#### Sample records for program impacting nutrient-responsive

1. A mathematical function for the description of nutrient-response curve.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several mathematical equations have been proposed to modeling nutrient-response curve for animal and human justified on the goodness of fit and/or on the biological mechanism. In this paper, a functional form of a generalized quantitative model based on Rayleigh distribution principle for description of nutrient-response phenomena is derived. The three parameters governing the curve a has biological interpretation, b may be used to calculate reliable estimates of nutrient response relationships, and c provide the basis for deriving relationships between nutrient and physiological responses. The new function was successfully applied to fit the nutritional data obtained from 6 experiments including a wide range of nutrients and responses. An evaluation and comparison were also done based simulated data sets to check the suitability of new model and four-parameter logistic model for describing nutrient responses. This study indicates the usefulness and wide applicability of the new introduced, simple and flexible model when applied as a quantitative approach to characterizing nutrient-response curve. This new mathematical way to describe nutritional-response data, with some useful biological interpretations, has potential to be used as an alternative approach in modeling nutritional responses curve to estimate nutrient efficiency and requirements.

2. A mathematical function for the description of nutrient-response curve.

Science.gov (United States)

2017-01-01

Several mathematical equations have been proposed to modeling nutrient-response curve for animal and human justified on the goodness of fit and/or on the biological mechanism. In this paper, a functional form of a generalized quantitative model based on Rayleigh distribution principle for description of nutrient-response phenomena is derived. The three parameters governing the curve a) has biological interpretation, b) may be used to calculate reliable estimates of nutrient response relationships, and c) provide the basis for deriving relationships between nutrient and physiological responses. The new function was successfully applied to fit the nutritional data obtained from 6 experiments including a wide range of nutrients and responses. An evaluation and comparison were also done based simulated data sets to check the suitability of new model and four-parameter logistic model for describing nutrient responses. This study indicates the usefulness and wide applicability of the new introduced, simple and flexible model when applied as a quantitative approach to characterizing nutrient-response curve. This new mathematical way to describe nutritional-response data, with some useful biological interpretations, has potential to be used as an alternative approach in modeling nutritional responses curve to estimate nutrient efficiency and requirements.

3. Impact of Indentation in Programming

OpenAIRE

Parvatham, Niranjan Kumar

2013-01-01

In computer programming languages, indentation formats program source code to improve readability. Programming languages make use of indentation to define program structure .Programmers use indentation to understand the structure of their programs to human readers. Especially, indentation is the better way to represent the relationship between control flow constructs such as selection statements or loops and code contained within and outside them. This paper describes about different indentat...

4. Nutrient responses to ecosystem disturbances from annual to multi-millennial timescales

Science.gov (United States)

B. Buma

2014-01-01

The Novus Network annual meeting was held at H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon, USA, from 22 May to 24 May 2013. The topic was: âNutrient responses to ecosystem disturbances from annual to multi-millennial timescalesâ. The 2013 workshop brought together 28 researchers from 21 institutions spread across three continents. The participants â 17 faculty members,...

5. Examining the Impact of Afterschool STEM Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Krishnamurthi, Anita; Ballard, Melissa; Noam, Gil G.

2014-01-01

Afterschool programs that provide strong science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) learning experiences are making an impact on participating youth not only become excited and engaged in these fields but develop STEM skills and proficiencies, come to value these fields and their contributions to society, and--significantly--begin to see…

6. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

Science.gov (United States)

Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

2015-01-01

Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

7. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1995-02-01

In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

8. Small Commercial Program DOE Project: Impact evaluation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bathgate, R.; Faust, S. (Energy and Solid Waste Consultants, Montpelier, VT (United States))

1992-08-12

In 1991, Washington Electric Cooperative (WEC) implemented a Department of Energy grant to conduct a small commercial energy conservation project. The small commercial Mom, and Pop'' grocery stores within WEC's service territory were selected as the target market for the project. Energy Solid Waste Consultant's (E SWC) Impact Evaluation is documented here. The evaluation was based on data gathered from a variety of sources, including load profile metering, kWh submeters, elapsed time indicators, and billing histories. Five stores were selected to receive measures under this program: Waits River General Store, Joe's Pond Store, Hastings Store, Walden General Store, and Adamant Cooperative. Specific measures installed in each store and description of each are included.

9. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Odile Viltart

2007-01-01

Full Text Available Since life emerged on the Earth, the development of efficient strategies to cope with sudden and/or permanent changes of the environment has been virtually the unique goal pursued by every organism in order to ensure its survival and thus perpetuate the species. In this view, evolution has selected tightly regulated processes aimed at maintaining stability among internal parameters despite external changes, a process termed homeostasis. Such an internal equilibrium relies quite heavily on three interrelated physiological systems: the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems, which function as a permanently activated watching network, communicating by the mean of specialized molecules: neurotransmitters, cytokines, and hormones or neurohormones. Potential threats to homeostasis might occur as early as during in utero life, potentially leaving a lasting mark on the developing organism. Indeed, environmental factors exert early-life influences on the structural and functional development of individuals, giving rise to changes that can persist throughout life. This organizational phenomenon, encompassing prenatal environmental events, altered fetal growth, and development of long-term pathophysiology, has been named early-life programming. Over the past decade, increased scientific activities have been devoted to deciphering the obvious link between states of maternal stress and the behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physiological reactivity of the progeny. This growing interest has been driven by the discovery of a tight relationship between prenatal stress and development of short- and long-term health disorders. Among factors susceptible of contributing to such a deleterious programming, nutrients and hormones, especially steroid hormones, are considered as powerful mediators of the fetal organization since they readily cross the placental barrier. In particular, variations in circulating maternal glucocorticoids are known to impact this

10. Random Experiment Program Resource Impact (REPRI) program: User's manual

Science.gov (United States)

Pease, W. T.; Alford, R. A.

1972-01-01

A complete user and programmer guide for the REPRI program is presented. This program was developed to perform mission concept, subsystem capability, and experiment support compatibility studies for a space station. The program utilizes Monte Carlo techniques to randomly schedule events in discrete intervals. Resources, logistics, cost, and space station volume are considered.

11. Global disruption of cell cycle progression and nutrient response by the antifungal agent amiodarone.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Rao, Rajini

2007-12-28

The antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone has fungicidal activity against a broad range of fungi. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it elicits an immediate influx of Ca(2+) followed by mitochondrial fragmentation and eventual cell death. To dissect the mechanism of its toxicity, we assessed the transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae to amiodarone by DNA microarray. Consistent with the drug-induced calcium burst, more than half of the differentially transcribed genes were induced by high levels of CaCl(2). Amiodarone also caused rapid nuclear accumulation of the calcineurin-regulated Crz1. The majority of genes induced by amiodarone within 10 min were involved in utilization of alternative carbon and nitrogen sources and in mobilizing energy reserves. The similarity to nutrient starvation responses seen in stationary phase cells, rapamycin treatment, and late stages of shift to diauxic conditions and nitrogen depletion suggests that amiodarone may interfere with nutrient sensing and regulatory networks. Transcription of a set of nutrient-responsive genes was affected by amiodarone but not CaCl(2), indicating that activation of the starvation response was independent of Ca(2+). Genes down-regulated by amiodarone were involved in all stages of cell cycle control. A moderate dose of amiodarone temporarily delayed cell cycle progression at G(1), S, and G(2)/M phases, with the Swe1-mediated delay in G(2)/M phase being most prominent in a calcineurin-dependent manner. Overall, the transcriptional responses to amiodarone revealed by this study were found to be distinct from other classes of antifungals, including the azole drugs, pointing toward a novel target pathway in combating fungal pathogenesis.

12. Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides guidance on model approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs. It describes several standard approaches that can be used in order to make these programs more efficient.

13. Arabidopsis CBL-Interacting Protein Kinases Regulate Carbon/Nitrogen-Nutrient Response by Phosphorylating Ubiquitin Ligase ATL31.

Science.gov (United States)

Yasuda, Shigetaka; Aoyama, Shoki; Hasegawa, Yoko; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

2017-04-03

In response to the ratio of available carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrients, plants regulate their metabolism, growth, and development, a process called the C/N-nutrient response. However, the molecular basis of C/N-nutrient signaling remains largely unclear. In this study, we identified three CALCINEURIN B-LIKE (CBL)-INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASES (CIPKs), CIPK7, CIPK12, and CIPK14, as key regulators of the C/N-nutrient response during the post-germination growth in Arabidopsis. Single-knockout mutants of CIPK7, CIPK12, and CIPK14 showed hypersensitivity to high C/low N conditions, which was enhanced in their triple-knockout mutant, indicating that they play a negative role and at least partly function redundantly in the C/N-nutrient response. Moreover, these CIPKs were found to regulate the function of ATL31, a ubiquitin ligase involved in the C/N-nutrient response via the phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of 14-3-3 proteins. CIPK7, CIPK12, and CIPK14 physically interacted with ATL31, and CIPK14, acting with CBL8, directly phosphorylated ATL31 in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Further analyses showed that these CIPKs are required for ATL31 phosphorylation and stabilization, which mediates the degradation of 14-3-3 proteins in response to C/N-nutrient conditions. These findings provide new insights into C/N-nutrient signaling mediated by protein phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14. Wilderness educators' evaluation of the Impact Monster Program

Science.gov (United States)

William W. Hendricks; Alan E. Watson

1999-01-01

Since its development by Jim Bradley in the late 1970s, the Impact Monster, a wilderness education skit designed to teach minimum impact techniques, has been used as a wilderness education tool by federal land management agencies. This paper reports on an evaluation of the perceived effectiveness of the Impact Monster program and its content. Results indicate that the...

15. Teacher Induction Programs: The Impact of Years Three and Four

Science.gov (United States)

Kneer, M. Joseph, Jr.; Reiter, Jana; Shackelford, Beth M.

2009-01-01

This is a problem-based learning project that focused on a discrepancy in program content and retention rates between two-year teacher induction programs and induction programs that last three or four years. It specifically focused on the impact induction has on new teacher perceptions and teacher retention. The project also examined the influence…

16. The impact of loyalty programs on customer loyalty

OpenAIRE

Ištvancová, Dominika

2017-01-01

Loyalty programs are one of the tools that serve to create customer loyalty. The aim of this thesis is to determine whether loyalty programs of perfumeries and satisfaction with their impact on customer loyalty. The theoretical research summarizes the available knowledge about consumer behavior, loyalty and loyalty programs. The parfumeria market analysis in the Czech Republic and the content analysis of the MML TGI provide sufficient information about the established loyalty programs and the...

17. Program Aspires for "Global" Impact Results

Science.gov (United States)

Oh, Christina

2011-01-01

During the 2010-2011 school year, Fairfax County Public Schools (FCPS) piloted the After-School Global Language Opportunity Benefiting All Learners (GLOBAL) program for 12 weeks at eight different school sites. This school year the program expanded to 25 weeks and 11 sites. GLOBAL is an approach to learning that allows students to develop basic…

18. Environmental Impact: University Programs in Journalism.

Science.gov (United States)

Griffin, Robert J.; Schoenfeld, Clay

1982-01-01

A questionnaire was designed and used to measure various aspects of environmentally-related materials/activities in curriculum, internship and placement programs, public service, faculty interests, and institutional liaisons in journalism and mass media communications programs at United States colleges and universities. Background information,…

19. Intergenerational Programs--Impact on Attitudes.

Science.gov (United States)

Seefeldt, Carol

1989-01-01

Attitude change among older and younger participants in intergenerational programs is investigated. While elderly participants in several programs reported positive feelings resulting from their involvement with children, children's attitudes attributed to intergenerational experiences were mixed. Research should consider longitudinal growth and…

20. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Martin, M.A.

2000-01-26

This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

1. Impact of a Student Leadership Development Program

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Shanise Wallace

2014-01-01

[...]in a program designed to promote student leadership, it would be optimal to have not only objectives for creating goals and actions plans, but also to establish objectives for identifying problems...

2. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

OpenAIRE

Thompson, Loren P.; Yazan Al-Hasan

2012-01-01

Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that pr...

3. Intercollegiate Athletic Programs Deepening Their Educational Impact

Science.gov (United States)

Bonfiglio, Robert A.

2011-01-01

Are athletics a positive or negative educational force? The viewpoint widely shared across academe is that participation in intercollegiate athletics has a positive impact on students and contributes to learning and moral development. Often, this notion is captured in the phrase "character development," a shorthand way to describe the individual…

4. Program MAMLAC : a mathematical model for impacts against crash barriers.

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Giavotto, V.

1972-01-01

The digital simulation system that has been developed for impact test against safety barriers has proved to be a valuable tool; it may reduce the cost of a program, or better increase largely the extent of a program without increasing the cost. In fact it may permit to reduce considerably the number

5. Financial impact of population health management programs: reevaluating the literature.

Science.gov (United States)

Grossmeier, Jessica; Terry, Paul E; Anderson, David R; Wright, Steven

2012-06-01

Although many employers offer some components of worksite-based population health management (PHM), most do not yet invest in comprehensive programs. This hesitation to invest in comprehensive programs may be attributed to numerous factors, such as other more pressing business priorities, reluctance to intervene in the personal health choices of employees, or insufficient funds for employee health. Many decision makers also remain skeptical about whether investment in comprehensive programs will produce a financial return on investment (ROI). Most peer-reviewed studies assessing the financial impact of PHM were published before 2000 and include a broad array of program and study designs. Many of these studies have also included indirect productivity savings in their assessment of financial outcomes. In contrast, this review includes only peer-reviewed studies of the direct health care cost impact of comprehensive PHM programs that meet rigorous methodological criteria. A systematic search of health sciences databases identified only 5 studies with program designs and study methods meeting these selection criteria published after 2007. This focused review found that comprehensive PHM programs can yield a positive ROI based on their impact on direct health care costs, but the level of ROI achieved was lower than that reported by literature reviews with less focused and restrictive qualifying criteria. To yield substantial short-term health care cost savings, the longer term financial return that can credibly be associated with a comprehensive, prevention-oriented population health program must be augmented by other financial impact strategies.

6. Tier 3 Certification Fuel Impacts Test Program

Science.gov (United States)

The recent Tier 3 regulations for light duty vehicles introduced a new certification fuel designed to be more characteristic of current market fuels. A laboratory test program was conducted to measure differences in CO2 and fuel economy between the current and future certificatio...

7. Evaluating Realized Impacts of DOE/EERE R&D Programs. Standard impact evaluation method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc. (United States); O' Connor, Alan C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Loomis, Ross J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2014-08-01

This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments of research and development (R&D) programs for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). It is also targeted at EERE program staff responsible for initiating and managing commissioned impact studies. The guide specifies how to estimate economic benefits and costs, energy saved and installed or generated, environmental impacts, energy security impacts, and knowledge impacts of R&D investments in advanced energy technologies.

8. Impact of a Student Leadership Development Program

Science.gov (United States)

Tran-Johnson, Jennifer

2013-01-01

9. Impact of a student leadership development program.

Science.gov (United States)

Chesnut, Renae; Tran-Johnson, Jennifer

2013-12-16

10. Shock Mitigating Seat Single Impact Program

Science.gov (United States)

2014-04-24

suspension system and typically employs springs, pneumatic or hydraulic dampers or a combination of these to decouple the seat occupant and moving...information on human factor issues, the full test and evaluation program, seat suspension configurations, etc. is provided at Reference C and this...with optional equipment installed. 10. The selected seats fall into three general seating categories and, with one exception, two of the suspension

11. Using program impact pathways to understand and improve program delivery, utilization, and potential for impact of Helen Keller International's homestead food production program in Cambodia.

Science.gov (United States)

Olney, Deanna K; Vicheka, Sao; Kro, Meng; Chakriya, Chhom; Kroeun, Hou; Hoing, Ly Sok; Talukder, Aminzzaman; Quinn, Victoria; Iannotti, Lora; Becker, Elisabeth; Roopnaraine, Terry

2013-06-01

Evidence of the impact of homestead food production programs on nutrition outcomes such as anemia and growth is scant. In the absence of information on program impact pathways, it is difficult to understand why these programs, which have been successful in increasing intake of micronutrient-rich foods, have had such limited documented impact on nutrition outcomes. To conduct a process evaluation of Helen Keller International's (HKI's) homestead food production program in Cambodia to assess whether the program was operating as planned (in terms of design, delivery, and utilization) and to identify ways in which the program might need to be strengthened in order to increase its potential for impact. A program theory framework, which laid out the primary components along the hypothesized program impact pathways, was developed in collaboration with HKI and used to design the research. Semistructured interviews and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries (n = 36 and 12, respectively), nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), and program implementers (n = 17 and 2, respectively) and observations of key program delivery points, including health and nutrition training sessions (n = 6), village model farms (n = 6), and household gardens of beneficiaries (n = 36) and nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), were conducted to assess the delivery and utilization of the primary program components along the impact pathways. The majority of program components were being delivered and utilized as planned. However, challenges with some of the key components posited to improve outcomes such as anemia and growth were noted. Among these were a gap in the expected pathway from poultry production to increased intake of eggs and poultry meat, and some weaknesses in the delivery of the health and nutrition training sessions and related improvements in knowledge among the village health volunteers and beneficiaries. Although the program has been successful in delivering the majority of the program

12. The impact of teaching development programs

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rump, Camilla Østerberg; Christiansen, Frederik V; Trigwell, Keith

), and the development of teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs with respect to teaching (as measured by a modified version of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument). We find significant improvements with respect to both of these dimensions in several recent courses. No significant changes are found with respect...... to the Information Transfer Teacher Focus of the ATI or the outcome expectancy beliefs of STEBI. The paper discusses which elements of our course design we think are conducive for the development of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and conceptual change student focus respectively, and presents a model for relating......University teaching development programs for academic staff typically have a range of different educational goals, ranging from gaining basic proficiency in teaching to the more fundamental goal of changing teachers’ conception of teaching towards student focused conceptions. In the current paper...

13. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1992-03-01

Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

14. Externalities in program evaluation: the impact of a women’s empowerment program on immunization

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Janssens, W.

2011-01-01

Impact evaluations of development programs usually do not explicitly take into account externalities on non-participants. Based on a unique dataset we estimate the direct as well as the spillover effects of Mahila Samakhya, a women's empowerment program in India, on child immunization. The survey

15. Developmental Relationship Programs: An Empirical Study of the Impact of Peer-Mentoring Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Shojai, Siamack; Davis, William J.; Root, Patricia S.

2014-01-01

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the impact and effectiveness of developmental relationships provided through academic intervention programs at a medium-size master's level public university in the Northeastern United States. The programs' curriculum follows the Model of Strategic Learning's four pillars of learning and is administered…

16. Soil and vegetation nutrient response to bison carcasses in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Melis, C.; Selva, N.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Skarpe, C.; Linnell, J.D.C.; Andersen, R.

2007-01-01

Ungulate carcasses can have important effects on the surrounding soil and vegetation. The impact of six carcasses of European bison (Bison bonasus) was investigated for the first time in a natural temperate forest (Bialeowieza, Poland) by measuring soil and plant nutrient concentrations along a

17. Impact of NASA's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Smith, Denise A.; Hasan, H.

2014-01-01

NASA has through the years developed a diverse portfolio of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) programs that have taken the science of NASA's Astrophysics missions into classrooms, museums, planetaria and other public venues. From lesson plans, teacher workshops, public exhibitions, to social media and citizen science, these programs have reached vast audiences internationally. NASA's Science and Education Outreach Forums have developed valuable resources, such as NASA Wavelength, which is a user friendly website of a catalog of NASA's E/PO programs. A sample of programs and their metrics will be presented to demonstrate the impact of the NASA Science Mission Directorate E/PO program in providing a direct return on the public's investment in NASA science.

18. Impact of integrated programs on general surgery operative volume.

Science.gov (United States)

Jensen, Amanda R; Nickel, Brianne L; Dolejs, Scott C; Canal, David F; Torbeck, Laura; Choi, Jennifer N

2017-03-01

Integrated residencies are now commonplace, co-existing with categorical general surgery residencies. The purpose of this study was to define the impact of integrated programs on categorical general surgery operative volume. Case logs from categorical general, integrated plastics, vascular, and thoracic surgery residents from a single institution from 2008 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Integrated residents have increased the number of cases they perform that would have previously been general surgery resident cases from 11 in 2009-2010 to 1392 in 2015-2016. Despite this, there was no detrimental effect on total major cases of graduating chief residents. Multiple integrated programs can co-exist with a general surgery program through careful collaboration and thoughtful consideration to longitudinal needs of individual trainees. As additional programs continue to be created, both integrated and categorical program directors must continue to collaborate to insure the integrity of training for all residents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

19. DOE SunShot System Integration Program. Accomplishments and Impacts

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boynton, Shannon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2016-02-01

During FY15, Sandia National Laboratories executed research and development (R&D) work on a portfolio of 16 SunShot Program Systems Integration (SI) agreements, with a total FY15 budget of \$13.2 million. This document summarizes the impact of the Sandia contributions based on Sandia’s direct contributions by DOE.

20. Impact of weight reduction program on serum alanine ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Impact of weight reduction program on serum alanine aminotransferase activity and immunologic response in obese hepatitis B patients. Shehab Mahmoud Abd El- Kader1, Mohammed H Saiem Al-Dahr2. 1. Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi.

1. Decoupling among CSR policies, programs, and impacts : An empirical study

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

2016-01-01

There are relatively few empirical studies on the impacts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and programs. This article addresses the research gap by analyzing the incidence of, and the conditions that affect, decoupling (defined as divergence) among CSR policies, implementation of

2. Impact of Support Services on Associate Level Nursing Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Busby-Parker, Michelle N.

2014-01-01

The goal of the research was to show the impact of the implementation of support services on admissions and graduation from nursing programs. The use of support services has been linked to higher levels of success in nursing students in the classroom and the work place. As nursing schools experience pressure to increase the student capacity to…

3. The Impact of Arbitration Intervention Services on Arbitration Program Completion

Science.gov (United States)

Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman G.; Cook, Brittany; Schmeidler, James

2006-01-01

We report the impact of case management services and youth psychopathy on Juvenile Diversion program completion for youths involved in a clinical trial, and evaluation of an innovative intervention service providing 16 weeks of intensive case management services to youths and their families. The present study examines baseline interview data for…

4. OPORTUNITIES PROGRAM IN MEXICO AND SONORA: IMPACT, EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Irasema Lilian Mancillas-Alvarez

2015-07-01

Full Text Available The concept of poverty is based on the monetary approach, which is measured by the method of poverty lines (Foster, Greer and Thoerbecke, 1984; Sen, 1976; while the static microsimulation technique (Bourguignon and Spadaro, 2006 helps quantify the impact of Oportunities in reducing poverty in Mexico and Sonora during the years 2010-2012. The information for this study is obtained from the National Survey of Income and Expenditure Household INEGI (2010, 2012.Lower percentages of poverty were found in Sonora in comparison with the country and no significant impact from the program; the greatest impact was seen in the country since food poverty was reduced (-2.14%, capabilities poverty (- 1.86% and patrimonial poverty (-0.81%. In regards to targeting of the program, in the country there is a slight improvement in efficiency but not in effectiveness and Sonora experienced a significant improvement in efficiency and effectiveness.

5. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

1998-04-01

As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

6. Worldwide Impact: International Year of Astronomy Dark Skies Awareness Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

2009-12-01

The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, “Dark Skies Awareness” is a global cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs through: - New Technology (website, podcasts, social networking, Second Life) - Educational Materials (Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, brochures, posters, CDs, DVDs, educational kit) - The Arts (photo contest) - Events (Earth Hour, International Dark Sky Week, World Night in Defense of Starlight, Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Sidewalk Astronomy, Nights in the Parks) - Citizen Science Programs (5 star hunting programs & Quiet Skies) Dark Skies Communities (Starlight Initiative, International Dark Sky Communities) Many countries around the world have participated in these programs. We will highlight 24 countries in particular and focus on successful techniques used in aspects of the programs, results and impact on the audience, and plans and challenges for maintaining or extending the program beyond the International Year of Astronomy. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is partially funded from a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Astronomy Division. The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is host to the IYA2009 Dark Skies Awareness programs and is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under cooperative agreement with NSF.

7. "Cooking and Active Leisure" TAS Program, Spain: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Roura, Elena; Pareja, Sara Lucía; Milá, Raimon; Cinca, Núria

2014-09-01

The "Cooking and Active Leisure" Tu y Alícia por la Salud (CAL-TAS) Program is a school-based pilot that addresses healthy lifestyle needs of Spanish secondary school students with initiatives that research has proven to improve dietary and physical activity behaviors. The objectives were to perform a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis to describe key activities and processes of the CAL-TAS Program, identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs), and identify a suite of common indicators of healthy lifestyles to be applied across participant schools. The CAL-TAS Program designers and implementation team developed this PIP analysis through an iterative process and presented the results for feedback at the seven-country Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The team identified three PIP CCPs: teachers' motivation and training, changes in students' knowledge of healthy lifestyles, and changes in students' healthy lifestyle behavior. The selected indicators of the program's impact on healthy lifestyles are adequacy of food intake, level of knowledge of healthy lifestyles gained, and adequacy of physical activity level according to World Health Organization recommendations. A clear definition of impact indicators, as well as collection of accurate data on healthy lifestyle behaviors and knowledge, is essential to understanding the effectiveness of this program before it can be scaled up. CAL-TAS is an effective secondary school-based program encouraging healthy lifestyles. The PIP analysis was instrumental in identifying CCPs to sustain and improve the quality of the program. The team hopes to sustain and improve the program through these program evaluation recommendations.

8. The National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs: program impact on dietary intake.

Science.gov (United States)

Hanes, S; Vermeersch, J; Gale, S

1984-08-01

This article describes the dietary analysis component of the National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs. It addresses two research questions: 1) do participants and nonparticipants in the school nutrition programs have different calorie and nutrient intakes for 24 h, breakfast, and/or lunch and 2) if there are differences in the nutritional quality or total quantity of food consumed? Students who participate in the School Lunch Program get more than nonparticipants of almost all nutrients that were examined, both at lunch and during 24 h. The superior lunch and 24-h intakes of Lunch Program participants are due to the higher nutritional quality of the School Lunch compared with lunches that nonparticipants eat. The most important impact of the School Breakfast is that when the program is available, it increases the likelihood that children will eat breakfast, and children who eat breakfast have significantly higher intakes of nutrients than children who skip breakfast. The School Breakfast provides more calcium, phosphorus, protein, and magnesium than a non-US Department of Agriculture breakfast, but less vitamin A, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, and iron. The positive impacts of calcium and phosphorus carry over 24 h, while the negative impacts for vitamin A, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, and iron are made up during the remainder of the day. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn about the impact of the Milk Program, milk is an important component of all US Department of Agriculture school nutrition programs and makes a major contribution to student dietary intake. Its presence in the meal patterns probably accounts for some of the greater nutrient intakes associated with participation in the School Lunch Program and most of the greater intakes associated with participation in the School Breakfast Program.

9. Impact of International Cooperation for Sustaining Space-Science Programs

CERN Document Server

Jani, Karan

2016-01-01

Space-science programs provide a wide range of application to a nation's key sectors of development: science-technology infrastructure, education, economy and national security. However, the cost of sustaining a space-science program has discouraged developing nations from participating in space activities, while developed nations have steadily cut down their space-science budget in past decade. In this study I investigate the role of international cooperation in building ambitious space-science programs, particularly in the context of developing nations. I devise a framework to quantify the impact of international collaborations in achieving the space-science goals as well as in enhancing the key sectors of development of a nation. I apply this framework on two case studies, (i) Indian Space Research Organization - a case of space-science program from a developing nation that has historically engaged in international collaborations, and (ii) International Space Station - a case for a long term collaboration ...

10. Temporal variability of foliar nutrients: responses to nitrogen deposition and prescribed fire in a temperate steppe

Science.gov (United States)

Lü, Xiao-Tao; Reed, Sasha C.; Hou, Shuang-Li; Hu, Yan-Yu; Wei, Hai-Wei; Lü, Fu-Mei; Cui, Qiang; Han, Xing Guo

2017-01-01

Plant nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry drive fundamental ecosystem processes, with important implications for primary production, diversity, and ecosystem sustainability. While a range of evidence exists regarding how plant nutrients vary across spatial scales, our understanding of their temporal variation remains less well understood. Nevertheless, we know nutrients regulate plant function across time, and that important temporal controls could strongly interact with environmental change. Here, we report results from a 3-year assessment of inter-annual changes of foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and stoichiometry in three dominant grasses in response to N deposition and prescribed fire in a temperate steppe of northern China. Foliar N and P concentrations and their ratios varied greatly among years, with this temporal variation strongly related to inter-annual variation in precipitation. Nitrogen deposition significantly increased foliar N concentrations and N:P ratios in all species, while fire significantly altered foliar N and P concentrations but had no significant impacts on N:P ratios. Generally, N addition enhanced the temporal stability of foliar N and decreased that of foliar P and of N:P ratios. Our results indicate that plant nutrient status and response to environmental change are temporally dynamic and that there are differential effects on the interactions between environmental change drivers and timing for different nutrients. These responses have important implications for consideration of global change effects on plant community structure and function, management strategies, and the modeling of biogeochemical cycles under global change scenarios.

11. Strong and healthy in Primary School Klasse2000 Program, Germany: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Dokter, Andrea; Horst, Brigitte

2014-09-01

Developing a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) diagram helps identify and clarify the key objectives, processes, activities, and evaluation indicators of school-based nutrition programs. The Mondelēz International Foundation has recently supported the development of PIP analyses for programs in seven countries around the world. The results were shared with other project organizers at a Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The objectives were to develop the PIP assessment of the Strong and Healthy in Primary School Klasse2000 Program in order to refine the primary, secondary, and tertiary objectives of the program; identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs); and identify core indicators of the program's impact on healthy lifestyles. The PIP report was developed based on detailed instructions provided prior to the workshop, taking into account the Klasse2000 Program evaluation reports. The following CCPs were identified: monitoring the qualifications and motivation of teaching staff (external health promoters and schoolteachers); assessing involvement of the students' environmental influences, including families, schools, and sponsors; and assessing the children's healthy lifestyle knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors before and after program exposure. The healthy lifestyle indicators identified were children's knowledge of healthy diets and health-enhancing physical activities; the availability of healthy breakfast and snacks; the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, sweetened and unsweetened drinks,fast food, and sweets, as well as attitudes toward physical activity; and the frequency and extent of physical activity in school and during free time. Body mass index (BMI) was identified as the final outcome indicator. Developing a PIP report helped to focus the objectives of the program. Identifying CCPs helped draw attention to the

12. Predicting nutrient responses to mitigation at catchment to national scale: the UK research platform (Invited)

Science.gov (United States)

Johnes, P.

2013-12-01

Nutrient enrichment of waters from land-based and atmospheric sources presents a significant management challenge, requiring effective stakeholder engagement and policy development, properly underpinned by robust scientific evidence. The challenge is complex, raising significant questions about the specific sources, apportionment and pathways that determine nutrient enrichment and the key priorities for effective management and policy intervention. This paper presents outputs from 4 major UK research programmes: the Defra Demonstration Test Catchments programme (DTC), the Environment Agency's Catchment Sensitive Farming monitoring and evaluation programme (CSF), Natural Resources Wales Welsh Catchment Initiative (WCI) and the NERC Environmental Virtual Observatory programme (EVOp). Funded to meet this challenge, they are delivering new understanding of the rates and sources of pollutant fluxes from land to water, their impacts on ecosystem goods and services, and likely trends under future climate and land use change from field to national scale. DTC, a 12m investment by the UK Government, has set up long-term, high resolution research platforms equipped with novel telemetered sensor networks to monitor stream ecosystem responses to on-farm mitigation measures at a representative scale for catchment management. Ecosystem structural and functional responses and bulk hydrochemistry are also being monitored using standard protocols. CSF has set up long-term, enhanced monitoring in 8 priority catchments, with monthly monitoring in a further 72 English catchments and 6 Welsh priority catchments, to identify shifts in pollutant flux to waters resulting from mitigation measures in priority areas and farming sectors. CSF and WCI have contributed to >50 million of targeted farm improvements to date, representing a significant shift in farming practice. Each programme has generated detailed evidence on stream ecosystem responses to targeted mitigation. However, to provide

13. Lake Nutrient Responses to Integrated Conservation Practices in an Agricultural Watershed.

Science.gov (United States)

Lizotte, Richard E; Yasarer, Lindsey M W; Locke, Martin A; Bingner, Ronald L; Knight, Scott S

2017-03-01

Watershed-scale management efforts to reduce nutrient loads and improve the conservation of lakes in agricultural watersheds require effective integration of a variety of agricultural conservation best management practices (BMPs). This paper documents watershed-scale assessments of the influence of multiple integrated BMPs on oxbow lake nutrient concentrations in a 625-ha watershed of intensive row-crop agricultural activity during a 14-yr monitoring period (1996-2009). A suite of BMPs within fields and at field edges throughout the watershed and enrollment of 87 ha into the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) were implemented from 1995 to 2006. Total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), ammonium, and nitrate were measured approximately biweekly from 1996 to 2009, and total nitrogen (TN) was measured from 2001 to 2009. Decreases in several lake nutrient concentrations occurred after BMP implementation. Reductions in TP lake concentrations were associated with vegetative buffers and rainfall. No consistent patterns of changes in TN or SRP lake concentrations were observed. Reductions in ammonium lake concentrations were associated with conservation tillage and CRP. Reductions in nitrate lake concentrations were associated with vegetative buffers. Watershed simulations conducted with the AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source) model with and without BMPs also show a clear reduction in TN and TP loads to the lake after the implementation of BMPs. These results provide direct evidence of how watershed-wide BMPs assist in reducing nutrient loading in aquatic ecosystems and promote a more viable and sustainable lake ecosystem. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

14. Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, China: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Yanran; Yao, Xiaoxun; Gu, Lan

2014-09-01

Mondelēz Hope Kitchen is a community program initiated jointly in 2009 by Mondelēz International and the China Youth Development Foundation (CYDF). In response to the urgent needs of students, parents, and teachers at primary and middle schools in poverty-stricken rural areas of China, the program addresses the complex and intertwined issues of undernutrition and obesity. By funding both kitchen equipment and teacher training in health and nutrition, the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program improves the capacity of schools to supply healthy meals, helping students to access safe and nutritious foods and, ultimately, to improve their nutritional status and health. In 2011, the Mondelēz International Foundation awarded CYDF a grant to formally assess the impact of the original program design. The Mondelēz International Foundation encouraged CYDF and six other healthy lifestyles-focused community partners around the world to participate in this program evaluation workshop. The goals of this study were to describe the logic model of the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, summarize a recent evaluation of the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, and conduct a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis to identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs) and a suite of impact indicators. The findings were presented at the Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The authors developed the program's PIP diagram based on deliberations involving the program managers and Director and consulting the "Hope Kitchen Management Rules "and "Hope Kitchen Inspection and Acceptance Report". The PIP analyses identified three CCPs: buy-in from schools, kitchen infrastructure, and changes in teachers' knowledge of nutrition after training. In addition, changes in children's knowledge of nutrition will be added to the core suite of impact evaluation indicators that also includes children

15. Research Based Science Education: An Exemplary Program for Broader Impacts

Science.gov (United States)

Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

2016-12-01

Broader impacts are most effective when standing on the shoulders of successful programs. The Research Based Science Education (RBSE) program was such a successful program and played a major role in activating effective opportunities beyond the scope of its program. NSF funded the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) to oversee the project from 1996-2008. RBSE provided primarily high school teachers with on-site astronomy research experiences and their students with astronomy research projects that their teachers could explain with confidence. The goal of most student research projects is to inspire and motivate students to go into STEM fields. The authors of the original NSF proposal felt that for students to do research in the classroom, a foundational research experience for teachers must first be provided. The key components of the program consisted of 16 teachers/year on average; a 15-week distance learning course covering astronomy content, research, mentoring and leadership skills; a subsequent 10-day summer workshop with half the time on Kitt Peak on research-class telescopes; results presented on the 9th day; research brought back to the classroom; more on-site observing opportunities for students and teachers; data placed on-line to reach a wider audience; opportunities to submit research articles to the project's refereed journal; and travel for teachers (and the 3 teachers they each mentored) to a professional meeting. In 2004, leveraging on the well-established RBSE program, the NOAO/NASA Spitzer Space Telescope Research began. Between 2005 and 2008, metrics included 32 teachers (mostly from RBSE), 10 scientists, 15 Spitzer Director Discretionary proposals, 31 AAS presentations and many Intel ISEF winners. Under new funding in 2009, the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program was born with similar goals and thankfully still runs today. Broader impacts, lessons learned and ideas for future projects will be discussed in this presentation.

16. A Computer Program for Assessing Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2014-10-15

Through several accidents of NPP including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, a lack of safety culture was pointed out as one of the root cause of these accidents. Due to its latent influences on safety performance, safety culture has become an important issue in safety researches. Most of the researches describe how to evaluate the state of the safety culture of the organization. However, they did not include a possibility that the accident occurs due to the lack of safety culture. Because of that, a methodology for evaluating the impact of the safety culture on NPP's safety is required. In this study, the methodology for assessing safety culture impact is suggested and a computer program is developed for its application. SCII model which is the new methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively by using PSA model. The computer program is developed for its application. This program visualizes the SCIs and the SCIIs. It might contribute to comparing the level of the safety culture among NPPs as well as improving the management safety of NPP.

17. IMPACTS. Industrial Technologies Program: Summary of Program Results for CY 2008

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

none,

2010-08-02

The Impacts report summarizes benefits resulting from ITP-sponsored technologies, including energy savings, waste reduction, increased productivity, and lowered emissions. It also provides an overview of the activities of the Industrial Assessment Centers, BestPractices Program, and Combined Heat and Power efforts.

18. Impact evaluation for the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program: Technical appendix

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lee, A.D.; Taylor, Z.T.; Schrock, D.W.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Chin, R.I.

1995-10-01

This document supplements the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) impact evaluation report, Lee et al. (1995). MAP is a voluntary energy-efficiency program for HUD-code manufactured homes conducted in the Pacific Northwest beginning in April 1992. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this and the impact evaluation reports for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville). Lee et al. (1995) presents the objectives, methodology, and findings of the program evaluation. This report presents more details about specific aspects of the analysis. The authors used a three-tier approach to analyze the energy consumption of MAP and baseline homes. Chapter 2 discusses Tier 1, the billing data and simplified regression analysis. Chapter 3 presents the details of the Tier 2 analysis, the PRInceton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). Chapter 4 presents details of the primary analysis technique that they used, a comprehensive regression analysis. Chapter 5 and 6 review two other studies of energy savings associated with MAP. Chapter 5 discusses the simulation model analysis conducted by Ecotope, Inc. Chapter 6 reviews the analysis by Regional Economic Research conducted for three Pacific Northwest investor-owned utilities. The final chapter, Chapter 7, presents details of the Bonneville levelized cost methodology used to estimate the cost of energy savings associated with MAP. Results are presented and discussed in many cases for the three different climate zones found in the Pacific Northwest. 18 refs., 29 tabs.

19. The Impact of a Campus-Based 4-H Summer Conference Program on Youth Thriving

Science.gov (United States)

Arnold, Mary E.; Davis, Jamie M.; Lundeberg, Roberta

2017-01-01

In 2014 the Oregon 4-H program adopted a new program model to describe and evaluate the impact of 4-H on youths. The model is based on promoting thriving in young people, with an emphasis on high program quality. This article discusses the impact on thriving in 378 youth participants of the 4-H Summer Conference (4-HSC) program. The results of the…

20. Ready, Steady, Go! Program, Italy: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Veracini, Giordana; Leonardi, Elisabetta; Girotti, Rita; Thrasher, Erika Willumsen

2014-09-01

1. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement Summary.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho)

1996-06-01

This summary gives the major points of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery by the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and other interested parties. The Nez Perce once were one of the largest Plateau tribes in the Northwest and occupied a territory that included north central Idaho, southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. Salmon and other migratory fish species are an invaluable food resource and an integral part of the Nez Perce Tribe`s culture. Anadromous fish have always made up the bulk of the Nez Perce tribal diet and this dependence on salmon was recognized in the treaties made with the Tribe by the US. The historic economic, social, and religious significance of the fish to the Nez Perce Tribe continues to this day, which makes the decline of fish populations in the Columbia River Basin a substantial detrimental impact to the Nez Perce way of life. The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that would rear and release spring, summer, and fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), biologically similar to wild fish, to reproduce in the Clearwater River Subbasin. Program managers propose techniques that are compatible with existing aquatic and riparian ecosystems and would integrate hatchery-produced salmon into the stream and river environments needed to complete their life cycle.

2. Program coordinators' perceptions of effective national citizen science programs and their impacts: An exploratory study

Science.gov (United States)

Clarke, K. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.

2011-12-01

The increasing desire to engage the public in science and research has advanced citizen science as a valuable and popular means to this end. Citizen science, a process by which concerned individuals, agencies, industries or community groups collaborate to monitor, track, and respond to issues of common community concerns, has evolved and grown over the past decade. Much of the citizen science research thus far has primarily focused on the public participants (citizen scientists) and/or organizations themselves. This study looks instead at the people, the coordinators, implementing or coordinating citizen science programs and activities, specifically in the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network (CoCoRaHS), and their perceptions for program effectiveness. CoCoRaHS is a national program in which citizens monitor, record, and report precipitation conditions from backyard observations. Semi-structured interviews and an online survey completed by the program's coordinators in the state of Colorado found that the effectiveness of CoCoRaHS depends less on the interactions of the coordinators with each other or funding impacts on program activities, but rather on the interactions between coordinators and citizen scientists. The effectiveness of CoCoRaHS was perceived to depend more significantly on the connections coordinators have with the community of program users and citizen scientists, and a supportive culture within the program. The next step therefore is to explore these interactions between the coordinators and citizen scientists to develop a better understanding of their nature of participation in the citizen science program, and to describe the characteristics of all participants.

3. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho).

1996-06-01

Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Nez Perce Tribe propose a supplementation program to restore chinook salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin in Idaho. The Clearwater River is a tributary to the Snake River, which empties into the Columbia River. The Nez Perce Tribe would build and operate two central incubation and rearing hatcheries and six satellite facilities. Spring, summer and fall chinook salmon would be reared and acclimated to different areas in the Subbasin and released at the hatchery and satellite sites or in other watercourses throughout the Subbasin. The supplementation program differs from other hatchery programs because the fish would be released at different sizes and would return to reproduce naturally in the areas where they are released. Several environmental issues were identified during scoping: the possibility that the project would fail if mainstem Columbia River juvenile and adult passage problems are not solved; genetic risks to fish listed as endangered or threatened; potential impacts to wild and resident fish stocks because of increase competition for food and space; and water quality. The Proposed Action would affect several important aspects of Nez Perce tribal life, primarily salmon harvest, employment, and fisheries management.

4. Small Commercial Program DOE Project: Impact evaluation. Final report

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bathgate, R.; Faust, S. [Energy and Solid Waste Consultants, Montpelier, VT (United States)

1992-08-12

In 1991, Washington Electric Cooperative (WEC) implemented a Department of Energy grant to conduct a small commercial energy conservation project. The small commercial ``Mom, and Pop`` grocery stores within WEC`s service territory were selected as the target market for the project. Energy & Solid Waste Consultant`s (E&SWC) Impact Evaluation is documented here. The evaluation was based on data gathered from a variety of sources, including load profile metering, kWh submeters, elapsed time indicators, and billing histories. Five stores were selected to receive measures under this program: Waits River General Store, Joe`s Pond Store, Hastings Store, Walden General Store, and Adamant Cooperative. Specific measures installed in each store and description of each are included.

5. The Impact of Spiritual Learning on the Lives of Adults in Postsecondary Martial Arts Educational Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Ingram, Jeffrey G.

2017-01-01

This study investigated whether spiritual learning impacts the lives of adult learners in martial arts educational programs. The impact of spirituality has been claimed as a meaningful connection; however, it is not currently known how spiritual learning impacts the lives and experiences of adult learners with these programs. Spiritual learning…

6. 77 FR 7568 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Clearwater Program

Science.gov (United States)

2012-02-13

... Corps of Engineers Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Clearwater Program AGENCY: U.S. Army... (Sanitation Districts) has completed a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS... Program is the evaluation of alternatives for new ocean outfalls and rehabilitation of the existing ocean...

7. Business with Words: Language Programs That Generate Revenue and Impact Communities

Science.gov (United States)

Eaton, Sarah Elaine

2006-01-01

This paper examines the "business" of language programs. In particular, it focuses on the economic impact of English as a Second language programs physically located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada which draw and serve foreign students. The impact such programs have on the wider community will also be explored. A bibliography is included.…

8. A health equity impact assessment umbrella program (AAPRISS) to tackle social inequalities in health: program description.

Science.gov (United States)

Lang, Thierry; Bidault, Elsa; Villeval, Mélanie; Alias, François; Gandouet, Benjamin; Servat, Martine; Theis, Ivan; Breton, Eric; Haschar-Noé, Nadine; Grosclaude, Pascale

2016-09-01

The failure to simultaneously address two objectives (increasing the average health of the population and reducing health inequalities) may have led to what has been observed in France so far: an overall decrease in mortality and increase in inequality. The Apprendre et Agir pour Réduire les Inégalités Sociales de Santé (AAPRISS) methodology is to analyze and modify interventions that are already underway in terms of their potential impact on health inequalities. It relies on partnership between researchers and actors in the health field, as well as policy makers. In this paper, we describe the program and discuss its feasibility and acceptability. This program is not a single intervention, but a process aiming at assessing and reshaping existing health programs, therefore acting as a kind of meta-intervention. The program develops scientific and methodological support stemming from co-construction methods aimed at increasing equity within the programs. Stakeholders from prevention policy-making and the health care system, as well as researchers, collaborate in defining interventions, monitoring their progress, and choosing indicators, methods and evaluation procedures. The target population is mainly the population of the greater Toulouse area. The steps of the process are described: (1) establishment of AAPRISS governance and partnerships; (2) inclusion of projects; and (3) the projects' process. Many partners have rallied around this program, which has been shown to be feasible and acceptable by partners and health actors. A major challenge is understanding each partner's expectations in terms of temporality of interventions, expected outcomes, assessment methods and indicators. Analyzing the projects has been quite feasible, and some modifications have been implemented in them in order to take inequalities in health into account. © The Author(s) 2015.

9. Impact of a 4-H Youth Development Program on At-Risk Urban Teenagers

Science.gov (United States)

Cutz, German; Campbell, Benjamin; Filchak, Karen K.; Valiquette, Edith; Welch, Mary Ellen

2015-01-01

Dynamic programs that integrate science literacy and workforce readiness are essential to today's youth. The program reported here combined science literacy (gardening and technology) with workforce readiness to assess the impact of program type, prior program participation, and behavior/punctuality on knowledge gain. Findings show that past…

10. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Impact of Exhaust-Only Ventilation on Radon and Indoor Humidity - A Field Investigation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2014-09-01

The study described here sought to assess the impact of exhaust-only ventilation on indoor radon and humidity in single-family homes that had been treated by the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP).

11. Impact of NASA Stress Laboratory Program on US Colleges

Science.gov (United States)

Delisser, S. P.

1971-01-01

A programmatic narrative of the effects of NASA stress lab program on physical education in U.S. schools and colleges is presented. Individual non-structured programs were set up where students participate during his or her free time. The program is also in accordance with the medical history of the student. Preliminary results indicate more student interest and participation in the program and that students are generally more physically fit than in previous structured programs.

12. Closing the Education Gender Gap: Estimating the Impact of Girls' Scholarship Program in the Gambia

Science.gov (United States)

Gajigo, Ousman

2016-01-01

This paper estimates the impact of a school fee elimination program for female secondary students in The Gambia to reduce gender disparity in education. To assess the impact of the program, two nationally representative household surveys were used (1998 and 2002/2003). By 2002/2003, about half of the districts in the country had benefited from the…

13. The perceived impact of a university outdoor education program on students' environmental behaviors

Science.gov (United States)

Heather Boland; Paul. Heintzman

2010-01-01

Outdoor educators often seek to design programs that influence participants' daily lifestyles, especially environmental behaviors. Research on the impact of outdoor education programs on environmental behaviors has typically focused on schoolchildren and teenagers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived impact of a university outdoor education...

14. Modeling the Impact of Wilderness Orientation Programs on First-Year Academic Success and Life Purpose

Science.gov (United States)

Bailey, Andrew W.; Kang, Hyoung-Kil

2015-01-01

Wilderness orientation programs (WOPs) are becoming a popular method of encouraging college student retention and success. Previous studies have identified outcomes and correlates of participation in these programs, but a cohesive model of impact is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of WOPs on first-year student success…

15. Perceived Factors Impacting School Music Programs: The Teacher's Perspective

Science.gov (United States)

Abril, Carlos R.; Bannerman, Julie K.

2015-01-01

The purpose of this study was to examine elementary music teachers' perceptions of factors impacting their music programs and teaching positions as well as the actions these teachers take in response to those factors. The following research questions guided the study: (1) What factors are perceived to impact music programs and teaching…

16. The impact of patient assistance programs and the 340B Drug Pricing Program on medication cost.

Science.gov (United States)

Castellon, Yelba M; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Masatsugu, Miles; Contreras, Roberto

2014-02-01

Patient assistance programs and the 340B Drug Pricing Program promise to improve the financial stability, better serve vulnerable patients, and decrease the burden of cost for uninsured patients. Our objective is to examine the financial impact that PAPs and the 340B Program have on improving medication cost. Retrospective analysis of medication dispensary data. Dispensary data for uninsured patients obtaining medications at 2 community health centers were collected from February 1 to February 29, 2012. Uninsured patients were divided into 2 samples: (1) patients receiving PAP medications and (2) patients receiving 340B medications. The main outcome measured was the patient's cost savings. Cost savings were calculated based on the amount a medication would have cost had it been purchased by patients at prices found on Epocrates software (drugstore.com). A paired sample t test model using continuous variables was utilized to calculate confidence intervals. A total of 1420 PAP and 2772 340B individual medications were dispensed to uninsured patients in February 2012. For patients receiving PAP medications the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for age = 52 ± 10. Average cost was \$0.11 (95% CI, \$0.04-\$0.17) and average savings was \$617.36 (95% Cl, \$581.32-\$653.40). For patients receiving 340B medications the mean ±SD for age = 50 ± 14. Average cost was \$11.50 (95% CI, \$10.55-\$12.45). Average saving was \$62.31 (95% CI, \$57.99-\$66.63). PAPs and 340B provide significant medication savings for uninsured patient. More research is needed to establish "best practices" for the successful integration of PAPs.

17. The Impact of Intrapreneurial Programs on Fortune 500 Manufacturing Firms.

Science.gov (United States)

Marcus, Melissa H.; Tesolowski, Dennis G.; Isbell, Clinton H.

2000-01-01

A survey of 100 manufacturing firms in 10 Standard Industrial Classification areas found that intrapreneurial programs did not significantly affect sales, profits, or returns to investors. Electronics and computer companies and the most dominant intrapreneurial programs. (SK)

18. Impact of Engineering Ambassador Programs on Student Development

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Thalia Anagnos; Alicia Lyman-Holt; Claudia Marin-Artieda; Ellen Momsen

2014-01-01

.... Although these ambassador programs were designed with a primary goal of service to the engineering program and university, they serve an equally important goal of developing the skills and attitudes...

19. An Impact Evaluation of Chile's Progressive Housing Program

OpenAIRE

Luis Marcano; Inder J. Ruprah

2008-01-01

This paper evaluates Progressive Housing Program; a public housing program that facilitates the purchase of a new home. The evaluation finds that the program’s package (savings requirement, voucher and mortgage) design is inappropriate if the program is targeted to the poor. In fact the pro-poor targeting of the program was poor with high under-coverage and high leakage. Further, the benefit, a minimum quality new house, was not sustainable as many households slipped back into the housing sho...

20. Impact of quality assurance program: providing practice assessment.

Science.gov (United States)

Saporito, R A; Feldman, C A; Stewart, D C; Echoldt, H; Buchanan, R N

1994-05-01

Participation in a self-administered quality assessment (SAQA) program led to changes in New Jersey dentists' perceptions of practice quality. Ninety-four percent indicated they discovered practice deficiencies. This study suggests that using a self-administered quality assessment program, such as the SAQA program, can lead to a better understanding of a practice's strengths and weaknesses.

1. Impacts of an Agricultural Leadership Extension Program for County Officials

Science.gov (United States)

McKee, Valerie Lynn; Odom, Summer Felton; Moore, Lori L.; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl

2016-01-01

Agricultural leadership extension programs aim to expand the horizons of leaders through study and experiences. These programs can have direct implications for communities when they are designed and delivered for county officials. This study specifically examined a leadership program administered in Texas which has graduated five classes of county…

2. 2010 Impacts: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

Science.gov (United States)

National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2011

2011-01-01

Since 1969, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) has improved the diets and food-related behaviors of program participants. Each year EFNEP enrolls more than half a million new program participants. In 2010, EFNEP reached 137,814 adults and 463,530 youth directly and nearly 400,000 family members indirectly. This paper…

3. On Becoming an Entrepreneurial Leader: A Focus on the Impacts of University Entrepreneurship Programs

OpenAIRE

Afsaneh Bagheri; Zaidatol A.L. Pihie

2011-01-01

Despite the significant influences of university entrepreneurship programs in developing students entrepreneurial intention and abilities, there is little knowledge about how such programs shape students abilities to successfully lead entrepreneurial activities. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the impacts of university entrepreneurship programs in developing students entrepreneurial leadership competencies. A sample of 14 undergraduate entrepreneurial leaders defined...

4. The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values

Science.gov (United States)

Brunelle, John; Danish, Steven J.; Forneris, Tanya

2007-01-01

This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for…

5. High school sports programs differentially impact participation by sex

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Keith M. Drake

2015-09-01

Conclusion: Sports participation has previously been shown to confer a number of health benefits; as such, school sports programs may be an important, effective, and underused target for public health efforts, including obesity prevention programs. Efforts to increase physical activity among youth should consider both access and choice in school athletic programs. Schools may need to use different strategies to increase sports participation in boys and girls.

6. Impacts of a prekindergarten program on children's mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills.

Science.gov (United States)

Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

Publicly funded prekindergarten programs have achieved small-to-large impacts on children's cognitive outcomes. The current study examined the impact of a prekindergarten program that implemented a coaching system and consistent literacy, language, and mathematics curricula on these and other nontargeted, essential components of school readiness, such as executive functioning. Participants included 2,018 four and five-year-old children. Findings indicated that the program had moderate-to-large impacts on children's language, literacy, numeracy and mathematics skills, and small impacts on children's executive functioning and a measure of emotion recognition. Some impacts were considerably larger for some subgroups. For urban public school districts, results inform important programmatic decisions. For policy makers, results confirm that prekindergarten programs can improve educationally vital outcomes for children in meaningful, important ways. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

7. The Food Stamp Program: history, nutrition education, and impact.

Science.gov (United States)

Landers, Patti S

2007-11-01

The Food Stamp Program has grown from a modest effort to distribute excess farm commodities during the Great Depression to the nation's largest food assistance and nutrition program, serving almost 27 million persons in fiscal year 2006, at a cost of more than 30 billion dollars to federal taxpayers. In 1990 Congress authorized cost sharing for food stamp nutrition education. Since 1992-when only seven states had approved food stamp nutrition education plans totaling 661,076 dollars in federal dollars-the nutrition education program has grown exponentially. In 2007, there were 52 food stamp nutrition education plans for states and territories approved at a total cost of more than 275 million dollars. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the Food Stamp Program from its inception in May 1939 through 2006, including program milestones, changes that have occurred as the result of legislation, and the growth and effectiveness of nutrition education to Food Stamp Program participants. Future investigations are needed to study processes for development and validation of evaluation measures as required by the US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service and to examine the effects of food stamp nutrition education on behavior changes affecting health and nutrition of Food Stamp Program participants.

8. From Implementation to Outcomes to Impacts: Designing a Comprehensive Program Evaluation

Science.gov (United States)

Shebby, S.

2015-12-01

Funders are often interested in learning about the impact of program activities, yet before the impacts are determined, educational evaluations should first examine program implementation and outcomes. Implementation evaluation examines how and the extent to which program activities are delivered as intended, including the extent to which activities reached the targeted participants. Outcome evaluation is comprised of a systematic examination of the effects that a program has on program participants, such as changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors. In this presentation, presenters will share insights on evaluating the implementation, outcomes, and impacts associated with an online science curriculum for K-2 students. The science curriculum was designed to provide students with access to science concepts and skills in an interactive and innovative environment, and teachers with embedded, aligned, and on-demand professional development. One of the most important—and challenging—steps in this evaluation was to select outcomes that were well-defined, measurable, and aligned to program activities, as well as relevant to program stakeholders. An additional challenge was to measure implementation given limited access to the classroom environment. This presentation will include a discussion of the process evaluators used to select appropriate implementation indicators and outcomes (teacher and student), design an evaluation approach, and craft data collection instruments. Although examples provided are specific to the K-2 science intervention, the best practices discussed are pertinent to all program and event evaluations. Impact evaluation goes beyond implementation and outcome evaluation to inform whether a program is working or not. It requires a comparison group to inform what outcomes would have been in the absence of the intervention. As such, this presentation will also include a discussion of impacts, including how impacts are defined

9. High school sports programs differentially impact participation by sex

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Keith M. Drake Meghan R. Longacre Todd MacKenzie Linda J. Titus Michael L. Beach Andrew G. Rundle Madeline A. Dalton

... differentially influence boys＇ and girls＇ participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of high school athletic programs and determine the extent to which these characteristics influenced boys＇ and girls...

10. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Wellness Program Medical Records

Science.gov (United States)

The Wellness Program Medical Records System collects contact information and other Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Learn how this data is collected, used, accessed, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies.

11. Impact of Decoding Work within a Professional Program

Science.gov (United States)

Yeo, Michelle; Lafave, Mark; Westbrook, Khatija; McAllister, Jenelle; Valdez, Dennis; Eubank, Breda

2017-01-01

This chapter demonstrates how Decoding work can be used productively within a curriculum change process to help make design decisions based on a more nuanced understanding of student learning and the relationship of a professional program to the field.

12. The impact of banners on digital television: the role of program interactivity and product involvement.

Science.gov (United States)

Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

2008-02-01

In a sample of 281 respondents, the effect of a noninteractive and a medium-interactive television program on recall and brand attitudes for low- and high-involvement products advertised in banners during these programs was investigated. Medium-interactive programs resulted in less product and brand recall and recognition of brands in embedded banner advertisements, but generated more positive brand attitudes than noninteractive programs. These effects were more outspoken for a high-involvement product than for a low-involvement product. The impact of perceived program interactivity on brand attitude is fully mediated program valence and involvement for low-involvement products, but not for high-involvement products, for which perceived program interactivity had a direct impact on brand attitude.

13. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

OpenAIRE

Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Nascimento, Andr?ia de F?tima; Yuba, T?nia Yuka; de So?rez, Patr?cia Coelho; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

2015-01-01

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for pu...

14. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

Science.gov (United States)

Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

2011-01-01

As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

15. Impact of Aspect-Oriented Programming on the Quality of Novices’ Programs: A Comparative Study

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marija Katic

2013-06-01

Full Text Available Aspect-oriented programming has been introduced in order to increase the modularity of object-oriented programs and is claimed to improve software quality. Although there are various researches on this claim, the question to what extent aspect-oriented programming improves the quality of programs depending on a developer’s experience still remains. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether aspect-oriented programming used by novice programmers improves the quality of programs, in terms of software flexibility and readability (consequently reusability and maintainability as well. As a part of an undergraduate course in programming paradigms and languages, a systematic comparison between students’ object-oriented and aspect-oriented solutions of the same problem was driven. In order to drive this comparison we have established the basis for the development of the new quality assessment model consisting of software metrics for an objective evaluation and student survey for subjective evaluation. The results show that the use of aspect-oriented programming lead to novices’ programs that are easier to change and read (flexible and readable compared to object-oriented programs. What is more, administered survey showed that students perceive their programs as more flexible and readable.

16. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Energy Impacts for Large Multifamily Buildings

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blasnik, Michael [Blasnik & Associates, Roslindale, MA (United States); Dalhoff, Greg [Dalhoff & Associates, Verona, WI (United States); Carroll, David [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Ucar, Ferit [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

2015-10-01

This report estimates energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness attributable to weatherizing large multifamily buildings under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program during Program Year 2008.

17. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Energy Impacts for Small Multifamily Buildings

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blasnik, Michael [Blasnik & Associates, Roslindale, MA (United States); Dalhoff, Greg [Dalhoff & Associates, Verona, WI (United States); Carroll, David [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); ucar, Ferit [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

2014-09-01

This report estimates energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness attributable to weatherizing small multifamily buildings under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program during Program Year 2008.

18. 78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact

Science.gov (United States)

2013-08-16

... Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact... (RUS) has made a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for implementing its new Energy Efficiency... 12 to authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to reduce demand on electric...

19. Scholarly Productivity and Impact of School Psychology Faculty in APA-Accredited Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Grapin, Sally L.; Kranzler, John H.; Daley, Matt L.

2013-01-01

The primary objective of this study was to conduct a normative assessment of the research productivity and scholarly impact of tenured and tenure-track faculty in school psychology programs accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA). Using the PsycINFO database, productivity and impact were examined for the field as a whole and by…

20. The Impact of Immersion Programs upon Undergraduate Students of Jesuit Colleges and Universities

Science.gov (United States)

Savard, John D.

2010-01-01

Statement of the problem: This research study examined the impact of international immersion programs upon undergraduate students at Jesuit colleges and universities. Students return from immersion experiences claiming that the experience changed their lives. This study offered an assessment strategy to give greater evidence as to the impact of…

1. Evaluating the Impact of Egyptian Social Fund for Development Programs

OpenAIRE

Abou-Ali, Hala; El-Laithy, Heba; Haughton, Jonathan; Shahidur R. Khandker; El-Azony, Hesham

2009-01-01

The Egyptian Social Fund for Development was established in 1991 with a mandate to reduce poverty. Since its inception, it has disbursed about \$2.5 billion, of which nearly two-fifths was devoted to supporting microcredit and financing community development and infrastructure. This paper investigates the size of the impact of the Fund s interventions, whether the benefits have been commens...

2. Impact of Wellness Legislation on Comprehensive School Health Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Graber, Kim C.; Woods, Amelia Mays; O'Connor, Jamie A.

2012-01-01

In 2004, Congress passed the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act that requires schools to implement a wellness plan. Grounded in Ecological Systems Theory (EST) (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, 1979), the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the legislation, discover what measures have been taken to enact the legislation, gauge how the…

3. The Impacts of the Great Recession on State Natural Resource Extension Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Serenari, Christopher; Peterson, M. Nils; Bardon, Robert E.; Brown, Robert D.

2013-01-01

The Great Recession contributed to major budget cuts for natural resource Extension programs in the United States. Despite the potentially large cuts, their impacts and how Extension has adapted their programs have not been evaluated. We begin addressing these needs with surveys of Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals members…

4. Using Maps in Web Analytics to Evaluate the Impact of Web-Based Extension Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Veregin, Howard

2015-01-01

Maps can be a valuable addition to the Web analytics toolbox for Extension programs that use the Web to disseminate information. Extension professionals use Web analytics tools to evaluate program impacts. Maps add a unique perspective through visualization and analysis of geographic patterns and their relationships to other variables. Maps can…

5. Visual Basic Programming Impact on Cognitive Style of College Students: Need for Prerequisites

Science.gov (United States)

White, Garry L.

2012-01-01

This research investigated the impact learning a visual programming language, Visual Basic, has on hemispheric cognitive style, as measured by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator (HMI). The question to be answered is: will a computer programming course help students improve their cognitive abilities in order to perform well? The cognitive styles for…

6. Research Productivity and Scholarly Impact of APA-Accredited School Psychology Programs: 2005-2009

Science.gov (United States)

Kranzler, John H.; Grapin, Sally L.; Daley, Matt L.

2011-01-01

This study examined the research productivity and scholarly impact of faculty in APA-accredited school psychology programs using data in the PsycINFO database from 2005 to 2009. We ranked doctoral programs on the basis of authorship credit, number of publications, and number of citations. In addition, we examined the primary publication outlets of…

7. Impact of Government Benefit Programs Declines, Adds to Number of Poor Families.

Science.gov (United States)

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

The paper summarizes the results of an analysis of recently issued Census data. Examining the anti-poverty effectiveness of cash and non-cash benefit programs from 1979 to 1986, the analysis focuses on the impacts of those programs on families with children, the group whose poverty rate has risen most rapidly since 1979. The data reveal that…

8. Impact of an Afterschool Program on Middle School MAP Scale Scores for Math and Communication Arts

Science.gov (United States)

Wilson, Chris

2016-01-01

With the ever-increasing demands of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) being placed on school districts, many are looking to afterschool programs to help students meet increasing standards. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact of an afterschool program on Middle School academic achievement. Principally, this study sought to…

9. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of

10. The Impact Factor: Measuring Student Professional Growth in an Online Doctoral Program

Science.gov (United States)

Kumar, Swapna; Dawson, Kara

2014-01-01

This article describes the impact of an online Ed.D. in educational technology based on data collected from students at regular intervals during the program. It documents how students who were working professionals applied learning from the program within their practice, enculturated into the educational technology community, and grew…

11. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

Science.gov (United States)

Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

12. Impacts of the Conservation Education Program in Serra Malagueta Natural Park, Cape Verde

Science.gov (United States)

Burnett, Edmund; Sills, Erin; Peterson, M. Nils; DePerno, Christopher

2016-01-01

Environmental and conservation education programs are commonly offered in the rapidly expanding network of protected areas in developing countries. There have been few evaluations of these programs and their impacts on participants. At Serra Malagueta Natural Park in Cape Verde, we assessed changes in environmental knowledge, opinions, and…

13. Encouraging School Enrollment and Attendance among Teenage Parents on Welfare: Early Impacts of Ohio's LEAP Program.

Science.gov (United States)

Wood, Robert G.; And Others

1995-01-01

Presents interim findings from an impact analysis of Ohio's Learning, Earning, and Parenting (LEAP) Program. LEAP is a statewide program designed to encourage school attendance among pregnant and parenting teens on welfare. Suggests that LEAP has succeeded in its primary short-term goal of increasing the school enrollment and attendance of teen…

14. The Impact of Parental Involvement on a Structured Youth Program Experience: A Qualitative Inquiry

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mat D. Duerden

2013-12-01

Full Text Available Parental involvement is an often proposed, but rarely researched, key element of youth programs. Questions remain regarding the impact of parental involvement on program processes and outcomes. Qualitative data were collected over a one-year period with youth participants (n=46, parents (n=26, and teachers (n=5 associated with an international immersion/service learning program for adolescents. Three main research questions guided the data analysis: (1 what role does parental involvement play in the youths’ experience in the program; (2 how does parental involvement in the program influence the parent/child relationship; and (3 what role does parental involvement play in terms of the program’s long-term impact on the youth participants? Findings suggest a relationship between parental involvement in youth programs and improved parent/child communication, bonding, and perceptions of one another. Findings also suggest that having a common ground experience prolonged the experience’s positive post-participation effects.

15. Impact of the ATEC Mentor Program on DAWIA Certification

Science.gov (United States)

2011-05-01

Mentoring has been found to influence employee retention because it helps establish an organizational culture that is attractive to the top talent clamoring...companies report that mentoring programs are effective in increasing employee retention and performance. The American Society for Training and

16. Diet models with linear goal programming: impact of achievement functions

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Gerdessen, J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.

2015-01-01

Background/Objectives: Diet models based on goal programming (GP) are valuable tools in designing diets that comply with nutritional, palatability and cost constraints. Results derived from GP models are usually very sensitive to the type of achievement function that is chosen. This paper aims to

17. Research on the IBM Grant Program's Impact on Teacher Preparation.

Science.gov (United States)

Bitter, Gary G.; Pryor, Brandt W.

Technology is not often a factor in classroom activities because teachers are untrained in its use. In 1990, International Business Machines (IBM) contributed over 30 million dollars' worth of workstations, networking hardware and software, IBM courseware, cash, and training to prompt 144 selected teacher preparation programs to integrate…

18. Assessing the Impact of a Multiyear Marriage Education Program

Science.gov (United States)

O'Halloran, Mary Sean; Rizzolo, Sonja; Cohen, Marsha L.; Wacker, Robbyn

2013-01-01

This study measured marital satisfaction of low-income couples in a Western state following participation in the Building Healthy Marriages program, which aimed to educate couples and increase relationship satisfaction. The researchers' goals were the following: To determine the areas in which participants experienced the greatest number of…

19. Ripple Effect Mapping: A "Radiant" Way to Capture Program Impacts

Science.gov (United States)

Kollock, Debra Hansen; Flage, Lynette; Chazdon, Scott; Paine, Nathan; Higgins, Lorie

2012-01-01

Learn more about a promising follow-up, participatory group process designed to document the results of Extension educational efforts within complex, real-life settings. The method, known as Ripple Effect Mapping, uses elements of Appreciative Inquiry, mind mapping, and qualitative data analysis to engage program participants and other community…

20. A School Social Worker's Impact on a Human Sexuality Program

Science.gov (United States)

Crolley-Simic, Josie; Vonk, M. Elizabeth; Ellsworth, William

2007-01-01

This study examines the roles and skills of a school social worker assisting a school district in developing a human sexuality education program. Specific challenges faced by the social worker are discussed, and alternatives to several of the social worker's decisions are explored. Specifically, decisions made by the social worker regarding…

1. Impact of School Flu Vaccine Program on Student Absences

Science.gov (United States)

Plaspohl, Sara S.; Dixon, Betty T.; Streater, James A.; Hausauer, Elizabeth T.; Newman, Christopher P.; Vogel, Robert L.

2014-01-01

Literature provides evidence that school attendance correlates with academic performance and student success. Influenza is a contributing factor to school absences. Primary prevention for influenza includes immunization. School-located influenza vaccine (SLIV) programs provide greater access for students to be immunized. A retrospective review of…

2. Analysis of System Training Impact for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

Science.gov (United States)

2011-08-01

Dogfighting, cheating death, and Hollywood glory as one of America’s best fighter jocks. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. Booher, H. (1990...ensure that there are no false starts or misunderstandings later in the process. Normally, cost estimates are sponsored by a system program office and

3. Planning for Impact: A Guide to Planning Effective Family Program.

Science.gov (United States)

Hardy, James M.

A document intended to provide program planning guidelines for Young Men's Christian Associations (YMCAs) desirous of working with families, recommends adherence to eight principles and following of five steps. The principles involve planning before action, fact finding and analysis, clear delineation of operational objectives, planning at all…

4. Impact of International Monetary Fund programs on child health.

Science.gov (United States)

Daoud, Adel; Nosrati, Elias; Reinsberg, Bernhard; Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Stubbs, Thomas H; King, Lawrence P

2017-06-20

Parental education is located at the center of global efforts to improve child health. In a developing-country context, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) plays a crucial role in determining how governments allocate scarce resources to education and public health interventions. Under reforms mandated by IMF structural adjustment programs, it may become harder for parents to reap the benefits of their education due to wage contraction, welfare retrenchment, and generalized social insecurity. This study assesses how the protective effect of education changes under IMF programs, and thus how parents' ability to guard their children's health is affected by structural adjustment. We combine cross-sectional stratified data (countries, 67; children, 1,941,734) from the Demographic and Health Surveys and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. The sample represents ∼2.8 billion (about 50%) of the world's population in year 2000. Based on multilevel models, our findings reveal that programs reduce the protective effect of parental education on child health, especially in rural areas. For instance, in the absence of IMF programs, living in an household with educated parents reduces the odds of child malnourishment by 38% [odds ratio (OR), 0.62; 95% CI, 0.66-0.58]; in the presence of programs, this drops to 21% (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.86-0.74). In other words, the presence of IMF conditionality decreases the protective effect of parents' education on child malnourishment by no less than 17%. We observe similar adverse effects in sanitation, shelter, and health care access (including immunization), but a beneficial effect in countering water deprivation.

5. A survey of impact evaluations of infrastructure projects, programs and policies

OpenAIRE

Estache, Antonio

2010-01-01

This paper surveys the main lessons from impact evaluations of infrastructure projects, programs and policies relevant to policymakers. In the process, however, it also reveals some major research gaps of relevance to academics. After a brief discussion of the motivation for the explosion of the demand for impact evaluations, it starts with some sometimes underestimated lessons for infrastructure specialists from theoretical experiment. The main focus of the paper is, however, the impact eval...

6. Impact of a workplace exercise program on neck and shoulder segments in office workers

OpenAIRE

2016-01-01

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a common problem among office workers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a workplace exercise program on neck and shoulder pain and flexibility in office workers. The workstation assessment was performed using Rapid Office Strain Assessment. Workers were assessed for pain pre- and post-implementation of the workplace exercise program using the Nordic Questionnaire for Musculoskeletal Symptoms, and for flexibility. The program las...

7. Impact of maternal obesity on fetal programming of cardiovascular disease.

Science.gov (United States)

Roberts, Victoria H J; Frias, Antonio E; Grove, Kevin L

2015-05-01

The in utero environment is a key determinant of long-term health outcomes; poor maternal metabolic state and placental insufficiency are strongly associated with these long-term health risks. Human epidemiological studies link maternal obesity and offspring cardiovascular disease in later life, but mechanistic studies in animal models are limited. Here, we review the literature pertaining to maternal consequences of obesity during pregnancy and the subsequent impact on fetal cardiovascular development. ©2015 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

8. Legislative Environmental Impact Statement: Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program.

Science.gov (United States)

1986-11-01

stimulation and the trips gene - rated by inmigrants. Short-term impacts experienced during the construction phase are expected to be significant in some... Opuntia arenaria) and three additional species listed by New Mexico as endangered (Cor~phantha scheeri, Mammillaria wrightii var. wrightii, and Talinum...migration. Two federal -candidate plant species (Cereus greggii and Opuntia arenaria) may occur within the SDA, and seven federal -candidate wildlife species

9. High school sports programs differentially impact participation by sex

OpenAIRE

Drake, Keith M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; MacKenzie, Todd; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L; Rundle, Andrew G.; Dalton, Madeline A.

2015-01-01

Background: Among numerous health benefits, sports participation has been shown to reduce the risk of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Schools represent an ideal environment for increasing sports participation, but it is unclear how access and choice influence participation and whether characteristics of the school sports program differentially influence boys' and girls' participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of high school athletic pro...

10. Impact of a regional distributed medical education program on an underserved community: perceptions of community leaders.

Science.gov (United States)

Toomey, Patricia; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanlon, Neil; Poole, Gary; Bates, Joanna

2013-06-01

To describe community leaders' perceptions regarding the impact of a fully distributed undergraduate medical education program on a small, medically underserved host community. The authors conducted semistructured interviews in 2007 with 23 community leaders representing, collectively, the education, health, economic, media, and political sectors. They reinterviewed six participants from a pilot study (2005) and recruited new participants using purposeful and snowball sampling. The authors employed analytic induction to organize content thematically, using the sectors as a framework, and they used open coding to identify new themes. The authors reanalyzed transcripts to identify program outcomes (e.g., increased research capacity) and construct a list of quantifiable indicators (e.g., number of grants and publications). Participants reported their perspectives on the current and anticipated impact of the program on education, health services, the economy, media, and politics. Perceptions of impact were overwhelmingly positive (e.g., increased physician recruitment), though some were negative (e.g., strains on health resources). The authors identified new outcomes and confirmed outcomes described in 2005. They identified 16 quantifiable indicators of impact, which they judged to be plausible and measureable. Participants perceive that the regional undergraduate medical education program in their community has broad, local impacts. Findings suggest that early observed outcomes have been maintained and may be expanding. Results may be applicable to medical education programs with distributed or regional sites in similar rural, remote, and/or underserved regions. The areas of impact, outcomes, and quantifiable indicators identified will be of interest to future researchers and evaluators.

11. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America.

Science.gov (United States)

Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Yuba, Tânia Yuka; Soárez, Patrícia Coelho de; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

2015-01-01

To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region.

12. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ana Marli Christovam Sartori

2015-01-01

Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. RESULTS We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. CONCLUSIONS Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region.

13. How do you feel, developer? An explanatory theory of the impact of affects on programming performance

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Daniel Graziotin

2015-08-01

Full Text Available Affects—emotions and moods—have an impact on cognitive activities and the working performance of individuals. Development tasks are undertaken through cognitive processes, yet software engineering research lacks theory on affects and their impact on software development activities. In this paper, we report on an interpretive study aimed at broadening our understanding of the psychology of programming in terms of the experience of affects while programming, and the impact of affects on programming performance. We conducted a qualitative interpretive study based on: face-to-face open-ended interviews, in-field observations, and e-mail exchanges. This enabled us to construct a novel explanatory theory of the impact of affects on development performance. The theory is explicated using an established taxonomy framework. The proposed theory builds upon the concepts of events, affects, attractors, focus, goals, and performance. Theoretical and practical implications are given.

14. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2011-08-01

This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

15. Program Evaluation: A Study of the Impact of a Workforce Preparation Program

Science.gov (United States)

Blevins, Stephanie Strevels

2010-01-01

The Kentucky 4-H Reality Store, a workforce preparation program was established to educate youth about the importance of budgeting, setting goals, planning for careers, considering the future, preventing teen pregnancy, and abstaining from drug misuse. The program which has been administered to over 45,000 adolescents each year has never been…

16. Positioned for impact: Haiti's first baccalaureate nursing program.

Science.gov (United States)

Burger, Jeanne M

2011-01-01

Haiti's first baccalaureate nursing programn the Faculty of Nursing Science of the Episcopal University of Haiti (FSIL), educates professional nurses as clinicians, leaders, and change agents, preparing graduates to a global standard set by the World Health Organization. FSIL was founded on Christian principles, expressing a vision of nursing as a ministry of Jesus Christ. Near the epicenter of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the remarkable response of FSIL students and faculty saved lives, gave hope to a community in need, and demonstrated the impact of well-educated nurses on the health of a nation.

17. IMPaCT - Integration of Missions, Programs, and Core Technologies

Science.gov (United States)

Balacuit, Carlos P.; Cutts, James A.; Peterson, Craig E.; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Jones, Susan K.; Hang, Winnie N.; Dastur, Shahin D.

2013-01-01

IMPaCT enables comprehensive information on current NASA missions, prospective future missions, and the technologies that NASA is investing in, or considering investing in, to be accessed from a common Web-based interface. It allows dependencies to be established between missions and technology, and from this, the benefits of investing in individual technologies can be determined. The software also allows various scenarios for future missions to be explored against resource constraints, and the nominal cost and schedule of each mission to be modified in an effort to fit within a prescribed budget.

18. Fiscal loss and program fidelity: impact of the economic downturn on HIV/STI prevention program fidelity.

Science.gov (United States)

Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Gandelman, Alice A; Narayanan, Vasudha; McKay, Virginia R

2014-03-01

The economic downturn of 2007 created significant fiscal losses for public and private agencies conducting behavioral prevention. Such macro-economic changes may influence program implementation and sustainability. We examined how public and private agencies conducting RESPECT, a brief HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) counseling and testing intervention, adapted to fiscal loss and how these adaptations impacted program fidelity. We collected qualitative and quantitative data in a national sample of 15 agencies experiencing fiscal loss. Using qualitative analyses, we examined how program fidelity varied with different types of adaptations. Agencies reported three levels of adaptation: agency-level, program-level, and direct fiscal remedies. Private agencies tended to use direct fiscal remedies, which were associated with higher fidelity. Some agency-level adaptations contributed to reductions in procedural fit, leading to negative staff morale and decreased confidence in program effectiveness, which in turn, contributed to poor fidelity. Findings describe a "work stress pathway" that links program fiscal losses to poor staff morale and low program fidelity.

19. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

2000-03-20

The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about \$5.3 billion in wage income (1995\$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and \$5.0 billion.

20. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

1996-08-01

The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

1. Evaluating the Ecological Impact of a Youth Program

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Natalie Grant

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Youth are the weakest population within the workforce and long-term unemployment leaves them unable to develop work skills, reaches into their future prospects, and can weaken the economy, education systems, and overall social structure. Through ecological qualitative methodology, the reported research gathered in-depth accounts of experiences of ten urban youth who participated in a federally-funded Summer Youth Employment Program (SYEP. To develop an understanding of aspects of the youth’s lives, individual interviews were conducted and ecomaps were completed with participants. Personal narratives support the premises that documenting the ecosystems of individuals provides insights into daily lives, histories, and lived experiences in a way that provides a window into how services and prevention efforts can be targeted. Results concluded that for these participants, the SYEP made a difference in their lives in terms of helping them make connections to positive role models, learning workplace communication, and providing an entrance into the workforce on varying levels consistent with their barriers. This research can be applied to inform practitioners, teachers, and decision makers with a better understanding of the social, emotional, educational, and workforce realities of adolescents. The research advances the conversation about federally funded youth employment programs creating opportunities for marginalized youth to learn skills for succeeding in the mainstream economy.

2. Impact of a community-based program on early childhood development.

Science.gov (United States)

Kotchabhakdi, N J

1999-01-01

To determine the impact of an integrated community-based program in rural villages on early childhood development, a controlled trial was conducted in the Nakhon Sawan province of Thailand. The program involved the cooperation of governmental agencies, nongovernmental agencies, academic institutions, and community organizations. At baseline, 3 control and 3 program villages were similar in terms of nutritional status, developmental performance and parental care. After 2 years of intervention in the program villages, improvements were noted in nutritional status, developmental performance, and intelligence quotient scores, as well as overall utilization of health care resources and parental attitude and involvement.

3. Master’s Degree Programs of Camarines Norte State College, Philippines: Impact on Its Graduates

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Godofredo E. Peteza, Jr.

2017-02-01

4. Noise and Sonic Boom Impact Technology. BOOMAP2 Computer Program for Sonic Boom Research. Volume 3. Program Maintenance Manual

Science.gov (United States)

1988-08-01

Boom Impact Technology Program Systems AcqulsiRIon Division Human Systems Division Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235-5000 88 1013 059 NOTICz When...report from the Human Systems Division. Copies may be obtained from DTIC. Address your request for additional copies to: Defense Technical Information...CURRENT TIME C EQUAL TO EMMISSION TIME. THE RATES OF CHANGE ARE WITH RESPECT TO NOT C ONLY CURRENT TIME, BUT ALSO THE RAY PARAMETERS OF PHI ANGLE AND

5. Adding Change Impact Analysis to the Formal Verification of C Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Autexier, Serge; Lüth, Christoph

Handling changes to programs and specifications efficiently is a particular challenge in formal software verification. Change impact analysis is an approach to this challenge where the effects of changes made to a document (such as a program or specification) are described in terms of rules on a semantic representation of the document. This allows to describe and delimit the effects of syntactic changes semantically. This paper presents an application of generic change impact analysis to formal software verification, using the GMoC and SAMS tools. We adapt the GMoC tool for generic change impact analysis to the SAMS verification framework for the formal verification of C programs, and show how a few simple rules are sufficient to capture the essence of change management.

6. Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Riewer, S. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Spanner, G.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-08-01

The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration`s retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and ``free ridership.`` The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

7. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1996-08-01

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

8. Diet models with linear goal programming: impact of achievement functions.

Science.gov (United States)

Gerdessen, J C; de Vries, J H M

2015-11-01

Diet models based on goal programming (GP) are valuable tools in designing diets that comply with nutritional, palatability and cost constraints. Results derived from GP models are usually very sensitive to the type of achievement function that is chosen.This paper aims to provide a methodological insight into several achievement functions. It describes the extended GP (EGP) achievement function, which enables the decision maker to use either a MinSum achievement function (which minimizes the sum of the unwanted deviations) or a MinMax achievement function (which minimizes the largest unwanted deviation), or a compromise between both. An additional advantage of EGP models is that from one set of data and weights multiple solutions can be obtained. We use small numerical examples to illustrate the 'mechanics' of achievement functions. Then, the EGP achievement function is demonstrated on a diet problem with 144 foods, 19 nutrients and several types of palatability constraints, in which the nutritional constraints are modeled with fuzzy sets. Choice of achievement function affects the results of diet models. MinSum achievement functions can give rise to solutions that are sensitive to weight changes, and that pile all unwanted deviations on a limited number of nutritional constraints. MinMax achievement functions spread the unwanted deviations as evenly as possible, but may create many (small) deviations. EGP comprises both types of achievement functions, as well as compromises between them. It can thus, from one data set, find a range of solutions with various properties.

9. Impact of Nutritional Supplementation and a Psychomotor Program on Patients With Alzheimer's Disease.

Science.gov (United States)

Vicente de Sousa, Odete; Soares Guerra, Rita; Sousa, Ana Sofia; Pais Henriques, Bebiana; Pereira Monteiro, Anabela; Amaral, Teresa Freitas

2017-09-01

This study aims to evaluate the impact of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) and a psychomotor rehabilitation program on nutritional and functional status of community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A 21-day prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted and third intervention group performed a psychomotor rehabilitation program. Patients were followed up for 180 days. Mean (standard deviation) score of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) increased both in the nutritional supplementation group (NSG; n = 25), 0.4 (0.8), and in the nutritional supplementation psychomotor rehabilitation program group (NSPRG; n = 11), 1.5 (1.0), versus -0.1 (1.1) in the control group (CG; n = 43), P .05). The ONS and a psychomotor rehabilitation program have a positive impact on long-term nutritional and functional status of patients with AD.

10. An impact evaluation of Plan Indonesia's early childhood program.

Science.gov (United States)

Aboud, Frances E; Proulx, Kerrie; Asrilla, Zaitu

2016-12-27

High-quality preschools are known to prepare children for success in primary school. Over half of Indonesia's children now pass through preschools whose quality and effectiveness are unknown. Our goal was to evaluate two government preschool models, namely kindergarten (TK) and the less formal health-post (PAUD), with and without capacity-building efforts of a non-governmental organization (NGO-Plan), on children's language and math skills. Thirteen TK and 17 PAUD Plan-supported and the same number of government-supported preschools were randomly selected from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Five children from each (n = 292) and five who had graduated from each and were now in first grade (n = 241) were randomly selected and tested on language and math measures. The Plan-supported preschools were assessed for quality. Mothers reported on their family's socio-demographic situation and their child's preventive health practices, illnesses and diet over the previous two weeks. Analyses of covariance adjusting for clusters indicated that children attending Plan-supported preschools performed better overall, and especially those in TK preschools. Plan-supported TKs were observed to have higher quality than Plan-supported PAUDs. First graders who graduated from Plan-supported preschools, both TK and PAUD, achieved higher scores on language and math tests than government-supported graduates. Preventive health practices were better in the Plan group, though diet and height-for-age were poor overall. Upgrades to the government preschool program are needed to raise its quality and effectiveness, specifically by introducing a mix of instructional and indoor free-choice play, resources and teacher training to support children's learning.

11. The Impact of a Research Ethics Training Program: Romania as a Case Study.

Science.gov (United States)

Loue, Sana

2014-12-01

Case Western Reserve University's (CWRU) Training Program in International Research Ethics, funded by the Fogarty International Center, has been ongoing in Romania since 2000. The program consists of multiple components: a U.S.- based MA degree program for long-term trainees, Romania-based short courses, a U.S.-based opportunity for mid-and senior-level personnel to develop collaborative writing or research projects and present lectures, and a newsletter and various Internet-based activities. We evaluated the impact of the training program on bioethics in Romania through a survey of the training program's long-term trainees, a literature search for trainee publications, interviews with key informants, and identification of key events during the course of the program. Findings indicate that the program has had a considerable impact in the field of bioethics through trainee authorship of peer-reviewed publications, books, and chapters; trainee career trajectories that encompass activities related to research ethics; and the development of a Romania-based master's degree program in bioethics and a Center of Bioethics and Health Policy. We attribute these achievements to the establishment of strong relationships between CWRU in Cleveland and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Gr. T. Popa in Iasi, Romania, prior to the initiation of the training program; collaboration with key Romania-based institutional partners that are equally invested in the program's success; reliance of the program on a solid theoretical framework; ongoing program responsiveness to trainee and country needs; and a sustained commitment of time, expertise, and funding by the funders, sponsors, and in-country collaborators.

12. Impact of CLSI Breakpoint Changes on Microbiology Laboratories and Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs.

Science.gov (United States)

Heil, Emily L; Johnson, J Kristie

2016-04-01

In 2010, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) lowered the MIC breakpoints for many beta-lactam antibiotics to enhance detection of known resistance amongEnterobacteriaceae The decision to implement these new breakpoints, including the changes announced in both 2010 and 2014, can have a significant impact on both microbiology laboratories and antimicrobial stewardship programs. In this commentary, we discuss the changes and how implementation of these updated CLSI breakpoints requires partnership between antimicrobial stewardship programs and the microbiology laboratory, including data on the impact that the changes had on antibiotic usage at our own institution. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

13. Evaluation of Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant, environmental impact prediction, based on monitoring programs

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Waton, D.G.

1976-12-01

A study was undertaken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the nonradiological environmental data obtained from three nuclear power plants operating for a period of one year or longer. The document presented reports the second of three nuclear power plants to be evaluated in detail by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant nonradiological monitoring data were assessed to determine their effectiveness in the measurement of environmental impacts. Efforts were made to determine if: (1) monitoring programs, as designed, can detect environmental impacts, (2) appropriate statistical analyses were performed and if they were sensitive enough to detect impacts, (3) predicted impacts could be verified by monitoring programs, and (4) monitoring programs satisfied the requirements of the Environmental Technical Specifications. Both preoperational and operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the methods used to measure ecological, chemical, and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data sets were available. From this type of analysis, deficiencies in both preoperational and operational monitoring programs may be identified and provide a basis for suggested improvement.

14. Factors affecting the impact of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice, student outcomes & efficacy.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lawrence Ingvarson

2005-01-01

Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.

15. The Army Racial Awareness Program: A Case Study of Program Impact on Personal Values. Special Report

Science.gov (United States)

Vaughan, Michael R.; Kriner, Richard E.

The effects of two forms of presentation of the Army Racial Awareness Program (RAP) on the personal values of equality and freedom were assessed. Subjects were Army personnel assigned to RAP at Fort Meade, Md. The research instrument was the Rokeach Value Survey, in pretest-posttest administrations. Results suggested that the official RAP…

16. A methodology for evaluating social impact of Environmental Education Master Training Program

OpenAIRE

Loret de Mola, E.; Méndez, I. E.

2014-01-01

The paper is intended to describe a methodology for evaluating social impact of Environmental Education master training program by presenting its main stages. The framework serving as starting point and other empirical methods lead to systematized and define the terms of environmental professional training, professional performance of the environmental educator, evaluation, evaluation of professional performance of environmental educators and impact evaluation; as well as distinguishing the f...

17. Impact of a Senior Fitness Program on Measures of Physical and Emotional Health and Functioning

OpenAIRE

Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.; Rula, Elizabeth Y.

2013-01-01

The SilverSneakers fitness program is a health plan benefit for Medicare beneficiaries that provides older adults with fitness center membership, customized group exercise classes, and a supportive social environment that promotes socialization among participants. This study evaluated the impact of the SilverSneakers program on physical and emotional health and activities of daily living (ADLs). A quasi-experimental retrospective analysis compared annual survey responses from SilverSneakers m...

18. Impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program on children undergoing surgery

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Priya Reshma Aranha

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Background: The advanced era of technological development in child health care has resulted in more pediatric procedures being performed in various settings. Millions of children undergo surgery every year which is a stressful event. Many nonpharmacological strategies are being used to manage the preoperative fear and anxiety in children. The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of multimodal preoperative preparation program (MPPP on children undergoing surgery in terms of its effect on the psychophysiological parameters. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of MPPP on the psychophysiological parameters of children undergoing surgery. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a selected multi-specialty hospital. Using the purposive sampling technique, a total of 110 children aged 8–12 years were assigned to nonintervention (n = 55 and intervention (n = 55 groups, respectively. The MPPP was administered to the intervention group. The children in the nonintervention group received the routine preoperative care. Child's fear and anxiety was assessed on admission, prior to shifting the child to operation theater (OT, 24 and 48 h after surgery, whereas child's pulse, respiration, blood pressure (BP, and oxygen saturation was assessed on admission, prior to shifting the child to OT, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery and pain was assessed at 24 and 48 h after surgery. Results: The mean fear and anxiety scores of children were significantly lower in the intervention group than that of nonintervention group (P 0.05. This study also found that there is a significant association between the psychophysiological parameters of children with the selected demographic variables (P < 0.05. A positive correlation was found between the psychological and physiological parameters of children undergoing surgery. Conclusion: The MPPP is effective on psychophysiological parameters of children undergoing

19. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

1993-05-01

Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

20. 77 FR 45652 - Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the San Joaquin...

Science.gov (United States)

2012-08-01

... reproducing and self-sustaining populations of salmon and other fish. Water Management Goal--To reduce or... and the California Department of Water Resources have prepared a joint Final Program Environmental... alternatives considered in the Draft PEIS/R to achieve the Stipulation of Settlement's restoration and water...

1. Restructuring federalism: the impact of Reagan policies on the family planning program.

Science.gov (United States)

McFarlane, D R; Meier, K J

1993-01-01

Through fiscal cutbacks and structural changes, Reagan's federalism assaulted the ethos of public health. In assessing the effects of Reagan policies on a basic public health program, family planning services, we find a substantial decrease in spending for this program, a reduction in the numbers of patients served, and increased variation among the states in the provision of services to low-income women. These effects are comparable with findings from other studies on the impact of Reagan's federalism upon social programs and have manifold implications for public health.

2. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

1994-07-01

This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

3. The Economic, Energy, and Environmental Impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

Science.gov (United States)

Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

1994-07-01

This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

4. Budget Impact of a Comprehensive Nutrition-Focused Quality Improvement Program for Malnourished Hospitalized Patients.

Science.gov (United States)

Sulo, Suela; Feldstein, Josh; Partridge, Jamie; Schwander, Bjoern; Sriram, Krishnan; Summerfelt, Wm Thomas

2017-07-01

Nutrition interventions can alleviate the burden of malnutrition by improving patient outcomes; however, evidence on the economic impact of medical nutrition intervention remains limited. A previously published nutrition-focused quality improvement program targeting malnourished hospitalized patients showed that screening patients with a validated screening tool at admission, rapidly administering oral nutritional supplements, and educating patients on supplement adherence result in significant reductions in 30-day unplanned readmissions and hospital length of stay. To assess the potential cost-savings associated with decreased 30-day readmissions and hospital length of stay in malnourished inpatients through a nutrition-focused quality improvement program using a web-based budget impact model, and to demonstrate the clinical and fiscal value of the intervention. The reduction in readmission rate and length of stay for 1269 patients enrolled in the quality improvement program (between October 13, 2014, and April 2, 2015) were compared with the pre-quality improvement program baseline and validation cohorts (4611 patients vs 1319 patients, respectively) to calculate potential cost-savings as well as to inform the design of the budget impact model. Readmission rate and length-of-stay reductions were calculated by determining the change from baseline to post-quality improvement program as well as the difference between the validation cohort and the post-quality improvement program, respectively. As a result of improved health outcomes for the treated patients, the nutrition-focused quality improvement program led to a reduction in 30-day hospital readmissions and length of stay. The avoided hospital readmissions and reduced number of days in the hospital for the patients in the quality improvement program resulted in cost-savings of \$1,902,933 versus the pre-quality improvement program baseline cohort, and \$4,896,758 versus the pre-quality improvement program in the

5. Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs inMexico (four products).

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac; della Cava, Mirka

2007-06-12

This study analyzes impacts from energy efficiency standards and labeling in Mexico from 1994 through 2005 for four major products: household refrigerators, room air conditioners, three-phase (squirrel cage) induction motors, and clothes washers. It is a retrospective analysis, seeking to assess verified impacts on product efficiency in the Mexican market in the first ten years after standards were implemented. Such an analysis allows the Mexican government to compare actual to originally forecast program benefits. In addition, it provides an extremely valuable benchmark for other countries considering standards, and to the energy policy community as a whole. The methodology for evaluation begins with historical test data taken for a large number of models of each product type between 1994 and 2005. The pre-standard efficiency of models in 1994 is taken as a baseline throughout the analysis. Model efficiency data were provided by an independent certification laboratory (ANCE), which tested products as part of the certification and enforcement mechanism defined by the standards program. Using this data, together with economic and market data provided by both government and private sector sources, the analysis considers several types of national level program impacts. These include: Energy savings; Environmental (emissions) impacts, and Net financial impacts to consumers, manufacturers and utilities. Energy savings impacts are calculated using the same methodology as the original projections, allowing a comparison. Other impacts are calculated using a robust and sophisticated methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in a collaboration supported by the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP).

6. The Impact of the Louisiana Scholarship Program on Racial Segregation in Louisiana Schools. Louisiana Scholarship Program Evaluation Report #3. Technical Report

Science.gov (United States)

Egalite, Anna J.; Mills, Jonathan N.; Wolf, Patrick J.

2016-01-01

The question of how school choice programs affect the racial stratification of schools is highly salient in the field of education policy. We use a student-level panel data set to analyze the impacts of the Louisiana Scholarship Program (LSP) on racial segregation in public and private schools. This targeted school voucher program provides funding…

7. Impacting the problem of inner-city youth violence: "Educating Kids About Gun Violence" program.

Science.gov (United States)

Hayward, Thomas Z; Simons, Clark J; St John, Wendy; Waymire, Michelle; Stucky, Thomas D

2011-04-01

The Educating Kids Against Gun Violence (EKG) program was developed in response to high levels of gun violence in an urban inner-city county through a partnership between the county prosecutor's office, local law enforcement, and a Level 1 trauma center. This program incorporates short video clips and interactive presentations, which address legal and medical consequences of gun violence. The program was presented to youths varying in age and degree of prior contact with the criminal justice system. Pre and post surveys were used to evaluate the short-term impact of the EKG program on the legal and medical knowledge and attitudes of youth participants. There were 130 pre and post surveys that could be exactly matched. Sixty-three per cent of participants had been arrested and 35 per cent had been convicted of a crime. On the post survey, 79 per cent stated that "the program will help keep me out of trouble" and 69 per cent stated that "in the future because of this program I will be less likely to carry a gun". The EKG program seemed to have positive short-term impacts on youth knowledge of legal and medical consequences and attitudes regarding gun violence.

8. Impact of Frequent Interruption on Nurses' Patient-Controlled Analgesia Programming Performance.

Science.gov (United States)

Campoe, Kristi R; Giuliano, Karen K

2017-12-01

9. The impact of intergenerational programs on children and older adults: a review.

Science.gov (United States)

Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Voglino, Gianluca; Bert, Fabrizio; Thomas, Robin; Camussi, Elisa; Siliquini, Roberta

2017-10-09

Elderly are at particular risk of social isolation. This condition significantly affects health; on the contrary, social involvement can be extremely advantageous. In this context, intergenerational programs improve interactions between different ages. Then, we conducted a review regarding intergenerational programs, to summarize the effects of these activities on both elderly and children. Our review followed the PRISMA statements. We considered papers reporting data about intergenerational programs involving children (preschool and elementary) and elderly. The final selection obtained 27 sources. Ten studies evaluated children's outcomes outlining the positive impact of intergenerational programs upon children's perception of elderly. The effects on older participants were variegated considering well-being, depression, self-reported health, and self-esteem. Moreover, the retrieved studies outlined the importance of a careful organization and of a specific training for all staff members. The staff involved in similar programs appeared, overall, highly satisfied. The positive impact on children of intergenerational programs is proved at both short- and long-term. Moreover, despite the different outcomes considered and the variable results, these programs resulted overall beneficial on elderly participants. Finally, similar activities resulted feasible even in case of older adults with dementia.

10. Evaluating the impact of dental care on housing intervention program outcomes among homeless veterans.

Science.gov (United States)

Nunez, Elizabeth; Gibson, Gretchen; Jones, Judith A; Schinka, John A

2013-12-01

In this retrospective longitudinal cohort study, we examined the impact of dental care on outcomes among homeless veterans discharged from a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) transitional housing intervention program. Our sample consisted of 9870 veterans who were admitted into a VA homeless intervention program during 2008 and 2009, 4482 of whom received dental care during treatment and 5388 of whom did not. Primary outcomes of interest were program completion, employment or stable financial status on discharge, and transition to permanent housing. We calculated descriptive statistics and compared the 2 study groups with respect to demographic characteristics, medical and psychiatric history (including alcohol and substance use), work and financial support, and treatment outcomes. Veterans who received dental care were 30% more likely than those who did not to complete the program, 14% more likely to be employed or financially stable, and 15% more likely to have obtained residential housing. Provision of dental care has a substantial positive impact on outcomes among homeless veterans participating in housing intervention programs. This suggests that homeless programs need to weigh the benefits and cost of dental care in program planning and implementation.

11. CIRIR Programs: Drilling and Research Opportunities at the Rochechouart Impact Structure

Science.gov (United States)

Lambert, P.; Alwmark, C.; Baratoux, D.; Brack, A.; Bruneton, P.; Buchner, E.; Claeys, P.; Dence, M.; French, B.; Hoerz, F

2017-01-01

Owing to its size, accessibility and erosional level, the Rochechouart impact structure, dated at 203 +/- 2 Ma (recalc.), is a unique reser-voir of knowledge within the population of the rare terrestrial analogous to large impacts craters observed on planetary surfaces. The site gives direct access to fundamental mechanisms both in impact-related geology (origin and evolution of planets) and biology (habitability of planets, emergence and evolution of life). For the last decade P. Lambert has been installing Rochechouart as International Natural Laboratory for studying impact processes and collateral effects on planetary surfaces. For this purpose the Center for International Research on Impacts and on Rochechouart (CIRIR) was installed on site in 2016 with twofold objectives and activities. First ones are scientific and dedicated to the scientific community. The second are cultural and educational and are dedi-cated to the public sensu lato. We present here the CIRIR, its scientific programs and the related reseach opportunities.

12. Outcome and impact of Master of Public Health programs across six countries: education for change.

Science.gov (United States)

Zwanikken, Prisca A C; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Ying, Xiao Hua; Alexander, Lucy; Wadidi, Marwa Se Abuzaid; Magaña-Valladares, Laura; Gonzalez-Robledo, Maria Cecilia; Qian, Xu; Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Tahir, Hanan; Leppink, Jimmie; Scherpbier, Albert

2014-08-06

13. Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program and its impact on geothermal exploration and development

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nasr, L.H.

1978-05-01

The study showed that the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program has had only a negligible effect on geothermal development and the response to the program was far less than expected. The streamlining of environmental regulations and leasing policies, and the granting of intangible drilling cost write-offs and depletion allowances to operators would have had a greater impact on geothermal energy development. The loan guaranty program did not promote the undertaking of any new projects that would not have been undertaken without it. The program only accelerated the pace for some development which might have commenced in the future. Included in the study are recommendations for improving the operation of the program thereby increasing its attractiveness to potential applicants.

14. PrimeSupplier Cross-Program Impact Analysis and Supplier Stability Indicator Simulation Model

Science.gov (United States)

Calluzzi, Michael

2009-01-01

PrimeSupplier, a supplier cross-program and element-impact simulation model, with supplier solvency indicator (SSI), has been developed so that the shuttle program can see early indicators of supplier and product line stability, while identifying the various elements and/or programs that have a particular supplier or product designed into the system. The model calculates two categories of benchmarks to determine the SSI, with one category focusing on agency programmatic data and the other focusing on a supplier's financial liquidity. PrimeSupplier was developed to help NASA smoothly transition design, manufacturing, and repair operations from the Shuttle program to the Constellation program, without disruption in the industrial supply base.

15. Market impacts of hypothetical fuel treatment thinning programs on federal lands in the western United States

Science.gov (United States)

Peter J. Ince; Henry Spelter; Kenneth Skog; Andrew Kramp; Dennis P. Dykstra

2000-01-01

This paper addresses the economics of forest fuel thinning programs on federal lands in the U.S. West, and presents a model of regional timber and product market impacts. The issue of economics is vital to the debate about fire management, and this paper presents market implications of two alternative silvicultural strategies, even-aged and uneven-aged...

16. Impact of degree program satisfaction on the persistence of college students

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Suhre, Cor J. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Harskamp, Evert

Many theories on college retention recognize the significance of student satisfaction as a positive factor in students' persistence. Yet, there are few theories that address the relationship of degree program satisfaction to study behaviour and dropout. This paper explores the impact of degree

17. Community Development, Transitional Value, and Institutional Affinity: Outdoor Orientation Program Impacts

Science.gov (United States)

Howard, Ryan A.; O'Connell, Timothy S.; Lathrop, Anna H.

2016-01-01

This article examines the impact of an outdoor orientation program (OOP) on a cohort of first-year university students who participated in a canoe trip facilitated by peer leaders. The curriculum included training for outdoor skills and transitional guidance to university life (i.e., strategies for time management, critical thinking, becoming…

18. Programming in a Robotics Context in the Kindergarten Classroom: The Impact on Sequencing Skills

Science.gov (United States)

Kazakoff, Elizabeth; Bers, Marina

2012-01-01

This paper examines the impact of computer programming of robots on sequencing ability in early childhood and the relationship between sequencing skills, class size, and teacher's comfort level and experience with technology. Fifty-eight children participated in the study, 54 of whom were included in data analysis. This study was conducted in two…

19. The impact of scrappage programs on the demand for new vehicles: Evidence from Spain

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cantos - Sánchez, Pedro; Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Mulalic, Ismir

decision and household expenditures. The results show that the scrappage program increased the probability to buy a new car, but decreased the mean expenditure devoted to the purchase of this new vehicle. We also evaluate the impact of the financial aid on the household welfare, which suggests...

20. Measuring the Impacts of a Volunteer-Based Community Development Program in Developing Volunteers' Leadership Skills

Science.gov (United States)

Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George

2012-01-01

This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…

1. The Federal Work-Study Program: Impacts on Academic Outcomes and Employment. CAPSEE Policy Brief

Science.gov (United States)

Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment, 2015

2015-01-01

Policymakers may be interested in the extent to which Federal Work-Study programs (FWS) increase students' access to productive employment, and how they impact students' academic and career success. This brief summarizes findings from a recent study using national data and a propensity score matching approach to examine the overall effects of FWS…

2. The Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program: The Impact of Structure, Content, and Readings

Science.gov (United States)

Allred, Sarah L.

2009-01-01

This study examines qualitative and quantitative data from a fifteen-week experiential course held in a county jail. The course was modeled after the Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program, and included college students and people who were incarcerated at the time. Survey data and comments gleaned from student papers were used to assess the impact of…

3. Impact of Nursing Educational Program on Reducing or Preventing Postoperative Complications for Patients after Intracranial Surgery

Science.gov (United States)

Elmowla, Rasha Ali Ahmed Abd; El-Lateef, Zienab Abd; El-khayat, Roshdy

2015-01-01

Intracranial surgery means any surgery performed inside the skull to treat problems in the brain and surrounding structures. Aim: Evaluate the impact of nursing educational program on reducing or preventing postoperative complications for patients after intracranial surgery. Subjects and methods: Sixty adult patients had intracranial surgery (burr…

4. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

2009-05-29

This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

5. Impact of the Nova Scotia School Accreditation Program on Teaching and Student Learning: An Initial Study

Science.gov (United States)

Wood, Christine; Meyer, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

School accreditation is one process currently mandated in Nova Scotia schools to facilitate school improvement efforts. This mixed methods study sought to discover and describe the impact of the Nova Scotia School Accreditation Program (NSSAP) specifically on teaching and student learning in three secondary schools in one school board. Surveys,…

6. The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.

Science.gov (United States)

Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

2001-01-01

Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

7. Impact of a Nationwide Training Program in Minimally Invasive Distal Pancreatectomy (LAELAPS)

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Rooij, T. de; Hilst, J. van; Boerma, D.; Bonsing, B.A.; Daams, F.; Dam, R.M. van; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Eijck, C.H. van; Festen, S.; Gerhards, M.F.; Koerkamp, B.G.; Harst, E. van der; Hingh, I.H. de; Kazemier, G.; Klaase, J.; Kleine, R.H. de; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Lips, D.J.; Luyer, M.D.; Molenaar, I.Q.; Patijn, G.A.; Roos, D.; Scheepers, J.J.; Schelling, G.P. van der; Steenvoorde, P.; Vriens, M.R.; Wijsman, J.H.; Gouma, D.J.; Busch, O.R.; Hilal, M.A.; Besselink, M.G.

2016-01-01

OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program in minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Superior outcomes of MIDP compared with open distal pancreatectomy have been reported. In the Netherlands (2005 to 2013) only 10% of distal

8. Impact of a Nationwide Training Program in Minimally Invasive Distal Pancreatectomy (LAELAPS)

NARCIS (Netherlands)

de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A.; Daams, Freek; van Dam, Ronald M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; van Eijck, Casper H.; Festen, Sebastiaan; Gerhards, Michael F.; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H.; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; de Kleine, Ruben H.; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J.; Lips, Daan J.; Luyer, Misha D.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Patijn, Gijs A.; Roos, Daphne; Scheepers, Joris J.; van der Schelling, George P.; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Vriens, Menno R.; Wijsman, Jan H.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Busch, Olivier R.; Hilal, Mohammed Abu; Besselink, Marc G.; de Boer, Marieke T.

2016-01-01

Objective:To study the feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program in minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP).Summary of Background Data:Superior outcomes of MIDP compared with open distal pancreatectomy have been reported. In the Netherlands (2005 to 2013) only 10% of distal

9. The impact of a summer education program on the environmental attitudes and awareness of minority children

Science.gov (United States)

Lincoln R. Larson; Gary T. Green; Steven B. Castleberry

2009-01-01

The environmental education (EE) of America's youth is a high priority, but the effect of EE on children's environmental attitudes and awareness remains uncertain. This study used a pretest, post-test approach to investigate the impact of a 1-week EE summer program on children from different age groups and ethnic backgrounds. A survey instrument designed to...

10. The Impact of an Interdisciplinary Space Program on Computer Science Student Learning

Science.gov (United States)

Straub, Jeremy; Marsh, Ronald; Whalen, David

2015-01-01

Project-based learning and interdisciplinary projects present an opportunity for students to learn both technical skills and other skills which are relevant to their workplace success. This paper presents an assessment of the educational impact of the OpenOrbiter program, a student-run, interdisciplinary CubeSat (a type of small satellite with…

11. Adult Prostitution Recidivism: Risk Factors and Impact of a Diversion Program

Science.gov (United States)

Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom

2011-01-01

The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…

12. NATIONAL STORMWATER CALCULATOR: LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STORMWATER CONTROL COST ESTIMATION PROGRAMMING & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

Science.gov (United States)

National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation Programming & Future EnhancementsJason Berner1; Michael Tryby1; Scott Struck2, Dan Pankani2, Marion Deerhake3, Michelle Simon11. USEPA2. GeoSyntec, Inc.3. RTI, Inc.The National Stormwater Ca...

13. The impact of awareness programs by media on the spreading and ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

DR OKE

All rights reserved. The impact of awareness programs by media on the spreading and control of non-communicable diseases. Manju Agarwal 1 and Rachana Pathak2*. 1,2Department of Mathematics and Astronomy, Lucknow University, Lucknow-226007, INDIA. *Corresponding Author: email: rachanapathak2@gmail.com.

14. Health impact assessment of free immunization program in Jinju City, Korea.

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Keon Yeop; Jeon, So Youn; Jeon, Man Joong; Lee, Kwon Ho; Lee, Sok Goo; Kim, Dongjin; Kang, Eunjeong; Bae, Sang Geun; Kim, Jinhee

2012-07-01

This study was conducted to assess the potential health impacts and improve the quality of the free immunization program in Jinju City by maximizing the predicted positive health gains and minimizing the negative health risks. A steering committee was established in September 2010 to carry out the health impact assessment (HIA) and began the screening and scoping stages. In the appraisal stage, analysis of secondary data, a literature review, case studies, geographic information systems analysis, a questionnaire, and expert consultations were used. The results of the data collection and analyses were discussed during a workshop, after which recommendations were finalized in a written report. Increased access to immunization, comprehensive services provided by physicians, the strengthened role of the public health center in increasing immunization rates and services, and the ripple effect to other neighboring communities were identified as potential positive impacts. On the other hand, the program might be inaccessible to rural regions with no private clinics where there are more at-risk children, vaccine management and quality control at the clinics may be poor, and vaccines may be misused. Recommendations to maximize health gains and minimize risks were separately developed for the public health center and private clinics. The HIA provided an opportunity for stakeholders to comprehensively overview the potential positive and negative impacts of the program before it was implemented. An HIA is a powerful tool that should be used when developing and implementing diverse health-related policies and programs in the community.

15. A Microfinance Program Targeting People Living with HIV in Uganda: Client Characteristics and Program Impact.

Science.gov (United States)

Linnemayr, Sebastian; Buzaalirwa, Lydia; Balya, James; Wagner, Glenn

HIV has disproportionately affected economically vulnerable populations. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy, successfully restores physical health but can be insufficient to achieve social and economic health. It may therefore be necessary to offer innovative economic support programs such as providing business training and microcredit tailored to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, microfinance institutions have shown reluctance to reach out to HIV-infected individuals, resulting in nongovernment and HIV care organizations providing these services. The authors investigate the baseline characteristics of a sample of medically stable clients in HIV care who are eligible for microcredit loans and evaluate their business and financial needs; the authors also analyze their repayment pattern and how their socioeconomic status changes after receipt of the program. The authors find that there is a significant unmet need for business capital for the sample under investigation, pointing toward the potentially beneficial role of providing microfinance and business training for clients in HIV care. HIV clients participating in the loans show high rates of repayment, and significant increases in (disposable) income, as well as profits and savings. The authors therefore encourage other HIV care providers to consider providing their clients with such loans.

16. Impacting Binational Health through Leadership Development: A Program Evaluation of the Leaders across Borders Program, 2010–2014

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Omar A. Contreras

2017-08-01

Full Text Available BackgroundWorkforce and leadership development is imperative for the advancement of public health along the U.S./Mexico border. The Leaders across borders (LaB program aims to train the public health and health-care workforce of the border region. The LaB is a 6-month intensive leadership development program, which offers training in various areas of public health. Program curriculum topics include: leadership, border health epidemiology, health diplomacy, border public policies, and conflict resolution.MethodsThis article describes the LaB program evaluation outcomes across four LaB cohort graduates between 2010 and 2014. LaB graduates received an invitation to participate via email in an online questionnaire. Eighty-five percent (n = 34 of evaluation participants indicated an improvement in the level of binationality since participating in the LaB program. Identified themes in the evaluation results included increased binational collaborations and partnerships across multidisciplinary organizations that work towards improving the health status of border communities. Approximately 93% (n = 37 of the LaB samples were interested in participating in future binational projects while 80% (n = 32 indicated interest in the proposal of other binational initiatives. Participants expressed feelings of gratitude from employers who supported their participation and successful completion of LaB.DiscussionPrograms such as LaB are important in providing professional development and education to a health-care workforce along the U.S./Mexico border that is dedicated to positively impacting the health outcomes of vulnerable populations residing in this region.

17. Impact of Bilingual Education Programs on Limited English Proficient Students and Their Peers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Daysal, N. Meltem; Chin, Aimee; Imberman, Scott

2013-01-01

Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district provides...... bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using this discontinuity as an instrument for district bilingual education provision, we find that providing bilingual education programs (relative to providing only English as a Second Language programs) does not significantly impact the standardized test...... scores of students with Spanish as their home language (comprised primarily of ever-LEP students). However, we find significant positive impacts on non-LEP students’ achievement, which indicates that education programs for LEP students have spillover effects to non-LEP students....

18. Impact of North Carolina's Early Childhood Programs and Policies on Educational Outcomes in Elementary School.

Science.gov (United States)

Dodge, Kenneth A; Bai, Yu; Ladd, Helen F; Muschkin, Clara G

2017-05-01

North Carolina's Smart Start and More at Four (MAF) early childhood programs were evaluated through the end of elementary school (age 11) by estimating the impact of state funding allocations to programs in each of 100 counties across 13 consecutive years on outcomes for all children in each county-year group (n = 1,004,571; 49% female; 61% non-Latinx White, 30% African American, 4% Latinx, 5% other). Student-level regression models with county and year fixed effects indicated significant positive impacts of each program on reading and math test scores and reductions in special education and grade retention in each grade. Effect sizes grew or held steady across years. Positive effects held for both high- and low-poverty families, suggesting spillover of effects to nonparticipating peers. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

19. Socioeconomic impact assessment in ex ante evaluations: a case study on the rural development programs of the European Union.

Science.gov (United States)

Vidueira, Pablo; Díaz-Puente, José M; Rivera, María

2014-08-01

Ex ante impact assessment has become a fundamental tool for effective program management, and thus, a compulsory task when establishing a new program in the European Union (EU). This article aims to analyze benefits from ex ante impact assessment, methodologies followed, and difficulties encountered. This is done through the case study on the rural development programs (RDPs) in the EU. Results regarding methodologies are then contrasted with the international context in order to provide solid insights to evaluators and program managing authorities facing ex ante impact assessment. All European RDPs from the period 2007 through 2013 (a total of 88) and their corresponding available ex ante evaluations (a total of 70) were analyzed focusing on the socioeconomic impact assessment. Only 46.6% of the regions provide quantified impact estimations on socioeconomic impacts in spite of it being a compulsory task demanded by the European Commission (EC). Recommended methods by the EC are mostly used, but there is a lack of mixed method approaches since qualitative methods are used in substitution of quantitative ones. Two main difficulties argued were the complexity of program impacts and the lack of needed program information. Qualitative approaches on their own have been found as not suitable for ex ante impact assessment, while quantitative approaches-such as microsimulation models-provide a good approximation to actual impacts. However, time and budgetary constraints make that quantitative and mixed methods should be mainly applied on the most relevant impacts for the program success. © The Author(s) 2014.

20. The impact of Fogarty International Center research training programs on public health policy and program development in Kenya and Uganda.

Science.gov (United States)

Bennett, Sara; Paina, Ligia; Ssengooba, Freddie; Waswa, Douglas; M'Imunya, James M

2013-08-21

The Fogarty International Center (FIC) has supported research capacity development for over twenty years. While the mission of FIC is supporting and facilitating global health research conducted by U.S. and international investigators, building partnerships between health research institutions in the U.S. and abroad, and training the next generation of scientists to address global health needs, research capacity may impact health policies and programs and therefore have positive impacts on public health. We conducted an exploratory analysis of how FIC research training investments affected public health policy and program development in Kenya and Uganda. We explored the long term impacts of all FIC supported research training programs using case studies, in Kenya and Uganda. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 53 respondents and 29 focus group discussion participants across the two countries. Qualitative methods were supplemented by structured surveys of trainees and document review, including a review of evidence cited in policy documents. In the primary focal areas of FIC grants, notably HIV/AIDS, there were numerous examples of work conducted by former FIC trainees that influenced national and global policies. Facilitators for this influence included the strong technical skills and scientific reputations of the trainees, and professional networks spanning research and policy communities. Barriers included the fact that trainees typically had not received training in research communication, relatively few policy makers had received scientific training, and institutional constraints that undermined alignment of research with policy needs. While FIC has not focused its programs on the goal of policy and program influence, its investments have affected global and national public health policies and practice. These influences have occurred primarily through strengthening research skills of scientists and developing strong in-country networks

1. IMPACT OF SRI ORGANIC AS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OF PT MEDCO E&P INDONESIA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lita Ayudia Fitriyani

2015-03-01

Full Text Available Indonesia is an agricultural country that has majority occupation as farmer. Unfortunately, farmers still become the biggest contributor to poverty in Indonesia around 62.25% in 2012. As a country that has a vision to become an independent country, Indonesia should be able to meet the welfare of its people, including farmers. This can be achieved if the cooperation between the government and the perpetrators of activities in Indonesia; such as natural resource companies that perform social responsibility programs as a contribution to society. One form of social responsibility is a community development program which is considered to be more useful. System of Rice Intensification or SRI Organic Organic is one of the community development programs that were developed to improve the welfare of farmers. The aim of this study were 1 to evaluate the impact of a given Organic SRI as a community development programs; 2 measuring the level of Organic SRI farmers' income; 3 Organic SRI analyze opportunities in the future as an independent and sustainable program. By doing a case study on community development programs conducted by PT Medco E & P Indonesia in the dusun parit 9, Banyuasin District, the authors analyze and evaluate the impact of using SEAGA to 20 respondents. The results of these studies are intended to provide input in order to make the community development program more effective in the future.Keywords: welfare, corporate social responsibility, community development, SRI organic, SEAGAABSTRAKIndonesia adalah negara agraris dimana petani merupakan mayoritas pekerjaan namun menjadi penyumbang kemiskinan terbesar di Indonesia sekitar 62,25% pada 2012.  Sebagai negara yang memiliki visi untuk menjadi negara mandiri, Indonesia harus mampu memenuhi kesejahteraan rakyatnya termasuk petani. Hal tersebut dapat tercapai jika adanya kerjasama antara pemerintah dan pelaku aktivitas di Indonesia; seperti perusahaan sumber daya alam yang melakukan

2. The impact of sexually transmissible infection programs in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia: a systematic review.

Science.gov (United States)

Guy, Rebecca; Ward, James S; Smith, Kirsty S; Su, Jiunn-Yih; Huang, Rae-Lin; Tangey, Annie; Skov, Steven; Rumbold, Alice; Silver, Bronwyn; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M

2012-07-01

To systematically review evaluations of the impact of sexually transmissible infection (STI) programs delivered by primary health care services in remote Aboriginal communities. PubMed, Google Scholar, InfoNet, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, conference proceedings and bulletins were searched to April 2011 using variations of the terms 'Aboriginal', 'programs' and 'STI'. The primary outcome of interest in the review was the change in bacterial STI infection prevalence in the target age group assessed through cross-sectional screening studies over a 5-year period or more. The characteristics of the primary health care service, STI programs and other clinical service outcomes were also described. Twelve reports described four distinct STI programs in remote communities and their impact on STI prevalence. In the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) lands of northern South Australia, there was a reduction in the age-adjusted chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence by 58% and 67%, respectively (1996-2003). In the Tiwi Islands of Northern Territory (NT), chlamydia and gonorrhoea positivity decreased by 94% and 34%, respectively (2002-2005). In the Ngaanyatjarra Lands of Western Australia, crude chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence decreased by 36% and 48%, respectively (2001-2005), and in the central Australian region of NT, there was no sustained decline in crude prevalence (2001-2005). In three of the four programs, there was some evidence that clinical best practice and well coordinated sexual health programs can reduce STI prevalence in remote Aboriginal communities.

3. The impact of an online disease management program on medical costs among health plan members.

Science.gov (United States)

Schwartz, Steven M; Day, Brian; Wildenhaus, Kevin; Silberman, Anna; Wang, Chun; Silberman, Jordan

2010-01-01

This study evaluated the economic impact of an online disease management program within a broader population health management strategy. A retrospective, quasi-experimental, cohort design evaluated program participants and a matched cohort of nonparticipants on 2003-2007 claims data in a mixed model. The study was conducted through Highmark Inc, Blue Cross Blue Shield, covering 4.8 million members in five regions of Pennsylvania. Overall, 413 online self-management program participants were compared with a matched cohort of 360 nonparticipants. The costs and claims data were measured per person per calendar year. Total payments were aggregated from inpatient, outpatient, professional services, and pharmacy payments. The costs of the online program were estimated on a per-participant basis. All dollars were adjusted to 2008 values. The online intervention, implemented in 2006, was a commercially available, tailored program for chronic condition self management, nested within the Blues on Call(SM) condition management strategy. General linear modeling (with covariate adjustment) was used. Data trends were also explored using second-order polynomial regressions. Health care costs per person per year were \$757 less than predicted for participants relative to matched nonparticipants, yielding a return on investment of \$9.89 for every dollar spent on the program. This online intervention showed a favorable and cost-effective impact on health care cost.

4. The impact of leadership training programs on physicians in academic medical centers: a systematic review.

Science.gov (United States)

Straus, Sharon E; Soobiah, Charlene; Levinson, Wendy

2013-05-01

To identify the impact of leadership training programs at academic medical centers (AMCs) on physicians' knowledge, skills, attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes. In 2011, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature, identifying relevant studies by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register), scanning reference lists, and consulting experts. They deemed eligible any qualitative or quantitative study reporting on the implementation and evaluation of a leadership program for physicians in AMCs. Two independent reviewers conducted the review, screening studies, abstracting data, and assessing quality. The authors initially identified 2,310 citations. After the screening process, they had 11 articles describing 10 studies. Three were controlled before-and-after studies, four were before-and-after case series, and three were cross-sectional surveys. The authors did not conduct a meta-analysis because of the methodological heterogeneity across studies. Although all studies were at substantial risk of bias, the highest-quality ones showed that leadership training programs affected participants' advancement in academic rank (48% versus 21%, P=.005) and hospital leadership position (30% versus 9%, P=.008) and that participants were more successful in publishing papers (3.5 per year versus 2.1 per year, Pleadership programs have modest effects on outcomes important to AMCs. Given AMCs' substantial investment in these programs, rigorous evaluation of their impact is essential. High-quality studies, including qualitative research, will allow the community to identify which programs are most effective.

5. Comparative assessment of the food purchase program and the national school feeding program's impact in Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil

OpenAIRE

Oliveira, Leandro Gomes de; Batalha, Mário Otávio; Pettan, Kleber Batista

2016-01-01

ABSTRACT: The Food Purchase Program (PAA) and the National School Feeding Program (PNAE) are the main trading programs of Brazil that promote a connection between the family farm and institutional markets. The case study portrayed in this article aimed to evaluate and compare the socioeconomic impacts generated by the PAA and PNAE among Ubá's family farmers in Minas Gerais. To do this, two tipes of questionnaires were applied to managers and farmers who participate in the programs and obtaine...

6. Osteopathic emergency medicine programs infrequently publish in high-impact emergency medicine journals.

Science.gov (United States)

Baskin, Sean M; Lin, Christina; Carlson, Jestin N

2014-11-01

Both the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) require core faculty to engage in scholarly work, including publication in peer-reviewed journals. With the ACGME/AOA merger, we sought to evaluate the frequency of publication in high-impact peer-reviewed EM journals from authors affiliated with osteopathic emergency medicine (EM) programs. We performed a retrospective literature review using the Journal Citation Report database and identified the top five journals in the category of 'Emergency Medicine' by their 2011 Impact Factor. We examined all publications from each journal for 2011. For each article we recorded article type, authors' names, position of authorship (first, senior or other), the author's degree and affiliated institution. We present the data in raw numbers and percentages. The 2011 EM journals with the highest impact factor were the following: Annals of Emergency Medicine, Resuscitation, Journal of Trauma, Injury, and Academic Emergency Medicine. Of the 9,298 authors published in these journals in 2011; 1,309 (15%) claimed affiliation with U.S.-based EM programs, of which 16 (1%) listed their affiliations with eight different osteopathic EM programs. The 16 authors claimed affiliation with 8 of 46 osteopathic EM programs (17%), while 1,301 authors claimed affiliation with 104 of 148 (70%) U.S.-based allopathic programs. Authors from osteopathic EM programs are under-represented in the top EM journals. With the pending ACGME/AOA merger, there is a significant opportunity for improvement in the rate of publication of osteopathic EM programs in top tier EM journals.

7. Impact of a community-based diabetes self-management program on key metabolic parameters

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Johnson C

2014-12-01

Full Text Available Objective: Characterize the impact of a pharmacist-led diabetes self-management program on three key metabolic parameters: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP among employee health program participants. Methods: A self-insured company in the Kansas City metropolitan area began offering a pharmacist-led diabetes self-management program to eligible company employees and their dependents in 2008. A retrospective pre-post analysis was conducted to determine if the program affected key metabolic parameters in participants by determining mean change after one year of participation. Results: Among 183 program participants, 65 participants met inclusion criteria. All three key metabolic parameters were significantly reduced from baseline to one year of program participation: HbA1c decreased from 8.1% to 7.3% (p=0.007; LDL-C decreased from 108.3 mg/dL to 96.4 mg/dL (p=0.009; and MAP decreased from 96.1 to 92.3 mm Hg (p=0.005. Conclusions: The pharmacist-led diabetes self-management program demonstrated significant reductions in HbA1c, LDL-C, and MAP from baseline to one year of program participation. Improvements were statistically significant and clinically relevant for each parameter. Previous studies indicate these reductions may cause reduced overall healthcare costs.

8. The Impact of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Education and Public Outreach Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Buxner, S.; Canipe, M.; Wenger, M.; Hsu, B.; Jones, A.; Hessen, K.

2014-07-01

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Education and Public Outreach Program includes Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) held at several sites throughout the U.S. and a large public engagement program, International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). Program evaluation has revealed that LWEs result in growth in participants' knowledge related to current lunar discoveries and exploration of the Moon. Teachers learn about misconceptions about the Moon and ways to teach about lunar science and exploration to address students' misconceptions. The LWEs also impact the teaching practices of some participants more broadly to incorporate inquiry and other teaching techniques modeled in the workshops. InOMN events are social experiences in which visitors reported the value of seeing their children learning new things, being moved by seeing beautiful and valuable objects, and gaining information and knowledge. Each program has met the goal of engaging participants in the excitement of lunar exploration.

9. The impact of industry/university consortia programs on space education

Science.gov (United States)

Page, John R.; Stone, Barbara A.

1993-01-01

The paper describes the industry/university consortia programs established by the United States and Australia and examines these programs from the viewpoint of their impact on space education in their respective countries. Particular attention is given to the aim and the nature of the three programs involved: the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDSs) (funded by NASA), which are currently involving about 250 companies and 88 universities as participants; the Space Industry Development Centers (SIDCs) (funded by the Australian Space Office): and the Cooperative Research Centers (CRCs) (funded by the Federal Government), which are not limited to the space area but are open to activities ranging from medical research to waste-water treatment. It is emphasized that, while the main aim of the CCDS, SIDC, and CRC programs is to develop space expertise, space education is a very significant byproduct of the activity of these agencies.

10. Impact of a two-generation early education program on parenting processes at age 18.

Science.gov (United States)

Bradley, Robert H; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Casey, Patrick H; Barrett, Kathleen

2010-08-01

The Infant Health and Development Program is a two-generation early education model designed to improve parenting competence and child well-being. As part of an 8-site randomized clinical trial involving low birthweight premature children, assessments of children and parents were gathered at the time of program completion (age 3), with follow-up at ages 5, 8, and 18. Two key parenting processes were assessed at age 18 based on theory stipulating the centrality of parenting to long-term development in children. Analyses based on 283 control group and 178 Infant Health and Development Program treatment group participants revealed that treatment group mothers scored higher on one, the provision of enriching experiences. Evidence of sustained impacts on parenting suggests that carefully structured two-generation early education programs may prove good investments for promoting competence and adaptive functioning in high-risk children.

11. The Impact of an Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE Program on the Professional Practice of Graduates

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ruth Folake Aluko

2009-09-01

Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of a distance education program offered by the University of Pretoria, South Africa, on the professional practice of teachers. A pilot study was conducted using a combination of surveys and focus group interviews. Findings reveal that the program was beneficial to graduates’ personal development, professional practice, schools, learners, and colleagues. Further, principals who participated in the study attested to the differences they observed between the graduates and other teachers who had not been exposed to such a program. Suggestions for improvements included the introduction of subjects taught at school as areas of specialization, involvement of school principals in the assessment of enrolled students, visits to schools by the organizers, and exposure of students to the practical opportunities offered by the program (with portfolios that could be a part of the assessment.

12. Does an action-based entrepreneurship education mean action heroes? - Impact assessing an action-based entrepreneurial venture creation program

OpenAIRE

Ansteensen, Morten Soliman

2015-01-01

Entrepreneurial venture creation programs (VCP) stand out from traditional entrepreneurial education programs with its high focus on action-based activity and learning through venture creation. The high demand for resources needed to operate VCPs is forcing program directors to frequently have to prove program relevance and impact to stakeholders. While researchers have done well on unveiling program obstacles and design, little research has been done on how students and graduates are affecte...

13. Leading by Success: Impact of a Clinical and Translational Research Infrastructure Program to Address Health Inequities.

Science.gov (United States)

Shiramizu, Bruce; Shambaugh, Vicki; Petrovich, Helen; Seto, Todd B; Ho, Tammy; Mokuau, Noreen; Hedges, Jerris R

2016-10-28

Building research infrastructure capacity to address clinical and translational gaps has been a focus of funding agencies and foundations. Clinical and Translational Sciences Awards, Research Centers in Minority Institutions Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Research (RCTR), and the Institutional Development Award Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Research funded by the US government to fund clinical translational research programs have existed for over a decade to address racial and ethnic health disparities across the USA. While the impact on the nation's health cannot be made in a short period, assessment of a program's impact could be a litmus test to gauge its effectiveness at the institution and communities. We report the success of a Pilot Project Program in the University of Hawaii RCTR Award in advancing careers of emerging investigators and community collaborators. Our findings demonstrated that the investment has a far-reaching impact on engagement with community-based research collaborators, career advancement of health disparity investigators, and favorable impacts on health policy.

14. Impact evaluation of the routine hepatitis B vaccination program of infants in China.

Science.gov (United States)

Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Dan Wu; Li, Pingping; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Chang, Fengshui; Li, Xiaohong; Hao, Mo

2018-01-27

To evaluate the impact of the routine hepatitis B vaccination program of infants in China. The incidence of new hepatitis B infection and coverage with three doses of the vaccines by age groups and provinces were derived from the National Network Direct Report System of Infectious Disease during 2004-10. Chi square test and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze differences in incidence according to vaccination coverage and the relationship between the coverage with three doses and the incidence in different provinces. The incidence of new infection was 8.96/100 000 among children with complete coverage (0-15 years old), which was significantly lower than that with partial or no coverage. Among 0-9-year-old children in 2010, the incidence of new infection was 6.36/100 000, which was significantly lower than 2004. Considering the impact of vaccination on cumulative incidence among 0-5-year-old children, a 2.2-fold greater incidence of new infection was observed in provinces with the lowest to the highest vaccination rate. The impact of the routine hepatitis B vaccination program of infants in China has become more apparent over time. Program implementation and regional disequilibrium should be payed attention to as well as the expanded program.

15. Measuring impact of JAMA Dermatology Practice Gaps section on training in US dermatology residency programs.

Science.gov (United States)

Britton, Kristina M; Stratman, Erik J

2013-07-01

JAMA Dermatology Practice Gaps commentaries are intended to aid in the interpretation of the literature to make it more practical and applicable to daily patient care. Practice Gaps commentaries have had an impact on physician clinical practice and dermatology residency curricula. To assess the impact of JAMA Dermatology Practice Gaps commentaries on dermatology residency training programs in the United States, including journal club discussions and local quality improvement activities. A web-based questionnaire of 17 questions was sent via e-mail to US dermatology residency program directors (PDs) in February 2012. Program director report of incorporating Practice Gaps themes and discussions into resident journal club activities, clinical practice, quality improvement activities, or research projects in the residency programs, as a result of a Practice Gaps commentary. Of the 114 surveys distributed to US dermatology residency PDs, 48 were completed (42% response rate). Sixty percent of PDs reported familiarity with the Practice Gaps section of JAMA Dermatology, and 56% discuss these commentaries during resident journal club activities. Quality improvement and research projects have been initiated as a result of Practice Gaps commentaries. Practice Gaps commentaries are discussed during most dermatology residency journal club activities. Practice Gaps have had an impact on physician practice and dermatology residency curricula and can serve as a tool for enhanced continuing medical education and quality improvement initiatives.

16. Ecological Impacts of the Space Shuttle Program at John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Science.gov (United States)

Hall, Carlton R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Drese, John H.; Scheidt, Doug A.; Lowers, Russ H.; Reyier, Eric A.; Holloway-Adkins, Karen G.; Oddy, Donna M.;

2014-01-01

The Space Shuttle Program was one of NASAs first major undertakings to fall under the environmental impact analysis and documentation requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Space Shuttle Program activities at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the associated Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) contributed directly and indirectly to both negative and positive ecological trends in the region through the long-term, stable expenditure of resources over the 40 year program life cycle. These expenditures provided support to regional growth and development in conjunction with other sources that altered land use patterns, eliminated and modified habitats, and contributed to cultural eutrophication of the Indian River Lagoon. At KSC, most Space Shuttle Program related actions were conducted in previously developed facilities and industrial areas with the exception of the construction of the shuttle landing facility (SLF) and the space station processing facility (SSPF). Launch and operations impacts were minimal as a result of the low annual launch rate. The majority of concerns identified during the NEPA process such as potential weather modification, acid rain off site, and local climate change did not occur. Launch impacts from deposition of HCl and particulates were assimilated as a result of the high buffering capacity of the system and low launch and loading rates. Metals deposition from exhaust deposition did not display acute impacts. Sub-lethal effects are being investigated as part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory process. Major positive Space Shuttle Program effects were derived from the adequate resources available at the Center to implement the numerous environmental laws and regulations designed to enhance the quality of the environment and minimize impacts from human activities. This included reduced discharges of domestic and industrial wastewater, creation of stormwater management

17. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Iná da Silva dos Santos

2009-02-01

18. Evaluating the environmental impacts of the energy system: The ENPEP (ENergy and Power Evaluation Program) approach

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hamilton, B.P.; Sapinski, P.F.; Cirillo, R.R.; Buehring, W.A.

1990-01-01

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), a PC-based energy planning package intended for energy/environmental analysis in developing countries. The IMPACTS module of ENPEP examines environmental implications of overall energy and electricity supply strategies that can be developed with other ENPEP modules, including ELECTRIC, the International Atomic Energy Agency's Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III). The paper presents the status and characteristics of a new IMPACTS module that is now under development at ANL. 3 figs.

19. Methodological challenges of evaluating the impact of the Global Environment Facility's biodiversity program.

Science.gov (United States)

Vaessen, Jos; Todd, David

2008-08-01

In this paper, we explore some of the methodological challenges that evaluators face in assessing the impacts of complex intervention strategies. We illustrate these challenges, using the specific example of an impact evaluation of one of the six focal areas of the Global Environment Facility; its biodiversity program. The discussion is structured around the concepts of attribution and aggregation, offering the reader a framework for reflection. Subsequently, the paper discusses how theory-based evaluation can provide a basis for addressing the attribution and aggregation challenges presented.

20. Impact of family remittances and the Prospera program on high school students in Choix, Sinaloa, Mexico

OpenAIRE

Pintor Sandoval, Renato; Peraza Noriega, Brianda Elena; Heredia Trasviña, Karen Olivia

2017-01-01

Objective: to establish the impact of family remittances from the United States and the "Prospera" welfare program for the high school student population in a community with high social exclusion and poverty in Sinaloa.Methodology: first, the population, economic and work activities in the community of Choix, Sinaloa were described. Then, the discussion on remittances and the beneficiary families of the Prospera program were characterized; finally, a survey was designed and applied to 114 hig...

1. Impact of a self-control promotion program on nursing students.

Science.gov (United States)

Grima-Ruiz de Angulo, Lidia

2017-06-01

To describe the characteristics of positive mental health in nursing students, and to determine the impact of a self-control promotion program. A quasi-experimental controlled trial including 72 second-year of Vitoria-Gasteiz University Nursing School. The lowest scores in every measurement were for the self-control factor (F3). There were no statistically significant differences in self-control (F3) between the groups. This program shows higher scores in inter-personal relationship skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

2. The Impacts of Theme-Based Language Instruction: A Case Study of an Advanced Chinese Intensive Program

OpenAIRE

Song Jiang

2017-01-01

Theme-based language teaching under Content-Based Instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes learning professional content along with language skills. This paper reports a case study on the impacts of a theme-based advanced Chinese intensive program in a university setting. It begins with a review of CBI and its theme-based approach and then discusses the program design, curriculum development, and instructional practice of the program. The impacts of the theme-based approach...

3. An Investigation of Principals and Assistant Principals in Pennsylvania and the Impact of Transitional Support Programs on Job Satisfaction

Science.gov (United States)

Bowman, W. David

2009-01-01

The primary purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the GROW program on the intrinsic, extrinsic, and the general job satisfaction of principals and assistant principals in Pennsylvania. The impact of the variables of year in position, age, gender, level of work, location of school, and present degree was examined; the impact of…

4. The Impact of Adult Degree-Completion Programs on the Organizational Climate of Christian Colleges and Universities

Science.gov (United States)

Giles, Pamela

2010-01-01

Leaders in Christian higher education are often unaware of how adult degree completion programs (ADCPs) impact a school's organizational behavior, and no research has examined employees' perceptions of its impact. This nonexperimental, descriptive study examined differences in employees' perceptions of the impact on organizational climate of the…

5. The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Cognitive Achievement: The "Bono de Desarrollo Humano" of Ecuador

Science.gov (United States)

Ponce, Juan; Bedi, Arjun S.

2010-01-01

Throughout Latin America, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs play an important role in social policy. These programs aim to influence the accumulation of human capital, as well as reduce poverty. In terms of educational outcomes, a number of impact evaluation studies have shown that such programs have led to an increase in school enrollment,…

6. Housing for the poor: Implementation and impact of Tu Casa program in Tijuana

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ana Elizabeth Jardón Hernández

2009-01-01

Full Text Available This study assesses the operation and some major results of most important federal housing program focus on households in poverty situation, with particular emphasis on their instrumentation process and impacts in Tijuana’s housing problem for poor families. The exam aims to analyses the design changes of the program that forced its transformation from Vivah to Tu Casa, and the operational difficulties for a proper implementation in an urban context, as well as its limited impact for solving popular housing needs. It also seeks to weigh the importance of government subsidies to acquire or improve housing, in their progressive modality, as an alternative for social segments excluded from any other public or private financing option.

7. Environmental auditing: Capabilities and management utility of recreation impact monitoring programs

Science.gov (United States)

Marion, J.L.

1995-01-01

A recreation impact monitoring system was developed and applied in 1984?1986 and in 1991 to all backcountry river-accessed campsites within Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Results suggest that actions implemented by park managers in response to problems identified by the initial survey were highly effective in reducing resource degradation caused by camping. In particular, the elimination of some designated campsites and installation of anchored firegrates reduced the total area of disturbance by 50%. Firegrate installation provided a focal point that increased the concentration of camping activities, allowing peripheral areas to recover. As suggested by predictive models, additional resource degradation caused by increased camping intensities is more than offset by improvements in the condition of areas where use is eliminated. The capabilities and management utility of recreation impact monitoring programs, illustrated by the Delaware Water Gap monitoring program, are also presented and discussed.

8. Public Policy Impact Assessment of the Special Program Uprooted: A Quantitative Application

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Francisco J. Pérez Torres

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The long internal conflict in Colombia has led to the forced displacement and poverty of a large segment of the population that has also been victim of acts of violation of human rights and has consequently suffered detriment in their living conditions. In response, Colombian authorities have implemented public policies based on special programs, whose general purpose is to reduce the impact of uprooting, to alleviate poverty, and to rebuild the social fabric of these populations. In this context, this research, using Propensity Score Matching methods, evaluates and measures the impact on vulnerable population living in displacement and extreme poverty in the cities of Neiva, Bucaramanga, Sincelejo, and Montelíbano, beneficiary of the Special Program Uprooted, which is funded by Social Action and the European Union in order to “reduce the extreme vulnerability of displaced population and host communities in Colombia.”

9. Knowing Is Not Half the Battle: Impacts of the National Health Screening Program in Korea

OpenAIRE

Kim, Hyuncheol Bryant; Lee, Suejin; Lim, Wilfredo

2017-01-01

Health screening provides information on disease risk and diagnosis, but whether this promotes health is unclear. We estimate the impacts of the National Health Screening Program in Korea for diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. In this setting, information on disease risk and prompting for a secondary examination vary at different biomarker thresholds. We find evidence for increased diabetes medication and weight loss around the high risk threshold for diabetes, where information is combin...

10. Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Military Deployed Setting: The Impact of an Aggressive Infection Control Program

Science.gov (United States)

2008-02-01

patients were clas- sified and treated for VAP if after 48 hours of mechanical ventilation they developed fever, leukocytosis, new or pro- gressive...medical conditions known at the time of admission. Median days of mechanical ventilation before onset of VAP was 5 (range, 2–11 days). Sixteen patients ... Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Military Deployed Setting: The Impact of an Aggressive Infection Control Program Michael L. Landrum, MD and

11. Technology programs and related policies - Impacts on communications satellite business ventures

Science.gov (United States)

Greenberg, J. S.

1985-01-01

The DOMSAT II stochastic communication satellite business venture financial planning simulation model is described. The specification of business scenarios and the results of several analyses are presented. In particular, the impacts of NASA on-orbit propulsion and power technology programs are described. The effects of insurance rates and self-insurance and of the use of the Space Shuttle and Ariane transportation systems on a typical fixed satellite service business venture are discussed.

12. Clinical impact of a home-based palliative care program: a hospice-private payer partnership.

Science.gov (United States)

Kerr, Christopher W; Tangeman, John C; Rudra, Carole B; Grant, Pei C; Luczkiewicz, Debra L; Mylotte, Kathleen M; Riemer, William D; Marien, Melanie J; Serehali, Amin M

2014-11-01

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hayley Dolman

2013-03-01

14. Longitudinal impact of the Cyber Friendly Schools program on adolescents' cyberbullying behavior.

Science.gov (United States)

Cross, Donna; Shaw, Thérèse; Hadwen, Kate; Cardoso, Patricia; Slee, Phillip; Roberts, Clare; Thomas, Laura; Barnes, Amy

2016-01-01

Cyberbullying is a major public health problem associated with serious mental, social, and academic consequences for young people. To date, few programs addressing cyberbullying have been developed and empirically tested. The Cyber Friendly Schools (CFS) group-randomized controlled trial measured the longitudinal impact of a whole-school online cyberbullying prevention and intervention program, developed in partnership with young people. Non-government secondary schools in Perth, Western Australia, (N = 35; 3,000+ students) were randomized to an intervention (n = 19) or usual practice control group (n = 16 schools). Students completed online questionnaires in 2010, 2011, and at 1-year follow-up in 2012, measuring their cyberbullying experiences during the previous school term. The intervention group received the program in Grades 8 and 9 (aged 13-14 years). Program effects were tested using two-part growth models. The program was associated with significantly greater declines in the odds of involvement in cyber-victimization and perpetration from pre- to the first post-test, but no other differences were evident between the study conditions. However, teachers implemented only one third of the program content. More work is needed to build teacher capacity and self-efficacy to effectively implement cyberbullying programs. Whole-school cyberbullying interventions implemented in conjunction with other bullying prevention programs may reduce cyber-victimization more than traditional school-based bullying prevention programs alone. Aggr. Behav. 42:166-180, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

15. Impact of financial incentives on behavior change program participation and risk reduction in worksite health promotion.

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Gingerich, Stefan B; Anderson, David R; Koland, Heidi

2012-01-01

To examine the impact of financial incentives on behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Retrospective cohort study conducted to observe the relationship between financial incentives and behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Large public- or private-sector employers. Twenty-four organizations (n = 511,060 eligible employees) that offered comprehensive worksite health promotion (WHP) programs. Financial incentives offered for completion of a behavior change program as part of a WHP program. Behavior change program registration and completion data were obtained from standard reports. Company-level risk change was calculated from the average per-person number of risks on baseline and follow-up health risk assessments. Incentive design was determined from questionnaires completed by WHP program managers. Average registration rates, program completion rates, and risk improvement rates were compared using t-tests for companies that did versus did not offer incentives. Comparisons were also made between companies with incentives of less than \$100 and those with incentives of \$100 or more. Correlations between incentive value and outcome variables were assessed using Pearson correlations. Companies that offered incentives had significantly higher health coaching completion rates than companies not offering an incentive (82.9% vs. 76.4%, respectively, p = .017) but there was no significant association with registration (p = .384) or risk improvement rates (p = .242). Incentive values were not significantly associated with risk improvement rates (p = .240). Offering incentives for completing behavior change programs may increase completion rates, but increased health improvement does not necessarily follow.

16. The impact of training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in Jordan.

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Al-Ali, Nahla Mansour; Al Faouri, Ibrahim; Al-Niarat, Tahany Fareed

2016-05-01

Nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence are still inadequately explored, and possess an impact in preventing, and managing the violent incidents and the quality of nursing care. Creating a demand for an effective intervention program to improve nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward workplace violence. To study the impact of the training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in a military hospital in Jordan. One group before-after design was employed. A stratified random sample of 100 nurses working in three shifts was recruited. Data were collected earlier and after the preparation program using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. "The Framework Guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector", was adopted in this work. The preparation sessions were for one day each week over five weeks. The post-test assessment was over five weeks using the same questionnaire. A total of 97 nurses completed the survey. The outcomes demonstrated the significant impact of the training program on nurses' attitudes towards workplace violence (t=6. 62, df=96, p=0.000). The prevalence of verbal abuse by patients and visitors was 63.9% and for physical abuse, 7.2% were from patients and 3.1% of visitors. Most violent incidents occurred during day duty and during delivering nursing care (40.2% and 32%, respectively). Major source of emotional support for abused nurses was from the nursing team (88.7%), while the legal support was from nursing management (48.5%). The study highlights a general concern among nursing staff about workplace violence. Confirming that violence prevention education for staff is a necessary step forward to deescalate the problem. A significant effect of the training program was evident in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

17. Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Riewer, S. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)); Spanner, G.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-08-01

The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration's retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and free ridership.'' The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

18. The impact of the NASA Administrator's Fellowship Program on fellows' career choices

Science.gov (United States)

Graham, Eva M.

Maintaining diversity in the technical workforce and in higher education has been identified as one way to increase the outreach, recruitment and retention of students and other faculty from underrepresented, underserved and minority populations, especially in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) courses of study and careers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Administrator's Fellowship Program (NAFP) is a professional development program targeting faculty at Minority Serving Institutions and NASA civil servant employees for a two year work-based professional development experience toward increasing the likelihood of retaining them in STEM careers and supporting the recruitment and retention of minority students in STEM courses of study. This evaluation links the activities of the fellowship program to the impact on fellows' career choices as a result of participation through a series of surveys and interviews. Fellows' personal and professional perceptions of themselves and colleagues' and administrators' beliefs about their professional capabilities as a result of selection and participation were also addressed as they related to career outcomes. The findings indicated that while there was no direct impact on fellows' choice of careers, the exposure, direction and focus offered through travel, mentoring, research and teaching had an impact their perceptions of their own capabilities and, their colleagues' and administrators' beliefs about them as professionals and researchers. The career outcomes reported were an increase in the number publications, promotions, change in career and an increased awareness of the culture of science and engineering.

19. A simulation-based resident-as-teacher program: The impact on teachers and learners.

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Miloslavsky, Eli M; Sargsyan, Zaven; Heath, Janae K; Kohn, Rachel; Alba, George A; Gordon, James A; Currier, Paul F

2015-12-01

Residency training is charged with improving resident teaching skills. Utilizing simulation in teacher training has unique advantages such as providing a controlled learning environment and opportunities for deliberate practice. We assessed the impact of a simulation-based resident-as-teacher (RaT) program. A RaT program was embedded in an existing 8-case simulation curriculum for 52 internal medicine (IM) interns. Residents participated in a workshop, then served as facilitators in the curriculum and received feedback from faculty. Residents' teaching and feed back skills were measured using a pre- and post-program self-assessment and post-session and post-curriculum evaluations by intern learners. Forty-one second- and third-year residents participated in the study August 2013 to October 2013 at a single center. Pre- and post-program teaching skills were assessed for 34 of 41 resident facilitators (83%) participating in 3.9 sessions on average. Partaking in the program led to improvements in resident facilitators' self-reported teaching and feedback skills across all domains. The most significant improvement was in teaching in a simulated environment (2.81 to 4.16, P model for the development of simulation curricula and RaT programs within IM residencies. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

20. Impact of International Collaborative Training Programs on Medical Students' Research Ability.

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Rezhake, Remila; Hu, Shang-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Qian; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Xue-Lian; Dominguez, Ayling Z; Qiao, You-Lin; Zhou, Cai-Hong; Zhao, Fang-Hui

2016-11-10

International collaborative training programs for graduate students are widespread, but studies on their educational impact are limited. As an advanced cancer institute in China, Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CHCAMS) attaches great importance to international exchanges and cooperation within graduate education. The Department of Epidemiology of CHCAMS has been involved in several existing international training programs and has also launched a short-term training program in cooperation with foreign universities and institutes from 2008. Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars and Fellows (FICRS-F) Program and the Fulbright-Fogarty Fellowship Program are the most typical examples of our practice in international cooperation on graduate education over these years. Our department has gained substantial experience in graduate-level international collaborative training, focused on cancer epidemiology. This paper is a brief introduction to the practice of different programs in our department and students' achievements during and after training. Moreover, we attempt to serve as a reference and help promote the training of graduate students pursuing careers in cancer research or global health by other universities or research institutes.

1. Using social impact borrowing to expand preschool through third grade programs in urban public schools.

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Temple, Judy A; Reynolds, Arthur J

Budget constraints and difficulty raising taxes limit school districts from expanding education programming even when research shows that additional expenditures would generate economic benefits that are greater than costs. Recently, coalitions of private investors, philanthropists, education practitioners, and government finance analysts have emerged to create opportunities to expand education services that promise high rates of social net benefits without raising taxes or reducing other expenditures. These collaborators have a strong interest in obtaining careful estimates of educational program effectiveness. We describe the use of social-impact borrowing to increase access to the Child-Parent Center preschool-through-third-grade intervention for at-risk students in the Chicago Public School District. The partners include the city, school district, investors, nonprofit organizations, and a university. The key to the feasibility of social-impact borrowing is the ability to document that early intervention can reduce the need for later special-education services. With the help of private investors and nonprofit organizations, it is possible for public school districts to finance services with funds from private sources and use future cost savings to repay this debt. We discuss how social-impact borrowing is being used in Chicago and in Salt Lake County as the nation's first two instances of using pay-for-performance social-impact borrowing to support early education.

2. Perceived impact of an interprofessional education program on community resilience: an exploratory study.

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Slack, Marion Kimball; McEwen, Marylyn Morris

2013-09-01

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived impact of an interprofessional education (IPE) program for health sciences students on two culturally diverse, underserved communities. A community resilience/capacity framework, consisting of catalysts (primarily the creation of awareness) and capital components: human (workforce development), social (networking and empowerment) and economic (volunteer labor and money spent by the program), provided the conceptual underpinnings for the study. Focus groups with stakeholders in two communities, one rural and one metropolitan, were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed by categorizing data according to each capital component. In addition to the concepts contained in the capacity framework a new category, informational capital (data specific to the community) emerged during the analysis. We suggest that by acting as a catalyst a community based interprofessional program can affect components of community resilience/capacity, primarily human, social, and informational capital. Using the community resilience/capacity framework facilitated exploration of the perceived impact of an educational program on one rural and one urban underserved community beyond assessing student outcomes or number of clients served.

3. Impact of an Interdisciplinary Food, Nutrition and Health Education Program for adolescent Brazilian volleyball players

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Natália Vilela Silva DANIEL

Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of an Interdisciplinary Food, Nutrition and Health Education Program on nutrition knowledge, intention to change eating behavior, and body dissatisfaction of adolescent volleyball players. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 female volleyball players from the juvenile category of the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, who participated in a program with eight monthly meetings (one discussion group followed by six educational activities and one final discussion group for evaluation. Results: Nutrition knowledge, body perception, intention to change eating behavior, eating attitudes and practices were investigated using questionnaires and discussion groups before and after the athletes' participation in ludic activities designed to address nutrition strategies for athletic performance and healthy eating, and how to deal with pressure for results and self-image. Nutrition knowledge improved from 57.0%±9.9 to 63.0%±11.8 (p=0.03 of correct answers. The mean body distortion score did not change (70.0±14.9 versus 76.5±22.4, p=0.235. Six athletes advanced in their intention to change eating behavior. Positive food practices were reported during the program and the identified discourses indicated the intention of changing the daily eating habits in the future. Conclusion: The program had a positive impact on nutrition knowledge and intention of changing eating behavior; however, for other issues, especially involving emotional aspects, further interventions should be planned.

4. The Economic Impact of Starting, Stopping, and Restarting an Antibiotic Stewardship Program: A 14-Year Experience

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John A. Bosso

2013-04-01

Full Text Available Regions Hospital started a multidisciplinary antibiotic stewardship program (ASP in 1998. The program effectively shut down from 2002–2004 as key personnel departed and was then restarted but without the dedicated pharmacist and infectious diseases physician. Purchasing data (in dollars or dollars/patient/day unadjusted for inflation served as a surrogate marker of antibiotic consumption. These data were reviewed monthly, quarterly, and yearly along with antibiotic susceptibility patterns on a semi-annual basis. Segmented regression analysis was use to compare restricted antibiotic purchases for performance periods of 1998–2001 (construction, 2002–2004 (de-construction, and 2005–2011 (reconstruction. After 4 years (1998–2001 of operation, a number of key participants of the ASP departed. For the following three years (2002–2004 the intensity and focus of the program floundered. This trend was averted when the program was revitalized in early 2005. The construction, deconstruction, and reconstruction of our ASP provided a unique opportunity to statistically examine the financial impact of our ASP or lack thereof in the same institution. We demonstrate a significant economic impact during ASP deconstruction and reconstruction.

5. Sustainable practice improvements: impact of the Comprehensive Advanced Palliative Care Education (CAPCE) program.

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Harris, Diane; Hillier, Loretta M; Keat, Nancy

2007-01-01

This paper describes an education program designed to improve palliative care practice through the development of workplace hospice palliative care resources (PCRs), and its impact on knowledge transfer and longer-term changes to clinical practice. Evaluation methods included pre- and post-program questionnaires, and a survey of learners' (n=301) perceptions of program learning strategies. Interviews (n=21) were conducted with a purposeful sample of PCRs and representatives from their work sites. Ratings of the sessions indicated that they were relevant to learners' clinical practice. At follow up, the majority of learners (83%) continued to serve as PCRs. Many positive effects were identified, including enhanced pain and symptom management, staff education, and development of care policies and guidelines. Management support, particularly the prioritization of palliative care and staff development, were factors facilitating sustained implementation. These findings highlight the importance of multimodal learning strategies and supportive work environments in the development of PCRs to enhance palliative care practice.

6. Measuring the Impact of Programs that Challenge the Public Stigma of Mental Illness

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Corrigan, Patrick W.; Shapiro, Jenessa R.

2010-01-01

Public stigma robs people with mental illnesses from rightful opportunities related to work and other important life goals. Advocates have developed anti-stigma programs meant to address the prejudice and discrimination associated with these conditions. Evidence is now needed to make sense of program impact; this paper looks at measurement issues related to stigma change. Community based participatory research is central to this research and includes the involvement of a diverse collection of stakeholders in all phases of evaluation. Investigators should be cautious about measures vis-à-vis social desirability effects and should directed by social validity of targeted audiences. Conceptual domains with some research support that correspond with assessments include behavior, penetration, psychological perspective, knowledge, and physiological/information processes. These issues are summarized as ten recommendations for evaluation of anti-stigma programs. PMID:20674114

7. Educating the Health Informatics Professional: The Impact of an Academic Program.

Science.gov (United States)

Whetton, Sue; Hazlitt, Cherie

2015-01-01

The successful implementation and utilisation of electronic health information systems is dependent on a highly knowledgeable and skilled workforce. In Australia there is a range of education and training opportunities that seeks to meet these workforce needs. This range of programs reflects both the multi-disciplinary characteristic of health informatics and its wide application within the healthcare environment. We need to discuss the role of each program or type of program in developing a skilled and knowledgeable workforce, and in expanding the knowledge base of the discipline. This paper contributes to such a discussion by describing a pilot study that focused specifically on the role/impact of the University of Tasmania academic health informatics program. The study comprised an anonymous on-line survey followed by a small number of interviews. The online survey included closed questions which gathered quantitative data about Quantitative data were analysed using appropriate numerical methods such as response counts and/or percentages. Open-ended questions were analysed using thematic analysis. Qualitative data indicated that course graduates reside in every state and territory, with the majority being employed by the various state health services. The majority of respondents had moved into health informatics professions or into senior positions in health informatics. Eighty percent attributed this directly to their participation in the course. Respondents indicated a strong socio-technical orientation in their approach to health informatics. The program appears to be having an impact on the health informatics workforce, particularly in promoting a strong socio-technical focus. Evaluation of health informatics programs would enable the development of a comprehensive and complementary network of offerings that would meet the diverse needs for health informatics professionals in the healthcare and academic environment.

8. Population-Level Impact of Ontario's Infant Rotavirus Immunization Program: Evidence of Direct and Indirect Effects.

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Sarah E Wilson

Full Text Available To evaluate the direct and indirect population impact of rotavirus (RV immunization on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE in Ontario before and after the publicly-funded RV immunization program.Administrative data was used to identify ED visits and hospitalizations for all Ontarians using ICD-10 codes. We used two outcome definitions: RV-specific AGE (RV-AGE and codes representing RV-, other viral and cause unspecified AGE ("overall AGE". The pre-program and public program periods were August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2011; and August 1, 2011 to March 31, 2013, respectively. A negative binominal regression model that included the effect of time was used to calculate rates and rate ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for RV-AGE and overall AGE between periods, after adjusting for age, seasonality and secular trends. Analyses were conducted for all ages combined and age stratified.Relative to the pre-program period, the adjusted RRs for RV-AGE and overall AGE hospitalizations in the public program period were 0.29 (95%CI: 0.22-0.39 and 0.68 (95%CI: 0.62-0.75, respectively. Significant reductions in RV-AGE hospitalizations were noted overall and for the following age bands: = 65 years (RR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.72-0.90. The program was associated with adjusted RRs of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.20-0.52 for RV-AGE ED visits and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96 for overall AGE ED visits.This large, population-based study provides evidence of the impact of RV vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE, including herd effects.

9. The Longitudinal Impact of NFL PLAY 60 Programming on Youth Aerobic Capacity and BMI.

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Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Russell, Daniel W; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma

2017-03-01

The NFL PLAY 60 campaign has actively promoted physical activity and healthy eating in youth through programs such as the PLAY 60 Challenge and Fuel Up to PLAY 60. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of NFL PLAY 60 programming on longitudinal trajectories of youth aerobic capacity and BMI. Data were from the NFL PLAY 60 FitnessGram Partnership Project, a large participatory research project designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among Kindergarten through 12th grade children and adolescents. The programming was led by teachers in school settings across 32 NFL franchise markets. A range of 50,000-100,000 students from 497 schools completed FitnessGram assessments annually starting in 2011 and continuing through 2015. The analysis was conducted in 2015. Adoption of NFL PLAY 60 programming was encouraged but not required and the program implementation was evaluated each year. The adoption was evaluated through self-reported annual survey. School assessments of aerobic capacity and BMI were evaluated using FitnessGram standards to calculate the percentage of students meeting the Healthy Fitness Zone for each test. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate the longitudinal trajectories. About 19% of schools were classified as programming schools. Annual improvements in aerobic capacity were significantly greater in schools that participated in the programs for both girls (3.0%, p<0.01) and boys (2.9%, p<0.01) compared with non-programming schools. The annual improvements in BMI Healthy Fitness Zone achievement were also higher in girls (1.3%, p<0.05) and in boys (1.2%, p<0.05) from schools that participated in the programs versus non-participating schools. Schools that implemented the programs for the entire 4-year period tended to have better improvements in aerobic capacity than schools enrolled for only 2 or 3 years (p<0.05). The results of these longitudinal analyses support the utility of the NFL PLAY 60 physical activity

10. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

2011-01-20

Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply

11. Space shuttle solid rocket booster recovery system definition. Volume 3: SRB water impact loads computer program, user's manual

Science.gov (United States)

1973-01-01

This user's manual describes the FORTRAN IV computer program developed to compute the total vertical load, normal concentrated pressure loads, and the center of pressure of typical SRB water impact slapdown pressure distributions specified in the baseline configuration. The program prepares the concentrated pressure load information in punched card format suitable for input to the STAGS computer program. In addition, the program prepares for STAGS input the inertia reacting loads to the slapdown pressure distributions.

12. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

Science.gov (United States)

Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

2016-01-01

Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach. The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

13. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Katharine Kripke

Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

14. Evaluating the Impact of Internships - Longitudinal Participant Tracking in the Soars Program

Science.gov (United States)

Haacker, R.; Sloan, V.

2014-12-01

While there is widespread agreement about the benefits of research internship experiences for students, long-term tracking of student progress beyond the summer experience is challenging. Coordinated tracking can effectively document program impact, inform programmatic improvement, and identifying gaps in the internship effort. Tracking can also strengthen diversity efforts and the retention of students from underrepresented groups. Continuous follow-up and guidance can only be provided to students if we know where they are, what they are doing and what they need in order to stay engaged in the field. The SOARS Program at the National Center for Atmospheric Research has supported undergraduate students for over 18 years to enter and succeed in graduate school. Over 85% of SOARS participants have transitioned to geoscience graduate programs or the STEM workforce. The SOARS mission is to broaden participation in the atmospheric and related sciences by engaging students from groups historically under-represented in science, including Black or African-American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic or Latino, female, first-generation college students, and students with disabilities. SOARS relies on proven intervention strategies such as multi-year research experiences, multifaceted mentoring, and a strong learning community. Fostering relationships developed during this time using a wider range of technologies and program longevity play important roles in tracking participants over time. This presentation will highlight significant program results and share the tracking and evaluation techniques utilized in SOARS.

15. Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles.

Science.gov (United States)

Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario

2016-01-01

This article presents results from an evaluation of the ConRed cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The ConRed program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. ConRed was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The ConRed program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

16. Short-term impact of a national dental education program on children's oral health and knowledge.

Science.gov (United States)

Biesbrock, Aaron R; Walters, Patricia A; Bartizek, Robert D

2004-01-01

The objective of this four-week, examiner-blind study was to determine the impact of an educational oral health program conducted within a Boys and Girls Club of America in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The educational program focused on the gingival health (gingivitis and plaque) of participating children who were between the ages of six and 15. The multi-week program taught the participants the basics of oral biology and disease, as well as proper oral health prevention, including oral hygiene, dietary modification, and the importance of visiting the dentist. A calibrated examiner measured whole mouth Löe-Silness Gingival Index (GI) and Turesky Modification of Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (PI) at baseline (immediately prior to the initiation of the educational program) and four weeks later. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the change from baseline for 90 subjects who were enrolled at baseline, participated in the educational program, and were examined four weeks later. In addition, subjects completed five questions at baseline and at four weeks to assess their oral health knowledge before and after exposure. Mean baseline GI score was 0.184, while the four-week mean GI score was reduced to 0.140. This represents a 24% reduction in GI score, with p children over a four-week period.

17. Impact of a Novel Cost-Saving Pharmacy Program on Pregabalin Use and Health Care Costs.

Science.gov (United States)

Martin, Carolyn; Odell, Kevin; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Bancroft, Tim; Halpern, Rachel; Sadosky, Alesia

2016-02-01

Pharmacy cost-saving programs often aim to reduce costs for members and payers by encouraging use of lower-tier or generic medications and lower-cost sales channels. In 2010, a national U.S. health plan began a novel pharmacy program directed at reducing pharmacy expenditures for targeted medications, including pregabalin. The program provided multiple options to avoid higher cost sharing: use mail order pharmacy or switch to a lower-cost alternative medication via mail order or retail. Members who did not choose any option eventually paid the full retail cost of pregabalin. To evaluate the impact of the pharmacy program on pregabalin and alternative medication use, health care costs, and health care utilization. This retrospective analysis of claims data included adult commercial health plan members with a retail claim for pregabalin in the first 13 months of the pharmacy program (identification [ID] period: February 1, 2010-February 28, 2011). Members whose benefit plan included the pharmacy program were assigned to the program cohort; all others were assigned to the nonprogram cohort. The program cohort index date was the first retail pregabalin claim during the ID period and after the program start; the nonprogram cohort index date was the first retail pregabalin claim during the ID period. All members were continuously enrolled for 12 months pre- and post-index and had at least 1 inpatient claim or ≥ 2 ambulatory visit claims for a pregabalin-indicated condition. Cohorts were propensity score matched (PSM) 1:1 with logistic regression on demographic and pre-index characteristics, including mail order and pregabalin use, comorbidity, health care costs, and health care utilization. Pregabalin, gabapentin and other alternative medication use, health care costs, and health care utilization were measured. The program cohort was also divided into 2 groups: members who changed to gabapentin post-index and those who did not. A difference-in-differences (Di

18. Impact of a Nationwide Training Program in Minimally Invasive Distal Pancreatectomy (LAELAPS).

Science.gov (United States)

de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A; Daams, Freek; van Dam, Ronald M; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; van Eijck, Casper H; Festen, Sebastiaan; Gerhards, Michael F; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; de Kleine, Ruben H; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J; Lips, Daan J; Luyer, Misha D; Molenaar, I Quintus; Patijn, Gijs A; Roos, Daphne; Scheepers, Joris J; van der Schelling, George P; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Vriens, Menno R; Wijsman, Jan H; Gouma, Dirk J; Busch, Olivier R; Hilal, Mohammed Abu; Besselink, Marc G

2016-11-01

To study the feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program in minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP). Superior outcomes of MIDP compared with open distal pancreatectomy have been reported. In the Netherlands (2005 to 2013) only 10% of distal pancreatectomies were in a minimally invasive fashion and 85% of surgeons welcomed MIDP training. The feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program is unknown. From 2014 to 2015, 32 pancreatic surgeons from 17 centers participated in a nationwide training program in MIDP, including detailed technique description, video training, and proctoring on-site. Outcomes of MIDP before training (2005-2013) were compared with outcomes after training (2014-2015). In total, 201 patients were included; 71 underwent MIDP in 9 years before training versus 130 in 22 months after training (7-fold increase, P < 0.001). The conversion rate (38% [n = 27] vs 8% [n = 11], P < 0.001) and blood loss were lower after training and more pancreatic adenocarcinomas were resected (7 [10%] vs 28 [22%], P = 0.03), with comparable R0-resection rates (4/7 [57%] vs 19/28 [68%], P = 0.67). Clavien-Dindo score ≥III complications (15 [21%] vs 19 [15%], P = 0.24) and pancreatic fistulas (20 [28%] vs 41 [32%], P = 0.62) were not significantly different. Length of hospital stay was shorter after training (9 [7-12] vs 7 [5-8] days, P < 0.001). Thirty-day mortality was 3% vs 0% (P = 0.12). A nationwide MIDP training program was feasible and followed by a steep increase in the use of MIDP, also in patients with pancreatic cancer, and decreased conversion rates. Future studies should determine whether such a training program is applicable in other settings.

19. Breaking the cycle of intergenerational abuse: the long-term impact of a residential care program.

Science.gov (United States)

Huefner, Jonathan C; Ringle, Jay L; Chmelka, M Beth; Ingram, Stephanie D

2007-02-01

The number of youth in residential care programs who have been abused is high. The relationship between childhood abuse victimization and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. This study compared the rates of IPV 16 years after individuals had participated in a long-term residential care program with individuals accepted to the program who did not participate. The IPV rates for these two groups were also compared to national normative data. Information on adult functional outcomes was obtained from former residential care and comparison youth via a confidential survey that was administered either by telephone or by mail. Analysis was limited to respondents who were currently married or involved in a marriage-like relationship (n=131; 92% male). The IPV rates for the sample were 9.3% for those who stayed in the residential program less than 18 months and 6.5% for those who stayed more than 18 months, neither of which were significantly different from the national norm of 8.4%. The IPV rate for the comparison group was 26.1%, which was significantly higher than the national norm. Regardless of length of program stay, respondents who were maltreated in childhood had a 14.5% IPV rate, which was significantly lower than the estimated 36-42% rate projected for individuals with similar backgrounds. We conclude that time spent in a treatment-oriented residential care program was associated with lower adult IPV rates. Specifically, the skills taught in a long-term, treatment-based residential program (e.g., healthy interpersonal relationships, self-government) may have a long-term beneficial impact for adolescents at high risk of adult IPV.

20. Estimating impacts of a breakfast in the classroom program on school outcomes.

Science.gov (United States)

Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Djang, Holly Carmichael; Halmo, Megan M; Dolan, Peter R; Economos, Christina D

2015-01-01

1. Community Impacts of International Service-Learning and Study Abroad: An Analysis of Focus Groups with Program Leaders

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Cynthia A. Wood

2012-04-01

Full Text Available The ethical practice of international service-learning requires participants and institutions to examine their potential impacts on vulnerable host communities. This study reports on a series of focus groups with leaders of short-term international service-learning and other study abroad programs. The results of these focus groups suggests that while program leaders do not generally take into account the potential impacts of their programs on local communities in the design or implementation of their programs, they are very open to considering ways to mitigate negative impacts and promote positive ones once the issue has been raised. Program leaders are also collectively able to generate many excellent and creative strategies for improving their programs with respect to effects on communities, and are enthusiastic about engaging in this dialogue. We conclude that more research as well as substantial institutional commitment to addressing the community impacts of international service-learning and other study abroad programs are necessary for positive change, including training and other support to program leaders. KEYWORDSinternational service-learning, community impacts, civic engagement, community partnerships

2. Impact of Years of Enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program on Depth of Rain Infiltration

Science.gov (United States)

Goebel, T.; Lascano, R. J.; Acosta-Martinez, V.

2014-12-01

The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a USDA program administered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) introduced in 1985 to reduce soil erosion by increasing vegetative cover of highly erodible land. The Texas High Plains (THP) leads the US with >890,000 ha enrolled in CRP. Potential benefits of the CRP include, e.g., increased infiltration of rainfall and organic matter, and better soil structure. However, impact of these benefits is not well characterized. Participation in the CRP is done via contracts (10-15 years in length) and since its inception land area of the THP enrolled in CRP has varied significantly allowing the evaluation of years of enrollment (age) on soil structure and impact on rain infiltration. This information is critical for land users to determine how long it is necessary to enroll their land in the CRP to improve soil structure and impact rain infiltration and increase the water holding capacity of the soil. Stable isotopes of water present a useful technique that is used in ecology and hydrology to study water movement through ecosystems and can be used to evaluate the depth of infiltration of rainwater under CRP management. We compared the infiltration depth of rain in land under CRP management to land under continuous dryland cotton with no irrigation. Two locations, in Terry and Lynn counties, were used for this study. The site in Terry County was enrolled in CRP for 25 years (1985) and 22 years (1992) in Lynn County.

3. Jatropha in Mexico: Environmental and Social Impacts of an Incipient Biofuel Program

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Margaret Skutsch

2011-12-01

Full Text Available Three case studies from Mexico are presented in which the impacts of the recent introduction of jatropha cultivation for biodiesel production are examined. In Chiapas and Michoacan, local social and environmental impacts were assessed using interviews with key informants and questionnaires directed at three groups of stakeholders: jatropha cultivators, farmers in the same areas who are not cultivating jatropha, and laborers on jatropha farms. Results show that the farmers are primarily motivated to participate by the subsidies offered in a government program in the first 2 years, rather than any proven economic benefit. Our farm budget study indicated that profits would be marginal for these farmers. However, no cases of land alienation were involved, and impacts on food security and deforestation are currently not significant. Employment opportunities for landless laborers have increased in areas where jatropha is now grown. The program is only in its third year currently, so these outcomes would need to be reexamined as it develops. In Yucatan, production is mainly in the hands of commercial companies, using estates formerly under low-intensity grazing and secondary forest. A carbon balance analysis indicated that there may be a significant loss of carbon stocks associated with jatropha plantation establishment on these estates. Depending on the maturity of the forest regrowth and the intensity of jatropha production, the carbon payback period varies from 2 to 14 years, although, in some scenarios, the carbon debt may never be recovered.

4. Impact of a program of physiotherapy and health education on the outcome of obstetric fistula surgery.

Science.gov (United States)

Castille, Yves-Jacques; Avocetien, Chiara; Zaongo, Dieudonné; Colas, Jean-Marie; Peabody, James O; Rochat, Charles-Henry

2014-01-01

Surgery is the only successful treatment for most obstetric fistulae. The present study measured the impact of a structured program of pre- and postoperative physiotherapy and health education on the outcome of surgery for obstetric fistula. We compared the postoperative outcomes of 2 consecutive groups of women with obstetric fistulae who were recruited and followed-up by 2 local nongovernmental organizations at a hospital in Tanguiéta, Benin. The first group of women (n=99) had fistula repair using standardized techniques. The second group (n=112) had a standardized surgical approach plus a structured program of pre- and postoperative health education and physiotherapy. The program had a significant positive impact on recovery in general and on urinary incontinence in particular. After physiotherapy, the odds of recovery were 2.72 times greater for women in the physiotherapy group than for control patients, and the probability of postoperative stress incontinence was considerably higher for patients in the control group than for those in the physiotherapy group (Peducation and physiotherapy by experienced nurses and physiotherapists improves the likelihood of a successful outcome after surgical repair of obstetric fistula. © 2013.

5. An impact assessment of the Child Growth, Development and Care Program in the Caribbean Region of Colombia

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Padilla, Alcides de J; Trujillo, Juan C

2015-01-01

This article aims to assess the impact of the Child Growth, Development and Care Program in the Caribbean region of Colombia by analyzing variables such as maternal childcare practices and indicators...

6. Budget Impact Analysis of a Pharmacist-Provided Transition of Care Program.

Science.gov (United States)

Ni, Weiyi; Colayco, Danielle; Hashimoto, Jonathan; Komoto, Kevin; Gowda, Chandrakala; Wearda, Bruce; McCombs, Jeffrey

2018-02-01

Postdischarge medication management services have been shown to reduce the incidence of medication-related problems during the transition from inpatient to outpatient care. A pharmacist-run transition of care (TOC) program has been developed to reduce the unplanned readmissions of a high-risk managed Medicaid population after hospitalization. To estimate the budget impact of adding an outpatient pharmacy-based TOC program to a medical benefit from the payer perspective. A budget impact analysis was conducted using a decision-tree model developed in Microsoft Excel. The effect on inpatient and total health care costs from the payer perspective was estimated for the 2-year period following initial hospital discharge. Inputs were based on a total plan population of 240,000 lives, with a high-risk population of 7.5%, of whom 37% were hospitalized and potentially qualified for TOC services, resulting in an eligible population of 6,660 patients. The TOC program was assumed to initially cover 30% of the eligible population, with expansion to 60% over the 2 years. We previously reported that this program reduced the risk of readmission by 32% within 6 months and saved the health plan \$2,139 per patient referred to the program, inclusive of program cost, compared with patients receiving usual discharge care. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the impact of uncertainty of model inputs on the results, with the cost of TOC services ranging from \$99 to \$2,000 per patient referred. The model showed that the TOC program was cost saving at over \$3 per member per month in the first 6 months, which translates to over \$25 million in total health care cost savings over 2 years. These results were primarily driven by the estimated reduction in inpatient costs associated with the program, which were estimated at \$20 million over the 2 years. Sensitivity analyses illustrated that within all the reasonable ranges of model input parameters, including the upper limit of TOC

7. Economic impact of dengue illness and the cost-effectiveness of future vaccination programs in Singapore.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Luis R Carrasco

2011-12-01

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue illness causes 50-100 million infections worldwide and threatens 2.5 billion people in the tropical and subtropical regions. Little is known about the disease burden and economic impact of dengue in higher resourced countries or the cost-effectiveness of potential dengue vaccines in such settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimate the direct and indirect costs of dengue from hospitalized and ambulatory cases in Singapore. We consider inter alia the impacts of dengue on the economy using the human-capital and the friction cost methods. Disease burden was estimated using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and the cost-effectiveness of a potential vaccine program was evaluated. The average economic impact of dengue illness in Singapore from 2000 to 2009 in constant 2010 US\$ ranged between \$0.85 billion and \$1.15 billion, of which control costs constitute 42%-59%. Using empirically derived disability weights, we estimated an annual average disease burden of 9-14 DALYs per 100 000 habitants, making it comparable to diseases such as hepatitis B or syphilis. The proportion of symptomatic dengue cases detected by the national surveillance system was estimated to be low, and to decrease with age. Under population projections by the United Nations, the price per dose threshold for which vaccines stop being more cost-effective than the current vector control program ranged from \$50 for mass vaccination requiring 3 doses and only conferring 10 years of immunity to \$300 for vaccination requiring 2 doses and conferring lifetime immunity. The thresholds for these vaccine programs to not be cost-effective for Singapore were \$100 and \$500 per dose respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue illness presents a serious economic and disease burden in Singapore. Dengue vaccines are expected to be cost-effective if reasonably low prices are adopted and will help to reduce the economic and disease burden of dengue in Singapore substantially.

8. The impact of teachers’ modifications of an evidenced-based HIV prevention intervention on program outcomes

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Poitier, Maxwell; Adderley, Richard; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette

2015-01-01

The degree to which evidence-based program outcomes are affected by modifications is a significant concern in the implementation of interventions. The ongoing national implementation of an evidence-based HIV prevention program targeting grade six students in The Bahamas [Focus on Youth in The Caribbean (FOYC)] offers an opportunity to explore factors associated with teachers’ modification of FOYC lessons and to examine the impact of types and degrees of modifications on student outcomes. Data were collected in 2012 from 155 teachers and 3646 students in 77 government elementary schools. Results indicate that teachers taught 16 of 30 core activities, 24.5 of 46 total activities and 4.7 of 8 sessions. Over one-half of the teachers made modifications to FOYC core activities; one-fourth of the teachers modified 25% or more core activities that they taught (heavily modified FOYC). Omitting core activities was the most common content modification, followed by lengthening FOYC lessons with reading, writing assignments or role-play games, shortening core activities or adding educational videos. Mixed-effects modeling revealed that omitting core activities had negative impacts on all four student outcomes. Shortening core activities and adding videos into lessons had negative impacts on HIV/AIDS knowledge and/or intention to use condom protection. Heavy modifications (>1/4 core activities) were associated with diminished program effectiveness. Heavy modifications and omitting or shortening core activities were negatively related to teachers’ level of implementation. We conclude that poorer student outcomes were associated with heavy modifications. PMID:26297497

9. Impact of a guaranteed annual income program on Canadian seniors' physical, mental and functional health.

Science.gov (United States)

McIntyre, Lynn; Kwok, Cynthia; Emery, J C Herbert; Dutton, Daniel J

2016-08-15

Although there is widespread recognition that poverty is a key determinant of health, there has been less research on the impact of poverty reduction on health. Recent calls for a guaranteed annual income (GAI), defined as regular income provided to citizens by the state regardless of work status, raise questions about the impact, relative to the costs, of such a population health intervention. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Canadian seniors' benefits (Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement, analogous to a GAI program) on the self-reported health, self-reported mental health and functional health of age-eligible, low-income seniors. We used the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey to examine unattached adult respondents with an annual income of \$20,000 or less, stratified by seniors' benefits/GAI eligibility (55-64 years: ineligible; 65-74 years: eligible). Using regression, we assessed self-reported health, selfreported mental health and functional health as measured by the Health Utilities Index, as outcomes for seniors' benefits/GAI-eligible and -ineligible groups. We found that individuals age-eligible for seniors' benefits/GAI had better health outcomes than recipients of conditional income assistance programs. Eligibility for seniors' benefits/GAI after age 64 was associated with better self-reported health, functional health and self-reported mental health outcomes, and these effects were observed until age 74. Using seniors' benefits as an example, a GAI leads to significantly better mental health and improved health overall. These improvements are likely to yield reduced health care costs, which may offset the costs associated with program expansion.

10. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Englin, J E; Gygi, K F

1992-03-01

This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs.

11. Sustainable Tourism and Eradication of Poverty (Step: impact assessment of a tourism development program in Brazil

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marcelo Cortes Neri

2012-06-01

Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the social impacts of the Tourism Development Program (Prodetur in the northeastern town of Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil. The method used is based on the difference in difference technique applied to the 1991 and 2000 Census microdata. The results suggest social advances following from poverty relief based on income - where the benefits are distributed, generally, in a relatively equal manner between the native and migrant population. There is a relative deterioration in the sanitary situation, which consists of a very serious problem in the mid- and long-term, whose costs are mostly borne by the native population. Therefore, maintaining the natural capital is the main aspect that distances Porto Seguro’s tourism supply from the concept of sustainability. The article also relies on difference in difference estimators to assess the impacts of local public policies related to the sector.

12. Impact of the FY 2009 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Cort, Katherine A.

2008-06-17

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose input-output model called ImSET is used in this study of 14 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2009 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2008. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2025. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 258,000 jobs and about \$3.7 billion in earned income (2007\$) by the year 2025.

13. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

N/A

2000-05-24

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

14. Exploring the Impact of a Library Summer Reading Literacy Coach Program on Teen Personal Skills Development

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lina Zhao

2012-09-01

Full Text Available In the Summer of 2011 The Free Library of Philadelphia (FLP hired 90 teenagers into its six-week Summer Reading Literacy Coach Program (SRLCP as Teen Literacy Coaches (TLCs. Data was collected at Time 1, Time 2 and Time 3. The two study hypotheses were: (1 there will be a significant improvement in TLCs personal development skills from Time 1 to Time 3 and (2 demographic data and program specific skills measured at Time 2 will account for significant variance in each Time 3 personal development skill beyond the Time 1 personal development skills. We did not find support for H1 but did find support for H2. Specific to H2 we found that team-related and higher education interest each had a significant positive impact (p

15. Environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities. A MITE Program evaluation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NONE

1995-10-01

This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFs) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. The MITE Program is sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency to foster the demonstration and development of innovative technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This project was also funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Material recovery facilities are increasingly being used as one option for managing a significant portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The owners and operators of these facilities employ a combination of manual and mechanical techniques to separate and sort the recyclable fraction of MSW and to transport the separated materials to recycling facilities.

16. Impacts of the Boston prekindergarten program on the school readiness of young children with special needs.

Science.gov (United States)

Weiland, Christina

2016-11-01

Theory and empirical work suggest inclusion preschool improves the school readiness of young children with special needs, but only 2 studies of the model have used rigorous designs that could identify causality. The present study examined the impacts of the Boston Public prekindergarten program-which combined proven language, literacy, and mathematics curricula with coaching-on the language, literacy, mathematics, executive function, and emotional skills of young children with special needs (N = 242). Children with special needs benefitted from the program in all examined domains. Effects were on par with or surpassed those of their typically developing peers. Results are discussed in the context of their relevance for policy, practice, and theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

17. The Financial Impact of a Multidisciplinary Preoperative Risk Stratification Program for Joint Arthroplasty.

Science.gov (United States)

Duplantier, Neil; Briski, David; Ochsner, John Lockwood; Meyer, Mark; Stanga, Daryl; Chimento, George F

2015-09-01

This study's purpose was to assess the impact of a preoperative risk stratification program on joint arthroplasty outcomes at a single institution. We hypothesized that by using a standardized preoperative risk stratification center we would see better outcomes and decreased costs. The triage cohort (T) included 1498 patients assessed at a standardized risk stratification center, and the non-triage cohort (NT) included 1100 patients who did not utilize the center. The T cohort had significantly higher ASA classification (Prisk stratification center can contribute to decreased LOS, increased reimbursement and help prevent complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

18. INMETRO products analysis program: impact on quality of the brazilian industry

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marcos André Borges

2008-07-01

Full Text Available The main objective is to proceed a detailed analysis of the Products Analysis Program of Inmetro, evaluating its contribution to the suppliers of products and services. The relevance of this program - a governmental initiative financed with public resources that relates several sectors of the society – as a factor of incentive to the competitiveness of the national industry, can be evidenced by the research of the impact generated by this activity, translated in improvement actions to the analyzed products and services that aim at the correction of eventual non-conformity to the criteria set in standards and technical regulations related to health and safety. Several sectors in industry have been benefited with the creation or revision of standards, implementation of industry quality programs, voluntary or mandatory conformity assessment programs, and others. The consequences include, beyond the protection of the consumers, the increase of national industry competitiveness and domestic market strength, and the warranty of loyal competition between the suppliers. Key-words: Product Analysis, Quality, Inmetro.

19. Improving outcomes of transported newborns in Panama: impact of a nationwide neonatal provider education program.

Science.gov (United States)

Spector, J M; Villanueva, H Solano; Brito, M E; Sosa, P Gallardo

2009-07-01

To determine whether national distribution of a neonatal provider education program (the S.T.A.B.L.E. Program) positively impacts the health of ill newborns that require transport in Panama. The investigation used a prospective, pre- and postintervention study design with a double pretest. The 10 birthing centers in Panama that routinely transport the greatest number of newborns received the education program intervention. Primary outcomes were body temperature and serum glucose level on arrival at the referral facility. Length of stay and mortality were evaluated as secondary outcomes. Variation in outcome indicators was compared for 7 months before and after the intervention. Data from all live newborns transported from outlying birthing center study sites during the study dates were included in the investigation. A total of 136 and 146 newborns were transported during the observation and postintervention periods, respectively. Significantly more patients in the postintervention group had temperatures within the normal range (56% in postintervention group vs 34% in observation group; P<0.01). No statistical difference was observed in serum glucose levels, length of stay or mortality. Distribution of a neonatal provider educational program was associated with improved thermal management of transported newborns in Panama. Further study will help to confirm this association and determine the extent to which these findings are generalizable to other resource-constrained settings.

20. The Erika oil spill impact on land vegetation : main results of a five year monitoring program

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poncet, F. [Cedre, Brest (France); Ragot, R. [Conservatoir Botanique National de Brest, Brest (France); Tintilier, F. [Biotope, Bouguenais (France)

2007-07-01

An extensive environmental impact assessment was initiated by the French Ministry of the Environment following a spill of 20,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil that occurred in December 1999 when the tanker Erica broke and sank off the coast of Brittany. The spill affected 400 km of coastline. Before the oil reached the shore, it had been drifting and weathering at sea for 12 days under harsh sea conditions, resulting in oil fragmentation and scattering. The oil then reached lichen communities and coastal plants of the splash zone on rocky shores, dune vegetation and salt marshes. The oil was composed of 90 per cent heavy distillation residue and 10 per cent light fraction. The type of oil is significant, since weathered crude oils are considered to be less toxic to marsh grass than lighter more penetrating oils. A large scale, 2.5 year clean-up operation was conducted under the POLMAR French national organization. Vegetation clean-up was undertaken depending on the degree of oiling, sensitivity of plant species or natural habitats. A 5 year monitoring program was also launched to determine the impact on vegetation and contamination of the plant tissues by aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program established 175 permanent quadrats on all types of affected vegetation communities and followed a phyto-sociological method. It was determined that adequate removal of the bulk oil resulted in minimal impact on heavily oiled vegetation. Although there was light to moderate short and medium term damages, the composition of vegetation and cover did not evolve significantly in most quadrats monitored. There was a long-term impact on slow growing communities such as lichen, and grey dunes. Residual oil was still observed up to 2005. The adverse effects were linked to coating rather than to toxic effects. Fixed dunes, aerohaline grass and heath communities were found to be more vulnerable and have not yet recovered to pre-spill state. 15 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

1. Impact of an Integrated Antibiotic Allergy Testing Program on Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Multicenter Evaluation.

Science.gov (United States)

Trubiano, Jason A; Thursky, Karin A; Stewardson, Andrew J; Urbancic, Karen; Worth, Leon J; Jackson, Cheryl; Stevenson, Wendy; Sutherland, Michael; Slavin, Monica A; Grayson, M Lindsay; Phillips, Elizabeth J

2017-07-01

Despite the high prevalence of patient-reported antibiotic allergy (so-called antibiotic allergy labels [AALs]) and their impact on antibiotic prescribing, incorporation of antibiotic allergy testing (AAT) into antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs (AAT-AMS) is not widespread. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an AAT-AMS program on AAL prevalence, antibiotic usage, and appropriateness of prescribing. AAT-AMS was implemented at two large Australian hospitals during a 14-month period beginning May 2015. Baseline demographics, AAL history, age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index, infection history, and antibiotic usage for 12 months prior to testing (pre-AAT-AMS) and 3 months following testing (post-AAT-AMS) were recorded for each participant. Study outcomes included the proportion of patients who were "de-labeled" of their AAL, spectrum of antibiotic courses pre- and post-AAT-AMS, and antibiotic appropriateness (using standard definitions). From the 118 antibiotic allergy-tested patients, 226 AALs were reported (mean, 1.91/patient), with 53.6% involving 1 or more penicillin class drug. AAT-AMS allowed AAL de-labeling in 98 (83%) patients-56% (55/98) with all AALs removed. Post-AAT, prescribing of narrow-spectrum penicillins was more likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-5.42), as was narrow-spectrum β-lactams (aOR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.98-6.33), and appropriate antibiotics (aOR, 12.27; 95% CI, 5.00-30.09); and less likely for restricted antibiotics (aOR, 0.16; 95% CI, .09-.29), after adjusting for indication, Charlson comorbidity index, and care setting. An integrated AAT-AMS program was effective in both de-labeling of AALs and promotion of improved antibiotic usage and appropriateness, supporting the routine incorporation of AAT into AMS programs.

2. Preparing Teacher Leaders: Perceptions of the Impact of a Cohort-Based, Job Embedded, Blended Teacher Leadership Program

Science.gov (United States)

Ross, Dorene; Adams, Alyson; Bondy, Elizabeth; Dana, Nancy; Dodman, Stephanie; Swain, Colleen

2011-01-01

This qualitative study was designed to examine teachers' and principals' perceptions of the impact of a graduate program designed to prepare teacher leaders. Impact was investigated through interviews with 20 graduates and 6 principals. Using Mezirow's concept of transformational learning, the study documents perceived transformation of teachers'…

3. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases

NARCIS (Netherlands)

S.P. Krotneva (Stanimira P.); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); M. Noma (Mounkaila); H.G.M. Zouré (Honorat G.); L. Bakoné (Lalle); U.V. Amazigo (Uche); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); W.A. Stolk (Wilma)

2015-01-01

textabstractSince its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other

4. Long-Term Impacts of a Faculty Development Program for the Internationalization of Curriculum in Higher Education

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Urban, Emily; Navarro, Maria; Borron, Abigail

2017-01-01

Faculty development programs for internationalization of the curriculum in higher education are often evaluated for short- and medium-term outcomes, but more long-term assessments are needed to determine impact. This study examined the long-term (6 years) impacts on faculty from colleges of agriculture after participating in a one-year…

5. 76 FR 27363 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Impact Evaluation of the YouthBuild Program...

Science.gov (United States)

2011-05-11

...-income communities: available housing, and youth education, employment and criminal behavior. The program... from school and work, be incarcerated, be unmarried, and have children outside of marriage. The... impacts on employment, earnings, and job characteristics? What are YouthBuild's impacts on crime and...

6. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

Science.gov (United States)

2010-07-01

... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. C Appendix C to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program...

7. Clinical Trial of Second Step Middle School Program: Impact on Bullying, Cyberbullying, Homophobic Teasing, and Sexual Harassment Perpetration

Science.gov (United States)

Espelage, Dorothy L.; Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Polanin, Joshua R.

2015-01-01

Social-emotional learning programs are increasingly being implemented in U.S. schools to address a wide range of problematic behaviors (e.g., bullying, delinquency) and to promote academic success. The current study examined the direct and indirect impact of the Second Step Middle School Program (Committee for Children, 2008) on bullying,…

8. Developing Community Leaders: An Impact Assessment of Ohio's Community Leadership Programs. Ohio State University Extension 1993-1995.

Science.gov (United States)

Earnest, Garee W.; And Others

A descriptive exploratory study examined what impact community leadership development programs in Ohio had on leadership program participants' leadership skills. Data were gathered using multiple methods: face-to-face interviews, focus group interviews, and pre- and postassessments of leadership practices. The self-report questionnaire used was…

9. Pharmacist Web-Based Training Program on Medication Use in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Impact on Knowledge, Skills, and Satisfaction

Science.gov (United States)

Legris, Marie-eve; Seguin, Noemie Charbonneau; Desforges, Katherine; Sauve, Patricia; Lord, Anne; Bell, Robert; Berbiche, Djamal; Desrochers, Jean-Francois; Lemieux, Jean-Philippe; Morin-Belanger, Claudia; Paradis, Francois Ste-Marie; Lalonde, Lyne

2011-01-01

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are multimorbid elderly at high risk of drug-related problems. A Web-based training program was developed based on a list of significant drug-related problems in CKD patients requiring a pharmaceutical intervention. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of the program on community…

10. Assessing the Impact of the McNair Program on Students at a Public Liberal Arts University.

Science.gov (United States)

Ishiyama, John T.; Hopkins, Valerie M.

2001-01-01

Assessed the impact of the Ronald E. McNair Post-baccalaureate Achievement Program at Truman State University in Missouri on first-generation, low-income (FGLI) students in comparison to a control group. Found that FGLI program participants are far more successful than non-McNair FGLI students, even when controlling for academic ability and…

11. Determining the Impact of a Summer Bridge Program on Academic Success for First-Year College Students

Science.gov (United States)

Medina, Mary Christine

2016-01-01

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a summer bridge program geared toward first-year students at a large public university located in the Southeastern United States. The research question guiding this study was, "Does participation in a summer bridge program increase academic success for first-year college students?"…

12. The health economic impact of disease management programs for COPD: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis

NARCIS (Netherlands)

M.R.S. Boland (Melinde); A. Tsiachristas (Apostolos); A.L. Kruis (Annemarije); N.H. Chavannes (Nicolas); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

2013-01-01

markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: There is insufficient evidence of the cost-effectiveness of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Disease Management (COPD-DM) programs. The aim of this review is to evaluate the economic impact of COPD-DM programs and investigate the relation

13. Application of IMPLAN to Extension Programs: Economic Impacts of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension SNAP-Ed Spending

Science.gov (United States)

Kerna, Ashley; Frisvold, George; Jacobs, Laurel; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Houtkooper, Linda; Misner, Scottie

2015-01-01

Many Extension programs are turning to the input-output software IMPLAN to demonstrate economic impacts. IMPLAN is a powerful tool that can be used to estimate the total economic activity associated with an industry, event, or policy. One possible application, therefore, is to use program spending data to estimate the economic effects of…

14. The Impact of an Urban Universal Public Prekindergarten Program on Children's Early Numeracy, Language, Literacy, and Executive Function Outcomes

Science.gov (United States)

Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

2011-01-01

The authors add to and extend the emerging evidence base of the effects of public preschool programs on child school readiness. Using a quasi-experimental, Regression Discontinuity (RD) design, they estimate the impacts of a universal preschool program on children's early numeracy, language, literacy, and executive function skills, both for the…

15. Experimental Impacts of a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile on Preschool Classroom Quality and Child Outcomes

Science.gov (United States)

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

2015-01-01

We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…

16. Do They Make a Difference? The Impact of English Language Programs on Second Language Students in Canadian Universities

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Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying; Zumbo, Bruno D.

2014-01-01

Few studies have investigated the impact of English language programs on second language (L2) students studying in Canadian universities (Cheng & Fox, 2008; Fox, 2005, 2009). This article reports on questionnaire responses of 641 L2 students studying in 36 English language programs in 26 Canadian universities. The researchers identified…

17. A Review of Quality Measures for Assessing the Impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Hospitals

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mary Richard Akpan

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR has led to calls for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP to control antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Key strategies include prospective audit with feedback and intervention, and formulary restriction and preauthorization. Education, guidelines, clinical pathways, de-escalation, and intravenous to oral conversion are also part of some programs. Impact and quality of ASP can be assessed using process or outcome measures. Outcome measures are categorized as microbiological, patient or financial outcomes. The objective of this review was to provide an overview of quality measures for assessing ASP and the reported impact of ASP in peer-reviewed studies, focusing particularly on patient outcomes. A literature search of papers published in English between 1990 and June 2015 was conducted in five databases using a combination of search terms. Primary studies of any design were included. A total of 63 studies were included in this review. Four studies defined quality metrics for evaluating ASP. Twenty-one studies assessed the impact of ASP on antimicrobial utilization and cost, 25 studies evaluated impact on resistance patterns and/or rate of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI. Thirteen studies assessed impact on patient outcomes including mortality, length of stay (LOS and readmission rates. Six of these 13 studies reported non-significant difference in mortality between pre- and post-ASP intervention, and five reported reductions in mortality rate. On LOS, six studies reported shorter LOS post intervention; a significant reduction was reported in one of these studies. Of note, this latter study reported significantly (p < 0.001 higher unplanned readmissions related to infections post-ASP. Patient outcomes need to be a key component of ASP evaluation. The choice of metrics is influenced by data and resource availability. Controlling for confounders must be considered in the design of

18. How Do School-Based Prevention Programs Impact Teachers? Findings from a Randomized Trial of an Integrated Classroom Management and Social-Emotional Program.

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Domitrovich, Celene E; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Berg, Juliette K; Pas, Elise T; Becker, Kimberly D; Musci, Rashelle; Embry, Dennis D; Ialongo, Nicholas

2016-04-01

A number of classroom-based interventions have been developed to improve social and behavioral outcomes for students, yet few studies have examined how these programs impact the teachers who are implementing them. Impacts on teachers may affect students and therefore also serve as an important proximal outcome to examine. The current study draws upon data from a school-based randomized controlled trial testing the impact of two prevention programs. In one intervention condition, teachers were trained in the classroom behavior management program, PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG). In a second intervention condition, teachers were trained to use an integrated program, referred to as PATHS to PAX, of the PAX GBG and a social and emotional learning curriculum called Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS©). This study aimed to determine whether both interventions positively impacted teachers, with a particular interest in the teachers' own beliefs and perceptions regarding self-efficacy, burnout, and social-emotional competence. The sample included 350 K-5 teachers across 27 schools (18 schools randomized to intervention, 9 to control). Multilevel latent growth curve analyses indicated that the PATHS to PAX condition generally demonstrated the most benefits to teachers, relative to both the control and PAX GBG conditions. These findings suggest that school-based preventive interventions can have a positive impact on teachers' beliefs and perceptions, particularly when the program includes a social-emotional component. Several possible mechanisms might account for the added benefit to teachers. Additional research is needed to better understand how these programs impact teachers, as well as students.

19. Perceived Impact of a Longitudinal Leadership Program for All Pharmacy Students

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Jane R. Mort

2014-01-01

20. The Impact of Prematriculation Admission Characteristics on Graduation Rates in an Accelerated Doctor of Pharmacy Program

Science.gov (United States)

Morin, Anna K.

2015-01-01

1. Impact of Physical Activity Intervention Programs on Self-Efficacy in Youths: A Systematic Review

Science.gov (United States)

Cataldo, Rosa; John, Janice; Chandran, Latha; Pati, Susmita; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

2013-01-01

Lack of physical activity has contributed to the nation's childhood obesity crisis, but the impact of physical activity on self-efficacy as a mediator of behavior change has not been examined. This systematic review (SR) describes the published evidence related to the impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy among youths. From January 2000 to June 2011, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were used to identify publications from PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) approach guided this SR articles selection and evaluation process. Of the 102 publications screened, 10 original studies matched the SR inclusion criteria. The types of physical activity interventions and self-efficacy assessments for these 10 studies were diverse. Of the 10 included articles, 6 articles identified an improvement in post-self-efficacy assessments compared to baseline and 4 showed no effect. In conclusion, physical activity intervention programs may improve self-efficacy in youths. A standardized approach to classify and measure self-efficacy is required. Further research is needed to quantify the association of self-efficacy ratings after completing physical activity interventions with objective health improvements, such as weight loss. PMID:24555151

2. The Impact of Prematriculation Admission Characteristics on Graduation Rates in an Accelerated Doctor of Pharmacy Program.

Science.gov (United States)

Steinberg, Michael; Morin, Anna K

2015-10-25

3. Impact of Connecticut legislation incentivizing elimination of unhealthy competitive foods on National School Lunch Program participation.

Science.gov (United States)

Long, Michael W; Luedicke, Joerg; Dorsey, Marice; Fiore, Susan S; Henderson, Kathryn E

2013-07-01

We analyzed the impact of Connecticut legislation incentivizing voluntary school district-level elimination of unhealthy competitive foods on National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation. We analyzed data on free, reduced, and paid participation in the NSLP from 904 schools within 154 Connecticut school districts from the 2004-2005 to the 2009-2010 school year, resulting in 5064 observations of annual school-level meal participation. We used multilevel regression modeling techniques to estimate the impact of the state competitive food legislation on the count of NSLP lunches served per student in each school. Overall, the state statute was associated with an increase in school lunch participation. We observed increases between 7% and 23% for middle- and high-school meal programs, and a slight decrease of 2.5% for the elementary school free meal eligibility category, leading to an estimated revenue increase of roughly \$30 000 for an average school district per school year. This study provides support for national implementation of proposed rigorous competitive food standards that can improve the health of students while supporting local school district finances.

4. Impact of a Workplace Health Promotion Program on Employees' Blood Pressure in a Public University.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

J Y Eng

Full Text Available Workplace health promotion is important in the prevention of non-communicable diseases among employees. Previous workplace health programs have shown benefits such as lowered disease prevalence, reduced medical costs and improved productivity. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a 6-year workplace health promotion program on employees' blood pressure in a public university.In this prospective cohort study, we included 1,365 employees enrolled in the university's workplace health promotion program, a program conducted since 2008 and using data from the 2008-2013 follow-up period. Participants were permanent employees aged 35 years and above, with at least one follow up measurements and no change in antihypertensive medication during the study period. Baseline socio-demographic information was collected using a questionnaire while anthropometry measurements and resting blood pressure were collected during annual health screening. Changes in blood pressure over time were analyzed using a linear mixed model.The systolic blood pressure in the hypertension subgroup decreased 2.36 mmHg per year (p<0.0001. There was also significant improvement in systolic blood pressure among the participants who were at risk of hypertension (-0.75 mmHg, p<0.001. The diastolic blood pressure among the hypertensive and at risk subgroups improved 1.76 mmHg/year (p<0.001 and 0.56 mmHg/year (p<0.001, respectively. However, there was no change in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure among participants in the healthy subgroup over the 6-year period.This study shows that continuing participation in workplace health promotion program has the potential to improve blood pressure levels among employees.

5. A method to measure the impact of primary care programs targeted to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes.

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Luther, Stephen L; Studnicki, James; Kromrey, Jeffrey; Lomando-Frakes, Kathleen; Grant, Pauline; Finley, Gabrielle C

2003-01-01

A retrospective population-based study was designed to test the impact on selected health outcomes of community-based primary care programs targeting racial and ethnic minorities. Zip codes were coded as either "high" or "low" access to targeted primary care programs to create the independent variable of interest. Outcome measures were chosen to represent unique dimensions of primary care. Generalized linear models were developed to compare rates for the outcome measures among blacks in high- and low-access areas. This study provides a useful approach that could be used to evaluate the impact of such programs in other communities.

6. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

Science.gov (United States)

Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

2017-09-01

Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

7. Police officer perceptions of the impact of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs.

Science.gov (United States)

Bonfine, Natalie; Ritter, Christian; Munetz, Mark R

2014-01-01

The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program is an approach for law enforcement officers to safely response to individuals who are experiencing a mental health crisis. Research must identify the components of CIT that are instrumental to the overall effectiveness of the program. For instance, recent studies report that CIT may have a transformative effect on officers' attitudes by increasing exposure to and familiarity with mental illness. This study explores this possibility further by examining 57 CIT officers' experiences with mental illness and attitudes about CIT. Specifically, we assessed how personal and professional exposure to mental illness associates with officers' perceptions about CIT generally, as well as with opinions about the officers' confidence in their abilities and the perceived effectiveness of the police department in responding to individuals in mental health crisis. Our findings indicate that CIT is rated very positively by officers. We found that officers' attitudes about the impact of CIT on improving overall safety, accessibility of services, officer skills and techniques, and the preparedness of officers to handle calls involving persons with mental illness are positively associated with officers' confidence in their abilities or with officers' perceptions of overall departmental effectiveness. There is further evidence that personal contact with individuals with mental illness affects the relationship between attitudes that CIT impacts overall safety and perceived departmental effectiveness. The results of this exploratory study underscore the importance of CIT officers' perceptions of key elements of CIT and the role of exposure to mental illness in examining program effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

8. Impact of a diabetic foot care education program on lower limb amputation rate

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Abdullah M Al-Wahbi

2010-10-01

Full Text Available Abdullah M Al-WahbiDepartment of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City and King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyahd, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetic foot complications are a leading cause of lower extremity amputation. With the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Arab world, specifically in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the rate of amputation will rise significantly. A diabetic foot care program was implemented at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2002. The program was directed at health care staff and patients to increase their awareness about diabetic foot care and prevention of complications. The purpose of this study was to perform a primary evaluation of the program’s impact on the rate of lower extremity amputation due to diabetic foot complications.Method: This pilot study was the first analysis of the diabetic foot care program and examined two groups of participants for comparison, ie, a “before” group having had diabetic foot ulcers managed between 1983, when the hospital was first established, and 2002 when the program began and an “after group” having had foot ulcers managed between 2002 and 2004, in the program’s initial phase. A total of 41 charts were randomly chosen retrospectively. A data sheet containing age, gender, medical data, and the presentation, management, and outcome of diabetic foot cases was used for the analysis.Results: The before group contained 20 patients (17 males and the after group contained 21 patients (16 males. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to age and comorbidities. The rate of amputation was 70% in the before group and 61.9% in the after group. There was a decrease in the percentage of toe amputation in the after group and an increase in the percentage of below-knee amputation in the before group. However, these changes were not significant.Conclusion: The program, although evaluated at an early

9. School feeding programs in developing countries: impacts on children's health and educational outcomes.

Science.gov (United States)

Jomaa, Lamis H; McDonnell, Elaine; Probart, Claudia

2011-02-01

School feeding programs (SFPs) are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and transfer income to families. The present review explores the impact of SFPs on nutritional, health, and educational outcomes of school-aged children in developing countries. Peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews published in the past 20 years were identified and screened for inclusion. Analysis of the articles revealed relatively consistent positive effects of school feeding in its different modalities on energy intake, micronutrient status, school enrollment, and attendance of the children participating in SFPs compared to non-participants. However, the positive impact of school feeding on growth, cognition, and academic achievement of school-aged children receiving SFPs compared to non-school-fed children was less conclusive. This review identifies research gaps and challenges that need to be addressed in the design and implementation of SFPs and calls for theory-based impact evaluations to strengthen the scientific evidence behind designing, funding, and implementing SFPs. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

10. Assessing the impact of microfinance programming on children: an evaluation from post-tsunami Aceh.

Science.gov (United States)

Stark, Lindsay; Kassim, Nafessa; Sparling, Thalia; Buscher, Dale; Yu, Gary; Boothby, Neil

2015-04-01

This paper presents an evaluation of the long-term impact of microfinance programmes on Acehnese children during the post-tsunami recovery. The study, conducted from June to August 2010, examined the impact of microfinance programming six years after the tsunami. The sample consisted of 185 microfinance participants, with a comparison group of 192 individuals who did not participate in microfinance programmes. All respondents were parents, interviewed through a structured survey. The study used four child protection indicators-diet, health, childcare and education-in contrast to traditional repayment rate indicators. The primary results were insignificant with respect to all four child protection indicators, suggesting that, with respect to these indicators, there was no long-term difference between the impact of microfinance on beneficiaries' children and non-beneficiaries' children. These findings signify a need for microfinance actors to move beyond traditional indicators of economic success to evaluate the social changes microfinance programmes are presumed to effect. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

11. Climate and health impacts of clean cookstove implementation programs in Africa

Science.gov (United States)

Lacey, F.; Marais, E. A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Coffey, E.; Muvandimwe, D.; Hannigan, M.; Henze, D. K.

2016-12-01

In Africa, 77% of the population (646 million people in 2010) use solid fuels as the main cooking source. These cooking methods are often inefficient and result in significant burdens to both climate and human health, particularly for women and children. In order to fully understand the impacts of clean cookstove implementation programs, a better understanding of the background concentrations of aerosols, aerosol precursors, and ozone precursors are needed, along with improved information on the changes in emissions from transitions to newer technologies. Through the use of the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, we have calculated species-specific climate and health sensitivities using a range of African emissions estimates including EDGAR-HTAP and a more recent improved emissions inventory, DICE-Africa. These sensitivities account for the spatial heterogeneity of emissions with respect to their impacts and allow for efficient estimation of the impacts of various clean cookstove implementation emissions scenarios that are based on laboratory and field measurements of emissions factors, along with realistic adoption and usage rates from field surveys. The resulting estimates of premature deaths and global surface temperature change are then aggregated to the national scale in order to provide policy makers with improved information regarding the implementation of clean cookstoves throughout continental Africa.

12. Impact of a Community Dental Access Program on Emergency Dental Admissions in Rural Maryland.

Science.gov (United States)

Rowland, Sandi; Leider, Jonathon P; Davidson, Clare; Brady, Joanne; Knudson, Alana

2016-12-01

To characterize the expansion of a community dental access program (CDP) in rural Maryland providing urgent dental care to low-income individuals, as well as the CDP's impact on dental-related visits to a regional emergency department (ED). We used de-identified CDP and ED claims data to construct a data set of weekly counts of CDP visits and dental-related ED visits among Maryland adults. A time series model examined the association over time between visits to the CDP and ED visits for fiscal years (FYs) 2011 through 2015. The CDP served approximately 1600 unique clients across 2700 visits during FYs 2011 through 2015. The model suggested that if the CDP had not provided services during that time period, about 670 more dental-related visits to the ED would have occurred, resulting in \$215 000 more in charges. Effective ED dental diversion programs can result in substantial cost savings to taxpayers, and more appropriate and cost-effective care for the patient. Community dental access programs may be a viable way to patch the dental safety net in rural communities while holistic solutions are developed.

13. A randomized trial of the Hawaii SunSmart program's impact on outdoor recreation staff.

Science.gov (United States)

Glanz, K; Maddock, J E; Lew, R A; Murakami-Akatsuka, L

2001-06-01

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and one of the most preventable. Prevention programs for children at outdoor recreation sites may influence not only the youth, but the staff, or caregivers, as well. By teaching children about sun protection, staff may also change their sun protection behaviors. We report on the impact of a childhood skin cancer prevention program (SunSmart) on staff at outdoor recreation sites where a child-focused intervention was conducted. The intervention included staff training, on-site activities delivered by staff, distribution of sunscreen, and the promotion of sun-safe environments. It was hypothesized that by teaching children about sun protection, staff would change their sun protection behaviors. A randomized trial at 14 recreation sites (n = 176 staff) in Hawaii tested the efficacy of education only, and education plus environmental changes, compared with a control condition. Results showed significant positive changes in knowledge, sun protection habits, norms, and sun protection policies. The education plus environment group was not superior to education alone. Changes in staff behavior and attitudes are important for their own health, as positive role models, and for the dissemination of skin cancer control programs.

14. ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT FARMER FIELD SCHOOL PROGRAM ON CORN PRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

I Ketut Kariyasa

2014-10-01

Full Text Available Domestic supply of corn in Indonesia has not been able to meet demand satisfactorily due to demand rising faster than supply. Therefore, Indonesia has been continuously importing corn about of 10% of the total demand. To address this problem, the Indonesian government started to implement the Farmer Field School of Integrated Crop Management (ICM-FFS program on corn production since 2009. This study aimed to assess the impact of ICM-FFS on corn productivity, comparative and competitive advantages to produce corn as well as farmer’s income. The study found that ICM-FFS program could increase corn productivity by 30.95% of non ICM-FFS farms, of which 27.94% contributed by the difference in input use, while only 3.01% contributed by technological change. ICM-FFS farms were able to increase farmer’s income by 71.03% and social welfare by 94.69% compared to non ICMFFS farms. Through this program, Indonesia had higher comparative advantage in producing corn as an import substitute. The provision of competitive input and output markets, enhanced technical assistance to improve corn productivity and quality, and increasing attention on corn ICM-FFS development could be considered as policy directions to improve the next implementation strategies of corn production in Indonesia.

15. HIV testing in correctional agencies and community treatment programs: the impact of internal organizational structure.

Science.gov (United States)

Oser, Carrie B; Tindall, Michele Staton; Leukefeld, Carl G

2007-04-01

This study compares the provision of HIV testing in a nationally representative sample of correctional agencies and community-based substance abuse treatment programs and identifies the internal organizational-level correlates of HIV testing in both organizations. Data are derived from the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies' National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey. Using an organizational diffusion theoretical framework [Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: The Free Press], the impact of Centralization of Power, Complexity, Formalization, Interconnectedness, Organizational Resources, and Organizational Size on HIV testing was examined in correctional agencies and treatment programs. Although there were no significant differences in the provision of HIV testing among correctional agencies (49%) and treatment programs (50%), the internal organizational-level correlates were more predictive of HIV testing in correctional agencies. Specifically, all dimensions, with the exception of Formalization, were related to the provision of HIV testing in correctional agencies. Implications for correctional agencies and community treatment to adopt HIV testing are discussed.

16. Program plan for performing social impact assessment: a case study of coal development in the Powder River region

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Curry, M.; Greene, M.

1976-06-01

A program plan for conducting a social impact assessment for the Powder River Basin has been developed to provide guidelines for a comprehensive document; one that identifies the impacts as they are perceived by the affected communities and indicates how such information may best be used to manage adverse impacts. We have attempted to give a comprehensive overview of existing studies, resources, and descriptions of the potential methodologies that may be used in carrying out the impact assessment and in developing management strategies. Also, we briefly outlined the steps that should be included in the social impact assessment process. This outline and a flow diagram of the steps involved are a concise description of the suggested program plan.

17. Examining the impact of a distance education MPH program: a one-year follow-up survey of graduates.

Science.gov (United States)

Davis, Mary V; Sollecito, William A; Shay, Saundra; Williamson, William

2004-01-01

18. The Economic Impact of Productive Safety Net Program on Poverty: Microeconometrics Analysis, Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia

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Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

2014-08-01

Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the impact of productive safety net program on poverty using primary data from randomly selected 600 households in central zone of Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia. Propensity Score Matching and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke were used to evaluate impact of the program and poverty, respectively. The paper revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on consumption, livestock holdings, and productive assets. Moreover, impact of the program on total consumption expenditure per adult equivalent was found to be positive and significant. Using total poverty line, poverty rate was lowest among program participants (30.33% than non-participants (31.1%. Highest poverty rate was found among households headed by women (38.42% while households headed by men (23.1%. The study also revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on poverty reduction and protecting productive assets. Finally, it was recommended that female headed program participants based programs should be provided to help boost their agricultural output and reduce endemic poverty.

19. UNAM Scientific Drilling Program of Chicxulub Impact Structure-Evidence for a 300 kilometer crater diameter

Science.gov (United States)

Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Marin, L.; Trejo-Garcia, A.

As part of the UNAM drilling program at the Chicxulub structure, two 700 m deep continuously cored boreholes were completed between April and July, 1995. The Peto UNAM-6 and Tekax UNAM-7 drilling sites are ˜150 km and 125 km, respectively, SSE of Chicxulub Puerto, near the crater's center. Core samples from both sites show a sequence of post-crater carbonates on top of a thick impact breccia pile covering the disturbed Mesozoic platform rocks. At UNAM-7, two impact breccia units were encountered: (1) an upper breccia, mean magnetic susceptibility is high (˜55 × 10-6 SI units), indicating a large component of silicate basement has been incorporated into this breccia, and (2) an evaporite-rich, low susceptibility impact breccia similar in character to the evaporite-rich breccias observed at the PEMEX drill sites further out. The upper breccia was encountered at ˜226 m below the surface and is ˜125 m thick; the lower breccia is immediately subjacent and is >240 m thick. This two-breccia sequence is typical of the suevite-Bunte breccia sequence found within other well preserved impact craters. The suevitic upper unit is not present at UNAM-6. Instead, a >240 m thick evaporite-rich breccia unit, similar to the lower breccia at UNAM-7, was encountered at a depth of ˜280 m. The absence of an upper breccia equivalent at UNAM-6 suggests some portion of the breccia sequence has been removed by erosion. This is consistent with interpretations that place the high-standing crater rim at 130-150 km from the center. Consequently, the stratigraphic observations and magnetic susceptibiity records on the upper and lower breccias (depth and thickness) support a ˜300 km diameter crater model.

20. Resource Contingency Program - Oregon : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hermiston Power Project.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1995-09-01

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. In 1990, to cover the outer range of potential load growth with new resources, BPA embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP). Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later, if and when it is needed. The decision to acquire any of these option energy projects to fulfill statutory supply obligations will be influenced by Federal system load growth, the outcome of BPA`s Business Plan, required operational changes in Columbia-Snake River Hydroelectric facilities, and the loss of major generating resources. In September 1993, three option development agreements were signed with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop, Washington, and near Hermiston, Oregon. Together these three projects could supply BPA with 1,090 average megawatts (aMW) of power. Under these agreements, sponsors are obtaining permits and conducting project design work, and BPA is completing this EIS process. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on these three proposed gas-fired combustion turbine projects and held public scoping meetings in October 1993 at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. The impacts of the Chehalis and Satsop projects located in Washington State will be covered in one EIS document, while the impacts of the Hermiston project located in Oregon are covered in this final EIS document. It is BPA`s intent to continue to base the analysis of impacts on the assumption that all three projects may be constructed at some point in the future.

1. Assessing the impact of micronutrient intervention programs implemented under special circumstances--meeting report.

Science.gov (United States)

de Pee, Saskia; Spiegel, Paul; Kraemer, Klaus; Wilkinson, Caroline; Bilukha, Oleg; Seal, Andrew; Macias, Kathy; Oman, Allison; Fall, Ahmed Baba; Yip, Ray; West, Keith; Zlotkin, Stanley; Bloem, Martin W

2011-09-01

The World Food Programme and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees organized a meeting of experts to discuss evaluation of micronutrient interventions under special circumstances, such as emergency and refugee situations. Multimicronutrient interventions for groups with higher needs may include home fortification products for young children or supplements for pregnant and lactating women. The choice of preparation should be guided by target group needs, evidence of efficacy of a product or its compounds, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness. Different designs can be used to assess whether an intervention has the desired impact. First, program implementation and adherence must be ascertained. Then, impact on micronutrient status can be assessed, but design options are often limited by logistic challenges, available budget, security issues, and ethical and practical issues regarding nonintervention or placebo groups. Under these conditions, a plausibility design using pre- and postintervention cross-sectional surveys, a prospective cohort study, or a step-wedge design, which enrolls groups as they start receiving the intervention, should be considered. Post hoc comparison of groups with different adherence levels may also be useful. Hemoglobin is often selected as an impact indicator because it is easily measured and tends to respond to change in micronutrient status, especially iron. However, it is not a very specific indicator of micronutrient status, because it is also influenced by inflammation, parasitic infestation, physiological status (age, pregnancy), altitude, and disorders such as thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Given the constraints described above, replicability of impact in different contexts is key to the validation of micronutrient interventions.

2. NASA International Year of Astronomy 2009 Programs: Impacts and Future Plans (Invited)

Science.gov (United States)

Hasan, H.; Smith, D.; Stockman, S. A.

2009-12-01

The opportunity offered by the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 to increase the exposure of the public and students to NASA discoveries in astronomy resulted in several innovative programs which have reached audiences far and wide. Some examples of the impact of these programs and building on the success of these programs beyond 2009 will be discussed in this talk. The spectacular success of the traveling exhibit of NASA images to public libraries around the country prompted NASA to extend it to include more libraries. As a part of the IYA Cornerstone project From Earth To The Universe, NASA images were displayed at non-traditional sites such as airports, parks, and music festivals, exposing them to an audience which would otherwise have been unaware of them. The NASA IYA Student Ambassadors engaged undergraduate and graduate students throughout the U.S. in outreach programs they created to spread NASA astronomy to their local communities. NASA’s Afterschool Universe provided IYA training to community-based organizations, while pre-launch teacher workshops associated with the Kepler and WISE missions were designed to engage educators in the science of these missions. IYA activities have been associated with several missions launched this year. These include the Hubble Servicing Mission 4, Kepler, Herschel/Planck, LCROSS. NASA’sIYA website and Go Observe! feature remain popular. The associated IYA Discovery Guides and Observing with NASA MicroObservatory activities have guided the public and students to perform their own observations of the night sky and to interpret them. NASA intends to work with its Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOF) to develop a strategy to take forward the best of its IYA2009 plans forward so as to build on the momentum generated by IYA2009 and continue to keep the public and students engaged in the scientific exploration of the universe.

3. Impact of home-delivered meal programs on diet and nutrition among older adults: a review.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhu, Huichen; An, Ruopeng

2013-04-01

Poor diet quality and insufficient nutrient intake is of particular concern among older adults. The Older Americans Act of 1965 authorizes home-delivered meal services to homebound individuals aged 60 years and older. The purpose of this study was to review scientific evidence on the impact of home-delivered meal services on diet and nutrition among recipients. Keyword and reference searches were conducted in Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria included: study design (randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, pre-post studies, or cross-sectional studies); main outcome (food and nutrient intakes); population (home-delivered meal program participants); country (US); language (articles written in English); and article type (peer-reviewed publications or theses). Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, including two randomized controlled trial studies (from the same intervention), one cohort study, two pre-post studies, and three cross-sectional studies. All but two studies found home-delivered meal programs to significantly improve diet quality, increase nutrient intakes, and reduce food insecurity and nutritional risk among participants. Other beneficial outcomes include increased socialization opportunities, improvement in dietary adherence, and higher quality of life. Home-delivered meal programs improve diet quality and increase nutrient intakes among participants. These programs are also aligned with the federal cost-containment policy to rebalance long-term care away from nursing homes to home- and community-based services by helping older adults maintain independence and remain in their homes and communities as their health and functioning decline. © The Author(s) 2014.

4. Impact of the Bienestar School-Based Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Program on Fasting Capillary Glucose Levels

Science.gov (United States)

Treviño, Roberto P.; Yin, Zenong; Hernandez, Arthur; Hale, Daniel E.; Garcia, Oralia A.; Mobley, Connie

2005-01-01

Objective To evaluate the impact of a school-based diabetes mellitus prevention program on low-income fourth-grade Mexican American children. Design A randomized controlled trial with 13 intervention and 14 control schools. Setting Elementary schools in inner-city neighborhoods in San Antonio, Tex. Participants Eighty percent of participants were Mexican American and 94% were from economically disadvantaged households. Baseline and follow-up measures were collected from 1419 (713 intervention and 706 control) and 1221 (619 intervention and 602 control) fourth-grade children, respectively. Intervention The Bienestar Health Program consists of a health class and physical education curriculum, a family program, a school cafeteria program, and an after-school health club. The objectives are to decrease dietary saturated fat intake, increase dietary fiber intake, and increase physical activity. Main Outcome Measures The primary end point was fasting capillary glucose level, and the secondary end points were percentage of body fat, physical fitness level, dietary fiber intake, and dietary saturated fat intake. Fasting capillary glucose level, bioelectric impedance, modified Harvard step test, three 24-hour dietary recalls, weight, and height were collected at baseline and 8 months later. Results Children in the intervention arm attended an average of 32 Bienestar sessions. Mean fasting capillary glucose levels decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools after adjusting for covariates (−2.24 mg/dL [0.12 mmol/L]; 95% confidence interval, −6.53 to 2.05 [−0.36 to 0.11 mmol/L]; P = .03). Fitness scores (P = .04) and dietary fiber intake (P = .009) significantly increased in intervention children and decreased in control children. Percentage of body fat (P = .56) and dietary saturated fat intake (P = .52) did not differ significantly between intervention and control children. Conclusion This intervention showed some positive results, but additional

5. Impact of a quality improvement program on primary healthcare in Canada: a mixed-method evaluation.

Science.gov (United States)

Harris, Stewart B; Green, Michael E; Brown, Judith Belle; Roberts, Sharon; Russell, Grant; Fournie, Meghan; Webster-Bogaert, Susan; Paquette-Warren, Jann; Kotecha, Jyoti; Han, Han; Thind, Amardeep; Stewart, Moira; Reichert, Sonja; Tompkins, Jordan W; Birtwhistle, Richard

2015-04-01

6. The Impact of an Associate's Degree Program for Incarcerated Students: A Randomized Trial of the Correctional Education Association College of the Air Program

Science.gov (United States)

Meyer, Stephen J.; Randel, Bruce

2013-01-01

This article reports findings from an impact study of a 2-year postsecondary academic program offered in state prisons. Outcomes examined for participants during their 1st year of participation include performance on a standardized test of critical thinking skills, credit acquisition, achievement motivation, educational aspirations, personal…

7. Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Aline S de Aluja

2014-05-01

Full Text Available Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of antibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p menor que 0.01 and a no significant decrease in seroprevalence from 17.7 to 13.3% were observed. Conclusions. The reduction of the prevalence of taeniasis-cysticercosis establishes the program’s effectiveness in preventing infection. The sustained presence of antibodies, compatible with contact of Taenia solium or other related helminths, underlines the importance of maintaining interventionsto achieve eradication.

8. Early Childhood Caries and the Impact of Current U.S. Medicaid Program: An Overview

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bussma Ahmed Bugis

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Pediatric dental caries is the most common chronic disease among children. Above 40% of the U.S. children aged 2–11 years have dental caries; more than 50% of them come from low-income families. Under dental services of the Medicaid program, children enrolled in Medicaid must receive preventive dental services. However, only 1/5 of them utilize preventive dental services. The purpose of this overview is to measure the impact of Medicaid dental benefits on reducing oral health disparities among Medicaid-eligible children. This paper explains the importance of preventive dental care, children at high risk of dental caries, Medicaid dental benefits, utilization of dental preventive services by Medicaid-eligible children, dental utilization influencing factors, and outcome evaluation of Medicaid in preventing dental caries among children. In conclusion, despite the recent increase of children enrolled in Medicaid, utilizing preventive dental care is still a real challenge that faces Medicaid.

9. ASM Scientific Writing and Publishing Institute: Program Impacts and Future Expansion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Irene V. Hulede

2015-10-01

Full Text Available Scientific writing is one of the most essential skills in science. Writing has numerous benefits and is a critical skill for writing grants, theses, and manuscripts.  The ability to publish research is as almost as important as conducting it. Writing and publishing scientific papers can be difficult for beginning researchers. To help trainees succeed in their efforts to publish, the ASM Committee on Graduate and Postdoctoral Education has offered the ASM Scientific Writing and Publishing Institute (SWPI since 2010. In an effort to gain insight into longer-term outcomes and impacts, the Committee conducted a comprehensive survey in 2015 to assess five cohorts from 2010-2014.The comprehensive survey sought to measure the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of the institute; to gather information on the achievements of its alumni; and to highlight opportunities to strengthen the program.

10. Application to graduate psychology programs by undergraduate students of color: the impact of a research training program.

Science.gov (United States)

Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; Allard, Carolyn B

2009-07-01

The top 86 students were selected from a pool of approximately 400 applicants to a summer clinical psychology research training program for undergraduate students of color. Forty-three of the students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 clinical psychology research training programs, and 43 were randomly assigned to a control condition without training. The multicultural version of the training program emphasized the cultural context of psychology in all areas of training, whereas cultural context was de-emphasized in the monocultural version of the program. Although the cultural content of the 2 training programs was effectively manipulated as indicated by a fidelity check by an outside expert, there were no significant differences between the effects of the 2 programs on the outcomes measured in this study. The primary differences in this study were between students who did versus those who did not participate in a training program. Sixty-five percent of the students who completed the multicultural training program applied to graduate schools in psychology, compared with 47% of those who completed the monocultural training program, and 31% of those in the control group. Participation in summer research training programs also increased self-perceptions of multicultural competence.

11. Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) program impacts outcomes for employees with diabetes.

Science.gov (United States)

Pinto, Sharrel L; Kumar, Jinender; Partha, Gautam; Bechtol, Robert A

2014-02-01

The objective of this prospective, pre-post longitudinal study was to assess the impact of pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services on employees' health and well-being by evaluating their clinical and humanistic outcomes. City of Toledo employees and/or their spouses and dependents with diabetes with or without comorbid conditions were enrolled in the pharmacist-conducted MTM program. Participants scheduled consultations with the pharmacist at predetermined intervals. Overall health outcomes, such as clinical markers, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), disease knowledge, and social and process measures, were documented at these visits and assessed for improvement. Changes in patient outcomes over time were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank and Friedman test at an a priori level of 0.05. Spearman correlation was used to measure the relationship between clinical and humanistic outcomes. A total of 101 patients enrolled in the program. At the end of 1 year, patients' A1c levels decreased on average by 0.27 from their baseline values. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also decreased on average by 6.0 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively. Patient knowledge of disease conditions and certain aspects or components of HRQoL also improved. Improvements in social and process measures also were also observed. Improved clinical outcomes and quality of life can affect employee productivity and help reduce costs for employers by reducing disease-related missed days of work. Employers seeking to save costs and impact productivity can utilize the services provided by pharmacists.

12. Long-Term Health Impact of Early Nutrition: The Power of Programming.

Science.gov (United States)

Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Grote, Veit; Kirchberg, Franca F; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina

2017-01-01

The Power of Programming conference 2016 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich brought together about 600 researchers and other stakeholders from around the world who reviewed the recent evidence on the lasting health impact of environment and nutrition during early life, from pre-pregnancy to early childhood. The conference was hosted by the Early Nutrition Project, a multidisciplinary research collaboration funded by the European Commission with collaborating researchers from 35 institutions in 15 countries in Europe, the United States and Australia. The project explores the early origins of obesity, adiposity and associated non-communicable diseases, underlying mechanisms and opportunities for prevention. The project also proactively supports translational application of research findings. In fact, some existing evidence has already been rapidly adopted into policy, regulatory standards and practice. Further, broad dissemination of findings is achieved through the established digital eLearning platform of the Early Nutrition eAcademy, video clip-based learning and graphically supported messaging to consumers. The project demonstrated powerful effects of early metabolic programming on later health. Compared to other common prevention strategies, modifying risk trajectories in early life can achieve a much larger risk reduction and be more cost-effective. While some effective prevention strategies have been promptly implemented in policy and guidelines, legislation and practice, in other areas, the uptake is limited by a paucity of quality human intervention trials and insufficient evaluation of the feasibility of implementation and econometric impact. This needs to be strengthened by future collaborative research work. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

13. Impact of a Pediatric Cardiology Clinical Program on Congenital Heart Disease Outcomes in Guyana.

Science.gov (United States)

Isaac, Debra; Nagesh, Vikhashni; Bell, Alexandra; Soto, Rodrigo; Seepersaud, Marisa; Myers, Kimberley; Zahir, Saif

2017-01-01

Background: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) in Guyana have not historically been managed with timely intervention, increasing the likelihood of serious, irreversible complications. In 2014, a pediatric cardiology clinical program (Guyana Paediatric Cardiology Steering Committee [GPCSC]) and partnership with International Children's Heart Foundation (BabyHeart) was developed to improve CHD care. Objectives: To describe the characteristics of CHD in Guyanese children and to determine the impact of GPCSC on CHD outcomes. Methods: Qualitative comparison between CHD patients sent for surgery prior to GPCSC (pre-GPCSC cohort) and those managed through GPCSC (post-GPCSC cohort). Findings: Eighty-eight pre-GPHC patients were identified from 2005 to 2014. A total of 319 CHD patients were referred post-GPCSC. In all, 114 patients required surgical or catheterization procedures, with 74 patients prioritized for interventions within 29 months post-GPCSC. Mean age at surgery was 77 months in both cohorts, with younger children represented in the post-GPCSC cohort. Postoperative follow-up was more frequent post-GPCSC (100% vs 35%). Vital status of 48% of pre-GPCSC patients is unknown, with more pre-GPCSC patients known to be deceased compared with post-GPCSC (9% vs 5%). Pre-GPCSC patients had more incorrect diagnosis and inoperable disease when sent for surgery. Interpretation: Patients undergoing surgery post-GPCSC had more appropriate and timely interventions, better follow-up, and increased survival. The feasibility and positive impact of this collaborative pediatric cardiology clinical program in Guyana is demonstrated, with potential applicability for other low- and middle-income countries. Obstacles to referral of children with CHD in Guyana can begin to be addressed, with the goal of more complete access to timely intervention, and improved outcomes for these children.

14. Impact of the fast track prevention program on health services use by conduct-problem youth.

Science.gov (United States)

Jones, Damon; Godwin, Jennifer; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John D; Greenberg, Mark T; Lochman, John E; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

2010-01-01

We tested the impact of the Fast Track conduct disorder prevention program on the use of pediatric, general health, and mental health services in adolescence. Participants were 891 public kindergarten boys and girls screened from a population of 9594 children and found to be at risk for conduct disorder. They were assigned randomly (by school) to intervention or control conditions and were followed for 12 years. Intervention lasted 10 years and included parent training, child social-cognitive skills training, reading tutoring, peer-relations enhancement, and classroom curricula and management. Service use was assessed through annual interviews of parents and youth. Youth assigned to preventive intervention had significantly reduced use of professional general health, pediatric, and emergency department services relative to control youth on the basis of parent-report data. For control-group youth, the odds of greater use of general health services for any reason and general health services use for mental health purposes were roughly 30% higher and 56% higher, respectively. On the basis of self-report data, the intervention reduced the likelihood of outpatient mental health services among older adolescents for whom odds of services use were more than 90% higher among control-group youth. No differences were found between intervention and control youth on the use of inpatient mental health services. Statistical models controlled for key study characteristics, and potential moderation of the intervention effect was assessed. Random assignment to the Fast Track prevention program is associated with reduced use of general health and outpatient mental health services in adolescents. Future studies should examine the mechanism of this impact and service use patterns as subjects reach young adulthood.

15. Impact of a prescription monitoring program on doctor-shopping for high dosage buprenorphine.

Science.gov (United States)

Pradel, Vincent; Frauger, Elisabeth; Thirion, Xavier; Ronfle, Eléonore; Lapierre, Véronique; Masut, Alain; Coudert, Christine; Blin, Olivier; Micallef, Joëlle

2009-01-01

Doctor-shopping (simultaneous use of several physicians by a patient) is one of the most frequent ways of diversion for prescription drugs. A specific method was used to assess the evolution of doctor-shopping for High Dosage Buprenorphine (HDB) in a French region from 2000 to 2005 and the impact of a prescription monitoring program for HDB implemented in 2004. Data from eight periods (semesters of years 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2005) were extracted from a prescription database. Three quantities (the delivered, the prescribed, and the doctor-shopping quantity) were computed for each patient. The total doctor-shopping quantity and the doctor-shopping ratio (percentage of buprenorphine obtained through doctor-shopping) were used to evaluate the diversion of HDB among the population. The total prescribed quantity and the number of patients treated regularly were used as indicators of the access to treatment. The doctor-shopping ratio increased from 1st semester 2000 to 1st semester 2004 (from 14.9 to 21.7%) and then decreased to 16.9% in 2nd semester 2005. The total doctor-shopping quantity followed the same evolution. The number of patients treated remained stable from 1st semester 2000 to 2nd semester 2005. The prescribed quantity increased from 1st semester 2000 to 2nd semester 2002, decreased in 1st semester 2004 (4163 g) and then remained stable. After a four-year increase of the diversion through doctor-shopping for buprenorphine the beginning of the prescription monitoring program was concomitant with a marked decrease of doctor-shopping indicators without notable impact on the access to treatment.

16. Initial impact of a national dental education program on the oral health and dental knowledge of children.

Science.gov (United States)

Biesbrock, Aaron R; Walters, Patricia A; Bartizek, Robert D

2003-05-15

Oral health educational programs have been reported to have a variable impact on the oral health status of program participants. This paper reports the impact of an educational oral health program conducted within a single Boys & Girls Club of America. The objective of this 4-week examiner-blind study was to determine the impact of the educational program on the gingival health (gingivitis and plaque) of participating children who were between the ages of 5 and 15. The multi-week program taught the participants the basics of oral biology and disease, as well as proper oral health prevention including oral hygiene, dietary modification, and the importance of visiting the dentist. A calibrated examiner measured whole mouth Loe-Silness Gingival Index (GI) and Turesky Modification of Quigley-Hein Plaque index (PI) at baseline (immediately prior to the initiation of the educational program) and 4 weeks later. The primary efficacy analysis was based on change from baseline for 75 subjects who were enrolled at baseline, participated in the educational program, and were examined 4 weeks later. Mean baseline GI score was 0.37, while the 4 week mean GI score was reduced to 0.18. This represents a 51% reduction in GI score with pchildren over a one month period.

17. Context Matters for Social-Emotional Learning: Examining Variation in Program Impact by Dimensions of School Climate.

Science.gov (United States)

McCormick, Meghan P; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E; McClowry, Sandee G

2015-09-01

This paper examines whether three dimensions of school climate-leadership, accountability, and safety/respect-moderated the impacts of the INSIGHTS program on students' social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Twenty-two urban schools and N = 435 low-income racial/ethnic minority students were enrolled in the study and received intervention services across the course of 2 years, in both kindergarten and first grade. Intervention effects on math and reading achievement were larger for students enrolled in schools with lower overall levels of leadership, accountability, and safety/respect at baseline. Program impacts on disruptive behaviors were greater in schools with lower levels of accountability at baseline; impacts on sustained attention were greater in schools with lower levels of safety/respect at baseline. Implications for Social-Emotional Learning program implementation, replication, and scale-up are discussed.

18. The impact of a supportive leadership program in a policing organisation from the participants' perspective.

Science.gov (United States)

Muller, Juanita; Maclean, Rowena; Biggs, Herbert

2009-01-01

The aim of this study is to explore the implementation of an organisational level intervention, focussing on Supportive Leadership (SL), in an Australian police organisation from the perspective of supervisors and managers. The impact of the intervention was explored using a qualitative methodology using semi-structured telephone interviews with 44 participants who had attended the Supportive Leadership Workshop, designed to improve awareness of good management practices. Data was subjected to thematic analysis using a social constructivist theoretical orientation. Findings showed that SL as a concept was generally accepted by a majority of participants and that they had integrated a number of SL strategies into their work practices. The participants also identified the importance of senior personnel role-modelling SL and the negative impact of non-role modelling. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The major limitation of the study was the non-random sample of voluntary participants. However, the nature of conducting applied studies in police organisations is inherently difficult due to confidentiality and their paramilitary nature. This study highlights the need for future studies in police leadership and occupational stress that directly explore issues from the perspective of the supervisors and managers. Interventions such as SL need support and role modelling from senior management to enhance their credibility. ORIGINAL VALUE: This paper reports on an applied intervention that received major support and funding within a police organisation. It is of value to other organizations considering similar interventions because it highlights issues that could be addressed to further enhance the program.

19. A Community-Based Home Visitation Program's Impact on Birth Outcomes.

Science.gov (United States)

Guo, Yuqing; Pimentel, Pamela; Lessard, Jared; Rousseau, Julie; Lee, Jung-Ah; Bojorquez, Yvette; Silva, Michele; Olshansky, Ellen

2016-01-01

MOMS Orange County is a coordinated home visitation program in which trained paraprofessional home visitors work under the close supervision of registered nurses. This model was developed to address health disparities in birth outcomes in a Hispanic community in Orange County, CA. The primary objective was to test the impact of MOMS Orange County on birth outcomes. The second objective was to examine the breadth of prenatal health education topics as a mediator of the relationship between home visits and birth outcomes. A retrospective cohort design was used. Paraprofessional home visitors collected prenatal and postnatal data during home visits. Only those whose birth outcomes were obtained were included in the analysis (N = 2,027 participants). Regression models were conducted to test the associations between prenatal home visits and birth outcomes, adjusting for 10 covariates. Number of prenatal home visits predicted higher birthweight and greater gestational age at birth. Breadth of health education topics partially mediated the associations between home visits and birthweight. The same mediation was revealed with gestational age at birth. The MOMS Orange County prenatal home visitation program may be a promising approach to decrease adverse birth outcomes in disadvantaged communities. Rigorously designed studies are needed to further test this model.

20. The Impact of an Infant Oral Health Program on Dental Students' Knowledge and Attitudes.

Science.gov (United States)

Nascimento, Marcelle M; Mugayar, Leda; Tomar, Scott L; Garvan, Cynthia W; Catalanotto, Frank A; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

2016-11-01

The high prevalence of early childhood caries and many general dentists' reluctance to treat young children and pregnant women demand new educational programs to foster delivery of oral health services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an Infant Oral Health Program (IOHP) at the University of Florida College of Dentistry on dental students' knowledge about and willingness to provide dental care for infants, children up to three years of age, and pregnant women. A total of 233 dental students in the first through fourth years and recent graduates completed a survey that assessed the educational outcomes of the IOHP; only the fourth-year students had received IOHP training. The results showed that females were more likely than males to provide counseling to caregivers about dental and physical development (p=0.024) and to offer restorative treatment to young children (p=0.021). Older students were more likely than younger students to provide restorative treatment (p=0.013). A greater percentage of IOHP-trained students (96%) reported knowing how to use the lap examination technique compared with untrained students (71%; prestorative (p<0.001) care for pregnant women. The graduates were least likely to use some form of caries risk assessment (p<0.001). These findings highlight the need for earlier and greater exposure to the IOHP and the importance of promoting awareness about risk assessment and oral disease management.

1. The impact of a middle school program to reduce aggression, victimization, and sexual violence.

Science.gov (United States)

Espelage, Dorothy L; Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R; Brown, Eric C

2013-08-01

2. The cost and impact of the interim federal health program cuts on child refugees in Canada.

Science.gov (United States)

Evans, Andrea; Caudarella, Alexander; Ratnapalan, Savithiri; Chan, Kevin

2014-01-01

On June 30, 2012, Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) funding was cut for refugee claimant healthcare. The potential financial and healthcare impacts of these cuts on refugee claimants are unknown. We conducted a one-year retrospective chart review spanning 6 months before and after IFHP funding cuts at The Hospital for Sick Children, a tertiary care children's hospital in Toronto. We analyzed emergency room visits characteristics, admission rates, reasons for admission, and financial records including billing from Medavie Blue Cross. There were 173 refugee children visits to the emergency room in the six months before and 142 visits in the six months after funding cuts. The total amount billed to the IFHP program during the one-year of this study was \$131,615. Prior to the IFHP cuts, 46% of the total emergency room bills were paid by IFHP compared to 7% after the cuts (pSick Children was unable to obtain federal health coverage for the vast majority of refugee claimant children registered under the IFHP. This preliminary analysis showed that post-IFHP cuts healthcare costs at the largest tertiary pediatric institution in the country increased.

3. The cost and impact of the interim federal health program cuts on child refugees in Canada.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Andrea Evans

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: On June 30, 2012, Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP funding was cut for refugee claimant healthcare. The potential financial and healthcare impacts of these cuts on refugee claimants are unknown. METHODS: We conducted a one-year retrospective chart review spanning 6 months before and after IFHP funding cuts at The Hospital for Sick Children, a tertiary care children's hospital in Toronto. We analyzed emergency room visits characteristics, admission rates, reasons for admission, and financial records including billing from Medavie Blue Cross. RESULTS: There were 173 refugee children visits to the emergency room in the six months before and 142 visits in the six months after funding cuts. The total amount billed to the IFHP program during the one-year of this study was \$131,615. Prior to the IFHP cuts, 46% of the total emergency room bills were paid by IFHP compared to 7% after the cuts (p<0.001. INTERPRETATION: After the cuts to the IFHP, The Hospital for Sick Children was unable to obtain federal health coverage for the vast majority of refugee claimant children registered under the IFHP. This preliminary analysis showed that post-IFHP cuts healthcare costs at the largest tertiary pediatric institution in the country increased.

4. Impact of the Intensive Program of Emotional Intelligence (IPEI) on work supervisors.

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Rodríguez García, Gustavo A; López-Pérez, Belén; Férreo Cruzado, Manuel A; Fernández Carrascoso, María E; Fernández, Juan

2017-11-01

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the Intensive Program of Emotional Intelligence (IPEI; Fernández, 2016; Férreo, 2016) on middle managers’ emotional intelligence, as this variable may have a significant impact on personal satisfaction, task performance, and the work environment. The intervention was applied to work team supervisors in a large call center, as it is an overlooked sector in this topic. Two-hundred and eighty-two supervisors from a Madrid-based, Spanish multinational (51.4% men and 48.6% women) participated in this study. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 190) or the control group (n = 92) by availability, according to management decision. All supervisors filled in two questionnaires to evaluate the different components of intrapersonal emotional intelligence (i.e., attention, clarity, and repair; TMMS-24; Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera, & Ramos, 2004) and cognitive and affective empathy (i.e., perspective taking, emotion understanding, empathic joy, and personal distress; TECA; López-Pérez, Fernández, & Abad, 2008). The findings showed an increase in the studied variables for the experimental group. The results obtained support middle managers’ training in emotional competences through short, efficient, economic programs. Potential limitations and implications of the results are discussed.

5. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program - Final Environmental Impact Statement

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

N/A

2000-06-23

Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from our electric facilities; (2) increase our program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 23 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, we consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides

6. [Impact of a training program in full consciousness (mindfulness) in the measure of growth and personal self-realization].

Science.gov (United States)

2011-02-01

This research focused on the impact of a full awareness (mindfulness) program on the sense of growth and personal self-realization in a sample of secondary school students. A randomized controlled design with an experimental group and waiting-list group was implemented. The Self-concept and Self-actualization Questionnaire (AURE) was used as dependent variable and was administrated before and after running the mindfulness program. The results show a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores on all factors and subfactors of the AURE. It is concluded that a program of meditation, focused on mindfulness training, may be a valid and appropriate instrument to improve a personal sense of self-realization and growth. It is also suggested that the use of such a program could be complementary with the Instructional-Emotive Program for Personal Growth and Self-realization (PIECAP) psycho-educational program.

7. Achieving the HIV prevention impact of voluntary medical male circumcision: lessons and challenges for managing programs.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sema K Sgaier

2014-05-01

Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US\$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.

8. SU-E-T-455: Impact of Different Independent Dose Verification Software Programs for Secondary Check

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Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Kosaka, M; Kobayashi, N [Inagi Municipal Hospital, Inagi, Tokyo (Japan); Yamashita, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y [Sasebo City General Hospital, Sasebo, Nagasaki (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

2015-06-15

Purpose: There have been many reports for different dose calculation algorithms for treatment planning system (TPS). Independent dose verification program (IndpPro) is essential to verify clinical plans from the TPS. However, the accuracy of different independent dose verification programs was not evident. We conducted a multi-institutional study to reveal the impact of different IndpPros using different TPSs. Methods: Three institutes participated in this study. They used two different IndpPros (RADCALC and Simple MU Analysis (SMU), which implemented the Clarkson algorithm. RADCALC needed the input of radiological path length (RPL) computed by the TPSs (Eclipse or Pinnacle3). SMU used CT images to compute the RPL independently from TPS). An ion-chamber measurement in water-equivalent phantom was performed to evaluate the accuracy of two IndpPros and the TPS in each institute. Next, the accuracy of dose calculation using the two IndpPros compared to TPS was assessed in clinical plan. Results: The accuracy of IndpPros and the TPSs in the homogenous phantom was +/−1% variation to the measurement. 1543 treatment fields were collected from the patients treated in the institutes. The RADCALC showed better accuracy (0.9 ± 2.2 %) than the SMU (1.7 ± 2.1 %). However, the accuracy was dependent on the TPS (Eclipse: 0.5%, Pinnacle3: 1.0%). The accuracy of RADCALC with Eclipse was similar to that of SMU in one of the institute. Conclusion: Depending on independent dose verification program, the accuracy shows systematic dose accuracy variation even though the measurement comparison showed a similar variation. The variation was affected by radiological path length calculation. IndpPro with Pinnacle3 has different variation because Pinnacle3 computed the RPL using physical density. Eclipse and SMU uses electron density, though.

9. The impact of a Portuguese middle school social-emotional learning program.

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Coelho, Vitor; Sousa, Vanda; Raimundo, Raquel; Figueira, Ana

2017-04-01

This controlled pre-post study investigated whether a universal, school-based, social-emotional learning program implemented in two consecutive school years in two distinct cohorts, would promote gains in the social-emotional competencies of Portuguese middle school students. Moreover, it also analyzed the moderating role of students' characteristics, such as gender and baseline levels, on the impact of the intervention. Program 'Positive Attitude' was applied to 472 seventh to ninth grade students (25 classes). One hundred and fifty-six students in control groups (8 classes) also participated in this study. Overall, there were 628 participants aged from 11 to 17 years (Mage = 13.54; SD = 1.36). Self-report questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention. There were significant intervention gains in three (of five) social-emotional competencies, namely increases in social awareness and self-control as well as decreases in the levels of social anxiety in the first cohort. The positive effects were stably effective in the second cohort, except for social anxiety. Girls revealed greater gains in social awareness and greater reductions of the levels of social isolation and social anxiety when compared with boys. Intervention students with lower social awareness pretest scores profited more than controls. These results indicated that the intervention improved the social and emotional competencies of middle school students, supporting the cross-cultural generalization of social-emotional learning programs' efficacy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

10. Vesicular Trafficking Systems Impact TORC1-Controlled Transcriptional Programs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Joanne M. Kingsbury

2016-03-01

Full Text Available The Target of Rapamycin Complex I (TORC1 orchestrates global reprogramming of transcriptional programs in response to myriad environmental conditions, yet, despite the commonality of the TORC1 complex components, different TORC1-inhibitory conditions do not elicit a uniform transcriptional response. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TORC1 regulates the expression of nitrogen catabolite repressed (NCR genes by controlling the nuclear translocation of the NCR transactivator Gln3. Moreover, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking was shown to be required for nuclear translocation of Gln3 upon a shift from rich medium to the poor nitrogen source proline, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Here, we employed microarray profiling to survey the full impact of the vesicular trafficking system on yeast TORC1-orchestrated transcriptional programs. In addition to the NCR genes, we found that ribosomal protein, ribosome biogenesis, phosphate-responsive, and sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism genes are perturbed by disruption of Golgi-to-endosome trafficking following a nutritional shift from rich to poor nitrogen source medium, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Similar to Gln3, defects in Golgi-to-endosome trafficking significantly delayed cytoplasmic–nuclear translocation of Sfp1, but did not detectably affect the cytoplasmic–nuclear or nuclear–cytoplasmic translocation of Met4, which are the transactivators of these genes. Thus, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking defects perturb TORC1 transcriptional programs via multiple mechanisms. Our findings further delineate the downstream transcriptional responses of TORC1 inhibition by rapamycin compared with a nitrogen quality downshift. Given the conservation of both TORC1 and endomembrane networks throughout eukaryotes, our findings may also have implications for TORC1-mediated responses to nutritional cues in mammals and other eukaryotes.

11. Vesicular Trafficking Systems Impact TORC1-Controlled Transcriptional Programs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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Kingsbury, Joanne M; Cardenas, Maria E

2016-01-06

The Target of Rapamycin Complex I (TORC1) orchestrates global reprogramming of transcriptional programs in response to myriad environmental conditions, yet, despite the commonality of the TORC1 complex components, different TORC1-inhibitory conditions do not elicit a uniform transcriptional response. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TORC1 regulates the expression of nitrogen catabolite repressed (NCR) genes by controlling the nuclear translocation of the NCR transactivator Gln3. Moreover, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking was shown to be required for nuclear translocation of Gln3 upon a shift from rich medium to the poor nitrogen source proline, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Here, we employed microarray profiling to survey the full impact of the vesicular trafficking system on yeast TORC1-orchestrated transcriptional programs. In addition to the NCR genes, we found that ribosomal protein, ribosome biogenesis, phosphate-responsive, and sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism genes are perturbed by disruption of Golgi-to-endosome trafficking following a nutritional shift from rich to poor nitrogen source medium, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Similar to Gln3, defects in Golgi-to-endosome trafficking significantly delayed cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of Sfp1, but did not detectably affect the cytoplasmic-nuclear or nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of Met4, which are the transactivators of these genes. Thus, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking defects perturb TORC1 transcriptional programs via multiple mechanisms. Our findings further delineate the downstream transcriptional responses of TORC1 inhibition by rapamycin compared with a nitrogen quality downshift. Given the conservation of both TORC1 and endomembrane networks throughout eukaryotes, our findings may also have implications for TORC1-mediated responses to nutritional cues in mammals and other eukaryotes. Copyright © 2016 Kingsbury and Cardenas.

12. The impact of the TelEmergency program on rural emergency care: An implementation study.

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Sterling, Sarah A; Seals, Samantha R; Jones, Alan E; King, Melissa H; Galli, Robert L; Isom, Kristen C; Summers, Richard L; Henderson, Kristi A

2017-07-01

Introduction Timely, appropriate intervention is key to improving outcomes in many emergent conditions. In rural areas, it is particularly challenging to assure quality, timely emergency care. The TelEmergency (TE) program, which utilizes a dual nurse practitioner and emergency medicine-trained, board-certified physician model, has the potential to improve access to quality emergency care in rural areas. The objective of this study was to examine how the implementation of the TE program impacts rural hospital Emergency Department (ED) operations. Methods Methods included a before and after study of the effect of the TE program on participating rural hospitals between January 2007 and December 2008. Data on ED and hospital operations were collected one year prior to and one year following the implementation of TE. Data from participating hospitals were combined and compared for the two time periods. Results Nine hospitals met criteria for inclusion and participated in the study. Total ED volumes did not significantly change with TE implementation, but ED admissions to the same rural hospital significantly increased following TE implementation (6.7% to 8.1%, p-value = 0.02). Likewise, discharge rates from the ED declined post-initiation (87.1% to 80.0%, p-value = 0.003). ED deaths and transfer rates showed no significant change, while the rate of patient discharge against medical advice significantly increased with TE use. Discussion In this analysis, we found a significant increase in the rate of ED admissions to rural hospitals with TE use. These findings may have important implications for the quality of emergency care in rural areas and the sustainability of rural hospitals' EDs.

13. Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program to Study the impact of Climate Change and Land Use

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Ozbay, G.; Chintapenta, L. K.; Roeske, K. P.; Stone, M.; Phalen, L.

2014-12-01

The Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program at Delaware State University continues to utilize various perspectives to study the dynamics of one of Delaware's most pristine ecosystems. The water quality of Blackbird Creek has been constantly monitored for 3 years and correlated with the rain and storm events. Soil nutrients composition has been studied by extracting the water associated with soil aggregates and analyzing the levels of different nutrients. Soil quality is also assessed for heavy metals to identify potential human impact that may affect the health of ecosystem. Within the Blackbird Creek there is a threat to native plant communities from invasive plant species as they alter the ecosystem dynamics. Saltmarsh cord grass (Spartina alterniflora) and common reed (Phragmites australius) are the common wetland plants. Aerial mapping of the creek has been conducted to determine the area covered by invasive plant species. The microbial community structure plays a key role in soil carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ecosystem. Molecular analysis has been performed to study the microbial diversity with respect to the type of marsh grasses. This program has also incorporated the use of diatoms as biological indicators to assess the health of ecosystem and correlate that data with physical and chemical water quality data. The abundance and diversity of macro fauna such as blue crabs, fish and other significant species has also been studied. Stable isotopic analysis of these macro fauna has also been performed to study the food web. The results from this program will be helpful in addressing environmental challenges and designing management strategies.

14. Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.

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Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris

2011-12-01

Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy.

15. The impact of a shade coffee certification program on forest conservation using remote sensing and household data

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Takahashi, Ryo, E-mail: inter.takahashi@gmail.com [Policy Research Center, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, 7-22-1, Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-8677 (Japan); Todo, Yasuyuki, E-mail: yastodo@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of International Studies, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan)

2014-01-15

In recent years, shade coffee certification programs have attracted increasing attention from forest conservation and development organizations. The certification programs could be expected to promote forest conservation by providing a premium price to shade coffee producers. However, little is known about the significance of the conservation efforts generated by certification programs. In particular, the relationship between the impact of the certification and producer characteristics has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study, which was conducted in Ethiopia, was to examine the impact of a shade coffee certification program on forest conservation and its relationship with the socioeconomic characteristics of the producers. Remote sensing data of 2005 and 2010 was used to gauge the changes in forest area. Employing a probit model, we found that a forest coffee area being certified increased the probability of forest conservation by 19.3 percentage points relative to forest coffee areas lacking certification. We also found that although economically poor producers tended to engage in forest clearing, the forest coffee certification program had a significant impact on these producers. This result suggests that the certification program significantly affects the behaviors of economically poor producers and motivates these producers to conserve the forest. -- Highlights: • We employed the probit mode to evaluate the impact of the shade coffee certification on forest conservation in Ethiopia. • We estimated how the impact of the certification varied among producers with different characteristics. • The certification increased the probability of conserving forest by 19.3 percentage points. • Certification program motivated the economically poor producers to conserve the forest.

16. HIV Testing Among Young People Aged 16-24 in South Africa: Impact of Mass Media Communication Programs.

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Do, Mai; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Lawrence Kincaid, D

2016-09-01

Knowing one's serostatus is critical in the HIV prevention, care and treatment continuum. This study examines the impact of communication programs on HIV testing in South Africa. Data came from 2204 young men and women aged 16-24 who reported to be sexually active in a population based survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test the directions and causal pathways between communication program exposure, HIV testing discussion, and having a test in the last 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate probit regressions provided evidence of exogeneity of communication exposure and the two HIV-related outcomes. One in three sampled individuals had been tested in the last 12 months. Communication program exposure only had an indirect effect on getting tested by encouraging young people to talk about testing. The study suggests that communication programs may create an environment that supports open HIV-related discussions and may have a long-term impact on behavior change.

17. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the ..Section..1603 Treasury Grant Program

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steinberg, D.; Porro, G.; Goldberg, M.

2012-04-01

This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the Section 1603 grant program.

18. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603 Treasury Grant Program

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG & Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

2012-04-09

This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

19. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603Treasury Grant Program

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, New York, NY (United States)

2012-04-01

This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

20. Exploring the impact of a career development program on underrepresented minorities and low-income middle and high school students

Science.gov (United States)

Holder-Luchey, Keli Koran F.

Initially, when academic outreach programs for low income students and underrepresented minorities were created, the idea was to inspire and motivate students to prepare for a college education in very general terms. However, the new trend in outreach programming is to concentrate on career goals, as opposed to programs that simply provide basic information and enrichment. The focus is to create curriculum-based outreach programs, addressing the specific academic and career needs of low income and underrepresented minorities. This study explored the impact of participation in the University at Buffalo's Science and Technology Enrichment Program (STEP), a comprehensive career exploration and academic enrichment program for low income and underrepresented minority middle and high school students, on the level of education and career attainment---particularly in the areas in which they have historically been underrepresented---science, technology, health and the health-related professions. A survey questionnaire was mailed to former STEP high school graduates to measure the impact of STEP program services on the pursuit and attainment of postsecondary education as well as career attainment, particularly in the fields of Science and Technology. A control group, consisting of non-STEP high school graduates, was established and used to compare to the STEP program outcomes. Results indicate that former STEP participants were more likely to attend and graduate from college, along with be employed in a Science or Science related occupation. Results of additional findings, along with policy implications and suggestions for future research and practice are discussed.

1. The impact of Japan's 2004 postgraduate training program on intra-prefectural distribution of pediatricians in Japan.

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Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

2013-01-01

Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p valuelaunch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects the health status of the child population.

2. Impact of Bolsa Família Program on the nutritional status of children and adolescents from two Brazilian regions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Naiara SPERANDIO

Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess and compare the impact of the Bolsa Família Program (Family Allowance on the nutritional status of children and adolescents from the Brazilian Northeastern and Southeastern regions. Methods: The study used data from a database derived from a subsample of the Family Budget Survey conducted from 2008 to 2009. The ratios of underweight, stunted, and overweight children were calculated. Impact measurement analysis was preceded by propensity score matching, which matches beneficiary and non-beneficiary families in relation to a set of socioeconomic features. The nearest-neighbor matching algorithm estimated the program impact. Results: The ratio of underweight children and adolescents was, on average, 1.1% smaller in the beneficiary families than in the non-beneficiary families in the Northeastern region. As for the Southeastern region, the ratio of overweight children and adolescents was, on average, 4.2% smaller in the beneficiary families. The program did not affect stunting in either region. Conclusion: The results showed the positive impact and good focus of the program. Thus, once linked to structural actions, the program may help to improve the nutritional status and quality of life of its beneficiaries.

3. The Impact of Length of Engagement in After-School STEM Programs on Middle School Girls

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Cupp, Garth Meichel

An underrepresentation of females exists in the STEM fields. In order to tackle this issue, work begins early in the education of young women to ensure they are interested and have the confidence to gain a career in the STEM fields. It is important to engage girls in STEM opportunities in and out of school to ignite their interest and build their confidence. Brigid Barron's learning ecology perspective shows that girls pursuing STEM outside of the classroom is critical to their achievement in the STEM pipeline. This study investigated the impact after-school STEM learning opportunities have on middle school girls by investigating (a) how the length of engagement in after-school programs can affect the confidence of female students in their science and math abilities; (b) how length of engagement in after-school programs can affect the interest of female students in attaining a career in STEM; (c) how length of engagement in after-school programs can affect interest in science and math classes; and (d) how length of engagement can affect how female students' view gender parity in the STEM workforce. The major findings revealed no statistical significance when comparing confidence in math or science abilities or the perception that gender plays a role in attaining a career in STEM. The findings revealed statistical significance in the areas when comparing length of engagement in the girls' interest in their math class and attaining a career in three of the four STEM fields: science, technology, and engineering. The findings showed that multiple terms of engagement in the after-school STEM programs appear to be an effective catalyst to maintain the interest of girls pursuing STEM-related careers, in addition to allowing their interest in a topic to provide a new lens for the way they see their math work during the school day. The implications of this study show that schools must engage middle school girls who are interested in STEM in a multitude of settings

4. Impact of Pharmacists in a Community-Based Home Care Service: A Pilot Program.

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Walus, Ashley N; Woloschuk, Donna M M

2017-01-01

Historically, pharmacists have not been included on home care teams, despite the fact that home care patients frequently experience medication errors. Literature describing Canadian models of pharmacy practice in home care settings is limited. The optimal service delivery model and distribution of clinical activities for home care pharmacists remain unclear. The primary objective was to describe the impact of a pharmacist based at a community home care office and providing home visits, group education, and telephone consultations. The secondary objective was to determine the utility of acute care clinical pharmacy key performance indicators (cpKPIs) in guiding home care pharmacy services, in the absence of validated cpKPIs for ambulatory care. The Winnipeg Regional Health Authority hired a pharmacist to develop and implement the pilot program from May 2015 to July 2016. A referral form, consisting of consultation criteria used in primary care practices, was developed. The pharmacist also reviewed all patient intakes and all patients waiting in acute care facilities for initiation of home care services, with the goal of addressing issues before admission to the Home Care Program. A password-protected database was built for data collection and analysis, and the data are presented in aggregate. A total of 197 referrals, involving 184 patients, were received during the pilot program; of these, 62 were excluded from analysis. The majority of referrals (95 [70.4%]) were for targeted medication reviews, and 271 drug therapy problems were identified. Acceptance rates for the pharmacist's recommendations were 90.2% (74 of 82 recommendations) among home care staff and 47.0% (55 of 117 recommendations) among prescribers and patients. On average, 1.5 cpKPIs were identified for each referral. The pilot program demonstrated a need for enhanced access to clinical pharmacy services for home care patients, although the best model of service provision remains unclear. More research

5. The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption

Science.gov (United States)

High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption

6. Report of an equity-focused health impact assessment of a proposed universal parenting program in Manitoba.

Science.gov (United States)

Cohen, Benita E; Ateah, Christine A; Chartier, Mariette J; Anderson DeCoteau, Marcia; Harris, Elizabeth; Serwonka, Karen

2016-06-27

To assess potential inequitable impacts of a proposed Teen Triple P Positive Parenting Program (Teen PPP) in Manitoba to achieve equity of access and outcomes for families of diverse backgrounds; recommend (if required) alternative actions to promote greater equity of access and outcomes for families participating in Teen PPP; and evaluate the influence of recommendations on implementation of the proposed program. An equity-focused health impact assessment (EfHIA) of the proposed Teen PPP was conducted, using a standard EfHIA framework. Methods used to assess potential Teen PPP impacts included: a literature review, key informant interviews and 14 community consultations. Evidence was analyzed, summarized and presented to the project Steering Committee (SC), along with draft recommendations for ensuring that equity is considered in Teen PPP planning and rollout. The SC prioritized 12 possible inequitable impacts of Teen PPP with potential to prevent certain parents/caregivers either from accessing the proposed program or benefitting adequately from the program, causing them to drop out prematurely. Recommendations for avoiding these impacts were finalized by the SC and presented to provincial government officials responsible for the proposed program. Follow-up interviews with these individuals indicated that the recommendations were well received and raised equity-related issues that will be considered in future program planning decisions. EfHIA is a proven planning tool for ensuring that health equity is considered in all policies, which is one of the necessary conditions for reducing inequities and closing the health equity gap throughout Canada within a generation.

7. Perceived Impact of a Land and Property Rights Program on Violence Against Women in Rural Kenya: A Qualitative Investigation.

Science.gov (United States)

Hilliard, Starr; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Grabe, Shelly; Lu, Tiffany; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Dworkin, Shari L

2016-03-06

The current study focuses on a community-led land and property rights program in two rural provinces in western Kenya. The program was designed to respond to women's property rights violations to reduce violence against women and HIV risks at the community level. Through in-depth interviews with 30 women, we examine the perceived impact that this community-level property rights program had on violence against women at the individual and community level. We also examine perceptions as to how reductions in violence were achieved. Finally, we consider how our findings may aid researchers in the design of structural violence-prevention strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

8. Impact of a program to prevent incivility towards and assault of healthcare staff in an ophtalmological emergency unit: study protocol for the PREVURGO On/Off trial

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Touzet, Sandrine; Cornut, Pierre-Loïc; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Le Pogam, Marie-Annick; Burillon, Carole; Duclos, Antoine

2014-01-01

.... Our study aims to assess the impact of a quality improvement multi-faceted program aiming at preventing incivility and violence against healthcare professionals working at the ophthalmological...

9. Effects of 2 physiotherapy programs on pain perception, muscular flexibility, and illness impact in women with fibromyalgia: a pilot study.

Science.gov (United States)

Valencia, M; Alonso, B; Alvarez, M J; Barrientos, M J; Ayán, C; Martín Sánchez, V

2009-01-01

This study assessed the effect of 2 physiotherapy programs designed to improve flexibility and to reduce the impact of the illness and pain perception in women with the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and compared the effects of the 2 programs in the short and intermediate term. Twenty FMS patients were randomly assigned to 2 training groups, one following a program of kinesiotherapy and active muscular stretching and one using techniques of Global Myofascial Physiotherapy, according to the Mézières method. Both groups met twice a week for 12 weeks, for a total of 150 minutes each week. Flexibility and illness impact were measured by means of a standard test, whereas pain was assessed by means of thumb palpation. Measurements were taken at the beginning and end of the program and 24 weeks after its end. Patients had achieved a statistically significant reduction in the severity of the disease and improved their flexibility level by the end of the program, but had returned to initial values after follow-up. Significant differences were not observed between the 2 treatment groups in the initial values or in the results at the end of the program or after the follow-up, so neither program proved better than the other. The FMS patients in this study improved their flexibility level and general well-being using both kinesiotherapy and stretching exercises techniques.

10. The impact of an environmental education program on children's and parents' knowledge, attitudes, motivation and behaviors

Science.gov (United States)

Legault, Louise M. R.

1999-11-01

Developments in the Quebec educational system enabled us to evaluate the impact of a new educational environmental program (EEP) on a group of children enrolled in this program for the first time (i.e., the experimental group). This EEP comprised a formal curriculum and environmental activities. A control group of children was enrolled in schools where environmental issues were confined to the natural sciences subject. The goals of this study were threefold. The first goal was to evaluate the impact of an EEP on children's and parents' ecological knowledge, attitudes, motivation, and behaviors. The second goal was to investigate if a motivational model of ecological behaviors observed in adult populations could be replicated with children. Part of this goal also included the comparison of path analyses results across experimental conditions, independently for children and parents. The third goal was to identify more clearly what specific children's characteristics influenced parents' ecological attitudes and motivation. Included in this goal was the investigation of possible differences in the strength of associations between constructs in paths analyses conducted in the experimental and control groups of parents. Results suggested that children in the experimental group were more likely to ask teachers and parents for ecological information and presented a more self-determined motivational profile. Additional analyses revealed that children enrolled in an EEP performed ecological behaviors less for extrinsic motives. Level of knowledge, other attitudes and behavioral measures did not differ significantly between the two groups. Parents of children in the experimental group reported lower levels of satisfaction towards the environment and were more likely to get information on ecological issues and strategies from children. No other significant differences between groups of parents were found. Path analyses results suggested that parents' perceptions of children

11. Short-term impact of an educational program promoting live donor kidney transplantation in dialysis centers.

Science.gov (United States)

Pradel, Françoise G; Suwannaprom, Puckwipa; Mullins, C Daniel; Sadler, John; Bartlett, Stephen T

2008-12-01

12. [The impact of patient identification on an integrated program of palliative care in Basque Country].

Science.gov (United States)

Larrañaga, Igor; Millas, Jesús; Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Arrospide, Arantzazu; San Vicente, Ricardo; Irizar, Marisa; Lanzeta, Itziar; Mar, Javier

2017-12-05

Evaluate the process and the economic impact of an integrated palliative care program. Comparative cross-sectional study. Integrated Healthcare Organizations of Alto Deba and Goierri Alto-Urola, Basque Country. Patients dead due to oncologic and non-oncologic causes in 2012 (control group) and 2015 (intervention group) liable to need palliative care according to McNamara criteria. Identification as palliative patients in primary care, use of common clinical pathways in primary and secondary care and arrange training courses for health professionals. Change in the resource use profile of patients in their last 3 months. Propensity score by genetic matching method was used to avoid non-randomization bias. The groups were compared by univariate analysis and the relationships between variables were analysed by logistic regressions and generalized linear models. One thousand and twenty-three patients were identified in 2012 and 1,142 patients in 2015. In 2015 doubled the probability of being identify as palliative patient in deaths due to oncologic (19-33%) and non-oncologic causes (7-16%). Prescriptions of opiates rise (25-68%) and deaths in hospital remained stable. Contacts per patient with primary care and home hospitalization increased, while contacts with hospital admissions decreased. Cost per patient rise 26%. The integrated palliative care model increased the identification of the target population. Relationships between variables showed that the identification had a positive impact on prescription of opiates, death outside the hospital and extension to non-oncologic diseases. Although the identification decreased admissions in hospital, costs per patient had a slight increase due to home hospitalizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

13. Hydraulic impact end effector final test report. Automation and robotics section, ER/WM-AT Program

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Couture, S.

1994-02-18

One tool being developed for dislodging and fragmenting the hard salt cake waste in the single-shell nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, is the hydraulic impact end effector (HIEE). This total operates by discharging 11-in. slugs of water at ultrahigh pressures. The HIEE was designed, built, and initially tested in 1992. Work in 1993 included advanced developments of the HIEE to further investigate its fragmentation abilities and to determine more effective operating procedures. These tests showed that more fragmentation can be achieved by increasing the charge pressure of 40 kpsi to 55 kpsi and by the use of different operating procedures. The size of the material and the impact energy of the water slug fired from the HIEE are believed to be major factors in material fragmentation. The material`s ability to fracture also appears to depend on the distance a fracture or crack line must travel to a free surface. Thus, larger material is more difficult to fracture than smaller material. Discharge pressures of 40 kpsi resulted in little penetration or fracturing of the material. At 55 kpsi, however, the size and depth of the fractures increased. Nozzle geometry had a significant effect on fragment size and quantity. Fragmentation was about an order of magnitude greater when the HIEE was discharged into drilled holes rather than onto the material surface. Since surface shots tend to create craters, a multi-shot procedure, coupled with an advanced nozzle design, was used to drill (crater) deep holes into large material. With this procedure, a 600-lb block was reduced to smaller pieces without the use of any additional equipment. Through this advanced development program, the HIEE has demonstrated that it can quickly fragment salt cake material into small, easily removable fragments. The HIEE`s material fragmentation ability can be substantially increased through the use of different nozzle geometries and operating procedures.

14. Impact of the seeking safety program on clinical outcomes among homeless female veterans with psychiatric disorders.

Science.gov (United States)

Desai, Rani A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Najavits, Lisa M; Rosenheck, Robert A

2008-09-01

Seeking Safety is a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention that is designed to treat clients with comorbid substance abuse and trauma histories. This study examined its effectiveness when used with homeless women veterans with psychiatric or substance abuse problems at 11 Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers that had Homeless Women Veterans Programs. The intervention consists of 25 sessions that cover topics to help build safety in clients' lives and is present-focused, offering psychoeducation and coping skills. A cohort of homeless women veterans (N=359) was recruited before Seeking Safety was implemented (phase I). After clinicians were trained and certified in Seeking Safety, a postimplementation cohort was recruited and offered Seeking Safety treatment (phase II, N=91). Phase I lasted from January 2000 to June 2003. Phase II lasted from June 2003 to December 2005. The intervention lasted for six months. All participants were interviewed every three months for one year and received intensive case management and other services during the study. Mixed models were used to compare one-year clinical outcomes across phases. There were few differences across groups at baseline. All women entering the Homeless Women Veterans Programs showed significant improvement on most clinical outcome measures over one year. The Seeking Safety cohort reported significantly better outcomes over one year in employment, social support, general symptoms of psychiatric distress, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, particularly in the avoidance and arousal clusters. However, the Seeking Safety cohort was significantly more likely to have used drugs in the past 30 days. Seeking Safety appears to have had a moderately beneficial impact on several clinical outcomes. Although the nonequivalent comparison groups and low follow-up rates limit the internal validity of these results, availability of Seeking Safety may be of benefit for homeless female veterans

15. Impact of a logistics management program on admitted patient boarders within an emergency department.

Science.gov (United States)

Healy-Rodriguez, Mary Anne; Freer, Chris; Pontiggia, Laura; Wilson, Rula; Metraux, Steve; Lord, Lyndsey

2014-03-01

ED crowding is a public health issue, and hospitals across the country must pursue aggressive strategies to improve patient flow to help solve this growing problem. The logistics management program (LMP) is an expansion of the bed management process to include a systematic approach to patient flow management throughout the facility and a clinical liaison or field agent to drive throughput at all points of care. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an LMP on ED length of stay (ED evaluation times and ED placement times), as well as inpatient length of stay (IPLOS). This is a quasi-experimental study of 28,684 ED admissions in a suburban, tertiary medical center before and after implementing an LMP (2008 vs 2009). The median ED evaluation time was 219 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 178 minutes) in 2008 versus 207 minutes (IQR, 171 minutes) in 2009 (P < .001). The median ED placement time was 219 minutes (IQR, 259 minutes) in 2008 versus 193 minutes (IQR, 158 minutes) in 2009 (P < .001). The median IPLOS was 3.93 days (IQR, 4.9 days) in 2008 versus 3.83 days (IQR, 4.7 days) in 2009 (P < .001), which represents a reduction of 1,483 inpatient days in 2009. The results provide strong evidence to support the impact of an LMP on decreasing ED evaluation times, ED placement times, and IPLOS. Further exploration is needed to examine the program as a best practice, as well as its applicability for other facilities. Copyright © 2014 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

16. The Impact of the Teen Outreach Program on Sexual Intentions and Behaviors.

Science.gov (United States)

Walsh-Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie L; Wang, Wei; Debate, Rita; Perrin, Kay; Singleton, Ashley; Noble, Charlotte A; Rahman, Saba; Maness, Sarah B; Mahony, Helen; Ziemba, Robert; Malmi, Markku; Marwah, Elizabeth; Hall, Kristin; Turner, DeAnne; Blunt-Vinti, Heather; Noble, Shireen M; Daley, Ellen M

2016-09-01

17. Evaluating the Impact of the Summit Station, Greenland Radiosonde Program on Science and Forecast Services

Science.gov (United States)

Martinez, C. J.; Starkweather, S.; Cox, C. J.; Solomon, A.; Shupe, M.

2015-12-01

Radiosondes are balloon-borne meteorological sensors used to acquire profiles of temperature and humidity. Radiosonde data are essential inputs for numerical weather prediction models and are used for climate research, particularly in the creation of reanalysis products. However, radiosonde programs are costly to maintain, in particular in the remote regions of the Arctic (e.g., \$440,000/yr at Summit, Greenland), where only 40 of approximately 1000 routine global launches are made. The climate of this data-sparse region is poorly understood and forecast data assimilation procedures are designed for global applications. Thus, observations may be rejected from the data assimilation because they are too far from the model expectations. For the most cost-efficient deployment of resources and to improve forecasting methods, analyses of the effectiveness of individual radiosonde programs are necessary. Here, we evaluate how radiosondes launched twice daily (0 and 12 UTC) from Summit Station, Greenland, (72.58⁰N, 38.48⁰W, 3210 masl) influence the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) operational forecasts from June 2013 through May of 2015. A statistical analysis is conducted to determine the impact of the observations on the forecast model and the meteorological regimes that the model fails to reproduce are identified. Assimilation rates in the inversion layer are lower than any other part of the troposphere. Above the inversion, assimilation rates range from 85%-100%, 60%-98%, and > 99% for temperature, humidity, and wind, respectively. The lowest assimilation rates are found near the surface, possibly associated with biases in the representation of the temperature inversion by the ECMWF model at Summit. Consequently, assimilation rates are lower near the surface during winter when strong temperature inversions are frequently observed. Our findings benefit the scientific community who uses this information for climatological analysis of the

18. Evaluating the Impact of the Summit Station, Greenland Radiosonde Program on Data Modelers and Forecast Services

Science.gov (United States)

Martinez, C. J.; Starkweather, S.; Cox, C. J.; Solomon, A.; Shupe, M.

2015-12-01

Radiosondes are balloon-borne meteorological sensors used to acquire profiles of temperature and humidity. Radiosonde data are essential inputs for numerical weather prediction models and are used for climate research, particularly in the creation of reanalysis products. However, radiosonde programs are costly to maintain, in particular in the remote regions of the Arctic (e.g., \$440,000/yr at Summit, Greenland), where only 40 of approximately 1000 routine global launches are made. The climate of this data-sparse region is poorly understood and forecast data assimilation procedures are designed for global applications. Thus, observations may be rejected from the data assimilation because they are too far from the model expectations. For the most cost-efficient deployment of resources and to improve forecasting methods, analyses of the effectiveness of individual radiosonde programs are necessary. Here, we evaluate how radiosondes launched twice daily (0 and 12 UTC) from Summit Station, Greenland, (72.58⁰N, 38.48⁰W, 3210 masl) influence the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) operational forecasts from June 2013 through May of 2015. A statistical analysis is conducted to determine the impact of the observations on the forecast model and the meteorological regimes that the model fails to reproduce are identified. Assimilation rates in the inversion layer are lower than any other part of the troposphere. Above the inversion, assimilation rates range from 85%-100%, 60%-98%, and > 99% for temperature, humidity, and wind, respectively. The lowest assimilation rates are found near the surface, possibly associated with biases in the representation of the temperature inversion by the ECMWF model at Summit. Consequently, assimilation rates are lower near the surface during winter when strong temperature inversions are frequently observed. Our findings benefit the scientific community who uses this information for climatological analysis of the

19. Impact of an educational program on parental knowledge of cerebral palsy.

Science.gov (United States)

Karande, Sunil; Patil, Shailesh; Kulkarni, Madhuri

2008-09-01

To investigate parental knowledge of cerebral palsy, and to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on it. From May 2003 to April 2004, 26 parents of newly diagnosed children with cerebral palsy were interviewed. After the interview, each parent was administered a structured educational program and re-interviewed after three months. The pre and post intervention responses were compared using Chi-square test. After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in parental knowledge: (i) of the cause of the disorder (5/26 vs 20/26, P = 0.0001), (ii) that it is non-progressive (16/26 vs 24/26, P = 0.021), (iii) that it is not curable (10/26 vs 23/26, P = 0.0005), (iv) that it is treatable (12/26 vs 24/26, P=0.0009), (v) of the frequency and duration of therapy necessary to improve functional abilities (7/26 vs 17/26, P = 0.005), and, (vi) of the importance of following up regularly with a pediatrician (17/26 vs 26/26, P = 0.003). However, there was no significant improvement in parental knowledge: (i) of the meaning of the term 'cerebral palsy' (0/26 vs 5/26, P = 0.060), (ii) that 'early intervention therapy' given by a team of therapists is its recommended therapy (18/26 v 23/26, P = 0.174), (iii) of the meaning of the term 'early intervention therapy' (12/26 vs 17/26, P = 0.163), and (iv) that it is preventable with good medical care (8/26 vs 10/26, P = 0.560). Parental knowledge of cerebral palsy is inadequate. A single-session educational program can significantly improve parental knowledge about many 'core basic issues' regarding cerebral palsy.

20. A study on the impact of the GLOBE program on students' attitudes regarding environmental issues

Science.gov (United States)

A key objective in environmental curricula should be to instill responsible and concerned attitudes toward environmental issues. This can be accomplished through the application of innovative programs which emphasize the development of the affective domain of learning. The development of personal attitudes is one form of evidence that the affective domain is being addressed. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) on the attitudes of students toward environmental issues. Three hundred and five middle and high school level students from four states were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward selected environmental statements. Results demonstrated that attitudes toward environmental issues of GLOBE students were significantly greater than non-GLOBE students. Additional analysis demonstrated that regardless of grade levels, gender, racial and ethnicity backgrounds, depth of GLOBE involvement, and degree of teachers' GLOBE experiences, GLOBE students display similar levels of attitudes toward environmental issues. Establishment of a reliable Likert scale measurement instrument was accomplished. Permission to use an existing survey was obtained. Additional items were added to increase validity. Establishment of reliability was accomplished through a Guttman split half analysis of the piloted instrument. Through the use of factor analysis, four categories or sub-groupings of attitudes were determined to exist. Reliability was established for the factors. These sub-groupings were identified as personal commitment to environmental protection, awareness of avenues for action, loci of control, and students' perception of teachers' abilities to present environmental topics. These categories were a part of the analysis of four hypotheses.

1. Evaluating the impact of a Connecticut program to reduce availability of unhealthy competitive food in schools.

Science.gov (United States)

Long, Michael W; Henderson, Kathryn E; Schwartz, Marlene B

2010-10-01

This article seeks to inform state and local school food policies by evaluating the impact of Connecticut's Healthy Food Certification (HFC), a program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside reimbursable school meals. Food service directors from all school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) (N = 151) in Connecticut were surveyed about the availability of competitive foods before and after the 2006-2007 implementation of HFC. Food categories were coded as healthy or unhealthy based on whether they met the Connecticut Nutrition Standards. Data on NSLP participation were provided by the State Department of Education. Changes in NSLP participation and availability of unhealthy competitive foods in elementary, middle, and high schools were compared pre- and post-HFC across districts participating (n = 74) versus not participating (n = 77) in HFC. On average, all districts in Connecticut reduced the availability of unhealthy competitive foods, with a significantly greater reduction among HFC districts. Average NSLP participation also increased across the state. Participating in HFC was associated with significantly greater NSLP participation for paid meals in middle school; however, implementing HFC did not increase overall NSLP participation beyond the statewide upward trend. The 2006-2007 school year was marked by a significant decrease in unhealthy competitive foods and an increase in NSLP participation across the state. Participation in Connecticut's voluntary HFC further reduced the availability of unhealthy competitive foods in local school districts, and had either a positive or neutral effect on NSLP participation. © 2010, American School Health Association.

2. An Analysis of the Social Impact of the Stipend Program for Secondary School Girls of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Science.gov (United States)

2014-01-01

The present study carries out an impact analysis of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program for secondary-school girls in seven districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan, including Battagram, Bonair, Hangu, Kohistan, Shangla, Tank, and Upper Dir. In 2012 we collected household-level primary data and used a probit model for…

3. Higher Education Marketing Strategies Based on Factors Impacting the Enrollees' Choice of a University and an Academic Program

Science.gov (United States)

Kalimullin, Aydar M.; Dobrotvorskaya, Svetlana G.

2016-01-01

The relevance of studying the stated problem is due to the fact that for increasing the efficiency of higher education marketing it is necessary to take into account several factors, namely, factors that impact the choice of a university and an academic program by enrollees, as well as socio-psychological characteristics of the latter, while…

4. Assessing the Impact of a Multi-Disciplinary Peer-Led-Team Learning Program on Undergraduate STEM Education

Science.gov (United States)

Carlson, Kerri; Celotta, Dayius Turvold; Curran, Erin; Marcus, Mithra; Loe, Melissa

2016-01-01

There has been a national call to transition away from the traditional, passive, lecture-based model of STEM education towards one that facilitates learning through active engagement and problem solving. This mixed-methods research study examines the impact of a supplemental Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) program on knowledge and skill acquisition…

5. SBIR and STTR Program for Assistive Technology Device Development: Evaluation of Impact Using an ICF-Based Classification

Science.gov (United States)

Bauer, Stephen M.; Arthanat, Sajay

2010-01-01

The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the impact of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) grant programs of 5 federal agencies National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Department of Education (USDE), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and…

6. Impact of the Personal Strengths Program on Self-Determination Levels of College Students with LD and/or ADHD

Science.gov (United States)

Farmer, Jennie L.; Allsopp, David H.; Ferron, John M.

2015-01-01

This study investigates the impact of The Personal Strengths Program (PSP) on seven college students with learning disabilities and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD) using a multiple baseline design. Students with LD/ADHD experience increased challenges in school settings and decreased post-secondary outcomes when compared with…

7. Unlocking Public Value: An Evaluation of the Impact of Missouri's Great Northwest Day at the Capitol Program

Science.gov (United States)

Majee, Wilson; Maltsberger, Beverly A.

2013-01-01

The study reported here is an evaluation of the public value of a regional public policy engagement program. Data were obtained through surveys and document analysis. The study observed peer-learning and networking opportunities as some of the most impactful elements of GNWD at the Capitol in creating public value. Building coalitions of interest…

8. Former Prison Inmates' Recidivism Rates: A Content Analysis Study of the Impact of Educational and Rehabilitation Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Lathrop, Peter J. P., Sr.

2011-01-01

This study was an analysis and synthesis of the existing research on prison-based rehabilitative programs and their positive or negative impact on recidivism rates. This study utilizes qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methodologies. This study is a qualitative research in nature in that the analysis of research findings is based on the…

9. 77 FR 6585 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Impact Evaluation of the YouthBuild Program...

Science.gov (United States)

2012-02-08

..., from low-income families or in foster care and who are offenders, migrants, disabled or children of... emotional development. The evaluation represents an important opportunity for DOL and CNCS to add to the growing body of knowledge about the impacts of ``second chance'' programs for youth who have dropped out...

10. 77 FR 28623 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Impact Evaluation of the YouthBuild Program...

Science.gov (United States)

2012-05-15

... communities: Available housing, youth education, employment and criminal behavior. The program primarily... from school and work, incarcerated, unmarried, and have children outside of marriage. The evaluation of... on employment, earnings, and job characteristics? What are YouthBuild's impacts on crime and...

11. Impact of the School Outreach Tour Program of Citizens Archive of Pakistan on Students' Perceptions and Attitudes

Science.gov (United States)

Alam, Qutbi

2017-01-01

This paper examines the impact of School Outreach Tour (SOT-A) program,one of the projects of the Citizens Archive of Pakistan (CAP), a non-profit organisation on the perceptions and attitudes of Grade-8 Students of partners' schools. The sample in this study consists of (n = 139) students of Grade-8, selected by convenience sampling from five…

12. Teachers as Leaders: The Impact of Teacher Leadership Supports for Beginning Teachers in an Online Induction Program

Science.gov (United States)

Ellis, Joshua; Polizzi, Samuel Justin; Roehrig, Gillian; Rushton, Gregory

2017-01-01

Induction programs have become a leading model of providing coherent, targeted support for beginning teachers who are most at risk for leaving the profession. This comparison study assessed the impact of a designed teacher leadership intervention to support beginning teachers' reflective practices and their use of network social capital in an…

13. The Systemic Impacts of New York's Universal Pre-Kindergarten Program: A Response to Ackerman, Apple, Barnett, and Goffin

Science.gov (United States)

Morrissey, Taryn W.; Lekies, Kristi S.; Cochran, Moncrieff M.

2007-01-01

We thank Debra J. Ackerman, Peggy L. Apple, W. Steven Barnett, and Stacie G. Goffin for their thoughtful commentaries on our article "Implementing New York's Universal Pre-Kindergarten Program: An Exploratory Study of Systemic Impacts" (this issue). Our response focuses on two main themes that emerged from the commentaries: (a) the…

14. Development of Psychosocial Scales for Evaluating the Impact of a Culinary Nutrition Education Program on Cooking and Healthful Eating

Science.gov (United States)

Condrasky, Margaret D.; Williams, Joel E.; Catalano, Patricia Michaud; Griffin, Sara F.

2011-01-01

Objective: Develop scales to assess the impact of the "Cooking with a Chef" program on several psychosocial constructs. Methods: Cross-sectional design in which parents and caregivers were recruited from child care settings (Head Start, faith-based, public elementary schools), and cooks were recruited from church and school kitchens. Analysis…

15. Impact of a Professional Development Program Using Data-Loggers on Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Inquiry-Based Teaching

Science.gov (United States)

Tosa, Sachiko; Martin, Fred

2010-01-01

This study examined how a professional development program which incorporates the use of electronic data-loggers could impact on science teachers' attitudes towards inquiry-based teaching. The participants were 28 science or technology teachers who attended workshops offered in the United States and Japan. The professional development program…

16. Assessing the impact of England's National Health Service R&D Health Technology Assessment program using the "payback" approach.

Science.gov (United States)

Raftery, James; Hanney, Stephen; Green, Colin; Buxton, Martin

2009-01-01

This study assesses the impact of the English National Health Service (NHS) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) program using the "payback" framework. A survey of lead investigators of all research projects funded by the HTA program 1993--2003 supplemented by more detailed case studies of sixteen projects. Of 204 eligible projects, replies were received from 133 or 65 percent. The mean number of peer-reviewed publications per project was 2.9. Seventy-three percent of projects claimed to have had had an impact on policy and 42 percent on behavior. Technology Assessment Reports for the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) had fewer than average publications but greater impact on policy. Half of all projects went on to secure further funding. The case studies confirmed the survey findings and indicated factors associated with impact. The HTA program performed relatively well in terms of "payback." Facilitating factors included the program's emphasis on topics that matter to the NHS, rigorous methods and the existence of "policy customers" such as NICE.

17. Educational Impacts and Cost-Effectiveness of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis

Science.gov (United States)

García, Sandra; Saavedra, Juan E.

2017-01-01

We meta-analyze for impact and cost-effectiveness 94 studies from 47 conditional cash transfer programs in low- and middle-income countries worldwide, focusing on educational outcomes that include enrollment, attendance, dropout, and school completion. To conceptually guide and interpret the empirical findings of our meta-analysis, we present a…

18. The Impacts of Theme-Based Language Instruction: A Case Study of an Advanced Chinese Intensive Program

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Song Jiang

2017-06-01

Full Text Available Theme-based language teaching under Content-Based Instruction (CBI is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes learning professional content along with language skills. This paper reports a case study on the impacts of a theme-based advanced Chinese intensive program in a university setting. It begins with a review of CBI and its theme-based approach and then discusses the program design, curriculum development, and instructional practice of the program. The impacts of the theme-based approach are examined based on the pre- and post-proficiency test results, learners’ self-reported surveys on the themes and topics, and the reading strategies covered in the program. Qualitative analysis of learners’ self-reflections and program evaluations is also presented. Based on the evidence collected, this paper argues that the theme-based model has positive impacts on improving language proficiency, preparing for academic and professional language use, cultivating strategic language learners, and revitalizing Chinese teaching at the superior level.

19. Supporting people with Autism Spectrum Disorders in leisure time: impact of an University Volunteer Program, and related factors

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Carmen Nieto

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Social participation has positive effects on mental and physical health, and it can be taken as an indicator of quality of life. However, the participation of people with disabilities in their communities is still scarce, especially for people with autism. The impact on individual satisfaction produced by a university volunteer program (APUNTATE aimed at supporting people with autism in leisure activities was evaluated. A questionnaire of impact assessment, that identifies those areas where the impact is greater, was completed by 159 families of users and 230 volunteers. Users and volunteers reported a very high level of satisfaction with the program, but personal characteristics of users slightly influenced the scores. The structured organization of the program, and the continued training and support received by volunteers were the highest valued aspects. The adaptation of supports to the individual needs of users and volunteers was another relevant factor to explain the results. The evaluation obtained shows that volunteering programs to promote the participation of people with ASD can be successfully implemented in public universities. These programs can increase the personal development, facilitate a change of attitude towards people with disabilities and can improve future employment prospects of students.

20. Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the California Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate Project and its associated Marine Mammal Research Program. Volume 2

Science.gov (United States)

1995-04-01

presented at the January 6, 1995 public hearing in Santa Cruz, CA. These comments contributed to the evolution of the research program that makes up...frequency sounds, and crustacean/ cephalopod auditory capabilities/potential impacts. Response: There is a fairly well-defined OMZ in the oceanic water...habitat and predicted activity locations within the oceanic water column. Commercially-taken species of fish, crustaceans and cephalopods would be

1. Impacts of Resettlement Programs on Deforestation of Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests in Southwest Ethiopia

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kefelegn Getahun

2017-11-01

Full Text Available Severe land degradation and the consequent series of drought and famine episodes have caused major waves of human migration in Ethiopia over the past 5 decades. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of consecutive resettlement programs (spontaneous and planned on the forests in southwest Ethiopia. The spatial distribution and extent of forest cover were mapped for the periods 1957, 1975, and 2007 based on visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. The rate of deforestation was analyzed using overlay and buffer analysis techniques available in ArcGIS software. Focus group discussions and household surveys were conducted to collect information on landscape (forest change and the causes and consequences of deforestation. Results from the forest cover change analysis revealed that the study area lost large tracts (80% of its forest cover between 1957 and 2007. Demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural changes introduced by migrants were the leading drivers of deforestation in the study area. In addition, the rate of deforestation in the region has been exacerbated by a low level of education and awareness of the local people about the benefits of forests, lack of regulations to protect the forests, habitat destruction to deter crop-damaging wild pests, forest clearing for fuelwood and charcoal making, and wood extraction for construction and household furniture purposes.

2. Impact of a Medicare MTM program: evaluating clinical and economic outcomes.

Science.gov (United States)

Hui, Rita L; Yamada, Brian D; Spence, Michele M; Jeong, Erwin W; Chan, James

2014-02-01

To assess the impact of a Medicare Medication Therapy Management (MTM) program in a large integrated health plan on patient mortality, hospitalization and emergency department (ED) utilization, and daily prescription costs. Retrospective matched cohort study. Patients who received MTM services between 2006 and 2010 were matched to control patients who were enrolled in Medicare but did not receive MTM services. They were matched in a 1:4 ratio based on age, gender, geographic location, and prospective diagnostic-cost-group (DxCG) risk score. Multivariate regressions were used to analyze the outcomes. Subgroup analyses were conducted for patients enrolled in 2010 because the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services lowered the drug-cost threshold for MTM eligibility and changed from opt-in to optout participation. We identified 34,532 members who received MTM services and 138,128 control members. The MTM group was found to have a significantly reduced mortality (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.88; P MTM services resulted in lower mortality and odds for hospitalization for enrolled patients compared with matched controls. This study observed an increase in ED visits and no differences in change in daily medication costs in MTM services.

3. Invitation choice structure has no impact on attendance in a female business training program in Kenya.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Faizan Diwan

Full Text Available Business training programs are a common form of support to small businesses, but organizations providing this training often struggle to get business owners to attend. We evaluate the role of invitation choice structure in determining agreement to participate and actual attendance. A field experiment randomly assigned female small business owners in Kenya (N = 1172 to one of three invitation types: a standard opt-in invitation; an active choice invitation where business owners had to explicitly say yes or no to the invitation; and an enhanced active choice invitation which highlighted the costs of saying no. We find no statistically significant effect of these alternative choice structures on willingness to participate in training, attending at least one day, and completing the course. The 95 percent confidence interval for the active treatment effect on attendance is [-1.9%, +9.5%], while for the enhanced active choice treatment it is [-4.1%, +7.7%]. The effect sizes consistent with our data are smaller than impacts measured in health and retirement savings studies in the United States. We examine several potential explanations for the lack of effect in a developing country setting. We find evidence consistent with two potential reasons being limited decision-making power amongst some women, and lower levels of cognition making the enhanced active choice wording less effective.

4. The impact of obesity on cardiovascular structure and function: the fetal programming era

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

St-Pierre J

2012-03-01

Full Text Available Julie St-Pierre1, Luigi Bouchard2,3, Paul Poirier41Department of Pediatrics, Chicoutimi Hospital, Saguenay, QC, Canada; 2Department of Biochemistry, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 3ECOGENE-21 and Lipid Clinic, Chicoutimi Hospital, Saguenay, QC, Canada; 4Quebec Heart and Lungs Institute, Université Laval, Quebec, QC, CanadaAbstract: The burden of obesity is now well established as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and other disorders. Although better clinical guidelines exist to prevent and treat obesity, the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is increasing alarmingly. Primary prevention remains the gold standard to significantly reduce the public health concerns associated with obesity. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors (such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes for cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents are known. The scope of this review is thus to discuss new and emerging obesity and associated-disease risk factors. Evaluation of the coronary plaque formation, diastolic dysfunction, carotid intima-media thickness and heart rate variability represent interesting tools with clinical relevance. Beyond these new cardiovascular disease risk factors, recent evidence suggests that a detrimental fetal environment, associated with for example, maternal obesity, insulin resistance, and physical inactivity, imprints fetal metabolic programming via epigenetic mechanisms that predisposes the newborn to obesity and cardiovascular disease later in life. This information may impact on the future management of maternal health, as well as for those high-risk children.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, pediatrics, risk factors

5. Evidence of Progress - Measurement of Impacts of Australia's S&L Program from 1990-2010

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lowenthal-Savy, Danielle; McNeil, Michael; Harrington, Lloyd

2013-09-11

Australia first put categorical energy efficiency labels on residential appliances in the mid-1980s, and the first Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for refrigerators was implemented in 1999. Updated in 2005, these MEPS were aligned with US 2001 levels. Considered together, these actions set Australia apart as having one of the most aggressive appliance efficiency programs in the world. For these reasons, together with good data on product sales over time, Australia represents a potentially fruitful case study for understanding the dynamics energy efficiency standards and labeling (EES&L) programs impacts on appliance markets. This analysis attempts to distinguish between the impacts of labeling alone as opposed to MEPS, and to probe the time-dependency of such impacts. Fortunately, in the Australian case, detailed market sales data and a comprehensive registration system provides a solid basis for the empirical evaluation of these questions. This paper analyzes Australian refrigerator efficiency data covering the years 1993-2009. Sales data was purchased from a commercial market research organization (in this case, the GfK Group) and includes sales and average price in each year for each appliance model; this can be used to understand broader trends by product class and star rating category, even where data is aggregated. Statistical regression analysis is used to model market introduction and adoption of high efficiency refrigerators according to logistic adoption model formalism, and parameterizes the way in which the Australian programs accelerated adoption of high-efficiency products and phased out others. Through this analysis, the paper presents a detailed, robust and quantitative picture of the impacts of EES&L in the Australian case, but also demonstrates a methodology of the evaluation of program impacts that could form the basis of an international evaluation framework for similar programs in other countries.

6. Evidence of progress. Measurement of impacts of Australia's S and L program from 1990-2010

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lowenthal-Savy; McNeil, Michael; Harrington, Lloyd [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

2013-10-15

Australia first put categorical energy efficiency labels on residential appliances in the mid-1980s, and the first Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for refrigerators was implemented in 1999. Updated in 2005, these MEPS were aligned with US 2001 levels. Considered together, these actions set Australia apart as having one of the most aggressive appliance efficiency programs in the world. For these reasons, together with good data on product sales over time, Australia represents a potentially fruitful case study for understanding the dynamics energy efficiency standards and labeling (EES and L) programs impacts on appliance markets. This analysis attempts to distinguish between the impacts of labeling alone as opposed to MEPS, and to probe the time-dependency of such impacts. Fortunately, in the Australian case, detailed market sales data and a comprehensive registration system provides a solid basis for the empirical evaluation of these questions. This paper analyzes Australian refrigerator efficiency data covering the years 1993-2009. Sales data was purchased from a commercial market research organization (in this case, the GfK Group) and includes sales and average price in each year for each appliance model – this can be used to understand broader trends by product class and star rating category, even where data is aggregated. Statistical regression analysis is used to model market introduction and adoption of high efficiency refrigerators according to logistic adoption model formalism, and parameterizes the way in which the Australian programs accelerated adoption of high-efficiency products and phased out others. Through this analysis, the paper presents a detailed, robust and quantitative picture of the impacts of EES and L in the Australian case, but also demonstrates a methodology of the evaluation of program impacts that could form the basis of an international evaluation framework for similar programs in other countries.

7. Evaluation of the impact of a nutritional program for undernourished children in Brazil

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Santos, Iná S; Gigante, Denise P; Coitinho, Denise C; Haisma, Hinke; Valle, Neiva C J; Valente, Gicele

2005-01-01

To assess the effectiveness on child growth and body composition of a supplementary feeding program (Milk Supplement Program), a prospective, controlled study was conducted in Northeast Brazil. When entering the Program, children from 10 municipalities with the highest coverage rates in the Program

8. Availability of tobacco cessation services in substance use disorder treatment programs: Impact of state tobacco control policy.

Science.gov (United States)

Abraham, Amanda J; Bagwell-Adams, Grace; Jayawardhana, Jayani

2017-08-01

Given the high prevalence of smoking among substance use disorder (SUD) patients, the specialty SUD treatment system is an important target for adoption and implementation of tobacco cessation (TC) services. While research has addressed the impact of tobacco control on individual tobacco consumption, largely overlooked in the literature is the potential impact of state tobacco control policies on availability of services for tobacco cessation. This paper examines the association between state tobacco control policy and availability of TC services in SUD treatment programs in the United States. State tobacco control and state demographic data (n=51) were merged with treatment program data from the 2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (n=10.413) to examine availability of TC screening, counseling and pharmacotherapy services in SUD treatment programs using multivariate logistic regression models clustered at the state-level. Approximately 60% of SUD treatment programs offered TC screening services, 41% offered TC counseling services and 26% offered TC pharmacotherapy services. Results of multivariate logistic regression showed the odds of offering TC services were greater for SUD treatment programs located in states with higher cigarette excise taxes and greater spending on tobacco prevention and control. Findings indicate cigarette excise taxes and recommended funding levels may be effective policy tools for increasing access to TC services in SUD treatment programs. Coupled with changes to insurance coverage for TC under the Affordable Care Act, state tobacco control policy tools may further reduce tobacco use in the United States. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

9. The Impact of Two Los Angeles County Teen Courts on Youth Recidivism: Comparing Two Informal Probation Programs.

Science.gov (United States)

Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez

2016-03-01

This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes.

10. The Impact of Two Los Angeles County Teen Courts on Youth Recidivism: Comparing Two Informal Probation Programs

Science.gov (United States)

Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez

2016-01-01

Objective This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Results Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. Conclusions While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes. PMID:27547171

11. 77 FR 55479 - Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP Programs: Research and Analysis on Impact of CMS Programs on the...

Science.gov (United States)

2012-09-10

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP Programs: Research... health care services to American Indian/ Alaska Native (AI/AN) people through a network of hospitals...

12. Impact of a Home Leisure Educational Program for Older Adults Who Have Had a Stroke (Home Leisure Educational Program).

Science.gov (United States)

Nour, Kareen; Desrosiers, Johanne; Gauthier, Pierre; Carbonneau, Helene

2002-01-01

Examined the effectiveness of leisure education for older adults having difficulty adjusting psychologically after a stroke. Participants received either an experimental home leisure education program (intervention group) or a friendly home visit (control group) after discharge from rehabilitation. The intervention group performed significantly…

13. Requiring sobriety at program entry: impact on outcomes in supported transitional housing for homeless veterans.

Science.gov (United States)

Schinka, John A; Casey, Roger J; Kasprow, Wesley; Rosenheck, Robert A

2011-11-01

An important distinction in models of housing for the homeless is whether programs that require abstinence prior to program admission produce better outcomes than unrestricted programs. Data from a large transitional housing program were used to compare client characteristics of and outcomes from programs requiring abstinence at admission and programs not requiring abstinence. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Northeast Program Evaluation Center provided records of individuals who were admitted into, and discharged from, the VA Grant and Per Diem program in 2003-2005. Records contained information from intake interviews, program discharge information, and descriptions of provider characteristics. Analyses were based on 3,188 veteran records, 1,250 from programs requiring sobriety at admission and 1,938 from programs without a sobriety requirement. Group differences were examined with t tests and chi square analyses; predictors of program outcome were determined with logistic regression. Individuals using drugs or alcohol at program admission had more problematic histories, as indicated by several general health and mental health variables, and shorter program stays. There were significant differences between groups in the frequency of program completion, recidivism for homelessness, and employment on program discharge, but effect sizes for these analyses were uniformly small and of questionable importance. Regression analyses did not find meaningful support for the importance of sobriety on program entry on any of the outcome measures. The results add evidence to the small body of literature supporting the position that sobriety on program entry is not a critical variable in determining outcomes for individuals in transitional housing programs.

14. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Messenger, Mike; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Golemboski, Bill; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.

2010-04-14

Public and private funding for end-use energy efficiency actions is expected to increase significantly in the United States over the next decade. For example, Barbose et al (2009) estimate that spending on ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs in the U.S. could increase from \$3.1 billion in 2008 to \$7.5 and 12.4 billion by 2020 under their medium and high scenarios. This increase in spending could yield annual electric energy savings ranging from 0.58% - 0.93% of total U.S. retail sales in 2020, up from 0.34% of retail sales in 2008. Interest in and support for energy efficiency has broadened among national and state policymakers. Prominent examples include {approx}\$18 billion in new funding for energy efficiency programs (e.g., State Energy Program, Weatherization, and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants) in the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Increased funding for energy efficiency should result in more benefits as well as more scrutiny of these results. As energy efficiency becomes a more prominent component of the U.S. national energy strategy and policies, assessing the effectiveness and energy saving impacts of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for policymakers and private and public funders of efficiency actions. Thus, it is critical that evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) is carried out effectively and efficiently, which implies that: (1) Effective program evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methodologies and tools are available to key stakeholders (e.g., regulatory agencies, program administrators, consumers, and evaluation consultants); and (2) Capacity (people and infrastructure resources) is available to conduct EM&V activities and report results in ways that support program improvement and provide data that reliably compares achieved results against goals and similar programs in other jurisdictions (benchmarking). The National Action Plan for Energy

15. Complementary Public Service Announcements as a Strategy for Enhancing the Impact of Health-Promoting Messages in Fictional Television Programs.

Science.gov (United States)

Bavin, Lynda M; Owens, R Glynn

2017-02-17

Research suggests that health-promoting storylines in developed nations' fictional television programs can have a beneficial impact on viewers' beliefs, attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The sizes of the effects are generally modest; however, the audience reach is substantial. Given that many fictional programs may hold the prolonged attention of millions of viewers, it is of value to examine potential strategies for enhancing the persuasive impact of their health-promoting storylines. Complementary public service announcements may be a promising strategy. This randomized experimental study (N = 310) examined the effects of viewing a complementary public service announcement after an organ donation story in an episode of Grey's Anatomy. Results indicated that the public service announcement enhanced the beneficial impact of the story on viewers' discussion behavior (about one's organ donor wishes), discussion intention, and perceived learning. This experimental study is the first to examine the effects of viewing a non-character public service announcement after a health-related storyline in a developed nation's fictional program compared to viewing the same episode of the program on its own. It is important for future research to examine whether these findings replicate for different health issues and with a nationally representative sample.

16. Impact of Implementation of Direct Cash Transfer Program 2008/2009 on Household Consumption in Central Java Province

Science.gov (United States)

Subanti, S.; Hakim, A. R.; Hakim, I. M.

2017-04-01

This study aims to see the impact of direct cash transfer program for 2008/2009 on household consumption of food, nonfood, education, and health in Central Java Province. The study is expected to provide important findings for the improvement of a similar program in the future. This study findings that (1) the increasing in food and non-food consumption for direct cash transfer recipients than non direct cash transfer recipients; (2) the impact of households expenditure on education for direct cash transfer recipients is higher than non direct cash transfer recipients; (3) the impact of households expenditure on health for direct cash transfer recipients is lower than non direct cash transfer recipients. This study recommended that (1) implementation of direct cash transfer program 2008/2009 must be managed to be better because this program can defend household welfare. It shows from several indicators of well-being such as consumption spending, education, and health; (2) data targets for poor households (very poor, poor, nearly poor) must be updated.

17. The impact of universal suicide-prevention programs on the help-seeking attitudes and behaviors of youths.

Science.gov (United States)

Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Klingbeil, David A; Meller, Sarah J

2013-01-01

While the ultimate goal of adolescent suicide-prevention efforts is to decrease the incidence of death by suicide, a critical intermediary goal is directing youths toward effective sources of assistance. To comprehensively review the universal prevention literature and examine the effects of universal prevention programs on student's attitudes and behaviors related to help-seeking. We systematically reviewed studies that assessed help-seeking outcomes including prevention efforts utilizing (1) psychoeducational curricula, (2) gatekeeper training, and (3) public service messaging directed at youths. Of the studies reviewed, 17 studies evaluated the help-seeking outcomes. These studies were identified through a range of sources (e.g., searching online databases, examining references of published articles on suicide prevention). The results of this review suggest that suicide-prevention programming has a limited impact on help-seeking behavior. Although there was some evidence that suicide-prevention programs had a positive impact on students' help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, there was also evidence of no effects or iatrogenic effects. Sex and risk status were moderators of program effects on students help-seeking. Caution is warranted when considering which suicidal prevention interventions best optimize the intended goals. The impact on adolescents' help-seeking behavior is a key concern for educators and mental-health professionals.

18. The impact of Japan's 2004 postgraduate training program on intra-prefectural distribution of pediatricians in Japan.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rie Sakai

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. METHODS: The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1 predominantly urban and 2 others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. RESULTS: The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p value<.0001 and pediatricians (p value = 0.0057. For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012 and others (p value<0.0001, whereas, for pediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343, but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value =0.0584. CONCLUSION: The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects

19. Impact of Employer-Sponsored Onsite Pharmacy and Condition Management Programs on Medication Adherence.

Science.gov (United States)

Aguilar, Kathleen M; Hou, Qingjiang; Miller, Ross M

2015-08-01

Poor medication adherence is associated with worsened health outcomes and higher health care expenditures. An increasing number of employers are sponsoring wellness initiatives designed to support healthy lifestyles, improve productivity, and offer a return on investment. Onsite pharmacies may facilitate higher medication adherence rates by providing employees a convenient, low-cost option for filling prescriptions that is integrated with other onsite health services. To (a) assess the impact of an employer's onsite pharmacy on health plan members' medication adherence using multiple measures of medication adherence and persistence, including medication possession ratio (MPR), average number of days until discontinuation (60-day gap in coverage), and percentage of members without a 30-day gap in coverage, and (b) evaluate these outcomes between those members who participated in condition management programs and those who did not. A retrospective analysis of a self-insured employer's claims data was undertaken. Medication adherence was assessed among the self-insured employer's health plan members, which included subscribers and their dependents who filled an asthma, depression, diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia medication at an onsite pharmacy, compared with those who used a community pharmacy. Multiple standard measures of medication adherence were considered. These measures included MPR, which was assessed for 1- and 2-year time periods. MPR was chosen because it is one of the most commonly referenced formulas in the literature and represents adherence over a fixed period of time. In addition, medication persistence was estimated by 30-day gaps in coverage and discontinuation of treatment. To assess the impact of onsite pharmacy use and account for covariate effects, the linear mixed model approach was applied with the logit transformed MPR as the response variable. An analysis of MPR among condition management participants was also performed. In total, 2

20. Evaluating the impact of dental care on housing intervention program outcomes among homeless veterans

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Nunez, Elizabeth; Gibson, Gretchen; Jones, Judith A; Schinka, John A

2013-01-01

...) transitional housing intervention program. Our sample consisted of 9870 veterans who were admitted into a VA homeless intervention program during 2008 and 2009, 4482 of whom received dental care during treatment and 5388 of whom did...

1. TAX ADMINISTRATION: Impact of Compliance and Collection Program Declines on Taxpayers

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

2002-01-01

...) compliance and collection programs. Many view these programs-such as audits to determine whether taxpayers have accurately reported the amount of taxes that they owe and collection follow-up with taxpayers who have not...

2. Impact of an online healthful eating and physical activity program for college students.

Science.gov (United States)

Greene, Geoffrey W; White, Adrienne A; Hoerr, Sharon L; Lohse, Barbara; Schembre, Susan M; Riebe, Deborah; Patterson, Jill; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Shoff, Suzanne; Horacek, Tanya; Blissmer, Bryan; Phillips, Beatrice W

2012-01-01

To identify impact of an online nutrition and physical activity program for college students. Randomized, controlled trial using online questionnaires and on-site physical and fitness assessments with measurement intervals of 0 (baseline), 3 (postintervention), and 15 months (follow-up). Online intervention delivered to college students; a centralized Web site was used for recruitment, data collection, data management, and intervention delivery. College students (18-24 years old, n = 1689), from eight universities (Michigan State University, South Dakota State University, Syracuse University, The Pennsylvania State University, Tuskegee University, University of Rhode Island, University of Maine, and University of Wisconsin). A 10-lesson curriculum focusing on healthful eating and physical activity, stressing nondieting principles such as size acceptance and eating competence (software developer: Rainstorm, Inc, Orono, Maine). Measurements included anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory fitness, fruit/vegetable (FV) intake, eating competence, physical activity, and psychosocial stress. Repeated measures analysis of variance for outcome variables. Most subjects were white, undergraduate females (63%), with 25% either overweight or obese. Treatment group completion rate for the curriculum was 84%. Over 15 months, the treatment group had significantly higher FV intake (+.5 cups/d) and physical activity participation (+270 metabolic equivalent minutes per week) than controls. For both groups, anthropometric values and stress increased, and fitness levels decreased. Gender differences were present for most variables. First-year males and females gained more weight than participants in other school years. A 10-week online nutrition and physical activity intervention to encourage competence in making healthful food and eating decisions had a positive, lasting effect on FV intake and maintained baseline levels of physical activity in a population that otherwise experiences

3. Impact of obtaining medications from pharmaceutical company assistance programs on therapeutic goals.

Science.gov (United States)

Trompeter, Jessica M; Havrda, Dawn E

2009-03-01

Limited data exist regarding whether improved access to medications for indigent persons through pharmaceutical company assistance programs (PCAPs) leads to attainment of therapeutic goals. To evaluate the impact of obtaining medications through PCAPs with pharmacist assistance versus prescription insurance on the likelihood of achieving therapeutic goals. A retrospective chart review was conducted in a private family practice clinic. Individuals prescribed one or more drugs for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia and receiving medication through a PCAP or prescription insurance were included. Eligible records were reviewed for pertinent laboratory and medication information and to assess achievement of hypertension, diabetic, and dyslipidemia goals. A total of 458 persons were eligible for inclusion: 250 with prescription insurance and 208 using a PCAP. The PCAP group was older, with more females and multiple disease states. There was no significant difference between the groups in reaching hypertension goals; the goals were not predicted by PCAP, presence of diabetes, or class of drug. More PCAP individuals (67.1%) achieved hemoglobin A1C values less than 7% compared with patients in the prescription insurance group (39.6%; p = 0.002). The PCAP group had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values (95.8 +/- 28.0 mg/dL; mean +/- SD) and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values (40.8 +/- 12.1 mg/dL) compared with the prescription insurance group (111.8 +/- 37.5 mg/dL; p values compared with persons with prescription insurance. The presence of prescription insurance alone does not guarantee reaching therapeutic goals; pharmacist involvement with PCAP and obtaining drugs enhances the likelihood of persons achieving therapeutic goals.

4. The adherence impact of a program offering specialty pharmacy services to patients using retail pharmacies.

Science.gov (United States)

Moore, Janice M; Matlin, Olga S; Lotvin, Alan M; Brennan, Troyen A; Falkenrath, Randy; Kymes, Steven; Singh, Surya C; Kyrychenko, Pavlo; Shrank, William H

2016-01-01

5. The California HIV/AIDS Research Program: History, Impact, and HIV Cure Initiative.

Science.gov (United States)

Loeb Stanga, Lisa; Mujeeb, Anwer; Packel, Laura; Martz, Tyler; Lemp, George

2017-08-29

This Special Issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses features results from the HIV Cure Initiative, funded by the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP). As a publicly-funded grant maker, CHRP has served for more than three decades as a unique resource for innovative researchers in California whose work seeks to address all aspects of the HIV epidemic and the communities affected by it. Early initiatives at CHRP pioneered what would become enduring cornerstones of HIV science: isolation of the virus; efficacy and toxicities of the first HIV treatments; the emergence of drug resistance; the first biospecimen banks for HIV-related research; the first community-based laboratory service for HIV diagnostic serology; and the first population-based longitudinal cohort study of persons living with HIV - The Gay Men's Health Study. More recently, CHRP-funded conceptual studies of zinc finger nuclease-mediated disruption of CCR5 genomic sequences and the safety of solid organ transplantation for HIV-positive patients have progressed from brilliant ideas to clinical realities, and CHRP is currently funding the first multisite trial of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for transgender persons in the U.S. The present article outlines the founding of CHRP, our current grantmaking process, and our impact on HIV research over time. In 2013, CHRP launched a new initiative aimed at moving the then nascent area of HIV cure science forward: the CHRP HIV Cure Initiative provided over \$1.4 million to multiple basic biomedical research projects, and their results are presented in this Special Issue.

6. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kusuma Diwyanto

2009-06-01

Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

7. The Argonne Radiological Impact Program (ARIP). Part II. MONITOR: A Program and Data Base for Retrieval and Utilization of Pollutant Monitoring Data

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eckerman, Keith F.; Stowe, Ralph F.; Frigerio, Norman A.

1977-02-01

The Argonne Radiological Impact Program (ARIP) is an ongoing project of the Laboratory's Division of Environmental Impact Studies that aims at developing methodologies for assessing the carcinogenic hazards associated with nuclear power development. The project's first report (ANL/ES-26, Part I), published in September.l973, discussed models of radiation carcinogenesis and the contribution of U .. S. background radiation levels to hazardous dose rates. The current report (Part II) treats the storage and access of available data on radiation and radioactivity levels in the u. S. A compute-r code. (the MONITOR program) is prf!sented, which can serve as a ready-access data. bank for all monitoring data acquired over the past two decades. The MONITOR program currently stores data on monitoring locations, types of monitoring efforts, and types of monitoring data. reported in Radiation Data and Reports by the various state and federal ne-tworks; expansion of this data base to include nuclear power facilities in operation or on order is ongoing ·. The MONITOR code retrieves information within a search radius, or rectangl.e ,. circumscribed by parameters of latitude and longitude, and l:.ists or maps the data_as: requested. The code, with examples, is given in full in the report ..

8. An Assessment of the Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of the Ricecheck Program

OpenAIRE

Singh, Rajinder Pal; Brennan, John P.; Lacy, John; Steel, Felicity

2005-01-01

Ricecheck, a best management practices extension program for rice production in Australia, was developed by the NSW Department of Primary Industries advisory staff, Finley, in 1986. The program is based on eight best management practice recommendations called ‘Key Checks’ that are considered essential for achieving high yields. Economic analysis of the program reveals that there are significant financial, social and environment benefits from the adoption of the program. The results further re...

9. Memories of GAMES: Exploring the Long-Term Impacts of After-School Museum Programming on Girls' Attitudes Towards Science

Science.gov (United States)

Snow, Sarah Elizabeth

The purpose of this study is to investigate any lasting impacts of the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History's Girls at the Museum Exploring Science (GAMES) Program. Using assessment document analysis, student focus groups, and adult interviews, this study examined whether students' positive associations with science continue after completion of the program and whether the program affects the academic and career choices of past participants. Results from the analysis suggest that GAMES has a generally positive impact on participant attitudes towards science in both the short- and long-term. These results also support existing research in identifying key factors in the success of the program including hands-on activities, exposure to diverse careers and female role models, and the incorporation of authentic objects and experiences. These factors of success can contribute to the evidence base about the role of informal education programs in increasing science participation among women, as well as ways in which schools and universities can collaborate to effectively serve populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the sciences.

10. THE IMPACT OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMS ON POVERTY AT DISTRICT LEVEL IN INDONESIA: CASE STUDY OF SLEMAN, 2008-2012

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-12-01

Full Text Available The economic crisis of 1997/1998 greatly affected the national economy of Indonesia by making more people vulnerable to the poverty. To tackle the problems of poverty, Indonesian government has issued some poverty alleviation programs and strategies through national and local budget allocations. The national government has set up some poverty reduction programs, including The National Program for Community Empowerment (Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat/PNPM. Beside PNPM, there is a program of Alokasi Dana Desa/ADD that comes from the district budget (local funding. In terms of budget allocation, both central and local government has always increased their support from year to year. This study examines the impact of poverty alleviation programs, including BLM PNPM and ADD on poverty at district level in Indonesia with the case study of Sleman district in Yogyakarta province during 2008-2012. Using trend analysis, Klassen typology and pooled least square analysis, this study generally finds that the poverty alleviation programs do not significantly reduce the level of poverty in Sleman.

11. Evaluating the Differential Impact of Teaching Assistant Training Programs on International Graduate Student Teaching

Science.gov (United States)

Meadows, Ken N.; Olsen, Karyn C.; Dimitrov, Nanda; Dawson, Debra L.

2015-01-01

In this study, we compared the effects of a traditional teaching assistant (TA) training program to those of a specialized program, with a substantial intercultural component, for international graduate students. We expected both programs to result in an increase in international graduate students' teaching self-efficacy, observed teaching…

12. Assessing the Impact of Business Study Abroad Programs on Cultural Awareness and Personal Development

Science.gov (United States)

Black, H. Tyrone; Duhon, David L.

2006-01-01

In this article, the authors assessed results from a cultural awareness instrument administered to business student participants at the beginning of a summer study abroad program in London, England, and then again at the program's conclusion. The data indicated that the program enhanced cultural awareness and personal development. Moreover,…

13. Updating the Economic Impacts of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program

Science.gov (United States)

Nores, Milagros; Belfield, Clive R.; Barnett, W. Steven; Schweinhart, Lawrence

2005-01-01

This article derives an updated cost-benefit ratio for the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, an intensive preschool intervention delivered during the 1960s to at-risk children in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Because children were randomly assigned to the program or a control group, differences in outcomes are probably attributable to program status.…

14. From Ground to Distance: The Impact of Advanced Technologies on an Innovative School Leadership Program

Science.gov (United States)

Korach, Susan; Agans, Lyndsay J.

2011-01-01

An educational leadership preparation program for the 21st Century not only makes use of innovations in teaching and learning, but pushes the educational experience forward through the effective use of advanced technologies. This idea frames the delivery methodology for a blended online principal preparation program. The blended online program was…

15. The Impact of an Urban Charter School Leadership Training Program on Participants

Science.gov (United States)

Perry, Jack Lamar

2013-01-01

This study explored the experiences, perspectives, and recommendations of participants in a charter school training program in order to gauge whether the training adequately prepared them for charter school leadership. Charter school leaders are prepared for leadership by university programs, non-profit programs, and charter schools themselves. A…

16. Investing in Head Start: Impacts and Cost Effectiveness of America's Comprehensive Child Development Program

Science.gov (United States)

University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development, 2009

2009-01-01

As part of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the federal Head Start and Early Head Start programs received a significant increase in funding. Head Start is the longest-running program to address systemic poverty in the United States. It is also one of the most heavily researched programs in the nation. Still, debate continues…

17. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

N/A

1999-04-28

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

18. The impact of needle-exchange programs on the spread of HIV among injection drug users: A simulation study

OpenAIRE

Raboud, J. M.; Boily, M.?C.; Rajeswaran, J.; O’Shaughnessy, M. V.; Schechter, M T

2003-01-01

Objective. To determine the impact of the implementation of a needle-exchange program (NEP) on the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in an injection drug user (IDU) community. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study of a theoretical population of 10,000 IDUs. The population was followed monthly from 1984 to 2000. HIV was assumed to be transmitted only by needle sharing. The NEP was introduced in 1989 and evaluated over a period of 11 years. The impacts of the proportion of the ...

19. Understanding The Impact of an Apprenticeship-Based Scientific Research Program on High School Students' Understanding of Scientific Inquiry

Science.gov (United States)

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Baksa, Kristen; Skinner, Jane

2011-08-01

The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of an apprenticeship program on high school students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. Data related to seventeen students' understanding of science and scientific inquiry were collected through open-ended questionnaires. Findings suggest that although engagement in authentic scientific research helped the participants to develop competency in experimentation methods it had limited impact on participants' learning of the implicit aspects of scientific inquiry and NOS. Discussion focuses on the importance of making the implicit assumptions of science explicit to the students in such authentic scientific inquiry settings through structured curriculum.

20. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.

2011-04-01

This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

1. Full Impact of Department of Defense Program to Restart State-Owned Enterprises Difficult to Estimate

Science.gov (United States)

2009-01-30

Company for Electrical Industries would be impacted by multiplying a 25 percent impact factor times 4,797(the total number of employees in the...company). Table 3 – Percentage Impact Factors Used to Estimate Employment Impact for FY 2007 Projects Number of Employees...Percentage Impact Factor 1,000 or less 35% 1,001 to 3,000 30% 3,001 to 5,000 25% Greater than 5,001 20% Source: DoD. As noted in the table

2. Impacts of electric demand-side management programs on fuel choice: A case study

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lee, A.D.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Sandahl, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Vinnard, A.B. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1994-04-01

Information, rebates, and technical assistance associated with utility demand-side management (DSM) programs can alter consumer behavior. Such programs may unintentionally affect consumer fuel choices. This study addresses fuel choice effects of a unique Pacific Northwest DSM program: (1) it is directed at new manufactured homes only, (2) it is an acquisition program -- utilities make \$2,500 payments directly to manufacturers for each electrically heated, energy-efficient home built, (3) it has rapidly penetrated nearly 100% of the potential market, and (4) over 90% of the affected homes in the participating region have traditionally used electricity for space heating. Heating equipment data for all manufactured homes built in the region since 1987 were sampled and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the DSM program and fuel shares. The quantitative data were supplemented with interview data to better understand the relationship between the program and fuel choice. The results should be useful for program design and evaluation.

3. St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program: The Impact of a Teacher-Led Intervention on Student Knowledge Gains.

Science.gov (United States)

Ayers, Katherine; Li, Zhenghong; Quintana, Yuri; Van Kirk Villalobos, Aubrey; Klosky, James L

2017-12-01

In 2006, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (Memphis, Tennessee) began developing a school-based outreach program known as the St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program (SJCECP). The aim of this program is to teach Memphis-area children about cells, cancer, and healthy habits that can prevent the development of cancer in adulthood. Initial plans for delivery of the program was for St. Jude staff to present the program at local schools. This plan for disseminating instruction was not feasible due to the limited availability of St. Jude staff. As a next step, during the 2012-2014 academic years, we conducted a study entitled SJCECP2, utilizing the SJCECP curriculum, with the objective of evaluating the impact of the educational intervention on knowledge acquisition and retention among fourth-grade students participating in a modified, teacher-led version of the program. Eighteen teachers and 426 students from 10 local schools in the greater Memphis area participated in the program evaluation. This study used a single-group, pre-test/post-test design to determine the impact of the SJCECP intervention on changes in knowledge scores among fourth-grade students. Testing was on cells, cancer, and healthy living. The mean scores increased from 6.45 to 8.12, 5.99 to 7.65, and 5.92 to 7.96 on cell, cancer, and health behaviors units, respectively (all p values teachers to improve student knowledge of knowledge of cells, cancer, and healthy living concepts at the fourth-grade level.

4. Two-Year Impacts of a Comprehensive Family Financial Rewards Program on Children's Academic Outcomes: Moderation by Likelihood of Earning Rewards

Science.gov (United States)

Berg, Juliette; Morris, Pamela; Aber, Larry

2013-01-01

This article examines the extent to which impacts of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program on children's academic outcomes vary by key characteristics associated with families' propensity to earn the rewards offered by the program. We utilize an experimental study of Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, a comprehensive CCT program in New York City…

5. An Assessment of the Impact of a Science Outreach Program, Science In Motion, on Student Achievement, Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Perception

Science.gov (United States)

Herring, Phillip Allen

2009-01-01

The purpose of the study was to analyze the science outreach program, Science In Motion (SIM), located in Mobile, Alabama. This research investigated what impact the SIM program has on student cognitive functioning and teacher efficacy and also investigated teacher perceptions and attitudes regarding the program. To investigate student…

6. Does Implementation Follow Design? A Case Study of a Workplace Health Promotion Program Using the 4-S Program Design and the PIPE Impact Metric Evaluation Models.

Science.gov (United States)

Äikäs, Antti Hermanni; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Hirvensalo, Mirja Hannele; Absetz, Pilvikki

2017-08-01

The aim of this study was to describe the content of a multiyear market-based workplace health promotion (WHP) program and to evaluate design and implementation processes in a real-world setting. Data was collected from the databases of the employer and the service provider. It was classified using the 4-S (Size, Scope, Scalability, and Sustainability) and PIPE Impact Metric (Penetration, Implementation) models. Data analysis utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods. Program design covered well the evidence-informed best practices except for clear path toward sustainability, cooperation with occupational health care, and support from middle-management supervisors. The penetration rate among participants was high (99%) and majority (81%) of services were implemented as designed. Study findings indicate that WHP market would benefit the use of evidence-based design principles and tendentious decisions to anticipate a long-term implementation process already during the planning phase.

7. The patient’s voice: an exploratory study of the impact of a group self-management support program

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Johnston Sharon

2012-06-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the potential value of self-management support programs for people with chronic diseases, it is vital to understand how they influence participants’ health attitudes and behaviours. The Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP, the most well-known and widely studied such program, is funded in many provinces and jurisdictions throughout Canada. However, there is little published evidence on its impact in the Canadian health-care system. We studied participants’ reactions and perceived impacts of attending the Stanford program in one Ontario health region so we could assess its value to the health region. The study asked: What are participants’ reactions and perceived impacts of attending the Stanford CDSMP? Methods This mixed methods exploratory study held four focus groups approximately one year after participants attended a Stanford program workshop. At the beginning of each session, participants filled out a survey on the type and frequency of community and health resources used for their self-management. During the sessions, a moderator guided the discussion, asking about such things as long-term impact of the program on their lives and barriers to self-management of their chronic conditions. Results Participants perceived diverse effects of the workshop: from having a profound impact on one area to affecting all aspects of their lives. A change in physical activity patterns was the most prominent behaviour change, noted by over half the participants. Other recurrent effects included an improved sense of social connection and better coping skills. Barriers to self-management were experienced by almost all participants with several dominant themes emerging including problems with the health system and patient-physician interaction. Participants reported a wide variety of resources used in their self-management, and in some cases, an increase in use was noted for some resources. Conclusions Self

8. Comparative assessment of the food purchase program and the national school feeding program's impact in Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Leandro Gomes de Oliveira

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Food Purchase Program (PAA and the National School Feeding Program (PNAE are the main trading programs of Brazil that promote a connection between the family farm and institutional markets. The case study portrayed in this article aimed to evaluate and compare the socioeconomic impacts generated by the PAA and PNAE among Ubá's family farmers in Minas Gerais. To do this, two tipes of questionnaires were applied to managers and farmers who participate in the programs and obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods and non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney. Results showed that the two policies present positive socioeconomic benefits to family farmers, although the PNAE's producers income be higher and the food prices traded in PAA are superior. On the other side, having participated in the PAA and PNAE does not provide extra income arising from entry into new markets, which in theory could be the result of improving the quality of production,and does not promote the reduction in the use of fertilizers and pesticides.

9. Evaluating the Impact of an Educational Program on Practice Patterns of Canadian Family Physicians Interested in Depression Treatment

OpenAIRE

Kutcher, Stanley Paul; Lauria-Horner, Bianca Aurora; MacLaren, Connie Marian; Bujas-Bobanovic, Maja

2002-01-01

Background: Depression is frequently unrecognized and undertreated. Therefore, there is a need to increase the knowledge and skills of primary care physicians regarding the diagnosis and treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to provide, and evaluate the impact of, a brief educational program with a number of practice tools and resources in order to improve family physicians' knowledge, diagnosis, and treatment of depression.

10. Impact Evaluation of a Program of Public Funding of Private Innovation Activities. An Econometric Study of FONTAR in Argentina

OpenAIRE

Andrés López; Ana María Reynoso; Martín Rossi

2010-01-01

This report contains an evaluation of the Argentinean Technological Fund (FONTAR), whose main objective is to fund projects presented by private firms which aim at improving their competitive performance through technological innovation activities. The main goal of this evaluation is to analyze the impact of FONTAR's programs on the innovation activities of granted firms. The authors also try to ascertain whether FONTAR contributed to improve supported firms' innovative outputs and productive...

11. Estimating the Counterfactual Impact of Conservation Programs on Land Cover Outcomes: The Role of Matching and Panel Regression Techniques.

Science.gov (United States)

Jones, Kelly W; Lewis, David J

2015-01-01

Deforestation and conversion of native habitats continues to be the leading driver of biodiversity and ecosystem service loss. A number of conservation policies and programs are implemented--from protected areas to payments for ecosystem services (PES)--to deter these losses. Currently, empirical evidence on whether these approaches stop or slow land cover change is lacking, but there is increasing interest in conducting rigorous, counterfactual impact evaluations, especially for many new conservation approaches, such as PES and REDD, which emphasize additionality. In addition, several new, globally available and free high-resolution remote sensing datasets have increased the ease of carrying out an impact evaluation on land cover change outcomes. While the number of conservation evaluations utilizing 'matching' to construct a valid control group is increasing, the majority of these studies use simple differences in means or linear cross-sectional regression to estimate the impact of the conservation program using this matched sample, with relatively few utilizing fixed effects panel methods--an alternative estimation method that relies on temporal variation in the data. In this paper we compare the advantages and limitations of (1) matching to construct the control group combined with differences in means and cross-sectional regression, which control for observable forms of bias in program evaluation, to (2) fixed effects panel methods, which control for observable and time-invariant unobservable forms of bias, with and without matching to create the control group. We then use these four approaches to estimate forest cover outcomes for two conservation programs: a PES program in Northeastern Ecuador and strict protected areas in European Russia. In the Russia case we find statistically significant differences across estimators--due to the presence of unobservable bias--that lead to differences in conclusions about effectiveness. The Ecuador case illustrates that

12. Estimating the Counterfactual Impact of Conservation Programs on Land Cover Outcomes: The Role of Matching and Panel Regression Techniques.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kelly W Jones

Full Text Available Deforestation and conversion of native habitats continues to be the leading driver of biodiversity and ecosystem service loss. A number of conservation policies and programs are implemented--from protected areas to payments for ecosystem services (PES--to deter these losses. Currently, empirical evidence on whether these approaches stop or slow land cover change is lacking, but there is increasing interest in conducting rigorous, counterfactual impact evaluations, especially for many new conservation approaches, such as PES and REDD, which emphasize additionality. In addition, several new, globally available and free high-resolution remote sensing datasets have increased the ease of carrying out an impact evaluation on land cover change outcomes. While the number of conservation evaluations utilizing 'matching' to construct a valid control group is increasing, the majority of these studies use simple differences in means or linear cross-sectional regression to estimate the impact of the conservation program using this matched sample, with relatively few utilizing fixed effects panel methods--an alternative estimation method that relies on temporal variation in the data. In this paper we compare the advantages and limitations of (1 matching to construct the control group combined with differences in means and cross-sectional regression, which control for observable forms of bias in program evaluation, to (2 fixed effects panel methods, which control for observable and time-invariant unobservable forms of bias, with and without matching to create the control group. We then use these four approaches to estimate forest cover outcomes for two conservation programs: a PES program in Northeastern Ecuador and strict protected areas in European Russia. In the Russia case we find statistically significant differences across estimators--due to the presence of unobservable bias--that lead to differences in conclusions about effectiveness. The Ecuador case

13. Impact of a home-based social welfare program on care for palliative patients in the Basque Country (SAIATU Program).

Science.gov (United States)

Molina, Emilio Herrera; Nuño-Solinis, Roberto; Idioaga, Gorka Espiau; Flores, Silvia Librada; Hasson, Naomi; Orueta Medía, Juan F

2013-01-30

SAIATU is a program of specially trained in-home social assistance and companionship which, since February 2011, has provided support to end-of-life patients, enabling the delivery of better clinical care by healthcare professionals in Osakidetza (Basque Health Service), in Guipúzcoa (Autonomous Community of the Basque Country).In January 2012, a retrospective observational study was carried out, with the aim of describing the characteristics of the service and determining if the new social service and the associated socio-health co-ordination had produced any effect on the use of healthcare resources by end-of-life patients.The results of a comparison of a cohort of cases and controls demonstrated evidence that the program could reduce the use of hospital resources and promote the continuation of living at home, increasing the home-based activity of primary care professionals.The objective of this study is to analyse whether a program of social intervention in palliative care (SAIATU) results in a reduction in the consumption of healthcare resources and cost by end-of-life patients and promotes a shift towards a more community-based model of care. Comparative prospective cohort study, with randomised selection of patients, which will systematically measure patient characteristics and their consumption of resources in the last 30 days of life, with and without the intervention of a social support team trained to provide in-home end-of-life care.For a sample of approximately 150 patients, data regarding the consumption of public healthcare resources, SAIATU activity, home hospitalisation teams, and palliative care will be recorded. Such data will also include information dealing with the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and attending carers, as well as particular characteristics of patient outcomes (Karnofsky Index), and of the outcomes of palliative care received (Palliative Outcome Scale).Ethical approval for the study was given by

14. Impact of a home-based social welfare program on care for palliative patients in the Basque Country (SAIATU Program

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Molina Emilio Herrera

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background SAIATU is a program of specially trained in-home social assistance and companionship which, since February 2011, has provided support to end-of-life patients, enabling the delivery of better clinical care by healthcare professionals in Osakidetza (Basque Health Service, in Guipúzcoa (Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. In January 2012, a retrospective observational study was carried out, with the aim of describing the characteristics of the service and determining if the new social service and the associated socio-health co-ordination had produced any effect on the use of healthcare resources by end-of-life patients. The results of a comparison of a cohort of cases and controls demonstrated evidence that the program could reduce the use of hospital resources and promote the continuation of living at home, increasing the home-based activity of primary care professionals. The objective of this study is to analyse whether a program of social intervention in palliative care (SAIATU results in a reduction in the consumption of healthcare resources and cost by end-of-life patients and promotes a shift towards a more community-based model of care. Method/design Comparative prospective cohort study, with randomised selection of patients, which will systematically measure patient characteristics and their consumption of resources in the last 30 days of life, with and without the intervention of a social support team trained to provide in-home end-of-life care. For a sample of approximately 150 patients, data regarding the consumption of public healthcare resources, SAIATU activity, home hospitalisation teams, and palliative care will be recorded. Such data will also include information dealing with the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and attending carers, as well as particular characteristics of patient outcomes (Karnofsky Index, and of the outcomes of palliative care received (Palliative

15. Impact of an educational program on knowledge and practice of health care staff toward pharmaceutical waste management in Gaza, Palestine.

Science.gov (United States)

Tabash, Mohammed I; Hussein, Rim A; Mahmoud, Aleya H; El-Borgy, Mohamed D; Abu-Hamad, Bassam A

2016-04-01

In health care facilities, pharmaceutical waste is generally discharged down the drain or sent to landfill. Poor knowledge about their potential downstream impacts may be a primary factor for improper disposal behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an intervention program on knowledge and practice of health care staff regarding pharmaceutical waste management. The study was designed as a pre/posttest intervention study. Total sample size was 530 in the pre-intervention phase, and then a subsample of 69 individuals was selected for the intervention and the post-intervention phases. Paired-sample t test was used to assess the difference between pretest and follow-up test results. A statistically significant improvement in knowledge and practice was achieved (Ppharmaceutical waste management. In health care facilities, pharmaceutical waste is generally discharged down the drain or sent to landfill. A lack of knowledge about the potential impacts of this type of waste may be a leading factor in improper disposal behavior. Following an educational program, statistically significant improvement in knowledge and practice of health care staff as regards to pharmaceutical waste management (PWM) was achieved. It is thus recommended that authorities implement training-of-trainers (TOT) programs to educate health care staff on PWM and organize refreshment workshops regularly.

16. The impact of middle manager affective commitment on perceived improvement program implementation success.

Science.gov (United States)

Fryer, Ashley-Kay; Tucker, Anita L; Singer, Sara J

2017-07-03

Recent literature suggests that middle manager affective commitment (emotional attachment, identification, and involvement) to an improvement program may influence implementation success. However, less is known about the interplay between middle manager affective commitment and frontline worker commitment, another important driver of implementation success. We contribute to this research by surveying middle managers who directly manage frontline workers on nursing units. We assess how middle manager affective commitment is related to their perceptions of implementation success and whether their perceptions of frontline worker support mediate this relationship. We also test whether a set of organizational support factors foster middle manager affective commitment. We adapt survey measures of manager affective commitment to our research context of hospitals. We surveyed 67 nurse managers from 19 U.S. hospitals. We use hierarchical linear regression to assess relationships among middle manager affective commitment to their units' falls reduction program and their perceptions of three constructs related to the program: frontline worker support, organizational support, and implementation success. Middle manager affective commitment to their unit's falls reduction program is positively associated with their perception of implementation success. This relationship is mediated by their perception of frontline worker support for the falls program. Moreover, middle managers' affective commitment to their unit's falls program mediates the relationship between perceived organizational support for the program and perceived implementation success. We, through this research, offer an important contribution by providing empirical support of factors that may influence successful implementation of an improvement program: middle manager affective commitment, frontline worker support, and organizational support for an improvement program. Increasing levels of middle manager affective

17. Evaluation of Millstone Nuclear Power Plant, Environmental Impact prediction, based on monitoring programs

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Watson, D.G.

1977-02-01

This report evaluates the nonradiological monitoring program at Millstone Nuclear Power Plant. Both operational as well as preoperational monitoring programs were analyzed to produce long-term (5 yr or longer) data sets, where possible. In order to determine the effectiveness of these monitoring programs, the appropriate data sets have to be analyzed by the appropriate statistical analysis. Thus, both open literature and current statistical analysis being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) were employed in data analysis.

18. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Nutritional programming and the impact on mare and foal performance.

Science.gov (United States)

Coverdale, J A; Hammer, C J; Walter, K W

2015-07-01

Many environmental factors can alter the phenotype of offspring when applied during critical periods of early development. In most domestic species, maternal nutrition influences fetal development and the fetus is sensitive to the nutrition of the dam during pregnancy. Many experimental models have been explored including both under- and overnutrition of the dam. Both nutritional strategies have yielded potential consequences including altered glucose tolerance, pancreatic endocrine function, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and colostrum quality. Although the impact of maternal nutrition on fetal development in the equine has not been thoroughly investigated, overnutrition is a common occurrence in the industry. Work in our laboratory has focused on effects of maternal overnutrition on mare and foal performance, mare DMI, foaling parameters, colostrum quality and passive transfer of immunity, and glucose and insulin dynamics. Over several trials, mares were fed either 100 or 140% of NRC requirements for DE, and supplemental Se and arginine were added to diets in an attempt to mitigate potential intrauterine growth retardation resulting from dams overfed during the last third of pregnancy. As expected, when mares were overfed, BW, BCS, and rump fat values increased. Foal growth over 150 d was also not influenced. Maternal nutrition did not alter colostrum volume but influenced colostrum quality. Maternal overnutrition resulted in lower colostrum IgG concentrations but did not cause failure of passive transfer in foals. Supplemental Se and arginine were unable to mitigate this reduction in colostrum IgG. Additionally, mare and foal glucose and insulin dynamics were influenced by maternal nutrition. Mare glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) increased with increased concentrate supplementation. Foal insulin AUC and peak insulin concentrations were increased when mares were fed concentrate and, in a later trial, foal peak glucose values were reduced

19. Impact of the On the Cutting Edge Professional Development Program on U.S. Geoscience Faculty

Science.gov (United States)

Manduca, C. A.; Iverson, E. A.; Czujko, R.; Macdonald, H.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.; McLaughlin, J.; Sanford, C.; Greenseid, L.; Luxenberg, M.

2011-12-01

Transforming STEM education from a dominantly lecture-based format focused on facts to classrooms where students engage with the process of understanding the world through science is a primary goal of faculty development. On the Cutting Edge seeks to support this transformation by using workshops and a website to build a community of geoscience faculty who learn from one another. In order to assess the impact of the On the Cutting Edge program, we surveyed 5917 U.S. geoscience faculty in 2009 and received 2874 completed responses (49% response rate). We looked at the differences in responses between workshop participants who also use the website, website users who have not attended a Cutting Edge workshop, and survey respondents who had neither attended a Cutting Edge workshop nor used the Cutting Edge website. The number of respondents who had attended a Cutting Edge workshop and had not used the website was too small to analyze. Courses described by Cutting Edge workshop participants make significantly less use of lecture and more use of small group discussion and in-class activities. While all faculty respondents routinely update their courses, workshop participants are more likely to have changed their teaching methods in the two years leading up to the survey. When making changes to their teaching methods, workshop participants are more likely than other populations to seek information about teaching on the web, consult journal articles about teaching, and seek advice from colleagues outside their department and from nationally known leaders in geoscience education. Workshop participants are also more likely to tell a colleague when they do something that is particularly successful in class. End-of-workshop survey and follow-up interview data indicate that participants leave workshops reinvigorated, with a new or renewed commitment to student-centered teaching, and that they make use of the website as they implement ideas for changing their teaching following

20. Growing community: the impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the social and learning environment in primary schools.

Science.gov (United States)

Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

2012-08-01

This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has a positive impact on student engagement, social connections, and confidence within and beyond the school gates. Primary evidence for the research question came from qualitative data collected from students, parents, teachers, volunteers, school principals, and specialist staff through interviews, focus groups, and participant observations. This was supported by analyses of quantitative data on child quality of life, cooperative behaviors, teacher perceptions of the school environment, and school-level educational outcome and absenteeism data. Results showed that some of the program attributes valued most highly by study participants included increased student engagement and confidence, opportunities for experiential and integrated learning, teamwork, building social skills, and connections and links between schools and their communities. In this analysis, quantitative findings failed to support findings from the primary analysis. Limitations as well as benefits of a mixed-methods approach to evaluation of complex community interventions are discussed.

1. Development of a Medication Monitoring System for an Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT Team

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nicole B. Washington, DO, Assistant Professor

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Purpose: The primary goal was to improve medication management oversight for a severely mentally ill (SMI community-based population by developing a medication monitoring system based on current guidelines to optimize pharmacotherapy and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was improvement in coordination of care between healthcare providers. Methods: Guidelines for medication used for psychiatric indications were reviewed. A database of medication for psychiatric indications with monitoring recommendation was developed. Results: Medication regimens for 68 members of the Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT program qualified for review. Fourteen medications, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluphenazine and fluphenazine long-acting injections (LAI, haloperidol and haloperidol LAI, lithium, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone and paliperidone LAI, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone and risperidone LAI, valproic acid/divalproex, and ziprasidone, were identified. In total, 111 medications are used on a monthly basis. Each member receives more than one medication qualifying for review. Additional monitoring parameters that were evaluated included changes in laboratory orders for members with insulin-dependent diabetes. Annual lipid panels were changed to every 6 months, if applicable. Conclusions and Future Directions: This medication monitoring program was developed to help ensure IMPACT members receive the most effective care and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was to improve coordination of care. Medication monitoring will be added as a continuous quality assurance measure. Lab results will be reviewed at least monthly. The medication monitoring program will be evaluated annually.

2. The Impact of Vocational Education and Training Programs on Recidivism: A Systematic Review of Current Experimental Evidence.

Science.gov (United States)

Newton, Danielle; Day, Andrew; Giles, Margaret; Wodak, Joanne; Graffam, Joe; Baldry, Eileen

2018-01-01

Although the association between unemployment and offending is well established, relatively little is known about the impact of vocational education and training programs on re-offending, with much of the previous work in this area failing to control for, or correct, selection bias. This article reports the findings of a systematic review, which considers the findings of only those studies that have used experimental or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate vocational training and employment program outcomes for adult offenders. The analysis identifies key features, based on these studies, of those programs associated with the best outcomes and recommends selection criteria for those who are most likely to benefit from prison vocational education and training.

3. THE DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF SCHOOLCHILDREN IN IASI UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE NATIONAL PREVENTION PROGRAM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Livia BOBU

2015-09-01

Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, dental caries continues to represent a major issue of public health. In Romania, the National Program for Oral and Dental Diseases Prevention was implemented between 1999-2010, addressed to children attending primary school and consisting of weekly mouth rinses with 0.2% NaF solution. In the present study, the dynamic evolution of oral health status of schoolchildren aged 6-12 years in Iasi, under the impact of this Program, was analyzed. The results showed a decreasing trend in the prevalence and incidence of dental caries, a constant decrease of caries experience indices DMFT and DMFS and, within them, the increasing trend of fillings indicator FS and the decrease of deep lesions weight. The conclusion is that tooth decay has declined in schoolchildren in Iasi during the development of the National Prevention Program.

4. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Katharine Kripke

Full Text Available In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC.The study team populated the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0 with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM, as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20-34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15-24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15-29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15-34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program's cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections.The VMMC program's impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15-34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25-34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them insufficient to support geographic targeting.

5. Identifying the Potential Organizational Impact of an Educational Peer Review Program

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Toth, Kate E.; McKey, Colleen A.

2010-01-01

The literature on educational peer review (EPR) has focused on evaluating EPR's impact on faculty and/or student learning outcomes; no literature exists on the potential organizational impact. A qualitative (case study) research design explored perceptions of 17 faculty and 10 administrators within a school of nursing in an Ontario university…

6. Impact of a community-based lymphedema management program on episodes of Adenolymphangitis (ADLA) and lymphedema progression--Odisha State, India.

OpenAIRE

Mues, Katherine E.; Michael Deming; Kleinbaum, David G.; Budge, Philip J.; Mitch Klein; Leon, Juan S.; Aishya Prakash; Jonathan Rout; Fox, LeAnne M.

2014-01-01

Background Lymphedema management programs have been shown to decrease episodes of adenolymphangitis (ADLA), but the impact on lymphedema progression and of program compliance have not been thoroughly explored. Our objectives were to determine the rate of ADLA episodes and lymphedema progression over time for patients enrolled in a community-based lymphedema management program. We explored the association between program compliance and ADLA episodes as well as lymphedema progression. Methodolo...

7. 78 FR 58515 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Bird Hazard Reduction Program at John F...

Science.gov (United States)

2013-09-24

... Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Inspection Service to analyze a proposed method for managing hazards to aircraft at John F. Kennedy... action is a supplement to the Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport...

8. Do In-School Feeding Programs Have an Impact on Academic Performance?

Science.gov (United States)

2013-01-01

As Argentina presents problems of malnutrition, the federal in-school feeding program has become a key policy because it provides an important nutritional intervention during a relevant growth period. This paper estimates the effect of the program on academic performance--measured by standardized test scores--with a difference in difference model,…

9. The Impact of Adult Degree Programs on the Private College or University

Science.gov (United States)

Giles, Pamela A.

2012-01-01

Those who work within adult higher education know there is something unique about their perspective on academic life. Employed in the adult education arena in one capacity or another since 1993, the author has had the privilege of working at an institution with a small adult program and an institution with a very large adult program. In this…

10. Developing Democratic and Transformational School Leaders: Graduates' Perceptions of the Impact of Their Preparation Program

Science.gov (United States)

Stevenson, Robert B.; Doolittle, Gini

2003-01-01

As administrative preparation programs ground strategies for developing new genres of school leaders in transformational and democratic communities, of particular interest are the instructional and programmatic strategies that contribute to successful program outcomes. Constructed over time, this article highlights the specific contribution of…

11. The Impact of Structural Barriers and Facilitators on Early Childhood Literacy Programs in Elementary Charter Schools

Science.gov (United States)

Ross, Denise; Pinder, Glen; Coles-White, D'Jaris

2015-01-01

Elementary charter schools increasingly serve students who are at-risk for reading challenges, giving them a critical role in establishing literacy for young children. This article examines the complexities of starting early childhood literacy programs in charter schools. Specifically, the first year of K-3 literacy programs in a new and a…

12. The Federal Work-Study Program: Impacts on Academic Outcomes and Employment. Policy Brief

Science.gov (United States)

Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment, 2015

2015-01-01

Student employment subsidies are one of the largest types of employment subsidies and one of the oldest forms of student aid. The Federal Work-Study program (FWS) is the largest student employment subsidy program; since 1964, it has provided about \$1 billion per year to cover 75 percent of wages for student employees, who typically work on campus…

13. Impact of Online Summer Mathematics Bridge Program on Placement Scores and Pass Rates

Science.gov (United States)

Frost, Jodi L.; Dreher, J. P.

2017-01-01

An online four-week summer mathematics bridge program was implemented at a Midwest university with historically low pass rates in College Algebra and Remedial Mathematics. Students who completed the four week program significantly increased their mathematics placement exam scores. These students also had a higher pass rate in their initial college…

14. Regional impacts of a program for private forest carbon offset sales

Science.gov (United States)

Darius M. Adams; Ralph Alig; Greg Latta; Eric M. White

2011-01-01

Policymakers are examining wide range of alternatives for climate change mitigation, including carbon offset sales programs, to enhance sequestration in the forest sector. Under an offset sales program, on-the-ground forestry could change as result of both afforestation and modifications in the management of existing forests. These effects could vary markedly by region...

15. The Impact of Online Algorithm Visualization on ICT Students' Achievements in Introduction to Programming Course

Science.gov (United States)

Saltan, Fatih

2017-01-01

Online Algorithm Visualization (OAV) is one of the recent developments in the instructional technology field that aims to help students handle difficulties faced when they begin to learn programming. This study aims to investigate the effect of online algorithm visualization on students' achievement in the introduction to programming course. To…

16. Teachers' Voices: Work Environment Conditions That Impact Teacher Practice and Program Quality

Science.gov (United States)

Whitebook, Marcy; King, Elizabeth; Philipp, George; Sakai, Laura

2016-01-01

Early childhood teachers routinely face insufficient teaching supports and inadequate rewards for their education and commitment (e.g., low pay, lack of professional supports, and lack of benefits). These shortcomings contribute to poor program quality and fuel high levels of teacher turnover, preventing program improvement and making it…

17. The Impact of the Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Program on Student Reading Achievement

Science.gov (United States)

Cordray, David S.; Pion, Georgine M.; Brandt, Chris; Molefe, Ayrin

2013-01-01

One of the most widely used commercially available systems incorporating benchmark assessment and training in differentiated instruction is the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) program. The MAP program involves two components: (1) computer-adaptive assessments administered to students three to four…

18. Market impacts of a multiyear mechanical fuel treatment program in the U.S.

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Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen L. Abt; Robert J. Jr. Huggett

2008-01-01

We describe a two-stage model of global log and chip markets that evaluates the spatial and temporal economic effects of government- subsidized fire-related mechanical fuel treatment programs in the U.S.West and South. The first stage is a goal program that allocates subsidies according to fire risk and location priorities, given a budget and a feasible, market-...

19. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

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Ramsey, Jennifer

2010-01-01

In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least…

20. Development and Impact of a Training Program for Undergraduate Facilitators of Peer-Assisted Learning

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Lundmark, Jennifer; Paradis, Jeffrey; Kapp, Micaela; Lowe, Elizabeth; Tashiro, Lynn

2017-01-01

In late 2011, we created a Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) program focused on improving student performance in high-risk STEM courses. Our PALs are modeled after the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) program, which has been shown to provide long- and short-term benefits to both students (Chan & Bauer, 2015; Gosser, Kampeier, & Pratibha, 2010;…

1. Impactful Student Learning Outcomes of One-to-One Student Laptop Programs in Low Socioeconomic Schools

Science.gov (United States)

Harris, Matthew Joseph

2010-01-01

At present, a majority of one-to-one student laptop programs exist in schools that serve affluent communities, which denies low socioeconomic students the learning benefits of ubiquitous access to technology. Using a "Studying Up-Studying Down" paradigm, this multi-site case study collected mixed method data from program participants at five…

2. Impact of a multifaceted education program on implementing a pediatric palliative care guideline : a pilot study

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Jagt-van Kampen, Charissa Thari; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Verhagen, A. A. Eduard; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.

2015-01-01

Background: A national clinical practice guideline for pediatric palliative care was published in 2013. So far there are only few reports available on whether an educational program fosters compliance with such a guideline implementation. We aimed to test the effect of the education program on

3. Sex and HIV Education Programs: Their Impact on Sexual Behaviors of Young People Throughout the World

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Kirby, Douglas B; Laris, B.A; Rolleri, Lori A

2007-01-01

... education programs as a partial solution to these problems [6] . Indeed, sex and HIV/STD education programs that are based on a written curriculum and that are implemented among groups of youth in school, clinic, or community settings are a promising type of intervention to reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors. They are often well-de...

4. The Impact on Future Guidance Programs of Current Developments in Computer Science, Telecommunications, and Biotechnology.

Science.gov (United States)

Mitchell, Lynda K.; Hardy, Philippe L.

The purpose of this chapter is to envision how the era of technological revolution will affect the guidance, counseling, and student support programs of the future. Advances in computer science, telecommunications, and biotechnology are discussed. These advances have the potential to affect dramatically the services of guidance programs of the…

5. The Impact of Technology Exposure on Student Perceptions of a 1:1 Program

Science.gov (United States)

Stone, Jeffrey A.

2017-01-01

Many school districts across the United States have enacted one-to-one (1:1) programs to boost students' "21st Century Skills". These programs provide a laptop or other personal digital device to every student, with the expectation that teachers will employ modern instructional processes and students will benefit from greater access to…

6. The Impact of Different Teaching Approaches and Languages on Student Learning of Introductory Programming Concepts

Science.gov (United States)

Kunkle, Wanda M.

2010-01-01

Many students experience difficulties learning to program. They find learning to program in the object-oriented paradigm particularly challenging. As a result, computing educators have tried a variety of instructional methods to assist beginning programmers. These include developing approaches geared specifically toward novices and experimenting…

7. Evidence-Based Research: The Impact of the College Crusade GEAR UP Program in RI

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Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

2015-01-01

The Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program, more commonly known as GEAR UP, is a product of federal legislation designed to increase high school completion and college attendance of low-­income youth. It is a federally funded discretionary grant program that is planned, organized and operated at the state and local level.…

8. Understanding the impact of adaptations to a parent-mediated intervention on parents' ratings of perceived barriers, program attributes, and intent to use.

Science.gov (United States)

Pickard, Katherine; Rowless, Seth; Ingersoll, Brooke

2017-11-01

Within the autism spectrum disorder field, rates of attrition in parent-mediated interventions have highlighted the need to engage families around improving the delivery of these services. The primary goal of this study was to approximate the impact of adaptations to an evidence-based, parent-mediated intervention, Project ImPACT (Improving Parents as Communication Teachers), that had been made in collaboration with families in a Medicaid system. A total of 103 parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder were randomized to watch a presentation of either the original or adapted Project ImPACT program. After watching the presentation, participants rated (1) demographic information, (2) perceived structural barriers, (3) Project ImPACT attributes, and (4) intent to use the program. Results from hierarchical linear regression models demonstrated that program type alone predicted parents' ratings of perceived structural barriers. Additionally, both program type and the interaction of program type and annual household income were unique predictors of parents' ratings of program attributes and intent to use. Qualitatively, although many parents reflected positively on both Project ImPACT programs, parents who viewed the adapted program appeared more likely to report positive program attributes. Results suggest the importance of engaging families in improving the fit of parent-mediated interventions for use within a variety of community settings.

9. The impact of STEM enrichment programs on California's high school Latino/a seniors

Science.gov (United States)

Skrotzki, Gretchen

This study seeks to determine if Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) enrichment programs, such as summer camp programs, after-school programs, or STEM-based high schools motivate Latino high school graduates to enter into STEM bachelor programs in college as compared to those students enrolled in non-STEM enrichment programs. A mixed-methods approach consisting of pre- and post- surveys and focus group interviews were used to determine students' level of interest in STEM, confidence in their ability to do well in STEM subjects, consideration to pursue advanced courses in STEM, and consideration to pursue a job in STEM. An average change (Post-Pre) across survey questions was calculated for each student. This provided an overall change across all variables and allowed for one variable called "Total Interest" to be derived.

10. The impact of stratifying by family history in colorectal cancer screening programs.

Science.gov (United States)

Goede, Simon Lucas; Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Zauber, Ann G; Paszat, Lawrence F; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Yong, Jean H E; van Hees, Frank; Tinmouth, Jill; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

2015-09-01

In the province-wide colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program in Ontario, Canada, individuals with a family history of CRC are offered colonoscopy screening and those without are offered guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT, Hemoccult II). We used microsimulation modeling to estimate the cumulative number of CRC deaths prevented and colonoscopies performed between 2008 and 2038 with this family history-based screening program, compared to a regular gFOBT program. In both programs, we assumed screening uptake increased from 30% (participation level in 2008 before the program was launched) to 60%. We assumed that 11% of the population had a family history, defined as having at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with CRC. The programs offered screening between age 50 and 74 years, every two years for gFOBT, and every ten years for colonoscopy. Compared to opportunistic screening (2008 participation level kept constant at 30%), the gFOBT program cumulatively prevented 6,700 more CRC deaths and required 570,000 additional colonoscopies by 2038. The family history-based screening program increased these numbers to 9,300 and 1,100,000, a 40% and 93% increase, respectively. If biennial gFOBT was replaced with biennial fecal immunochemical test (FIT), annual Hemoccult Sensa or five-yearly sigmoidoscopy screening, both the added benefits and colonoscopies required would decrease. A biennial gFOBT screening program that identifies individuals with a family history of CRC and recommends them to undergo colonoscopy screening would prevent 40% (range in sensitivity analyses: 20-51%) additional deaths while requiring 93% (range: 43-116%) additional colonoscopies, compared to a regular gFOBT screening program. © 2015 UICC.

11. Estimating the Population Impact of a New Pediatric Influenza Vaccination Program in England Using Social Media Content.

Science.gov (United States)

Wagner, Moritz; Lampos, Vasileios; Yom-Tov, Elad; Pebody, Richard; Cox, Ingemar J

2017-12-21

The rollout of a new childhood live attenuated influenza vaccine program was launched in England in 2013, which consisted of a national campaign for all 2 and 3 year olds and several pilot locations offering the vaccine to primary school-age children (4-11 years of age) during the influenza season. The 2014/2015 influenza season saw the national program extended to include additional pilot regions, some of which offered the vaccine to secondary school children (11-13 years of age) as well. We utilized social media content to obtain a complementary assessment of the population impact of the programs that were launched in England during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 flu seasons. The overall community-wide impact on transmission in pilot areas was estimated for the different age groups that were targeted for vaccination. A previously developed statistical framework was applied, which consisted of a nonlinear regression model that was trained to infer influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from Twitter posts originating in pilot (school-age vaccinated) and control (unvaccinated) areas. The control areas were then used to estimate ILI rates in pilot areas, had the intervention not taken place. These predictions were compared with their corresponding Twitter-based ILI estimates. Results suggest a reduction in ILI rates of 14% (1-25%) and 17% (2-30%) across all ages in only the primary school-age vaccine pilot areas during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 influenza seasons, respectively. No significant impact was observed in areas where two age cohorts of secondary school children were vaccinated. These findings corroborate independent assessments from traditional surveillance data, thereby supporting the ongoing rollout of the program to primary school-age children and providing evidence of the value of social media content as an additional syndromic surveillance tool.

12. The Impact of the Project K Youth Development Program on Self-Efficacy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Deane, Kelsey L; Harré, Niki; Moore, Julie; Courtney, Matthew G R

2017-03-01

A key issue for youth development programs is whether the learning they provide is transferred to participants' daily lives. It is also important that they are effective for the diverse range of participants they attract. This study used a randomized controlled trial design to measure the impact of Project K, a New Zealand-based youth development program, on academic and social self-efficacy. Project K combines a 3-week wilderness adventure, a 10 day community service component, and 1 year of mentoring to promote positive growth in 14-15 year olds with low self-efficacy. At baseline, the evaluation included 600 Project K (46 % female) and 577 Control participants (48 % female) and revealed that Project K was effective in improving both social and academic self-efficacy from pre- to post-program with effects being sustained 1 year later. Parents' perceptions of changes in the participants' interpersonal skills supported these findings. Differential program effects were found across participant subgroups, particularly 1 year after program completion. The implications of these differences are discussed.

13. The impact of residency programs on new nurse graduates' clinical decision-making and leadership skills: a systematic review.

Science.gov (United States)

AL-Dossary, Reem; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Maddox, P J

2014-06-01

Health care institutions have adapted residency programs to help new graduate nurses to become fully competent and transition from a student nurse to an independent practicing nurse and a bedside leader. The study's aim is to review the literature on the impact of residency programs on new graduate nurses' clinical decision-making and leadership skills. An electronic search was conducted between 1980 and 2013 using databases of the scientific literature in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane EPOC, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature database guide (CINAHL), and PsychInfo using a range of keywords. Information gathered was evaluated for relevance. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were used in this systematic review. In several studies considered in this review, residency programs were developed to improve new graduates skills and promote their transition into the nursing workforce. In fact, the transition programs reduced turnover in that first year of practice and promoted professional growth of the new graduate such as hand-on nursing skills, clinical decision-making and leadership skills, satisfaction, and retention. There is a need for effective residency programs that are designed to prepare new graduate nurses in providing safe, competent and effective patient care. © 2013.

14. A counterfactual impact evaluation of a bilingual program on students' grade point average at a spanish university.

Science.gov (United States)

Arco-Tirado, J L; Fernández-Martín, F; Ramos-García, A M; Littvay, L; Villoria, J; Naranjo, J A

2018-02-21

This observational study intends to estimate the causal effects of an English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) program (as predictor) on students Grade Point Average (GPA) (as outcome) at a particular University in Spain by using a Counterfactual Impact Evaluation (CIE). The need to address the crucial question of causal inferences in EMI programs to produce credible evidences of successful interventions contrasts, however, with the absence of experimental or quasi-experimental research and evaluation designs in the field. CIE approach is emerging as a methodologically viable solution to bridge that gap. The program evaluated here consisted in delivering an EMI program in a Primary Education Teacher Training Degree group. After achieving balance on the observed covariates and recreating a situation that would have been expected in a randomized experiment, three matching approaches such as genetic matching, nearest neighbor matching and Coarsened Exact Matching were used to analyze observational data from a total of 1288 undergraduate students, including both treatment and control group. Results show unfavorable effects of the bilingual group treatment condition. Potential interpretations and recommendations are provided in order to strengthen future causal evidences of bilingual education programs' effectiveness in Higher Education. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

15. Perceived Impacts of a Public Health Training Center Field Placement Program among Trainees: Findings from a Small Group Externship Experience.

Science.gov (United States)

Johansson, Patrik; Grimm, Brandon; Abdel-Monem, Tarik; Hoffman, Stacey J; DeKraai, Mark; McMillan, Analisa

2014-01-01

There is heightened interest in identifying the impact of the federally funded Public Health Training Center (PHTC) program. Although evaluation studies have been conducted of public health training in general, evaluations of PHTC programs are rare. Field placement components are congressionally mandated requirements of PHTCs. Field placements are typically intensive, supervised externships for students to gain public health experience with local health departments or non-profit organizations. We have found no published evaluations of PHTC field placement components. This may be because of their small size and unique nature. We designed and evaluated a 200-h field placement program at an established PHTC. The evaluation included pre/post surveys measuring public health core competencies, and post-experience interviews. We found significant increases in three competency domains among trainees: policy development and program planning, communication skills, and community dimensions of practice. These outcomes contribute to evidence based on the efficacy of PHTC field placement programs, and underscore their role in public health training.

16. Impact of a Letter-Grade Program on Restaurant Sanitary Conditions and Diner Behavior in New York City

Science.gov (United States)

McKelvey, Wendy; Ito, Kazuhiko; Schiff, Corinne; Jacobson, J. Bryan; Kass, Daniel

2015-01-01

Objectives. We evaluated the impact of the New York City restaurant letter-grading program on restaurant hygiene, food safety practices, and public awareness. Methods. We analyzed data from 43 448 restaurants inspected between 2007 and 2013 to measure changes in inspection score and violation citations since program launch in July 2010. We used binomial regression to assess probability of scoring 0 to 13 points (A-range score). Two population-based random-digit-dial telephone surveys assessed public perceptions of the program. Results. After we controlled for repeated restaurant observations, season of inspection, and chain restaurant status, the probability of scoring 0 to 13 points on an unannounced inspection increased 35% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 31%, 40%) 3 years after compared with 3 years before grading. There were notable improvements in compliance with some specific requirements, including having a certified kitchen manager on site and being pest-free. More than 91% (95% CI = 88%, 94%) of New Yorkers approved of the program and 88% (95% CI = 85%, 92%) considered grades in dining decisions in 2012. Conclusions. Restaurant letter grading in New York City has resulted in improved sanitary conditions on unannounced inspection, suggesting that the program is an effective regulatory tool. PMID:25602861

17. Impact of Television Programs and Asvertisements of School Going Adolescents: A Case Study of Bahawalpur City, Pakistan

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. Hassan

2013-05-01

18. Impact of a letter-grade program on restaurant sanitary conditions and diner behavior in New York City.

Science.gov (United States)

Wong, Melissa R; McKelvey, Wendy; Ito, Kazuhiko; Schiff, Corinne; Jacobson, J Bryan; Kass, Daniel

2015-03-01

We evaluated the impact of the New York City restaurant letter-grading program on restaurant hygiene, food safety practices, and public awareness. We analyzed data from 43,448 restaurants inspected between 2007 and 2013 to measure changes in inspection score and violation citations since program launch in July 2010. We used binomial regression to assess probability of scoring 0 to 13 points (A-range score). Two population-based random-digit-dial telephone surveys assessed public perceptions of the program. After we controlled for repeated restaurant observations, season of inspection, and chain restaurant status, the probability of scoring 0 to 13 points on an unannounced inspection increased 35% (95% confidence interval [CI]=31%, 40%) 3 years after compared with 3 years before grading. There were notable improvements in compliance with some specific requirements, including having a certified kitchen manager on site and being pest-free. More than 91% (95% CI=88%, 94%) of New Yorkers approved of the program and 88% (95% CI=85%, 92%) considered grades in dining decisions in 2012. Restaurant letter grading in New York City has resulted in improved sanitary conditions on unannounced inspection, suggesting that the program is an effective regulatory tool.

19. The Impact of a National Faculty Development Program Embedded Within an Academic Professional Organization.

Science.gov (United States)

Baldwin, Constance D; Gusic, Maryellen E; Chandran, Latha

2017-08-01

A sizeable literature describes the effectiveness of institution-based faculty development programs in nurturing faculty educators as scholars, but national programs are less common and seldom evaluated. To fill this role, the Educational Scholars Program (ESP) was created within the Academic Pediatric Association (APA) in 2006. It is a national, three-year, cohort-based certification program focused on fostering educational scholarship. This article describes the development and outcomes of an innovative program embedded within the framework of a national professional organization, and offers a model for potential adaptation by similar organizations to enhance their support of educators.After 10 years, 171 scholars have enrolled in the ESP, and 50 faculty have participated. Scholars are assigned a faculty advisor and participate in three full-day sessions at a national meeting; online, interactive learning modules; and a mentored, scholarly project. The program receives support from the APA in four organizational frames: structural, human resource, political, and symbolic. The self-perceived scholarly proficiency of the scholars in Cohort 1 increased significantly over time, and their productivity and collaborations increased during and after the program. Scholars wrote enthusiastically about their experience in yearly and postprogram evaluations. In interviews, eight past APA presidents explained that the ESP strengthened the APA's mission, created new leaders, and provided a new model for other APA programs. Outcomes of the ESP suggest that a longitudinal faculty development program embedded within a national professional organization can create a social enterprise not only within the organization but also within the broader national community of educator-scholars.

20. Impact of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program on HIB meningitis in Brazil.

Science.gov (United States)

Miranzi, Sybelle de Souza Castro; de Moraes, Suzana Alves; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins

2007-07-01

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB) in Brazil on the morbidity, mortality, and case fatality of HIB meningitis, using the Ministry of Health database and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE). Impact was evaluated through a time series analysis (1983-2002), using regression forecasting (RF) by dividing the time series into two periods: (a) historical (1983-1998) and (b) validation (1999-2002). Impact of the vaccination was positive, although more significant for incidence and mortality than for case fatality rates.