Adams

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the syntax and rules of deduction of QPEL (Quantum Program and Effect Language, a language for describing both quantum programs, and properties of quantum programs - effects on the appropriate Hilbert space. We show how semantics may be given in terms of state-and-effect triangles, a categorical setting that allows semantics in terms of Hilbert spaces, C*-algebras, and other categories. We prove soundness and completeness results that show the derivable judgements are exactly those provable in all state-and-effect triangles.

  10. Glucocorticoids as mediators of developmental programming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulan, Batbayar; Drake, Amanda J

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to an adverse environment in early life is associated with an increased risk of cardio-metabolic and behavioral disorders in adulthood, a phenomenon termed 'early life programming'. One major hypothesis for early life programming is fetal glucocorticoid overexposure. In animal studies, prenatal glucocorticoid excess as a consequence of maternal stress or through exogenous administration to the mother or fetus is associated with programming effects on cardiovascular and metabolic systems and on the brain. These effects can be transmitted to subsequent generations. Studies in humans provide some evidence that prenatal glucocorticoid exposure may exert similar programming effects on glucose/insulin homeostasis, blood pressure and neurodevelopment. The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids mediate these effects are unclear but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. This review discusses the evidence for glucocorticoid programming in animal models and in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of a Campus-Based 4-H Summer Conference Program on Youth Thriving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mary E.; Davis, Jamie M.; Lundeberg, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    In 2014 the Oregon 4-H program adopted a new program model to describe and evaluate the impact of 4-H on youths. The model is based on promoting thriving in young people, with an emphasis on high program quality. This article discusses the impact on thriving in 378 youth participants of the 4-H Summer Conference (4-HSC) program. The results of the…

  12. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  13. Outcome and impact of Master of Public Health programs across six countries: education for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanikken, Prisca A C; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Ying, Xiao Hua; Alexander, Lucy; Wadidi, Marwa Se Abuzaid; Magaña-Valladares, Laura; Gonzalez-Robledo, Maria Cecilia; Qian, Xu; Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Tahir, Hanan; Leppink, Jimmie; Scherpbier, Albert

    2014-08-06

    The human resources for health crisis has highlighted the need for high-level public health education to add specific capacities to the workforce. Recently, it was questioned whether Master of Public Health (MPH) training prepared graduates with competencies relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to examine the influence of the MPH programs geared towards LMICs offered in Vietnam, China, South Africa, Mexico, Sudan, and the Netherlands on graduates' careers, application of acquired competencies, performance at the workplace, and their professional contribution to society. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to graduates from six MPH programs. Frequency distributions of the answers were calculated, and a bivariate analysis and logistic regression of certain variables was performed. The response rate was 37.5%. Graduates reported change in leadership (69%), in technical position (69%), acquiring new responsibilities (80%), and increased remuneration (63%); they asserted that MPH programs contributed significantly to this. Graduates' attribution of their application of 7 key competencies 'substantially to the MPH program' ranged from 33% to 48%. Of the 26 impact variables, graduates attributed the effect they had on their workplace substantially to the MPH program; the highest rated variable ranged from 31% to 73% and the lowest ranged from 9% to 43%. Of the 10 impact variables on society, graduates attributed the effect they had on society substantially to the MPH program; for the highest rated variable (13% to 71%); for the lowest rated variable (4% to 42%). Candidates' attribution of their application of acquired competencies as well as their impact at the workplace varied significantly according to institution of study and educational background. This study concludes that these MPH programs contribute to improving graduates' careers and to building leadership in public health. The MPH programs contribute to graduates

  14. The impact of leadership training programs on physicians in academic medical centers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Soobiah, Charlene; Levinson, Wendy

    2013-05-01

    To identify the impact of leadership training programs at academic medical centers (AMCs) on physicians' knowledge, skills, attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes. In 2011, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature, identifying relevant studies by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register), scanning reference lists, and consulting experts. They deemed eligible any qualitative or quantitative study reporting on the implementation and evaluation of a leadership program for physicians in AMCs. Two independent reviewers conducted the review, screening studies, abstracting data, and assessing quality. The authors initially identified 2,310 citations. After the screening process, they had 11 articles describing 10 studies. Three were controlled before-and-after studies, four were before-and-after case series, and three were cross-sectional surveys. The authors did not conduct a meta-analysis because of the methodological heterogeneity across studies. Although all studies were at substantial risk of bias, the highest-quality ones showed that leadership training programs affected participants' advancement in academic rank (48% versus 21%, P=.005) and hospital leadership position (30% versus 9%, P=.008) and that participants were more successful in publishing papers (3.5 per year versus 2.1 per year, Pleadership programs have modest effects on outcomes important to AMCs. Given AMCs' substantial investment in these programs, rigorous evaluation of their impact is essential. High-quality studies, including qualitative research, will allow the community to identify which programs are most effective.

  15. Impact of Bilingual Education Programs on Limited English Proficient Students and Their Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Chin, Aimee; Imberman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district provides...... bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using this discontinuity as an instrument for district bilingual education provision, we find that providing bilingual education programs (relative to providing only English as a Second Language programs) does not significantly impact the standardized test...... scores of students with Spanish as their home language (comprised primarily of ever-LEP students). However, we find significant positive impacts on non-LEP students’ achievement, which indicates that education programs for LEP students have spillover effects to non-LEP students....

  16. Impact of the ATEC Mentor Program on DAWIA Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Mentoring has been found to influence employee retention because it helps establish an organizational culture that is attractive to the top talent clamoring...companies report that mentoring programs are effective in increasing employee retention and performance. The American Society for Training and

  17. Ready, Steady, Go! Program, Italy: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veracini, Giordana; Leonardi, Elisabetta; Girotti, Rita; Thrasher, Erika Willumsen

    2014-09-01

    Ready, Steady, Go! promotes proper nutrition and physical activity among people of all ages in targeted neighborhoods and encourages social integration and children's participation in decisions that affect their lives. It also seeks to involve parents in activities so that they can influence their children's attitudes toward lifestyles and personal development. This partnership has reached 70,000 Italian children and adults with new opportunities for physical activities and social experiences that help them improve nutritional behaviors while having fun with their peers. To assess the Ready, Steady, Go! Program logic and to identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs) and a core suite of impact indicators based on a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis. The PIP analysis team reviewed the key activities and processes that form Ready, Steady, Go! and then identified key CCPs for the project. The findings were presented at the Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The PIP analysis confirmed that Ready, Steady, Go! has a structure that is likely to support the primary aims of the program. The CCPs identified are training of teachers in healthy lifestyles, teachers' active participation in the program, access to remodeled and well-equipped sports and recreational centers, participation of parents and grandparents, and involvement of local institutions and networks. A suite of impact indicators for changes in healthy lifestyle knowledge, attitudes, and behavior was identified. Project staff are now more aware of the importance of carefully monitoring the CCPs and have decided to conduct quarterly PIP-informed quality control evaluations.

  18. The health economic impact of disease management programs for COPD: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.S. Boland (Melinde); A. Tsiachristas (Apostolos); A.L. Kruis (Annemarije); N.H. Chavannes (Nicolas); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: There is insufficient evidence of the cost-effectiveness of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Disease Management (COPD-DM) programs. The aim of this review is to evaluate the economic impact of COPD-DM programs and investigate the relation

  19. Application of IMPLAN to Extension Programs: Economic Impacts of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension SNAP-Ed Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerna, Ashley; Frisvold, George; Jacobs, Laurel; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Houtkooper, Linda; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Many Extension programs are turning to the input-output software IMPLAN to demonstrate economic impacts. IMPLAN is a powerful tool that can be used to estimate the total economic activity associated with an industry, event, or policy. One possible application, therefore, is to use program spending data to estimate the economic effects of…

  20. The Impact of an Urban Universal Public Prekindergarten Program on Children's Early Numeracy, Language, Literacy, and Executive Function Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    The authors add to and extend the emerging evidence base of the effects of public preschool programs on child school readiness. Using a quasi-experimental, Regression Discontinuity (RD) design, they estimate the impacts of a universal preschool program on children's early numeracy, language, literacy, and executive function skills, both for the…

  1. Health impact assessment of free immunization program in Jinju City, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keon Yeop; Jeon, So Youn; Jeon, Man Joong; Lee, Kwon Ho; Lee, Sok Goo; Kim, Dongjin; Kang, Eunjeong; Bae, Sang Geun; Kim, Jinhee

    2012-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the potential health impacts and improve the quality of the free immunization program in Jinju City by maximizing the predicted positive health gains and minimizing the negative health risks. A steering committee was established in September 2010 to carry out the health impact assessment (HIA) and began the screening and scoping stages. In the appraisal stage, analysis of secondary data, a literature review, case studies, geographic information systems analysis, a questionnaire, and expert consultations were used. The results of the data collection and analyses were discussed during a workshop, after which recommendations were finalized in a written report. Increased access to immunization, comprehensive services provided by physicians, the strengthened role of the public health center in increasing immunization rates and services, and the ripple effect to other neighboring communities were identified as potential positive impacts. On the other hand, the program might be inaccessible to rural regions with no private clinics where there are more at-risk children, vaccine management and quality control at the clinics may be poor, and vaccines may be misused. Recommendations to maximize health gains and minimize risks were separately developed for the public health center and private clinics. The HIA provided an opportunity for stakeholders to comprehensively overview the potential positive and negative impacts of the program before it was implemented. An HIA is a powerful tool that should be used when developing and implementing diverse health-related policies and programs in the community.

  2. Impact of International Monetary Fund programs on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Adel; Nosrati, Elias; Reinsberg, Bernhard; Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Stubbs, Thomas H; King, Lawrence P

    2017-06-20

    Parental education is located at the center of global efforts to improve child health. In a developing-country context, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) plays a crucial role in determining how governments allocate scarce resources to education and public health interventions. Under reforms mandated by IMF structural adjustment programs, it may become harder for parents to reap the benefits of their education due to wage contraction, welfare retrenchment, and generalized social insecurity. This study assesses how the protective effect of education changes under IMF programs, and thus how parents' ability to guard their children's health is affected by structural adjustment. We combine cross-sectional stratified data (countries, 67; children, 1,941,734) from the Demographic and Health Surveys and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. The sample represents ∼2.8 billion (about 50%) of the world's population in year 2000. Based on multilevel models, our findings reveal that programs reduce the protective effect of parental education on child health, especially in rural areas. For instance, in the absence of IMF programs, living in an household with educated parents reduces the odds of child malnourishment by 38% [odds ratio (OR), 0.62; 95% CI, 0.66-0.58]; in the presence of programs, this drops to 21% (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.86-0.74). In other words, the presence of IMF conditionality decreases the protective effect of parents' education on child malnourishment by no less than 17%. We observe similar adverse effects in sanitation, shelter, and health care access (including immunization), but a beneficial effect in countering water deprivation.

  3. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho)

    1996-06-01

    This summary gives the major points of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery by the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and other interested parties. The Nez Perce once were one of the largest Plateau tribes in the Northwest and occupied a territory that included north central Idaho, southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. Salmon and other migratory fish species are an invaluable food resource and an integral part of the Nez Perce Tribe`s culture. Anadromous fish have always made up the bulk of the Nez Perce tribal diet and this dependence on salmon was recognized in the treaties made with the Tribe by the US. The historic economic, social, and religious significance of the fish to the Nez Perce Tribe continues to this day, which makes the decline of fish populations in the Columbia River Basin a substantial detrimental impact to the Nez Perce way of life. The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that would rear and release spring, summer, and fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), biologically similar to wild fish, to reproduce in the Clearwater River Subbasin. Program managers propose techniques that are compatible with existing aquatic and riparian ecosystems and would integrate hatchery-produced salmon into the stream and river environments needed to complete their life cycle.

  4. Budget Impact of a Comprehensive Nutrition-Focused Quality Improvement Program for Malnourished Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulo, Suela; Feldstein, Josh; Partridge, Jamie; Schwander, Bjoern; Sriram, Krishnan; Summerfelt, Wm Thomas

    2017-07-01

    validation cohort. When these costs were assessed across the entire patient population enrolled in the quality improvement program, per-patient net savings of $1499 when using the baseline cohort as the comparator and savings per patient treated of $3858 when using the validated cohort as the comparator were achieved. The nutrition-focused quality improvement program reduced the per-patient healthcare costs by avoiding 30-day readmissions and through reduced length of hospital stay. These clinical and economic outcomes provide a rationale for merging patient care and financial modeling to advance the delivery of value-based medicine in a malnourished hospitalized population. The use of a novel web-based budget impact model supports the integration of comparative effectiveness analytics and healthcare resource management in the hospital setting to provide optimal quality of care at a reduced overall cost.

  5. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  6. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  7. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho).

    1996-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Nez Perce Tribe propose a supplementation program to restore chinook salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin in Idaho. The Clearwater River is a tributary to the Snake River, which empties into the Columbia River. The Nez Perce Tribe would build and operate two central incubation and rearing hatcheries and six satellite facilities. Spring, summer and fall chinook salmon would be reared and acclimated to different areas in the Subbasin and released at the hatchery and satellite sites or in other watercourses throughout the Subbasin. The supplementation program differs from other hatchery programs because the fish would be released at different sizes and would return to reproduce naturally in the areas where they are released. Several environmental issues were identified during scoping: the possibility that the project would fail if mainstem Columbia River juvenile and adult passage problems are not solved; genetic risks to fish listed as endangered or threatened; potential impacts to wild and resident fish stocks because of increase competition for food and space; and water quality. The Proposed Action would affect several important aspects of Nez Perce tribal life, primarily salmon harvest, employment, and fisheries management.

  8. The impact of an online disease management program on medical costs among health plan members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steven M; Day, Brian; Wildenhaus, Kevin; Silberman, Anna; Wang, Chun; Silberman, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the economic impact of an online disease management program within a broader population health management strategy. A retrospective, quasi-experimental, cohort design evaluated program participants and a matched cohort of nonparticipants on 2003-2007 claims data in a mixed model. The study was conducted through Highmark Inc, Blue Cross Blue Shield, covering 4.8 million members in five regions of Pennsylvania. Overall, 413 online self-management program participants were compared with a matched cohort of 360 nonparticipants. The costs and claims data were measured per person per calendar year. Total payments were aggregated from inpatient, outpatient, professional services, and pharmacy payments. The costs of the online program were estimated on a per-participant basis. All dollars were adjusted to 2008 values. The online intervention, implemented in 2006, was a commercially available, tailored program for chronic condition self management, nested within the Blues on Call(SM) condition management strategy. General linear modeling (with covariate adjustment) was used. Data trends were also explored using second-order polynomial regressions. Health care costs per person per year were $757 less than predicted for participants relative to matched nonparticipants, yielding a return on investment of $9.89 for every dollar spent on the program. This online intervention showed a favorable and cost-effective impact on health care cost.

  9. Technology programs and related policies - Impacts on communications satellite business ventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The DOMSAT II stochastic communication satellite business venture financial planning simulation model is described. The specification of business scenarios and the results of several analyses are presented. In particular, the impacts of NASA on-orbit propulsion and power technology programs are described. The effects of insurance rates and self-insurance and of the use of the Space Shuttle and Ariane transportation systems on a typical fixed satellite service business venture are discussed.

  10. Utility Green Pricing Programs: A Statistical Analysis of Program Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Olson, S.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-02-01

    This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs.

  11. Community Impacts of International Service-Learning and Study Abroad: An Analysis of Focus Groups with Program Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Wood

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ethical practice of international service-learning requires participants and institutions to examine their potential impacts on vulnerable host communities. This study reports on a series of focus groups with leaders of short-term international service-learning and other study abroad programs. The results of these focus groups suggests that while program leaders do not generally take into account the potential impacts of their programs on local communities in the design or implementation of their programs, they are very open to considering ways to mitigate negative impacts and promote positive ones once the issue has been raised. Program leaders are also collectively able to generate many excellent and creative strategies for improving their programs with respect to effects on communities, and are enthusiastic about engaging in this dialogue. We conclude that more research as well as substantial institutional commitment to addressing the community impacts of international service-learning and other study abroad programs are necessary for positive change, including training and other support to program leaders. KEYWORDSinternational service-learning, community impacts, civic engagement, community partnerships

  12. Antibullying programs in schools: how effective are evaluation practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Wendy; Smith, J David

    2009-09-01

    Bullying is a problem for schools around the world, and is an important topic for research because it has been associated with negative outcomes on numerous social, psychological, and academic measures. Antibullying prevention and intervention programs have varied greatly in their outcomes, with some studies reporting positive results while others have reported little or no positive impacts. Prompted by accountability demands, many agencies have developed standards with which to assess whether social programs are effective. Antibullying program evaluations have not been systematically reviewed to determine whether these types of standards are being applied. The purpose of this study was to assess the rigor of recent peer-reviewed antibullying program evaluations. Thirty-one peer-reviewed evaluations of antibullying programs, published within the last 10 years, were identified and coded for study characteristics. Shortcomings were identified in many of these program evaluations. In order to improve evaluation practices, researchers should consider using more rigorous designs to identify cause-effect relationships, including control conditions and random assignment, using more appropriate pre-post intervals, using more advanced methods of analyses such as hierarchical linear modeling, and systematically verifying program integrity to obtain dosage data that can be used in the outcome analyses.

  13. Small Commercial Program DOE Project: Impact evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathgate, R.; Faust, S. [Energy and Solid Waste Consultants, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    1992-08-12

    In 1991, Washington Electric Cooperative (WEC) implemented a Department of Energy grant to conduct a small commercial energy conservation project. The small commercial ``Mom, and Pop`` grocery stores within WEC`s service territory were selected as the target market for the project. Energy & Solid Waste Consultant`s (E&SWC) Impact Evaluation is documented here. The evaluation was based on data gathered from a variety of sources, including load profile metering, kWh submeters, elapsed time indicators, and billing histories. Five stores were selected to receive measures under this program: Waits River General Store, Joe`s Pond Store, Hastings Store, Walden General Store, and Adamant Cooperative. Specific measures installed in each store and description of each are included.

  14. IMPACT OF SRI ORGANIC AS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OF PT MEDCO E&P INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Ayudia Fitriyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an agricultural country that has majority occupation as farmer. Unfortunately, farmers still become the biggest contributor to poverty in Indonesia around 62.25% in 2012. As a country that has a vision to become an independent country, Indonesia should be able to meet the welfare of its people, including farmers. This can be achieved if the cooperation between the government and the perpetrators of activities in Indonesia; such as natural resource companies that perform social responsibility programs as a contribution to society. One form of social responsibility is a community development program which is considered to be more useful. System of Rice Intensification or SRI Organic Organic is one of the community development programs that were developed to improve the welfare of farmers. The aim of this study were 1 to evaluate the impact of a given Organic SRI as a community development programs; 2 measuring the level of Organic SRI farmers' income; 3 Organic SRI analyze opportunities in the future as an independent and sustainable program. By doing a case study on community development programs conducted by PT Medco E & P Indonesia in the dusun parit 9, Banyuasin District, the authors analyze and evaluate the impact of using SEAGA to 20 respondents. The results of these studies are intended to provide input in order to make the community development program more effective in the future.Keywords: welfare, corporate social responsibility, community development, SRI organic, SEAGAABSTRAKIndonesia adalah negara agraris dimana petani merupakan mayoritas pekerjaan namun menjadi penyumbang kemiskinan terbesar di Indonesia sekitar 62,25% pada 2012.  Sebagai negara yang memiliki visi untuk menjadi negara mandiri, Indonesia harus mampu memenuhi kesejahteraan rakyatnya termasuk petani. Hal tersebut dapat tercapai jika adanya kerjasama antara pemerintah dan pelaku aktivitas di Indonesia; seperti perusahaan sumber daya alam yang melakukan

  15. The Impact of Spiritual Learning on the Lives of Adults in Postsecondary Martial Arts Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jeffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether spiritual learning impacts the lives of adult learners in martial arts educational programs. The impact of spirituality has been claimed as a meaningful connection; however, it is not currently known how spiritual learning impacts the lives and experiences of adult learners with these programs. Spiritual learning…

  16. 77 FR 7568 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Clearwater Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Corps of Engineers Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Clearwater Program AGENCY: U.S. Army... (Sanitation Districts) has completed a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS... Program is the evaluation of alternatives for new ocean outfalls and rehabilitation of the existing ocean...

  17. The Social Value Of Vaccination Programs: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Jeroen; Beutels, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In the current global environment of increased strain on health care budgets, all medical interventions have to compete for funding. Cost-effectiveness analysis has become a standard method to use in estimating how much value an intervention offers relative to its costs, and it has become an influential element in decision making. However, the application of cost-effectiveness analysis to vaccination programs fails to capture the full contribution such a program offers to the community. Recent literature has highlighted how cost-effectiveness analysis can neglect the broader economic impact of vaccines. In this article we also argue that socioethical contributions such as effects on health equity, sustaining the public good of herd immunity, and social integration of minority groups are neglected in cost-effectiveness analysis. Evaluations of vaccination programs require broad and multidimensional perspectives that can account for their social, ethical, and economic impact as well as their cost-effectiveness. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Business with Words: Language Programs That Generate Revenue and Impact Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the "business" of language programs. In particular, it focuses on the economic impact of English as a Second language programs physically located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada which draw and serve foreign students. The impact such programs have on the wider community will also be explored. A bibliography is included.…

  19. Leading by Success: Impact of a Clinical and Translational Research Infrastructure Program to Address Health Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Bruce; Shambaugh, Vicki; Petrovich, Helen; Seto, Todd B; Ho, Tammy; Mokuau, Noreen; Hedges, Jerris R

    2016-10-28

    Building research infrastructure capacity to address clinical and translational gaps has been a focus of funding agencies and foundations. Clinical and Translational Sciences Awards, Research Centers in Minority Institutions Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Research (RCTR), and the Institutional Development Award Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Research funded by the US government to fund clinical translational research programs have existed for over a decade to address racial and ethnic health disparities across the USA. While the impact on the nation's health cannot be made in a short period, assessment of a program's impact could be a litmus test to gauge its effectiveness at the institution and communities. We report the success of a Pilot Project Program in the University of Hawaii RCTR Award in advancing careers of emerging investigators and community collaborators. Our findings demonstrated that the investment has a far-reaching impact on engagement with community-based research collaborators, career advancement of health disparity investigators, and favorable impacts on health policy.

  20. 76 FR 5821 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for... Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of the program for...

  1. A health equity impact assessment umbrella program (AAPRISS) to tackle social inequalities in health: program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thierry; Bidault, Elsa; Villeval, Mélanie; Alias, François; Gandouet, Benjamin; Servat, Martine; Theis, Ivan; Breton, Eric; Haschar-Noé, Nadine; Grosclaude, Pascale

    2016-09-01

    The failure to simultaneously address two objectives (increasing the average health of the population and reducing health inequalities) may have led to what has been observed in France so far: an overall decrease in mortality and increase in inequality. The Apprendre et Agir pour Réduire les Inégalités Sociales de Santé (AAPRISS) methodology is to analyze and modify interventions that are already underway in terms of their potential impact on health inequalities. It relies on partnership between researchers and actors in the health field, as well as policy makers. In this paper, we describe the program and discuss its feasibility and acceptability. This program is not a single intervention, but a process aiming at assessing and reshaping existing health programs, therefore acting as a kind of meta-intervention. The program develops scientific and methodological support stemming from co-construction methods aimed at increasing equity within the programs. Stakeholders from prevention policy-making and the health care system, as well as researchers, collaborate in defining interventions, monitoring their progress, and choosing indicators, methods and evaluation procedures. The target population is mainly the population of the greater Toulouse area. The steps of the process are described: (1) establishment of AAPRISS governance and partnerships; (2) inclusion of projects; and (3) the projects' process. Many partners have rallied around this program, which has been shown to be feasible and acceptable by partners and health actors. A major challenge is understanding each partner's expectations in terms of temporality of interventions, expected outcomes, assessment methods and indicators. Analyzing the projects has been quite feasible, and some modifications have been implemented in them in order to take inequalities in health into account. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Ecological Impacts of the Space Shuttle Program at John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Drese, John H.; Scheidt, Doug A.; Lowers, Russ H.; Reyier, Eric A.; Holloway-Adkins, Karen G.; Oddy, Donna M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program was one of NASAs first major undertakings to fall under the environmental impact analysis and documentation requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Space Shuttle Program activities at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the associated Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) contributed directly and indirectly to both negative and positive ecological trends in the region through the long-term, stable expenditure of resources over the 40 year program life cycle. These expenditures provided support to regional growth and development in conjunction with other sources that altered land use patterns, eliminated and modified habitats, and contributed to cultural eutrophication of the Indian River Lagoon. At KSC, most Space Shuttle Program related actions were conducted in previously developed facilities and industrial areas with the exception of the construction of the shuttle landing facility (SLF) and the space station processing facility (SSPF). Launch and operations impacts were minimal as a result of the low annual launch rate. The majority of concerns identified during the NEPA process such as potential weather modification, acid rain off site, and local climate change did not occur. Launch impacts from deposition of HCl and particulates were assimilated as a result of the high buffering capacity of the system and low launch and loading rates. Metals deposition from exhaust deposition did not display acute impacts. Sub-lethal effects are being investigated as part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory process. Major positive Space Shuttle Program effects were derived from the adequate resources available at the Center to implement the numerous environmental laws and regulations designed to enhance the quality of the environment and minimize impacts from human activities. This included reduced discharges of domestic and industrial wastewater, creation of stormwater management

  3. Avaliação do impacto de programas nutricionais Evaluation of nutritional programs's impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná da Silva dos Santos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Muito se tem deixado de aprender sobre programas e intervenções que realmente funcionam, em decorrência tanto da escassez quanto da variada qualidade metodológica das avaliações de impacto. Avaliações de impacto são estudos que medem o impacto sobre a saúde diretamente atribuível a uma política pública ou programa específico, independentemente do efeito de outros potenciais fatores explanatórios. Com o objetivo de discutir, à luz da epidemiologia, os tipos de estudos que podem ser empregados para a avaliação de impacto de programas em nutrição, são apresentados os delineamentos conforme o grau de inferência necessária para a avaliação (adequação, plausibilidade e probabilidade. São apresentados exemplos de estudos de avaliação de programas com desenhos transversais, quase-experimentos e ensaios randomizados controlados. São descritas as vantagens dos desenhos observacionais sobre as avaliações conduzidas com ensaios randomizados, quando o objetivo é avaliar a efetividade dos programas em condições reais de campo. É urgente que avaliações de impacto sejam conduzidas para fornecerem subsídios aos tomadores de decisões sobre os programas que valem a pena receber investimentos ou que necessitam ser reformulados.Persistent shortcomings in our knowledge of the actual effects of programs and interventions are due to a gap in both the quantity and methodological quality of impact evaluations. Impact evaluations are studies that measure the impact on health directly attributable to a specific program or policy, regardless of other potential explanatory factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present the types of epidemiological studies that can be employed in impact evaluations of nutrition programs. Study designs are presented according to the level of inference needed for the evaluation (adequacy, plausibility and probability. Examples of program evaluations using cross-sectional, quasi-experimental, and

  4. Environmental auditing: Capabilities and management utility of recreation impact monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    A recreation impact monitoring system was developed and applied in 1984?1986 and in 1991 to all backcountry river-accessed campsites within Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Results suggest that actions implemented by park managers in response to problems identified by the initial survey were highly effective in reducing resource degradation caused by camping. In particular, the elimination of some designated campsites and installation of anchored firegrates reduced the total area of disturbance by 50%. Firegrate installation provided a focal point that increased the concentration of camping activities, allowing peripheral areas to recover. As suggested by predictive models, additional resource degradation caused by increased camping intensities is more than offset by improvements in the condition of areas where use is eliminated. The capabilities and management utility of recreation impact monitoring programs, illustrated by the Delaware Water Gap monitoring program, are also presented and discussed.

  5. The Army Racial Awareness Program: A Case Study of Program Impact on Personal Values. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Michael R.; Kriner, Richard E.

    The effects of two forms of presentation of the Army Racial Awareness Program (RAP) on the personal values of equality and freedom were assessed. Subjects were Army personnel assigned to RAP at Fort Meade, Md. The research instrument was the Rokeach Value Survey, in pretest-posttest administrations. Results suggested that the official RAP…

  6. Impact of the Reading Buddies Program on Reading Level and Attitude Towards Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Dolman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This research examines the Reading Buddies program at the Grande Prairie Public Library, which took place in July and August of 2011 and 2012. The Reading Buddies program pairs lower elementary students with teen volunteers for reading practice over the summer. The aim of the study was to discover how much impact the program would have on participating children’s reading levels and attitudes towards reading.Methods – During the first and last sessions of the Reading Buddies program, the participants completed the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (ERAS and the Graded Word Recognition Lists from the Bader Reading and Language Inventory (6th ed., 2008.Participants were also asked for their grade and sex, and the program coordinator kept track of attendance. Results – There were 37 Reading Buddies participants who completed both the pre- and post-tests for the study. On average, the program had a small positive effect on participants’ reading levels and a small negative effect on their attitudes towards reading. There was a larger range of changes to the ERAS scores than to the reading test scores, but most participants’ scores did not change dramatically on either measure.Conclusions – Although findings are limited by the small size of the data-set, results indicate that many of the Reading Buddies participants maintained their reading level over the summer and had a similar attitude towards reading at the end of the program. On average, reading levels increased slightly and attitudes towards reading were slightly more negative. Many factors could not be taken into account during the study (e.g., the amount of reading done at home. A study with a control group that did not participate in the program could help to assess whether the program helped to combat summer learning loss.

  7. Longitudinal impact of the Cyber Friendly Schools program on adolescents' cyberbullying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Shaw, Thérèse; Hadwen, Kate; Cardoso, Patricia; Slee, Phillip; Roberts, Clare; Thomas, Laura; Barnes, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a major public health problem associated with serious mental, social, and academic consequences for young people. To date, few programs addressing cyberbullying have been developed and empirically tested. The Cyber Friendly Schools (CFS) group-randomized controlled trial measured the longitudinal impact of a whole-school online cyberbullying prevention and intervention program, developed in partnership with young people. Non-government secondary schools in Perth, Western Australia, (N = 35; 3,000+ students) were randomized to an intervention (n = 19) or usual practice control group (n = 16 schools). Students completed online questionnaires in 2010, 2011, and at 1-year follow-up in 2012, measuring their cyberbullying experiences during the previous school term. The intervention group received the program in Grades 8 and 9 (aged 13-14 years). Program effects were tested using two-part growth models. The program was associated with significantly greater declines in the odds of involvement in cyber-victimization and perpetration from pre- to the first post-test, but no other differences were evident between the study conditions. However, teachers implemented only one third of the program content. More work is needed to build teacher capacity and self-efficacy to effectively implement cyberbullying programs. Whole-school cyberbullying interventions implemented in conjunction with other bullying prevention programs may reduce cyber-victimization more than traditional school-based bullying prevention programs alone. Aggr. Behav. 42:166-180, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of Doximity Residency Rankings on Residency Applicants’ Program Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Rolston

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Choosing a residency program is a stressful and important decision. Doximity released residency program rankings by specialty in September 2014. This study sought to investigate the impact of those rankings on residency application choices made by fourth year medical students. Methods: A 12-item survey was administered in October 2014 to fourth year medical students at three schools. Students indicated their specialty, awareness of and perceived accuracy of the rankings, and the rankings’ impact on the programs to which they chose to apply. Descriptive statistics were reported for all students and those applying to Emergency Medicine (EM. Results: A total of 461 (75.8% students responded, with 425 applying in one of the 20 Doximity ranked specialties. Of the 425, 247 (58% were aware of the rankings and 177 looked at them. On a 1-100 scale (100=very accurate, students reported a mean ranking accuracy rating of 56.7 (SD 20.3. Forty-five percent of students who looked at the rankings modified the number of programs to which they applied. The majority added programs. Of the 47 students applying to EM, 18 looked at the rankings and 33% changed their application list with most adding programs. Conclusion: The Doximity rankings had real effects on students applying to residencies as almost half of students who looked at the rankings modified their program list. Additionally, students found the rankings to be moderately accurate. Graduating students might benefit from emphasis on more objective characterization of programs to assess in light of their own interests and personal/career goals

  9. The impact of training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Nahla Mansour; Al Faouri, Ibrahim; Al-Niarat, Tahany Fareed

    2016-05-01

    Nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence are still inadequately explored, and possess an impact in preventing, and managing the violent incidents and the quality of nursing care. Creating a demand for an effective intervention program to improve nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward workplace violence. To study the impact of the training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in a military hospital in Jordan. One group before-after design was employed. A stratified random sample of 100 nurses working in three shifts was recruited. Data were collected earlier and after the preparation program using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. "The Framework Guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector", was adopted in this work. The preparation sessions were for one day each week over five weeks. The post-test assessment was over five weeks using the same questionnaire. A total of 97 nurses completed the survey. The outcomes demonstrated the significant impact of the training program on nurses' attitudes towards workplace violence (t=6. 62, df=96, p=0.000). The prevalence of verbal abuse by patients and visitors was 63.9% and for physical abuse, 7.2% were from patients and 3.1% of visitors. Most violent incidents occurred during day duty and during delivering nursing care (40.2% and 32%, respectively). Major source of emotional support for abused nurses was from the nursing team (88.7%), while the legal support was from nursing management (48.5%). The study highlights a general concern among nursing staff about workplace violence. Confirming that violence prevention education for staff is a necessary step forward to deescalate the problem. A significant effect of the training program was evident in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of a 4-H Youth Development Program on At-Risk Urban Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutz, German; Campbell, Benjamin; Filchak, Karen K.; Valiquette, Edith; Welch, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic programs that integrate science literacy and workforce readiness are essential to today's youth. The program reported here combined science literacy (gardening and technology) with workforce readiness to assess the impact of program type, prior program participation, and behavior/punctuality on knowledge gain. Findings show that past…

  11. Effect of impact exercise on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainionpää, A; Korpelainen, R; Väänänen, H K; Haapalahti, J; Jämsä, T; Leppäluoto, J

    2009-10-01

    Regular impact exercise in premenopausal women caused positive osteogenic effects associated to low basal serum parathormone (PTH) but had no effects on bone turnover markers PINP or TRACP5b. The low serum basal PTH levels during impact exercise may be a sign of increased incorporation of calcium to bone. This study aimed to determine the long-term effects of high-impact exercise on bone turnover and calciotropic hormones. We performed a 12-month population-based, randomized, controlled exercise trial in 120 women (age 35-40 years) randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG; n = 60) or a control group (CG; n = 60). The exercise regimen consisted of supervised high-impact exercises three times per week. Daily impact loading was assessed by using an accelerometer. Bone turnover markers and calciotropic hormones were analyzed at 0, 6, and 12 months. Twelve months of impact exercise did not reveal any treatment effects in bone turnover markers PINP or TRAPC5b, whereas serum basal PTH decreased significantly more in the EG than in the CG (-11.2 vs. -2.2 pg/mL; p = 0.03). The change in PTH was dose dependent and most clearly seen in subjects with 96 to 130 daily impacts at 2.5 to 5.3 g (e.g., running or jumping). Regular impact exercise does not cause persistent alterations in bone turnover emphasizing necessity of continuous training to achieve bone benefits. Impact exercise training lowers the serum basal PTH levels and possibly enables greater difference between the basal PTH and transient exercise-induced PTH peaks leading to osteogenic effects.

  12. Sustainable practice improvements: impact of the Comprehensive Advanced Palliative Care Education (CAPCE) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Diane; Hillier, Loretta M; Keat, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an education program designed to improve palliative care practice through the development of workplace hospice palliative care resources (PCRs), and its impact on knowledge transfer and longer-term changes to clinical practice. Evaluation methods included pre- and post-program questionnaires, and a survey of learners' (n=301) perceptions of program learning strategies. Interviews (n=21) were conducted with a purposeful sample of PCRs and representatives from their work sites. Ratings of the sessions indicated that they were relevant to learners' clinical practice. At follow up, the majority of learners (83%) continued to serve as PCRs. Many positive effects were identified, including enhanced pain and symptom management, staff education, and development of care policies and guidelines. Management support, particularly the prioritization of palliative care and staff development, were factors facilitating sustained implementation. These findings highlight the importance of multimodal learning strategies and supportive work environments in the development of PCRs to enhance palliative care practice.

  13. Measuring the Impact of Programs that Challenge the Public Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Shapiro, Jenessa R.

    2010-01-01

    Public stigma robs people with mental illnesses from rightful opportunities related to work and other important life goals. Advocates have developed anti-stigma programs meant to address the prejudice and discrimination associated with these conditions. Evidence is now needed to make sense of program impact; this paper looks at measurement issues related to stigma change. Community based participatory research is central to this research and includes the involvement of a diverse collection of stakeholders in all phases of evaluation. Investigators should be cautious about measures vis-à-vis social desirability effects and should directed by social validity of targeted audiences. Conceptual domains with some research support that correspond with assessments include behavior, penetration, psychological perspective, knowledge, and physiological/information processes. These issues are summarized as ten recommendations for evaluation of anti-stigma programs. PMID:20674114

  14. Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) test program is being lead by NASA Ames for Configuration Aerodynamics (CA). Representatives from CA, Technology Integration (TI), Inlet, and the Nozzle ITD's are working with Ames in defining and executing this test program. The objective of the CA 4-14 milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) and design variations using computational and experimental methods. The experimental aspect includes static calibrations, transonic and supersonic wind tunnel testing. The test program will generate a comprehensive database that will include all appropriate wind tunnel corrections, with emphasis placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the TCA.

  15. The Economic Impact of Productive Safety Net Program on Poverty: Microeconometrics Analysis, Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the impact of productive safety net program on poverty using primary data from randomly selected 600 households in central zone of Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia. Propensity Score Matching and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke were used to evaluate impact of the program and poverty, respectively. The paper revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on consumption, livestock holdings, and productive assets. Moreover, impact of the program on total consumption expenditure per adult equivalent was found to be positive and significant. Using total poverty line, poverty rate was lowest among program participants (30.33% than non-participants (31.1%. Highest poverty rate was found among households headed by women (38.42% while households headed by men (23.1%. The study also revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on poverty reduction and protecting productive assets. Finally, it was recommended that female headed program participants based programs should be provided to help boost their agricultural output and reduce endemic poverty.

  16. Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on population dynamics of. Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss). K.N. de Kock and J.A. van Eeden. Snail Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education,. Potchefstroom. Until now all life-table studies on freshwater snails.

  17. The Programmed Instruction Era: When Effectiveness Mattered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Programmed instruction (PI) was devised to make the teaching-learning process more humane by making it more effective and customized to individual differences. B.F. Skinner's original prescription was modified by later innovators to incorporate more human interaction, social reinforcers and other forms of feedback, larger and more flexible chunks…

  18. Effectiveness of programs to prevent school bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.; Farrington, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Sixteen major evaluations of programs to prevent school bullying, conducted in 11 different countries, are reviewed in detail. Of these 16 evaluations, 8 produced desirable results, 2 produced mixed results, 4 produced small or negligible effects, and 2 produced undesirable results. These varying

  19. Inside Out: Program Integrity and Effectiveness of the Cognitive-Behavioural Program EQUIP for Incarcerated Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    In correctional facilities intervention programs are used to reduce behavioral problems and recidivism. Intervention programs can be effective when they contain effective ingredients and are implemented with high levels of program integrity. Program integrity is the degree to which programs are

  20. Using social impact borrowing to expand preschool through third grade programs in urban public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A; Reynolds, Arthur J

    Budget constraints and difficulty raising taxes limit school districts from expanding education programming even when research shows that additional expenditures would generate economic benefits that are greater than costs. Recently, coalitions of private investors, philanthropists, education practitioners, and government finance analysts have emerged to create opportunities to expand education services that promise high rates of social net benefits without raising taxes or reducing other expenditures. These collaborators have a strong interest in obtaining careful estimates of educational program effectiveness. We describe the use of social-impact borrowing to increase access to the Child-Parent Center preschool-through-third-grade intervention for at-risk students in the Chicago Public School District. The partners include the city, school district, investors, nonprofit organizations, and a university. The key to the feasibility of social-impact borrowing is the ability to document that early intervention can reduce the need for later special-education services. With the help of private investors and nonprofit organizations, it is possible for public school districts to finance services with funds from private sources and use future cost savings to repay this debt. We discuss how social-impact borrowing is being used in Chicago and in Salt Lake County as the nation's first two instances of using pay-for-performance social-impact borrowing to support early education.

  1. The Economic Impact of Starting, Stopping, and Restarting an Antibiotic Stewardship Program: A 14-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Bosso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regions Hospital started a multidisciplinary antibiotic stewardship program (ASP in 1998. The program effectively shut down from 2002–2004 as key personnel departed and was then restarted but without the dedicated pharmacist and infectious diseases physician. Purchasing data (in dollars or dollars/patient/day unadjusted for inflation served as a surrogate marker of antibiotic consumption. These data were reviewed monthly, quarterly, and yearly along with antibiotic susceptibility patterns on a semi-annual basis. Segmented regression analysis was use to compare restricted antibiotic purchases for performance periods of 1998–2001 (construction, 2002–2004 (de-construction, and 2005–2011 (reconstruction. After 4 years (1998–2001 of operation, a number of key participants of the ASP departed. For the following three years (2002–2004 the intensity and focus of the program floundered. This trend was averted when the program was revitalized in early 2005. The construction, deconstruction, and reconstruction of our ASP provided a unique opportunity to statistically examine the financial impact of our ASP or lack thereof in the same institution. We demonstrate a significant economic impact during ASP deconstruction and reconstruction.

  2. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Impact of Exhaust-Only Ventilation on Radon and Indoor Humidity - A Field Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The study described here sought to assess the impact of exhaust-only ventilation on indoor radon and humidity in single-family homes that had been treated by the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP).

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija

    2010-01-01

    to sharpen effectiveness evaluation theory for impact assessment instruments this article critically examines the neglected issue of their political constitution. Analytical examples are used to concretely explore the nature and significance of the politicisation of impact assessment. It is argued...... that raising awareness about the political character of impact assessment instruments, in itself, is a vital step in advancing effectiveness evaluation theory. Broader theoretical lessons on the framing of evaluation research are also drawn from the political analysis. We conclude that, at least within......The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness...

  4. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  5. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach. The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  6. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  7. Developing effective cancer pain education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michelle Y; Pisu, Maria; Kvale, Elizabeth A; Johns, Shelley A

    2012-08-01

    Pain is prevalent, burdensome, and undertreated in individuals with cancer across the disease trajectory. Providing patients and family caregivers with psychosocial support and education to manage cancer pain is a core component of quality care that can result in significant clinical benefit. In this review, we: (1) outline an approach for developing and assessing the effectiveness of education programs for adults with cancer pain; (2) discuss considerations for tailoring programs to the needs of diverse populations and those with limited health literacy skills; (3) describe the resource needs and costs of developing a program; (4) highlight innovative approaches to cancer pain education. We conclude with recommendations for future research and the next generation of educational interventions.

  8. Closing the Education Gender Gap: Estimating the Impact of Girls' Scholarship Program in the Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajigo, Ousman

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of a school fee elimination program for female secondary students in The Gambia to reduce gender disparity in education. To assess the impact of the program, two nationally representative household surveys were used (1998 and 2002/2003). By 2002/2003, about half of the districts in the country had benefited from the…

  9. The perceived impact of a university outdoor education program on students' environmental behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Boland; Paul. Heintzman

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor educators often seek to design programs that influence participants' daily lifestyles, especially environmental behaviors. Research on the impact of outdoor education programs on environmental behaviors has typically focused on schoolchildren and teenagers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived impact of a university outdoor education...

  10. Modeling the Impact of Wilderness Orientation Programs on First-Year Academic Success and Life Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andrew W.; Kang, Hyoung-Kil

    2015-01-01

    Wilderness orientation programs (WOPs) are becoming a popular method of encouraging college student retention and success. Previous studies have identified outcomes and correlates of participation in these programs, but a cohesive model of impact is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of WOPs on first-year student success…

  11. Perceived Factors Impacting School Music Programs: The Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Carlos R.; Bannerman, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary music teachers' perceptions of factors impacting their music programs and teaching positions as well as the actions these teachers take in response to those factors. The following research questions guided the study: (1) What factors are perceived to impact music programs and teaching…

  12. The impact of patient assistance programs and the 340B Drug Pricing Program on medication cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellon, Yelba M; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Masatsugu, Miles; Contreras, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Patient assistance programs and the 340B Drug Pricing Program promise to improve the financial stability, better serve vulnerable patients, and decrease the burden of cost for uninsured patients. Our objective is to examine the financial impact that PAPs and the 340B Program have on improving medication cost. Retrospective analysis of medication dispensary data. Dispensary data for uninsured patients obtaining medications at 2 community health centers were collected from February 1 to February 29, 2012. Uninsured patients were divided into 2 samples: (1) patients receiving PAP medications and (2) patients receiving 340B medications. The main outcome measured was the patient's cost savings. Cost savings were calculated based on the amount a medication would have cost had it been purchased by patients at prices found on Epocrates software (drugstore.com). A paired sample t test model using continuous variables was utilized to calculate confidence intervals. A total of 1420 PAP and 2772 340B individual medications were dispensed to uninsured patients in February 2012. For patients receiving PAP medications the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for age = 52 ± 10. Average cost was $0.11 (95% CI, $0.04-$0.17) and average savings was $617.36 (95% Cl, $581.32-$653.40). For patients receiving 340B medications the mean ±SD for age = 50 ± 14. Average cost was $11.50 (95% CI, $10.55-$12.45). Average saving was $62.31 (95% CI, $57.99-$66.63). PAPs and 340B provide significant medication savings for uninsured patient. More research is needed to establish "best practices" for the successful integration of PAPs.

  13. Police officer perceptions of the impact of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfine, Natalie; Ritter, Christian; Munetz, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program is an approach for law enforcement officers to safely response to individuals who are experiencing a mental health crisis. Research must identify the components of CIT that are instrumental to the overall effectiveness of the program. For instance, recent studies report that CIT may have a transformative effect on officers' attitudes by increasing exposure to and familiarity with mental illness. This study explores this possibility further by examining 57 CIT officers' experiences with mental illness and attitudes about CIT. Specifically, we assessed how personal and professional exposure to mental illness associates with officers' perceptions about CIT generally, as well as with opinions about the officers' confidence in their abilities and the perceived effectiveness of the police department in responding to individuals in mental health crisis. Our findings indicate that CIT is rated very positively by officers. We found that officers' attitudes about the impact of CIT on improving overall safety, accessibility of services, officer skills and techniques, and the preparedness of officers to handle calls involving persons with mental illness are positively associated with officers' confidence in their abilities or with officers' perceptions of overall departmental effectiveness. There is further evidence that personal contact with individuals with mental illness affects the relationship between attitudes that CIT impacts overall safety and perceived departmental effectiveness. The results of this exploratory study underscore the importance of CIT officers' perceptions of key elements of CIT and the role of exposure to mental illness in examining program effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Intrapreneurial Programs on Fortune 500 Manufacturing Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Melissa H.; Tesolowski, Dennis G.; Isbell, Clinton H.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 100 manufacturing firms in 10 Standard Industrial Classification areas found that intrapreneurial programs did not significantly affect sales, profits, or returns to investors. Electronics and computer companies and the most dominant intrapreneurial programs. (SK)

  15. Impact of Engineering Ambassador Programs on Student Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thalia Anagnos; Alicia Lyman-Holt; Claudia Marin-Artieda; Ellen Momsen

    2014-01-01

    .... Although these ambassador programs were designed with a primary goal of service to the engineering program and university, they serve an equally important goal of developing the skills and attitudes...

  16. An Impact Evaluation of Chile's Progressive Housing Program

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Marcano; Inder J. Ruprah

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates Progressive Housing Program; a public housing program that facilitates the purchase of a new home. The evaluation finds that the program’s package (savings requirement, voucher and mortgage) design is inappropriate if the program is targeted to the poor. In fact the pro-poor targeting of the program was poor with high under-coverage and high leakage. Further, the benefit, a minimum quality new house, was not sustainable as many households slipped back into the housing sho...

  17. Impact of quality assurance program: providing practice assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, R A; Feldman, C A; Stewart, D C; Echoldt, H; Buchanan, R N

    1994-05-01

    Participation in a self-administered quality assessment (SAQA) program led to changes in New Jersey dentists' perceptions of practice quality. Ninety-four percent indicated they discovered practice deficiencies. This study suggests that using a self-administered quality assessment program, such as the SAQA program, can lead to a better understanding of a practice's strengths and weaknesses.

  18. Impacts of an Agricultural Leadership Extension Program for County Officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Valerie Lynn; Odom, Summer Felton; Moore, Lori L.; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural leadership extension programs aim to expand the horizons of leaders through study and experiences. These programs can have direct implications for communities when they are designed and delivered for county officials. This study specifically examined a leadership program administered in Texas which has graduated five classes of county…

  19. 2010 Impacts: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Since 1969, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) has improved the diets and food-related behaviors of program participants. Each year EFNEP enrolls more than half a million new program participants. In 2010, EFNEP reached 137,814 adults and 463,530 youth directly and nearly 400,000 family members indirectly. This paper…

  20. Evaluating the Impact of Internships - Longitudinal Participant Tracking in the Soars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, R.; Sloan, V.

    2014-12-01

    While there is widespread agreement about the benefits of research internship experiences for students, long-term tracking of student progress beyond the summer experience is challenging. Coordinated tracking can effectively document program impact, inform programmatic improvement, and identifying gaps in the internship effort. Tracking can also strengthen diversity efforts and the retention of students from underrepresented groups. Continuous follow-up and guidance can only be provided to students if we know where they are, what they are doing and what they need in order to stay engaged in the field. The SOARS Program at the National Center for Atmospheric Research has supported undergraduate students for over 18 years to enter and succeed in graduate school. Over 85% of SOARS participants have transitioned to geoscience graduate programs or the STEM workforce. The SOARS mission is to broaden participation in the atmospheric and related sciences by engaging students from groups historically under-represented in science, including Black or African-American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic or Latino, female, first-generation college students, and students with disabilities. SOARS relies on proven intervention strategies such as multi-year research experiences, multifaceted mentoring, and a strong learning community. Fostering relationships developed during this time using a wider range of technologies and program longevity play important roles in tracking participants over time. This presentation will highlight significant program results and share the tracking and evaluation techniques utilized in SOARS.

  1. Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of the ConRed cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The ConRed program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. ConRed was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The ConRed program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. More evidence on the impact of India's conditional cash transfer program, Janani Suraksha Yojana: quasi-experimental evaluation of the effects on childhood immunization and other reproductive and child health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natalie; Thacker, Naveen; Gupta, Subodh S; Salomon, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, India established a conditional cash transfer program called Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to increase institutional delivery and encourage the use of reproductive and child health-related services. To assess the effect of maternal receipt of financial assistance from JSY on childhood immunizations, post-partum care, breastfeeding practices, and care-seeking behaviors. We use data from the latest district-level household survey (2007-2008) to conduct a propensity score matching analysis with logistic regression. We conduct the analyses at the national level as well as separately across groups of states classified as high-focus and non-high-focus. We carry out several sensitivity analyses including a subgroup analysis stratified by possession of an immunization card. Receipt of financial assistance from JSY led to an increase in immunization rates ranging from 3.1 (95%CI 2.2-4.0) percentage points for one dose of polio vaccine to 9.1 (95%CI 7.5-10.7) percentage points in the proportion of fully vaccinated children. Our findings also indicate JSY led to increased post-partum check-up rates and healthy early breastfeeding practices around the time of childbirth. No effect of JSY was found on exclusive breastfeeding practices and care-seeking behaviors. Effect sizes were consistently larger in states identified as being a key focus for the program. In an analysis stratified by possession of an immunization card, there was little to no effect of JSY among those with vaccination cards, while the effect size was much larger than the base case results for those missing vaccination cards, across nearly all immunization outcomes. Early results suggest the JSY program led to a significant increase in childhood immunization rates and some healthy reproductive health behaviors, but the structuring of financial incentives to pregnant women and health workers warrants further review. Causal interpretation of our results relies on the assumption that propensity scores

  3. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Program Evaluation for Sexually Transmitted Disease Programs: In Support of Effective Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion W

    2016-02-01

    Program evaluation is a key tool for gathering evidence about the value and effectiveness of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs and interventions. Drawing from published literature, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluation framework, and program examples, this article lays out some of the key principles of program evaluation for STD program staff. The purpose is to offer STD program staff a stronger basis for talking about, planning, conducting, and advocating for evaluation within their respective program contexts.

  5. The effects of arts-in-medicine programming on the medical-surgical work environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonke, Jill; Pesata, Virginia; Arce, Lauren; Carytsas, Ferol P.; Zemina, Kristen; Jokisch, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arts in medicine programs have significant impacts on patients and staff in long-term care environments, but the literature lacks evidence of effectiveness on hospital units with shorter average lengths of stay. Methods: The qualitative study used individual structured interviews to assess the impacts of arts programming on job satisfaction, stress, unit culture, support, quality of care, and patient outcomes on a short-term medical-surgical unit, and used a qualitative cross comparison grounded theory methodology to analyze data. Results: The study confirmed that arts programming can positively affect unit culture, nursing practice, and quality of care on short-stay medical-surgical units. Significant insights related to nursing practice and the art program were found, including that music can cause negative distraction for staff. Conclusions: While positive impacts of arts programming on the medical-surgical environment are clear, potential negative effects also need to be considered in the development of practice protocols for artists. PMID:25544861

  6. The Distributional Effects of IMF Programs: A Cross-Country Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garuda, Gopal

    2000-01-01

    ... of IMF programs continue to grow, the importance of Fund lending—and scrutiny of the associated conditionality provisions—will likely grow as well. The IMF’s increased activity in recent years has renewed interest in the historical performance and impact of Fund supported stabilization programs. Research on the direct macroeconomic effects of Fund pro...

  7. On Becoming an Entrepreneurial Leader: A Focus on the Impacts of University Entrepreneurship Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Bagheri; Zaidatol A.L. Pihie

    2011-01-01

    Despite the significant influences of university entrepreneurship programs in developing students entrepreneurial intention and abilities, there is little knowledge about how such programs shape students abilities to successfully lead entrepreneurial activities. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the impacts of university entrepreneurship programs in developing students entrepreneurial leadership competencies. A sample of 14 undergraduate entrepreneurial leaders defined...

  8. The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, John; Danish, Steven J.; Forneris, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for…

  9. Context Matters for Social-Emotional Learning: Examining Variation in Program Impact by Dimensions of School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E; McClowry, Sandee G

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines whether three dimensions of school climate-leadership, accountability, and safety/respect-moderated the impacts of the INSIGHTS program on students' social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Twenty-two urban schools and N = 435 low-income racial/ethnic minority students were enrolled in the study and received intervention services across the course of 2 years, in both kindergarten and first grade. Intervention effects on math and reading achievement were larger for students enrolled in schools with lower overall levels of leadership, accountability, and safety/respect at baseline. Program impacts on disruptive behaviors were greater in schools with lower levels of accountability at baseline; impacts on sustained attention were greater in schools with lower levels of safety/respect at baseline. Implications for Social-Emotional Learning program implementation, replication, and scale-up are discussed.

  10. The Impact of Nutrition Education on Dietary Behavior and Iron Status in Participants of the Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children, and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Nedra K.

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of nutrition edu cation on participants of the Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). The specific objectives were to: 1) determine the impact of participation in EFNEP on iron status as assessed by hematocrit (hct) and ferritin levels; 2) determine the effect of nutrition knowledge on hct and ferritin values; and 3) determine the effect dietary behavior has...

  11. The impact of teachers’ modifications of an evidenced-based HIV prevention intervention on program outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Poitier, Maxwell; Adderley, Richard; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which evidence-based program outcomes are affected by modifications is a significant concern in the implementation of interventions. The ongoing national implementation of an evidence-based HIV prevention program targeting grade six students in The Bahamas [Focus on Youth in The Caribbean (FOYC)] offers an opportunity to explore factors associated with teachers’ modification of FOYC lessons and to examine the impact of types and degrees of modifications on student outcomes. Data were collected in 2012 from 155 teachers and 3646 students in 77 government elementary schools. Results indicate that teachers taught 16 of 30 core activities, 24.5 of 46 total activities and 4.7 of 8 sessions. Over one-half of the teachers made modifications to FOYC core activities; one-fourth of the teachers modified 25% or more core activities that they taught (heavily modified FOYC). Omitting core activities was the most common content modification, followed by lengthening FOYC lessons with reading, writing assignments or role-play games, shortening core activities or adding educational videos. Mixed-effects modeling revealed that omitting core activities had negative impacts on all four student outcomes. Shortening core activities and adding videos into lessons had negative impacts on HIV/AIDS knowledge and/or intention to use condom protection. Heavy modifications (>1/4 core activities) were associated with diminished program effectiveness. Heavy modifications and omitting or shortening core activities were negatively related to teachers’ level of implementation. We conclude that poorer student outcomes were associated with heavy modifications. PMID:26297497

  12. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englin, J E; Gygi, K F

    1992-03-01

    This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs.

  13. Impacts of the Boston prekindergarten program on the school readiness of young children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina

    2016-11-01

    Theory and empirical work suggest inclusion preschool improves the school readiness of young children with special needs, but only 2 studies of the model have used rigorous designs that could identify causality. The present study examined the impacts of the Boston Public prekindergarten program-which combined proven language, literacy, and mathematics curricula with coaching-on the language, literacy, mathematics, executive function, and emotional skills of young children with special needs (N = 242). Children with special needs benefitted from the program in all examined domains. Effects were on par with or surpassed those of their typically developing peers. Results are discussed in the context of their relevance for policy, practice, and theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Impact of effective communication in Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the impact of effective communication in secondary school administration in Enugu State. It was a descriptive study. The study comprised 659 respondents made up of 28 principals and 631 teachers. The population of the study was obtained through random sampling technique. The instrument used for ...

  15. 77 FR 14568 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of... Commerce to establish an Earned Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct...

  16. Student Services and Special Programs: A Report on Program Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Skillman, Thelma; And Others

    Student services and special programs within the California Community Colleges (CCC) are designed to enhance student equity, access, retention, persistence toward goal completion, and successful educational outcomes. The special programs and services within the CCC which serve targeted and diverse student populations are Extended Opportunity…

  17. HIV Testing Among Young People Aged 16-24 in South Africa: Impact of Mass Media Communication Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Lawrence Kincaid, D

    2016-09-01

    Knowing one's serostatus is critical in the HIV prevention, care and treatment continuum. This study examines the impact of communication programs on HIV testing in South Africa. Data came from 2204 young men and women aged 16-24 who reported to be sexually active in a population based survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test the directions and causal pathways between communication program exposure, HIV testing discussion, and having a test in the last 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate probit regressions provided evidence of exogeneity of communication exposure and the two HIV-related outcomes. One in three sampled individuals had been tested in the last 12 months. Communication program exposure only had an indirect effect on getting tested by encouraging young people to talk about testing. The study suggests that communication programs may create an environment that supports open HIV-related discussions and may have a long-term impact on behavior change.

  18. The Erika oil spill impact on land vegetation : main results of a five year monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncet, F. [Cedre, Brest (France); Ragot, R. [Conservatoir Botanique National de Brest, Brest (France); Tintilier, F. [Biotope, Bouguenais (France)

    2007-07-01

    An extensive environmental impact assessment was initiated by the French Ministry of the Environment following a spill of 20,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil that occurred in December 1999 when the tanker Erica broke and sank off the coast of Brittany. The spill affected 400 km of coastline. Before the oil reached the shore, it had been drifting and weathering at sea for 12 days under harsh sea conditions, resulting in oil fragmentation and scattering. The oil then reached lichen communities and coastal plants of the splash zone on rocky shores, dune vegetation and salt marshes. The oil was composed of 90 per cent heavy distillation residue and 10 per cent light fraction. The type of oil is significant, since weathered crude oils are considered to be less toxic to marsh grass than lighter more penetrating oils. A large scale, 2.5 year clean-up operation was conducted under the POLMAR French national organization. Vegetation clean-up was undertaken depending on the degree of oiling, sensitivity of plant species or natural habitats. A 5 year monitoring program was also launched to determine the impact on vegetation and contamination of the plant tissues by aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program established 175 permanent quadrats on all types of affected vegetation communities and followed a phyto-sociological method. It was determined that adequate removal of the bulk oil resulted in minimal impact on heavily oiled vegetation. Although there was light to moderate short and medium term damages, the composition of vegetation and cover did not evolve significantly in most quadrats monitored. There was a long-term impact on slow growing communities such as lichen, and grey dunes. Residual oil was still observed up to 2005. The adverse effects were linked to coating rather than to toxic effects. Fixed dunes, aerohaline grass and heath communities were found to be more vulnerable and have not yet recovered to pre-spill state. 15 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Impacts of a prekindergarten program on children's mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Publicly funded prekindergarten programs have achieved small-to-large impacts on children's cognitive outcomes. The current study examined the impact of a prekindergarten program that implemented a coaching system and consistent literacy, language, and mathematics curricula on these and other nontargeted, essential components of school readiness, such as executive functioning. Participants included 2,018 four and five-year-old children. Findings indicated that the program had moderate-to-large impacts on children's language, literacy, numeracy and mathematics skills, and small impacts on children's executive functioning and a measure of emotion recognition. Some impacts were considerably larger for some subgroups. For urban public school districts, results inform important programmatic decisions. For policy makers, results confirm that prekindergarten programs can improve educationally vital outcomes for children in meaningful, important ways. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. An impact evaluation of Plan Indonesia's early childhood program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Frances E; Proulx, Kerrie; Asrilla, Zaitu

    2016-12-27

    High-quality preschools are known to prepare children for success in primary school. Over half of Indonesia's children now pass through preschools whose quality and effectiveness are unknown. Our goal was to evaluate two government preschool models, namely kindergarten (TK) and the less formal health-post (PAUD), with and without capacity-building efforts of a non-governmental organization (NGO-Plan), on children's language and math skills. Thirteen TK and 17 PAUD Plan-supported and the same number of government-supported preschools were randomly selected from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Five children from each (n = 292) and five who had graduated from each and were now in first grade (n = 241) were randomly selected and tested on language and math measures. The Plan-supported preschools were assessed for quality. Mothers reported on their family's socio-demographic situation and their child's preventive health practices, illnesses and diet over the previous two weeks. Analyses of covariance adjusting for clusters indicated that children attending Plan-supported preschools performed better overall, and especially those in TK preschools. Plan-supported TKs were observed to have higher quality than Plan-supported PAUDs. First graders who graduated from Plan-supported preschools, both TK and PAUD, achieved higher scores on language and math tests than government-supported graduates. Preventive health practices were better in the Plan group, though diet and height-for-age were poor overall. Upgrades to the government preschool program are needed to raise its quality and effectiveness, specifically by introducing a mix of instructional and indoor free-choice play, resources and teacher training to support children's learning.

  1. Impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program on children undergoing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Reshma Aranha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The advanced era of technological development in child health care has resulted in more pediatric procedures being performed in various settings. Millions of children undergo surgery every year which is a stressful event. Many nonpharmacological strategies are being used to manage the preoperative fear and anxiety in children. The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of multimodal preoperative preparation program (MPPP on children undergoing surgery in terms of its effect on the psychophysiological parameters. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of MPPP on the psychophysiological parameters of children undergoing surgery. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a selected multi-specialty hospital. Using the purposive sampling technique, a total of 110 children aged 8–12 years were assigned to nonintervention (n = 55 and intervention (n = 55 groups, respectively. The MPPP was administered to the intervention group. The children in the nonintervention group received the routine preoperative care. Child's fear and anxiety was assessed on admission, prior to shifting the child to operation theater (OT, 24 and 48 h after surgery, whereas child's pulse, respiration, blood pressure (BP, and oxygen saturation was assessed on admission, prior to shifting the child to OT, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery and pain was assessed at 24 and 48 h after surgery. Results: The mean fear and anxiety scores of children were significantly lower in the intervention group than that of nonintervention group (P 0.05. This study also found that there is a significant association between the psychophysiological parameters of children with the selected demographic variables (P < 0.05. A positive correlation was found between the psychological and physiological parameters of children undergoing surgery. Conclusion: The MPPP is effective on psychophysiological parameters of children undergoing

  2. Impact and effectiveness of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, Suzanne M; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Muñoz, Nubia

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs constitute major public health initiatives worldwide. We assessed the global effect of quadrivalent HPV (4vHPV) vaccination on HPV infection and disease. PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles from...... January 2007 through February 2016 to identify observational studies reporting the impact or effectiveness of 4vHPV vaccination on infection, anogenital warts, and cervical cancer or precancerous lesions. Over the last decade, the impact of HPV vaccination in real-world settings has become increasingly...... evident, especially among girls vaccinated before HPV exposure in countries with high vaccine uptake. Maximal reductions of approximately 90% for HPV 6/11/16/18 infection, approximately 90% for genital warts, approximately 45% for low-grade cytological cervical abnormalities, and approximately 85...

  3. The impact of universal suicide-prevention programs on the help-seeking attitudes and behaviors of youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Klingbeil, David A; Meller, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    While the ultimate goal of adolescent suicide-prevention efforts is to decrease the incidence of death by suicide, a critical intermediary goal is directing youths toward effective sources of assistance. To comprehensively review the universal prevention literature and examine the effects of universal prevention programs on student's attitudes and behaviors related to help-seeking. We systematically reviewed studies that assessed help-seeking outcomes including prevention efforts utilizing (1) psychoeducational curricula, (2) gatekeeper training, and (3) public service messaging directed at youths. Of the studies reviewed, 17 studies evaluated the help-seeking outcomes. These studies were identified through a range of sources (e.g., searching online databases, examining references of published articles on suicide prevention). The results of this review suggest that suicide-prevention programming has a limited impact on help-seeking behavior. Although there was some evidence that suicide-prevention programs had a positive impact on students' help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, there was also evidence of no effects or iatrogenic effects. Sex and risk status were moderators of program effects on students help-seeking. Caution is warranted when considering which suicidal prevention interventions best optimize the intended goals. The impact on adolescents' help-seeking behavior is a key concern for educators and mental-health professionals.

  4. More evidence on the impact of India's conditional cash transfer program, Janani Suraksha Yojana: quasi-experimental evaluation of the effects on childhood immunization and other reproductive and child health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, India established a conditional cash transfer program called Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, to increase institutional delivery and encourage the use of reproductive and child health-related services. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of maternal receipt of financial assistance from JSY on childhood immunizations, post-partum care, breastfeeding practices, and care-seeking behaviors. METHODS: We use data from the latest district-level household survey (2007-2008 to conduct a propensity score matching analysis with logistic regression. We conduct the analyses at the national level as well as separately across groups of states classified as high-focus and non-high-focus. We carry out several sensitivity analyses including a subgroup analysis stratified by possession of an immunization card. RESULTS: Receipt of financial assistance from JSY led to an increase in immunization rates ranging from 3.1 (95%CI 2.2-4.0 percentage points for one dose of polio vaccine to 9.1 (95%CI 7.5-10.7 percentage points in the proportion of fully vaccinated children. Our findings also indicate JSY led to increased post-partum check-up rates and healthy early breastfeeding practices around the time of childbirth. No effect of JSY was found on exclusive breastfeeding practices and care-seeking behaviors. Effect sizes were consistently larger in states identified as being a key focus for the program. In an analysis stratified by possession of an immunization card, there was little to no effect of JSY among those with vaccination cards, while the effect size was much larger than the base case results for those missing vaccination cards, across nearly all immunization outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Early results suggest the JSY program led to a significant increase in childhood immunization rates and some healthy reproductive health behaviors, but the structuring of financial incentives to pregnant women and health workers warrants further review. Causal

  5. Impact of a guaranteed annual income program on Canadian seniors' physical, mental and functional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Kwok, Cynthia; Emery, J C Herbert; Dutton, Daniel J

    2016-08-15

    Although there is widespread recognition that poverty is a key determinant of health, there has been less research on the impact of poverty reduction on health. Recent calls for a guaranteed annual income (GAI), defined as regular income provided to citizens by the state regardless of work status, raise questions about the impact, relative to the costs, of such a population health intervention. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Canadian seniors' benefits (Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement, analogous to a GAI program) on the self-reported health, self-reported mental health and functional health of age-eligible, low-income seniors. We used the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey to examine unattached adult respondents with an annual income of $20,000 or less, stratified by seniors' benefits/GAI eligibility (55-64 years: ineligible; 65-74 years: eligible). Using regression, we assessed self-reported health, selfreported mental health and functional health as measured by the Health Utilities Index, as outcomes for seniors' benefits/GAI-eligible and -ineligible groups. We found that individuals age-eligible for seniors' benefits/GAI had better health outcomes than recipients of conditional income assistance programs. Eligibility for seniors' benefits/GAI after age 64 was associated with better self-reported health, functional health and self-reported mental health outcomes, and these effects were observed until age 74. Using seniors' benefits as an example, a GAI leads to significantly better mental health and improved health overall. These improvements are likely to yield reduced health care costs, which may offset the costs associated with program expansion.

  6. The impact of Japan's 2004 postgraduate training program on intra-prefectural distribution of pediatricians in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p valuelaunch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects the health status of the child population.

  7. Impact of an Integrated Antibiotic Allergy Testing Program on Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Multicenter Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiano, Jason A; Thursky, Karin A; Stewardson, Andrew J; Urbancic, Karen; Worth, Leon J; Jackson, Cheryl; Stevenson, Wendy; Sutherland, Michael; Slavin, Monica A; Grayson, M Lindsay; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of patient-reported antibiotic allergy (so-called antibiotic allergy labels [AALs]) and their impact on antibiotic prescribing, incorporation of antibiotic allergy testing (AAT) into antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs (AAT-AMS) is not widespread. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an AAT-AMS program on AAL prevalence, antibiotic usage, and appropriateness of prescribing. AAT-AMS was implemented at two large Australian hospitals during a 14-month period beginning May 2015. Baseline demographics, AAL history, age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index, infection history, and antibiotic usage for 12 months prior to testing (pre-AAT-AMS) and 3 months following testing (post-AAT-AMS) were recorded for each participant. Study outcomes included the proportion of patients who were "de-labeled" of their AAL, spectrum of antibiotic courses pre- and post-AAT-AMS, and antibiotic appropriateness (using standard definitions). From the 118 antibiotic allergy-tested patients, 226 AALs were reported (mean, 1.91/patient), with 53.6% involving 1 or more penicillin class drug. AAT-AMS allowed AAL de-labeling in 98 (83%) patients-56% (55/98) with all AALs removed. Post-AAT, prescribing of narrow-spectrum penicillins was more likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-5.42), as was narrow-spectrum β-lactams (aOR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.98-6.33), and appropriate antibiotics (aOR, 12.27; 95% CI, 5.00-30.09); and less likely for restricted antibiotics (aOR, 0.16; 95% CI, .09-.29), after adjusting for indication, Charlson comorbidity index, and care setting. An integrated AAT-AMS program was effective in both de-labeling of AALs and promotion of improved antibiotic usage and appropriateness, supporting the routine incorporation of AAT into AMS programs.

  8. High school sports programs differentially impact participation by sex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith M. Drake Meghan R. Longacre Todd MacKenzie Linda J. Titus Michael L. Beach Andrew G. Rundle Madeline A. Dalton

    ... differentially influence boys' and girls' participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of high school athletic programs and determine the extent to which these characteristics influenced boys' and girls...

  9. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Wellness Program Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wellness Program Medical Records System collects contact information and other Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Learn how this data is collected, used, accessed, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies.

  10. Impact of Decoding Work within a Professional Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Michelle; Lafave, Mark; Westbrook, Khatija; McAllister, Jenelle; Valdez, Dennis; Eubank, Breda

    2017-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how Decoding work can be used productively within a curriculum change process to help make design decisions based on a more nuanced understanding of student learning and the relationship of a professional program to the field.

  11. How Effective are Cash Transfer Programs at Improving Nutritional Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Gitter, Seth R.; James Manley; Vanya Slavchevska

    2011-01-01

    Cash transfer programs have not always affected children�s nutritional status. We reviewed 30,000 articles relating cash transfer programs and height for age, finding 21 papers on 17 programs. Applying meta-analysis we examine the overarching relationship, finding that the programs� average impact on height-for-age is positive, but small and not statistically significant. We evaluate many program, child and local characteristics� correlation with estimated outcome. Conditional programs ...

  12. Impact of a Community Dental Access Program on Emergency Dental Admissions in Rural Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Sandi; Leider, Jonathon P; Davidson, Clare; Brady, Joanne; Knudson, Alana

    2016-12-01

    To characterize the expansion of a community dental access program (CDP) in rural Maryland providing urgent dental care to low-income individuals, as well as the CDP's impact on dental-related visits to a regional emergency department (ED). We used de-identified CDP and ED claims data to construct a data set of weekly counts of CDP visits and dental-related ED visits among Maryland adults. A time series model examined the association over time between visits to the CDP and ED visits for fiscal years (FYs) 2011 through 2015. The CDP served approximately 1600 unique clients across 2700 visits during FYs 2011 through 2015. The model suggested that if the CDP had not provided services during that time period, about 670 more dental-related visits to the ED would have occurred, resulting in $215 000 more in charges. Effective ED dental diversion programs can result in substantial cost savings to taxpayers, and more appropriate and cost-effective care for the patient. Community dental access programs may be a viable way to patch the dental safety net in rural communities while holistic solutions are developed.

  13. An estimation of the effects of China's Priority Forestry Programs on farmers' income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Lu, Jinzhi; Yin, Runsheng

    2010-03-01

    In the late 1990s, the Chinese government initiated some new programs and consolidated other existing ones of ecological restoration and resource development in its forest sector, and renamed them as "Priority Forestry Programs," or PFPs. They include the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), the Desertification Combating Program around Beijing and Tianjin (DCBT), the Shelterbelt Development Program (SBDP), and the Wildlife Conservation and Nature Reserve Development Program (WCNR). In addition to improving the environmental and resource conditions, a frequently reiterated goal of these PFPs is to increase rural households' income, therefore discussing why looking at rural household income impacts might be an important part of forest program evaluation. Thus, an interesting and important question is: How has implementing the PFPs affected the farmers' income and poverty status? This article addresses this question using a fixed-effects model and a panel dataset that covers 1968 households in four provinces for ten consecutive years (1995-2004). The empirical evidence indicates that their effects are mixed. The SLCP, the SBDP, and the NFPP have made positive impact and, by far, the SLCP has the largest effect. But the WCNR and the DCBT still have not had a pronounced overall effect due to their short time span of execution, even though they may have exerted certain influence at the margin. Notably, the impact of the WCNR, if any, is negative.

  14. Predicting effectiveness of the Home-Start parenting support program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Dekovic, M.; Reitz, E.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines predictive effects of participant's characteristics, program characteristics, and their interaction, on changes in parenting behavior of mothers who participated in the Home-Start parenting support program. The results confirm previous findings that effects of

  15. Budget Impact Analysis of a Pharmacist-Provided Transition of Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weiyi; Colayco, Danielle; Hashimoto, Jonathan; Komoto, Kevin; Gowda, Chandrakala; Wearda, Bruce; McCombs, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    Postdischarge medication management services have been shown to reduce the incidence of medication-related problems during the transition from inpatient to outpatient care. A pharmacist-run transition of care (TOC) program has been developed to reduce the unplanned readmissions of a high-risk managed Medicaid population after hospitalization. To estimate the budget impact of adding an outpatient pharmacy-based TOC program to a medical benefit from the payer perspective. A budget impact analysis was conducted using a decision-tree model developed in Microsoft Excel. The effect on inpatient and total health care costs from the payer perspective was estimated for the 2-year period following initial hospital discharge. Inputs were based on a total plan population of 240,000 lives, with a high-risk population of 7.5%, of whom 37% were hospitalized and potentially qualified for TOC services, resulting in an eligible population of 6,660 patients. The TOC program was assumed to initially cover 30% of the eligible population, with expansion to 60% over the 2 years. We previously reported that this program reduced the risk of readmission by 32% within 6 months and saved the health plan $2,139 per patient referred to the program, inclusive of program cost, compared with patients receiving usual discharge care. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the impact of uncertainty of model inputs on the results, with the cost of TOC services ranging from $99 to $2,000 per patient referred. The model showed that the TOC program was cost saving at over $3 per member per month in the first 6 months, which translates to over $25 million in total health care cost savings over 2 years. These results were primarily driven by the estimated reduction in inpatient costs associated with the program, which were estimated at $20 million over the 2 years. Sensitivity analyses illustrated that within all the reasonable ranges of model input parameters, including the upper limit of TOC

  16. 78 FR 16297 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... fourth annual review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the... an Earned Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of...

  17. Substitution Effect of Public Support Programs at Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria SZITÁSIOVÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the principle of addi-tionality in public support programs at local level. In the evaluation of public support policies a key question is whether the policy has made a differ-ence over what would have otherwise occurred. This could be measured by different ways as out-put, behavioral or input additionality. In this paper we analyze the impact of public support programs on input additionality as the extent to which the subsidy is refected in increased expenditures by supported subjects through the measurement of substitution effect. We studied public investment subsidies in the case of education support in Slo-vakia. We identifed the substitution effect in 10% of the analyzed municipalities. There are several differences in outcomes.An important factor is the size of the city as larger municipalities reduce their other activities when obtaining the support. We also showed that less developed regions have a lower tendency to misuse the support programs. The more de-veloped regions and cities reduce their own spending on a given priority when obtaining the support.

  18. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Nascimento, Andr?ia de F?tima; Yuba, T?nia Yuka; de So?rez, Patr?cia Coelho; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for pu...

  19. Impact of Physical Activity Intervention Programs on Self-Efficacy in Youths: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Rosa; John, Janice; Chandran, Latha; Pati, Susmita; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of physical activity has contributed to the nation's childhood obesity crisis, but the impact of physical activity on self-efficacy as a mediator of behavior change has not been examined. This systematic review (SR) describes the published evidence related to the impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy among youths. From January 2000 to June 2011, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were used to identify publications from PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) approach guided this SR articles selection and evaluation process. Of the 102 publications screened, 10 original studies matched the SR inclusion criteria. The types of physical activity interventions and self-efficacy assessments for these 10 studies were diverse. Of the 10 included articles, 6 articles identified an improvement in post-self-efficacy assessments compared to baseline and 4 showed no effect. In conclusion, physical activity intervention programs may improve self-efficacy in youths. A standardized approach to classify and measure self-efficacy is required. Further research is needed to quantify the association of self-efficacy ratings after completing physical activity interventions with objective health improvements, such as weight loss. PMID:24555151

  20. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  1. Evaluation of the impact of a nutritional program for undernourished children in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Iná S; Gigante, Denise P; Coitinho, Denise C; Haisma, Hinke; Valle, Neiva C J; Valente, Gicele

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness on child growth and body composition of a supplementary feeding program (Milk Supplement Program), a prospective, controlled study was conducted in Northeast Brazil. When entering the Program, children from 10 municipalities with the highest coverage rates in the Program

  2. Impact of Aspect-Oriented Programming on the Quality of Novices’ Programs: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Katic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspect-oriented programming has been introduced in order to increase the modularity of object-oriented programs and is claimed to improve software quality. Although there are various researches on this claim, the question to what extent aspect-oriented programming improves the quality of programs depending on a developer’s experience still remains. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether aspect-oriented programming used by novice programmers improves the quality of programs, in terms of software flexibility and readability (consequently reusability and maintainability as well. As a part of an undergraduate course in programming paradigms and languages, a systematic comparison between students’ object-oriented and aspect-oriented solutions of the same problem was driven. In order to drive this comparison we have established the basis for the development of the new quality assessment model consisting of software metrics for an objective evaluation and student survey for subjective evaluation. The results show that the use of aspect-oriented programming lead to novices’ programs that are easier to change and read (flexible and readable compared to object-oriented programs. What is more, administered survey showed that students perceive their programs as more flexible and readable.

  3. Complementary Public Service Announcements as a Strategy for Enhancing the Impact of Health-Promoting Messages in Fictional Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavin, Lynda M; Owens, R Glynn

    2017-02-17

    Research suggests that health-promoting storylines in developed nations' fictional television programs can have a beneficial impact on viewers' beliefs, attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The sizes of the effects are generally modest; however, the audience reach is substantial. Given that many fictional programs may hold the prolonged attention of millions of viewers, it is of value to examine potential strategies for enhancing the persuasive impact of their health-promoting storylines. Complementary public service announcements may be a promising strategy. This randomized experimental study (N = 310) examined the effects of viewing a complementary public service announcement after an organ donation story in an episode of Grey's Anatomy. Results indicated that the public service announcement enhanced the beneficial impact of the story on viewers' discussion behavior (about one's organ donor wishes), discussion intention, and perceived learning. This experimental study is the first to examine the effects of viewing a non-character public service announcement after a health-related storyline in a developed nation's fictional program compared to viewing the same episode of the program on its own. It is important for future research to examine whether these findings replicate for different health issues and with a nationally representative sample.

  4. Effects of a Home Visiting Program on Parenting: Mediating Role of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M Ann; Fauth, Rebecca C; Lamoreau, Renee

    2017-10-01

    Young women aged 18 to 24 years are in the highest risk group for intimate partner violence (IPV), and adolescent mothers are at particularly high risk for IPV and for risky health behaviors. Exposure to IPV may contribute to parenting stress and risky behaviors, and may compromise parenting behavior and healthy child development. The present study examined whether program effects of a statewide home visiting program for adolescent parents on young mothers' parenting stress and risky behaviors measured 2 years post program enrollment were mediated by program effects on their exposure to IPV measured 1 year post enrollment. Using longitudinal data from a subsample of young mothers ( n = 448; 58% program, 42% control) who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluation of a statewide home visiting program, Healthy Families Massachusetts (HFM), we estimated path analyses to examine whether home visiting program effects observed on IPV mediated home visiting program effects on subsequent assessments of parenting distress and mothers' risky behaviors. Findings indicated that IPV mediated associations between home visiting program effects on mothers' parenting distress and risky behavior. Although most newborn home visiting programs do not have an explicitly stated goal of reducing IPV, helping mothers and their partners to reduce violent behavior can have further-reaching impacts on other key goals of home visiting programs, such as parenting stress and risky behaviors.

  5. Do Loyalty Programs Enhance Behavioral Loyalty : An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Program Design and Competitive Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Smidts, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of loyalty programs on share-of-wallet using market-wide household panel data on supermarket purchases.We find that loyalty programs relate positively to share-of-wallet, but the programs differ in effectiveness and some are ineffective.Both a saving component and a

  6. 78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact... (RUS) has made a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for implementing its new Energy Efficiency... 12 to authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to reduce demand on electric...

  7. Scholarly Productivity and Impact of School Psychology Faculty in APA-Accredited Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapin, Sally L.; Kranzler, John H.; Daley, Matt L.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to conduct a normative assessment of the research productivity and scholarly impact of tenured and tenure-track faculty in school psychology programs accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA). Using the PsycINFO database, productivity and impact were examined for the field as a whole and by…

  8. The Impact of Immersion Programs upon Undergraduate Students of Jesuit Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Statement of the problem: This research study examined the impact of international immersion programs upon undergraduate students at Jesuit colleges and universities. Students return from immersion experiences claiming that the experience changed their lives. This study offered an assessment strategy to give greater evidence as to the impact of…

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Egyptian Social Fund for Development Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-Ali, Hala; El-Laithy, Heba; Haughton, Jonathan; Shahidur R. Khandker; El-Azony, Hesham

    2009-01-01

    The Egyptian Social Fund for Development was established in 1991 with a mandate to reduce poverty. Since its inception, it has disbursed about $2.5 billion, of which nearly two-fifths was devoted to supporting microcredit and financing community development and infrastructure. This paper investigates the size of the impact of the Fund s interventions, whether the benefits have been commens...

  10. Impact of Wellness Legislation on Comprehensive School Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Kim C.; Woods, Amelia Mays; O'Connor, Jamie A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, Congress passed the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act that requires schools to implement a wellness plan. Grounded in Ecological Systems Theory (EST) (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, 1979), the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the legislation, discover what measures have been taken to enact the legislation, gauge how the…

  11. The Impacts of the Great Recession on State Natural Resource Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenari, Christopher; Peterson, M. Nils; Bardon, Robert E.; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession contributed to major budget cuts for natural resource Extension programs in the United States. Despite the potentially large cuts, their impacts and how Extension has adapted their programs have not been evaluated. We begin addressing these needs with surveys of Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals members…

  12. Using Maps in Web Analytics to Evaluate the Impact of Web-Based Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veregin, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Maps can be a valuable addition to the Web analytics toolbox for Extension programs that use the Web to disseminate information. Extension professionals use Web analytics tools to evaluate program impacts. Maps add a unique perspective through visualization and analysis of geographic patterns and their relationships to other variables. Maps can…

  13. Visual Basic Programming Impact on Cognitive Style of College Students: Need for Prerequisites

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Garry L.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the impact learning a visual programming language, Visual Basic, has on hemispheric cognitive style, as measured by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator (HMI). The question to be answered is: will a computer programming course help students improve their cognitive abilities in order to perform well? The cognitive styles for…

  14. Research Productivity and Scholarly Impact of APA-Accredited School Psychology Programs: 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, John H.; Grapin, Sally L.; Daley, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the research productivity and scholarly impact of faculty in APA-accredited school psychology programs using data in the PsycINFO database from 2005 to 2009. We ranked doctoral programs on the basis of authorship credit, number of publications, and number of citations. In addition, we examined the primary publication outlets of…

  15. Impact of an Afterschool Program on Middle School MAP Scale Scores for Math and Communication Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    With the ever-increasing demands of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) being placed on school districts, many are looking to afterschool programs to help students meet increasing standards. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact of an afterschool program on Middle School academic achievement. Principally, this study sought to…

  16. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of

  17. The Impact Factor: Measuring Student Professional Growth in an Online Doctoral Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Dawson, Kara

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the impact of an online Ed.D. in educational technology based on data collected from students at regular intervals during the program. It documents how students who were working professionals applied learning from the program within their practice, enculturated into the educational technology community, and grew…

  18. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  19. Impacts of the Conservation Education Program in Serra Malagueta Natural Park, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Edmund; Sills, Erin; Peterson, M. Nils; DePerno, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and conservation education programs are commonly offered in the rapidly expanding network of protected areas in developing countries. There have been few evaluations of these programs and their impacts on participants. At Serra Malagueta Natural Park in Cape Verde, we assessed changes in environmental knowledge, opinions, and…

  20. Encouraging School Enrollment and Attendance among Teenage Parents on Welfare: Early Impacts of Ohio's LEAP Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents interim findings from an impact analysis of Ohio's Learning, Earning, and Parenting (LEAP) Program. LEAP is a statewide program designed to encourage school attendance among pregnant and parenting teens on welfare. Suggests that LEAP has succeeded in its primary short-term goal of increasing the school enrollment and attendance of teen…

  1. Diet models with linear goal programming: impact of achievement functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerdessen, J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Diet models based on goal programming (GP) are valuable tools in designing diets that comply with nutritional, palatability and cost constraints. Results derived from GP models are usually very sensitive to the type of achievement function that is chosen. This paper aims to

  2. Research on the IBM Grant Program's Impact on Teacher Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Gary G.; Pryor, Brandt W.

    Technology is not often a factor in classroom activities because teachers are untrained in its use. In 1990, International Business Machines (IBM) contributed over 30 million dollars' worth of workstations, networking hardware and software, IBM courseware, cash, and training to prompt 144 selected teacher preparation programs to integrate…

  3. Assessing the Impact of a Multiyear Marriage Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Mary Sean; Rizzolo, Sonja; Cohen, Marsha L.; Wacker, Robbyn

    2013-01-01

    This study measured marital satisfaction of low-income couples in a Western state following participation in the Building Healthy Marriages program, which aimed to educate couples and increase relationship satisfaction. The researchers' goals were the following: To determine the areas in which participants experienced the greatest number of…

  4. A School Social Worker's Impact on a Human Sexuality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crolley-Simic, Josie; Vonk, M. Elizabeth; Ellsworth, William

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the roles and skills of a school social worker assisting a school district in developing a human sexuality education program. Specific challenges faced by the social worker are discussed, and alternatives to several of the social worker's decisions are explored. Specifically, decisions made by the social worker regarding…

  5. Impact of School Flu Vaccine Program on Student Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaspohl, Sara S.; Dixon, Betty T.; Streater, James A.; Hausauer, Elizabeth T.; Newman, Christopher P.; Vogel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Literature provides evidence that school attendance correlates with academic performance and student success. Influenza is a contributing factor to school absences. Primary prevention for influenza includes immunization. School-located influenza vaccine (SLIV) programs provide greater access for students to be immunized. A retrospective review of…

  6. Analysis of System Training Impact for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Dogfighting, cheating death, and Hollywood glory as one of America’s best fighter jocks. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. Booher, H. (1990...ensure that there are no false starts or misunderstandings later in the process. Normally, cost estimates are sponsored by a system program office and

  7. The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

    High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption

  8. The impact of a middle school program to reduce aggression, victimization, and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R; Brown, Eric C

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Second Step: Student Success Through Prevention (SS-SSTP) Middle School Program on reducing youth violence including peer aggression, peer victimization, homophobic name calling, and sexual violence perpetration and victimization among middle school sixth-grade students. The study design was a nested cohort (sixth graders) longitudinal study. We randomly assigned 18 matched pairs of 36 middle schools to the SS-SSTP or control condition. Teachers implemented 15 weekly lessons of the sixth-grade curriculum that focused on social emotional learning skills, including empathy, communication, bully prevention, and problem-solving skills. All sixth graders (n = 3,616) in intervention and control conditions completed self-report measures assessing verbal/relational bullying, physical aggression, homophobic name calling, and sexual violence victimization and perpetration before and after the implementation of the sixth-grade curriculum. Multilevel analyses revealed significant intervention effects with regard to physical aggression. The adjusted odds ratio indicated that the intervention effect was substantial; individuals in intervention schools were 42% less likely to self-report physical aggression than students in control schools. We found no significant intervention effects for verbal/relational bully perpetration, peer victimization, homophobic teasing, and sexual violence. Within a 1-year period, we noted significant reductions in self-reported physical aggression in the intervention schools. Results suggest that SS-SSTP holds promise as an efficacious prevention program to reduce physical aggression in adolescent youth. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Celebrity Credibility on Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Aziz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertisers often make use of endorsers or representatives as trustworthy sources of persuasion for consumers' attitudes. Promotion of products through celebrities is a trendy advertising practice around the world. The present study judged the impact of celebrity credibility on advertising effectiveness in terms of consumer’s attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and their purchase intention. This study also explored the differences of respondent’s responses towards the advertisements of brand through famous celebrities as well as unknown celebrities. Different TV advertisements were used for the experiment. Several statistical tools were applied to test the hypotheses and identify significant differences & the proposed relationships among the variables. Overall findings suggests that the respondents considered the famous celebrities of the brand as the most credible celebrities, having positive impact on consumers attitude towards the advertisement, attitude to the brand and their favorable purchase intentions as compare to the unknown celebrity with less credibility.

  10. A survey of impact evaluations of infrastructure projects, programs and policies

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the main lessons from impact evaluations of infrastructure projects, programs and policies relevant to policymakers. In the process, however, it also reveals some major research gaps of relevance to academics. After a brief discussion of the motivation for the explosion of the demand for impact evaluations, it starts with some sometimes underestimated lessons for infrastructure specialists from theoretical experiment. The main focus of the paper is, however, the impact eval...

  11. School feeding programs in developing countries: impacts on children's health and educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis H; McDonnell, Elaine; Probart, Claudia

    2011-02-01

    School feeding programs (SFPs) are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and transfer income to families. The present review explores the impact of SFPs on nutritional, health, and educational outcomes of school-aged children in developing countries. Peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews published in the past 20 years were identified and screened for inclusion. Analysis of the articles revealed relatively consistent positive effects of school feeding in its different modalities on energy intake, micronutrient status, school enrollment, and attendance of the children participating in SFPs compared to non-participants. However, the positive impact of school feeding on growth, cognition, and academic achievement of school-aged children receiving SFPs compared to non-school-fed children was less conclusive. This review identifies research gaps and challenges that need to be addressed in the design and implementation of SFPs and calls for theory-based impact evaluations to strengthen the scientific evidence behind designing, funding, and implementing SFPs. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Assessing the impact of microfinance programming on children: an evaluation from post-tsunami Aceh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lindsay; Kassim, Nafessa; Sparling, Thalia; Buscher, Dale; Yu, Gary; Boothby, Neil

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the long-term impact of microfinance programmes on Acehnese children during the post-tsunami recovery. The study, conducted from June to August 2010, examined the impact of microfinance programming six years after the tsunami. The sample consisted of 185 microfinance participants, with a comparison group of 192 individuals who did not participate in microfinance programmes. All respondents were parents, interviewed through a structured survey. The study used four child protection indicators-diet, health, childcare and education-in contrast to traditional repayment rate indicators. The primary results were insignificant with respect to all four child protection indicators, suggesting that, with respect to these indicators, there was no long-term difference between the impact of microfinance on beneficiaries' children and non-beneficiaries' children. These findings signify a need for microfinance actors to move beyond traditional indicators of economic success to evaluate the social changes microfinance programmes are presumed to effect. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  13. Impact of "Grassroots on Work" (GROW) Extension Program to the Bachelor of Arts in Political Science Students' Sense of Civic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paga, Mark Leo Huit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the medium term effect of service-learning program or "Grassroots on Work" extension program to civic responsibility of AB Political Science students. Methodology: This study employed an impact evaluation research design and both qualitative and quantitative. The data on goals and…

  14. Impact of a workplace exercise program on neck and shoulder segments in office workers

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Matos, M.; Arezes, P.

    2016-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a common problem among office workers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a workplace exercise program on neck and shoulder pain and flexibility in office workers. The workstation assessment was performed using Rapid Office Strain Assessment. Workers were assessed for pain pre- and post-implementation of the workplace exercise program using the Nordic Questionnaire for Musculoskeletal Symptoms, and for flexibility. The program las...

  15. Effectiveness of a Dental Students Stress Management Program

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van Der Molen, Henk T.; De Boer, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    The dental education stress effects and sources were explored thoroughly in the literature, but the effectiveness of stress management programs received less attention. This study introduced a new stress management program, named Dental Education Stress Management (DESM) program. It showed its effectiveness in a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest-follow-up-control group design. The new program was based on the principle of psychoeducation and consisted of three 90-min sessions, to teach dent...

  16. Human reliability program: Components and effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baley-Downes, S.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''Human Reliability Program'' (HRP) is defined as a series of selective controls which are implemented and integrated to identify the ''insider threat'' from current and prospective employees who are dishonest, disloyal and unreliable. The HRP, although not a prediction of human behaviour, is an excellent tool for decision making and should compliment security and improve employee quality. The HRP consists of several component applications such as management evaluation; appropriate background investigative requirements; occupational health examination and laboratory testing; drug/alcohol screening; psychological testing and interviews; polygraph examination; job related aberrant behaviour recognition; on-going education and training; document control; drug/alcohol rehabilitation; periodic HRP audit; and implementation of an onsite central clearing house. The components and effects of HRP are discussed in further detail in this paper.

  17. Long-Term Health Impact of Early Nutrition: The Power of Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Grote, Veit; Kirchberg, Franca F; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina

    2017-01-01

    The Power of Programming conference 2016 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich brought together about 600 researchers and other stakeholders from around the world who reviewed the recent evidence on the lasting health impact of environment and nutrition during early life, from pre-pregnancy to early childhood. The conference was hosted by the Early Nutrition Project, a multidisciplinary research collaboration funded by the European Commission with collaborating researchers from 35 institutions in 15 countries in Europe, the United States and Australia. The project explores the early origins of obesity, adiposity and associated non-communicable diseases, underlying mechanisms and opportunities for prevention. The project also proactively supports translational application of research findings. In fact, some existing evidence has already been rapidly adopted into policy, regulatory standards and practice. Further, broad dissemination of findings is achieved through the established digital eLearning platform of the Early Nutrition eAcademy, video clip-based learning and graphically supported messaging to consumers. The project demonstrated powerful effects of early metabolic programming on later health. Compared to other common prevention strategies, modifying risk trajectories in early life can achieve a much larger risk reduction and be more cost-effective. While some effective prevention strategies have been promptly implemented in policy and guidelines, legislation and practice, in other areas, the uptake is limited by a paucity of quality human intervention trials and insufficient evaluation of the feasibility of implementation and econometric impact. This needs to be strengthened by future collaborative research work. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Methodological Considerations for Use of Routine Health Information System Data to Evaluate Malaria Program Impact in an Era of Declining Malaria Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Ruth A; Bennett, Adam; Yukich, Joshua; Bhattarai, Achuyt; Keating, Joseph; Eisele, Thomas P

    2017-09-01

    Coverage of malaria control interventions is increasing dramatically across endemic countries. Evaluating the impact of malaria control programs and specific interventions on health indicators is essential to enable countries to select the most effective and appropriate combination of tools to accelerate progress or proceed toward malaria elimination. When key malaria interventions have been proven effective under controlled settings, further evaluations of the impact of the intervention using randomized approaches may not be appropriate or ethical. Alternatives to randomized controlled trials are therefore required for rigorous evaluation under conditions of routine program delivery. Routine health management information system (HMIS) data are a potentially rich source of data for impact evaluation, but have been underused in impact evaluation due to concerns over internal validity, completeness, and potential bias in estimates of program or intervention impact. A range of methodologies were identified that have been used for impact evaluations with malaria outcome indicators generated from HMIS data. Methods used to maximize internal validity of HMIS data are presented, together with recommendations on reducing bias in impact estimates. Interrupted time series and dose-response analyses are proposed as the strongest quasi-experimental impact evaluation designs for analysis of malaria outcome indicators from routine HMIS data. Interrupted time series analysis compares the outcome trend and level before and after the introduction of an intervention, set of interventions or program. The dose-response national platform approach explores associations between intervention coverage or program intensity and the outcome at a subnational (district or health facility catchment) level.

  19. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  20. Supporting people with Autism Spectrum Disorders in leisure time: impact of an University Volunteer Program, and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Nieto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social participation has positive effects on mental and physical health, and it can be taken as an indicator of quality of life. However, the participation of people with disabilities in their communities is still scarce, especially for people with autism. The impact on individual satisfaction produced by a university volunteer program (APUNTATE aimed at supporting people with autism in leisure activities was evaluated. A questionnaire of impact assessment, that identifies those areas where the impact is greater, was completed by 159 families of users and 230 volunteers. Users and volunteers reported a very high level of satisfaction with the program, but personal characteristics of users slightly influenced the scores. The structured organization of the program, and the continued training and support received by volunteers were the highest valued aspects. The adaptation of supports to the individual needs of users and volunteers was another relevant factor to explain the results. The evaluation obtained shows that volunteering programs to promote the participation of people with ASD can be successfully implemented in public universities. These programs can increase the personal development, facilitate a change of attitude towards people with disabilities and can improve future employment prospects of students.

  1. Application to graduate psychology programs by undergraduate students of color: the impact of a research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; Allard, Carolyn B

    2009-07-01

    The top 86 students were selected from a pool of approximately 400 applicants to a summer clinical psychology research training program for undergraduate students of color. Forty-three of the students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 clinical psychology research training programs, and 43 were randomly assigned to a control condition without training. The multicultural version of the training program emphasized the cultural context of psychology in all areas of training, whereas cultural context was de-emphasized in the monocultural version of the program. Although the cultural content of the 2 training programs was effectively manipulated as indicated by a fidelity check by an outside expert, there were no significant differences between the effects of the 2 programs on the outcomes measured in this study. The primary differences in this study were between students who did versus those who did not participate in a training program. Sixty-five percent of the students who completed the multicultural training program applied to graduate schools in psychology, compared with 47% of those who completed the monocultural training program, and 31% of those in the control group. Participation in summer research training programs also increased self-perceptions of multicultural competence.

  2. Impact of maternal obesity on fetal programming of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Victoria H J; Frias, Antonio E; Grove, Kevin L

    2015-05-01

    The in utero environment is a key determinant of long-term health outcomes; poor maternal metabolic state and placental insufficiency are strongly associated with these long-term health risks. Human epidemiological studies link maternal obesity and offspring cardiovascular disease in later life, but mechanistic studies in animal models are limited. Here, we review the literature pertaining to maternal consequences of obesity during pregnancy and the subsequent impact on fetal cardiovascular development. ©2015 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  3. Legislative Environmental Impact Statement: Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    stimulation and the trips gene - rated by inmigrants. Short-term impacts experienced during the construction phase are expected to be significant in some... Opuntia arenaria) and three additional species listed by New Mexico as endangered (Cor~phantha scheeri, Mammillaria wrightii var. wrightii, and Talinum...migration. Two federal -candidate plant species (Cereus greggii and Opuntia arenaria) may occur within the SDA, and seven federal -candidate wildlife species

  4. High school sports programs differentially impact participation by sex

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Keith M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; MacKenzie, Todd; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L; Rundle, Andrew G.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among numerous health benefits, sports participation has been shown to reduce the risk of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Schools represent an ideal environment for increasing sports participation, but it is unclear how access and choice influence participation and whether characteristics of the school sports program differentially influence boys' and girls' participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of high school athletic pro...

  5. Impact of a regional distributed medical education program on an underserved community: perceptions of community leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Patricia; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanlon, Neil; Poole, Gary; Bates, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    To describe community leaders' perceptions regarding the impact of a fully distributed undergraduate medical education program on a small, medically underserved host community. The authors conducted semistructured interviews in 2007 with 23 community leaders representing, collectively, the education, health, economic, media, and political sectors. They reinterviewed six participants from a pilot study (2005) and recruited new participants using purposeful and snowball sampling. The authors employed analytic induction to organize content thematically, using the sectors as a framework, and they used open coding to identify new themes. The authors reanalyzed transcripts to identify program outcomes (e.g., increased research capacity) and construct a list of quantifiable indicators (e.g., number of grants and publications). Participants reported their perspectives on the current and anticipated impact of the program on education, health services, the economy, media, and politics. Perceptions of impact were overwhelmingly positive (e.g., increased physician recruitment), though some were negative (e.g., strains on health resources). The authors identified new outcomes and confirmed outcomes described in 2005. They identified 16 quantifiable indicators of impact, which they judged to be plausible and measureable. Participants perceive that the regional undergraduate medical education program in their community has broad, local impacts. Findings suggest that early observed outcomes have been maintained and may be expanding. Results may be applicable to medical education programs with distributed or regional sites in similar rural, remote, and/or underserved regions. The areas of impact, outcomes, and quantifiable indicators identified will be of interest to future researchers and evaluators.

  6. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Yuba, Tânia Yuka; Soárez, Patrícia Coelho de; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2015-01-01

    To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region.

  7. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marli Christovam Sartori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. RESULTS We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. CONCLUSIONS Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region.

  8. Identifying effective components of alcohol abuse prevention programs: effects of fear appeals, message style, and source expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, R D; Rogers, R W

    1983-04-01

    Despite the importance of alcohol abuse prevention programs, the effectiveness of many components of these programs has not been demonstrated empirically. An experiment tested the efficacy of three components of many prevention programs: fear appeals, one- versus two-sided message style, and the expertise of the source. The persuasive impact of this information was examined on 113 ninth-grade students' intentions to abstain from drinking alcohol while they are teenagers. The results reveal that fear appeals are successful in strengthening students' intentions to refrain from drinking. Implications are discussed for implementing these principles and for designing future investigations of alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  9. Effective Preparation Program Features: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Gary M.; Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a summary of a report prepared for the University Council for Educational Administration Program Improvement Project for the Wallace Foundation. This explores the research base for educational leadership preparation programs, specifically examining literature on program features. The review covers context, candidates, faculty,…

  10. How do you feel, developer? An explanatory theory of the impact of affects on programming performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Graziotin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Affects—emotions and moods—have an impact on cognitive activities and the working performance of individuals. Development tasks are undertaken through cognitive processes, yet software engineering research lacks theory on affects and their impact on software development activities. In this paper, we report on an interpretive study aimed at broadening our understanding of the psychology of programming in terms of the experience of affects while programming, and the impact of affects on programming performance. We conducted a qualitative interpretive study based on: face-to-face open-ended interviews, in-field observations, and e-mail exchanges. This enabled us to construct a novel explanatory theory of the impact of affects on development performance. The theory is explicated using an established taxonomy framework. The proposed theory builds upon the concepts of events, affects, attractors, focus, goals, and performance. Theoretical and practical implications are given.

  11. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

  12. Program Evaluation: A Study of the Impact of a Workforce Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Stephanie Strevels

    2010-01-01

    The Kentucky 4-H Reality Store, a workforce preparation program was established to educate youth about the importance of budgeting, setting goals, planning for careers, considering the future, preventing teen pregnancy, and abstaining from drug misuse. The program which has been administered to over 45,000 adolescents each year has never been…

  13. Explaining the Rise in Danish Vocational Education System Dropouts: The Effect of a Youth Unemployment Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Park, Do-Yeun

    This project focuses on the impact of Denmark’s Youth Unemployment Program(YUP) enacted in late 1990s on the rise in VET dropout rates. The Youth Unemployment Program targeted unemployed, low-educated youth to strengthen the employment possibilities and to motivate for them to undertake...... an education. If the Youth Unemployment Program incentivized less capable/ambitious students to enter vocational education, it would increase the dropout rates via selection. This project investigates whether the program had an effect on the population characteristics of incoming VET students and the resulting...

  14. Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S de Aluja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of antibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p menor que 0.01 and a no significant decrease in seroprevalence from 17.7 to 13.3% were observed. Conclusions. The reduction of the prevalence of taeniasis-cysticercosis establishes the program’s effectiveness in preventing infection. The sustained presence of antibodies, compatible with contact of Taenia solium or other related helminths, underlines the importance of maintaining interventionsto achieve eradication.

  15. ASM Scientific Writing and Publishing Institute: Program Impacts and Future Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene V. Hulede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific writing is one of the most essential skills in science. Writing has numerous benefits and is a critical skill for writing grants, theses, and manuscripts.  The ability to publish research is as almost as important as conducting it. Writing and publishing scientific papers can be difficult for beginning researchers. To help trainees succeed in their efforts to publish, the ASM Committee on Graduate and Postdoctoral Education has offered the ASM Scientific Writing and Publishing Institute (SWPI since 2010. In an effort to gain insight into longer-term outcomes and impacts, the Committee conducted a comprehensive survey in 2015 to assess five cohorts from 2010-2014.The comprehensive survey sought to measure the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of the institute; to gather information on the achievements of its alumni; and to highlight opportunities to strengthen the program.

  16. Positioned for impact: Haiti's first baccalaureate nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jeanne M

    2011-01-01

    Haiti's first baccalaureate nursing programn the Faculty of Nursing Science of the Episcopal University of Haiti (FSIL), educates professional nurses as clinicians, leaders, and change agents, preparing graduates to a global standard set by the World Health Organization. FSIL was founded on Christian principles, expressing a vision of nursing as a ministry of Jesus Christ. Near the epicenter of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the remarkable response of FSIL students and faculty saved lives, gave hope to a community in need, and demonstrated the impact of well-educated nurses on the health of a nation.

  17. IMPaCT - Integration of Missions, Programs, and Core Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balacuit, Carlos P.; Cutts, James A.; Peterson, Craig E.; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Jones, Susan K.; Hang, Winnie N.; Dastur, Shahin D.

    2013-01-01

    IMPaCT enables comprehensive information on current NASA missions, prospective future missions, and the technologies that NASA is investing in, or considering investing in, to be accessed from a common Web-based interface. It allows dependencies to be established between missions and technology, and from this, the benefits of investing in individual technologies can be determined. The software also allows various scenarios for future missions to be explored against resource constraints, and the nominal cost and schedule of each mission to be modified in an effort to fit within a prescribed budget.

  18. Availability of tobacco cessation services in substance use disorder treatment programs: Impact of state tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Amanda J; Bagwell-Adams, Grace; Jayawardhana, Jayani

    2017-08-01

    Given the high prevalence of smoking among substance use disorder (SUD) patients, the specialty SUD treatment system is an important target for adoption and implementation of tobacco cessation (TC) services. While research has addressed the impact of tobacco control on individual tobacco consumption, largely overlooked in the literature is the potential impact of state tobacco control policies on availability of services for tobacco cessation. This paper examines the association between state tobacco control policy and availability of TC services in SUD treatment programs in the United States. State tobacco control and state demographic data (n=51) were merged with treatment program data from the 2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (n=10.413) to examine availability of TC screening, counseling and pharmacotherapy services in SUD treatment programs using multivariate logistic regression models clustered at the state-level. Approximately 60% of SUD treatment programs offered TC screening services, 41% offered TC counseling services and 26% offered TC pharmacotherapy services. Results of multivariate logistic regression showed the odds of offering TC services were greater for SUD treatment programs located in states with higher cigarette excise taxes and greater spending on tobacco prevention and control. Findings indicate cigarette excise taxes and recommended funding levels may be effective policy tools for increasing access to TC services in SUD treatment programs. Coupled with changes to insurance coverage for TC under the Affordable Care Act, state tobacco control policy tools may further reduce tobacco use in the United States. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The Impact of Two Los Angeles County Teen Courts on Youth Recidivism: Comparing Two Informal Probation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes.

  20. The Impact of Two Los Angeles County Teen Courts on Youth Recidivism: Comparing Two Informal Probation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Results Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. Conclusions While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes. PMID:27547171

  1. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Report: EPA Needs Accurate Data on Results of Pollution Prevention Grants to Maintain Program Integrity and Measure Effectiveness of Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0276, September 4, 2015. Inaccurate reporting of results misrepresents the impacts of pollution prevention activities provided to the public, and misinforms EPA management on the effectiveness of its investment in the program.

  3. Assessing the impact of micronutrient intervention programs implemented under special circumstances--meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pee, Saskia; Spiegel, Paul; Kraemer, Klaus; Wilkinson, Caroline; Bilukha, Oleg; Seal, Andrew; Macias, Kathy; Oman, Allison; Fall, Ahmed Baba; Yip, Ray; West, Keith; Zlotkin, Stanley; Bloem, Martin W

    2011-09-01

    The World Food Programme and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees organized a meeting of experts to discuss evaluation of micronutrient interventions under special circumstances, such as emergency and refugee situations. Multimicronutrient interventions for groups with higher needs may include home fortification products for young children or supplements for pregnant and lactating women. The choice of preparation should be guided by target group needs, evidence of efficacy of a product or its compounds, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness. Different designs can be used to assess whether an intervention has the desired impact. First, program implementation and adherence must be ascertained. Then, impact on micronutrient status can be assessed, but design options are often limited by logistic challenges, available budget, security issues, and ethical and practical issues regarding nonintervention or placebo groups. Under these conditions, a plausibility design using pre- and postintervention cross-sectional surveys, a prospective cohort study, or a step-wedge design, which enrolls groups as they start receiving the intervention, should be considered. Post hoc comparison of groups with different adherence levels may also be useful. Hemoglobin is often selected as an impact indicator because it is easily measured and tends to respond to change in micronutrient status, especially iron. However, it is not a very specific indicator of micronutrient status, because it is also influenced by inflammation, parasitic infestation, physiological status (age, pregnancy), altitude, and disorders such as thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Given the constraints described above, replicability of impact in different contexts is key to the validation of micronutrient interventions.

  4. The effect of French television sexual program content on the recall of sexual and nonsexual advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Mainaud, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of television program sexual content and explicit sexual advertisement content on memory for advertisements. Eighty-two French participants, aged 18 to 48 years, watched either a sexual program (Sex and the City) or a nonsexual program (Friends), with three sexual and three nonsexual adverts embedded within it. They then completed free- and cued-recall questionnaires testing their memory of the advertisements, as well as a gender identity scale. Overall, sexual advertisements were recalled (in free recall) better than nonsexual advertisements. Participants were found to recall adverts significantly better within the nonsexual program than within the sexual program. No interaction was found between program type and advertisement type: Sexual adverts were recalled better than nonsexual adverts within both programs. Males and females recalled sexual adverts equally, with no mediating effect of gender identity. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  5. Effects of interruptible load program on equilibrium outcomes of electricity markets with wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xuena; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Xue [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    High wind power penetration presents a lot of challenges to the flexibility and reliability of power system operation. In this environment, various demand response (DR) programs have got much attention. As an effective measure of demand response programs, interruptible load (IL) programs have been widely used in electricity markets. This paper addresses the problem of impacts of the IL programs on the equilibrium outcomes of electricity wholesale markets with wind power. A Cournot equilibrium model of wholesale markets with wind power is presented, in which IL programs is included by a market demand model. The introduction of the IL programs leads to a non-smooth equilibrium problem. To solve this equilibrium problem, a novel solution method is proposed. Numerical examples show that IL programs can lower market price and its volatility significantly, facilitate the integration of wind power.

  6. Evaluating the Ecological Impact of a Youth Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Grant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth are the weakest population within the workforce and long-term unemployment leaves them unable to develop work skills, reaches into their future prospects, and can weaken the economy, education systems, and overall social structure. Through ecological qualitative methodology, the reported research gathered in-depth accounts of experiences of ten urban youth who participated in a federally-funded Summer Youth Employment Program (SYEP. To develop an understanding of aspects of the youth’s lives, individual interviews were conducted and ecomaps were completed with participants. Personal narratives support the premises that documenting the ecosystems of individuals provides insights into daily lives, histories, and lived experiences in a way that provides a window into how services and prevention efforts can be targeted. Results concluded that for these participants, the SYEP made a difference in their lives in terms of helping them make connections to positive role models, learning workplace communication, and providing an entrance into the workforce on varying levels consistent with their barriers. This research can be applied to inform practitioners, teachers, and decision makers with a better understanding of the social, emotional, educational, and workforce realities of adolescents. The research advances the conversation about federally funded youth employment programs creating opportunities for marginalized youth to learn skills for succeeding in the mainstream economy.

  7. Impact of the Bienestar School-Based Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Program on Fasting Capillary Glucose Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Roberto P.; Yin, Zenong; Hernandez, Arthur; Hale, Daniel E.; Garcia, Oralia A.; Mobley, Connie

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a school-based diabetes mellitus prevention program on low-income fourth-grade Mexican American children. Design A randomized controlled trial with 13 intervention and 14 control schools. Setting Elementary schools in inner-city neighborhoods in San Antonio, Tex. Participants Eighty percent of participants were Mexican American and 94% were from economically disadvantaged households. Baseline and follow-up measures were collected from 1419 (713 intervention and 706 control) and 1221 (619 intervention and 602 control) fourth-grade children, respectively. Intervention The Bienestar Health Program consists of a health class and physical education curriculum, a family program, a school cafeteria program, and an after-school health club. The objectives are to decrease dietary saturated fat intake, increase dietary fiber intake, and increase physical activity. Main Outcome Measures The primary end point was fasting capillary glucose level, and the secondary end points were percentage of body fat, physical fitness level, dietary fiber intake, and dietary saturated fat intake. Fasting capillary glucose level, bioelectric impedance, modified Harvard step test, three 24-hour dietary recalls, weight, and height were collected at baseline and 8 months later. Results Children in the intervention arm attended an average of 32 Bienestar sessions. Mean fasting capillary glucose levels decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools after adjusting for covariates (−2.24 mg/dL [0.12 mmol/L]; 95% confidence interval, −6.53 to 2.05 [−0.36 to 0.11 mmol/L]; P = .03). Fitness scores (P = .04) and dietary fiber intake (P = .009) significantly increased in intervention children and decreased in control children. Percentage of body fat (P = .56) and dietary saturated fat intake (P = .52) did not differ significantly between intervention and control children. Conclusion This intervention showed some positive results, but additional

  8. Invitation choice structure has no impact on attendance in a female business training program in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizan Diwan

    Full Text Available Business training programs are a common form of support to small businesses, but organizations providing this training often struggle to get business owners to attend. We evaluate the role of invitation choice structure in determining agreement to participate and actual attendance. A field experiment randomly assigned female small business owners in Kenya (N = 1172 to one of three invitation types: a standard opt-in invitation; an active choice invitation where business owners had to explicitly say yes or no to the invitation; and an enhanced active choice invitation which highlighted the costs of saying no. We find no statistically significant effect of these alternative choice structures on willingness to participate in training, attending at least one day, and completing the course. The 95 percent confidence interval for the active treatment effect on attendance is [-1.9%, +9.5%], while for the enhanced active choice treatment it is [-4.1%, +7.7%]. The effect sizes consistent with our data are smaller than impacts measured in health and retirement savings studies in the United States. We examine several potential explanations for the lack of effect in a developing country setting. We find evidence consistent with two potential reasons being limited decision-making power amongst some women, and lower levels of cognition making the enhanced active choice wording less effective.

  9. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergseth, Kathleen J; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) programs have become widespread in the United States and in other countries. These programs are often seen as a viable alternative to traditional retributive processing, especially for minor, and sometimes more serious, forms of delinquency and adult criminality. The programs hold promise for achieving several goals, including increased community and victim involvement, greater satisfaction with the case outcomes, improved offender compliance, increased perceptions of fairness, and even recidivism reduction. Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders. Implications for future research and potential improvements to the RJ model are discussed.

  10. IMPACT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON LEADER EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belma Kunalić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available All recent research proves that emotional intelligence is the forecast of achieving leader effectiveness. This study comprises research of respondents from private and public companies within ten existing cantons in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Respondents graded emotional intelligence competencies of their leaders and their efficiency in leading a group of people in order to achieve organizational demands. We succeeded in confirming prior research through the regression model and proved that the existing questionnaires developed in the western context can be applied in the context of Bosnia and Herzegovina. After determining the internal consistency through Cronbach Alpha indicators (α=.844 and α=.734 in existing questionnaires with two regression models and R-square of .547 we succeeded in confirming the hypothesis of this research, according to which the leader’s competence in emotional intelligence has a positive impact on his/her effectiveness in fulfilling organizational demands and on the ability to manage an efficient team.

  11. A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling: Effectiveness and Moderating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Christoph; Heinrichs, Nina

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis encompassing all studies evaluating the impact of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program on parent and child outcome measures was conducted in an effort to identify variables that moderate the program's effectiveness. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) with three levels of data were employed to analyze effect sizes. The results (N =…

  12. Impact of a community-based program on early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchabhakdi, N J

    1999-01-01

    To determine the impact of an integrated community-based program in rural villages on early childhood development, a controlled trial was conducted in the Nakhon Sawan province of Thailand. The program involved the cooperation of governmental agencies, nongovernmental agencies, academic institutions, and community organizations. At baseline, 3 control and 3 program villages were similar in terms of nutritional status, developmental performance and parental care. After 2 years of intervention in the program villages, improvements were noted in nutritional status, developmental performance, and intelligence quotient scores, as well as overall utilization of health care resources and parental attitude and involvement.

  13. Evaluating Effectiveness of Pair Programming as a Teaching Tool in Programming Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faja, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of pair programming on student learning and satisfaction in introductory programming courses. Pair programming, used in the industry as a practice of an agile development method, can be adopted in classroom settings to encourage peer learning, increase students' social skills, and enhance student…

  14. Estimating the Counterfactual Impact of Conservation Programs on Land Cover Outcomes: The Role of Matching and Panel Regression Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly W; Lewis, David J

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and conversion of native habitats continues to be the leading driver of biodiversity and ecosystem service loss. A number of conservation policies and programs are implemented--from protected areas to payments for ecosystem services (PES)--to deter these losses. Currently, empirical evidence on whether these approaches stop or slow land cover change is lacking, but there is increasing interest in conducting rigorous, counterfactual impact evaluations, especially for many new conservation approaches, such as PES and REDD, which emphasize additionality. In addition, several new, globally available and free high-resolution remote sensing datasets have increased the ease of carrying out an impact evaluation on land cover change outcomes. While the number of conservation evaluations utilizing 'matching' to construct a valid control group is increasing, the majority of these studies use simple differences in means or linear cross-sectional regression to estimate the impact of the conservation program using this matched sample, with relatively few utilizing fixed effects panel methods--an alternative estimation method that relies on temporal variation in the data. In this paper we compare the advantages and limitations of (1) matching to construct the control group combined with differences in means and cross-sectional regression, which control for observable forms of bias in program evaluation, to (2) fixed effects panel methods, which control for observable and time-invariant unobservable forms of bias, with and without matching to create the control group. We then use these four approaches to estimate forest cover outcomes for two conservation programs: a PES program in Northeastern Ecuador and strict protected areas in European Russia. In the Russia case we find statistically significant differences across estimators--due to the presence of unobservable bias--that lead to differences in conclusions about effectiveness. The Ecuador case illustrates that

  15. Estimating the Counterfactual Impact of Conservation Programs on Land Cover Outcomes: The Role of Matching and Panel Regression Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly W Jones

    Full Text Available Deforestation and conversion of native habitats continues to be the leading driver of biodiversity and ecosystem service loss. A number of conservation policies and programs are implemented--from protected areas to payments for ecosystem services (PES--to deter these losses. Currently, empirical evidence on whether these approaches stop or slow land cover change is lacking, but there is increasing interest in conducting rigorous, counterfactual impact evaluations, especially for many new conservation approaches, such as PES and REDD, which emphasize additionality. In addition, several new, globally available and free high-resolution remote sensing datasets have increased the ease of carrying out an impact evaluation on land cover change outcomes. While the number of conservation evaluations utilizing 'matching' to construct a valid control group is increasing, the majority of these studies use simple differences in means or linear cross-sectional regression to estimate the impact of the conservation program using this matched sample, with relatively few utilizing fixed effects panel methods--an alternative estimation method that relies on temporal variation in the data. In this paper we compare the advantages and limitations of (1 matching to construct the control group combined with differences in means and cross-sectional regression, which control for observable forms of bias in program evaluation, to (2 fixed effects panel methods, which control for observable and time-invariant unobservable forms of bias, with and without matching to create the control group. We then use these four approaches to estimate forest cover outcomes for two conservation programs: a PES program in Northeastern Ecuador and strict protected areas in European Russia. In the Russia case we find statistically significant differences across estimators--due to the presence of unobservable bias--that lead to differences in conclusions about effectiveness. The Ecuador case

  16. Master’s Degree Programs of Camarines Norte State College, Philippines: Impact on Its Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godofredo E. Peteza, Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research determined the impact of the master’s degree programs offered in the Graduate School such as Master in Business Administration, Master in Public Administration, Master in Management majors in Human Resource Management and Educational Planning and Management on its graduates from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive-survey method supplemented by interview was employed to identify specifically the profile of the graduates of master’s degree programs in terms of age, sex, civil status, level of appointment before and after taking the master’s degree program, monthly income before and after taking the master’s degree program, number of promotions after graduation, and years in service and the impact of the CNSC Graduate School’s Master’s Degree Programs along professional practice, career development; and employment. Results show that majority of the respondents are in the middle age from 31 -37 years old, married, mostly females, 6-10 years in service and have one promotion after they have graduated from their respective master’s degrees. The level of appointment of the respondents has a positive movement from rank and file to supervisory and managerial levels positions. The Graduate School’s Master’s degree programs provided high impact on the graduates’ professional practice, and on employment while average impact on career development.

  17. The impact of a Portuguese middle school social-emotional learning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vitor; Sousa, Vanda; Raimundo, Raquel; Figueira, Ana

    2017-04-01

    This controlled pre-post study investigated whether a universal, school-based, social-emotional learning program implemented in two consecutive school years in two distinct cohorts, would promote gains in the social-emotional competencies of Portuguese middle school students. Moreover, it also analyzed the moderating role of students' characteristics, such as gender and baseline levels, on the impact of the intervention. Program 'Positive Attitude' was applied to 472 seventh to ninth grade students (25 classes). One hundred and fifty-six students in control groups (8 classes) also participated in this study. Overall, there were 628 participants aged from 11 to 17 years (Mage = 13.54; SD = 1.36). Self-report questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention. There were significant intervention gains in three (of five) social-emotional competencies, namely increases in social awareness and self-control as well as decreases in the levels of social anxiety in the first cohort. The positive effects were stably effective in the second cohort, except for social anxiety. Girls revealed greater gains in social awareness and greater reductions of the levels of social isolation and social anxiety when compared with boys. Intervention students with lower social awareness pretest scores profited more than controls. These results indicated that the intervention improved the social and emotional competencies of middle school students, supporting the cross-cultural generalization of social-emotional learning programs' efficacy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Noise and Sonic Boom Impact Technology. BOOMAP2 Computer Program for Sonic Boom Research. Volume 3. Program Maintenance Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Boom Impact Technology Program Systems AcqulsiRIon Division Human Systems Division Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235-5000 88 1013 059 NOTICz When...report from the Human Systems Division. Copies may be obtained from DTIC. Address your request for additional copies to: Defense Technical Information...CURRENT TIME C EQUAL TO EMMISSION TIME. THE RATES OF CHANGE ARE WITH RESPECT TO NOT C ONLY CURRENT TIME, BUT ALSO THE RAY PARAMETERS OF PHI ANGLE AND

  19. Development of a Medication Monitoring System for an Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B. Washington, DO, Assistant Professor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary goal was to improve medication management oversight for a severely mentally ill (SMI community-based population by developing a medication monitoring system based on current guidelines to optimize pharmacotherapy and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was improvement in coordination of care between healthcare providers. Methods: Guidelines for medication used for psychiatric indications were reviewed. A database of medication for psychiatric indications with monitoring recommendation was developed. Results: Medication regimens for 68 members of the Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT program qualified for review. Fourteen medications, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluphenazine and fluphenazine long-acting injections (LAI, haloperidol and haloperidol LAI, lithium, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone and paliperidone LAI, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone and risperidone LAI, valproic acid/divalproex, and ziprasidone, were identified. In total, 111 medications are used on a monthly basis. Each member receives more than one medication qualifying for review. Additional monitoring parameters that were evaluated included changes in laboratory orders for members with insulin-dependent diabetes. Annual lipid panels were changed to every 6 months, if applicable. Conclusions and Future Directions: This medication monitoring program was developed to help ensure IMPACT members receive the most effective care and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was to improve coordination of care. Medication monitoring will be added as a continuous quality assurance measure. Lab results will be reviewed at least monthly. The medication monitoring program will be evaluated annually.

  20. Evaluating the Differential Impact of Teaching Assistant Training Programs on International Graduate Student Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Ken N.; Olsen, Karyn C.; Dimitrov, Nanda; Dawson, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of a traditional teaching assistant (TA) training program to those of a specialized program, with a substantial intercultural component, for international graduate students. We expected both programs to result in an increase in international graduate students' teaching self-efficacy, observed teaching…

  1. From Ground to Distance: The Impact of Advanced Technologies on an Innovative School Leadership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korach, Susan; Agans, Lyndsay J.

    2011-01-01

    An educational leadership preparation program for the 21st Century not only makes use of innovations in teaching and learning, but pushes the educational experience forward through the effective use of advanced technologies. This idea frames the delivery methodology for a blended online principal preparation program. The blended online program was…

  2. Profiles of Effective Corporate Giving Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauft, E. B.

    A research study of 48 United States corporate giving programs is described. The companies are generally large or mid-range in size and represent 15 different business and industry classifications. The size of their contributions programs ranged from $98,000 to $53 million in annual grants, with a median of $4.3 million. About three-fourths of the…

  3. Effective Teaching in Accelerated Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Drick

    2004-01-01

    According to Wlodkowski (2003), "accelerated learning programs are one of the fastest growing transformations in higher education" (p. 5). The Center for the Study of Accelerated Learning at Regis University has documented at least 250 colleges or universities that offer accelerated learning programs for working adults. By definition, accelerated…

  4. Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riewer, S. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Spanner, G.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration`s retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and ``free ridership.`` The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

  5. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

  6. Diet models with linear goal programming: impact of achievement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdessen, J C; de Vries, J H M

    2015-11-01

    Diet models based on goal programming (GP) are valuable tools in designing diets that comply with nutritional, palatability and cost constraints. Results derived from GP models are usually very sensitive to the type of achievement function that is chosen.This paper aims to provide a methodological insight into several achievement functions. It describes the extended GP (EGP) achievement function, which enables the decision maker to use either a MinSum achievement function (which minimizes the sum of the unwanted deviations) or a MinMax achievement function (which minimizes the largest unwanted deviation), or a compromise between both. An additional advantage of EGP models is that from one set of data and weights multiple solutions can be obtained. We use small numerical examples to illustrate the 'mechanics' of achievement functions. Then, the EGP achievement function is demonstrated on a diet problem with 144 foods, 19 nutrients and several types of palatability constraints, in which the nutritional constraints are modeled with fuzzy sets. Choice of achievement function affects the results of diet models. MinSum achievement functions can give rise to solutions that are sensitive to weight changes, and that pile all unwanted deviations on a limited number of nutritional constraints. MinMax achievement functions spread the unwanted deviations as evenly as possible, but may create many (small) deviations. EGP comprises both types of achievement functions, as well as compromises between them. It can thus, from one data set, find a range of solutions with various properties.

  7. Impact of the fast track prevention program on health services use by conduct-problem youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Damon; Godwin, Jennifer; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John D; Greenberg, Mark T; Lochman, John E; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2010-01-01

    We tested the impact of the Fast Track conduct disorder prevention program on the use of pediatric, general health, and mental health services in adolescence. Participants were 891 public kindergarten boys and girls screened from a population of 9594 children and found to be at risk for conduct disorder. They were assigned randomly (by school) to intervention or control conditions and were followed for 12 years. Intervention lasted 10 years and included parent training, child social-cognitive skills training, reading tutoring, peer-relations enhancement, and classroom curricula and management. Service use was assessed through annual interviews of parents and youth. Youth assigned to preventive intervention had significantly reduced use of professional general health, pediatric, and emergency department services relative to control youth on the basis of parent-report data. For control-group youth, the odds of greater use of general health services for any reason and general health services use for mental health purposes were roughly 30% higher and 56% higher, respectively. On the basis of self-report data, the intervention reduced the likelihood of outpatient mental health services among older adolescents for whom odds of services use were more than 90% higher among control-group youth. No differences were found between intervention and control youth on the use of inpatient mental health services. Statistical models controlled for key study characteristics, and potential moderation of the intervention effect was assessed. Random assignment to the Fast Track prevention program is associated with reduced use of general health and outpatient mental health services in adolescents. Future studies should examine the mechanism of this impact and service use patterns as subjects reach young adulthood.

  8. Impact of the Intensive Program of Emotional Intelligence (IPEI) on work supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez García, Gustavo A; López-Pérez, Belén; Férreo Cruzado, Manuel A; Fernández Carrascoso, María E; Fernández, Juan

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the Intensive Program of Emotional Intelligence (IPEI; Fernández, 2016; Férreo, 2016) on middle managers’ emotional intelligence, as this variable may have a significant impact on personal satisfaction, task performance, and the work environment. The intervention was applied to work team supervisors in a large call center, as it is an overlooked sector in this topic. Two-hundred and eighty-two supervisors from a Madrid-based, Spanish multinational (51.4% men and 48.6% women) participated in this study. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 190) or the control group (n = 92) by availability, according to management decision. All supervisors filled in two questionnaires to evaluate the different components of intrapersonal emotional intelligence (i.e., attention, clarity, and repair; TMMS-24; Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera, & Ramos, 2004) and cognitive and affective empathy (i.e., perspective taking, emotion understanding, empathic joy, and personal distress; TECA; López-Pérez, Fernández, & Abad, 2008). The findings showed an increase in the studied variables for the experimental group. The results obtained support middle managers’ training in emotional competences through short, efficient, economic programs. Potential limitations and implications of the results are discussed.

  9. The Impact of the Project K Youth Development Program on Self-Efficacy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Kelsey L; Harré, Niki; Moore, Julie; Courtney, Matthew G R

    2017-03-01

    A key issue for youth development programs is whether the learning they provide is transferred to participants' daily lives. It is also important that they are effective for the diverse range of participants they attract. This study used a randomized controlled trial design to measure the impact of Project K, a New Zealand-based youth development program, on academic and social self-efficacy. Project K combines a 3-week wilderness adventure, a 10 day community service component, and 1 year of mentoring to promote positive growth in 14-15 year olds with low self-efficacy. At baseline, the evaluation included 600 Project K (46 % female) and 577 Control participants (48 % female) and revealed that Project K was effective in improving both social and academic self-efficacy from pre- to post-program with effects being sustained 1 year later. Parents' perceptions of changes in the participants' interpersonal skills supported these findings. Differential program effects were found across participant subgroups, particularly 1 year after program completion. The implications of these differences are discussed.

  10. Program-specific cost-effectiveness analysis: breast cancer screening policies for a safety-net program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikow, Joy; Tancredi, Daniel J; Yang, Zhuo; Ritley, Dominique; Jiang, Yun; Slee, Christina; Popova, Svetlana; Rylett, Phillip; Knutson, Kirsten; Smalley, Sherie

    2013-01-01

    Every Woman Counts (EWC), a California breast cancer screening program, faced challenging budget cutbacks and policy choices. A microsimulation model evaluated costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of EWC program mammography policy options on coverage for digital mammography (which has a higher cost than film mammography but recent legislation allowed reimbursement at the lower film rate); screening eligibility age; and screening frequency. Model inputs were based on analyses of program claims data linked to California Cancer Registry data, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, and the Medi-Cal literature. Outcomes included number of procedures, cancers, cancer deaths, costs, and incremental cost per life-year. Projected model outcomes matched program data closely. With restrictions on the number of clients screened, strategies starting screening at age 40 years were dominated (not cost-effective). This finding was highly robust in sensitivity analyses. Compared with no screening, biennial film mammography for women aged 50 to 64 years was projected to reduce 15-year breast cancer mortality by nearly 7.8% at $18,999 per additional life-year, annual film mammography was $106,428 per additional life-year, and digital mammography $180,333 per additional life-year. This more effective, more expensive strategy was projected to reduce breast cancer mortality by 8.6%. Under equal mammography reimbursement, biennial digital mammography beginning at age 50 years was projected to decrease 15-year breast cancer mortality by 8.6% at an incremental cost per additional life-year of $17,050. For the EWC program, biennial screening mammography starting at age 50 years was the most cost-effective strategy. The impact of digital mammography on life expectancy was small. Program-specific cost-effectiveness analysis can be completed in a policy-relevant time frame to assist policymakers faced with difficult program choices. Copyright © 2013, International Society for

  11. Effects of low environmental impact buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandrini, A.; Persia, L. [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The quality of life in modern cities cannot be improved without a more sustainable mobility system. The introduction of new-conception vehicles, with lower energy consumption, and less noise and noxious emissions, can substantially contribute to mitigating the effects of traffic externalities. The results presented in this paper come from a research project called FLEETS, which was conducted in the city of Terni (Italy). The project, supported by EC DG XVII (Energy), dealt with the introduction of 12-m hybrid buses and the testing of biofuel and self-cleaning electrostatic mufflers. The paper focuses on the technical assessment of the buses' efficiency in terms of consumption and pollutant emission, measured by sensors able to monitor bus performance in real-time, installed on both conventional and new-conception buses. Hybrid bus reliability and impacts on users' attitude and PT (public transport) patronage were also assessed. (author)

  12. Impact of Nutritional Supplementation and a Psychomotor Program on Patients With Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente de Sousa, Odete; Soares Guerra, Rita; Sousa, Ana Sofia; Pais Henriques, Bebiana; Pereira Monteiro, Anabela; Amaral, Teresa Freitas

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) and a psychomotor rehabilitation program on nutritional and functional status of community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A 21-day prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted and third intervention group performed a psychomotor rehabilitation program. Patients were followed up for 180 days. Mean (standard deviation) score of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) increased both in the nutritional supplementation group (NSG; n = 25), 0.4 (0.8), and in the nutritional supplementation psychomotor rehabilitation program group (NSPRG; n = 11), 1.5 (1.0), versus -0.1 (1.1) in the control group (CG; n = 43), P .05). The ONS and a psychomotor rehabilitation program have a positive impact on long-term nutritional and functional status of patients with AD.

  13. An Intensive Training Program for Effective Teaching Assistants in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragisich, Vera; Keller, Valerie; Zhao, Meishan

    2016-01-01

    We report an intensive graduate teaching assistant (GTA) training program developed at The University of Chicago. The program has been assessed and has been successful in preparing GTAs for effective discussion and laboratory teaching for both general and organic chemistry. We believe that this training program can provide insightful information…

  14. Effectiveness of an Undergraduate Program in Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirnan, Jean P.; Reilly, Maura; Decker, William

    2000-01-01

    Reports on an evaluation of an undergraduate program in industrial/organizational psychology (College of New Jersey) five years after its implementation in order to assess the effectiveness of the program and identify areas in need of change. Describes the program and makes recommendations for future directions. (CMK)

  15. Action Research: Effective Marketing Strategies for a Blended University Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…

  16. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC.The study team populated the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0 with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM, as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20-34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15-24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15-29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15-34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program's cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections.The VMMC program's impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15-34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25-34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them insufficient to support geographic targeting.

  17. The Impact of a Research Ethics Training Program: Romania as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loue, Sana

    2014-12-01

    Case Western Reserve University's (CWRU) Training Program in International Research Ethics, funded by the Fogarty International Center, has been ongoing in Romania since 2000. The program consists of multiple components: a U.S.- based MA degree program for long-term trainees, Romania-based short courses, a U.S.-based opportunity for mid-and senior-level personnel to develop collaborative writing or research projects and present lectures, and a newsletter and various Internet-based activities. We evaluated the impact of the training program on bioethics in Romania through a survey of the training program's long-term trainees, a literature search for trainee publications, interviews with key informants, and identification of key events during the course of the program. Findings indicate that the program has had a considerable impact in the field of bioethics through trainee authorship of peer-reviewed publications, books, and chapters; trainee career trajectories that encompass activities related to research ethics; and the development of a Romania-based master's degree program in bioethics and a Center of Bioethics and Health Policy. We attribute these achievements to the establishment of strong relationships between CWRU in Cleveland and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Gr. T. Popa in Iasi, Romania, prior to the initiation of the training program; collaboration with key Romania-based institutional partners that are equally invested in the program's success; reliance of the program on a solid theoretical framework; ongoing program responsiveness to trainee and country needs; and a sustained commitment of time, expertise, and funding by the funders, sponsors, and in-country collaborators.

  18. The impact of Japan's 2004 postgraduate training program on intra-prefectural distribution of pediatricians in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Sakai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. METHODS: The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1 predominantly urban and 2 others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. RESULTS: The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p value<.0001 and pediatricians (p value = 0.0057. For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012 and others (p value<0.0001, whereas, for pediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343, but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value =0.0584. CONCLUSION: The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects

  19. The patient’s voice: an exploratory study of the impact of a group self-management support program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Sharon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the potential value of self-management support programs for people with chronic diseases, it is vital to understand how they influence participants’ health attitudes and behaviours. The Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP, the most well-known and widely studied such program, is funded in many provinces and jurisdictions throughout Canada. However, there is little published evidence on its impact in the Canadian health-care system. We studied participants’ reactions and perceived impacts of attending the Stanford program in one Ontario health region so we could assess its value to the health region. The study asked: What are participants’ reactions and perceived impacts of attending the Stanford CDSMP? Methods This mixed methods exploratory study held four focus groups approximately one year after participants attended a Stanford program workshop. At the beginning of each session, participants filled out a survey on the type and frequency of community and health resources used for their self-management. During the sessions, a moderator guided the discussion, asking about such things as long-term impact of the program on their lives and barriers to self-management of their chronic conditions. Results Participants perceived diverse effects of the workshop: from having a profound impact on one area to affecting all aspects of their lives. A change in physical activity patterns was the most prominent behaviour change, noted by over half the participants. Other recurrent effects included an improved sense of social connection and better coping skills. Barriers to self-management were experienced by almost all participants with several dominant themes emerging including problems with the health system and patient-physician interaction. Participants reported a wide variety of resources used in their self-management, and in some cases, an increase in use was noted for some resources. Conclusions Self

  20. Impact of CLSI Breakpoint Changes on Microbiology Laboratories and Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Emily L; Johnson, J Kristie

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) lowered the MIC breakpoints for many beta-lactam antibiotics to enhance detection of known resistance amongEnterobacteriaceae The decision to implement these new breakpoints, including the changes announced in both 2010 and 2014, can have a significant impact on both microbiology laboratories and antimicrobial stewardship programs. In this commentary, we discuss the changes and how implementation of these updated CLSI breakpoints requires partnership between antimicrobial stewardship programs and the microbiology laboratory, including data on the impact that the changes had on antibiotic usage at our own institution. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Memories of GAMES: Exploring the Long-Term Impacts of After-School Museum Programming on Girls' Attitudes Towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Sarah Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study is to investigate any lasting impacts of the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History's Girls at the Museum Exploring Science (GAMES) Program. Using assessment document analysis, student focus groups, and adult interviews, this study examined whether students' positive associations with science continue after completion of the program and whether the program affects the academic and career choices of past participants. Results from the analysis suggest that GAMES has a generally positive impact on participant attitudes towards science in both the short- and long-term. These results also support existing research in identifying key factors in the success of the program including hands-on activities, exposure to diverse careers and female role models, and the incorporation of authentic objects and experiences. These factors of success can contribute to the evidence base about the role of informal education programs in increasing science participation among women, as well as ways in which schools and universities can collaborate to effectively serve populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the sciences.

  2. A methodology for evaluating social impact of Environmental Education Master Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Loret de Mola, E.; Méndez, I. E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is intended to describe a methodology for evaluating social impact of Environmental Education master training program by presenting its main stages. The framework serving as starting point and other empirical methods lead to systematized and define the terms of environmental professional training, professional performance of the environmental educator, evaluation, evaluation of professional performance of environmental educators and impact evaluation; as well as distinguishing the f...

  3. Understanding Effective Program Improvement Schools through a Distributed Leadership Task Context Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Frances Marie

    2012-01-01

    Federal, state, and local agencies face challenges organizing resources that create the conditions necessary to create, sustain, and replicate effective high performing schools. Knowing that leadership does impact achievement outcomes and that school districts tackle growing numbers of sanctioned Program Improvement schools, a distributed…

  4. Impact of a Senior Fitness Program on Measures of Physical and Emotional Health and Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.; Rula, Elizabeth Y.

    2013-01-01

    The SilverSneakers fitness program is a health plan benefit for Medicare beneficiaries that provides older adults with fitness center membership, customized group exercise classes, and a supportive social environment that promotes socialization among participants. This study evaluated the impact of the SilverSneakers program on physical and emotional health and activities of daily living (ADLs). A quasi-experimental retrospective analysis compared annual survey responses from SilverSneakers m...

  5. Requiring sobriety at program entry: impact on outcomes in supported transitional housing for homeless veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, John A; Casey, Roger J; Kasprow, Wesley; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    An important distinction in models of housing for the homeless is whether programs that require abstinence prior to program admission produce better outcomes than unrestricted programs. Data from a large transitional housing program were used to compare client characteristics of and outcomes from programs requiring abstinence at admission and programs not requiring abstinence. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Northeast Program Evaluation Center provided records of individuals who were admitted into, and discharged from, the VA Grant and Per Diem program in 2003-2005. Records contained information from intake interviews, program discharge information, and descriptions of provider characteristics. Analyses were based on 3,188 veteran records, 1,250 from programs requiring sobriety at admission and 1,938 from programs without a sobriety requirement. Group differences were examined with t tests and chi square analyses; predictors of program outcome were determined with logistic regression. Individuals using drugs or alcohol at program admission had more problematic histories, as indicated by several general health and mental health variables, and shorter program stays. There were significant differences between groups in the frequency of program completion, recidivism for homelessness, and employment on program discharge, but effect sizes for these analyses were uniformly small and of questionable importance. Regression analyses did not find meaningful support for the importance of sobriety on program entry on any of the outcome measures. The results add evidence to the small body of literature supporting the position that sobriety on program entry is not a critical variable in determining outcomes for individuals in transitional housing programs.

  6. Achieving the HIV prevention impact of voluntary medical male circumcision: lessons and challenges for managing programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema K Sgaier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.

  7. The impact of the TelEmergency program on rural emergency care: An implementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Sarah A; Seals, Samantha R; Jones, Alan E; King, Melissa H; Galli, Robert L; Isom, Kristen C; Summers, Richard L; Henderson, Kristi A

    2017-07-01

    Introduction Timely, appropriate intervention is key to improving outcomes in many emergent conditions. In rural areas, it is particularly challenging to assure quality, timely emergency care. The TelEmergency (TE) program, which utilizes a dual nurse practitioner and emergency medicine-trained, board-certified physician model, has the potential to improve access to quality emergency care in rural areas. The objective of this study was to examine how the implementation of the TE program impacts rural hospital Emergency Department (ED) operations. Methods Methods included a before and after study of the effect of the TE program on participating rural hospitals between January 2007 and December 2008. Data on ED and hospital operations were collected one year prior to and one year following the implementation of TE. Data from participating hospitals were combined and compared for the two time periods. Results Nine hospitals met criteria for inclusion and participated in the study. Total ED volumes did not significantly change with TE implementation, but ED admissions to the same rural hospital significantly increased following TE implementation (6.7% to 8.1%, p-value = 0.02). Likewise, discharge rates from the ED declined post-initiation (87.1% to 80.0%, p-value = 0.003). ED deaths and transfer rates showed no significant change, while the rate of patient discharge against medical advice significantly increased with TE use. Discussion In this analysis, we found a significant increase in the rate of ED admissions to rural hospitals with TE use. These findings may have important implications for the quality of emergency care in rural areas and the sustainability of rural hospitals' EDs.

  8. Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy.

  9. A counterfactual impact evaluation of a bilingual program on students' grade point average at a spanish university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco-Tirado, J L; Fernández-Martín, F; Ramos-García, A M; Littvay, L; Villoria, J; Naranjo, J A

    2018-02-21

    This observational study intends to estimate the causal effects of an English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) program (as predictor) on students Grade Point Average (GPA) (as outcome) at a particular University in Spain by using a Counterfactual Impact Evaluation (CIE). The need to address the crucial question of causal inferences in EMI programs to produce credible evidences of successful interventions contrasts, however, with the absence of experimental or quasi-experimental research and evaluation designs in the field. CIE approach is emerging as a methodologically viable solution to bridge that gap. The program evaluated here consisted in delivering an EMI program in a Primary Education Teacher Training Degree group. After achieving balance on the observed covariates and recreating a situation that would have been expected in a randomized experiment, three matching approaches such as genetic matching, nearest neighbor matching and Coarsened Exact Matching were used to analyze observational data from a total of 1288 undergraduate students, including both treatment and control group. Results show unfavorable effects of the bilingual group treatment condition. Potential interpretations and recommendations are provided in order to strengthen future causal evidences of bilingual education programs' effectiveness in Higher Education. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of fouling on UV effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, T.S. [Dalhouse Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Chauret, C. [Indiana Univ. Kokomo, Kokomo, Biological and Physical Sciences, Indiana (United States)

    2002-06-15

    In recent years ultraviolet light has gained in popularity as an attractive disinfection alternative due to its ability to inactivate bacteria and viruses. UV light has the potential to inactivate Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia with a very low potential for the formation of harmful disinfection by-products. Previous studies have reported that particulate material present in the water can act to reduce the exposure of UV light to the receiving waters and that the interference of organic particles can serve to protect bacteria and viruses from intended disinfection. Disinfection capacity can also be reduced by organics in the source water that can accumulate on the surface of quartz sleeves. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of a medium pressure UV light, at drinking water treatment levels, to inactivate MS 2 bacteriophage after a quartz tube has been fouled with organic rich source water for a 12- week period. To this end the inactivation of MS 2 was determined under clean and fouled conditions, in the presence and absence of humic rich water. The effect of lamp age on inactivation was also investigated. The results suggest that organic fouling of a quartz tube has a significant impact on the disinfection capacity of a medium pressure UV lamp. The presence of organics in the source water also plays a significant role in reducing the capacity of UV for bacterial and viral disinfection. Lamp age also seems to have some effect on the efficiency of UV disinfection. (author)

  11. 77 FR 45652 - Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the San Joaquin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... reproducing and self-sustaining populations of salmon and other fish. Water Management Goal--To reduce or... and the California Department of Water Resources have prepared a joint Final Program Environmental... alternatives considered in the Draft PEIS/R to achieve the Stipulation of Settlement's restoration and water...

  12. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.

    1985-01-01

    The computational procedures used in the evaluation of spacecraft technology programs that impact upon commercial communication satellite operations are discussed. Computer programs and data bases are described.

  13. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

  14. The Economic, Energy, and Environmental Impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

  15. The effects of smoking on steroid metabolism and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dušková, M; Hruškovičová, H; Šimůnková, K; Stárka, L; Pařízek, A

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is a serious psychosocial and health problem. A pregnant woman who smokes not only influences the maternal organism, but also passes health risks on to the unborn child. A fetus exposed to maternal smoking is not only directly influenced, but is also endangered by a wide range of diseases up to his or her adult years. The components of tobacco smoke play a significant role in the development of a number of diseases for a large proportion of the smoking population, as well as among those pregnant. This article summarizes findings regarding the impacts on the production of steroid hormones - first describing the smoking-related changes in steroidogenesis in women, and then focusing on the influence of maternal smoking on the fetus's developing steroidogenesis. We assume that if during prenatal development the fetus has already been exposed to the effect of endocrine disruptors at the time fetal steroidogenesis begins fetal programming, this exposure can have serious pathophysiological effects both in the pregnancy as well as later in life. An example of such effects might be a delay in the creation of kidney adrenal androgens, which could also be evident on the level of steroid neuroactive metabolites that may influence the individual's psychological state and lead to later addictions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs inMexico (four products).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac; della Cava, Mirka

    2007-06-12

    This study analyzes impacts from energy efficiency standards and labeling in Mexico from 1994 through 2005 for four major products: household refrigerators, room air conditioners, three-phase (squirrel cage) induction motors, and clothes washers. It is a retrospective analysis, seeking to assess verified impacts on product efficiency in the Mexican market in the first ten years after standards were implemented. Such an analysis allows the Mexican government to compare actual to originally forecast program benefits. In addition, it provides an extremely valuable benchmark for other countries considering standards, and to the energy policy community as a whole. The methodology for evaluation begins with historical test data taken for a large number of models of each product type between 1994 and 2005. The pre-standard efficiency of models in 1994 is taken as a baseline throughout the analysis. Model efficiency data were provided by an independent certification laboratory (ANCE), which tested products as part of the certification and enforcement mechanism defined by the standards program. Using this data, together with economic and market data provided by both government and private sector sources, the analysis considers several types of national level program impacts. These include: Energy savings; Environmental (emissions) impacts, and Net financial impacts to consumers, manufacturers and utilities. Energy savings impacts are calculated using the same methodology as the original projections, allowing a comparison. Other impacts are calculated using a robust and sophisticated methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in a collaboration supported by the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP).

  17. The Impact of the Louisiana Scholarship Program on Racial Segregation in Louisiana Schools. Louisiana Scholarship Program Evaluation Report #3. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalite, Anna J.; Mills, Jonathan N.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    The question of how school choice programs affect the racial stratification of schools is highly salient in the field of education policy. We use a student-level panel data set to analyze the impacts of the Louisiana Scholarship Program (LSP) on racial segregation in public and private schools. This targeted school voucher program provides funding…

  18. Impacting the problem of inner-city youth violence: "Educating Kids About Gun Violence" program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Thomas Z; Simons, Clark J; St John, Wendy; Waymire, Michelle; Stucky, Thomas D

    2011-04-01

    The Educating Kids Against Gun Violence (EKG) program was developed in response to high levels of gun violence in an urban inner-city county through a partnership between the county prosecutor's office, local law enforcement, and a Level 1 trauma center. This program incorporates short video clips and interactive presentations, which address legal and medical consequences of gun violence. The program was presented to youths varying in age and degree of prior contact with the criminal justice system. Pre and post surveys were used to evaluate the short-term impact of the EKG program on the legal and medical knowledge and attitudes of youth participants. There were 130 pre and post surveys that could be exactly matched. Sixty-three per cent of participants had been arrested and 35 per cent had been convicted of a crime. On the post survey, 79 per cent stated that "the program will help keep me out of trouble" and 69 per cent stated that "in the future because of this program I will be less likely to carry a gun". The EKG program seemed to have positive short-term impacts on youth knowledge of legal and medical consequences and attitudes regarding gun violence.

  19. Impact of Frequent Interruption on Nurses' Patient-Controlled Analgesia Programming Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoe, Kristi R; Giuliano, Karen K

    2017-12-01

    The purpose was to add to the body of knowledge regarding the impact of interruption on acute care nurses' cognitive workload, total task completion times, nurse frustration, and medication administration error while programming a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. Data support that the severity of medication administration error increases with the number of interruptions, which is especially critical during the administration of high-risk medications. Bar code technology, interruption-free zones, and medication safety vests have been shown to decrease administration-related errors. However, there are few published data regarding the impact of number of interruptions on nurses' clinical performance during PCA programming. Nine acute care nurses completed three PCA pump programming tasks in a simulation laboratory. Programming tasks were completed under three conditions where the number of interruptions varied between two, four, and six. Outcome measures included cognitive workload (six NASA Task Load Index [NASA-TLX] subscales), total task completion time (seconds), nurse frustration (NASA-TLX Subscale 6), and PCA medication administration error (incorrect final programming). Increases in the number of interruptions were associated with significant increases in total task completion time ( p = .003). We also found increases in nurses' cognitive workload, nurse frustration, and PCA pump programming errors, but these increases were not statistically significant. Complex technology use permeates the acute care nursing practice environment. These results add new knowledge on nurses' clinical performance during PCA pump programming and high-risk medication administration.

  20. Evaluating the impact of dental care on housing intervention program outcomes among homeless veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Elizabeth; Gibson, Gretchen; Jones, Judith A; Schinka, John A

    2013-12-01

    In this retrospective longitudinal cohort study, we examined the impact of dental care on outcomes among homeless veterans discharged from a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) transitional housing intervention program. Our sample consisted of 9870 veterans who were admitted into a VA homeless intervention program during 2008 and 2009, 4482 of whom received dental care during treatment and 5388 of whom did not. Primary outcomes of interest were program completion, employment or stable financial status on discharge, and transition to permanent housing. We calculated descriptive statistics and compared the 2 study groups with respect to demographic characteristics, medical and psychiatric history (including alcohol and substance use), work and financial support, and treatment outcomes. Veterans who received dental care were 30% more likely than those who did not to complete the program, 14% more likely to be employed or financially stable, and 15% more likely to have obtained residential housing. Provision of dental care has a substantial positive impact on outcomes among homeless veterans participating in housing intervention programs. This suggests that homeless programs need to weigh the benefits and cost of dental care in program planning and implementation.

  1. PrimeSupplier Cross-Program Impact Analysis and Supplier Stability Indicator Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calluzzi, Michael

    2009-01-01

    PrimeSupplier, a supplier cross-program and element-impact simulation model, with supplier solvency indicator (SSI), has been developed so that the shuttle program can see early indicators of supplier and product line stability, while identifying the various elements and/or programs that have a particular supplier or product designed into the system. The model calculates two categories of benchmarks to determine the SSI, with one category focusing on agency programmatic data and the other focusing on a supplier's financial liquidity. PrimeSupplier was developed to help NASA smoothly transition design, manufacturing, and repair operations from the Shuttle program to the Constellation program, without disruption in the industrial supply base.

  2. Hydraulic impact end effector final test report. Automation and robotics section, ER/WM-AT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, S.

    1994-02-18

    One tool being developed for dislodging and fragmenting the hard salt cake waste in the single-shell nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, is the hydraulic impact end effector (HIEE). This total operates by discharging 11-in. slugs of water at ultrahigh pressures. The HIEE was designed, built, and initially tested in 1992. Work in 1993 included advanced developments of the HIEE to further investigate its fragmentation abilities and to determine more effective operating procedures. These tests showed that more fragmentation can be achieved by increasing the charge pressure of 40 kpsi to 55 kpsi and by the use of different operating procedures. The size of the material and the impact energy of the water slug fired from the HIEE are believed to be major factors in material fragmentation. The material`s ability to fracture also appears to depend on the distance a fracture or crack line must travel to a free surface. Thus, larger material is more difficult to fracture than smaller material. Discharge pressures of 40 kpsi resulted in little penetration or fracturing of the material. At 55 kpsi, however, the size and depth of the fractures increased. Nozzle geometry had a significant effect on fragment size and quantity. Fragmentation was about an order of magnitude greater when the HIEE was discharged into drilled holes rather than onto the material surface. Since surface shots tend to create craters, a multi-shot procedure, coupled with an advanced nozzle design, was used to drill (crater) deep holes into large material. With this procedure, a 600-lb block was reduced to smaller pieces without the use of any additional equipment. Through this advanced development program, the HIEE has demonstrated that it can quickly fragment salt cake material into small, easily removable fragments. The HIEE`s material fragmentation ability can be substantially increased through the use of different nozzle geometries and operating procedures.

  3. The Impact of the Teen Outreach Program on Sexual Intentions and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie L; Wang, Wei; Debate, Rita; Perrin, Kay; Singleton, Ashley; Noble, Charlotte A; Rahman, Saba; Maness, Sarah B; Mahony, Helen; Ziemba, Robert; Malmi, Markku; Marwah, Elizabeth; Hall, Kristin; Turner, DeAnne; Blunt-Vinti, Heather; Noble, Shireen M; Daley, Ellen M

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a positive youth development program on adolescent pregnancy, sexual behavior, risky sex, and intentions in nonmetropolitan Florida high schools. Between 2012 and 2014, the Teen Outreach Program (TOP) was compared to standard school curriculum content using a cluster randomized controlled trial design with 7,976 youth in two cohorts. The majority of youth were 14 years old and in the ninth grade at baseline. Treatment group youth received TOP in health-related classes. After using multiple imputation to account for missing data, we analyzed baseline and follow-up survey data using generalized linear mixed-effects models with logit link function. In the cohort 1 sample, compared to the control condition, males and females receiving TOP showed lower odds of engaging in recent sex (odds ratio [OR], .71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .58-.86) compared to control males and females. Cohort 1 treatment females who did engage in recent sex were less likely to have risky sex (OR, .54; 95% CI: .32-.89). There were fewer significant findings in cohort 2, though TOP females and combined gender had lower odds of risky sex intentions (OR, .53; 95% CI: .33-.84 and OR, .65; 95% CI: .44-.96, respectively). Overall, cohort 1 females in the TOP condition were the group most likely to benefit from TOP. Consistent with previous research, TOP was more effective regarding sexual health outcomes among female versus male youth; this was especially true for the outcome of risky sex. However, results were not consistent across cohorts, prompting questions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...

  5. The Effectiveness of Parenting Programs: A Review of Campbell Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Coren, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Parenting practices predict important outcomes for children, and parenting programs are potentially effective means of supporting parents to promote optimal outcomes for children. This review summarizes findings of systematic reviews of parenting programs published in the Campbell Library. Six reviews evaluated the effectiveness of a range of…

  6. Market impacts of hypothetical fuel treatment thinning programs on federal lands in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Henry Spelter; Kenneth Skog; Andrew Kramp; Dennis P. Dykstra

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the economics of forest fuel thinning programs on federal lands in the U.S. West, and presents a model of regional timber and product market impacts. The issue of economics is vital to the debate about fire management, and this paper presents market implications of two alternative silvicultural strategies, even-aged and uneven-aged...

  7. Impact of degree program satisfaction on the persistence of college students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhre, Cor J. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Harskamp, Evert

    Many theories on college retention recognize the significance of student satisfaction as a positive factor in students' persistence. Yet, there are few theories that address the relationship of degree program satisfaction to study behaviour and dropout. This paper explores the impact of degree

  8. Community Development, Transitional Value, and Institutional Affinity: Outdoor Orientation Program Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ryan A.; O'Connell, Timothy S.; Lathrop, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of an outdoor orientation program (OOP) on a cohort of first-year university students who participated in a canoe trip facilitated by peer leaders. The curriculum included training for outdoor skills and transitional guidance to university life (i.e., strategies for time management, critical thinking, becoming…

  9. Programming in a Robotics Context in the Kindergarten Classroom: The Impact on Sequencing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth; Bers, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of computer programming of robots on sequencing ability in early childhood and the relationship between sequencing skills, class size, and teacher's comfort level and experience with technology. Fifty-eight children participated in the study, 54 of whom were included in data analysis. This study was conducted in two…

  10. The impact of scrappage programs on the demand for new vehicles: Evidence from Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantos - Sánchez, Pedro; Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Mulalic, Ismir

    decision and household expenditures. The results show that the scrappage program increased the probability to buy a new car, but decreased the mean expenditure devoted to the purchase of this new vehicle. We also evaluate the impact of the financial aid on the household welfare, which suggests...

  11. Measuring the Impacts of a Volunteer-Based Community Development Program in Developing Volunteers' Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…

  12. The Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program: The Impact of Structure, Content, and Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines qualitative and quantitative data from a fifteen-week experiential course held in a county jail. The course was modeled after the Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program, and included college students and people who were incarcerated at the time. Survey data and comments gleaned from student papers were used to assess the impact of…

  13. Impact of Nursing Educational Program on Reducing or Preventing Postoperative Complications for Patients after Intracranial Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowla, Rasha Ali Ahmed Abd; El-Lateef, Zienab Abd; El-khayat, Roshdy

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial surgery means any surgery performed inside the skull to treat problems in the brain and surrounding structures. Aim: Evaluate the impact of nursing educational program on reducing or preventing postoperative complications for patients after intracranial surgery. Subjects and methods: Sixty adult patients had intracranial surgery (burr…

  14. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  15. Impact of the Nova Scotia School Accreditation Program on Teaching and Student Learning: An Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christine; Meyer, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    School accreditation is one process currently mandated in Nova Scotia schools to facilitate school improvement efforts. This mixed methods study sought to discover and describe the impact of the Nova Scotia School Accreditation Program (NSSAP) specifically on teaching and student learning in three secondary schools in one school board. Surveys,…

  16. The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

  17. Impact of a Nationwide Training Program in Minimally Invasive Distal Pancreatectomy (LAELAPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, T. de; Hilst, J. van; Boerma, D.; Bonsing, B.A.; Daams, F.; Dam, R.M. van; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Eijck, C.H. van; Festen, S.; Gerhards, M.F.; Koerkamp, B.G.; Harst, E. van der; Hingh, I.H. de; Kazemier, G.; Klaase, J.; Kleine, R.H. de; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Lips, D.J.; Luyer, M.D.; Molenaar, I.Q.; Patijn, G.A.; Roos, D.; Scheepers, J.J.; Schelling, G.P. van der; Steenvoorde, P.; Vriens, M.R.; Wijsman, J.H.; Gouma, D.J.; Busch, O.R.; Hilal, M.A.; Besselink, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program in minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Superior outcomes of MIDP compared with open distal pancreatectomy have been reported. In the Netherlands (2005 to 2013) only 10% of distal

  18. Impact of a Nationwide Training Program in Minimally Invasive Distal Pancreatectomy (LAELAPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A.; Daams, Freek; van Dam, Ronald M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; van Eijck, Casper H.; Festen, Sebastiaan; Gerhards, Michael F.; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H.; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; de Kleine, Ruben H.; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J.; Lips, Daan J.; Luyer, Misha D.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Patijn, Gijs A.; Roos, Daphne; Scheepers, Joris J.; van der Schelling, George P.; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Vriens, Menno R.; Wijsman, Jan H.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Busch, Olivier R.; Hilal, Mohammed Abu; Besselink, Marc G.; de Boer, Marieke T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program in minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP).Summary of Background Data:Superior outcomes of MIDP compared with open distal pancreatectomy have been reported. In the Netherlands (2005 to 2013) only 10% of distal

  19. The Impact of an Interdisciplinary Space Program on Computer Science Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Marsh, Ronald; Whalen, David

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning and interdisciplinary projects present an opportunity for students to learn both technical skills and other skills which are relevant to their workplace success. This paper presents an assessment of the educational impact of the OpenOrbiter program, a student-run, interdisciplinary CubeSat (a type of small satellite with…

  20. Adult Prostitution Recidivism: Risk Factors and Impact of a Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…

  1. NATIONAL STORMWATER CALCULATOR: LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STORMWATER CONTROL COST ESTIMATION PROGRAMMING & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation Programming & Future EnhancementsJason Berner1; Michael Tryby1; Scott Struck2, Dan Pankani2, Marion Deerhake3, Michelle Simon11. USEPA2. GeoSyntec, Inc.3. RTI, Inc.The National Stormwater Ca...

  2. The impact of awareness programs by media on the spreading and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    All rights reserved. The impact of awareness programs by media on the spreading and control of non-communicable diseases. Manju Agarwal 1 and Rachana Pathak2*. 1,2Department of Mathematics and Astronomy, Lucknow University, Lucknow-226007, INDIA. *Corresponding Author: email: rachanapathak2@gmail.com.

  3. A guide to highly effective quality programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John; Fifer, Joe

    2010-01-01

    To dramatically improve quality while decreasing costs, hospitals should: ensure all executives are vocal and visible supporters of quality improvement; focus the board of directors on quality as a strategic priority; strategically target quality resources to improve care for the majority of patients; use the finance system as the foundation for automated quality reporting; form a strong alliance between the CFO and chief quality officer, with each playing a leadership role in the quality program; rely on a well-executed quality program to improve efficiency and decrease the cost of care.

  4. A meta-analysis of the effects of dropout prevention programs on school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Wilson, Sandra Jo

    2013-10-01

    This study reports findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature examining the effects of school dropout prevention and intervention programs on students' school absenteeism outcomes. The meta-analysis synthesized 74 effect sizes measuring posttest differences in school absenteeism outcomes for youth enrolled in dropout prevention programs relative to a comparison group. Although results from randomized controlled trials indicated significant beneficial program effects, findings from quasi-experimental studies indicated no significant beneficial or detrimental effects. Examination of study characteristics suggested that dropout programs may have beneficial effects on school absenteeism among primarily male samples, and younger samples. Although no single type of intervention program was consistently more effective than others, vocational oriented and supplemental academic training programs showed some promise. However, the inconsistency in results and the possibility of small study bias mean the quality of evidence in this literature is low; at this time there is not enough evidence to conclude that dropout prevention programs have a universal impact on youth's school absenteeism outcomes.

  5. A model to predict the cost-effectiveness of disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2010-06-01

    High costs and deficits in the care of patients with chronic diseases have triggered numerous programs to improve the quality and efficiency of treatment of chronic diseases. Decision makers need to estimate the impact of a disease management program (DMP) on long-term costs and cost-effectiveness in order to decide which programs to introduce. This prediction, however, requires formalizing the relations between a variety of variables. The purpose of this paper is to formalize these relations and develop a model that enhances the quality of predictions of the costs and cost-effectiveness of a DMP. The model's cost function is able to portray a reduction both of treatment overuse and underuse by improving both physician and patient compliance. The model's applicability is demonstrated by a simulated DMP for patients with hypertension. The application example shows that implementation costs may have a larger financial impact than downstream costs.

  6. Program Evaluation of a Distance Master's Degree Dental Hygiene Program: A Program Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensabaugh, Cynthia F; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando; Overman, Pamela R; Van Ness, Christopher J; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program (MSDH). This evaluation examined long-term outcomes in the context of stakeholders (the profession, the student, and the degree-granting institution).Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to gather data from the 28 graduates from the MSDH program. An electronic questionnaire included both open- and closed-ended questions including demographic and practice data, and data related to alumni preparedness to reach their career goals. Virtual focus groups provided valuable insight into whether the program has achieved its goals, and prepared the graduates to meet their program competencies and future goals.Results: Out of a total of 28 individuals who have successfully completed the distance program (2001-2011), 19 participated in an online survey (67.8%). The majority of the participants (73.7%) participated in one of 3 focus groups. Sixty-three percent of the graduates are currently employed in dental hygiene education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents have published their research conducted while in the program, thereby contributing to the dental hygiene body of knowledge. Sixty-eight percent indicated that had the distance option not existed, they would not have been able to obtain their advanced degree in dental hygiene. Twenty-one percent of the respondents report either being currently enrolled in a doctoral program, or having completed a doctoral degree.Conclusion: These results suggest that the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program is meeting its goals from the perspective of all stakeholders and providing its graduates with access to education and educational resources to meet the program competencies and ultimately achieve their career goals. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  7. A Program for Educating Parents about the Effects of Divorce and Conflict on Children: An Initial Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflet, Kelly; Cummings, E. Mark

    1999-01-01

    Explores the impact and consumer satisfaction associated with participation in a parent education program, Kids in Divorce and Separation (K.I.D.S.), that specifically focuses on divorce and parental conflict. Results indicate that participation in the program has positive effects on parents' self-reported knowledge and behavior with regard to…

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Model for Youth EFNEP Programs: What Do We Measure and How Do We Do It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena; McFerren, Mary; Lambur, Michael; Ellerbock, Michael; Hosig, Kathy; Franz, Nancy; Townsend, Marilyn; Baker, Susan; Muennig, Peter; Davis, George

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is one of the United States Department of Agriculture's hallmark nutrition education programs for limited-resource youth. The objective of this study was to gather opinions from experts in EFNEP and related content areas to identify costs, effects (impacts), and related instruments to…

  9. A Microfinance Program Targeting People Living with HIV in Uganda: Client Characteristics and Program Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemayr, Sebastian; Buzaalirwa, Lydia; Balya, James; Wagner, Glenn

    HIV has disproportionately affected economically vulnerable populations. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy, successfully restores physical health but can be insufficient to achieve social and economic health. It may therefore be necessary to offer innovative economic support programs such as providing business training and microcredit tailored to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, microfinance institutions have shown reluctance to reach out to HIV-infected individuals, resulting in nongovernment and HIV care organizations providing these services. The authors investigate the baseline characteristics of a sample of medically stable clients in HIV care who are eligible for microcredit loans and evaluate their business and financial needs; the authors also analyze their repayment pattern and how their socioeconomic status changes after receipt of the program. The authors find that there is a significant unmet need for business capital for the sample under investigation, pointing toward the potentially beneficial role of providing microfinance and business training for clients in HIV care. HIV clients participating in the loans show high rates of repayment, and significant increases in (disposable) income, as well as profits and savings. The authors therefore encourage other HIV care providers to consider providing their clients with such loans.

  10. Finite-element nonlinear transient response computer programs PLATE 1 and CIVM-PLATE 1 for the analysis of panels subjected to impulse or impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, R. L.; Witmer, E. A.; French, S. E.; Rodal, J. J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two computer programs are described for predicting the transient large deflection elastic viscoplastic responses of thin single layer, initially flat unstiffened or integrally stiffened, Kirchhoff-Lov ductile metal panels. The PLATE 1 program pertains to structural responses produced by prescribed externally applied transient loading or prescribed initial velocity distributions. The collision imparted velocity method PLATE 1 program concerns structural responses produced by impact of an idealized nondeformable fragment. Finite elements are used to represent the structure in both programs. Strain hardening and strain rate effects of initially isotropic material are considered.

  11. National Guard State Partnership Program: Measuring Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    future development of partnerships. To use an idiomatic expression , gone are the days when we could pick our players and practice before the game. In the...Director, Graduate Degree Programs Robert F. Baumann, Ph.D. The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student

  12. Impacting Binational Health through Leadership Development: A Program Evaluation of the Leaders across Borders Program, 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Contreras

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWorkforce and leadership development is imperative for the advancement of public health along the U.S./Mexico border. The Leaders across borders (LaB program aims to train the public health and health-care workforce of the border region. The LaB is a 6-month intensive leadership development program, which offers training in various areas of public health. Program curriculum topics include: leadership, border health epidemiology, health diplomacy, border public policies, and conflict resolution.MethodsThis article describes the LaB program evaluation outcomes across four LaB cohort graduates between 2010 and 2014. LaB graduates received an invitation to participate via email in an online questionnaire. Eighty-five percent (n = 34 of evaluation participants indicated an improvement in the level of binationality since participating in the LaB program. Identified themes in the evaluation results included increased binational collaborations and partnerships across multidisciplinary organizations that work towards improving the health status of border communities. Approximately 93% (n = 37 of the LaB samples were interested in participating in future binational projects while 80% (n = 32 indicated interest in the proposal of other binational initiatives. Participants expressed feelings of gratitude from employers who supported their participation and successful completion of LaB.DiscussionPrograms such as LaB are important in providing professional development and education to a health-care workforce along the U.S./Mexico border that is dedicated to positively impacting the health outcomes of vulnerable populations residing in this region.

  13. The Impact of Motivation on Employees Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How does Motivation Impact Employees Effectiveness? Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine how motivation contributes to greater work efficiency. Method: Qualitative method was used, specifically, interviews with five individuals, two leaders and three employees in different organizations. Results: The research study provides findings on how motivation affects theeffective work of employees and how employees are encouraged to maximize work motivation. The results also present which demotivating factors are most present at work. Organization: The findings assist management staff to understand their rolein motivating their employees and how much it is important that leaders themselves should be the most motivated. Society: Results show that employee motivation is very important at the workplace. Because of this, employees have to take care of a good work climate within the organization and for good interpersonal relationships with fellow employees. Originality: Certain motivators were ranked differently in the review of literature, because many respondents in this study favored intangible motivating factors before tangible ones. Limitations/further research: The study is limited to employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. One of the limitations is the time determination, because I was interviewing employees at a specific time (now and not for the past.

  14. The impact of residency programs on new nurse graduates' clinical decision-making and leadership skills: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Dossary, Reem; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Maddox, P J

    2014-06-01

    Health care institutions have adapted residency programs to help new graduate nurses to become fully competent and transition from a student nurse to an independent practicing nurse and a bedside leader. The study's aim is to review the literature on the impact of residency programs on new graduate nurses' clinical decision-making and leadership skills. An electronic search was conducted between 1980 and 2013 using databases of the scientific literature in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane EPOC, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature database guide (CINAHL), and PsychInfo using a range of keywords. Information gathered was evaluated for relevance. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were used in this systematic review. In several studies considered in this review, residency programs were developed to improve new graduates skills and promote their transition into the nursing workforce. In fact, the transition programs reduced turnover in that first year of practice and promoted professional growth of the new graduate such as hand-on nursing skills, clinical decision-making and leadership skills, satisfaction, and retention. There is a need for effective residency programs that are designed to prepare new graduate nurses in providing safe, competent and effective patient care. © 2013.

  15. Impact of Television Programs and Asvertisements of School Going Adolescents: A Case Study of Bahawalpur City, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hassan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Teenage is the most vital and delicate stage of human life. During teenage youngsters try to follow new fashion, culture and style which is being presented in different programs and advertisements on television. They have strong urge and inclination to adopt something new and extra ordinary different from their surroundings. In Pakistan, there are about 43.40% are the adolescents of the age between 13-16 years as stated by Federal Bureau of Statistics. Adolescents are the age group that is the most effected by T.V pro-grams and advertisements. Target audience of most of the programs and ad-vertisements area adolescents e.g. cell phone advertisements. Most of the children in different countries spend almost 3-4 hours per day in watching T.V as per statement of UNESCO. The effects of the commercials and T.V pro-grams on children vary from person to person. This research tries to dig out the impact of different T.V programs and ads on the children between the age group of 13-16 of different schools of Bahawalpur City.

  16. The Long-Term Effects of the Couple Communication Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanning, Harvey

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the immediate and long-term impact of the Couple Communication Program. Married couples (N=17) were assigned to training groups. Change was assessed using self-report measures of marital adjustment and communication quality along with behavioral ratings of couple verbal interaction. Couples increased significantly on all measures at…

  17. The impact of Fogarty International Center research training programs on public health policy and program development in Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sara; Paina, Ligia; Ssengooba, Freddie; Waswa, Douglas; M'Imunya, James M

    2013-08-21

    The Fogarty International Center (FIC) has supported research capacity development for over twenty years. While the mission of FIC is supporting and facilitating global health research conducted by U.S. and international investigators, building partnerships between health research institutions in the U.S. and abroad, and training the next generation of scientists to address global health needs, research capacity may impact health policies and programs and therefore have positive impacts on public health. We conducted an exploratory analysis of how FIC research training investments affected public health policy and program development in Kenya and Uganda. We explored the long term impacts of all FIC supported research training programs using case studies, in Kenya and Uganda. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 53 respondents and 29 focus group discussion participants across the two countries. Qualitative methods were supplemented by structured surveys of trainees and document review, including a review of evidence cited in policy documents. In the primary focal areas of FIC grants, notably HIV/AIDS, there were numerous examples of work conducted by former FIC trainees that influenced national and global policies. Facilitators for this influence included the strong technical skills and scientific reputations of the trainees, and professional networks spanning research and policy communities. Barriers included the fact that trainees typically had not received training in research communication, relatively few policy makers had received scientific training, and institutional constraints that undermined alignment of research with policy needs. While FIC has not focused its programs on the goal of policy and program influence, its investments have affected global and national public health policies and practice. These influences have occurred primarily through strengthening research skills of scientists and developing strong in-country networks

  18. The Impact of Length of Engagement in After-School STEM Programs on Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Garth Meichel

    An underrepresentation of females exists in the STEM fields. In order to tackle this issue, work begins early in the education of young women to ensure they are interested and have the confidence to gain a career in the STEM fields. It is important to engage girls in STEM opportunities in and out of school to ignite their interest and build their confidence. Brigid Barron's learning ecology perspective shows that girls pursuing STEM outside of the classroom is critical to their achievement in the STEM pipeline. This study investigated the impact after-school STEM learning opportunities have on middle school girls by investigating (a) how the length of engagement in after-school programs can affect the confidence of female students in their science and math abilities; (b) how length of engagement in after-school programs can affect the interest of female students in attaining a career in STEM; (c) how length of engagement in after-school programs can affect interest in science and math classes; and (d) how length of engagement can affect how female students' view gender parity in the STEM workforce. The major findings revealed no statistical significance when comparing confidence in math or science abilities or the perception that gender plays a role in attaining a career in STEM. The findings revealed statistical significance in the areas when comparing length of engagement in the girls' interest in their math class and attaining a career in three of the four STEM fields: science, technology, and engineering. The findings showed that multiple terms of engagement in the after-school STEM programs appear to be an effective catalyst to maintain the interest of girls pursuing STEM-related careers, in addition to allowing their interest in a topic to provide a new lens for the way they see their math work during the school day. The implications of this study show that schools must engage middle school girls who are interested in STEM in a multitude of settings

  19. Impact of Pharmacists in a Community-Based Home Care Service: A Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walus, Ashley N; Woloschuk, Donna M M

    2017-01-01

    Historically, pharmacists have not been included on home care teams, despite the fact that home care patients frequently experience medication errors. Literature describing Canadian models of pharmacy practice in home care settings is limited. The optimal service delivery model and distribution of clinical activities for home care pharmacists remain unclear. The primary objective was to describe the impact of a pharmacist based at a community home care office and providing home visits, group education, and telephone consultations. The secondary objective was to determine the utility of acute care clinical pharmacy key performance indicators (cpKPIs) in guiding home care pharmacy services, in the absence of validated cpKPIs for ambulatory care. The Winnipeg Regional Health Authority hired a pharmacist to develop and implement the pilot program from May 2015 to July 2016. A referral form, consisting of consultation criteria used in primary care practices, was developed. The pharmacist also reviewed all patient intakes and all patients waiting in acute care facilities for initiation of home care services, with the goal of addressing issues before admission to the Home Care Program. A password-protected database was built for data collection and analysis, and the data are presented in aggregate. A total of 197 referrals, involving 184 patients, were received during the pilot program; of these, 62 were excluded from analysis. The majority of referrals (95 [70.4%]) were for targeted medication reviews, and 271 drug therapy problems were identified. Acceptance rates for the pharmacist's recommendations were 90.2% (74 of 82 recommendations) among home care staff and 47.0% (55 of 117 recommendations) among prescribers and patients. On average, 1.5 cpKPIs were identified for each referral. The pilot program demonstrated a need for enhanced access to clinical pharmacy services for home care patients, although the best model of service provision remains unclear. More research

  20. Impacts of electric demand-side management programs on fuel choice: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Sandahl, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Vinnard, A.B. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Information, rebates, and technical assistance associated with utility demand-side management (DSM) programs can alter consumer behavior. Such programs may unintentionally affect consumer fuel choices. This study addresses fuel choice effects of a unique Pacific Northwest DSM program: (1) it is directed at new manufactured homes only, (2) it is an acquisition program -- utilities make $2,500 payments directly to manufacturers for each electrically heated, energy-efficient home built, (3) it has rapidly penetrated nearly 100% of the potential market, and (4) over 90% of the affected homes in the participating region have traditionally used electricity for space heating. Heating equipment data for all manufactured homes built in the region since 1987 were sampled and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the DSM program and fuel shares. The quantitative data were supplemented with interview data to better understand the relationship between the program and fuel choice. The results should be useful for program design and evaluation.

  1. The impact of sexually transmissible infection programs in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Rebecca; Ward, James S; Smith, Kirsty S; Su, Jiunn-Yih; Huang, Rae-Lin; Tangey, Annie; Skov, Steven; Rumbold, Alice; Silver, Bronwyn; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M

    2012-07-01

    To systematically review evaluations of the impact of sexually transmissible infection (STI) programs delivered by primary health care services in remote Aboriginal communities. PubMed, Google Scholar, InfoNet, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, conference proceedings and bulletins were searched to April 2011 using variations of the terms 'Aboriginal', 'programs' and 'STI'. The primary outcome of interest in the review was the change in bacterial STI infection prevalence in the target age group assessed through cross-sectional screening studies over a 5-year period or more. The characteristics of the primary health care service, STI programs and other clinical service outcomes were also described. Twelve reports described four distinct STI programs in remote communities and their impact on STI prevalence. In the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) lands of northern South Australia, there was a reduction in the age-adjusted chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence by 58% and 67%, respectively (1996-2003). In the Tiwi Islands of Northern Territory (NT), chlamydia and gonorrhoea positivity decreased by 94% and 34%, respectively (2002-2005). In the Ngaanyatjarra Lands of Western Australia, crude chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence decreased by 36% and 48%, respectively (2001-2005), and in the central Australian region of NT, there was no sustained decline in crude prevalence (2001-2005). In three of the four programs, there was some evidence that clinical best practice and well coordinated sexual health programs can reduce STI prevalence in remote Aboriginal communities.

  2. Comparative assessment of the food purchase program and the national school feeding program's impact in Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Leandro Gomes de; Batalha, Mário Otávio; Pettan, Kleber Batista

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Food Purchase Program (PAA) and the National School Feeding Program (PNAE) are the main trading programs of Brazil that promote a connection between the family farm and institutional markets. The case study portrayed in this article aimed to evaluate and compare the socioeconomic impacts generated by the PAA and PNAE among Ubá's family farmers in Minas Gerais. To do this, two tipes of questionnaires were applied to managers and farmers who participate in the programs and obtaine...

  3. Osteopathic emergency medicine programs infrequently publish in high-impact emergency medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sean M; Lin, Christina; Carlson, Jestin N

    2014-11-01

    Both the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) require core faculty to engage in scholarly work, including publication in peer-reviewed journals. With the ACGME/AOA merger, we sought to evaluate the frequency of publication in high-impact peer-reviewed EM journals from authors affiliated with osteopathic emergency medicine (EM) programs. We performed a retrospective literature review using the Journal Citation Report database and identified the top five journals in the category of 'Emergency Medicine' by their 2011 Impact Factor. We examined all publications from each journal for 2011. For each article we recorded article type, authors' names, position of authorship (first, senior or other), the author's degree and affiliated institution. We present the data in raw numbers and percentages. The 2011 EM journals with the highest impact factor were the following: Annals of Emergency Medicine, Resuscitation, Journal of Trauma, Injury, and Academic Emergency Medicine. Of the 9,298 authors published in these journals in 2011; 1,309 (15%) claimed affiliation with U.S.-based EM programs, of which 16 (1%) listed their affiliations with eight different osteopathic EM programs. The 16 authors claimed affiliation with 8 of 46 osteopathic EM programs (17%), while 1,301 authors claimed affiliation with 104 of 148 (70%) U.S.-based allopathic programs. Authors from osteopathic EM programs are under-represented in the top EM journals. With the pending ACGME/AOA merger, there is a significant opportunity for improvement in the rate of publication of osteopathic EM programs in top tier EM journals.

  4. Development of Effective Teacher Program: Teamwork Building Program for Thailand's Municipal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantathai, Pimpka; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    This research is aimed to formulate the effective teacher teamwork program in municipal schools in Thailand. Primary survey on current situation and problem was conducted to develop the plan to suggest potential programs. Samples were randomly selected from municipal schools by using multi-stage sampling method in order to investigate their…

  5. Effects of a Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program on Pediatric Obesity: The CEMHaVi Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jeremy; Mikulovic, Jacques; Fardy, Paul; Bui-Xuan, Gilles; Marchand, Frederic; Beghin, Laurent; Theunynck, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effects of the unique 1-year health-wellness program of exercise and health education for obese youth on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The CEMHaVi program included 74 obese children. Participants, 19 girls and 18 boys, and controls, 17 girls and 20 boys, were assigned to treatment. The…

  6. Understanding Effective Higher Education Programs in Prisons: Considerations from the Incarcerated Individuals Program in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Allison Daniel; Noblit, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The North Carolina Workplace and Community Transition Youth Offender Program (YOP), recently renamed the Incarcerated Individuals Program (IPP), has proven to be effective in terms of its growth and expansion, the support of education directors across the correctional facilities, university collaboration, student evaluations, and a low recidivism…

  7. Measuring the Effects of Virtual Pair Programming in an Introductory Programming Java Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharis, N. Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of virtual pair programming (VPP) on student performance and satisfaction in an introductory Java course. Students used online tools that integrated desktop sharing and real-time communication, and the metrics examined showed that VPP is an acceptable alternative to individual programming experience.…

  8. Impact of a Home Leisure Educational Program for Older Adults Who Have Had a Stroke (Home Leisure Educational Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Kareen; Desrosiers, Johanne; Gauthier, Pierre; Carbonneau, Helene

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of leisure education for older adults having difficulty adjusting psychologically after a stroke. Participants received either an experimental home leisure education program (intervention group) or a friendly home visit (control group) after discharge from rehabilitation. The intervention group performed significantly…

  9. Impact of a community-based diabetes self-management program on key metabolic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Characterize the impact of a pharmacist-led diabetes self-management program on three key metabolic parameters: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP among employee health program participants. Methods: A self-insured company in the Kansas City metropolitan area began offering a pharmacist-led diabetes self-management program to eligible company employees and their dependents in 2008. A retrospective pre-post analysis was conducted to determine if the program affected key metabolic parameters in participants by determining mean change after one year of participation. Results: Among 183 program participants, 65 participants met inclusion criteria. All three key metabolic parameters were significantly reduced from baseline to one year of program participation: HbA1c decreased from 8.1% to 7.3% (p=0.007; LDL-C decreased from 108.3 mg/dL to 96.4 mg/dL (p=0.009; and MAP decreased from 96.1 to 92.3 mm Hg (p=0.005. Conclusions: The pharmacist-led diabetes self-management program demonstrated significant reductions in HbA1c, LDL-C, and MAP from baseline to one year of program participation. Improvements were statistically significant and clinically relevant for each parameter. Previous studies indicate these reductions may cause reduced overall healthcare costs.

  10. Evaluation of Millstone Nuclear Power Plant, Environmental Impact prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1977-02-01

    This report evaluates the nonradiological monitoring program at Millstone Nuclear Power Plant. Both operational as well as preoperational monitoring programs were analyzed to produce long-term (5 yr or longer) data sets, where possible. In order to determine the effectiveness of these monitoring programs, the appropriate data sets have to be analyzed by the appropriate statistical analysis. Thus, both open literature and current statistical analysis being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) were employed in data analysis.

  11. Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.

  12. Cost-effective early childhood development programs from preschool to third grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A

    2008-01-01

    Although findings on the positive effects of early childhood development programs have been widely disseminated, less attention has been given to program impacts across the entire period of early childhood. This review summarizes evidence on the effects and cost-effectiveness of programs and services from ages 3 to 9. The major focus is preschool programs for 3- and 4-year-olds, full-day kindergarten, school-age programs including reduced class sizes, and preschool-to-third-grade interventions. Participation in preschool programs was found to have relatively large and enduring effects on school achievement and child well-being. High-quality programs for children at risk produce strong economic returns ranging from about $4 per dollar invested to over $10 per dollar invested. Relative to half-day kindergarten, the positive effects of full-day kindergarten have been found to be relatively small and generally do not last for more than a year. Although no formal economic analyses have been conducted, the economic return per dollar invested would be expected to be close to zero. Among early-school-age programs, preschool plus school-age interventions (PK-3) for children at risk are linked to higher levels of school performance into adolescence. The Child-Parent Center PK-3 Program shows a return of $6 to $9 per dollar invested. Class-size reductions show evidence of positive effects, with economic returns of roughly $3 per dollar invested. The causal mechanisms of long-term effects are discussed. Key principles to promote intervention effectiveness are offered.

  13. Formative impact assessment of learning by doing program with health care professionals from Aragón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Gracia-Pérez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Health professionals require constant learning process that allows them to address current challenges such as technological innovation, organizational changes, the evidence-based medicine, epidemiological changes, participation, etc. Despite the resources and efforts invested, it has not paid enough attention to assessing the training of these professionals. This article analyzes the formative impact assessment based on a learning by doing program conducted in the Aragon Health Service. The training activities were proposed, implemented and evaluated by service professionals in the workplace after a management selection process. We have worked with ad hoc survey designed and sent to participating professionals and students. 182 doctors and nurses responded online. By bivariate regression analysis and analyzed the interaction between learning knowledge and skills, their transfer to the workplace and the quality of care. 94.4% of respondents the relationship between improving professional skills (acquisition of knowledge and skills useful to the profession, application of new knowledge and skills in the workplace, training cascading notes and improving knowledge and skills and improved quality of care (measured by indicators of European Foundation for Quality Management. The design of the impact evaluation of the training should be linked to previous assessments and measure results consequential effects on the organization. This information becomes a key tool to assess the effectiveness of the executed program and programming future actions, to ensure the continued training of health professionals and to improve the quality of their performances.

  14. Impact of an integrated disease management program in reducing exacerbations in patients with severe asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vipul V; Allison, Richard; Beck, Sandra J; Jain, Ratnali; Mills, Paul K; McCurley, James W; Van Gundy, Karl P; Peterson, Michael W

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting data exists on the effectiveness of integrated programs in reducing recurrent exacerbations and hospitalizations in patients with Asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). We developed a Pulmonologist-led Chronic Lung Disease Program (CLDP) for patients with severe asthma and COPD and analyzed its impact on healthcare utilization and predictors of its effectiveness. CLDP elements included clinical evaluation, onsite pulmonary function testing, health education, and self-management action plan along with close scheduled and on-demand follow-up. Patients with ≥2 asthma or COPD exacerbations requiring emergency room visit or hospitalization within the prior year were enrolled, and followed for respiratory related ER visits (RER) and hospitalizations (RHA) over the year (357 ± 43 days) after CLDP interventions. A total of 106 patients were enrolled, and 104 patients were subject to analyses. During the year of follow-up after CLDP enrollment, there was a significant decrease in mean RER (0.56 ± 1.48 versus 2.62 ± 2.81, p logistic regression analysis revealed lack of spirometry utilization as an independent risk factor for severe exacerbations. A Pulmonologist-led disease management program integrating key elements of care is cost effective and significantly decreases severe exacerbations. Integrated programs should be encouraged for care of frequent exacerbators of asthma and COPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of the seeking safety program on clinical outcomes among homeless female veterans with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Najavits, Lisa M; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2008-09-01

    Seeking Safety is a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention that is designed to treat clients with comorbid substance abuse and trauma histories. This study examined its effectiveness when used with homeless women veterans with psychiatric or substance abuse problems at 11 Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers that had Homeless Women Veterans Programs. The intervention consists of 25 sessions that cover topics to help build safety in clients' lives and is present-focused, offering psychoeducation and coping skills. A cohort of homeless women veterans (N=359) was recruited before Seeking Safety was implemented (phase I). After clinicians were trained and certified in Seeking Safety, a postimplementation cohort was recruited and offered Seeking Safety treatment (phase II, N=91). Phase I lasted from January 2000 to June 2003. Phase II lasted from June 2003 to December 2005. The intervention lasted for six months. All participants were interviewed every three months for one year and received intensive case management and other services during the study. Mixed models were used to compare one-year clinical outcomes across phases. There were few differences across groups at baseline. All women entering the Homeless Women Veterans Programs showed significant improvement on most clinical outcome measures over one year. The Seeking Safety cohort reported significantly better outcomes over one year in employment, social support, general symptoms of psychiatric distress, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, particularly in the avoidance and arousal clusters. However, the Seeking Safety cohort was significantly more likely to have used drugs in the past 30 days. Seeking Safety appears to have had a moderately beneficial impact on several clinical outcomes. Although the nonequivalent comparison groups and low follow-up rates limit the internal validity of these results, availability of Seeking Safety may be of benefit for homeless female veterans

  16. Impact of a logistics management program on admitted patient boarders within an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy-Rodriguez, Mary Anne; Freer, Chris; Pontiggia, Laura; Wilson, Rula; Metraux, Steve; Lord, Lyndsey

    2014-03-01

    ED crowding is a public health issue, and hospitals across the country must pursue aggressive strategies to improve patient flow to help solve this growing problem. The logistics management program (LMP) is an expansion of the bed management process to include a systematic approach to patient flow management throughout the facility and a clinical liaison or field agent to drive throughput at all points of care. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an LMP on ED length of stay (ED evaluation times and ED placement times), as well as inpatient length of stay (IPLOS). This is a quasi-experimental study of 28,684 ED admissions in a suburban, tertiary medical center before and after implementing an LMP (2008 vs 2009). The median ED evaluation time was 219 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 178 minutes) in 2008 versus 207 minutes (IQR, 171 minutes) in 2009 (P < .001). The median ED placement time was 219 minutes (IQR, 259 minutes) in 2008 versus 193 minutes (IQR, 158 minutes) in 2009 (P < .001). The median IPLOS was 3.93 days (IQR, 4.9 days) in 2008 versus 3.83 days (IQR, 4.7 days) in 2009 (P < .001), which represents a reduction of 1,483 inpatient days in 2009. The results provide strong evidence to support the impact of an LMP on decreasing ED evaluation times, ED placement times, and IPLOS. Further exploration is needed to examine the program as a best practice, as well as its applicability for other facilities. Copyright © 2014 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating the Impact of the Summit Station, Greenland Radiosonde Program on Science and Forecast Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C. J.; Starkweather, S.; Cox, C. J.; Solomon, A.; Shupe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiosondes are balloon-borne meteorological sensors used to acquire profiles of temperature and humidity. Radiosonde data are essential inputs for numerical weather prediction models and are used for climate research, particularly in the creation of reanalysis products. However, radiosonde programs are costly to maintain, in particular in the remote regions of the Arctic (e.g., $440,000/yr at Summit, Greenland), where only 40 of approximately 1000 routine global launches are made. The climate of this data-sparse region is poorly understood and forecast data assimilation procedures are designed for global applications. Thus, observations may be rejected from the data assimilation because they are too far from the model expectations. For the most cost-efficient deployment of resources and to improve forecasting methods, analyses of the effectiveness of individual radiosonde programs are necessary. Here, we evaluate how radiosondes launched twice daily (0 and 12 UTC) from Summit Station, Greenland, (72.58⁰N, 38.48⁰W, 3210 masl) influence the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) operational forecasts from June 2013 through May of 2015. A statistical analysis is conducted to determine the impact of the observations on the forecast model and the meteorological regimes that the model fails to reproduce are identified. Assimilation rates in the inversion layer are lower than any other part of the troposphere. Above the inversion, assimilation rates range from 85%-100%, 60%-98%, and > 99% for temperature, humidity, and wind, respectively. The lowest assimilation rates are found near the surface, possibly associated with biases in the representation of the temperature inversion by the ECMWF model at Summit. Consequently, assimilation rates are lower near the surface during winter when strong temperature inversions are frequently observed. Our findings benefit the scientific community who uses this information for climatological analysis of the

  18. Evaluating the Impact of the Summit Station, Greenland Radiosonde Program on Data Modelers and Forecast Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C. J.; Starkweather, S.; Cox, C. J.; Solomon, A.; Shupe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiosondes are balloon-borne meteorological sensors used to acquire profiles of temperature and humidity. Radiosonde data are essential inputs for numerical weather prediction models and are used for climate research, particularly in the creation of reanalysis products. However, radiosonde programs are costly to maintain, in particular in the remote regions of the Arctic (e.g., $440,000/yr at Summit, Greenland), where only 40 of approximately 1000 routine global launches are made. The climate of this data-sparse region is poorly understood and forecast data assimilation procedures are designed for global applications. Thus, observations may be rejected from the data assimilation because they are too far from the model expectations. For the most cost-efficient deployment of resources and to improve forecasting methods, analyses of the effectiveness of individual radiosonde programs are necessary. Here, we evaluate how radiosondes launched twice daily (0 and 12 UTC) from Summit Station, Greenland, (72.58⁰N, 38.48⁰W, 3210 masl) influence the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) operational forecasts from June 2013 through May of 2015. A statistical analysis is conducted to determine the impact of the observations on the forecast model and the meteorological regimes that the model fails to reproduce are identified. Assimilation rates in the inversion layer are lower than any other part of the troposphere. Above the inversion, assimilation rates range from 85%-100%, 60%-98%, and > 99% for temperature, humidity, and wind, respectively. The lowest assimilation rates are found near the surface, possibly associated with biases in the representation of the temperature inversion by the ECMWF model at Summit. Consequently, assimilation rates are lower near the surface during winter when strong temperature inversions are frequently observed. Our findings benefit the scientific community who uses this information for climatological analysis of the

  19. Evaluating the impact of a Connecticut program to reduce availability of unhealthy competitive food in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michael W; Henderson, Kathryn E; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2010-10-01

    This article seeks to inform state and local school food policies by evaluating the impact of Connecticut's Healthy Food Certification (HFC), a program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside reimbursable school meals. Food service directors from all school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) (N = 151) in Connecticut were surveyed about the availability of competitive foods before and after the 2006-2007 implementation of HFC. Food categories were coded as healthy or unhealthy based on whether they met the Connecticut Nutrition Standards. Data on NSLP participation were provided by the State Department of Education. Changes in NSLP participation and availability of unhealthy competitive foods in elementary, middle, and high schools were compared pre- and post-HFC across districts participating (n = 74) versus not participating (n = 77) in HFC. On average, all districts in Connecticut reduced the availability of unhealthy competitive foods, with a significantly greater reduction among HFC districts. Average NSLP participation also increased across the state. Participating in HFC was associated with significantly greater NSLP participation for paid meals in middle school; however, implementing HFC did not increase overall NSLP participation beyond the statewide upward trend. The 2006-2007 school year was marked by a significant decrease in unhealthy competitive foods and an increase in NSLP participation across the state. Participation in Connecticut's voluntary HFC further reduced the availability of unhealthy competitive foods in local school districts, and had either a positive or neutral effect on NSLP participation. © 2010, American School Health Association.

  20. The Impact of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Canipe, M.; Wenger, M.; Hsu, B.; Jones, A.; Hessen, K.

    2014-07-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Education and Public Outreach Program includes Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) held at several sites throughout the U.S. and a large public engagement program, International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). Program evaluation has revealed that LWEs result in growth in participants' knowledge related to current lunar discoveries and exploration of the Moon. Teachers learn about misconceptions about the Moon and ways to teach about lunar science and exploration to address students' misconceptions. The LWEs also impact the teaching practices of some participants more broadly to incorporate inquiry and other teaching techniques modeled in the workshops. InOMN events are social experiences in which visitors reported the value of seeing their children learning new things, being moved by seeing beautiful and valuable objects, and gaining information and knowledge. Each program has met the goal of engaging participants in the excitement of lunar exploration.

  1. The impact of industry/university consortia programs on space education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, John R.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the industry/university consortia programs established by the United States and Australia and examines these programs from the viewpoint of their impact on space education in their respective countries. Particular attention is given to the aim and the nature of the three programs involved: the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDSs) (funded by NASA), which are currently involving about 250 companies and 88 universities as participants; the Space Industry Development Centers (SIDCs) (funded by the Australian Space Office): and the Cooperative Research Centers (CRCs) (funded by the Federal Government), which are not limited to the space area but are open to activities ranging from medical research to waste-water treatment. It is emphasized that, while the main aim of the CCDS, SIDC, and CRC programs is to develop space expertise, space education is a very significant byproduct of the activity of these agencies.

  2. Impact of a two-generation early education program on parenting processes at age 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Casey, Patrick H; Barrett, Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    The Infant Health and Development Program is a two-generation early education model designed to improve parenting competence and child well-being. As part of an 8-site randomized clinical trial involving low birthweight premature children, assessments of children and parents were gathered at the time of program completion (age 3), with follow-up at ages 5, 8, and 18. Two key parenting processes were assessed at age 18 based on theory stipulating the centrality of parenting to long-term development in children. Analyses based on 283 control group and 178 Infant Health and Development Program treatment group participants revealed that treatment group mothers scored higher on one, the provision of enriching experiences. Evidence of sustained impacts on parenting suggests that carefully structured two-generation early education programs may prove good investments for promoting competence and adaptive functioning in high-risk children.

  3. The Impact of an Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE Program on the Professional Practice of Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Folake Aluko

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of a distance education program offered by the University of Pretoria, South Africa, on the professional practice of teachers. A pilot study was conducted using a combination of surveys and focus group interviews. Findings reveal that the program was beneficial to graduates’ personal development, professional practice, schools, learners, and colleagues. Further, principals who participated in the study attested to the differences they observed between the graduates and other teachers who had not been exposed to such a program. Suggestions for improvements included the introduction of subjects taught at school as areas of specialization, involvement of school principals in the assessment of enrolled students, visits to schools by the organizers, and exposure of students to the practical opportunities offered by the program (with portfolios that could be a part of the assessment.

  4. Does an action-based entrepreneurship education mean action heroes? - Impact assessing an action-based entrepreneurial venture creation program

    OpenAIRE

    Ansteensen, Morten Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurial venture creation programs (VCP) stand out from traditional entrepreneurial education programs with its high focus on action-based activity and learning through venture creation. The high demand for resources needed to operate VCPs is forcing program directors to frequently have to prove program relevance and impact to stakeholders. While researchers have done well on unveiling program obstacles and design, little research has been done on how students and graduates are affecte...

  5. An assessment of the impact of the JSY cash transfer program on maternal mortality reduction in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Indian Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY program is a demand-side program in which the state pays women a cash incentive to deliver in an institution, with the aim of reducing maternal mortality. The JSY has had 54 million beneficiaries since inception 7 years ago. Although a number of studies have demonstrated the effect of JSY on coverage, few have examined the direct impact of the program on maternal mortality. Objective: To study the impact of JSY on maternal mortality in Madhya Pradesh (MP, one of India's largest provinces. Design: By synthesizing data from various sources, district-level maternal mortality ratios (MMR from 2005 to 2010 were estimated using a Bayesian spatio-temporal model. Based on these, a mixed effects multilevel regression model was applied to assess the impact of JSY. Specifically, the association between JSY intensity, as reflected by 1 proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries, 2 total annual JSY expenditure, and 3 MMR, was examined. Results: The proportion of all institutional deliveries increased from 23.9% in 2005 to 55.9% in 2010 province-wide. The proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries rose from 14% (2005 to 80% (2010. MMR declines in the districts varied from 2 to 35% over this period. Despite the marked increase in JSY-supported delivery, our multilevel models did not detect a significant association between JSY-supported delivery proportions and changes in MMR in the districts. The results from the analysis examining the association between MMR and JSY expenditure are similar. Conclusions: Our analysis was unable to detect an association between maternal mortality reduction and the JSY in MP. The high proportion of institutional delivery under the program does not seem to have converted to lower mortality outcomes. The lack of significant impact could be related to supply-side constraints. Demand-side programs like JSY will have a limited effect if the supply side is unable

  6. Impact evaluation of the routine hepatitis B vaccination program of infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Dan Wu; Li, Pingping; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Chang, Fengshui; Li, Xiaohong; Hao, Mo

    2018-01-27

    To evaluate the impact of the routine hepatitis B vaccination program of infants in China. The incidence of new hepatitis B infection and coverage with three doses of the vaccines by age groups and provinces were derived from the National Network Direct Report System of Infectious Disease during 2004-10. Chi square test and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze differences in incidence according to vaccination coverage and the relationship between the coverage with three doses and the incidence in different provinces. The incidence of new infection was 8.96/100 000 among children with complete coverage (0-15 years old), which was significantly lower than that with partial or no coverage. Among 0-9-year-old children in 2010, the incidence of new infection was 6.36/100 000, which was significantly lower than 2004. Considering the impact of vaccination on cumulative incidence among 0-5-year-old children, a 2.2-fold greater incidence of new infection was observed in provinces with the lowest to the highest vaccination rate. The impact of the routine hepatitis B vaccination program of infants in China has become more apparent over time. Program implementation and regional disequilibrium should be payed attention to as well as the expanded program.

  7. Measuring impact of JAMA Dermatology Practice Gaps section on training in US dermatology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Kristina M; Stratman, Erik J

    2013-07-01

    JAMA Dermatology Practice Gaps commentaries are intended to aid in the interpretation of the literature to make it more practical and applicable to daily patient care. Practice Gaps commentaries have had an impact on physician clinical practice and dermatology residency curricula. To assess the impact of JAMA Dermatology Practice Gaps commentaries on dermatology residency training programs in the United States, including journal club discussions and local quality improvement activities. A web-based questionnaire of 17 questions was sent via e-mail to US dermatology residency program directors (PDs) in February 2012. Program director report of incorporating Practice Gaps themes and discussions into resident journal club activities, clinical practice, quality improvement activities, or research projects in the residency programs, as a result of a Practice Gaps commentary. Of the 114 surveys distributed to US dermatology residency PDs, 48 were completed (42% response rate). Sixty percent of PDs reported familiarity with the Practice Gaps section of JAMA Dermatology, and 56% discuss these commentaries during resident journal club activities. Quality improvement and research projects have been initiated as a result of Practice Gaps commentaries. Practice Gaps commentaries are discussed during most dermatology residency journal club activities. Practice Gaps have had an impact on physician practice and dermatology residency curricula and can serve as a tool for enhanced continuing medical education and quality improvement initiatives.

  8. Do In-School Feeding Programs Have an Impact on Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrogue, Cecilia; Orlicki, Maria Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    As Argentina presents problems of malnutrition, the federal in-school feeding program has become a key policy because it provides an important nutritional intervention during a relevant growth period. This paper estimates the effect of the program on academic performance--measured by standardized test scores--with a difference in difference model,…

  9. Regional impacts of a program for private forest carbon offset sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius M. Adams; Ralph Alig; Greg Latta; Eric M. White

    2011-01-01

    Policymakers are examining wide range of alternatives for climate change mitigation, including carbon offset sales programs, to enhance sequestration in the forest sector. Under an offset sales program, on-the-ground forestry could change as result of both afforestation and modifications in the management of existing forests. These effects could vary markedly by region...

  10. The Impact of Online Algorithm Visualization on ICT Students' Achievements in Introduction to Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltan, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Online Algorithm Visualization (OAV) is one of the recent developments in the instructional technology field that aims to help students handle difficulties faced when they begin to learn programming. This study aims to investigate the effect of online algorithm visualization on students' achievement in the introduction to programming course. To…

  11. Market impacts of a multiyear mechanical fuel treatment program in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen L. Abt; Robert J. Jr. Huggett

    2008-01-01

    We describe a two-stage model of global log and chip markets that evaluates the spatial and temporal economic effects of government- subsidized fire-related mechanical fuel treatment programs in the U.S.West and South. The first stage is a goal program that allocates subsidies according to fire risk and location priorities, given a budget and a feasible, market-...

  12. Impact of a multifaceted education program on implementing a pediatric palliative care guideline : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-van Kampen, Charissa Thari; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Verhagen, A. A. Eduard; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A national clinical practice guideline for pediatric palliative care was published in 2013. So far there are only few reports available on whether an educational program fosters compliance with such a guideline implementation. We aimed to test the effect of the education program on

  13. Financial Impact of Effective Human Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessnack, Carl H.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the most important facets of the business to be considered are compensation policies and procedures; benefits programs and insurance premiums; taxes; recruiting, training, and management development; affirmative action; and turnover and outplacement. (Author/IRT)

  14. Comparison the Impact of Spark Motor Program and Basketball Techniques on Improving Gross Motor Skills in Educable Intellectually Disabled Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moghanlo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Different types of practises are known for improving motor skills in intellectually disabled boys. The purpose of this study was to compar e the impact of spark motor program and basketball on improving of gross motor skills in this people.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study , from 98 educable intellectually disabled students who studied in special school in Urmia, 30 children ( age range of 9 to 13 years and IQ mean 64.4 were selected objectively and divided in three groups (2 experimental and 1 control based on pre - test. BOTMP was used as a measurement of motor ability. Selected motor program (Spark motor program including strengthening training, games, sports and basketball techniques was performed for 24 sessions. T-tests (dependent and co-variance were used to comparison of results.   Results: In Spark group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects on balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p=0.000 and strength (p=0.001. There was no significant effect in agility and speed (p= 0.343 in basketball techniques group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects in agility and speed (p= 0.001, balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p= 0.013 and strength (p= 0.007.   Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that the Spark program and basketball techniques improve gross motor skills in educable intellectually disabled students. We also found a significant difference between the Spark program and basketball techniques efficacy on the improved skills. Furthermore, the efficacy of Spark program was significantly higher than basketball techniques (p<0.05.

  15. Cost effectiveness of two army physical fitness programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A; Metter, E Jeffrey; Fleg, Jerome L; Weinstein, Ali A; Frick, Kevin D

    2013-12-01

    Repeated failure in the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is associated with lower fitness level, premature discharge, and significant career disruption, at high economic and health costs to the individual soldier and the U.S. Army. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to estimate the health and economic implications of two exercise interventions for Army National Guard (ARNG) soldiers who had failed the APFT, a traditional remediation program and a new pedometer-based program called Fitness for Life, involving individual counseling and follow-up telephone calls. Effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed in terms of APFT pass rates and calculated 10-year coronary heart disease risk. Costs were calculated based on tracking of resources used in the programs. APFT pass rates were 54.3% and 47.9%, respectively, for traditional and Fitness for Life programs, p = not significant. Neither program affected 10-year coronary heart disease risk. For assumed APFT pass rates up to 40% without any formal remediation, both the traditional remediation program and the ARNG Fitness for Life intervention had cost savings without significant group differences. Depending on the ARNG unit and personnel preference, although the Fitness for Life Program was more expensive and thus less cost-effective, either program could be cost-effective and of benefit to the military. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Effects on Early Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Douglas G.; And Others

    The number of child sexual abuse prevention programs incorporated into school curricula has increased steadily in the past decade. This longitudinal study evaluated the effects of a school-based, child sexual abuse prevention program on child abuse reports in nine school districts over a five-year period. Districts had been randomly assigned to…

  17. Training programs in research into the effectiveness of teacher behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article contends that studies into the effectiveness of teacher behavior should give more attention both to a systematic design of training programs as well as to the collection of implementation data concerning teacher behavior, before incorporating the training program into an experimental

  18. 2012 Report Card on the Effectiveness of Teacher Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Tennessee General Assembly passed legislation in 2007 requiring that the State Board of Education produce an assessment on the effectiveness of teacher training programs. The law requires that the report include data on the performance of each program's graduates in the following areas: placement and retention rates, Praxis II results, and…

  19. Evolutionary effects of alternative artificial propagation programs: implications for viability of endangered anadromous salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle M; Utter, Fred M; Baldwin, Casey; Carmichael, Richard W; Hassemer, Peter F; Howell, Philip J; Spruell, Paul; Cooney, Thomas D; Schaller, Howard A; Petrosky, Charles E

    2008-05-01

    Most hatchery programs for anadromous salmonids have been initiated to increase the numbers of fish for harvest, to mitigate for habitat losses, or to increase abundance in populations at low abundance. However, the manner in which these programs are implemented can have significant impacts on the evolutionary trajectory and long-term viability of populations. In this paper, we review the potential benefits and risks of hatchery programs relative to the conservation of species listed under the US Endangered Species Act. To illustrate, we present the range of potential effects within a population as well as among populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) where changes to major hatchery programs are being considered. We apply evolutionary considerations emerging from these examples to suggest broader principles for hatchery uses that are consistent with conservation goals. We conclude that because of the evolutionary risks posed by artificial propagation programs, they should not be viewed as a substitute for addressing other limiting factors that prevent achieving viability. At the population level, artificial propagation programs that are implemented as a short-term approach to avoid imminent extinction are more likely to achieve long-term population viability than approaches that rely on long-term supplementation. In addition, artificial propagation programs can have out-of-population impacts that should be considered in conservation planning.

  20. Science and Science Education Go Hand-in-Hand: The Impact of the NASA Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Peticolas, L.; Schwerin, T.; Shipp, S.; Manning, J. G.

    2014-07-01

    For nearly two decades, NASA has embedded education and public outreach (EPO) in its Earth and space science missions and research programs on the principle that science education is most effective when educators and scientists work hand-in-hand. Four Science EPO Forums organize the respective NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics, Earth Science, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science EPO programs into a coordinated, efficient, and effective nationwide effort. The NASA SMD EPO program evaluates EPO impacts that support NASA's policy of providing a direct return-on-investment for the American public, advances STEM education and literacy, and enables students and educators to participate in the practice of science as embodied in the 2013 Next Generation Science Standards. Leads of the four NASA SMD Science EPO Forums provided big-picture perspectives on NASA's effort to incorporate authentic science into the nation's STEM education and scientific literacy, highlighting examples of program effectiveness and impact. Attendees gained an increased awareness of the depth and breadth of NASA SMD's EPO programs and achievements, the magnitude of its impacts through representative examples, and the ways current and future EPO programs can build upon the work being done.

  1. Evaluating the environmental impacts of the energy system: The ENPEP (ENergy and Power Evaluation Program) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, B.P.; Sapinski, P.F.; Cirillo, R.R.; Buehring, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), a PC-based energy planning package intended for energy/environmental analysis in developing countries. The IMPACTS module of ENPEP examines environmental implications of overall energy and electricity supply strategies that can be developed with other ENPEP modules, including ELECTRIC, the International Atomic Energy Agency's Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III). The paper presents the status and characteristics of a new IMPACTS module that is now under development at ANL. 3 figs.

  2. Methodological challenges of evaluating the impact of the Global Environment Facility's biodiversity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaessen, Jos; Todd, David

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we explore some of the methodological challenges that evaluators face in assessing the impacts of complex intervention strategies. We illustrate these challenges, using the specific example of an impact evaluation of one of the six focal areas of the Global Environment Facility; its biodiversity program. The discussion is structured around the concepts of attribution and aggregation, offering the reader a framework for reflection. Subsequently, the paper discusses how theory-based evaluation can provide a basis for addressing the attribution and aggregation challenges presented.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Military Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Seth L; Smith, Kenneth J; Palmer, Catherine

    2018-02-07

    Occupational noise threatens U.S. worker health and safety and commands a significant financial burden on state and federal government worker compensation programs. Previous studies suggest that hearing conservation programs have contributed to reduced occupational hearing loss for noise-exposed workers. Many military personnel are overexposed to noise and are provided hearing conservation services. Select military branches require all active duty personnel to follow hearing conservation program guidelines, regardless of individual noise exposure. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a military hearing conservation program, relative to no intervention, in relation to cases of hearing loss prevented. We employed cost-effectiveness analytic methods to compare the costs and effectiveness, in terms of hearing loss cases prevented, of a military hearing conservation program relative to no program. We used costs and probability estimates available in the literature and publicly available sources. The effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed based on whether hearing loss occurred over a 20-yr time frame. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention was $10,657 per case of hearing loss prevented. Workers were 28% less likely to sustain hearing loss in our model when they received the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention, which reflected the greater effectiveness of the hearing conservation program. Cost-effectiveness results were sensitive to estimated values for the probability of acquiring hearing loss from both interventions and the cost of hearing protection. We performed a Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis where we simultaneously varied all the model parameters to their extreme plausible bounds. When we ran 10,000 Monte Carlo iterations, we observed that the hearing conservation program was more cost-effective in 99% of cases when decision makers were willing to

  4. Impact of family remittances and the Prospera program on high school students in Choix, Sinaloa, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Pintor Sandoval, Renato; Peraza Noriega, Brianda Elena; Heredia Trasviña, Karen Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to establish the impact of family remittances from the United States and the "Prospera" welfare program for the high school student population in a community with high social exclusion and poverty in Sinaloa.Methodology: first, the population, economic and work activities in the community of Choix, Sinaloa were described. Then, the discussion on remittances and the beneficiary families of the Prospera program were characterized; finally, a survey was designed and applied to 114 hig...

  5. Impact of a self-control promotion program on nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima-Ruiz de Angulo, Lidia

    2017-06-01

    To describe the characteristics of positive mental health in nursing students, and to determine the impact of a self-control promotion program. A quasi-experimental controlled trial including 72 second-year of Vitoria-Gasteiz University Nursing School. The lowest scores in every measurement were for the self-control factor (F3). There were no statistically significant differences in self-control (F3) between the groups. This program shows higher scores in inter-personal relationship skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Geologic signatures of atmospheric effects on impact cratering on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Highlights of the research include geologic signatures of impact energy and atmospheric response to crater formation. Laboratory experiments were performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) to assess the interaction between disrupted impactor and atmosphere during entry, and to assess the energy coupling between impacts and the surrounding atmosphere. The Schlieren imaging at the AVGR was used in combination with Magellan imaging and theoretical studies to study the evolution of the impactor following impact. The Schlieren imaging documented the downrange blast front created by vaporization during oblique impacts. Laboratory experiments allowed assessing the effect of impact angle on coupling efficiency with an atmosphere. And the impact angle's effect on surface blasts and run-out flows allowed the distinction of crater clusters created by simultaneous impacts from those created by isolated regions of older age.

  7. Near-field effects of asteroid impacts in deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, Galen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gittings, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-06-11

    Our previous work has shown that ocean impacts of asteroids below 500 m in diameter do not produce devastating long-distance tsunamis. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the ocean lies close enough to land that near-field effects may prove to be the greatest danger from asteroid impacts in the ocean. Crown splashes and central jets that rise up many kilometres into the atmosphere can produce, upon their collapse, highly non-linear breaking waves that could devastate shorelines within a hundred kilometres of the impact site. We present illustrative calculations, in two and three dimensions, of such impacts for a range of asteroid sizes and impact angles. We find that, as for land impacts, the greatest dangers from oceanic impacts are the short-term near-field, and long-term atmospheric effects.

  8. Impact of a Letter-Grade Program on Restaurant Sanitary Conditions and Diner Behavior in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Wendy; Ito, Kazuhiko; Schiff, Corinne; Jacobson, J. Bryan; Kass, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the impact of the New York City restaurant letter-grading program on restaurant hygiene, food safety practices, and public awareness. Methods. We analyzed data from 43 448 restaurants inspected between 2007 and 2013 to measure changes in inspection score and violation citations since program launch in July 2010. We used binomial regression to assess probability of scoring 0 to 13 points (A-range score). Two population-based random-digit-dial telephone surveys assessed public perceptions of the program. Results. After we controlled for repeated restaurant observations, season of inspection, and chain restaurant status, the probability of scoring 0 to 13 points on an unannounced inspection increased 35% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 31%, 40%) 3 years after compared with 3 years before grading. There were notable improvements in compliance with some specific requirements, including having a certified kitchen manager on site and being pest-free. More than 91% (95% CI = 88%, 94%) of New Yorkers approved of the program and 88% (95% CI = 85%, 92%) considered grades in dining decisions in 2012. Conclusions. Restaurant letter grading in New York City has resulted in improved sanitary conditions on unannounced inspection, suggesting that the program is an effective regulatory tool. PMID:25602861

  9. Impact of a letter-grade program on restaurant sanitary conditions and diner behavior in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa R; McKelvey, Wendy; Ito, Kazuhiko; Schiff, Corinne; Jacobson, J Bryan; Kass, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the impact of the New York City restaurant letter-grading program on restaurant hygiene, food safety practices, and public awareness. We analyzed data from 43,448 restaurants inspected between 2007 and 2013 to measure changes in inspection score and violation citations since program launch in July 2010. We used binomial regression to assess probability of scoring 0 to 13 points (A-range score). Two population-based random-digit-dial telephone surveys assessed public perceptions of the program. After we controlled for repeated restaurant observations, season of inspection, and chain restaurant status, the probability of scoring 0 to 13 points on an unannounced inspection increased 35% (95% confidence interval [CI]=31%, 40%) 3 years after compared with 3 years before grading. There were notable improvements in compliance with some specific requirements, including having a certified kitchen manager on site and being pest-free. More than 91% (95% CI=88%, 94%) of New Yorkers approved of the program and 88% (95% CI=85%, 92%) considered grades in dining decisions in 2012. Restaurant letter grading in New York City has resulted in improved sanitary conditions on unannounced inspection, suggesting that the program is an effective regulatory tool.

  10. The Savvy Caregiver Program: impact of an evidence-based intervention on the well-being of ethnically diverse caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kally, Zina; Cote, Sarah D; Gonzalez, Jorge; Villarruel, Monica; Cherry, Debra L; Howland, Susan; Higgins, Melinda; Connolly, Lora; Hepburn, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the impact of the Savvy Caregiver Program (SCP) on English-speaking caregivers of Hispanic, Black/African American, and Asian/Pacific Islander descent. Caregivers completed a questionnaire prior to study enrollment, at 6 and 12 months postenrollment. Caregivers in all 3 ethnic groups showed more caregiver competence, reduced depression, greater tolerance for care recipients' memory problems, better management of their overall situation, and improved perception of that situation 6 months and 12 months post-enrollment. The study demonstrates that in the sample studied the SCP was as effective in helping ethnically diverse caregivers as it has shown to be with Caucasian caregivers.

  11. The Chinese Government Scholarship Program: An Effective Form of Foreign Assistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lili; Chapman, David W.

    2008-03-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of Chinese international education assistance through an examination of student experience in the Chinese Government Scholarship Program, an important mechanism of Chinese foreign aid. Grounded in Pascarella's (1985) model of the impact of college on students, the study investigates participants' level of satisfaction with their higher education experience in China and their perception of the role of the scholarship program in promoting positive relationships between China and the scholarship students' home countries. Findings indicate that participants are generally satisfied with their experiences in China and are positive about the impact of the program in building friendships with their home countries. The authors discuss the implications of these findings in terms of China's emerging prominence as a provider of international development assistance.

  12. The Impacts of Theme-Based Language Instruction: A Case Study of an Advanced Chinese Intensive Program

    OpenAIRE

    Song Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Theme-based language teaching under Content-Based Instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes learning professional content along with language skills. This paper reports a case study on the impacts of a theme-based advanced Chinese intensive program in a university setting. It begins with a review of CBI and its theme-based approach and then discusses the program design, curriculum development, and instructional practice of the program. The impacts of the theme-based approach...

  13. Effective Software Engineering Leadership for Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle West, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Software is a critical component of systems ranging from simple consumer appliances to complex health, nuclear, and flight control systems. The development of quality, reliable, and effective software solutions requires the incorporation of effective software engineering processes and leadership. Processes, approaches, and methodologies for…

  14. Treadmill training combined with water and land-based exercise programs: Effects on Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayan, Carlos; Varela, Silvia; Vila, M Helena; Seijo-Martinez, Manuel; Cancela, José M

    2016-06-30

    There is a need for studies about the effects of treadmill training (TT) on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients when combined with other exercise training modalities. To identify the effects of a multicomponent rehabilitation program on the illness impact, quality of life and fitness level in Parkinson's disease. Participants were assigned to two exercise groups: water and land-based exercise (WL) or water and land-based exercise plus treadmill training (TWL). The water and land-based exercise group performed one water-based exercise and one land-based exercise session per week for 15 weeks. Participants in the water and land-based exercise plus treadmill training added two sessions of treadmill training to this schedule. The Senior Fitness Test (SFT) was used to assess the sample's fitness level. Participants in the water and land-based exercise Group experienced significant benefits in the disease impact (UPDRS t = 3.083; p = 0.029) and quality of life (PDQ-39 t = 2.942; p = 0.036). The addition of treadmill training did not have any significant effect on these variables. Both programs showed similar effects on the fitness components evaluated. Adding treadmill training to a combination of water and land-based exercise programs may have limited effects on quality of life and the impact on the disease.

  15. Building effective cybersecurity programs a security manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schreider, Tari

    2017-01-01

    You know by now that your company could not survive without the Internet. Not in today's market. You are either part of the digital economy or reliant upon it. With critical information assets at risk, your company requires a state-of-the-art cybersecurity program. But how do you achieve the best possible program? Tari Schreider, in Building Effective Cybersecurity Programs: A Security Manager's Handbook, lays out the step-by-step roadmap to follow as you build or enhance your cybersecurity program.

  16. An interprofessional palliative care oncology rehabilitation program: effects on function and predictors of program completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, M R; Feldstain, A; Gravelle, D; Macdonald, N; Pereira, J

    2013-12-01

    After treatment, patients with active cancer face a considerable burden from the effects of both the disease and its treatment. The Palliative Rehabilitation Program (prp) is designed to ameliorate disease effects and to improve the patient's functioning. The present study evaluated predictors of program completion and changes in functioning, symptoms, and well-being after the program. The program received referrals for 173 patients who had finished anticancer therapy. Of those 173 patients, 116 with advanced cancer were eligible and enrolled in the 8-week interprofessional prp; 67 completed it. Measures of physical, nutritional, social, and psychological functioning were evaluated at entry to the program and at completion. Participants experienced significant improvements in physical performance (p mobility, and balance or function (p = 0.001 to 0.001). Reasons that participants did not complete the prp were disease progression, geographic inaccessibility, being too well (program not challenging enough), death, and personal or unknown reasons. A normal level of C-reactive protein (<10 mg/L, p = 0.029) was a predictor of program completion. Patients living with advanced cancers who underwent the interprofessional prp experienced significant improvement in functioning across several domains. Program completion can be predicted by a normal level of C-reactive protein.

  17. An Investigation of Principals and Assistant Principals in Pennsylvania and the Impact of Transitional Support Programs on Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, W. David

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the GROW program on the intrinsic, extrinsic, and the general job satisfaction of principals and assistant principals in Pennsylvania. The impact of the variables of year in position, age, gender, level of work, location of school, and present degree was examined; the impact of…

  18. The Impact of Adult Degree-Completion Programs on the Organizational Climate of Christian Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Leaders in Christian higher education are often unaware of how adult degree completion programs (ADCPs) impact a school's organizational behavior, and no research has examined employees' perceptions of its impact. This nonexperimental, descriptive study examined differences in employees' perceptions of the impact on organizational climate of the…

  19. The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Cognitive Achievement: The "Bono de Desarrollo Humano" of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Juan; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout Latin America, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs play an important role in social policy. These programs aim to influence the accumulation of human capital, as well as reduce poverty. In terms of educational outcomes, a number of impact evaluation studies have shown that such programs have led to an increase in school enrollment,…

  20. Global Effects Of Late Eocene Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusz, A. E.; Miller, K. G.; Kent, D. V.; Wright, J. D.; Wade, B. S.; Aubry, M. P.

    2007-05-01

    Two of the three largest impact craters found on Earth since 200 Ma (Popigai and the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure or CBIS) are late Eocene (~35.4-35.5 Ma based on radiometric ages) and are well preserved, yet the environmental response to these near synchronous and large impacts is poorly understood. No extinction events are recorded in coccolithophorids, planktonic or benthic foraminifera at this time, and terrestrial biota appear unaffected. The late Eocene global temperature history and carbon budget are poorly constrained because of sparsely sampled δ18O and δ13C records. We present new microfauna and nannoplankton evidence and stable isotopic data that show: 1) minimal biotic and temperature response associated with the impacts; and 2) a large and transient carbon isotope excursion associated with the impacts that reflect a major change in the global carbon budget. Southern Ocean ODP Site 1090 provides an exceptional record to test if a carbon isotopic anomaly is associated with the late Eocene impacts because benthic foraminifera are well preserved, the identified ejecta horizon is marked by an Ir anomaly (~950pg/g; Kyte and Liu, 2002), and the magnetostratigraphic age control is excellent (Channell et al., 2003). A first-order correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale at Site 1090 places the impact ejecta horizon in Chron C16n.1n (279.01 mbsf) with a corresponding age of ~35.4 Ma, consistent with published radiometric ages. We generated a high-resolution carbon and oxygen stable isotope record of benthic foraminifera across the impact ejecta layer from 34.6-35.8 Ma (8 kyr sampling) and 33.7-36 Ma (16 kyr sampling). Our results show that a transient carbon isotope decrease (277-278 mbsf) of 0.4-0.5% is associated with the impact horizon. The δ13C anomaly persists for ~250 kyr; then the signal returns to `pre-impact' values. Following recovery from the transient excursion there were no long-term changes in global carbon isotopic values

  1. How to Create High-Impact Writing Assignments That Enhance Learning and Development and Reinvigorate WAC/WID Programs: What Almost 72,000 Undergraduates Taught Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul; Anson, Chris M.; Gonyea, Robert M.; Paine, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study that suggests ways that Writing Across the Curriculum/Writing in the Disciplines (WAC/WID) programs can increase the effectiveness of their efforts, including implementation of writingintensive courses, which are one of the Association of American Colleges and Universities' High-Impact Educational Practices. The…

  2. Exploring the Causal Impact of the McREL Balanced Leadership Program on Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Instructional Climate, Educator Turnover, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung; Miller, Robert; Goddard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a randomized design to assess the impact of the Balanced Leadership program on principal leadership, instructional climate, principal efficacy, staff turnover, and student achievement in a sample of rural northern Michigan schools. Participating principals report feeling more efficacious, using more effective leadership practices,…

  3. 13 CFR 126.102 - What is the effect of the HUBZone program on the section 8(d) subcontracting program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program on the section 8(d) subcontracting program? 126.102 Section 126.102 Business Credit and Assistance... effect of the HUBZone program on the section 8(d) subcontracting program? The HUBZone Act of 1997 amended the section 8(d) subcontracting program to include qualified HUBZone SBCs in the formal subcontracting...

  4. Housing for the poor: Implementation and impact of Tu Casa program in Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabeth Jardón Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the operation and some major results of most important federal housing program focus on households in poverty situation, with particular emphasis on their instrumentation process and impacts in Tijuana’s housing problem for poor families. The exam aims to analyses the design changes of the program that forced its transformation from Vivah to Tu Casa, and the operational difficulties for a proper implementation in an urban context, as well as its limited impact for solving popular housing needs. It also seeks to weigh the importance of government subsidies to acquire or improve housing, in their progressive modality, as an alternative for social segments excluded from any other public or private financing option.

  5. Public Policy Impact Assessment of the Special Program Uprooted: A Quantitative Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long internal conflict in Colombia has led to the forced displacement and poverty of a large segment of the population that has also been victim of acts of violation of human rights and has consequently suffered detriment in their living conditions. In response, Colombian authorities have implemented public policies based on special programs, whose general purpose is to reduce the impact of uprooting, to alleviate poverty, and to rebuild the social fabric of these populations. In this context, this research, using Propensity Score Matching methods, evaluates and measures the impact on vulnerable population living in displacement and extreme poverty in the cities of Neiva, Bucaramanga, Sincelejo, and Montelíbano, beneficiary of the Special Program Uprooted, which is funded by Social Action and the European Union in order to “reduce the extreme vulnerability of displaced population and host communities in Colombia.”

  6. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Intergenerational Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garc?a-S?nchez, Jes?S-Nicasio; Canedo-Garc?a, Alejandro; Pacheco-Sanz, Deilis-Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    .... Of these, just 50 studies met the inclusion criteria of being an empirical investigation of the effectiveness of intergenerational programs that contain appropriate elaboration on theoretical constructs and methods.Results...

  7. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: atmospheric effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D.M.; Brubaker, K.L.; Lee, J.L.

    1980-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a preliminary, three-year program to investigate the impacts of the construction and operation of a satellite power system, of unprecedented scale. The Department of Energy's program, titled The Concept Development and Evaluation Program, focused its investigations on a Reference System description that calls for the use of either silicon (Si) or gallium aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) photovoltaic cells on 60 satellites to be constructed in GEO over a 30-yr period. Rectennas would be constructed on the ground to receive microwave energy from the satellites. Each satellite-rectenna pair is designed to produce 5 GW of power on an essentially continuous basis for use as a baseload power source for an electric power distribution system. The environmental assessment part of the program was divided into five interdependent task areas. The present document constitutes the final technical report on one of the five task areas, the Assessment of the Atmospheric Effects, and as such presents an in-depth summary of work performed during the assessment program. The issues associated with SPS activities in the troposphere are examined. These include tropospheric weather modification related to rectenna operations and rocket launches, and air quality impacts related to rocketlaunch ground clouds. Then progressing upward through the various levels of the atmosphere, the principal middle and upper atmospheric effects associated with rocket effluents are analyzed. Finally, all of the potential SPS atmospheric effects are summarized.

  8. Oil and gas program: cumulative effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Horn, W; Melancon, A; Sun, J

    1985-01-01

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA) requires the Secretary of the Department of the Interior to submit an annual report to Congress assessing the cumulative environmental effects of mineral leasing and operations under the OCSLA...

  9. Knowing Is Not Half the Battle: Impacts of the National Health Screening Program in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyuncheol Bryant; Lee, Suejin; Lim, Wilfredo

    2017-01-01

    Health screening provides information on disease risk and diagnosis, but whether this promotes health is unclear. We estimate the impacts of the National Health Screening Program in Korea for diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. In this setting, information on disease risk and prompting for a secondary examination vary at different biomarker thresholds. We find evidence for increased diabetes medication and weight loss around the high risk threshold for diabetes, where information is combin...

  10. Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Military Deployed Setting: The Impact of an Aggressive Infection Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    patients were clas- sified and treated for VAP if after 48 hours of mechanical ventilation they developed fever, leukocytosis, new or pro- gressive...medical conditions known at the time of admission. Median days of mechanical ventilation before onset of VAP was 5 (range, 2–11 days). Sixteen patients ... Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Military Deployed Setting: The Impact of an Aggressive Infection Control Program Michael L. Landrum, MD and

  11. Clinical impact of a home-based palliative care program: a hospice-private payer partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Christopher W; Tangeman, John C; Rudra, Carole B; Grant, Pei C; Luczkiewicz, Debra L; Mylotte, Kathleen M; Riemer, William D; Marien, Melanie J; Serehali, Amin M

    2014-11-01

    Outpatient programs have been traditionally offered in the U.S. under programs such as the Medicare Hospice Benefit. Recommendations now emphasize a blended model in which palliative care is offered concurrently with curative approaches at the onset of serious or life-limiting disease. The efficacy of nonhospice outpatient palliative care programs is not well understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical impact of a home-based palliative care program, Home Connections, implemented as a partnership between a not-for-profit hospice and two private insurers. This was a prospective, observational, database study of 499 Home Connections participants enrolled between July 1, 2008, and May 31, 2013. Measured outcomes were advance directive completion, site of death, symptom severity over time, program satisfaction, and hospice referral and average length of stay. Seventy-one percent of participants completed actionable advance directives after enrollment, and the site of death was home for 47% of those who died during or after participation in the program. Six of eight symptom domains (anxiety, appetite, dyspnea, well-being, depression, and nausea) showed improvement. Patients, caregivers, and physicians gave high program satisfaction scores (93%-96%). Home Connections participants who subsequently enrolled in hospice care had a longer average length of stay of 77.9 days compared with all other hospice referrals (average length of stay 56.5 days). A home-based palliative care program was developed between two local commercial payers and a not-for-profit hospice. Not only did this program improve symptom management, advance directive completion, and satisfaction, but it also facilitated the transition of patients into hospice care, when appropriate. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of financial incentives on behavior change program participation and risk reduction in worksite health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stefan B; Anderson, David R; Koland, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of financial incentives on behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Retrospective cohort study conducted to observe the relationship between financial incentives and behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Large public- or private-sector employers. Twenty-four organizations (n = 511,060 eligible employees) that offered comprehensive worksite health promotion (WHP) programs. Financial incentives offered for completion of a behavior change program as part of a WHP program. Behavior change program registration and completion data were obtained from standard reports. Company-level risk change was calculated from the average per-person number of risks on baseline and follow-up health risk assessments. Incentive design was determined from questionnaires completed by WHP program managers. Average registration rates, program completion rates, and risk improvement rates were compared using t-tests for companies that did versus did not offer incentives. Comparisons were also made between companies with incentives of less than $100 and those with incentives of $100 or more. Correlations between incentive value and outcome variables were assessed using Pearson correlations. Companies that offered incentives had significantly higher health coaching completion rates than companies not offering an incentive (82.9% vs. 76.4%, respectively, p = .017) but there was no significant association with registration (p = .384) or risk improvement rates (p = .242). Incentive values were not significantly associated with risk improvement rates (p = .240). Offering incentives for completing behavior change programs may increase completion rates, but increased health improvement does not necessarily follow.

  13. Modeling the Impact of Uganda’s Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N.; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15–49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program’s progress, and to refine the implementation approach. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20–34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10–19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15–34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Conclusion Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda’s SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10–34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund’s new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence. PMID:27410234

  14. Approaching tobacco dependence in youngsters: impact of an interactive smoking cessation program in a population of Romanian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Esanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive smoking cessation program when first implemented in a naïve population of Romanian adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess youngsters’ attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco dependence, their compliance to smoking cessation interventions and success rate of a standard smoking cessation pilot program.Materials and methods: A total of 231 subjects 14-19 years old participated in the Adolescent Smoking Cessation (ASC pilot program in Romania in 2005. Subjects were evaluated based on the ASC questionnaire, a validated set of questions about smoking and cessation profile, whether current smoker or not. Smoking status was validated by carbon monoxide determination in exhaled air. Participants were delivered 6 interactive ASC sessions about smoking hazards and methods to quit smoking. A final evaluation was done to assess overall program’s impact and to reward quitters and reducers by prizes.Results: Study population was made of 52.4% every day smokers, 10.4% at least once/week but not every day smokers, 6% less than once/week smokers, 23.4% never smokers and 7.8% ex-smokers. Cessation rate was 12.3% in every day smokers and 16.6 % in at least once a week but not every day smokers. Also, 4.1% every day smokers and 30 % at least once/week not every day smokers reduced number of cigarettes smoked/day. The program registered a high attendance rate/sessions as 85.2 % of subjects were present in all sessions. Also, significant changes occurred in participant’s beliefs about smoking and cessation.Conclusions: Pilot ASC was an efficient program with 12.3% of daily smokers to quit smoking and its positive impact on personal smoking and cessation beliefs in 90 % of participants. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 150-155

  15. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP, from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP, from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project. The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR.

  16. Five-a-day, a price to pay: an evaluation of the UK program impact accounting for market forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario

    2011-01-01

    We provide an ex-post assessment of the UK 5-a-day information campaign, where the positive effects of information are disentangled from potentially conflicting price dynamics. Using 4 years of data from the Expenditure and Food Survey between 2002 and 2006, we estimate that the 5-a-day program has lifted fruit and vegetable consumption by 0.3 portions, on average. We also provide quantitative evidence of a differentiated impact by income group, ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 portions. All impacts are larger than those observed by simply comparing pre-policy and post-policy intakes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [PROFAMILIA studies the effectiveness of contraceptive marketing programs in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A recent study by PROFAMILIA, the private Colombian family planning organization, indicates that community based distribution programs and social marketing programs are not totally interchangeable forms of contraceptive distribution. Comparison of the efficacy of different systems in making contraceptives more accessible to the low income population led the researchers to conclude that social marketing programs work as well as community based distribution programs in rural areas which already have high rates of contraceptive usage. Community based distribution programs appear more effective than social marketing programs in areas where contraceptive usage is not yet well established. PROFAMILIA researchers conducted operational studies in 3 different states, each of which had a community based distribution program. In the first state the community based distribution program was suspended and a vender who had previously supplied only urban outlets added rural pharmacies to his route. The vender handled 3 kinds of pills, 2 types of spermicidal suppositories, and condoms. In a neighboring state, 3 instructors belonging to the community based distribution program were offered commissions of about 10% of the value of the products if the distributors they supervised met monthly sales quotas. The community based distribution program was left unchanged in the third state but a 2-member mobile team was trained to travel through the region by jeep, talking to community groups about the advantage of contraception. At the end of 18 months, sales of contraceptives had declined in the state where the community based distribution program was replaced by the social marketing program. The decline was believed to be related to unforeseen price increases for pills and devaluation of the Colombian peso. The social marketing project was however much more cost effective than the other 2, which continued to require PROFAMILIA subsidies. Contraceptive usage increased in the other 2 areas

  18. Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riewer, S. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)); Spanner, G.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration's retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and free ridership.'' The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

  19. The impact of the NASA Administrator's Fellowship Program on fellows' career choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Eva M.

    Maintaining diversity in the technical workforce and in higher education has been identified as one way to increase the outreach, recruitment and retention of students and other faculty from underrepresented, underserved and minority populations, especially in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) courses of study and careers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Administrator's Fellowship Program (NAFP) is a professional development program targeting faculty at Minority Serving Institutions and NASA civil servant employees for a two year work-based professional development experience toward increasing the likelihood of retaining them in STEM careers and supporting the recruitment and retention of minority students in STEM courses of study. This evaluation links the activities of the fellowship program to the impact on fellows' career choices as a result of participation through a series of surveys and interviews. Fellows' personal and professional perceptions of themselves and colleagues' and administrators' beliefs about their professional capabilities as a result of selection and participation were also addressed as they related to career outcomes. The findings indicated that while there was no direct impact on fellows' choice of careers, the exposure, direction and focus offered through travel, mentoring, research and teaching had an impact their perceptions of their own capabilities and, their colleagues' and administrators' beliefs about them as professionals and researchers. The career outcomes reported were an increase in the number publications, promotions, change in career and an increased awareness of the culture of science and engineering.

  20. Concrete structures under impact loading rate effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Various structures may be subjected to accidental, impact loading. The behaviour of structures under that kind of extreme loading conditions is of vital importance for people's safety and environmental damage prevention. There is a need for reliable assessment methods for the local and the overall

  1. Effects of dynamic impacts on human bones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    1980-06-02

    Jun 2, 1980 ... Abstract. Flat bones of human skeleton were subjected to dynamic indentation with ball indenters. The impacted surface was studied under high magnification and also by using the technique of multiple beam interferometry. The impulse caused the pile up of material at a little distance from the edge of the ...

  2. Effectiveness and Successful Program Elements of SOAR’s Afterschool Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Johnson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Project SOAR provided after-school programs that afforded expanded learning opportunities to help students succeed in local public schools and to contribute to the general welfare of the community. Program components focused on building students’ academic skills and positive attitudes, aided by teachers, mentors, parent education, and local agencies. Instructional programs were conducted to help reduce drug use and violence. Activities included academic assistance, technology training, mentoring, service learning projects, and education in life skills and the arts. Parent involvement was encouraged. Behavioral and academic outcomes—especially at the high school level—were analyzed to determine program effectiveness regarding academic achievement, dropout rates, and rates and frequency of suspensions. Successful program elements and strategies are noted.

  3. A simulation-based resident-as-teacher program: The impact on teachers and learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavsky, Eli M; Sargsyan, Zaven; Heath, Janae K; Kohn, Rachel; Alba, George A; Gordon, James A; Currier, Paul F

    2015-12-01

    Residency training is charged with improving resident teaching skills. Utilizing simulation in teacher training has unique advantages such as providing a controlled learning environment and opportunities for deliberate practice. We assessed the impact of a simulation-based resident-as-teacher (RaT) program. A RaT program was embedded in an existing 8-case simulation curriculum for 52 internal medicine (IM) interns. Residents participated in a workshop, then served as facilitators in the curriculum and received feedback from faculty. Residents' teaching and feed back skills were measured using a pre- and post-program self-assessment and post-session and post-curriculum evaluations by intern learners. Forty-one second- and third-year residents participated in the study August 2013 to October 2013 at a single center. Pre- and post-program teaching skills were assessed for 34 of 41 resident facilitators (83%) participating in 3.9 sessions on average. Partaking in the program led to improvements in resident facilitators' self-reported teaching and feedback skills across all domains. The most significant improvement was in teaching in a simulated environment (2.81 to 4.16, P model for the development of simulation curricula and RaT programs within IM residencies. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. Impact of International Collaborative Training Programs on Medical Students' Research Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezhake, Remila; Hu, Shang-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Qian; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Xue-Lian; Dominguez, Ayling Z; Qiao, You-Lin; Zhou, Cai-Hong; Zhao, Fang-Hui

    2016-11-10

    International collaborative training programs for graduate students are widespread, but studies on their educational impact are limited. As an advanced cancer institute in China, Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CHCAMS) attaches great importance to international exchanges and cooperation within graduate education. The Department of Epidemiology of CHCAMS has been involved in several existing international training programs and has also launched a short-term training program in cooperation with foreign universities and institutes from 2008. Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars and Fellows (FICRS-F) Program and the Fulbright-Fogarty Fellowship Program are the most typical examples of our practice in international cooperation on graduate education over these years. Our department has gained substantial experience in graduate-level international collaborative training, focused on cancer epidemiology. This paper is a brief introduction to the practice of different programs in our department and students' achievements during and after training. Moreover, we attempt to serve as a reference and help promote the training of graduate students pursuing careers in cancer research or global health by other universities or research institutes.

  5. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35 versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24 versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16 versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact.

  6. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Training on the Effectiveness of Peer Change Agents: A Campus-wide Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Roediger, Micah

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of a training program on a peer-to-peer intervention designed to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a large college campus. The training program was evaluated by the number of interactions a peer change agent--an individual who attempts to make a positive change in another person's behavior, had with bicyclists. The results suggest the training program may be effective in increasing change agent interactions for change agents who are already commi...

  8. The impact of a Latino outreach project on science museums: A program evaluation focused on institutional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Mario E.

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to determine the impact of the Community Science Festivals Project on the science museums that participated. This project, also known as Celebra la Ciencia (CLC), was a federally funded effort to engage the Latino communities throughout the United States in activities promoting appreciation of the importance of science education. The festivals brought together various educational, community, and scientific organizations that collaborated in producing community-hosted interactive educational events to which students and their families were invited. The evaluation takes the form of a qualitative study based on interviews of key individuals at 1 museum in each of the 5 festival cities. The evaluation focuses on the museums' changes in: (a) their view of their roles as involving the Latino population in their service area, (b) publicity efforts aimed at the Latino population, (c) outreach toward the Latino population, and (d) accommodation of Latinos within the museums. The results for each site are listed separately then are discussed jointly. Implications for practice include the following: (a) intensive and long-term programming, as opposed to one-time events, are likely more effective for creating direct impact on student achievement, although the festivals had many positive effects; (b) funding for smaller organizations (or individual departments within larger organization) seemed to have a more observable impact, enabling them to create Latino-oriented advertising, outreach, and accommodations that would not have been possible otherwise; and (c) Spanish-language media was an effective advertising tool, especially radio, but use of public service announcements should be monitored to ensure that they are aired at times that are effective for reaching the target audience. Recommendations for future studies are made.

  9. Perceived impact of an interprofessional education program on community resilience: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Marion Kimball; McEwen, Marylyn Morris

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived impact of an interprofessional education (IPE) program for health sciences students on two culturally diverse, underserved communities. A community resilience/capacity framework, consisting of catalysts (primarily the creation of awareness) and capital components: human (workforce development), social (networking and empowerment) and economic (volunteer labor and money spent by the program), provided the conceptual underpinnings for the study. Focus groups with stakeholders in two communities, one rural and one metropolitan, were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed by categorizing data according to each capital component. In addition to the concepts contained in the capacity framework a new category, informational capital (data specific to the community) emerged during the analysis. We suggest that by acting as a catalyst a community based interprofessional program can affect components of community resilience/capacity, primarily human, social, and informational capital. Using the community resilience/capacity framework facilitated exploration of the perceived impact of an educational program on one rural and one urban underserved community beyond assessing student outcomes or number of clients served.

  10. Impact of an Interdisciplinary Food, Nutrition and Health Education Program for adolescent Brazilian volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Vilela Silva DANIEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of an Interdisciplinary Food, Nutrition and Health Education Program on nutrition knowledge, intention to change eating behavior, and body dissatisfaction of adolescent volleyball players. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 female volleyball players from the juvenile category of the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, who participated in a program with eight monthly meetings (one discussion group followed by six educational activities and one final discussion group for evaluation. Results: Nutrition knowledge, body perception, intention to change eating behavior, eating attitudes and practices were investigated using questionnaires and discussion groups before and after the athletes' participation in ludic activities designed to address nutrition strategies for athletic performance and healthy eating, and how to deal with pressure for results and self-image. Nutrition knowledge improved from 57.0%±9.9 to 63.0%±11.8 (p=0.03 of correct answers. The mean body distortion score did not change (70.0±14.9 versus 76.5±22.4, p=0.235. Six athletes advanced in their intention to change eating behavior. Positive food practices were reported during the program and the identified discourses indicated the intention of changing the daily eating habits in the future. Conclusion: The program had a positive impact on nutrition knowledge and intention of changing eating behavior; however, for other issues, especially involving emotional aspects, further interventions should be planned.

  11. Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.

    2012-01-01

    This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

  12. Educating the Health Informatics Professional: The Impact of an Academic Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetton, Sue; Hazlitt, Cherie

    2015-01-01

    The successful implementation and utilisation of electronic health information systems is dependent on a highly knowledgeable and skilled workforce. In Australia there is a range of education and training opportunities that seeks to meet these workforce needs. This range of programs reflects both the multi-disciplinary characteristic of health informatics and its wide application within the healthcare environment. We need to discuss the role of each program or type of program in developing a skilled and knowledgeable workforce, and in expanding the knowledge base of the discipline. This paper contributes to such a discussion by describing a pilot study that focused specifically on the role/impact of the University of Tasmania academic health informatics program. The study comprised an anonymous on-line survey followed by a small number of interviews. The online survey included closed questions which gathered quantitative data about Quantitative data were analysed using appropriate numerical methods such as response counts and/or percentages. Open-ended questions were analysed using thematic analysis. Qualitative data indicated that course graduates reside in every state and territory, with the majority being employed by the various state health services. The majority of respondents had moved into health informatics professions or into senior positions in health informatics. Eighty percent attributed this directly to their participation in the course. Respondents indicated a strong socio-technical orientation in their approach to health informatics. The program appears to be having an impact on the health informatics workforce, particularly in promoting a strong socio-technical focus. Evaluation of health informatics programs would enable the development of a comprehensive and complementary network of offerings that would meet the diverse needs for health informatics professionals in the healthcare and academic environment.

  13. Shape Effect Analysis of Aluminum Projectile Impact on Whipple Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Maria J.; Miller, Joshua E.

    2017-01-01

    The informed design with respect to hypervelocity collisions involving micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) is influential to the success of space missions. For an orbit comparable to that of the International Space Station, velocities for MMOD can range from 1 to 15 km/s, with an average velocity around 10 km/cu s. The high energy released during collisions at these speeds can result in damage to a spacecraft, or worst-case, loss of the spacecraft, thus outlining the importance of methods to predict the likelihood and extent of damage due to an impact. Through experimental testing and numerical simulations, substantial work has been conducted to better understand the effects of hypervelocity impacts (HVI) on spacecraft systems and shields; however, much of the work has been focused on spherical impacting particles. To improve environment models for the analysis of MMOD, a large-scale satellite break-up test was performed at the Arnold Engineering and Development Complex to better understand the varied impactor geometries that could be generated from a large impact. As a part of the post-experiment analysis, an undertaking to characterize the irregular fragments generated is currently being performed by the University of Florida under the management of NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC). DebriSat was a representative, modern LEO satellite that was catastrophically broken up in a HVI test. The test chamber was lined with a soft-catch system of foam panels that captured the fragments after impact. Initial predictions put the number of fragments larger than 2mm generated from the HVI at roughly 85,000. The number of fragments thus far extracted from the foam panels has exceeded 100,000, with that number continuously increasing. The shapes of the fragments vary dependent upon the material. Carbon-fiber reinforced polymer pieces, for instance, are abundantly found as thin, flat slivers. The characterization of these fragments with

  14. The Longitudinal Impact of NFL PLAY 60 Programming on Youth Aerobic Capacity and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Russell, Daniel W; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma

    2017-03-01

    The NFL PLAY 60 campaign has actively promoted physical activity and healthy eating in youth through programs such as the PLAY 60 Challenge and Fuel Up to PLAY 60. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of NFL PLAY 60 programming on longitudinal trajectories of youth aerobic capacity and BMI. Data were from the NFL PLAY 60 FitnessGram Partnership Project, a large participatory research project designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among Kindergarten through 12th grade children and adolescents. The programming was led by teachers in school settings across 32 NFL franchise markets. A range of 50,000-100,000 students from 497 schools completed FitnessGram assessments annually starting in 2011 and continuing through 2015. The analysis was conducted in 2015. Adoption of NFL PLAY 60 programming was encouraged but not required and the program implementation was evaluated each year. The adoption was evaluated through self-reported annual survey. School assessments of aerobic capacity and BMI were evaluated using FitnessGram standards to calculate the percentage of students meeting the Healthy Fitness Zone for each test. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate the longitudinal trajectories. About 19% of schools were classified as programming schools. Annual improvements in aerobic capacity were significantly greater in schools that participated in the programs for both girls (3.0%, p<0.01) and boys (2.9%, p<0.01) compared with non-programming schools. The annual improvements in BMI Healthy Fitness Zone achievement were also higher in girls (1.3%, p<0.05) and in boys (1.2%, p<0.05) from schools that participated in the programs versus non-participating schools. Schools that implemented the programs for the entire 4-year period tended to have better improvements in aerobic capacity than schools enrolled for only 2 or 3 years (p<0.05). The results of these longitudinal analyses support the utility of the NFL PLAY 60 physical activity

  15. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply

  16. Space shuttle solid rocket booster recovery system definition. Volume 3: SRB water impact loads computer program, user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This user's manual describes the FORTRAN IV computer program developed to compute the total vertical load, normal concentrated pressure loads, and the center of pressure of typical SRB water impact slapdown pressure distributions specified in the baseline configuration. The program prepares the concentrated pressure load information in punched card format suitable for input to the STAGS computer program. In addition, the program prepares for STAGS input the inertia reacting loads to the slapdown pressure distributions.

  17. Estimating the potential effects of a vaccine program against an emerging influenza pandemic--United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Matthew; Reed, Carrie; Swerdlow, David L; Gambhir, Manoj; Graitcer, Samuel; Finelli, Lyn; Borse, Rebekah H; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Meltzer, Martin I; Bridges, Carolyn B

    2015-05-01

    Human illness from influenza A(H7N9) was identified in March 2013, and candidate vaccine viruses were soon developed. To understand factors that may impact influenza vaccination programs, we developed a model to evaluate hospitalizations and deaths averted considering various scenarios. We utilized a model incorporating epidemic curves with clinical attack rates of 20% or 30% in a single wave of illness, case hospitalization ratios of 0.5% or 4.2%, and case fatality ratios of 0.08% or 0.53%. We considered scenarios that achieved 80% vaccination coverage, various starts of vaccination programs (16 or 8 weeks before, the same week of, or 8 or 16 weeks after start of pandemic), an administration rate of 10 or 30 million doses per week (the latter rate is an untested assumption), and 2 levels of vaccine effectiveness (2 doses of vaccine required; either 62% or 80% effective for persons aged <60 years, and either 43% or 60% effective for persons aged ≥ 60 years). The start date of vaccination campaigns most influenced impact; 141,000-2,200,000 hospitalizations and 11,000-281,000 deaths were averted when campaigns started before a pandemic, and <100-1 300,000 hospitalizations and 0-165,000 deaths were averted for programs beginning the same time as or after the introduction of the pandemic virus. The rate of vaccine administration and vaccine effectiveness did not influence campaign impact as much as timing of the start of campaign. Our findings suggest that efforts to improve the timeliness of vaccine production will provide the greatest impacts for future pandemic vaccination programs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Syntactic Accidents in Program Analysis: On the Impact of the CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Damian; Danvy, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    We show that a non-duplicating transformation into Continuation-Passing Style (CPS) has no effect on control-flow analysis, a positive effect on binding-time analysis for traditional partial evaluation, and no effect on binding-time analysis for continuation-based partial evaluation: a monovariant...... control-flow analysis yields equivalent results on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart, a monovariant binding-time analysis yields less precise results on a direct-style program than on its CPS counterpart, and an enhanced monovariant binding-time analysis yields equivalent results...... on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart. Our proof technique amounts to constructing the CPS counterpart of flow information and of binding times. Our results formalize and confirm a folklore theorem about traditional binding-time analysis, namely that CPS has a positive effect on binding times...

  19. Syntactic accidents in program analysis: on the impact of the CPS transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniel; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    We show that a non-duplicating transformation into Continuation-Passing Style (CPS) has no effect on control-flow analysis, a positive effect on binding-time analysis for traditional partial evaluation, and no effect on binding-time analysis for continuation-based partial evaluation: a monovariant...... control-flow analysis yields equivalent results on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart, a monovariant binding-time analysis yields less precise results on a direct-style program than on its CPS counterpart, and an enhanced monovariant binding-time analysis yields equivalent results...... on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart. Our proof technique amounts to constructing the CPS counterpart of flow information and of binding times. Our results formalize and confirm a folklore theorem about traditional binding-time analysis, namely that CPS has a positive effect on binding times...

  20. Effects due to overlapping large impact basins on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert; Reidy, Anne Marie; Roark, James H.; Stockman, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    Many ancient, highly degraded large impact basins exist on Mars. In many cases these basins overlap or are overlapped by more easily observed, presumably younger, impact basins. While impact basin overlap is becoming more recognized, the effects of such overlap have only occassionally been described. Such effects will depend on a variety of factors including the absolute and relative size of the basins, the degree of overlap, the state of the lithosphere and its thermal gradient at the time of impact, and the time between impacts. There now exists enough evidence for overlapping basins of different sizes that some of these can be discussed. This paper highlights some examples of the obvious effects of basin overlap.