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Sample records for program honeywell sold

  1. Honeywell: Comfort and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszewski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation of the Company starts with having it ranked among the ones operating on the customers` market or those acting on the professional market. But it is not so. Honeywell is beyond such simple criteria. We are a company supplying products, systems and services related with generally conceived automatic control engineering, yet the operational range does comprise so many apparently diversified fields, for instance automatic control in aeronautics, heavy power engineering, building of apartment buildings, detached houses, heat engineering and some others. Nevertheless, our targets are always the same: maximum increase in efficiency and reliability of the process lines controlled by our systems as well as securing the best comfort of work and rest for people who stay in the buildings controlled by our devices. Simultaneously, the utilization of energy sources and the natural environment resources must be as sensible as possible.

  2. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. HONEYWELL PLANNING GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    THIS HONEYWELL PAMPHLET DISCUSSES SOME ASPECTS OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROLS, HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING, AND COMPARES IN-PLANT WITH CONTRACT SERVICE, CONCLUDING THAT CONTRACT SERVICE IS PREFERABLE AND DESCRIBING A NUMBER OF MAINTENANCE PLANS WHICH THEY FURNISH. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROVIDES--(1) MORE EFFICIENT…

  3. Child Care Recommendations for Honeywell Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chris, Ed.

    Quality child care is an issue affecting both an industry as a whole and the individuals within that industry. Employees' absenteeism, morale, and motivation are closely linked to concern for their child's well-being and this concern will ultimately affect both production and company success. In recognition of this issue, the Honeywell Corporation…

  4. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule and interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This rule adopts as final, with some modifications, the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations set forth in the interim final rule published in the Federal Register on June 28, 2013. The requirements addressed in this rule conform to the provisions in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 regarding nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Most provisions of this final rule were implemented on July 1, 2014, a full year subsequent to publication of the interim final rule. This was in compliance with section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, which required that State and local educational agencies have at least one full school year from the date of publication of the interim final rule to implement the competitive food provisions. Based on comments received on the interim final rule and implementation experience, this final rule makes a few modifications to the nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools implemented on July 1, 2014. In addition, this final rule codifies specific policy guidance issued after publication of the interim rule. Finally, this rule retains the provision related to the standard for total fat as interim and requests further comment on this single standard.

  5. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: nutrition standards for all foods sold in school as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    This interim final rule amends the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations to establish nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Amendments made by Section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) require the Secretary to establish nutrition standards for such foods, consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and directs the Secretary to consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, à la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). In addition, this interim final rule requires schools participating in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service, consistent with amendments made by section 203 of the HHFKA, and in the cafeteria during breakfast meal service. This interim final rule is expected to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day, and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits.

  6. Honeywell's organic air vehicle chemical-biological sensing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry E.; Krafthefer, Brian; Knee, Daniel; Fulton, Vaughn M.; Law, Kristen

    2004-12-01

    Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) today are mostly used for reconnaissance and sometimes weapons delivery. Remote sensing of chemical-biological (CB) agents is another beneficial use of UAVs. While remote sensing of CB agents can be done by LIDAR spectroscopy, this technology is less spatially precise and less sensitive than actual measurements on a collected sample. One family of UAVs of particularly unique benefit for CB sampling and in-flight analysis is the Honeywell family of Organic Air Vehicles (OAVs). This vehicle with its ability to hover and stare has the unique ability among UAVs to collect and analyze chem-bio samples from a specific location over extended periods of time. Such collections are not possible with other micro-air-vehicles (MAVs) that only operate in fly-by mode. This paper describes some of the Honeywell OAV features that are conducive to CB detection.

  7. Tape Casting of Honeywell PZT Type III Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    STANDARDS 193 A . . . • . .I-" ’ .7. ’. .. ’. .-7 . • " U) 1 IV. Tape Casting of Honeywell PZT Type III Poder II~ II * I S Gordon 0. Dayton Beth A. Jones...Street Port Hueneme, CA 93043 Arlington, VA 22217 3 ATTN: Materials Division Attn: Code 431 Naval Research Laboratory Naval Electronics Laboratory...Washington, DC 20375 San Diego, CA 92152 ATTN: Codes 6000 1 ATTN: Electron Materials 6300 1 Sciences Division 2627 1 Naval Air Development Center Naval

  8. 78 FR 59731 - License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...: (1) License Amendment Request Report NRC License Number SUB-526, Closure of Retention Ponds B, C, D... proposed closure plan for four ponds located on the MTW plant site. Honeywell holds NRC License No. SUB-526...

  9. 76 FR 58049 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium... assurance for its Metropolis Works uranium conversion facility in Metropolis, Illinois. \\1\\ LBP-11-19, 74... Financial Assurance Requirements, Honeywell Metropolis Works, Material License No. SUB- 526 (TAC No. L32718...

  10. Het Gerecht van Eerste Aanleg en voortschrijdend inzicht in GE/Honeywell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Met de uitspraak van het Gerecht van Eerste Aanleg (GvEA) van 14 december 2005 in GE/Honeywell sloot de derde akte in een boeiend internationaal drama. Het Gerecht stelde vast dat de Europese Commissie zich in haar beschikking van 3 juli 2001 om de voorgenomen fusie tussen Honeywell International

  11. 78 FR 58305 - Honeywell International, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ..., like anyone's Social Security number, date of birth, driver's license number or other state... prohibits Honeywell from selling or assigning the patents included in the license to anyone who does not...

  12. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell microturbine generators during load changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert J.

    2001-07-01

    This report describes test measurements of the behavior of two microturbine generators (MTGs) under transient conditions. The tests were conducted under three different operating conditions: grid-connect; stand-alone single MTG with load banks; and two MTGs running in parallel with load banks. Tests were conducted with both the Capstone 30-kW and Honeywell Parallon 75-kW MTGs. All tests were conducted at the Southern California Edison /University of California, Irvine (UCI) test facility. In the grid-connected mode, several test runs were conducted with different set-point changes both up and down and a start up and shutdown were recorded for each MTG. For the stand-alone mode, load changes were initiated by changing load-bank values (both watts and VARs). For the parallel mode, tests involved changes in the load-bank settings as well as changes in the power set point of the MTG running in grid-connect mode. Detailed graphs of the test results are presented. It should be noted that these tests were done using a specific hardware and software configuration. Use of different software and hardware could result in different performance characteristics for the same units.

  13. 75 FR 34347 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Auxiliary Power Unit Models GTCP36-150(R...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... International Inc. Auxiliary Power Unit Models GTCP36-150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR) AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) for Honeywell International Inc. auxiliary power unit (APU) models GTCP36- 150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR... proposed AD applies to Honeywell International Inc. APU models GTCP36-150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR). We...

  14. Acceptance Test Report for the Modular Automation System (MAS) Manufactured by Honeywell Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON, D.L.

    2000-02-01

    This document details the performance of the acceptance test of the Honeywell MAS Control System for equipment to be installed in gloveboxes HA-20MB and HA-211 at a later date. Equipment that was anticipated included 6 stabilization furnaces, only three and their associated equipment were installed.

  15. Gastrodiscoides hominis Infestation on Vegetables (Cabbages) Sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an experiment to determine the human parasites present in fruits and vegetables sold in markets within Ekpoma, in Esan west Local Government Area of Edo state, an ova of Gastrodiscoides hominis was observed. The study involved a total of two hundred and fifty (250) samples of seven different vegetables -cabbage, ...

  16. Evaluation of Honeywell Recoverable Computer System (RCS) in Presence of Electromagnetic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar

    1997-01-01

    The design and development of a Closed-Loop System to study and evaluate the performance of the Honeywell Recoverable Computer System (RCS) in electromagnetic environments (EME) is presented. The development of a Windows-based software package to handle the time critical communication of data and commands between the RCS and flight simulation code in real-time, while meeting the stringent hard deadlines is also presented. The performance results of the RCS while exercising flight control laws under ideal conditions as well as in the presence of electromagnetic fields is also discussed.

  17. Proposed Rule: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School. Legislative Brief 13-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Boards of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish standards for foods sold in schools other than those provided as part of the National School Lunch Program or School Breakfast Program. According to the HHFK, these standards are to be consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the…

  18. 40 CFR 152.30 - Pesticides that may be transferred, sold, or distributed without registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides that may be transferred... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.30 Pesticides that may be transferred, sold, or distributed without registration...

  19. Radioactivity in bottled waters sold in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila Rangel, J.I. E-mail: idavila@cantera.reduaz.mx; Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Quirino Torres, L.L.; Villalba, M.L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E

    2002-06-01

    Measurements of gross alpha and beta activities were made on 21 domestic and international brands of bottled (purified and mineral) water sold in the Mexican market to assess its radiological quality. Alpha and beta activities were determined using a liquid-scintillation detector with pulse-shape analysis feature. All the purified water had values of beta activity lower than the limit for potable drinking water (1.0 Bq/l), while three brands surpassed the limit of alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l). The limit for alpha radioactivity content was exceed by three mineral waters; the results show a correlation between radioactivity content and mineral salts, which are related with the origin and treatment of the waters.

  20. Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A K

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 45 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 8208 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 2500-gallon thermal storage tank; two 25-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted water chillers; a forced-draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 8 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 1143 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 3440 MMBtu and provided 241 MMBtu for cooling and 64 MMBtu for heating. The projected net annual electrical energy savings due to the solar system was approximately 40,000 kWh(e).

  1. Solar energy system performance evaluation: final report for Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newnan), Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A K; Pederson, S

    1982-08-01

    The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 702 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 1000-gallon thermal storage tank; a 3-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted air conditioner; a water-to-air heat exchanger for solar space heating; a finned-tube coil immersed in the storage tank to preheat water for a gas-fired hot water heater; and associated piping, pumps, valves, and controls. The solar system has six basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 7 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 53 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 219 MMBtu and provided 11.4 MMBtu for cooling, 8.6 MMBtu for heating, and 8.1 MMBtu for domestic hot water. The projected net annual energy savings due to the solar system were approximately 50 MMBtu of fossil energy (49,300 cubic feet of natural gas) and a loss of 280 kWh(e) of electrical energy.

  2. Development and Implementation of a Program Management Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, Laura; Smith, Matt

    2008-12-15

    In 2006, Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) announced an updatedvision statement for the organization. The vision is “To be the most admired team within the NNSA [National Nuclear Security Administration] for our relentless drive to convert ideas into the highest quality products and services for National Security by applying the right technology, outstanding program management and best commercial practices.” The challenge to provide outstanding program management was taken up by the Program Management division and the Program Integration Office (PIO) of the company. This article describes how Honeywell developed and deployed a program management maturity model to drive toward excellence.

  3. 29 CFR 779.333 - Goods sold for use as raw materials in other products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods sold for use as raw materials in other products. 779... Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.333 Goods sold for use as raw materials in other products. Goods are sold for resale where they are sold for use as a raw material in the production of a...

  4. Foods and Beverages Sold Outside the School Meals Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... schools had either a vending machine or a school store, canteen, or snack bar where students could purchase foods ... sugars from a vending machine or in a school store, canteen, or snack bar during lunch periods. 1 • 12. ...

  5. Jcpenney is Sold on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Jcpenney partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  6. Microbiological analysis of traditionally fermented milk sold in Kinigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research work entitled: “Microbiological analysis of traditionally fermented milk (Ikivuguto) sold in Kinigi Sector of Musanze District,” was carried out at Higher Learning Institution of Applied Sciences (INES-Ruhengeri) Laboratory of Microbiology located near Volcanoes in the Northern Province of Rwanda. The main ...

  7. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  8. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Morocco, the consumption of meat products has experienced a sharp increase in recent years despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria due to hygiene failure. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city (Morocco) and to study the different ...

  9. microbiological quality of re-packaged sweets sold in metropolitan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    re-packaged sweets sold at Kurmi market in the metropolitan Kano, Nigeria with a view to assessing their microbiological fitness for human consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sample collection. This was carried out according to the method of Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO, 1979; 1993). Three different ...

  10. The Quality of Different Diclofenac Sodium Tablet Formulations Sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voltaren® (Norvatis Pharma, Switzerland), the originator's product was the most expensive, less available and a less bought product. Vivian® (Lincoln Pharma, India) and Dyclomax® (Medreich Laboratories, India) were sold cheapest and were available in all pharmacies including those in the peripheral part of the city.

  11. Microbiological quality of commercially available poultry feeds sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food poisoning and infection by bacterial and fungal genera pose obvious health threat to both animals and humans. Pfizer, Guinea, Extra, Top, NOM and Master brands of feed sold in Owerri Metropolis were analysed for their bacterial and fungal quality. The genera of bacteria and fungi isolated and their percentage ...

  12. Quality evaluation of some branded and unbranded ice cream sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality evaluation of some branded and unbranded ice cream sold in Imo State, Nigeria. TE Ogbulie, SUN Anune. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 2 (1) 2008: pp. 83-88. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  13. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables Sold at Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The safety of fruits and vegetables sold in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria for consumption was assessed with respect to their contamination by Ova and Cysts of parasites. Out of 320 samples of seven (7) varieties of vegetables and fruits examined from three different markets in Kaduna metropolis, 45 (14.00%) were positive ...

  14. Quality evaluation of sachet water sold in port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five different brands of sachet water were analyzed for physicochemical and bacteriological quality to determine the portability and quality characteristics of sachet water sold in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. Unicom UV Spectrophotometer model SP. 8-100 and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (PU 9100 UNICAN) were used.

  15. Quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria were investigated to determine their physical, chemical and bacteriological content. The four brands of bottled water investigated were Mevok ®, Ozonized April ®, Lacrystal ® and Eva ®. The mean turbidity value of all the samples were ...

  16. Potassium bromate content of some baked breads sold in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium bromate is an additive used by some bakers to make the bread rise rapidly, create a good texture in the finished product and to give bulkiness to the dough. Objective: The main objective of this work was to assess the potassium bromate residues of some baked breads sold in some selected local ...

  17. Parasites and Morphometric Indices of Frozen Fish Sold in Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parasites and morphometric indices of frozen fish sold in Nsukka Urban Market in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria were investigated between June and December 2008 to determine the parasite prevalence, mean intensity and abundance and some morphometric indices associated with ...

  18. Documentation on Medicinal Plants Sold in Markets in Abeokuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the plant materials were in dried form and sold singly or in combination with other plants and are used in the treatment of various ailments such as malaria, hypertension, typhoid, jaundice, hyperthermia, skin irritations, dysentery, anaemia, gonorrhea, cough, measles and fibroid. A majority of the plants were trees.

  19. Bacteriological Contamination of Soya Bean Flour Sold in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soya bean (Glycine max) is a leguminous crop that is used as a staple food worldwide. The raw harvest is processed into various food forms like soya bean flour and processing methods increase the chances of bacterial contamination. This research work assessed the bacteria contamination of soya bean flour sold in and ...

  20. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Amaranthus sp. L sold at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was design to assess the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in spinach sold at vegetable farms at Katsina metropolis, using Atomic absorption spectrometer VPG 210 model for the metals analysis.The study reveals that cadmium has recorded highest concentration followed by chromium and zinc, at Kofar ...

  1. quality and safety characteristics of cassava crisps sold in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    quality and food safety variations in cassava crisps currently sold in urban centres of Kenya. Depending on the variety, cassava contains varying amounts of cynogenic glucosides that may pose serious health risks when consumed in high quantities (Wangari, 2013). Deep oil frying, just like other modes of processing, ...

  2. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  3. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Seeiso

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80 % of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143 were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237 of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20 slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3, while the rest (n = 37 sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per mℓ in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per mℓ. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12 and Escherichia coli (n=15. During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was

  4. Alaska NAD 83 – Supplemental Official Lease Diagram (SOLD) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Supplemental Official Lease Diagram (SOLD) images in Adobe pdf format for areas within the BOEM Alaska Region. Each SOLD describes a single...

  5. Characteristics of illegal and legal cigarette packs sold in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Arevalo, Rodrigo; Corral, Juan E.; Monzon, Diego; Yoon, Mira; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Background Guatemala, as a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is required to regulate cigarette packaging and labeling and eliminate illicit tobacco trade. Current packaging and labeling characteristics (of legal and illegal cigarettes) and their compliance with the FCTC is unknown. Methods We sought to analyze package and label characteristics of illegal and legal cigarettes sold in Guatemala. We visited the 22 largest traditional markets in the country to purchase ...

  6. Stumpage prices and volumes sold for individual western national forests: 1984-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Kling

    2008-01-01

    Sold prices for national forest stumpage provide geographically specific price references for timber. This report presents sold price series for western national forests from 1984 through first 3 months of 2007. Selected trends in stumpage prices and sold volumes as well as issues related to species aggregation in the data are also discussed.

  7. Performance Based Logistics (PBL) for the FA-18/S-3/P-3/C-2 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) at Honeywell; An Applied Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    PBL ) contract between Naval Aviation Inventory Control Point (NAVICP) and Honeywell in support of FA-18/S-3/P-3/C-2 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to...determine if the contractual terms and conditions established are effective in facilitating and encouraging the full potential of PBL savings and improved...performance. PBL is an acquisition reform initiative intended to improve weapon system logistics with the goals of: 1) compressing the supply chain

  8. Investigation of borneols sold in Taiwan by chiral gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jung Ho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Borneol is a monoterpene that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. There are two different products sold in Taipei's traditional Chinese medicine market, natural and chemically synthesized borneol. Chemically synthesized borneol contains four stereoisomers, (+-isoborneol, (−-isoborneol, (−-borneol, and (+-borneol. The ratio of these four isomers in chemically synthesized and natural borneol products was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A huge variation between these products is highlighted in this survey. The results suggest that the Food and Drug Administrations in Asian countries should establish a regulatory standard regarding the ratio of the four different borneol isomers in both natural and chemically synthesized borneol.

  9. Characteristics of illegal and legal cigarette packs sold in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Rodrigo; Corral, Juan E; Monzon, Diego; Yoon, Mira; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2016-11-25

    Guatemala, as a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is required to regulate cigarette packaging and labeling and eliminate illicit tobacco trade. Current packaging and labeling characteristics (of legal and illegal cigarettes) and their compliance with the FCTC is unknown. We sought to analyze package and label characteristics of illegal and legal cigarettes sold in Guatemala. We visited the 22 largest traditional markets in the country to purchase illegal cigarettes. All brands registered on tobacco industry websites were purchased as legal cigarettes. Analysis compared labeling characteristics of illegal and legal packs. Most (95%) markets and street vendors sold illegal cigarettes; 104 packs were purchased (79 illegal and 25 legal). Ten percent of illegal and none of the legal packs had misleading terms. Half of the illegal packs had a warning label covering 26 to 50% of the pack surface. All legal packs had a label covering 25% of the surface. Illegal packs were more likely to have information on constituents and emissions (85% vs. 45%, p illegal nor legal cigarette packs comply with FCTC labeling mandates. Urgent implementation and enforcement of the FCTC is necessary to halt the tobacco epidemic.

  10. Availability of Paracetamol Sold Over-the-Counter in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2018-01-01

    Due to the risk of hepatotoxicity when excessive amounts of paracetamol are consumed, Poisons Information Centers (PICs) frequently receive paracetamol-related enquiries. This study examined how widely pack size restrictions of paracetamol sold over-the-counter have been implemented in Europe......, non-pharmacy outlet sales and the frequency of paracetamol-related enquiries to PICs. In total, 21 European countries participated. All PICs provided telephone hotline services. In 14 (67%) countries, pack size restrictions had been implemented in pharmacies (range: 8-30 grams). No significant......-pharmacy outlet sales compared to those with such sales (median difference 2.2%, p = 0.02). Pack size restrictions on pharmacy sales of paracetamol have been implemented in two thirds of examined countries. There was no difference in the proportion of paracetamol-related enquiries to PICs among countries...

  11. Microbiological examination of foods sold via vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J S; Wu, S M; Yih, P; Tsai, W C

    1985-05-01

    A total of 153 food specimens obtained from vending machines in Taipei city were subjects for the microbiological examination. Based on the standards for total microbial counts and total coliform counts established by the Department of Public Health, Republic of China, the unsatisfactory percentage of such counts for foods sold from vending machines were: 14% for carbonated beverages, 71% for non-carbonated beverages, 73% for ice cubes, and 100% for soft ice cream. Among the non-carbonic acid beverages examined, the unsatisfactory percentage for iced coffee, cocoa, chocolate milk, and fruit milk reached 90%. Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci each were found once. None of the pathogens causing food-poisoning were found during the study. As for the sanitation control of vending machines examined, 66 to 74% percent were unsatisfactory.

  12. Medicinal plants sold in the markets of Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamiharisoa, Maria Nirina; Kuhlman, Alyse R; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina; Rabarison, Harison; Rakotoarivelo, Nivo; Randrianarivony, Tabita; Raktoarivony, Fortunat; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2015-07-28

    This study focuses on the large outdoor markets of the capital of Madagascar, Antananarivo. As the largest metropolitan area in Madagascar with a population of nearly two million, the region has great capacity for consumption of medicinal plant remedies despite numerous pharmacies. Medicinal plant use spans all socioeconomic levels, and the diverse metropolitan population allows us to study a wide variety of people who consume these plants for medical purposes. The purpose of this study is to identify and generate a list of medicinal plants sold in the traditional markets with a focus on those collected in the forests around Antananarivo, get an idea of the quantities of medicinal plants sold in the markets around Antananarivo, and assess the economy of the medicinal plant markets. In order to determine which medicinal plants are most consumed in Antananarivo, ethnobotanical enquiries were conducted in the five main markets of the capital city. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted with medicinal plant traders, suppliers, harvesters and cultivators, with voucher specimens created from the plants discussed. Trade circuit information was established and the income generated by the trade of some of the species was assessed. The inventory of the Antananarivo markets resulted in a list of 89 commercialized plant species. Ten of the 89 were mentioned by 60-100 % of vendors. Profitability for vendors is high and competitive with other salaried positions within Antananarivo. Transportation costs are also high and therefore lower profitability for other members in the supply chain. The markets of Antananarivo have always played a vital cultural role in the lives of urban Malagasy, but our study shows they also play an economic role not only for urban residents but rural harvesters as well. Continued research and monitoring of the non-timber forest products trade in Antananarivo is needed to better understand the impact of trade on the wild plant populations.

  13. Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Canned Meat and Fish Sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The evaluation of heavy metals in canned meat and fish foods sold in Calabar, Nigeria was investigated. Ten samples from six different brands of canned meat and fish sold in Calabar were obtained from randomly selected markets and grocery shops. Each of the different sample types were then pooled together ...

  14. Research Note A survey of plants sold by traders at Zululand muthi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of medicinal plants sold at muthi markets of northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa was conducted by questioning 63 plant traders to identify unthreatened and threatened plants for cultivation purposes. From a total of 163 plants sold at local markets, 32 are reported based on their inclusion in four categories, ...

  15. 26 CFR 1.451-7 - Election relating to livestock sold on account of drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.451-7 Section 1.451-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Included § 1.451-7 Election relating to livestock sold on account of drought. (a) In general. Section 451(e... or exchange of that number of livestock sold or exchanged solely on account of a drought which caused...

  16. 12 CFR 617.7015 - What happens to borrower rights when a loan is sold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens to borrower rights when a loan is sold? 617.7015 Section 617.7015 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS General § 617.7015 What happens to borrower rights when a loan is sold? (a) What happens...

  17. Microbiological Safety of Corn-Based Snack Product, Aadun, Sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbiological safety of Aadun sold in Abeokuta was investigated. Samples were collected from ten markets in Abeokuta, as being sold and wrapped with fresh leaves or nylon, and analyzed microbiologically. Total viable bacterial counts ranged from 5.0 log10 cfu/g to 5.78 log10 cfu/g; total coliform counts ranged from ...

  18. Internal and External Factors Affecting The Size of Paddy Field Sold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Rostiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted  to identify internal condition of the farmers who sold their paddy field and analyze the effects of age, education level, number of family members, field productivity, location, and production cost to the total area of paddy field sold. This study used quantitative descriptive method. This research found that age, education level, number of family members, and location of the land had positive relation to the total area of paddy field sold. On the other hand, production cost and field productivity had negative relation to the total area of paddy field sold. Partially, field production and number of family members had no significant effect to the total area of paddy field sold.

  19. A Research Program in Computer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    14 (7), 1971, 453-360. 5. Donzeau-Gouge, V., G. Kahn, and B. Lang , A Complete Machine-Checked Definition of a Simple Programming Language Using...Denotational Semantics, IRIA Laborla, Technical Report 330, October 1978. 6. Donzeau-Gouge, V., G. Kahn, and B. Lang , Formal Definition of Ada, Honeywell...May 1976. r S.-..-. . . . . . . . 12. ARPANET TENEX SERVICE T’fhttiral Staff Marion McKinley, Jr. William H. Moore Robert Hines Serge Poievitzky Edward

  20. Microbiological quality of kebabs sold in Palermo and Messina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Ziino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of kebabs retailed in Palermo and Messina. Twenty raw and 22 cooked kebab samples were analysed to determine the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, Enterobac - teriaceae, Escherichia coli, sulphite reducing anaerobes, coagulase positive staphylococci, micrococci, Bacillus cereus and the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In raw kebabs, AMB ranged from 4.00 to 7.34 log cfu/g and Enterobacteriaceae from 1.00 to 7.59 log cfu/g. Escherichia coli and sulphite reducing anaerobe counts were from <1.00 to 6.18 and 4 log cfu/g, respectively. Coagulase positive staphylococci ranged from <1.00 to 3.48 log cfu/g and micrococci from <1.00 to 6.00 log cfu/g. Listeria spp. was found in three raw kebab samples. In cooked kebabs, the AMB values ranged from 1.78 to 6.30 log cfu/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.00 to 4.00 log cfu/g and micrococci from <1.00 to 5.30 log cfu/g. Three samples were positive for Escherichia coli (from 1 to 1.30 log cfu/g and one for sulphite reducing anaerobes (2.00 log cfu/g. Coagulase positive staphylococci were found in two samples with loads of 2.30 and 2.78 cfu/g, respectively. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were not isolated in raw and cooked samples. The results of this study show that the microbiological quality of kebabs sold in Palermo and Messina is quite variable. The authors stress the importance of selection of raw material of high quality as well as the control of cooking and storage temperatures in order to minimise bacterial potential hazards.

  1. Malaysian made condoms sold locally as well as exported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia, famous for its natural rubber, is also producing condoms made from local rubber. About 40,000 gross of condoms a month are being produced by a factory with about 30 female workers. 30-40% of the production is exported to Europe, Middle East, Asia, Japan, Singapore and South America. The size of the condoms conform to international standards, 49 mm and 52 mm. As there is a greater demand for the 52 mm. condoms overseas, the company produces more of this than the 49 mm. condoms. In April 1975, the Standard Institution and Industrial Research of Malaysia gave its quality control approval to a condom which can hold 5 gallons of water and with thickness varying from 0.03 mm, 0.06 mm. and 0.05-0.07 mm. A 10% tax/piece and a 5% surtax are imposed on imported condoms to protect the local industry from foreign competition. Local condoms are sold tax-free. Pink and black colored condoms appear to be popular among consumers. Although complaints are few, 1 in 10,000 users may suffer from allergic problems because of the silicone oil treatment of the condoms. Another local condom factory which uses Malaysian rubber for condom manufacture is located in Klang, approximately 24 miles from Kuala Lumpur; the factory has 25 workers producing 12,000 gross of lubricated and non-lubricated condoms for local consumption only. There is increasing evidence that condoms are increasing in popularity in Malaysia and that the average consumer is now being more selective in choosing contraceptive methods.

  2. Interactive debug program for evaluation and modification of assembly-language software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpasi, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    An assembly-language debug program written for the Honeywell HDC-601 and DDP-516/316 computers is described. Names and relative addressing to improve operator-machine interaction are used. Features include versatile display, on-line assembly, and improved program execution and analysis. The program is discussed from both a programmer's and an operator's standpoint. Functional diagrams are included to describe the program, and each command is illustrated.

  3. Performance of Honeywell RICMOS-IV SOI transistors after irradiation to 27 Mrad(Si) by 63.3 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Pellett, D E

    1999-01-01

    We present results of an exposure of Honeywell RICMOS-IV SOI transistors produced in a developmental run to 2*10/sup 14/ 63.3 MeV protons at the UCD cyclotron radiation test beam (27 Mrad (Si)). In terms of surface damage, this corresponds to almost twice the dose expected for the CMS pixel detector during its useful life at the LHC collider. The irradiated transistors include n-channel MOSFETs similar to the front-end transistors of a pixel readout suitable for use at hadron colliders. Data are presented for MOSFETs on radiation- induced changes in thresholds, transconductance, maximum voltage gain and noise. Circuit simulations using the measured noise data indicate that the pixel readout would continue to function satisfactorily in the CMS radiation environment. (8 refs).

  4. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010... and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 [FNS-2011-0019] RIN 0584-AE09 National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the...

  5. Optimal Overhaul-Replacement Policies for Repairable Machine Sold with Warranty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmaningrum Soemadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with an overhaul-replacement policy for a repairable machine sold with Free Replacement Warranty (FRW. The machine will be used for a finite horizon, T (T <, and evaluated at a fixed interval, s (s< T. At each evaluation point, the buyer considers three alternative decisions i.e. Keep the machine, Overhaul it, or Replace it with a new identical one. An overhaul can reduce the machine age virtually, but not to a point that the machine is as good as new. If the machine fails during the warranty period, it is rectified at no cost to the buyer. Any failure occurring before and after the expiry of the warranty is restored by minimal repair. An overhaul-replacement policy is formulated for such machines by using dynamic programming approach to obtain the buyer’s optimal policy. The results show that a significant rejuvenation effect due to overhaul may extend the length of machine life cycle and delay the replacement decision. In contrast, the warranty stimulates early machine replacement and by then increases the replacement frequencies for a certain range of replacement cost. This demonstrates that to minimize the total ownership cost over T the buyer needs to consider the minimal repair cost reduction due to rejuvenation effect of overhaul as well as the warranty benefit due to replacement. Numerical examples are presented for both illustrating the optimal policy and describing the behavior of the optimal solution.

  6. Reversal of overdose on fentanyl being illicitly sold as heroin with naloxone nasal spray: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Ayman; Buchanan-Cummings, Ann Marie; Crampton, Kelli; Grant, Angela; Drexler, Karen

    2015-08-01

    This is a case report describing a reversal of fentanyl overdose with naloxone nasal spray. The patient was not aware that he overdosed on fentanyl being sold as heroin. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented an initiative to provide education for veterans, their families, friends and significant others about opioid overdose and use of naloxone reversal kits. The Atlanta VA Medical Center adopted this program to reduce the risk of opioid overdose in high risk patients. Over the past year, we provided educational sessions for 63 veterans and their families. We also prescribed 41 naloxone kits. We have received three reports of opioid overdose reversal with use of naloxone kits prescribed by the Atlanta VA Medical Center. The authors recommend that public health administrators and policy makers advocate for the implementation of these programs to reduce the rising number of overdose death in the United States and worldwide. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  7. Foods Sold in School Vending Machines are Associated with Overall Student Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Alisha J.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between foods sold in school vending machines and students’ dietary behaviors. Methods The 2005-2006 US Health Behavior in School Aged Children (HBSC) survey was administered to 6th to 10th graders and school administrators. Students’ dietary intake was estimated with a brief food frequency measure. Administrators completed questions about foods sold in vending machines. For each food intake behavior, a multilevel regression analysis modeled students (level 1) nested within schools (level 2), with the corresponding food sold in vending machines as the main predictor. Control variables included gender, grade, family affluence and school poverty. Analyses were conducted separately for 6th to 8th and 9th to 10th grades. Results Eighty-three percent of schools (152 schools, 5,930 students) had vending machines which primarily sold foods of minimal nutritional values (soft drinks, chips and sweets). In younger grades, availability of fruits/vegetables and chocolate/sweets was positively related to the corresponding food intake, with vending machine content and school poverty explaining 70.6% of between-school variation in fruit/vegetable consumption, and 71.7% in sweets consumption. In older grades, there was no significant effect of foods available in vending machines on reported consumption of those foods. Conclusions Vending machines are widely available in US public schools. In younger grades, school vending machines were related to students’ diets positively or negatively, depending on what was sold in them. Schools are in a powerful position to influence children’s diets; therefore attention to foods sold in them is necessary in order to try to improve children’s diets. PMID:21185519

  8. Food sold in school vending machines is associated with overall student dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Alisha J; Nansel, Tonja R; Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between food sold in school vending machines and the dietary behaviors of students. The 2005-2006 U.S. Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey was administered to 6th to 10th graders and school administrators. Dietary intake in students was estimated with a brief food frequency measure. School administrators completed questions regarding food sold in vending machines. For each food intake behavior, a multilevel regression analysis modeled students (level 1) nested within schools (level 2), with the corresponding food sold in vending machines as the main predictor. Control variables included gender, grade, family affluence, and school poverty index. Analyses were conducted separately for 6th to 8th and 9th-10th grades. In all, 83% of the schools (152 schools; 5,930 students) had vending machines that primarily sold food of minimal nutritional values (soft drinks, chips, and sweets). In younger grades, availability of fruit and/or vegetables and chocolate and/or sweets was positively related to the corresponding food intake, with vending machine content and school poverty index providing an explanation for 70.6% of between-school variation in fruit and/or vegetable consumption and 71.7% in sweets consumption. Among the older grades, there was no significant effect of food available in vending machines on reported consumption of those food. Vending machines are widely available in public schools in the United States. In younger grades, school vending machines were either positively or negatively related to the diets of the students, depending on what was sold in them. Schools are in a powerful position to influence the diets of children; therefore, attention to the food sold at school is necessary to try to improve their diets. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ≤10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

  10. An assessment of the potability of some sachet water brands sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the microbial and physico-chemical qualities of 14 sachet water brands sold in Cameroon was carried out aimed at determining their potability based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Similar analyses of water samples from the respective sources were used to compare the quality of the ...

  11. Hygienic quality of ready-to-eat salads sold in the street and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poisoning following salads consumption was often reported in Lomé. This study was carried out to evaluate contamination of salads sold in Lomé. Sixty salad samples from modern restaurant (Domino), seventy from street sellers and forty of fresh vegetables from two markets were randomly collected. Microbiological quality ...

  12. Microbial analysis of meat and meat products sold in fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the rate of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat meat and meat products sold in different fast food restaurants in Aba. This study was carried out between June and August, 2015. Samples were collected aseptically from five fast food restaurants using sterile polythene bags.

  13. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of shea butter sold on Benin markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Hell, K.; Akissoe, N.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.

    2012-01-01

    Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter

  14. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from food sold on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... The antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from cooked food samples sold in different eateries on the campus of the University of Ado-Ekiti was investigated. A total of seventy-eight bacterial isolates belonging to six genera were encountered in the following proportion: Escherichia coli (29.5%),.

  15. 12 CFR 16.9 - Securities offered and sold in holding company dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... dissolution. 16.9 Section 16.9 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.9 Securities offered and sold in holding company dissolution. Offers and sales of bank issued securities in connection with the dissolution of the holding company of...

  16. Levels of selected heavy metals in fruits and vegetables sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in some fruits and vegetables sold in major markets in Kogi State, North Central Nigeria. The levels of metals were obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn obtained were ...

  17. Heavy Metals Determination in Some Species of Frozen Fish Sold at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the concentrations of six heavy metals; cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) in the tissue (flesh and gills) of some frozen fishes sold in Ile-Ife main market using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Open acid digestive method was used for sample ...

  18. Microbial safety of raw mixed-vegetable salad sold as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 90 randomly selected subjects indicated raw mixed-vegetable salad as a popular accompaniment to cooked rice sold by street-food vendors in the Kokomlemle municipality of Accra, Ghana, but the salad was generally considered unwholesome and a potential cause of diarrhoea. A survey of 15 vendors of ...

  19. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from food sold on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from cooked food samples sold in different eateries on the campus of the University of Ado-Ekiti was investigated. A total of seventy-eight bacterial isolates belonging to six genera were encountered in the following proportion: Escherichia coli (29.5%), Klebsiella spp.

  20. The physico-chemical characteristics and some nutritional values of vegetable amaranth sold in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.; Shibairo, S.I.; Imungi, J.K.; Harbinson, J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty one major supermarkets and ten independent green grocers in the city of Nairobi were surveyed for types of vegetable amaranths sold and their post harvest handling. The nutrient composition of the vegetables was also analyzed. In addition, information on three other traditional leafy

  1. 43 CFR 402.2 - What lands may be sold; method of sale; limit of acreage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Act of May 20, 1920 (41 Stat. 605; 43 U.S.C. 375) are lands, not otherwise reserved, which have been... private sale or at public auction and without regard to the provisions of the Act of May 20, 1920 respecting notice of publication and mode of sale. (b) Lands which may be sold under the Act of May 16, 1930...

  2. Mycological Assessment of Suya Sold in Some Parts of Minna, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycological assessments of Suya sold in some part of Minna were conducted. A total of 20 samples were collected from 10 randomly selected suya spots from ten (10) locations in Minna namely- Tunga, Ungwan Daji , Dutsen Kuran Hausa, Chanchaga, Bosso, Maikunkele, Maitumbi, Kwangila, Barikin Sale and Sayeko.

  3. Microbiological Safety of Ready-to-eat Foods Sold in Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to assess the microbial safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold in private and public primary schools in Abeokuta, South-western Nigeria. One hundred and sixty RTE food samples were collected from forty food vendors in thirty primary schools and analysed microbiologically. Socio-economic status ...

  4. Mycological Assessment of Suya Sold in Some Parts of Minna, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Abstract. Mycological assessments of Suya sold in some part of Minna were conducted. A total of 20 samples were collected from 10 randomly selected suya spots from ten (10) locations in. Minna namely- Tunga, Ungwan Daji , Dutsen Kuran Hausa, Chanchaga, Bosso, Maikunkele,. Maitumbi, Kwangila, Barikin Sale and ...

  5. Antioxidant potentials of local fruits and foreign wines sold in Ile-Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some locally consumed fruits, sugarcane and wines sold in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, were investigated for their phenol content and antioxidant potential of the methanolic extracts with a view of exploring the healthpromoting effect of the fruits and wines. The total phenolic content in each fruit and wines was determined ...

  6. 75 FR 60134 - Withdrawal of Notice of Proposed Interpretation of the Expression “Sold For Exportation to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... interpretation document, Congress enacted the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-246, 122... Expression ``Sold For Exportation to the United States'' as Used in the Transaction Value Method of Valuation... ``sold for exportation to the United States'' for purposes of applying the transaction value method of...

  7. Bacteriological safety of packaged drinking water sold in Nigeria: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Olumide A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, there has been increase in packaged water consumption in Nigeria. Although, there are several studies on microbial safety of sachet packaged drinking water, there is no information on prevailing pathogens. A comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis of peer reviewed primary studies reported from 2005 for microbiological safety of packaged drinking water sold in Nigeria was conducted using "sachet water", "bottled water" and "packaged water" and Nigeria as search algorithms in public scientific literature databases. It was observed in this study that Escherichia spp., (65.5 %), Salmonella spp., (44.8 %), Bacillus spp., (44.1 %) and Staphylococcus spp. (37.9 %) were more prevailing in the samples. The high rate of contamination observed is of public health importance. There is need for use of molecular based methods to understand microbial ecology, epidemiology, virulence factors and survival of isolated water borne pathogens in packaged drinking water sold in Nigeria.

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF GRATED PARMESAN-TYPE CHEESE SOLD IN PONTA GROSSA, PARANÁ (BRAZIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Jéssica Caroline Bigaski; Cardoso, Carolina Rentz; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; Santos, Renata Dinnies; Demiate,Ivo Mottin; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The grated Parmesan-type cheese is among the most consumed and defrauded products in Brazil, because the fragmentation facilitates tampering. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of grated cheeses sold in the region of Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. The physicochemical analysis of cheese samples included lactic acid, proteins, lipids, moisture, ash, peroxide index and Lugol's iodine test; microbiological analysis were carried out ...

  9. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczaj Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68 in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L. and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs, as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants.

  10. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh) Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Braide Wesley; U.S. Oranusi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained f...

  11. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczaj, Łukasz; Zovkokončić, Marijana; Miličević, Tihomir; Dolina, Katija; Pandža, Marija

    2013-01-03

    Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. All vendors (68) in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20-30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded.Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs), as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants.

  12. Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer?s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetica...

  13. The Trading Balance Sheet Of Romania - Two Decades With An Annual Adverse Sold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Corina GUDEI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current communication, expressing the entirely special importance that must be granted to the fact that for two decades, year after year, the sold of the trading balance sheet of Romania was adverse. Moreover, it has increased greatly during the decade 2000-2009 towards the previous decade 1990-1999, respectively from 20 milliards dollars to 100 milliards of dollars, with especially serious consequences both on the external and on the internal economic balance.

  14. Assessing Market-Sold Remedies in Lomé (Togo for Hygienic Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comlan de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional concoctions sold in marketplaces are always assumed to be safe and efficient; however, they can be potentially toxic because of poor hygienic practices in plant processing or storage. The present study aimed to assess for the microbial quality of market-sold vegetable drugs in Lomé. Thus, a total of 209 plant remedies were collected in marketplaces and analysed for the presence of total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, sulphite reducing bacteria, and yeast and moulds according to the French Association of Normalisation (AFNOR guidelines. The results revealed that all formulations were contaminated by several microorganisms, excepted alcohol-based mixtures. According to AFNOR limits nonconform drugs were according to total aerobic bacteria (86.96% powders, 81.82% capsules, 66.67% tisanes, and 42.11% decoctions; to total coliforms (9.10% capsules, 8.70% powders and 1.75% decoction; to yeasts and moulds (77.78% ointments, 40% calcined powders, 36.36% capsules, and 23.91% powders. The microbiological analysis revealed that the majority of contaminating bacteria were gram positive catalase positive and oxidase positive bacilli. Quality control studies on market-sold remedies are currently needed to evaluate the microbial risk in consuming these products and they may allow the standardisation of plant processing and storage.

  15. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water sold by roadside vendors of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Pankaj; Varma, Ajit; Jindal, Tanu

    2017-07-01

    Delhi has emerged as one of the greenest capital city of the world. Microbiological assessment of drinking water emphasizes estimation of the hygienic quality of the water sold with reference to community health significance. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors in east, west, north and south zones of capital of India. A total number of 36 samples (nine from each zone) were collected as per national guidelines and studied for microbiological assessment. All the drinking water samples were collected in gamma-sterilized bottles and were kept in an ice pack to prevent any significant change in the microbial flora of the samples during the transportation. The water samples were transported to the laboratory in vertical position maintaining the temperature 1-4 °C with ice pack enveloped conditions. Samples were analyzed for total MPN coliform per 100 ml and for the presence and absence of common human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the samples were found to be contaminated with coliform organisms in the range of 14 to >1600 per 100 ml of sample. Out of 36 water samples, the occurrence of E. coli was 61 %, Salmonella 25 % S. aureus 14 % and P. aeruginosa 53 % as 22, 9, 5 and 19 samples were found contaminated, respectively. The numbers of coliform bacteria and presence of some common pathogenic bacteria suggested that the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors is not within the Indian standard and WHO guidelines laid down for drinking water quality. Hence, there is a vital need to study the root cause in terms of hygiene, sanitation of vendors and source of contamination to prevent waterborne diseases.

  16. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudoterranova azarasi LARVAE IN COD (Gadus sp. SOLD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION IN BRAZIL

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    Juliana MARIGO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anisakiasis and Pseudoterranovosis are human diseases caused by the ingestion of live Anisakidae larvae in raw, undercooked or lightly marinated fish. Larvae were collected from one salted cod sold for human consumption in a Sao Paulo market in 2013. One section of one brownish larva was used for molecular analyses. The partial COX2 gene sequence from the larva had a nucleotide identity of 99.8 % with Pseudoterranova azarasi, which belongs to the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex. The risk of allergy when consuming dead larvae in salted fish is not well known and should be considered.

  17. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights.

  18. Evaluation of Parasitic Pollution in Fresh Unwashed Herbs Sold in Izeh City, Iran

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    Valipour Nouroozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Fresh herbs are a crucial part of a good diet. However, they can easily become contaminated with food-borne pathogens. Eating fresh unwashed or improperly washed herbs has a major role in transmission of some important parasitic diseases. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate parasitic pollution in fresh unwashed herbs sold in Izeh city, Iran. Materials and Methods Four hundred samples of fresh unwashed herbs were purchased from a distributor in Izeh city during January 2014 to April 2015. Detergent solution was added to 240 g of each sample. The mixture was shaken and washed solution was filtered through 0.2 µm bottle-top filter. The filtrate was discarded and filter was placed in a 50 mL conical screw cap tube. Then, the detergent solution was added. Following vortex, filter was discarded. The sediment was examined by light microscope after centrifuge. Finally, data descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Parasitic pollution was detected in 3.5% of the examined samples, including Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst (1.5%, Giardia spp. cyst (1%, Blastocystis spp. cyst (0.5% and Taenia spp. egg (0.5%. Conclusions Parasitic contamination of fresh herbs sold in Izeh may pose a health risk to consumers if eaten as unwashed or improperly washed.

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella and Vibrio spp. in seafood products sold in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunle; Ghate, Vinayak; Phua, Leslie; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2012-07-01

    Foodborne hazards in seafood have only recently received increased attention in Singapore since the illness outbreak in 2009 that was associated with consumption of Indian rojak (a traditional salad of fruits, vegetables, and seafood). The microbiological quality of seafood must be evaluated for assurance of food safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and to determine the prevalence of Salmonella and Vibrio spp. in seafood sold in Singapore. A total of 116 samples (41 prawn, 44 shellfish, and 31 fishball samples) were collected from major supermarkets and wet markets in Singapore. The mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial counts for prawn, shellfish, and fishballs were 2 to 7 log CFU/g. One Salmonella Lexington strain was isolated from a thawed-frozen shellfish product and two Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from commercial fishball and shrimp meat products. Thus, seafood sold in Singapore has the potential to be contaminated with Vibrio spp. and Salmonella, and proper handling at food service establishments is required to ensure food safety. Effective control measures also are needed to prevent cross-contamination during postharvest seafood processing.

  20. Palytoxin found in Palythoa sp. zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia sold in the home aquarium trade.

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    Jonathan R Deeds

    Full Text Available Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia are colonial anemones that contain one of the deadliest toxins ever discovered, palytoxin (LD(50 in mice 300 ng/kg, but it is generally believed that highly toxic species are not sold in the home aquarium trade. We previously showed that an unintentionally introduced zoanthid in a home aquarium contained high concentrations of palytoxin and was likely responsible for a severe respiratory reaction when an individual attempted to eliminate the contaminant colonies using boiling water. To assess the availability and potential exposure of palytoxin to marine aquarium hobbyists, we analyzed zoanthid samples collected from local aquarium stores for palytoxin using liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry and attempted to identify the specimens through genetic analysis of 16S and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI markers. We found four specimens of the same apparent species of zoanthid, that we described previously to be responsible for a severe respiratory reaction in a home aquarium, to be available in three aquarium stores in the Washington D.C. area. We found all of these specimens (n = 4 to be highly toxic with palytoxin or palytoxin-like compounds (range 0.5-3.5 mg crude toxin/g zoanthid. One of the most potent non-protein compounds ever discovered is present in dangerous quantities in a select species of zoanthid commonly sold in the home aquarium trade.

  1. Palytoxin found in Palythoa sp. zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) sold in the home aquarium trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Jonathan R; Handy, Sara M; White, Kevin D; Reimer, James D

    2011-04-04

    Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) are colonial anemones that contain one of the deadliest toxins ever discovered, palytoxin (LD(50) in mice 300 ng/kg), but it is generally believed that highly toxic species are not sold in the home aquarium trade. We previously showed that an unintentionally introduced zoanthid in a home aquarium contained high concentrations of palytoxin and was likely responsible for a severe respiratory reaction when an individual attempted to eliminate the contaminant colonies using boiling water. To assess the availability and potential exposure of palytoxin to marine aquarium hobbyists, we analyzed zoanthid samples collected from local aquarium stores for palytoxin using liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry and attempted to identify the specimens through genetic analysis of 16S and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) markers. We found four specimens of the same apparent species of zoanthid, that we described previously to be responsible for a severe respiratory reaction in a home aquarium, to be available in three aquarium stores in the Washington D.C. area. We found all of these specimens (n = 4) to be highly toxic with palytoxin or palytoxin-like compounds (range 0.5-3.5 mg crude toxin/g zoanthid). One of the most potent non-protein compounds ever discovered is present in dangerous quantities in a select species of zoanthid commonly sold in the home aquarium trade.

  2. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  3. Assessment of mold contamination and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil sold in Jos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoh, Chuks K; Amapu, Tarfen Y; Orjiakor, Ikechukwu P; Martins, Paul E; Seibai, Benedict T; Akpi, Uche K; Ugwu, Chinyere S; Lerum, Nathaniel I; Nwankwegu, Amechi S

    2017-03-01

    Due to increasing reports on poor-quality palm oil in the market, there has been a continual decrease in demand and revenue cum product rejection of palm oil sold in Jos, Nigeria. Hence, the significance of this work aims to moderate the microbial and physical qualities of crude palm oil sold in different major markets in order to increase revenue through quality control and quality assurance protocols. The intent is to create awareness among government monitoring agencies, buyers (exporters and importers), and to promote standard processing procedures among manufacturers. The study was carried out to ascertain the levels of mold contamination and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil sold in Jos and its environ. A total of 90 samples were collected in sterile containers. Molds were isolated and identified using standard identification procedures. The physicochemical properties: free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), moisture content (MC), and impurity level were determined. The assessment of mold isolated from the study sites recognized some life-threatening genera capable of producing carcinogenic toxins. Candida sp. (51%) had the highest percentage of occurrence followed by Aspergillus sp. (45%) while Fusarium sp. (3%) was the least occurring mold. The mean mold count for all the palm oil samples ranges from 3.18 × 104 (cfu/mL)-4.56 × 104 (cfu/mL). Physicochemical findings showed that the average FFA (3.43-6.88%), PV (6.96-13.63 mEq/kg), IV (39.7-67.5 wijs), and MC (0.44-0.72%) values were within the SON acceptable limit, except the impurity level (0.28-0.44%) which was higher than the acceptable SON range in all the sites. There was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in the mold and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil in almost all the samples analyzed when compared to both local and international permissible limits of the tested parameters recommended for edible palm oil. There was compliance between the

  4. Presence of lead in paint of toys sold in stores of the formal market of Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-García, A; Ramos-Bonilla, J P

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a non-essential metal. Exposure to lead has been associated with adverse health effects in both children and adults. Lead content in paint used in toys or children's products has been identified as both a potential and preventable source of childhood lead exposure. Twenty-four stores located in Bogotá (Colombia) were selected by cluster sampling to participate in the study. A random sample of 96 toys was purchased at these stores. Since one toy can have different paint colors, a total of 116 paint samples from 96 toys were analyzed for lead content. Paint samples were prepared by microwave digestion and lead was quantified using ICP-OES. For quality control purposes of the analytical method, spike samples and a certified reference material (NIST SRM 2582) were used. The lead content in paint ranged from below the method detection limit (5ppm) to 47,600ppm, with an average Pb concentration of 1024ppm and a median concentration of 5ppm. Eight (8) paint samples removed from five toys had lead concentrations exceeding the US regulatory limit for total lead content (90ppm). Brown paint and toys manufactured in Colombia were significantly associated with high concentrations of lead in paint. Furthermore, a statistically significant interaction between these two variables was also found. The results suggest that there is a potential risk of lead exposure from paint of toys sold in the formal market of Bogotá. Therefore, the implementation of a national surveillance program of lead content in children products is urgently needed. The risk of children's lead exposure identified in this study, which is completely preventable, could be present also in other developing countries. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. HEDONIC ANALYSIS OF CELL PHONES SOLD WITH POST-PAID SERVICE PLANS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. Lucinda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the determining factors for the pricing of handsets sold with service plans, using the hedonic price method. This was undertaken by building a database comprising 48 handset models, under nine different service plans, over a period of 53 weeks in 2008, and resulted in 27 different attributes and a total number of nearly 300,000 data registers. The results suggest that the value of monthly subscriptions and calling minutes are important to explain the prices of handsets. Furthermore, both the physical volume and number of megapixels of a camera had an effect on the prices. The bigger the handset, the cheaper it becomes, and the more megapixels a camera phone has, the more expensive it becomes. Additionally, it was found that in 2008 Brazilian phone companies were subsidizing enabled data connection handsets.

  6. An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with food sold at a salvage store in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Pavani; Crowe, Colleen; Reller, Megan; Gaul, Linda; Hayslett, James; Barth, Suzanne; Eliasberg, Stacey; Ferreira, J; Holt, Kristin; Bengston, Steve; Hendricks, Kate; Sobel, Jeremy

    2003-12-01

    Foodborne botulism is caused by potent neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum. We investigated a large outbreak of foodborne botulism among church supper attendees in Texas. We conducted a cohort study of attendees and investigated the salvage store that sold the implicated foods. We identified 15 cases of botulism (40%) among 38 church supper attendees. Nine patients (60%) had botulinum toxin type A detected in stool specimens. The diagnosis was delayed in 3 cases. Fifteen (63%) of 24 attendees who ate a chili dish developed botulism (relative risk, undefined; Pdogs. An unopened container of brand X chili yielded type A toxin. Brand X chili was purchased at a salvage store where perishable foods were inadequately refrigerated. Our investigation highlights the need to improve clinicians' awareness of botulism. More rigorous and more unannounced inspections may be necessary to detect food mishandling at salvage stores.

  7. Prevalence of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Ready-to-Eat Foods Sold in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Beyza H; Çakmak Sancar, Burcu; Öztürk, Muhsin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold in Istanbul, Turkey. A total of 5,241 samples were randomly collected from various caterers, hotels, and restaurants from 2014 to 2016. The samples were classified into four groups: (i) various cooked RTE meat and vegetable meals, (ii) various RTE salads, charcuterie, and cold appetizers, (iii) various cooked RTE bakery products (pasta, pastries, pizza, pita, ravioli, etc.), and (iv) any cooked RTE sweets and desserts (pudding, custard, cream, ashura, etc.). The samples were examined for the presence of SEs by 3M Tecra Staph Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay method, which is a manual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Among all samples, only 1 (0.019%) RTE meal (vegetable meal with meat) was found to be contaminated with SEs, a good result in terms of staphylococcal food poisoning risk and public health.

  8. The Frequency of Antibiotics Sold without A Prescription and the Appropriateness of Antibiotic Use in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sera Kosanlioglu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency with which antibiotics were sold without a prescription, to examine factors related to such practices and to determine the appropriateness of antibiotics sold with a prescription in Sanliurfa city center in Turkey. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out between September and December 2010, on patients who visited the pharmacies to ask for antibiotics with or without prescription. To determine the research sample the cluster sampling method was used and from 186 pharmacies, 25 pharmacies were selected at random. The pharmacies were visited and asked to complete a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 373 patients obtained antibiotics from pharmacies. The patients who received antibiotics by prescription comprised 98.6% (n=359 of all patients. A total 36 different antibiotics had been prescribed to the patients. Inappropriate prescription of antibiotics was documented in 63.7%. The most-prescribed antibiotic was co-amoxiclav (28.8%. The rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions with the diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection (77.8% was highest, while the rate was lowest with the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (23.3% (χ2: 68.8, P<0.001. The rate of inappropriate prescribed antibiotics in state hospitals (53.7% was lower than the rate in primary health care centers (72.1% and private hospitals and clinics (64.7% (χ2: 10.4, P=0.05. There was no diagnosis of infection in 17 (4.7% patients with prescriptions. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the use of antibiotics without prescription was low, while the rate of inappropriate antibiotic use was high in Sanliurfa. The use of antibiotics without prescription can potentially be prevented through interventions in the healthcare system. To prevent inappropriate antibiotic prescription, improvements to physicians’ education must be implemented, even after graduation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 173-180

  9. Modern organic and broiler chickens sold for human consumption provide more energy from fat than protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqun; Lehane, Catherine; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Crawford, Michael A

    2010-03-01

    In 1976, the Royal College of Physicians and the British Cardiac Society recommended eating less fatty red meat and more poultry instead because it was lean. However, the situation has changed since that time, with a striking increase in fat content of the standard broiler chicken. The aim of the present study was to report a snapshot of data on fat in chickens now sold to the public. Samples were obtained randomly between 2004 and 2008 from UK supermarkets, farm shops and a football club. The amount of chicken fat was estimated by emulsification and chloroform/methanol extraction. Food sold in supermarkets and farms in England. Chicken samples. The fat energy exceeded that of protein. There has been a loss of n-3 fatty acids. The n-6:n-3 ratio was found to be as high as 9:1, as opposed to the recommendation of about 2:1. Moreover, the TAG level in the meat and whole bird mostly exceeded the proportion of phospholipids, which should be the higher for muscle function. The n-3 fatty acid docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22 : 5n-3) was in excess of DHA (22 : 6n-3). Previous analyses had, as usual for birds, more DHA than DPA. Traditional poultry and eggs were one of the few land-based sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, which is synthesized from its parent precursor in the green food chain. In view of the obesity epidemic, chickens that provide several times the fat energy compared with protein seem illogical. This type of chicken husbandry needs to be reviewed with regard to its implications for animal welfare and human nutrition.

  10. 30 CFR 206.103 - How do I value oil that is not sold under an arm's-length contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arm's-length contract? 206.103 Section 206.103 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... oil that is not sold under an arm's-length contract? This section explains how to value oil that you... average of the gross proceeds accruing to the seller under your or your affiliates' arm's-length contracts...

  11. A Comparison of Singlet Oxygen Explicit Dosimetry (SOED and Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Dosimetry (SOLD for Photofrin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy

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    Michele M. Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate photodynamic therapy (PDT dosimetry is critical for the use of PDT in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant localized diseases. A singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry (SOED model has been developed for in vivo purposes. It involves the measurement of the key components in PDT—light fluence (rate, photosensitizer concentration, and ground-state oxygen concentration ([3O2]—to calculate the amount of reacted singlet oxygen ([1O2]rx, the main cytotoxic component in type II PDT. Experiments were performed in phantoms with the photosensitizer Photofrin and in solution using phosphorescence-based singlet oxygen luminescence dosimetry (SOLD to validate the SOED model. Oxygen concentration and photosensitizer photobleaching versus time were measured during PDT, along with direct SOLD measurements of singlet oxygen and triplet state lifetime (τΔ and τt, for various photosensitizer concentrations to determine necessary photophysical parameters. SOLD-determined cumulative [1O2]rx was compared to SOED-calculated [1O2]rx for various photosensitizer concentrations to show a clear correlation between the two methods. This illustrates that explicit dosimetry can be used when phosphorescence-based dosimetry is not feasible. Using SOED modeling, we have also shown evidence that SOLD-measured [1O2]rx using a 523 nm pulsed laser can be used to correlate to singlet oxygen generated by a 630 nm laser during a clinical malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM PDT protocol by using a conversion formula.

  12. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... sent to Julie Brewer, Chief, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and..., Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, 3101 Park... Standards for Food Sold in Schools in Competition With School Meals Federal child nutrition programs play a...

  13. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified..., Labeling, and Market Information § 205.309 Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as “made with organic (specified ingredients or...

  14. Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A D; Forsyth, D S

    2011-06-01

    Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g(-1), range) were: sea bass 329 (38-1367), red snapper 148 (36-431), orange roughy 543 (279-974), fresh water trout 55 (20-430), grouper 360 (8-1060), black cod 284 (71-651), Arctic char 37 (28-54), king fish 440 (42-923), tilefish 601 (79-1164) and marlin 854 (125-2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the edible portions of fish sold at the retail level is 1000 ng g(-1) for shark, swordfish, marlin, orange roughy, escolar and both fresh and frozen tuna. The standard is 500 ng g(-1) for all other types of fish. In this study, despite the small number of samples of each species, the 1000 ng g(-1) maximum was exceeded in five samples of marlin (28%). The 500 ng g(-1) maximum was exceeded by six samples of sea bass (20%), four of tilefish (50%), five of grouper (24%), six of king fish (40%) and one of black cod (13%).

  15. Variations in content of active ingredients causing drug interactions in grapefruit juice products sold in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Marquez, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    The content of the active ingredients of grapefruit juice, naringin, naringenin and bergapten, was determined in 20 different commercial products of grapefruit juice sold in California. These included Minute Maid, Dole, Tropicana, Ocean Spray, Ralps, Albertson, Stater Bros, Vons, Langers, etc. The concentrations of naringin, naringenin and bergapten in grapefruit juice were assayed by specific HPLC methods. Naringin was found to be the most abundant flavonoid in grapefruit juice products, followed by naringenin and bergapten. The content of naringin varied among the products, ranging from 104 mg/l (Tropicana ruby red) to 628 mg/l (Ralphs white frozen concentrate). The mean contents of naringin in ruby red (158 +/- 66 [SD] mg/l) and pink (279 +/- 123 mg/l) grapefruit juice products were significantly lower than white (481 +/- 94 mg/l) (p grapefruit juice products. Content of naringenin also varied from brand to brand and ranged from 3.9 mg/l (Vons white frozen concentrate) to 31.2 mg/l (Tree Sweet pink). Bergapten content was very low in grapefruit juice products ranging from 0 (not detectable) to 5.5 mg/l. There were no significant differences in naringenin and bergapten contents among the three types of grapefruit juice products. The information gained from this study would be useful in predicting the likelihood of grapefruit juice-drug interactions.

  16. Children sold for transplants: medical and legal aspects. Amnesty International--Danish Working Group for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, U; Christensen, J; Glending, S

    1998-11-01

    Over the last few decades there has been a substantially higher percentage of successful organ transplants but also a significant imbalance between the demand for and the supply of organs, creating the basis for a highly profitable black market trade in human organs. Sometimes there are reports that children have been kidnapped, only to reappear later lacking one kidney, or that they simply disappear and are subsequently killed to have all their transplantable organs removed for profit. The European Union feels that there is a need for action and that it has a duty to act in this field, especially for ethical reasons. There is now established close co-operation between the various European transplant organizations. The legal protection of children with regard to organ transplantation is not specifically mentioned in the existing conventions because this issue was not foreseen at the time of their preparation. However, the issue is covered in a broader sense by more general provisions. There are endless rumours surrounding this area. Members of various organizations who travel in the suspected countries say that the trafficking in children who are sold for transplantation is well known, but it is too difficult and very dangerous to catch the people involved. We have to conclude that it has been impossible to prove or disprove the rumours, but they are consistent and we all, especially in the health care professions, have an obligation to be keenly aware of how and where organs are obtained.

  17. Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses.

  18. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods.

  20. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  1. Survey of total mercury in infant formulae and oral electrolytes sold in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabeka, Robert W; McKenzie, Arthur D

    2012-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) was measured in 150 infant formula products (as sold) and oral electrolyte solutions purchased in Canada in 2003. Results less than the limit of detection (LOD) were reported as the numeric value of the LOD. Electrolytes contained the lowest concentrations, averaging 0.026 ng/g. Average levels in milk-based ready-to-use, concentrated liquid and powdered concentrate were 0.028, 0.069 and 0.212 ng/g, respectively. In soy-based formulae, the respective mean concentrations were 0.049, 0.101 and 0.237 ng/g. These concentrations cannot be considered on an absolute basis because 76% of sample concentrations fell below the limit of detection. Despite the inability to measure many of the actual background concentrations, the method was sufficiently sensitive to identify clear cases of low-level Hg contamination (up to 1.5 ng/g) of individual lots of powdered formula. Also, all the different lots of one brand of concentrated liquid infant formulae had significantly higher concentrations of Hg than those of all other concentrated liquid products. After dilution with preparation water, the Hg concentrations in all products would be lower than the Canadian Drinking Water Guideline for Hg of 1 ng/mL and too low to impact on health.

  2. Strong increase in total delta-THC in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijlman, F T A; Rigter, S M; Hoek, J; Goldschmidt, H M J; Niesink, R J M

    2005-06-01

    The total concentration of THC has been monitored in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops since 1999. This annual monitoring was issued by the Ministry of Health after reports of increased potency. The level of the main psychoactive compound, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is measured in marijuana and hashish. A comparison is made between imported and Dutch preparations, and between seasons. Samples of cannabis preparations from randomly selected coffee shops were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC-FID) for THC, CBD and CBN. In 2004, the average THC level of Dutch home-grown marijuana (Nederwiet) (20.4% THC) was significantly higher than that of imported marijuana (7.0% THC). Hashish derived from Dutch marijuana (Nederhasj) contained 39.3% THC in 2004, compared with 18.2% THC in imported hashish. The average THC percentage of Dutch marijuana, Dutch hashish and imported hashish was significantly higher than in previous years. It nearly doubled over 5 years. During this period, the THC percentage in imported marijuana remained unchanged. A higher price had to be paid for cannabis with higher levels of THC. Whether the increase in THC levels causes increased health risks for users can only be concluded when more data are available on adjusted patterns of use, abuse liability, bioavailability and levels of THC in the brain.

  3. Screening the antiangiogenic activity of medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlif, Malek; Afifi, Fatma; Muhtaseb, Ruba; Al-Khatib, Sondos; Abaza, Ismail; Naffa, Randa

    2012-02-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the growth, invasion, and metastasis of most solid tumors and has become a valuable pharmacological target for cancer prevention and treatment. This study was performed to assess the antiangiogenic activity of 31 medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan. The antiangiogenic activity was assessed using the rat aortic ring assay. Out of 31 extracts, 15 extracts showed more than 50 % inhibition of the blood vessels outgrowth from the primary tissue explants (p = 0.000). Three of these 15 extracts showed a potential cytotoxic effect on normal fibroblast cells. Four extracts shared antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity towards MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Eight extracts demonstrated selective antiangiogenic activity. This is the first report demonstrating the potential antiangiogenic activity of Artemisia judaica, Aloysia citriodora, Salvia egyptiaca, and Calendula arvensis. Some extracts with antiangiogenic activity exhibited selectivity against the endothelial cells proliferation, demonstrating a direct inhibitory activity against the key step in tumor angiogenesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer’s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

  5. A research on the chemical and microbiological qualities of honeys sold in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun URAN

    Full Text Available Abstract Honey, produced by honeybees from nectar in flowers and plants, is an aqueous supersaturated sugar solution, mainly composed of fructose and glucose. The quality and biochemical properties of honey are related to honey maturity, production methods, processing and storage conditions, climatic conditions as well as the nectar source of the honey. In this study, 35 honey samples of different sizes and packaging all of which were sold in Istanbul were examined in terms of some physicochemical and microbiological properties. All samples were floral liquid honey. The physicochemical characterizations were as follows: average moisture (16.31±1.40%, ash (0.30±0.29%, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF (8.09±7.63 mg/kg, pH (4.32±0.34, acidity (30±9 meq/kg. In addition, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast and mold analyses were performed in these samples. According to the microbiological analyses; the average total number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria was 2.68 log cfu/g. Enterobacteriaceae have not been observed in the samples. However, in three samples, mold-yeasts were detected at the levels between 1.30 and 1.60 log cfu/g.

  6. A survey of pathogens associated with Cyperus esculentus L (tiger nuts) tubers sold in a Ghanaian city

    OpenAIRE

    Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Duedu, Kwabena O; Obeng, Akua S; Addo-Osafo, Kantanka; Mortu, Samuel; Asmah, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyperus esculentus L, is a minor but important crop in Ghana. They are noted mostly by their aphrodisiac properties among others. The nuts are often eaten raw as an unprocessed snack due to its rich flavour and texture. Though eaten raw, the nuts are sometimes handled unhygienically, posing a public health threat. This study therefore aimed at determining the level and distribution of parasitic and bacterial contaminants associated with the crop as it is sold. Results Four types of...

  7. A STUDY OF THE STICKINESS OF COST OF GOODS SOLD AND OPERATING COSTS TO CHANGES IN SALES LEVEL IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    NASSIRZADEH Farzaneh; SAEI Mohammad Javad; Mahdi SALEHI; BAYEGI Sayyed Ali Haddad

    2013-01-01

    Increased competition in domestic and foreign markets has made managers to identify their costs structure and behavior better. Cost behavior is a model based on which costs response to changes in level of activity. Having invented stickiness of costs model by Anderson and Janakiraman (2003), managers are able to better predict costs behavior when increases and decreases are occurred in sales. Using above model, this research examines behavior of cost of goods sold as well as general, administ...

  8. Presence of Streptococcus faecalis in the White Cheese Sold in Kahramanmaraş (Turkish with English Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay; Dığak, Metin

    2014-01-01

    In this study the presence of Streptococcus faecalis in the white cheeses made from pasteurize milk sold in Kahramanmaraş were examined. For this purpose, 22 cheese samples were taken. At the end of this study, all of the samples have Streptococcus faecalis (100%). It was concluded that the examined white cheese samples were inadequate from in reads of hygienic quality by Streptococcus faecalis.

  9. Screening for Genetically Modified Maize in Raw and Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Southern Nigeria Boarder States

    OpenAIRE

    Christiana Ngozi Opara; Aniekpeno Isaac Elijah; Leonard Governor Adamu; Sylvia Veronica Uzochukwu

    2016-01-01

    Genetically Modified (GM) foods hold the key to ending hunger and malnutrition in Africa.   Due to the increasing number of GMOs cultivation and delay in the approval of biosafety law in Nigeria, it has become necessary to screen maize products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, DNA extraction from raw and processed maize foods sold commercially in Sourthen Nigeria was carried out using the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, followed...

  10. [Microbiological quality of street sold fruits in San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, R; Arias, M L; Antillón, F; Utzinger, D

    1995-06-01

    The sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in San Jose, Costa Rica. It looked for the presence of Salmonella spp. Shigella spp., Escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (Ananas comosus), papaya (Carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (Mangifera indica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten without peeling, like nances (Byrsonima crassifolia) and jocotes (Spondias purpurea). 25 samples of each fruit, 50 natural refreshments and 50 fruit salads were processed according to rinse solution method, and the bacteriological determination was based in the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. In the same way, it was used the Most Probable Number for 5 tubes described in the Standar Methods of Water and Wastewater in orden to analyze 15 samples of ready to use water by the fruit hawker. The nutritional value was studied according to the food composition tables for Costa Rica, Latin America and USA. The results show that more than 30% of fruit samples, 70% of natural refreshments and 96% of fruit salad presented fecal coliforms. Same time, all of them present important contamination indexes with E. coli. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were not isolated. The water analysis revelead that 53% contained fecal coliforms, probably due to the lack of hygiene in the utensils used to collect water. The nutritional evaluation shows that fruit portions (except watermelon) satisfy more than 100% of the diary recommendation of vitamin C (60 mg) and 4-7% of the recommended ingestion of dietetic fiber (30g).

  11. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat Sold in İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kemal BÜYÜKÜNAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are some of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. They are mainly considered as foodborne pathogens that are found in raw or undercooked poultry and serve as an important source of sporadic campylobacteriosis. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 176 samples of chicken meat were analyzed using PCM and BAX® system. The samples analyzed included: 56 samples of whole chicken, 27 samples of chicken breast, 33 samples of chicken thigh, 25 samples of chicken drumstick and 35 samples of chicken wings. Samples of all the fresh chicken meat sold in İstanbul were randomly purchased from different major supermarkets in their original, individual packages. Laboratory analyses to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were performed in accordance with the ISO 10272-1, 2006 standard (qualitative analysis. API® Campy (BioMerieux, Marcy-l’Etoile, France was used for the confirmation of presumptive colonies. Campylobacter isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests by the disc diffusion method as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Zones of growth inhibition were evaluated according to the NCCLS standards. Using PCM, the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and C. lari was determined as 15.34, 8.52 and 1.7%, respectively. However, using BAX® system, the prevalence was determined as 15.90, 18.75 and 1.7% for C. coli, C. jejuni and C. lari, respectively. C. coli was resistant to nalidixic acid (78.57%, ofloxacin (14.29% norfloxacin (10.71% and ampicillin (10.71%. But the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (90.91% for C. jejuni and (100% for C. lari. In conclusion, considering the public health, chicken meat is a common source for Campylobacter strains and antibiotics should be used carefully in veterinary medicine.

  12. Hygienic-sanitary evaluation of sushi and sashimi sold in Messina and Catania, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Muscolino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushi and sashimi are traditional Japanese food, mostly consisting of raw seafood alone or in combination with rice. Eating sushi and sashimi has become popular in many countries even outside Japan. This food is not free from health risks such as ingestion of pathogenic bacteria or parasite. The aim of this study was to investigate on hygienic-sanitary quality of sushi and sashimi sold in the cities of Messina and Catania, Southern Italy. Fifty samples (38 sushi and 12 sashimi were analysed to determinate the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, psycrophilic bacteria (PB, Enterobacteriaceae, specific spoilage organisms (SSOs, Pseudomonas spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, micrococci, Vibrio spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In sushi, AMB ranged from 5.00 to 8.18 log CFU/g, PB from 4.70 to 7.13 log CFU/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.41 to 6.67 log CFU/g, while SSOs and Pseudomonas spp. from 3.49 to 7.72 and from 3.36 to 8.00 log CFU/g, respectively. Micrococci ranged from 3.53 to 5.03 log CFU/g and coagulase positive staphylococci were found in 16 samples (2.00 to 3.60 log CFU/g. Bacillus cereus was found in 3 samples (1.70 to 4.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. was found in 15 of the sushi samples (1.70 to 3.70 log CFU/g. In sashimi, the AMB, PB and SSOs values were higher than 7.00 log CFU/g, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were from 6.00 to 8.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. were found in six samples with means of 2.00 log CFU/g. No Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in all sushi and sashimi samples.

  13. Salvinorin A content in legal high products of Salvia divinorum sold in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; García-Sosa, Karlina; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Vázquez-Hernández, Maribel; Ramos-Morales, Fernando Rafael; Corcoran, Olivia; Sánchez-Medina, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae) is a herb native to Mexico where it is used by Mazatec shamans for spiritual and divination purposes. S. divinorum products are easily available to consumers and are used worldwide as legal highs because of the hallucinogenic effects caused mainly by salvinorin A. Highly popular videos and websites on the internet depicting the use of S. divinorum products have contributed to an increase in their consumption. Recent reports have highlighted the potential of these products to induce psychosis in consumers. In Mexico, dried leaf extracts of S. divinorum are sold in different strengths, claiming to correlate with increasing amounts of salvinorin A. In order to determine the variability of salvinorin A content between brands and to investigate possible correlation between brand strengths, this study sought to quantify salvinorin A in commercial products available in Mexico using an HPLC method. The HPLC analytical method showed a correlation coefficient R(2)>0.99, with LOD of 0.44 μg/mL and LOQ of 1.34 μg/mL. The retention time for salvinorin A was 23.09±0.95 min and the measured concentrations ranged between 8.32±0.65 and 56.52±3.77 mg/g dried leaf. The results for brand c did not show an agreement between the declared and the calculated amount of salvinorin A. Additionally, the emergence in Mexico of high strength salvia products (100×), the lack of regulation and the observed variability of salvinorin A content between brands of commercial legal highs products of S. divinorum could result in a health problem for consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical Composition and Labeling of Substances Marketed as Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators and Sold via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Eichner, Amy; Bhasin, Shalender; Deuster, Patricia A; Eichner, Daniel

    2017-11-28

    Recent reports have described the increasing use of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators, which have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), to enhance appearance and performance. The composition and purity of such products is not known. To determine the chemical identity and the amounts of ingredients in dietary supplements and products marketed and sold through the internet as selective androgen receptor modulators and compare the analyzed contents with product labels. Web-based searches were performed from February 18, 2016, to March 25, 2016, using the Google search engine on the Chrome and Internet Explorer web browsers to identify suppliers selling selective androgen receptor modulators. The products were purchased and the identities of the compounds and their amounts were determined from April to August 2016 using chain-of-custody and World Anti-Doping Association-approved analytical procedures. Analytical findings were compared against the label information. Products marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators. Chemical identities and the amount of ingredients in each product marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators. Among 44 products marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators, only 23 (52%) contained 1 or more selective androgen receptor modulators (Ostarine, LGD-4033, or Andarine). An additional 17 products (39%) contained another unapproved drug, including the growth hormone secretagogue ibutamoren, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ agonist GW501516, and the Rev-ErbA agonist SR9009. Of the 44 tested products, no active compound was detected in 4 (9%) and substances not listed on the label were contained in 11 (25%). In only 18 of the 44 products (41%), the amount of active compound in the product matched that listed on the label. The amount of the compounds listed on the label differed substantially from that found by analysis in 26 of 44 products

  15. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITY OF MARKET MILK SOLD AT TANDOJAM, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. JAVAID, J. A. GADAHI, M. KHASKELI, M. B. BHUTTO, S. KUMBHER AND A. H. PANHWAR

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of milk sold at Tandojam, Pakistan. A total of 125 milk samples (25 samples from each source collected from five milk marketing agencies viz direct seller (DS, milk collection center(MCC, milk vendor shop (MVS, hotel (HT and buffalo dairy farm (DF, which served as control. Acidity of milk obtained from DS, MCC, MVS and HT averaged 0.13, 0.15, 0.12 and 0.13, respectively compared to 0.14 for DF milk. The pH values of milk from MVS (6.54 and HT (6.53 were significantly different (P0.05 to that of DF milk i.e. 6.65. Viscosity, specific gravity and freezing point of milk procured from DS (1.48, 1.026 and –0.460, respectively, MCC (1.58, 1.026 and –0.470, respectively, MVS (1.34, 1.026 and –0.440, respectively and HT (1.46, 1.027 and –0.480, respectively were significantly (P<0.001 lower than DF milk (1.86, 1.031 and -0.551, respectively. Chemical quality of milk procured from DS, MCC, MVS and HT compared to DF milk (control averaged 13.45, 14.18, 13.19 and 14.06% vs. 16.30% for TS content, 8.25, 8.81, 8.06 and 8.51% vs. 9.79% for SNF content, 5.20, 5.41, 5.13 and 5.54% vs. 6.51% for fat content, 3.85, 3.96, 3.91 and 4.23% vs. 4.35% for protein content, 2.70, 2.77, 2.56 and 3.20% vs. 3.56% for casein content, 3.65, 4.03, 3.34 and 3.52% vs. 4.53% for lactose content and 0.75, 0.78, 0.74 and 0.76% vs. 0.91% for ash content, respectively. All the attributes of chemical quality of milk supplied through four agencies were significantly lower (P<0.05 than DF milk.

  16. The microbiological quality of pasteurized milk sold by automatic vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, A S; Tsiota, S; Pexara, A; Govaris, A

    2016-06-01

    The microbiological quality of pasteurized milk samples (n = 39) collected during 13 weekly intervals from three automatic vending machines (AVM) in Greece was investigated. Microbiological counts (total aerobic (TAC), total psychrotrophic (TPC), Enterobacteriaceae (EC), and psychrotrophic aerobic bacterial spore counts (PABSC)) were obtained at the time of sampling and at the end of shelf-life (3 days) after storage of the samples at 4 or 8°C. TAC were found to be below the 10(7 ) CFU ml(-1) limit of pasteurized milk spoilage both during sampling as well as when milk samples were stored at either storage temperature for 3 days. Enterobacteriaceae populations were below 1 CFU ml(-1) in 69·2% of the samples tested at the time of sampling, whereas the remaining samples contained low numbers, typically less than 10 CFU ml(-1) . All samples tested negative for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. Analogous microbiological data were also obtained by sampling and testing prepackaged, retail samples of pasteurized milk from two dairy companies in Greece (n = 26). From a microbiological standpoint, the data indicate that the AVM milk samples meet the quality standards of pasteurized milk. However, the prepackaged, retail milk samples yielded better results in terms of TAC, TPC and EC, compared to the AVM samples at the end of shelf-life. Recently, Greek dairy farmers organized in cooperatives launched the sale of pasteurized milk via AVM and this study reports on the microbiological quality of this product. The data show that AVM milk is sold at proper refrigeration temperatures and meets the quality standards of pasteurized milk throughout the manufacturer's specified shelf-life. However, based on the microbiological indicators tested, the keeping quality of the tested prepackaged, retail samples of pasteurized milk at the end of shelf-life upon storage under suboptimal refrigeration temperature (8°C) was better. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  17. Occurrence of microorganisms of public health and spoilage significance in fruit juices sold in retail markets in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantarakis, A; Affifi, M; Kokkinos, P; Tsibouxi, M; Papapetropoulou, M

    2011-12-01

    Fruit juices are an important part of the modern diet in many countries. However, few data are available concerning the microbiological quality of the fruit juices sold in Greece. Using standard microbiological procedures, we conducted a bacteriological survey of commercially sold, pasteurized, shelf-stable fruit juices from retail markets. A total of 120 samples of fruit juices sold in various retail markets were examined for their bacteriological quality. The pH of the tested juices was 2.4-4.8. Bacteria were isolated from 51 samples (42.5%) and fungi from 78 samples (65%). Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected in four of the analyzed samples (3.34%), and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in four different samples (3.34%). In 11 samples (9.1%), the total number of microorganisms detected was as high as 125 colony-forming units (CFU). Acidophilic microorganisms were isolated from 26 samples (21.7%) and Blastomyces was detected in 46 samples (38.3%). All samples were negative for Lactobacillus, Clostridium perfrigens, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, total coliforms, E. coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. Many of the microorganisms detected may cause disease in humans; thus, a number of the tested samples did not meet the Greek guidelines for the microbiological quality of juices. Use of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system should be generally introduced into the juice industry sector to improve the quality of fruit juices, as well as other manufactured foods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trace elements in rock phosphates and P containing mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers sold in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, Sylvia, E-mail: sylvia.kratz@jki.bund.de; Schick, Judith; Schnug, Ewald

    2016-01-15

    68 rock phosphates and 162 P containing (organo-)mineral fertilizers sold in Germany were evaluated with regard to trace element contents. While Al, As, B, Be, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, and Zn were higher in sedimentary than in igneous rock phosphates, the opposite was true for Co, Cu, Sn, Mn, Ti, Fe, and Sr. Comparing element concentrations to the currently valid legal limit values defined by the German Fertilizer Ordinance, it was found that some PK and many straight P fertilizers (superphosphate, triple superphosphate, partly acidulated rock phosphates) exceeded the limit of 50 mg Cd/kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Mean values for As, Ni, Pb, and Tl remained below legal limits in almost all cases. While no legal limit has been defined for U in Germany yet, the limit of 50 mg U/kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5} for P containing fertilizers proposed by the German Commission for the Protection of Soils was clearly exceeded by mean values for all fertilizer types analyzed. A large share of the samples evaluated in this work contained essential trace elements at high concentrations, with many of them not being declared as such. Furthermore, trace elements supplied with these fertilizers at a fertilization rate leveling P uptake would exceed trace element uptake by crops. This may become most relevant for B and Fe, since many crops are sensitive to an oversupply of B, and Fe loads exceeding plant uptake may immobilize P supplies for the crops by forming Fe phosphate salts. The sample set included two products made from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash. The products displayed very high concentrations of Fe and Mn and exceeded the legal limit for Ni, emphasizing the necessity to continue research on heavy metal removal from recycled raw materials and the development of environmentally friendly and agriculturally efficient fertilizer products. - Highlights: • Mineral fertilizers (MF) sold in Germany often exceed legal limits for Cd • MF sold in Germany contain high

  19. [Microbiological quality of " ice, ice cream. sorbet" sold on the streets of Phnom Penh; April 1996-April 1997].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruy, S L; Soares, J L; Ping, S; Sainte-Marie, F F

    2001-12-01

    A study of the microbiological quality of ice lice creams/sorbets sold on the streets of Phnom Penh city was conducted from April 1996 to April 1997. Socio-demographic and environmental characteristics with two ice/ice creams samples were collected from vendors selected in the city. A total of 105 vendors and 210 ice/ice creams samples were randomly selected for the study period. Ice/ice cream vendors in the streets of Phnom Penh were adults (mean age: 28 years old) with a male predominance (86.5%). Mean educational level of vendors was 5 years with no training in mass catering. Most ice creams and sorbets (81.7%) were made using traditional methods. Microbiological analysis performed in the laboratory of Pasteur Institute of Cambodia indicated the poor bacteriological quality of the samples. The proportions of samples classified unsafe according to microbiological criteria were 83.3% for total bacterial count at 30 degrees C, 70% for total coliforms, 30% for faecal coliforms, 12.2% for Staphylococcus aureus and 1.9% for presence of Salmonella spp. These bacterial results suggest that many other food products sold in the streets may be similarly poor. Safety measures should be undertaken to avoid potential threats. Regulation of the street food sector should be part of a larger strategy for enhanced food safety and environmental quality in the city.

  20. Monitoring of Bt11 and Bt176 genetically modified maize in food sold commercially in Brazil from 2005 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinon, Andréia Z; Bosco, Kenia T; Arisi, Ana Carolina M

    2010-07-01

    The first genetically modified (GM) maize lines were approved for trading in Brazil after December 2007 and they were T25, MON810, Bt11, NK603 and GA21. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was employed to monitor the presence of Bt11 and nested PCR was used to detect the presence of Bt176 in 81 maize-derived products (maize flour, corn meal, maize flour flakes and polenta) that were sold in Brazilian market from 2005 to 2007, before the release of GM maize in Brazil. The PCR detection limit for Bt11 was 10 g kg(-1) and for nested PCR of Bt176 it was 1 g kg(-1). All Brazilian samples analyzed showed no positive signal for these GM maize events. Bt11 and Bt176 GM maize lines were not detected by specific PCR in 81 maize-derived food samples sold in Brazil from 2005 to 2007, before the commercial release of GM maize in Brazil. These Brazilian food industries were in compliance with the rules stipulated by the current legislation with respect to consumer requirements about GMO labeling.

  1. Quality evaluation of commercially sold table water samples in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria and surrounding environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Okorie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria (MOUAU and surrounding environments, table water of different brands is commercially hawked by vendors. To the best of our knowledge, there is no scientific documentation on the quality of these water samples. Hence this study which evaluated the quality of different brands of water samples commercially sold in MOUAU and surrounding environments. The physicochemical properties (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, Cl, NO3, ammonium nitrogen (NH3N, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, Ca, Mg, Na and K of the water samples as indices of their quality were carried out using standard techniques. Results obtained from this study indicated that most of the chemical constituents of these table water samples commercially sold in Umudike environment conformed to the standards given by the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS, World Health Organization (WHO and American Public Health Association (APHA, respectively, while values obtained for ammonium nitrogen in these water samples calls for serious checks on methods of their production and delivery to the end users.

  2. Bacteriological And Nutritional Analysis Of Groundnut Cake Sold In An Open Market In Samaru Zaria-Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriological and nutritional analysis of groundnut cake powder sold in open market at Samaru-Zaria was studied. The samples collected from four zones of the study area were analysed for possible microbiological contamination and its nutritional quality. The results indicated a microbial load of 1.93 x 105 cfug and 1.94 x 105 cfug for zones A and B respectively 1.01 x 105 cfug for zone C and 2.37 x 105 cfug for zone D. The bacterial isolates found to be associated with the groundnut cake powder in this study included Klebsiella oxytoca Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus E. coli P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus feacalis. The nutrients content of the sample included carbohydrates 55.15 moisture 12.65 lipid 15.40 protein 12.60 ash 3.95 and crude fibre 0.25. Groundnut cake sold in the study area is highly contaminated with bacteria except for samples from zone C which is within the Food and Drugs Agency FDA recommendation of 1.0 x 105cfuml as allowable microbial contamination for food. The high level of microbial contamination is a serious cause for concern as it may trigger epidemics. However the product is highly nutritious.

  3. DNA barcoding unveils skate (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae species diversity in ‘ray’ products sold across Ireland and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mark Griffiths

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Skates are widely consumed across the globe, but many large species are subject to considerable concern regarding their conservation and management. Within Europe such issues have recently driven policy changes so that, for the first time, reports of skate landings now have to be made under species-specific names. Total allowable catches have also been established for many groups, which have been set to zero for a number of the most vulnerable species (e.g., Dipturus batis, Raja undulata and Rostoraja alba. Whilst accurate species identification has become an important issue for landings, the sale of skates is still usually made under a blanket term of “skate” or “ray”. The matter of identifying species of skate is further complicated by their morphologically conservative nature and the fact that they are commercially valued for their wings. Thus, before sale their bodies are usually discarded (i.e., “winged” and often skinned, making morphological identification impossible. For the first time, DNA barcoding (of the mitochondrial COI gene was applied to samples of skate wings from retail outlets across the British Isles, providing insight into which species are sold for consumption. A total of 98 wing samples were analysed, revealing that six species were sold; blonde ray (Raja brachyura, spotted ray (Raja montagui, thornback ray (Raja clavata, cuckoo ray (Leucoraja naevus small-eyed ray (Raja microocellata and shagreen ray (Leucoraja fullonica. Statistical testing demonstrated that there were significant differences in the species sold in the distinct retail groups which suggests complex drivers behind the patterns of sale in skates. The results also indicate that endangered species are not commonly being passed on to consumers. In addition, the practice of selling skate wings under ambiguous labels is highlighted as it makes it extremely difficult for consumers to exercise a right to avoid species of conservation concern

  4. DNA barcoding unveils skate (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) species diversity in ‘ray’ products sold across Ireland and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Aaron; Fox, Jennifer; Greenfield, Adam; Mariani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Skates are widely consumed across the globe, but many large species are subject to considerable concern regarding their conservation and management. Within Europe such issues have recently driven policy changes so that, for the first time, reports of skate landings now have to be made under species-specific names. Total allowable catches have also been established for many groups, which have been set to zero for a number of the most vulnerable species (e.g., Dipturus batis, Raja undulata and Rostoraja alba). Whilst accurate species identification has become an important issue for landings, the sale of skates is still usually made under a blanket term of “skate” or “ray”. The matter of identifying species of skate is further complicated by their morphologically conservative nature and the fact that they are commercially valued for their wings. Thus, before sale their bodies are usually discarded (i.e., “winged”) and often skinned, making morphological identification impossible. For the first time, DNA barcoding (of the mitochondrial COI gene) was applied to samples of skate wings from retail outlets across the British Isles, providing insight into which species are sold for consumption. A total of 98 wing samples were analysed, revealing that six species were sold; blonde ray (Raja brachyura), spotted ray (Raja montagui), thornback ray (Raja clavata), cuckoo ray (Leucoraja naevus) small-eyed ray (Raja microocellata) and shagreen ray (Leucoraja fullonica). Statistical testing demonstrated that there were significant differences in the species sold in the distinct retail groups which suggests complex drivers behind the patterns of sale in skates. The results also indicate that endangered species are not commonly being passed on to consumers. In addition, the practice of selling skate wings under ambiguous labels is highlighted as it makes it extremely difficult for consumers to exercise a right to avoid species of conservation concern. Interestingly, a

  5. Characterization of VCC-1, a Novel Ambler Class A Carbapenemase from Vibrio cholerae Isolated from Imported Retail Shrimp Sold in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Chand S; Boyd, David; Janecko, Nicol; Martz, Sarah-Lynn; Desruisseau, Andrea; Carpenter, Michael; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Mulvey, Michael R

    2016-01-11

    One of the core goals of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) is to monitor major meat commodities for antimicrobial resistance. Targeted studies with methodologies based on core surveillance protocols are used to examine other foods, e.g., seafood, for antimicrobial resistance to detect resistances of concern to public health. Here we report the discovery of a novel Ambler class A carbapenemase that was identified in a nontoxigenic strain of Vibrio cholerae (N14-02106) isolated from shrimp that was sold for human consumption in Canada. V. cholerae N14-02106 was resistant to penicillins, carbapenems, and monobactam antibiotics; however, PCR did not detect common β-lactamases. Bioinformatic analysis of the whole-genome sequence of V. cholerae N14-02106 revealed on the large chromosome a novel carbapenemase (referred to here as VCC-1, for Vibrio cholerae carbapenemase 1) with sequence similarity to class A enzymes. Two copies of blaVCC-1 separated and flanked by ISVch9 (i.e., 3 copies of ISVch9) were found in an acquired 8.5-kb region inserted into a VrgG family protein gene. Cloned blaVCC-1 conferred a β-lactam resistance profile similar to that in V. cholerae N14-02106 when it was transformed into a susceptible laboratory strain of Escherichia coli. Purified VCC-1 was found to hydrolyze penicillins, 1st-generation cephalosporins, aztreonam, and carbapenems, whereas 2nd- and 3rd-generation cephalosporins were poor substrates. Using nitrocefin as a reporter substrate, VCC-1 was moderately inhibited by clavulanic acid and tazobactam but not EDTA. In this report, we present the discovery of a novel class A carbapenemase from the food supply. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  7. Experimental and numerical validation of a fuzzy intermittence programming system; Validation experimentale et numerique d`un programmateur d`intermittence flou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraisse, G.; Virgone, J. [Centre de Thermiquede Lyon, CETHIL (CNRS), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, a new intermittence programming system using fuzzy logic for heating systems is presented. Its originality concerns the consideration of the thermal state of the building in addition to the external temperature. The experimentation of a prototype of this regulator during mid-time season has shown its good adaptability to climate and to the building-heating system ensemble. Also, numerical simulations of the experimentation site have allowed to study the behaviour of both the Honeywell and the prototype regulators during cold season and to evaluate the energy consumption. Both regulators show close regulation performances but the prototype allows to greatly reduce the energy consumption. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  8. Animal-based folk remedies sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Waltécio O

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires in interviews held with 27 merchants of medicinal animals (18 in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte [11 men and 7 women] and 9 people in the municipality of Crato [6 men and 3 women]. We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV to determine the extent of utilization of each species. Results A total of 31 animal species, distributed among 21 families were identified as being used medicinally. The taxa most represented were: insects (8 species, mammals (7, fish (5, reptiles (5 and birds (4. The animals sold in these markets are used to treat a total of 24 ailments, with rheumatism, asthma, and inflammations having the largest numbers of citations. Three species not previously reported as having medicinal use were encountered: Leporinus steindachneri (utilized for treating cholesterol problems, Gryllus assimilis (utilized in treating urinary infections, and Phrynops tuberosus (used to treat asthma, rheumatism and bruises. Conclusion The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products – and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective. A detailed knowledge of the fauna

  9. Performance of Honeywell silicon pressure transducers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VijayKumar, K.; Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Nagvekar, S.; Prabhudesai, S.; Damodaran, V.

    use for a variety of measurements such as atmospheric pressure; tank-water level; water level in bore-wells, dams, rivers, estuaries, and seas; depth of conductivity-temperature probe for estimation of seawater salinity and density; depth... of deployment of ocean current meters; underwater tsunami signal; ocean waves; sea level oscillations, and so forth. Pressure transducers incorporate differing sensing elements such as Bourdon tube, variable capacitance elements, resonant wire, metal alloy...

  10. A Research Program in Computer Technology. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Kahn, and Bernard Lang . Formal Definition of Ada, Honeywell, Inc. and CII-Honeywell Bull, 1980. 2. Ichbiah, Jean D., et al., Reference Manual for the...14. COMPUTER RESEARCH SUPPORT Technical Staff: Support Staff: Dan Lynch John Metzger Walt Edmison Ray Bates Bill Moore Chloe HoIg Dale Chase Serge

  11. 7 CFR 205.308 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as â100 percent organicâ or âorganic.â... Information § 205.308 Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are...

  12. Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A; Rosen, Perth C; Gallardo, Manuel; Robles, Brenda; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Macalino, Grace E; Lozada, Remedios

    2011-05-24

    Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs) may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Only 46 (28.4%) of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%), there were no syringes in stock (31.0%), or a prescription was required (20.7%). Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2%) reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5%) had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission.

  13. Carotene and provitamin A content of vegetables sold in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, during spring and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Costa Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the α- and β-carotene content and provitamin A value of four leafy vegetables sold at local and street markets in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, in the spring and winter of 2002. Carotenoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. α-Carotene was detected in all samples sold during spring, but was only present in a few samples of smooth and curly lettuce and kale in winter. β-Carotene was found in marked quantities in all leafy vegetables analyzed. Duncan's test (α = 5% showed significantly higher α-carotene content in curly lettuce and vitamin A value in large-leaved watercress in the spring. Mean β-carotene content and vitamin A value were 7544, 8751, 2584, 2792, 8193, and 5338 μg/100 g and 666, 760, 227, 238, 698, and 460 μg RAE/100 g in large-leaved and hydroponic watercress, smooth and curly lettuce, kale and spinach, respectively. All leafy vegetables analyzed represent important sources of provitamin A and supply an important part of the daily requirements of children and adults.Investigou-se o conteúdo de α e β-caroteno e avaliou-se o valor pro-vitamínico A de quatro hortaliças folhosas comercializadas em mercados locais e feira- livre de Viçosa, MG durante a primavera e o inverno de 2002. Os carotenóides foram analisados por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. O α-caroteno foi detectado em todas as amostras analisadas na primavera, porém no inverno, somente algumas amostras de alface crespa e lisa, e couve apresentaram tal carotenóide. O β-caroteno foi encontrado, em quantidades apreciáveis, em todas as hortaliças folhosas analisadas. O teste de Duncan (α=5% detectou que o conteúdo de α-caroteno em alface crespa e o valor de vitamina A em agrião de folha larga foram estatisticamente superiores na primavera. Os teores médios de β-caroteno e de valor de vitamina A para agrião de folha larga e hidropônico, alface crespa e lisa, couve e espinafre foram: 7544; 8751

  14. 76 FR 4027 - Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), which has been underway since 2003, will provide nationally... the Conservation Stewardship Program. In 2006, a Blue Ribbon panel evaluation of CEAP \\2\\ strongly...

  15. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... apply to: (i) All gasoline sold or transferred to a party who sells or transfers gasoline to the...

  16. A survey of pathogens associated with Cyperus esculentus L (tiger nuts) tubers sold in a Ghanaian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Duedu, Kwabena O; Obeng, Akua S; Addo-Osafo, Kantanka; Mortu, Samuel; Asmah, Richard H

    2014-06-06

    Cyperus esculentus L, is a minor but important crop in Ghana. They are noted mostly by their aphrodisiac properties among others. The nuts are often eaten raw as an unprocessed snack due to its rich flavour and texture. Though eaten raw, the nuts are sometimes handled unhygienically, posing a public health threat. This study therefore aimed at determining the level and distribution of parasitic and bacterial contaminants associated with the crop as it is sold. Four types of intestinal parasites were identified, and the most prevalent was Cryptosporidium parvum (30.0%). Nuts contaminated with parasites were found only among street vendors. Bacteriological examination showed three different groups of bacterial isolates with the most prevalent being coliforms (54.2%). Unlike parasites, bacteria isolates were found among samples from both street vendors and market places. Multiple drug resistance was displayed by Proteus vulgaris. Buying and eating nuts as well as other fruits taken raw from street vendors and market places could pose a significant public health threat. There is a need for efficient monitoring systems for food borne pathogens in Ghana.

  17. Meat from cattle slaughtered without stunning sold in the conventional market without appropriate labelling: A case study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'amico, Priscilla; Vitelli, Nicolò; Cenci Goga, Beniamino; Nucera, Daniele; Pedonese, Francesca; Guidi, Alessandra; Armani, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    In the European Union, slaughter without stunning is allowed for religious slaughter to obtain halal and kosher meat. Especially in the case of Jewish slaughtering, cuts which are not deemed as kosher are sold to regular market without any specific labelling. This survey, conducted in Tuscany in 2016, aimed to quantify the carcasses rejected in relation to the type of religious slaughter. 656 bovines were slaughtered without stunning: 538 (82%) for halal and 118 (18%) for kosher. All carcasses slaughtered by the Islamic procedure (dhabiha) were considered halal, while 77.1% of carcasses slaughtered by the Jewish procedure (shechita) did not pass the approval. Carcasses were rejected after chest cavity inspection (50%) and after the lungs control (50%). This study provides an important insight in this field and postulates how to amalgamate the concepts of freedom of religion, as enshrined by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU, with consumer rights and animal welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, J; Crauwels, S; Waud, M; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2016-02-01

    In Western countries, the popularity of edible insects as an alternative animal protein source is increasing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of profound insight into the microbial safety and shelf life of living insects sold for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to characterise the microflora of fresh edible mealworm larvae and grasshoppers in a quantitative and qualitative way. Therefore, culture-dependent analyses (the total viable aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and bacterial endospores) and next-generation sequencing (454amplicon pyrosequencing) were performed. High microbial counts were obtained for both insect species. Different insect batches resulted in quite similar microbial numbers, except for bacterial endospores. However, the bacterial community composition differed between both insect species. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in mealworm larvae was Propionibacterium. Also members of the genera Haemophilus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found. Grasshoppers were mainly dominated by Weissella, Lactococcus and Yersinia/Rahnella. Overall, a variety of potential spoilage bacteria and food pathogens were characterised. The results of this study suggest that a processing step with a microbiocidal effect is required to avoid or minimize risks involved with the consumption of edible insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring of Lawsone, p-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in commercial temporary black henna tattoos sold in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas Sukuroglu, Ayca; Battal, Dilek; Burgaz, Sema

    2017-02-01

    Henna has a very low allergic potential, and severe allergenic contact dermatitis is mainly caused by p-phenylenediamine (PPD), which is added to temporary black 'henna tattoos', and potentially also by some heavy metals. To determine the presence of, and quantify, Lawsone, PPD and heavy metal contaminants (cobalt, nickel, lead, and chromium) in commercial temporary black henna tattoo mixtures (n = 25) sold in Turkey. Lawsone and PPD concentrations were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography, and heavy metal quantification was performed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. PPD was found in all 25 black henna tattoo samples purchased from tattoo shops; levels varied between 3.37% and 51.6%. Lawsone was detected (0.002-88.2%) in 21 of the 25 temporary black henna tattoo samples analysed. Heavy metal contaminant levels were 0.44-3.11 ppm for Co, 1.13-2.20 ppm for Ni, 1.59-17.7 ppm for Pb, and 35.0-76.9 ppm for Cr. Our results suggest that commercial temporary black henna mixtures containing PPD levels up to 51.6% pose a risk of contact sensitization and severe allergic contact dermatitis among users. It is important to identify both the additives and metallic contaminants of black henna tattoo products; the significance of metal contaminants has still to be assessed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The chemical composition of smokeless tobacco: a survey of products sold in the United States in 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Curtin, G M; Swauger, J E

    2012-12-01

    Selected toxicant concentrations and other chemical measures have been determined for 43 U.S. smokeless tobacco products sold in 2006 and 2007. Products evaluated included moist snuff, dry snuff, loose leaf, plug, dissolvable and snus tobacco brands. Reference products available for scientific research purposes and eleven Swedish products were also evaluated and compared to the commercial products studied. Chemical endpoints determined included benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrite, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, chromium, chloride, water, pH and nicotine. Different toxicant profiles were observed for the products studied, with snus tobacco brands generally containing relatively low concentrations of B[a]P and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) compared to other moist snuffs. Smokeless tobacco reference product toxicant profiles were similar to corresponding commercial products, with the exception of the TSNA content of the dry snuff reference material. TSNA concentrations observed for all commercial products were lower than historically reported values, likely reflecting changes in product shelf life, tobacco curing practices and, possibly, product blend formulations during the last 20-30 years. The survey results summarized provide a temporal point of comparison with future data anticipated from FDA "harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products" reporting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A survey of pathogens associated with Cyperus esculentus L (tiger nuts) tubers sold in a Ghanaian city

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyperus esculentus L, is a minor but important crop in Ghana. They are noted mostly by their aphrodisiac properties among others. The nuts are often eaten raw as an unprocessed snack due to its rich flavour and texture. Though eaten raw, the nuts are sometimes handled unhygienically, posing a public health threat. This study therefore aimed at determining the level and distribution of parasitic and bacterial contaminants associated with the crop as it is sold. Results Four types of intestinal parasites were identified, and the most prevalent was Cryptosporidium parvum (30.0%). Nuts contaminated with parasites were found only among street vendors. Bacteriological examination showed three different groups of bacterial isolates with the most prevalent being coliforms (54.2%). Unlike parasites, bacteria isolates were found among samples from both street vendors and market places. Multiple drug resistance was displayed by Proteus vulgaris. Conclusions Buying and eating nuts as well as other fruits taken raw from street vendors and market places could pose a significant public health threat. There is a need for efficient monitoring systems for food borne pathogens in Ghana. PMID:24906387

  2. Is it safe to eat raw seafood? Prevalence of Salmonella in some seafood products sold in Alexandria markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Wafaa M K; El Sayed, Asmaa M; El Shamy, Hoda A; Amine, Amira E K

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella is a significant microbial hazard in seafood. Salmonella-contaminated seafood usually looks and smells normal; it is therefore essential that every effort is made toward the rapid detection of Salmonella as an important criterion in quality control of seafood. This study aims to determine the percentage of Salmonella in some Egyptian seafood sold in Alexandria markets and to study the validity of Chromagar Salmonella Plus (CASP) agar versus xylose lysine desoxycholate and Salmonella-Shigella agar for the isolation and identification of Salmonella in seafood. Two hundred and twenty-five samples of three seafood types, shrimp, gandofli, and river mussel (om-elkhloul) were studied. Samples were selectively enriched in Rappaport-Vassiliadis and tetrathionate broth, and then plated onto the aforementioned plating media for the detection of Salmonella. In total, Salmonella was detected in 9.8% of the samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the media used varied according to the media and enrichment broth combinations used. The CASP and Rappaport-Vassiliadis combination yielded the best sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 95.45, 100, 100, 99.5, and 99.5%, respectively. CASP was more accurate than xylose lysine desoxycholate and Salmonella-Shigella in the detection of Salmonella from seafood samples. We recommend that CASP medium should be tested against more Salmonella-positive samples before it is used as a screening plating medium for Salmonella in seafood.

  3. Screening for Genetically Modified Maize in Raw and Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Southern Nigeria Boarder States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Ngozi Opara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetically Modified (GM foods hold the key to ending hunger and malnutrition in Africa.   Due to the increasing number of GMOs cultivation and delay in the approval of biosafety law in Nigeria, it has become necessary to screen maize products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, DNA extraction from raw and processed maize foods sold commercially in Sourthen Nigeria was carried out using the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB method, followed by qualitative PCR to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CAMV35S, nopaline synthase (NOS terminator, Bt-176 and NK603 genes separately. Certified reference materials were used as positive controls while 2008-DTMA-W-STR Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta (FUNAAB organic maize grains and absence of template DNA, served as negative control. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 176 maize event for insect resistance was detected in two samples, with 420 bp and, the NK603 Maize event for herbicide tolerance was detected in 3 samples, with 320 bp fragments. The GM-positive samples were found in 4 imported raw maize samples, 4 cereal food brands (2 manufactured in Nigeria, 2 imported and 3 imported canned corn brands. The results confirm that Nigerians are already consuming GM maize, despite the absence of a biosafety law.   

  4. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Staden

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potentials for fourteen multipurpose traditional herbal preparations sold in South Africa were determined using the DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing power and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system, the anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT enzyme inhibitory effects using an ELISA kit and acetylcholinesterase (AChE enzyme inhibition using the microtitre plate assay. Nine of the herbal mixtures (Umzimba omubi, Umuthi wekukhwehlela ne zilonda, Mvusa ukunzi, Umpatisa inkosi, Imbiza ephuzwato, Vusa umzimba, Supreme one hundred, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe® and Ingwe® special muti exhibited higher antioxidant potentials, while only four (Imbiza ephuzwato, Ingwe® muthi mixture, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe® and African potato extractTM showed potent activity against the RT enzyme. Nine mixtures (Imbiza ephuzwato, Umpatisa inkosi, African potato extractTM, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe®, Vusa umzimba; Ingwe® muthi mixture, Ibhubezi™, Lion izifozonke Ingwe® and Ingwe® special muti showed AChE enzyme inhibitory activity greater than 50%. The observed activity exhibited by some of the herbal mixtures gives some credence to the manufacturers’ claims and goes part of the way towards validating their use against certain conditions such as oxidative stress, HIV/AIDS proliferation and some mental conditions. It is however, desirable to carry out further studies to determine the effects of mixing plant species/parts in one mixture on the antioxidant potency as well as isolating active constituents from the herbal mixtures.

  5. Tobacco Surcharges on 2015 Health Insurance Plans Sold in Federally Facilitated Marketplaces: Variations by Age and Geography and Implications for Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Graetz, Ilana; Waters, Teresa M; Kaplan, Cameron M

    2015-11-01

    In 2014, few health insurance plans sold in the Affordable Care Act's Federally Facilitated Marketplaces had age-dependent tobacco surcharges, possibly because of a system glitch. The 2015 tobacco surcharges show wide variation, with more plans implementing tobacco surcharges that increase with age. This underscores concerns that older tobacco users will find postsubsidy health insurance premiums difficult to afford. Future monitoring of enrollment will determine whether tobacco surcharges cause adverse selection by dissuading tobacco users, particularly older users, from buying health insurance.

  6. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C., E-mail: cecteixeira@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade da Amazonia (UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Radiologia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  7. Inactivation of infectious hepatitis E virus present in commercial pig livers sold in local grocery stores in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagins, A. R.; Opriessnig, T.; Guenette, D. K.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen and pigs are a known reservoir. Recently we showed that approximately 11% of commercial pig livers sold in local U.S. grocery stores for food consumptions are contaminated by infectious HEV. In this study, a swine bioassay was used to determine if the infectious HEV in contaminated commercial pig livers could be inactivated by traditional cooking methods. Group 1 pigs (n=5) were each inoculated intravenously (I.V.) with a HEV-negative liver homogenate as negative controls, group 2 pigs (n=5) were each inoculated I.V. with a pool of two HEV-positive pig liver homogenates as positive controls, groups 3, 4 and 5 pigs (n=5, each group) were each inoculated I.V. with a pool of homogenates of two HEV-positive livers incubated at 56°C for 1 hr, stir-fried at 191°C for 5 min or boiled in water for 5 min, respectively. As expected, the group 2 positive control pigs all became infected whereas the group 1 negative control pigs remained negative. Four of the five pigs inoculated with HEV-positive liver homogenates incubated at 56°C for 1 hr also became infected. However, pigs in groups 4 and 5 did not become infected. The results indicated that HEV in contaminated commercial pig livers can be effectively inactivated if cooked properly, although incubation at 56°C for 1 hr cannot inactivate the virus. Thus, to reduce the risk of food-borne HEV transmission, pig livers must be thoroughly cooked. PMID:18166239

  8. Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile in cooked beef sold in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Kra Athanase; Dadie, Adjéhi Thomas; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Loukou, Yao Guillaume

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in cooked beef sold in the streets in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 395 kidney and flesh samples of cooked beef were collected from vendors at Abidjan and subjected to C. difficile and C. perfringens isolation and identification by using biochemical tests, API 20A system and PCR detection. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for confirmed isolates. Our results showed the prevalence of 12.4% for C. difficile (11.04% in kidney and 13.45% in flesh) and 5.06% for C. perfringens (2.32% in kidney and 7.17% in flesh). Metronidazole and vancomycin remained the most potent antimicrobial agents against C. difficile while metronidazole and penicillin G were the most potent agents against C. perfringens. The resistance rates to tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and erythromycin against C. difficile and C. perfringens isolates ranged from 2.05% to 8.16% and from 20% to 50%, respectively. Among all antimicrobial agents tested against C. difficile, percentages of resistance to quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid as well as to gentamicin and cefotaxime were the highest. Eight resistant phenotypes were defined for C. difficile isolates and eleven resistant phenotypes for C. perfringens isolates. Clindamycin/gentamicin/cefotaxime/ciprofloxacin/norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. difficile (55.10% of isolates) while norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. perfringens (20% of isolates). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Tick front-of-pack label has a positive nutritional impact on foods sold in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rachel K; McLean, Rachael M; Ning, Sherry X; Mainvil, Louise A

    2016-11-01

    Nutritional impact of the Tick front-of-pack labelling programme was evaluated by investigating nutrient changes to the purchased food supply and the nutritional quality of Tick v. non-Tick products. Factors influencing manufacturers' decisions to develop and license Tick products were also explored. Observational, cross-sectional and change over time data. New Zealand food supply, 2011-2013. Forty-five newly licensed Tick products from five food categories were analysed: Edible Oil Spreads, Yoghurt & Dairy Desserts, Frozen Desserts, Ready Meals and Processed Poultry. Four manufacturers of these products were interviewed. Eligible products (31 % of all Tick products in these categories) removed 4·1 million megajoules of energy, 156·0 tonnes of saturated fat, 15·4 tonnes of trans-fat and 4·0 tonnes of sodium from food products sold in New Zealand over three years. In each food category, these Tick products were, on average, 14-76 % lower in energy, saturated fat, trans-fat and sodium than non-Tick products, indicating healthier options. Participating manufacturers reported that international market trends and consumer demand for tasty, healthy foods primarily influenced Tick product development and sales. Tick was used as part of their marketing strategy as it was perceived as a credible, well-recognised logo for New Zealand consumers. Tick was cited as the primary initiative encouraging saturated fat reduction. The Tick Programme is continuing to encourage manufacturers to make meaningful improvements to the nutritional quality of the New Zealand food supply. Over time, these changes are likely to influence population nutrient intakes and reduce CVD risk factors.

  10. First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii infection is a global concern, affecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals and humans worldwide, including poultry. Domestic and companion birds are considered to play an important role in the transmission of T. gondii to humans and other animals. However, little information on T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China was available. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China. Methods In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in 413 (305 caged and 108 free-range adult chickens, 334 (111 caged and 223 free-range adult ducks and 312 adult pigeons in Lanzhou, northwest China, were examined using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results 30 (7.26% chickens, 38 (11.38% ducks and 37 (11.86% pigeons were found to be positive for T. gondii antibodies at the cut-off of 1:5. The prevalences in caged and free-range chickens were 6.23% and 10.19% respectively, however, statistical analysis showed that the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. The seroprevalences in caged and free-range ducks were 6.31% and 13.90% respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in adult chickens, ducks and pigeons sold for meat in poultry markets in Lanzhou, northwest China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and other animals in this region. This is the first seroprevalence study of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in this region.

  11. A botanical, phytochemical and ethnomedicinal review of the genus Mitragyna korth: Implications for products sold as kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula N; Lund, Jensen A; Murch, Susan J

    2017-04-18

    The genus Mitragyna (Rubiacaeae) has been traditionally used in parts of Africa, Asia and Oceania. In recent years, there has been increased interest in species of Mitragyna with the introduction of products to western markets and regulatory uncertainty. This paper reviewed the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of leaves for species belonging to the genus Mitragyna with reference to the botany and known chemistry in order to highlight areas of interest for products currently being sold as kratom. A literature search was conducted using Web of Science, Google Scholar, the Royal Museum for Central Africa, Internet Archive, Hathi Trust, and Biodiversity Heritage Library search engines in the spring of 2015, fall of 2016 and winter of 2017 to document uses of bark, leaf and root material. Leaves of M. speciosa (kratom) had the most common documented ethnomedicinal uses as an opium substitute or remedy for addiction. Other species of Mitragyna were reportedly used for treating pain, however the mode of preparation was most often cited as topical application. Other uses of Mitragyna included treatment of fever, skin infections, and as a mild anxiolytic. Mitragyna species have been used medicinally in various parts of the world and that there is significant traditional evidence of use. Modern products that include formulations as topical application of liniments, balms or tinctures may provide effective alternatives for treatment of certain types of pains. Future research is required to establish safety and toxicology limits, medicinal chemistry parameters and the potential for different physiological responses among varying genetic populations to support regulatory requirements for Mitragyna spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of aglycones of ginsenosides in ginseng preparations sold in Sweden and in urine samples from Swedish athletes consuming ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J F; Garle, M; Björkhem, I; Eneroth, P

    1996-04-01

    Recently developed gas chromatographic and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods were used to characterize 17 different commercial ginseng preparations sold in Sweden. The contents of total ginsenosides per capsule or per tablet varied from 2.1 to 13.3 mg. Unlike the other preparations, a red ginseng and three liquid ginseng preparations (after releasing the sugar moieties from ginsenosides) were shown also to contain significant amounts of 20-epimers of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol as well as their corresponding 24,25-hydrated compounds. In addition to the genuine and artificial sapogenins mentioned above, two epimeric pairs of prosapogenines (ginsenoside Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3, ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)-Rh1) were also found in the liquid formulations. These results suggest that hydrolysis, epimerization and hydration in the side-chain of the aglycone moiety of ginsenosides may occur in the liquid formulations under weak acidic conditions (pH 3.0-3.5 with 9-10% of alcohol at room temperature). The new method was also used to determine the aglycones of ginsenosides in urine samples from Swedish athletes stating that they had consumed ginseng preparations within 10 days before urine collection. Out of the 65 samples analysed, 60 were found to contain 20(S)-protopanaxatriol. The concentrations of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol ginsenosides varied from 2 to 35 ng ml-1 urine. This is the first demonstration of uptake of ginsenosides in humans after oral administration of ginseng preparations.

  13. Health risk assessment of heavy metal variability in sachet water sold in Ado-Odo Ota, South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, PraiseGod Chidozie; Tenebe, Theophilus Imokhai; Omeje, Maxwell; Osinubi, Damilare Samuel

    2017-08-31

    The sales of sachet water (SW), also known as "pure water" (PW), in Nigeria is a lucrative business. It serves many people, especially low-income earners, by providing a more affordable access to safe drinking water when compared with table water. However, some of the producers of SW do not effectively treat raw water before packaging them for sale. This study investigates the presence and concentrations of heavy metals, such as chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), and zinc (Zn) in some samples of SW sold within Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of SW from nine different producers were purchased for four consecutive weeks and analyzed to determine the concentrations of these heavy metals in them. Furthermore, health risk indicators, such as chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk indices (HRI) for children and adults, were calculated separately. The metal concentrations were compared with allowable limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO), Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). High concentrations of Cr, Fe, and Al were found in all the nine samples and exceeded the maximum allowable limits (MAL) of all the standards considered. However, the concentrations of Zn, Mn, and Cu were within permissible limits. The HRIs of heavy metals were in the order of Cu > Fe > Zn > Mn > Al > Cr, but since the standard limits set for some metals were exceeded, proper and effective treatment is required to safeguard the health of consumers.

  14. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation pledge: calories sold from U.S. consumer packaged goods, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-10-01

    Corporate voluntary pledges to improve the health of Americans have not been held to either explicit measurable outcomes or a framework for independent evaluation. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF), whose members include 16 of the nation's leading consumer packaged goods (CPG) food and beverage manufacturers, voluntarily pledged to collectively sell 1 trillion fewer calories in the U.S. marketplace by 2012 (against a 2007 baseline), and sell 1.5 trillion fewer calories by 2015. This paper presents the findings of an independent evaluation of the 2012 HWCF marketplace pledge, conducted in 2013. The 16 HWCF companies collectively sold approximately 6.4 trillion fewer calories (-10.6%) in 2012 than in the baseline year of 2007. Taking into account population changes over the 5-year period of 2007-2012, CPG caloric sales from brands included in the HWCF pledge declined by an average of 78 kcal/capita/day. CPG caloric sales from non-HWCF national brands during the same period declined by 11 kcal/capita/day, and there were similar declines in calories from private label products. Thus, the total reduction in CPG caloric sales between 2007 and 2012 was 99 kcal/capita/day. This independent evaluation is the first to evaluate food industry compliance with its calorie reduction pledges and to assess how sales from the CPG food and beverage sector are changing. An accompanying paper investigates the extent to which the HWCF pledge affected household-level changes in CPG calories purchased, controlling for important economic and sociodemographic factors affecting household food purchases over this period. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stable isotope ratios and mercury levels in red meat products from baleen whales sold in Japanese markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hotta, Yohei; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Sato, Rie; Haraguchi, Koichi; Funahashi, Naoko; Baker, C Scott

    2012-05-01

    We analyzed the δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δ(18)O values and Hg concentration in red meat products originating from the predominant types sold in Japan for human consumption: two populations of common minke (J- and O-types), Bryde's and sei whales in the western North Pacific Ocean, and fin and Antarctic minke whales in the Southern Ocean. The order of the trophic positions, evaluated by δ(15)N values and Hg concentrations, coincided with their known feeding habits: common minke (J-type)=common minke (O-type)> Bryde's ≥ sei ≥ Antarctic minke ≥ fin. The Hg concentrations in the combined samples from the six samples were significantly correlated with their δ(15)N values (γ=0.455, n=66, ptypes) or the Bryde's whale, probably reflecting the higher δ(15)N value and lower Hg concentration in the North Pacific Ocean around Japan. Determination of δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δ(18)O could be used to discriminate between the red meat products originating from the whale species in the North Pacific and Southern Oceans. However, the four whale species or populations in the Pacific Ocean could not be discriminated on basis of these values, nor could the two species in the Southern Ocean. Positive correlations between the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values and negative correlations between the δ(15)N and δ(18)O values and the δ(13)C and δ(18)O values, probably reflecting migration patterns, were found in some whale species in the North Pacific and Southern Oceans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sweet and salty. An assessment of the snacks and beverages sold in vending machines on US post-secondary institution campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Johnson, Michelle; Quick, Virginia M; Walsh, Jennifer; Greene, Geoffrey W; Hoerr, Sharon; Colby, Sarah M; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Phillips, Beatrice W; Kidd, Tandalayo; Horacek, Tanya M

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the nutritional quality of snacks and beverages sold in vending machines. The contents of snack and beverage vending machines in 78 buildings on 11 US post-secondary education campuses were surveyed. Of the 2607 snack machine slots surveyed, the most common snacks vended were salty snacks (e.g., chips, pretzels) and sweets (i.e., candy and candy bars). The 1650 beverage machine slots assessed contained twice as many sugar-sweetened beverages as non-calorie-containing beverages. Only two institutions sold both milk and 100% juice in vending machines. The portion of snacks and beverages sold averaged more than 200 cal. Neither snacks nor beverages were nutrient dense. The majority of snacks were low in fiber and high in calories and fat and almost half were high in sugar. Most beverages were high in calories and sugar. This study's findings suggest that vending machines provide limited healthful choices. Findings from benchmark assessments of components of the food environment, like the vending options reported here, can provide valuable input to campus administrators, health services, food service, and students who want to establish campus policies to promote healthful eating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anisakis spp. larvae in different kinds of ready to eat products made of anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) sold in Italian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, L; Nucera, D; Lodola, L B; Tinacci, L; Acutis, P L; Guidi, A; Armani, A

    2018-03-02

    In this study the occurrence of visible anisakid larvae in semi-preserved anchovy products sold on the Italian market was investigated. Totally, 107 ready to eat products (33 salted-ripened, 49 in oil and 25 marinated) were sampled. Each sample was digested, then the digested material was observed under natural and UV light. Parasites were counted, collected and microscopically identified to genus level. A representative subset was molecularly identified using the cox2 gene. At least one visible Anisakis sp. larva was found in 54.2% of the total 107 products analysed and totally 1283 dead larvae were collected. Anisakis sp. larvae were found in all the 33 salted products and 1139 (88.8%) larvae were collected, with a range of 1-105 parasites per product. Larval density per gram was 0.13. Anisakis sp. larvae were found in 49.0% of the products in oil and 143 (11.1%) larvae were isolated, with a range of 0-28 and a density of 0.03. Only 1 larva was found in the 25 marinated products (4.0%, density 0.00). A highly significant difference between all the product categories in respect of number of larvae per product, frequency of products contaminated by at least one larva and larval density per gram was found. Within the subset of larvae molecularly analysed (n=122), 92 (75.4%) were identified as A. pegreffii and 30 (24.6%) as A. simplex. This study showed that semi-preserved anchovy products heavily contaminated with Anisakis spp. larvae reach the market. Beyond the negligible risk for anisakidosis, the presence of dead visible parasites may cause immediate rejection in consumers. In addition, the potential risk related to allergic reactions in sensitized individuals needs to be further assessed. In order to avoid commercialization of obviously contaminated products, fresh anchovies' batches intended for the production of such products should be accurately selected by the processing industry applying inspection methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Evaluation of the use of radiation in microbiological control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) sold in the CEASA, Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicalvi, Maria Claudia V.; Solidonio, Evelyne G.; Silva, Marcio de Albuquerque; Costa Junior, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Alcantara, Moacir Paulo [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Pos-graduation program in Energetics and Nuclear Tecnologies; Miranda, Rita de Cassia M. de [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Lab. of Chromatographic Analysis and Flavor; Sena, Kesia Xisto F.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Antibiotics; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Nuclear Energy

    2011-07-01

    Tomato is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and also one of the agricultural products with most losses due to its high perishability. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies on the post-harvest life of tomatoes and therefore are still many undefined parameters related to the treatment and shelf life of different cultivars of that fruit. Its contamination occurs from the pre-to post-harvest crop. The diseases caused by food borne pathogenic microorganisms are a serious public health problem. The bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae are responsible for large outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans that may occur due to bacteria per se or by toxins produced by them. Thus, the development of technologies that make the food safe for human consumption has been growing in recent years. Preservation methods employ physical or chemical processes. Among such methods, irradiation is a preventive treatment for food safety. Irradiation can reduce post-harvest losses by killing insect pests in fruits, grains, spices, or by reducing food spoilage organisms by inhibiting the sprouting of plants and delaying the ripening of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of using different doses of gamma radiation to treat tomatoes sold in CEASA-PE and to perform the overall count of microorganisms in control and irradiated samples. The study used two lots containing 60 tomatoes such that 15 of them were used as the control group and 45 were irradiated with one of 3 different doses (1.0 kGy, 1.5 kGy and 2.0 kGy). For microbiological analysis, the tomatoes were sliced, and weighed (after removal of peel) in order to obtain samples weighing 25g. Each sample was added to an Erlenmeyer containing sterile water by agitation for 15 minutes. Aliquots of the washings were sown for exhaustion in sheep blood agar. After growth, colony counting was performed. The results revealed contamination in all tomato groups analyzed with the control groups exhibiting

  19. A cross-sectional study on the microbiological quality and safety of raw chicken meats sold in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odwar, Joyce Arua; Kikuvi, Gideon; Kariuki, James Ngumo; Kariuki, Samuel

    2014-09-10

    Chicken is a rich source of meat protein and is increasingly being consumed in urban areas in Kenya. However, under poor hygienic environment, raw chicken meat presents an ideal substrate supporting the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Coliform bacteria indicating the potential presence of other pathogenic bacteria; this may constitute a major source of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study sought to assess the microbiological quality and safety of raw chicken meat sold in Nairobi, Kenya by determining the E. coli/coliform contamination levels as well as the antimicrobial resistance patterns and pathogenicity of E. coli isolated. We conducted a Cross-sectional study to collect two hundred raw chicken samples that were randomly purchased between the periods of August 2011-February 2012. Enumeration of bacteria was done using 3 M Petri film E. coli/Coliform count plates, isolation and identification of E. coli through standard cultural and biochemical testing, antimicrobial susceptibilities interpreted according to criteria set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2012) while Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to determine presence of virulence genes in isolated E. coli. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Contamination rates were 97% and 78% respectively for Coliform bacteria and E. coli. Seventy six percent of samples fell under the unacceptable microbial count limit (>100 cfu/ml) and significant differences in the E. coli/coliform counts (p chicken retail outlets with samples from supermarkets having the lowest level of contamination compared to the rest of the retail outlets. Seventy five percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested with resistance to tetracycline being the highest at 60.3%. In addition 40.4% E. coli isolates were positive for the ten virulence genes tested. Raw retail chicken meats in Nairobi are not only highly contaminated, but also with potentially

  20. Detection of shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at local retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Rowaida K S; Gomaa, Mohamed A E; Khalil, Mahmoud I M

    2015-03-16

    Leafy green vegetables, a popular and an indispensable ingredient of the daily menus of Egyptians' diets, currently presents a great concern in terms of microbiological hazards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that provides scientific evidence for prevalence of shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at open air local retail markets and superstores in the Egyptian environment. A total of 486 conventional and organic leafy green samples that are eaten raw were collected from different areas in Alexandria, evaluated for total E. coli counts (ECCs), and screened for E. coli O157:H7 using conventional and molecular methods. Recovery of E. coli (≥10(2)CFU/g) from all studied types of leafy greens was indicative of fecal contamination. Total ECCs in conventional samples ranged from 5.47 to 2.56 log CFU/g. Based on their inability to ferment sorbitol on CT-SMAC media, 26 presumptive E. coli O157 isolates were detected in 71.4% (270/378) of the studied conventional samples. From all studied organic samples, only 2 types (organic cabbage and parsley, 16.7%) were contaminated with presumptive E. coli O157. All 28 isolates were further serotyped as E. coli O157 by latex agglutination test, and biochemically confirmed as E. coli. Multiplex PCR assays confirmed the ability of 21.4% (6/28) of the E. coli O157 strains to produce shiga-toxins (Stxs), and their virulence markers were as follows: stx1, 66.6% (4/6); stx2, 50% (3/6); stx1/stx2, 16.7% (1/6); eaeA, 83.3% (5/6); and hlyA, 16.7% (1/6). Only 2 strains recovered from conventional and organic parsley could possibly be classified as E. coli O157:H7 based on the presence of stx-genes (either stx1 or stx2 or both). Results of the present research highlight that high E. coli loads, together with recovery of STEC O157 isolates could pose serious health risks to the produce consumers. This emphasizes the urgent need for health authorities to value and utilize the existing knowledge to

  1. Comparison of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in organically and conventionally produced beers sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, M; Tangni, E K; Pussemier, L; Motte, J-C; Van Hove, F; Schneider, Y-J; Van Peteghem, C; Larondelle, Y

    2006-09-01

    Beer was chosen as a cereal-derived and homogeneous product for a comparison of organic and conventional production methods in terms of mycotoxin contamination levels. Ochratoxin A (OTA, a storage mycotoxin) and deoxynivalenol (DON, a field mycotoxin) were assessed by HPLC in organically and conventionally produced beers sold in Belgium. Immunoaffinity column (OchraTest and DONPrep) purification was used prior to HPLC analysis. For in-house validation, recovery experiments, carried out with the spiked beers in the ranges of 50-200 ng OTA l-1 and 20-100 microg DON l-1, led to the overall averages of 91% (RSD = 10%, n = 9) and 93% (RSD = 5%, n = 27), respectively. Organic beers collected during 2003-2004 were more frequently OTA-contaminated (95%, n = 40) than their conventional counterparts (50%, n = 40). Conventional beers were OTA-contaminated at a mean concentration of 25 ng l-1 (range: 19-198 ng l-1), while organic beers contained a mean level of 182 ng l-1 (range: 18-1134 ng l-1). High OTA contamination above the limit of 200 ng l-1 (up to 1134 ng l-1) occasionally occurred in organically produced beers. A complementary survey performed with the same brands in 2005 did not confirm this accidental presence of excessive OTA loads (range: 3-67 ng l-1 for 10 conventional beers and 19-158 ng l-1 for 10 organic beers). Establishing a maximum of 3 microg OTA kg-1 in malt, the application of the regulation EC No. 466/2001 (entered in force before the last sampling) may be related to the observed improvement. The overall incidence of DON was 67 and 80% in conventional and organic beers, respectively. DON concentrations ranged from 2 to 22 microg DON l-1 (mean = 6 microg DON l-1) in conventional beers, while organic beers ranged from 2 to 14 microg DON l-1 (mean=4 microg DON l-1). Thus, DON in beers does not appear to be a major matter of concern. From the statistical tests, it was concluded that the variation between different batches was significant (P < 0.0001), in

  2. Supplementary dataset for child and adult exposure and health risk evaluation following the use of metal- and metalloid-containing costume cosmetics sold in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L. Perez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Child and adult exposure and health risk evaluation following the use of metal- and metalloid-containing costume cosmetics sold in the United States" [1]. This article describes the concentration of metals and metalloids contained in various cosmetic products such as body paint, lipstick and eye shadow, the relative percent deviation of two analyses performed on the products and the physico-chemico properties of the metals and metalloids used in the SkinPerm model presented in the aforementioned article.

  3. Después de cruzar la frontera se llega al límite: "Norte", de Edmundo Paz Soldán

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez López, Pablo Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Norte, de Edmundo Paz Soldán, es un intento de replantear la narrativa de frontera mexicano-estadounidense a partir de casos excepcionales que escapan a las usuales coordenadas sociohistóricas de ese subgénero narrativo. La pluralidad de identidades migrantes de la novela presenta fórmulas anómalas e impredecibles de respuesta psicológica y asimilación cultural que discuten los modelos previos de transculturación. Norte, by Edmundo Paz Soldan, is an attempt to rethink Mexican border’s narr...

  4. Supplementary dataset for child and adult exposure and health risk evaluation following the use of metal- and metalloid-containing costume cosmetics sold in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angela L; Nembhard, Melanie; Monnot, Andrew; Bator, Daniel; Madonick, Elizabeth; Gaffney, Shannon H

    2017-08-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Child and adult exposure and health risk evaluation following the use of metal- and metalloid-containing costume cosmetics sold in the United States" [1]. This article describes the concentration of metals and metalloids contained in various cosmetic products such as body paint, lipstick and eye shadow, the relative percent deviation of two analyses performed on the products and the physico-chemico properties of the metals and metalloids used in the SkinPerm model presented in the aforementioned article.

  5. Microbiological quality of cooked foods and drinks sold in higher educational institutions around Yala, Pattani, and Narathiwat Provinces, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalee, Abdullah D.; Sali, Khosiya; Hayeeyusoh, Nurainee; Hayeewangoh, Zubaidah; Thadah, Amporn

    2017-08-01

    Quality of cooked foods and drinks water sold within the vicinity of higher institutions located in Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces were randomly sampled and microbiologically evaluated. As to Thai National Food Safety Standard, various food menu and drinks were subjected to conventionally determining the bacterial index; Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform and fecal coliform as well as the detection of indicator organisms; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp. As for bacterial index, results showed that curry-type likes PSU-stir-fried liver (7.5x106 CFU/g), and and the lowest was PSU-Koleh chicken Roast (1.72x103 CFU/g). The highest and lowest counts of soup-type items were observed in YPH-KaengSom soup (1.9x107 CFU/g), and PSU-Palo soup (0.4x103 CFU/g), respectively. Higher bacterial counts were also found in YPH-spicy stir-fried chicken (7.5 x 106 CFU/g), and YPH-squid salad (2.2x107 CFU/g). For drinks, bacterial count ranged 2.0 x 103 to 8.3 x 103 CFU/g, and NRU-iced grape juice having the highest bacterial count (2.0x106 CFU/g). Overall, foods not complying to the Thai National Food Safety Standard of 1 x 103 CFU/g from higher to lower were those of soup, stir-fried, salad, fried, and curry categories with as much as 4:17 (23.53%), 4:21 (19.05%), 2:11 (18.18%), 2:16 (12.5%) and 1:12 (8.33%), respectively. As for Coliform and fecal coliform, the highest (>1100 MPN/g) and the lowest (0.34 MPN/g),were not much found in all food categories with percentages of 23.53, 24.00, 13.79, 9.10, and 47.37 for curry (4:17), soup (6:15), stir-fried (4:29), fried (2:22), and salad (9:19), respectively. However, indicator organisms were not detected in almost all food samples except PSU-chicken yellowish curry, NRU-chicken TongYam soup, NRU-Long-tail tuna soup, NRU-KaengSom soup, YPE-watery soup, NRU-stir-fried liver, NRU-omelets, NRU-fried chicken, YPE-crispy fish salad, and NRU-salted eggs salad, which showed the presence of E. coli, but not

  6. Utility green pricing programs: A statistical analysis of program effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Olson, Scott; Bird, Lori; Swezey, Blair

    2004-02-01

    Development of renewable energy. Such programs have grown in number in recent years. The design features and effectiveness of these programs varies considerably, however, leading a variety of stakeholders to suggest specific marketing and program design features that might improve customer response and renewable energy sales. This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs. Statistical analysis is performed on both the residential and non-residential customer segments. Data comes from information gathered through a questionnaire completed for 66 utility green pricing programs in early 2003. The questionnaire specifically gathered data on residential and non-residential participation, amount of renewable energy sold, program length, the type of renewable supply used, program price/cost premiums, types of consumer research and program evaluation performed, different sign-up options available, program marketing efforts, and ancillary benefits offered to participants.

  7. 78 FR 46799 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections of Information From Applicant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... educational agencies (LEAs) administering the National School Lunch Program established under the Richard B... school districts. Accordingly, the revision to Sec. 272.1(c) did not change policy, so new State action...

  8. Estimates of the mean alcohol concentration of the spirits, wine, and beer sold in the United States and per capita consumption: 1950 to 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Tujague, Jennifer

    2006-09-01

    Estimates of per capita consumption of alcohol in the United States require estimates of the mean alcohol content by volume (%ABV) of the beer, wine, and spirits sold to convert beverage volume to gallons of pure alcohol. The mean %ABV of spirits is estimated for each year from 1950 to 2002 and for each state using the %ABV of major brands and sales of sprits types. The mean %ABV of beer and wine is extrapolated to cover this period based on previous estimates. These mean %ABVs are then applied to alcohol sales figures to calculate new yearly estimates of per capita consumption of beer, wine, spirits, and total alcohol for the United States population aged 15 and older. The mean %ABV for spirits is found to be lower than previous estimates and to vary considerably over time and across states. Resultant per capita consumption estimates indicate that more alcohol was consumed from beer and less from wine and spirits than found in previous estimates. Empirically based calculation of mean %ABV for beer, wine, and spirits sold in the United States results in different and presumably more accurate per capita consumption estimates than heretofore available. Utilization of the new estimates in aggregate time-series and cross-sectional models of alcohol consumption and related outcomes may improve the accuracy and precision of such models.

  9. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR - implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengaloundeth, Sivong; Green, Michael D; Fernández, Facundo M; Manolin, Ot; Phommavong, Khamlieng; Insixiengmay, Vongsavanh; Hampton, Christina Y; Nyadong, Leonard; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Hostetler, Dana; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Vongsack, Latsamy; Phompida, Samlane; Vanisaveth, Viengxay; Syhakhang, Lamphone; Newton, Paul N

    2009-07-28

    Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines) in the Lao PDR (Laos). In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9%) sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68-97%) sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8%) fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26-115.7 mg/tablet). This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT) in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention.

  10. Presence Of Multi Drug Resistant Coliform Bacteria Isolated From Biofilm Of Sachet And Borehole Waters Sold In Abakaliki Metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Collins Onyebuchi Okeke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the presence of multi drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis in Ebonyi State Nigeria. Five hundred 500 samples of water comprising 250 each from selected brand of sachet water retailers and borehole water dispensers from seven locations were sampled for the detection of coliform bacteria from biofilm and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility using commercially prepared antibiotic discs. Results revealed a high faecal contamination level in sachet waters as Gospel 36 72 Aqua Rapha 30 60 and Bejoy 18 36 were the highest among the sachet water brands examined with Nene and Rock Tama sachet water brands having the lowest contamination level of 612 and 1326 respectively. Borehole samples results revealed that Aboffia had 27 76.93 samples contaminated with faecal bacteria while Azugwu 11 28.5 Azuiyiokwu 18 50 Azuiyiudene 2980 Kpirikpiri 24 66.63 PrescoNtezi 1646.15 and Udensi 22 61.54. Escherichia coli Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp were the major contaminants of both sachet and borehole water samples. The bacteria isolates from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters were susceptible to only three of the antibiotics used namely nitrofurantoin amoxycilin and ampicillin. The bacteria were completely resistant to ciprofloxacin tetracycline norbactinnorfloxacin ofloxacin cefuroxime and gentamicin. This showed that they exhibit multi-drug resistance pattern which is a common feature of medically important biofilm bacteria. We therefore report the presence of multi-drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

  11. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengaloundeth, Sivong; Green, Michael D; Fernández, Facundo M; Manolin, Ot; Phommavong, Khamlieng; Insixiengmay, Vongsavanh; Hampton, Christina Y; Nyadong, Leonard; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Hostetler, Dana; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Vongsack, Latsamy; Phompida, Samlane; Vanisaveth, Viengxay; Syhakhang, Lamphone; Newton, Paul N

    2009-01-01

    Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines) in the Lao PDR (Laos). Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Results Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9%) sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68–97%) sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8%) fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26–115.7 mg/tablet). Conclusion This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT) in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention. PMID:19638225

  12. The Correlation between Eating Utensils and Place of Sales in the Contamination of Escherichia coli in Food Sold at Campus Food Stalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Susanna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, in general, the safety of food that is sold at any canteens in the campuses, the eating utensils are handled and the food stalls are managed are still uncertain. This research was aimed to understand the correlation between the eating utensils handling and the contamination of Escherichia coli (E. coli in the food sold by the food vendors in the campus. The cross-sectional design research applied on the food stalls in the university campus in Depok with a total number of 173 consumers as respondents. The variables observed as independent variables were the sanitation of the eating utensils and the sanitation of the dining place. The examination method of the Most Probable Number (MPN for E. coli was conducted to assess the food’s hygiene. The data analyzed using the chi-square test and followed by the logistic regression. The result showed that more than half of the food samples (59.54% were contaminated by E. coli. The storage place of the eating utensils was most significantly correlated with the E. coli contamination of the served food with an OR=0.45 (0.21-0.87. Therefore, it is necessary to promote the awareness of this risk and reinforce supervision by the Health Authorities and by the management of the place of sales to provide guidance to the food vendors and to the consumers as well. Further research is recommended to observe the E. coli contamination through clean water, eating utensils, the hands of the consumers and the napkins used to wipe dry the eating utensils.

  13. A comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duedu, Kwabena O; Yarnie, Elizabeth A; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Attah, Simon K; Donkor, Eric S; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2014-11-25

    Consuming raw vegetables offers essential nutrients that one may not get when such vegetables are usually cooked. However, eating them raw may pose a great risk for transmissions of pathogens. Such risks may be influenced by the sources of the vegetables and washing techniques used. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and diversity of parasitic pathogens associated with vegetables sold at the two types of markets in Ghana and compare effectiveness of various washing techniques. We purchased two batches of samples of cabbage, sweet bell pepper, carrot, lettuce, tomato and onion within a two week interval. The vegetables were washed by three methods and the wash solution was concentrated and analyzed for parasites. The prevalent parasites detected were Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (43%) and Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst (16%). Others present were Hookworm ova, Entamoeba histolytica cysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts, Entamoeba coli cysts, Trichuris trichiuria ova, Enterobius vermicularis ova, Isospora belli oocysts and Fasciolopsis buski ova. Contamination was highest in lettuce (61%) and cabbage and the least contaminated was tomato (18%). Contamination of vegetables sold at the open-aired markets was about ten-times that of the supermarkets. In Ghana, the large open-aired markets are the most patronized and serve as a supply point for most corner shops and stalls. The results thus highlight the potential of fresh vegetables serving as a major source of food-borne disease outbreaks and the contribution of open-aired markets to their transmission. Urgent public education on handling of fresh vegetables is recommended.

  14. Detection of relevant amounts of cow's milk protein in non-pre-packed bakery products sold as cow's milk-free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendelenburg, V; Enzian, N; Bellach, J; Schnadt, S; Niggemann, B; Beyer, K

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no mandatory labelling of allergens for non-pre-packed foods in the EU. Therefore, consumers with food allergy rely on voluntary information provided by the staff. The aim of this study was to characterize allergic reactions to non-pre-packed foods and to investigate whether staff in bakery shops were able to give advice regarding a safe product choice. Questionnaires were sent to 200 parents of children with a food allergy. Staff of 50 bakery shops were interviewed regarding selling non-pre-packed foods to food-allergic customers. Bakery products being recommended as 'cow's milk-free' were bought, and cow's milk protein levels were measured using ELISA. A total of 104 of 200 questionnaires were returned. 25% of the children experienced an allergic reaction due to a non-pre-packed food from bakery shops and 20% from ice cream parlours. Sixty percent of the bakery staff reported serving food-allergic customers at least once a month, 24% once a week. Eighty four percent of the staff felt able to advise food-allergic consumers regarding a safe product choice. Seventy three 'cow's milk-free' products were sold in 44 bakery shops. Cow's milk could be detected in 43% of the bakery products, 21% contained >3 mg cow's milk protein per serving. Staff in bakery shops felt confident about advising customers with food allergy. However, cow's milk was detectable in almost half of bakery products being sold as 'cow's milk-free'. Every fifth product contained quantities of cow's milk exceeding an amount where approximately 10% of cow's milk-allergic children will show clinical relevant symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The effect of a healthy school tuck shop program on the access of students to healthy foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kirang; Hong, Seo Ah; Yun, Sung Ha; Ryou, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Sun; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a healthy school tuck shop program, developed as a way of creating a healthy and nutritional school environment, on students' access to healthy foods. Five middle schools and four high schools (775 students) participated in the healthy school tuck shop program, and nine schools (1,282 students) were selected as the control group. The intervention program included restriction of unhealthy foods sold in tuck shops, provision of various f...

  16. Design and characterization of an improved, 2 ns, multi-frame imager for the Ultra-Fast X-ray Imager (UXI) program at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, L.; England, T.; Fang, L.; Robertson, G.; Sanchez, M.; Trotter, D.; Carpenter, A.; Dayton, M.; Patel, P.; Porter, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    The Icarus camera is an improvement on past imagers (Furi and Hippogriff) designed for the Ultra-Fast X-ray Imager (UXI) program to deliver ultra-fast, time-gated, multi-frame image sets for High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments. Icarus is a 1024 × 512 pixel array with 25 μm spatial resolution containing 4 frames of storage per pixel. It has improved timing generation and distribution components and has achieved 2 ns time gating. Design improvements and initial characterization and performance results will be discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  17. Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp. Fillets Sold on Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp., sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability. Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes. Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter; water (gravimetrically; ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C; salt (NaCl; by auto-titration; fat (by a modified Smedes method; protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method; total phosphorus content (photometrically; total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method; total viable bacteria count (TVC and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO (by decimal dilutions method. The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method. Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which

  18. Condições de higiene de "cachorro-quente" comercializado em vias públicas Hygienic conditions of hot dogs sold on the streets, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lucca

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi identificar situações nas quais existiam riscos de alimentos preparados e comercializados em vias públicas (cachorro-quente estarem ou se tornarem contaminados (pontos críticos e estabelecer um método de controle para prevenir o perigo de contaminação de alimentos (pontos críticos de controle. Os dados foram coletados em 20 pontos de venda, na região de Cerqueira César, por meio de entrevistas, preenchimento de questionários, observação das práticas de manipulação e armazenamento dos alimentos, bem como medição da temperatura (produtos cárneos e pH (molhos. Os resultados indicaram que, em 30% dos estabelecimentos, as condições de higiene foram consideradas péssimas ou regulares. As preparações à base de carne e frango e o purê de batata foram consideradas de alto risco. Tais observações revelaram técnicas higiênico-sanitárias inadequadas para o preparo dos lanches e falta de conhecimentos básicos sobre manipulação e higiene dos alimentos, razão pela qual tais alimentos representam um problema de saúde pública. Devido à escassez de pesquisas na literatura científica e de dados oficiais sobre o comércio de alimentos de rua no Brasil, propõe-se que estudos adicionais sejam feitos.The study objective was to identify the circumstances where there was risk of contamination of food (hot dogs prepared and sold on the streets and to establish a preventive action through the creation of key surveillance sites. Data were collected from 20 vending sites using interviews, questionnaires, observations of food handling and storage, and temperature and pH measurements of both meat and sauce, respectively. In 30% of the studied sites, hygienic conditions were rated as regular to extremely poor. Mashed potatoes, chicken and beef preparations were of high risk. These findings showed inappropriate hygienic practices of food preparation and lack of basic knowledge regarding food handling - a public

  19. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli detected by 16-plex PCR in raw meat and beef intestines sold at local markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Martikainen, Outi; Lienemann, Taru; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-02-01

    The study investigated the prevalence of five major Escherichia coli pathogroups in raw meats and beef intestines sold at the local markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. One hundred and twenty samples (36 beef, 36 beef intestine, 24 mutton and 24 chicken samples) were purchased from four markets between October 2008 and February 2009. Fifteen virulence genes specific for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were examined using 16-plex PCR for mixed bacterial cultures derived from the samples. One or more diarrheagenic E. coli pathogroup was detected in 51 (43%) of all the 120 samples: in 16 (44%) beef, 19 (53%) beef intestine, 9 (38%) mutton and in 7 (29%) chicken samples. Thirty three (28%) samples were positive for stx(1) and/or stx(2) indicating presence of STEC. EPEC virulence markers (eae, escV and/or ent and/or bfp and/or EHEC-hlyA) were detected in 14 (12%) stx-negative samples. ETEC virulence markers (elt and/or estIb and/or estIa) were detected in 10 (8%) samples and EAEC virulence markers (pic or aggR) in 5 (4%) samples. No EIEC was detected. The results show that in Burkina Faso the microbiological quality of retail meat is alarmingly poor due to the common occurrence of diarrheagenic E. coli bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. National and state estimates of the mean ethanol content of beer sold in the US and their impact on per capita consumption estimates: 1988 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Brown, Stephan; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2004-10-01

    The average ethanol content of the beer sold in the US is a key factor in determining the per capita consumption of ethanol, the standard measure of alcohol use in aggregate-level research. To address the lack of empirically based estimates of beer ethanol content, we have calculated national estimates for the years 1988 to 2001 and state-specific estimates for 1993 to 2001. These estimates are based on the ethanol content by volume of leading brands in each year, the national market share of each leading brand by type, and state-specific market shares of each beer type. The national mean ethanol content of beer was higher than the 4.5% figure typically used, ranging from 4.58% in 1993 to 4.75% in 1996. State-specific mean ethanol content estimates were also found to vary by state and over time. Application of mean ethanol content estimates to the per capita consumption of beer led to higher consumption estimates than those with the 4.5% conversion. For example, in 2000, the national estimate indicates that nearly 10 more drinks (containing 0.6 oz of ethanol) were consumed per person aged 14 years and older during that year. This may indicate that a larger than previously estimated share of the alcohol consumed in the US is in the form of beer. However, the results also indicate that empirically based estimates of wine and spirits mean that ethanol content may modify their consumption estimates as well.

  1. Use of diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy and HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR to identify undeclared synthetic drugs in medicines illegally sold as phytotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lorena M A; Filho, Elenilson G A; Thomasi, Sérgio S; Silva, Bianca F; Ferreira, Antonio G; Venâncio, Tiago

    2013-09-01

    The informal (and/or illegal) e-commerce of pharmaceutical formulations causes problems that governmental health agencies find hard to control, one of which concerns formulas sold as natural products. The purpose of this work was to explore the advantages and limitations of DOSY and HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR. These techniques were used to identify the components of a formula illegally marketed in Brazil as an herbal medicine possessing anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. DOSY was able to detect the major components present at higher concentrations. Complete characterization was achieved using HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR, and 1D and 2D NMR analyses enabled the identification of known synthetic drugs. These were ranitidine and a mixture of orphenadrine citrate, piroxicam, and dexamethasone, which are co-formulated in a remedy called Rheumazim that is used to relieve severe pain, but it is prohibited in Brazil because of a lack of sufficient pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of biogenic amines levels, and biochemical and microbiological characterization of Italian-type salami sold in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lopes dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, histamine, spermidine and spermine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the physicochemical (moisture, lipids, proteins, pH, water activity and fixed mineral residue and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count characteristics of six Italian-type salami brands sold in the city of Niteroi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The salami showed lactic acid bacteria count from 5.7 to 8.6 CFU•mL-1, and heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count from 5.8 to 8.7 CFU•mL-1. Three brands showed moisture contents above 35% and one brand had protein content below 25%. The mean values obtained for the amines were: 197.43, 143.29, 73.02, 4.52, 90.66 and 36.17 mg•kg-1 for tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, histamine, and spermine respectively. Two brands presented histamine contents above the legal limit established in 100 mg•kg-1. We concluded that the evaluated salami presented a wide variation in the count of the bacterial groups with a predominance of lactic acid bacteria. The moisture contents indicate insufficient drying before commercialization and protein content had values below the minimum limit determined by the Brazilian legislation. Finally, the levels of biogenic amines found could cause adverse reactions in susceptible consumers, depending of the amount and frequency of intake of these products.

  3. Identification of Coloring Additives used in Jajan Sirat Production Sold at Pasar Umum Negara, District of Negara, Jembrana Regency, Bali Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Komang Ari Andika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the types and doses of coloring additives used in the making of jajan Sirat which was sold at Pasar Umum Negara, Jembrana, Bali. Before taking samples, surveys and interviews were conducted to the traders and consumers regarding their understanding on coloring additives. The samples were taken from some traders at Negara public market, District of Negara, Jembrana, Bali. Then, the samples were prepared by using woolen thread absorption technique. Qualitative analytical procedure were conducted using chromatographic paper analysis, while quantitative analysis were conducted using spectrophotometer UV-VIS. Paper chromatography analysis showed, the samples contained restricted synthetic coloring substances (GN scarlet, orange G and sudan I and allowed coloring substances (tartrazine, sunset yellow, karmoisin, amaranth, and eritrosin. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that most of samples contained coloring substances exceeding the prescribed dosage. The percentage of samples containing overdosed coloring substances was 58.33 %, whereas the percentage of samples containing coloring substances under permitted dosage was 16.67 %. The percentage of samples containing banned dye was 25.00 %.

  4. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-05-07

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase.

  5. Are campus food environments healthy? A novel perspective for qualitatively evaluating the nutritional quality of food sold at foodservice facilities at a Brazilian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulz, Isadora Santos; Martins, Paula Andréa; Feldman, Charles; Veiros, Marcela Boro

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this novel study was to evaluate the food environment at a Brazilian university, encompassing 6 restaurants and 13 snack bars. The investigation uniquely analyses the food environment (barriers, facilitators, type of foods and prices). This was a food-based analysis of the nutritional quality of the products sold on campus. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used, applying the classic Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Restaurants (NEMS-R) adapted for Brazil and an original methodology to evaluate and classify qualitatively the nutritional quality and characteristics of the food. A census of all campus food environments was applied. The main results show most food and beverage products were made with processed ingredients and had a lower nutritional quality and price when compared with similar products made on premises, that is, processed iced tea compared with fresh tea ( p food ingredients or nutritional information of products available. The overall options for healthy food choices and good nutritional quality on campus were mostly limited by the availability and higher prices of products. These findings could be used to develop new policy perspectives for the offering of healthy food items and to facilitate better food choices among students in a healthier food environment.

  6. Physico-Chemical And Microbiological Quality Of Some Consumer Preferred Plain Set Yoghurts Sold In Matara Municipal Area Of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.G.U Hemamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As yoghurt is a health food assessment of quality of commercialized yoghurt during storage period in refrigerator is needed. Lack of data on quality parameters of yoghurt brands in Sri Lanka is impediment to consumer health. This study is an attempt to fill that gap by providing data on evaluation of the changes of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of some plain set yoghurt sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were collected on the basis of consumer preference for the present study. From each brand fifteen samples were analyzed by means of their physico-chemical syneresis effect pH titratable acidity total protein content and microbiological composition total plate count total yeast and mould count by using three replicates of each sample at 4 7 14 21 and 28 days intervals from production date under refrigerated condition 4 amp61616C and compared against local and international standards. All microbiological parameters and total protein content of all plain set yoghurt brands were not within the permissible range for local and international standards. Titratable acidity was only in the permissible range of local standards. All the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological parameters of collected samples were significantly affected by storage period. Good quality yoghurt of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters with hygiene conditions during processing and storage should be encouraged for consumption.

  7. [Bacteriological quality and toxigenic Bacillus cereus detection in cooked white rice sold at the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coto, Rodrigo; Chaves, Carolina; Gamboa, María del Mar; Arias, Maria Laura

    2012-09-01

    The wide use of rice is one of the factors that favors its implication in food borne diseases, and one of the most important pathogens associated to it is Bacillus cereus. The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 50 samples of white cooked rice sold in restaurants at the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, including the determination of the total aerobic plate count, the Most Probable Number of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. MPN of Bacillus cereus and the detection of nheA, nheB and nHeC genes, associated to its toxicity, was also performed. Procedures described in the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods were followed for the bacteriological analysis, multiplex PCR was used for the detection of genes following the methodology described by Hansen et al, 2001. 46% of the samples analysed were positive for total coliforms, 34% for fecal coliforms, 16% for E. coli and 10% for B. cereus, being 8% toxigenic. These facts suggest that white cooked rice may represent a risk for Pubic Health and that improvements shall be performed in order to offer a safe and high quality product to consumers.

  8. Power Relations and Legitimacy of Organic Products Sold at Fairs in Rio de Janeiro: Critical Analysis in the Light of Bourdieu Symbolic Power theory and of Mintzberg Power School of Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Martelleto Silberman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses social relations and power construction between different actors belonging to the universe of organic fairs in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on concepts of organizational theories from Bourdieu Symbolic Power and Mintzberg, Ahlstrand and Lampel. Power School of Strategy. We aim to understand how human interactions (formation of coalitions and power networks or groups of interests and the symbolic system present in the fairs affect the legitimacy of the products sold there. Besides the bibliographic research, data collection included interviews conducted with farmers and coordinators of the two fairs and with a representative of an entity responsible for organic conformity evaluation, between June and September 2011. The results suggest that producers and entities responsible for control and evaluation of organic conformity, organized in the forms of coalitions and power networks, can influence the legitimacy of the products sold in the fairs analyzed, due to the symbolic power they exercise over the environment.

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF HOMOGENIZED MEAT SOLD BY A SUPERMARKET OF GOIÂNIA (GO) QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE HOMOGENEIZADA COMERCIALIZADA EM UM HIPERMERCADO DE GOIÂNIA - GO

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Sales Prado; Moacir Evandro Lage; Albenones José de Mesquita; Carlos Stuart Coronel Palma; Iolanda Aparecida Nunes; Jaison Pereira de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Seventy samples of homogenized meat produced and sold by a supermarket in Goiânia (GO), were analysed, from February 1996 to October 1997, in order to evaluate their microbiological quality. The microbiological analysis were mesophilic and psychrotrophic plate count, coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli most probable number (MPN), Salmonella research, Streptococcus

  10. Evaluation of the fluoride stability of dentifrices sold in Manaus, AM, Brazil Estabilidade do fluoreto de dentifrícios comercializados em Manaus, AM, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikeila Chacon de Oliveira Conde

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimum requirement for the anti-caries effect of a dentifrice is the presence of available and stable fluoride in the formulation. The concentration of available fluoride in the major dentifrices sold in Brazil has been reported, but few data have been published about its stability, which is temperature-dependent. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration and stability of fluoride in dentifrices sold in Manaus, AM, Brazil, which is a typical tropical city. The concentrations of total fluoride, total soluble fluoride, MFP, and of insoluble fluoride of six Brazilian dentifrices and an imported one were analyzed. The analyses were made when the dentifrices were purchased and during a year of storage at room temperature (28.9 ± 1.16°C and under refrigeration (26.3 ± 0.88°C. The analyses were performed using an ion specific electrode Orion 96-09. At the time of purchase, all the dentifrices analyzed showed more than 1,000 ppm (mug F-/g; w/w of soluble fluoride. However, in most of them, this form of fluoride was not shown to be stable. The highest loss of soluble fluoride was found for storage at room temperature, reaching up to 40%. Although all dentifrices comply with the Brazilian guidelines with regard to the concentration of total fluoride (maximum of 0.15%, the instability of soluble fluoride observed in some of them can impair their anti-caries effect and this condition is not contemplated in the Governmental rules.O requisito mínimo para que um dentifrício tenha potencial anticárie é ele ter uma formulação com fluoreto na forma solúvel e estável. A concentração de fluoreto solúvel nos dentifrícios vendidos no Brasil tem sido descrita, mas pouco é conhecido sobre sua estabilidade, a qual é função da temperatura. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a concentração e estabilidade do fluoreto em dentifrícios vendidos em Manaus, AM, Brasil. As concentrações de fluoreto total, fluoreto sol

  11. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella serovars in integrated crop-livestock farms and their products sold in local markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mengfei; Salaheen, Serajus; Almario, Jose Alejandro; Tesfaye, Bezait; Buchanan, Robert; Biswas, Debabrata

    2016-05-01

    Major concern in the Mixed Crop-Livestock (MCL) farms, in which livestock and vegetables grown closely in the same facility, is cross-contamination of zoonotic bacterial pathogens especially Salmonella. To investigate the distribution of Salmonella serovars in MCL and their products, a total of 1287 pre-harvest samples from various farms and 1377 post-harvest samples from retail supermarkets in Maryland and Washington D.C. areas were collected and analysed. A total of 315 Salmonella isolates were recovered, with 17.44% and 5.88%, from MCL and conventional farms samples (P < 0.001). At post-harvest level, the prevalence of Salmonella was 30.95%, 19.83%, and 8.38% in chicken meat (P < 0.001) from farmers, organic, and conventional retail markets respectively, and 16.81% and 6.06% in produce products (P < 0.001) from farmers and organic retail markets, but none from conventional retail markets. From the isolated Salmonella, 34.50% was confirmed S. Typhimurium, followed by S. Heidelberg (10.86%) and S. Enteritidis (9.90%). The overall multi-antibiotic resistance in recovered Salmonella was 23.81% versus 4.55% in conventional and MCL farms (P = 0.004) and 66.67% versus 7.76% in conventional and farmers markets (P < 0.001). Overall the data reveals higher Salmonella risks in MCL farms' environment and their products sold in farmers markets and warrants taking necessary measures to limit Salmonella transmission. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with nonintact blade-tenderized frozen steaks sold by door-to-door vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Ellen Swanson; Scheftel, Joni M; Boxrud, David J; Vought, Kevin J; Danila, Richard N; Elfering, Kevin M; Smith, Kirk E

    2005-06-01

    Steaks have not been recognized as an important vehicle of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. During 11 to 27 June 2003, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) identified four O157 infection cases with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtype. All four case patients consumed brand A vacuum packed frozen steaks sold by door-to-door vendors. The steaks were blade tenderized and injected with marinade (i.e., nonintact). Information from single case patients in Michigan and Kansas identified through PulseNet confirmed the outbreak. The MDH issued a press release on 27 June to warn consumers, prompting a nationwide recall of 739,000 lb (335,506 kg) of frozen beef products. The outbreak resulted in six culture-confirmed cases (including one with hemolytic uremic syndrome) and two probable cases in Minnesota and single confirmed cases in four other states. The outbreak PFGE subtype of O157 was isolated from unopened brand A bacon-wrapped fillets from five affected Minnesota households. A fillet from one affected household was partially cooked in the laboratory, and the same O157 subtype was isolated from the uncooked interior. The tenderizing and injection processes likely transferred O157 from the surface to the interior of the steaks. These processing methods create new challenges for prevention of O157 infection. Food regulatory officials should reevaluate safety issues presented by nonintact steak products, such as microbiologic hazards of processing methods, possible labeling to distinguish intact from nonintact steaks, and education of the public and commercial food establishments on the increased risk associated with undercooked nonintact steaks. Information on single cases of O157 infection in individual states identified through PulseNet can be critical in solving multistate outbreaks in a timely manner.

  13. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Smokeless tobacco products sold in Massachusetts from 2003 to 2012: trends and variations in brand availability, nicotine contents and design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Doris; Keithly, Lois; Kane, Kevin; Land, Thomas; Paskowsky, Mark; Chen, Lili; Hayes, Rashelle; Li, Wenjun

    2015-05-01

    Sales of smokeless tobacco products have increased in the USA. More than one in eight males in the 12th grade are current users of smokeless tobacco. Surveillance data examining nicotine levels of smokeless tobacco subsequent to 2006 have not been reported in the literature. Data on nicotine levels and design features (eg, pH, moisture content, leaf cut and flavour) of smokeless tobacco products sold in Massachusetts were obtained from manufacturers between 2003 and 2012. Design features, levels and temporal trends in unionised (free) nicotine and nicotine content of smokeless tobacco products were analysed overall and by manufacturer and product type. The annual total number of moist snuff products increased from 99 in 2003 to 127 in 2012. The annual total number of reported snus products increased from 4 in 2003 to the highest level of 62 in 2011, before decreasing to 26 in 2012. Overall, mean unionised (free) nicotine remained relatively stable (β=0.018 (95% CI -0.014 to 0.050) mg/g dry weight/year) from 2003 to 2012. However, both levels and temporal trends of mean free nicotine varied significantly among manufacturers (p<0.001). Since 2003, the free nicotine content of snus has increased at an overall rate of 0.192 (95% CI 0.138 to 0.246) mg/g dry weight/year, but varied by manufacturer (p<0.001). The number of smokeless tobacco products increased in the Massachusetts market. Further, mean unionised (free) nicotine levels in smokeless tobacco products of several manufacturers continued to rise despite decreasing levels from other manufacturers. The current success in tobacco control is very likely undermined without government surveillance, regulation and widespread public disclosure of nicotine levels in these products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Sensory Evaluation And Analysis Of Physico-Chemical Parameters Of Some Plain Set Yoghurt Brands Sold In Matara Municipal Area Of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.G.U Hemamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Production selling consumption and concern of plain set yoghurt show incitement in the last few time periods in Sri Lanka. New plain set yoghurt brands are coming to the Sri Lankan market very quickly too. The aim of this study was an attempt to do sensory evaluation and compare the physical and chemical parameters of some selected plain set yoghurt brands sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were selected on the basis of preliminary survey done. Then all the selected plain set yoghurt samples were test for organoleptic characters such as color aroma appearance thickness taste sourness sweetness and over all acceptability. After that all the selected plain set yoghurt samples were analyzed with their physical and chemical parameters such as syneresis effect pH titratable acidity total protein content. By doing analysis of sensory evaluation the brand 12 was the least acceptable product while brand 15 was the most acceptable product by thirty untrained panelists. It also revealed that the thickness with appearance and taste had significant influence p0.05 on over all acceptability of the plain set yoghurt brand. According to the results obtained all physico-chemical parameters significantly differ p0.05 between the plain set yoghurt brands too. Hence plain set yoghurt manufacturers must give attention on improvement of thickness taste and appearance for better consumer acceptance and for better production. Overall plain set yoghurt quality assessment needs good care on quality control during processing.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Sodium Content and Calories from Sugar in Toddler Foods Sold in Low- and High-Income New York City Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey; Samuel, Benny

    2014-01-01

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among “side dishes” and “meals.” The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among “snacks and yogurt blends” in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and “breakfast foods and cereals” in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in “breakfast foods and cereals” sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase. PMID:25168992

  17. 76 FR 73489 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... this AD to prevent the affected discs from fracturing before reaching the currently published life... issuing this AD to prevent the affected discs from fracturing before reaching the currently published life.... Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov ; or in...

  18. 77 FR 14312 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE... Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket... available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Baitoo, Aerospace...

  19. 77 FR 1043 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... International Inc. Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... engines. DATES: We must receive comments on this proposed AD by March 9, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may send... referenced service information at the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park...

  20. Honeywell multispectral linear array (MLA) instrument design A system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, D.; Smith, D.

    1982-01-01

    In support of NASA's Experimental Land Observing System, a simple, reliable and relatively inexpensive multispectral linear array (MLA) instrument concept has been developed. The design satisfies requirements for multichannel radiometry and wide field imaging. A reflective off-axis anastigmat telescope is mounted in a highly strength-to-weight efficient truss structure, coupled to a solid beamsplitter assembly. Attention is given to the optical design of the MLA instrument, the telescope structure, the detector arrays, detector cooling, on-orbit calibration, signal processing electronics, the spacecraft interfaces, the modulation transfer function, the signal-to-noise ratio, radiometric accuracy, and spatial registration.

  1. 77 FR 51892 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... disks when the tie rod is unstretched is consistent in achieving AD compliance sooner for the Falcon 20... airplane. (e) Compliance Comply with this AD within the compliance times specified, unless already done. (f) Engines Installed in Dassault-Aviation Falcon 20 and Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A. (CASA) 101...

  2. 77 FR 9868 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... compliance times specified, unless already done. (f) Engines Installed in Dassault-Aviation Falcon 20 and... in Dassault-Aviation Falcon 20 or CASA 101 Airplanes (1) Remove the LPT1 rotor assembly at the next... AD, if the rotor assembly must be replaced as specified in paragraph (f)(1) or (g)(1) of this AD, do...

  3. "We sold a million copies"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monteiro, Paolo Klinger; Moraga Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    We model a two period monopoly market with two-sided quality uncertainty. In first period, seller gathers information about consumers´ tastes upon observing its sales. In second period, seller may or may not deliver the information. If monopolist must commit either to reveal or conceal past......-sales before observing them, committing to reveal is the dominant strategy whenever advertising cost is low, buyers are many and their private information is accurate. When seller can postpone advertising decision and gains experience, past-sales revelation occurs partially. In equilibrium, delivery of sales...

  4. Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about regulations, developed by EPA, in collaboration with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders, that ensure that transportation fuel sold in the United States contains a minimum volume of renewable fuel.

  5. Plasticizers and bisphenol A, in packaged foods sold in the Tunisian markets: study of their acute in vivo toxicity and their environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltifa, Asma; Feriani, Anouar; Machreki, Monia; Ghorbel, Asma; Ghazouani, Lakhdar; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Van Loco, Joris; Reyns, Tim; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2017-10-01

    Today, processed and packaged foods are considered as among the major sources of human exposure to plasticizers and bisphenol which migrate from plastic packing. In the present study, a wide range of food products sold on the Tunisian market such as grain and grain products, milk and dairy products, fats and oil, drink, fish, and sweets have been analyzed firstly in order to identify the presence of phthalates and bisphenol. Then, the identified chemical molecules were studied for their environmental fate and tested in vivo for its toxicity in mice models. The food products analyzed using GC-MS/MS indicated the presence of the benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINC) and which using UPLC-MS/MS demonstrated the presence of bisphenol A of all food products. However, compared to other phthalates, BBP was found at high concentrations in the puff pastry (123 mg/kg), milk (2.59 mg/kg), butter (1.5 mg/kg), yogurt (2.23 mg/kg), oil (6.94 mg/kg), water (0.57 mg/kg), candy 1 (2.35 mg/kg), candy 2 (0.81 mg/kg), orange juice (1.25 mg/kg), peach juice (1.26 mg/kg), fruit juices (0.4 mg/kg), and chocolate (0.884 mg/kg). The obtained data in vivo clearly showed that the acute administration of BBP caused hepatic and renal damage as demonstrated by an increase in biochemical parameters as well as the activities of plasma marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, urea, creatinine, and uric acid when compared to the control group. By the same occurrence, the histopathological study revealed that BBP strongly modified the structure of hepatic and renal tissues. In addition, the plasticizers and BBP will therefore discharge via wastewater treatment plants in aquatic system and could reach marine

  6. Estado de frescor e qualidade higiênica do pescado vendido numa cidade do interior de Portugal Freshness and hygienic quality of fish sold in a Portuguese town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Fontes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o estado de frescor e a qualidade higiênica do pescado disponível em alguns estabelecimentos comerciais de Vila Real, uma cidade do interior de Portugal. Vinte e três amostras foram submetidas a uma análise sensorial e a análises fisico-químicas - determinação do teor de azoto básico volátil total (ABVT, do índice de refração do humor aquoso e do pH. A avaliação da qualidade higiênica do pescado foi feita por meio de diferentes análises microbiológicas na superfície e na profundidade do músculo do pescado. O pescado fresco, considerado por todos os métodos de análise, próprio para consumo, apresentou estado de frescor entre bom e satisfatório. O ABVT foi considerado o método objetivo de eleição, sempre que surgiram dúvidas relativamente ao grau de frescor do pescado. O pescado próprio para consumo apresentou valores que variaram entre os 20,60 e 27,36mgN/100g e perfil microbiológico aceitável, com contagens de microrganismos psicrotróficos entre 5,41 e 6,03 UFC/cm² na superfície e entre 4,79 e 5,28 UFC/cm² no músculo.The freshness and hygienic quality of fresh fish sold in some fish markets of Vila Real, a Portuguese town, were evaluated. Twenty-three samples were examined by sensorial and physico-chemical analyses (total volatil basic nitrogen - TVBN, aqueous humour refraction rate and pH. The determination of hygienic quality of fish was carried out by different microbiological analysis on the surface and deepness of fish muscle. Fish was considered proper for consumption by all the methods used in the evaluation of fish freshness, and was classified between good and satisfactory. TVBN was considered the objective method of election, in case of doubt about fish freshness, and fish proper for consumption presented TVBN values between 20.60 and 27.36mgN/100g. The microbiological profile was considered acceptable with psychrotrophic microorganisms counts between 5.41 and 6.03 CFU/cm² on fish

  7. Nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University: Formative, cross-sectional research to inform an environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanla; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Vending machine use has been associated with low dietary quality among children but there is limited evidence on its role in food habits of University students. We aimed to examine the nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University and conduct formative research to investigate differences in food intake and body weight by vending machine use among 137 University students. The nutrient content of snacks and beverages available at nine campus vending machines was assessed by direct observation in May 2014. Participants (mean age 22.5 years; 54% males) subsequently completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess vending machine behaviours and food intake. Self-reported weight and height were collected. Vending machine snacks were generally high in sugar, fat and saturated fat, whereas most beverages were high in sugar. Seventy three participants (53.3%) used vending machines more than once per week and 82.2% (n 60) of vending machine users used them to snack between meals. Vending machine accessibility was positively correlated with vending machine use (r = 0.209, P = 0.015). Vending machine users, compared to non-users, reported a significantly higher weekly consumption of savoury snacks (5.2 vs. 2.8, P = 0.014), fruit juice (6.5 vs. 4.3, P = 0.035), soft drinks (5.1 vs. 1.9, P = 0.006), meat products (8.3 vs. 5.6, P = 0.029) and microwave meals (2.0 vs. 1.3, P = 0.020). No between-group differences were found in body weight. Most foods available from vending machines in this UK University were of low nutritional quality. In this sample of University students, vending machine users displayed several unfavourable dietary behaviours, compared to non-users. Findings can be used to inform the development of an environmental intervention that will focus on vending machines to improve dietary behaviours in University students in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Scrap tire recycling program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-09

    Ontario Tire Stewardship has proposed a Scrap Tire Diversion program for the recycling of highway tires. The current annual scrap tire volume in Ontario is 10.8 million used highway tires which equates to about 13.6 million Passenger Tire Equivalents (PTE). The PTE was developed by the tire recycling industry as a common unit of measurement for tires of various sizes. Only 12 per cent of PTEs are reusable, and the remainder must be managed through the Scrap Tire Diversion program. The inclusion of off-the-road (OTR) tires in the program will be evaluated only after 2 years of program operation. Ontario already has the capacity to process about 5.3 million PTEs into shred and crumb. End use markets for crumb and shred are still developing. The uses include products manufactured with recycled rubber content, rubberized asphalt, and some civil and landscape uses. Nearly 3.7 million PTEs are diverted for export to the United States for use as a tire derived fuel (TDF) in cement kilns or for civil engineering purposes. It is expected that export of these scrap tires will end within the initial 5 years of this program, thereby requiring that the PTEs be managed in Ontario. Currently, about 0.8 million PTEs are disposed of in non-verifiable ways, including illegal dumping. This program designates the Tire Retailer as the steward, requiring that it collect an advance disposal fee of $4.00 to $6.00 for each new tire sold. The fees will be used to fund transportation and processing credits for diversion operations and the core stewardship programs. The program will begin upon Minister's approval. 8 tabs.

  9. Boolean Variables in Economic Models Solved by Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixandroiu D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the use of logical variables in economic models solved by linear programming. Focus is given to the presentation of the way logical constraints are obtained and of the definition rules based on predicate logic. Emphasis is also put on the possibility to use logical variables in constructing a linear objective function on intervals. Such functions are encountered when costs or unitary receipts are different on disjunct intervals of production volumes achieved or sold. Other uses of Boolean variables are connected to constraint systems with conditions and the case of a variable which takes values from a finite set of integers.

  10. A description of interventions promoting healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away, or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets in England: a systematic mapping and evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier-Brown, Frances C; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Moore, Helen J; Wrieden, Wendy L; Adams, Jean; Abraham, Charles; Adamson, Ashley; Araújo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Lake, Amelia A

    2017-01-19

    Ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by food outlets are often more energy dense and nutrient poor compared with meals prepared at home, making them a reasonable target for public health intervention. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to systematically identify and describe interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away, or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets in England. A systematic search and sift of the literature, followed by evidence mapping of relevant interventions, was conducted. Food outlets were included if they were located in England, were openly accessible to the public and, as their main business, sold ready-to-eat meals. Academic databases and grey literature were searched. Also, local authorities in England, topic experts, and key health professionals and workers were contacted. Two tiers of evidence synthesis took place: type, content and delivery of each intervention were summarised (Tier 1) and for those interventions that had been evaluated, a narrative synthesis was conducted (Tier 2). A total of 75 interventions were identified, the most popular being awards. Businesses were more likely to engage with cost neutral interventions which offered imperceptible changes to price, palatability and portion size. Few interventions involved working upstream with suppliers of food, the generation of customer demand, the exploration of competition effects, and/or reducing portion sizes. Evaluations of interventions were generally limited in scope and of low methodological quality, and many were simple assessments of acceptability. Many interventions promoting healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away, or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets in England are taking place; award-type interventions are the most common. Proprietors of food outlets in England that, as their main business, sell ready-to-eat meals, can be engaged in implementing

  11. A description of interventions promoting healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away, or to be delivered sold by specific food outlets in England: a systematic mapping and evidence synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances C. Hillier-Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered sold by food outlets are often more energy dense and nutrient poor compared with meals prepared at home, making them a reasonable target for public health intervention. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to systematically identify and describe interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away, or to be delivered sold by specific food outlets in England. Methods A systematic search and sift of the literature, followed by evidence mapping of relevant interventions, was conducted. Food outlets were included if they were located in England, were openly accessible to the public and, as their main business, sold ready-to-eat meals. Academic databases and grey literature were searched. Also, local authorities in England, topic experts, and key health professionals and workers were contacted. Two tiers of evidence synthesis took place: type, content and delivery of each intervention were summarised (Tier 1 and for those interventions that had been evaluated, a narrative synthesis was conducted (Tier 2. Results A total of 75 interventions were identified, the most popular being awards. Businesses were more likely to engage with cost neutral interventions which offered imperceptible changes to price, palatability and portion size. Few interventions involved working upstream with suppliers of food, the generation of customer demand, the exploration of competition effects, and/or reducing portion sizes. Evaluations of interventions were generally limited in scope and of low methodological quality, and many were simple assessments of acceptability. Conclusions Many interventions promoting healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away, or to be delivered sold by specific food outlets in England are taking place; award-type interventions are the most common. Proprietors of food outlets in England that, as their main business

  12. Quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: II. Relative effects on selling price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    that were visibly sick were discounted (P < 0.0001). Results suggest that improving BCS and BW, which producers can do at the farm or ranch level, positively affects sale price. Furthermore, animals that are visibly sick or have a defect associated with a possible antibiotic risk will be discounted. Ultimately, animals with minor quality defects should be sold in a timely manner before the defect advances and the discount increases.

  13. Gorduras em pães comercializados em Florianópolis (SC | Fats in bread products sold in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinete E. de Lima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O tipo de óleo/gordura utilizado na fabricação de pães interfere nas suas propriedades sensoriais e nutricionais. Assim, objetivou-se identificar os tipos de óleos/gorduras declarados nos rótulos dos pães (n = 320 comercializados em padarias e supermercados (n = 23 da região central de Florianópolis (SC. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado (x². Aproximadamente 20% dos pães estavam sendo comercializados sem rótulo, todos de fabricação própria. Na avaliação das listas dos ingredientes os óleos/gorduras mais frequentes foram: gorduras vegetais (possíveis fontes de gordura trans (32%, óleos vegetais (25% e gordura de palma (18%. No entanto, apenas 5,6% dos pães apresentaram em seus rótulos gordura trans na porção. Os pães com maior ocorrência de gordura vegetal foram: hambúrguer/hot dog (92%, bisnaguinha (92% e de forma (82%. Já o grupo de pão integral industrial se destacou por conter principalmente óleos vegetais (88%. O grupo pão doce (100%, fabricado com gordura animal e gordura vegetal hidrogenada, apresentou maiores quantidades de gordura total. Conclui-se que há necessidade de melhorias com relação à rotulagem de pães; que pães industriais, especialmente os integrais, contêm gorduras mais saudáveis discriminadas em seus rótulos; pães hambúrguer/hot dog, bisnaguinha, de forma e doce, as menos saudáveis. =============================================== The type of oils/fats used in bread manufacturing affects the sensory and nutritional properties of bread products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the types of oils/fats described on the labels of bread products (n = 320 sold in bakeries and supermarkets (n = 23 in the central region of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The chi-squared test (χ² was used to analyze the data. Approximately 20% of the bread products available were not labeled. These products were made at the in-store bakeries

  14. Microbial survey of ready-to-eat salad ingredients sold at retail reveals the occurrence and the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 2 and 87 in pre-packed smoked salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Man Ling; Aung, Kyaw Thu; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chanditha; Lee, Pei Sze Valarie; Lim, Pei Ying; Kang, Joanne Su Lin; Ng, Youming; Yap, Hooi Ming; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Gutiérrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Ng, Lee Ching

    2017-02-28

    As the preparation of salads involves extensive handling and the use of uncooked ingredients, they are particularly vulnerable to microbial contamination. This study aimed to determine the microbial safety and quality of pre-packed salads and salad bar ingredients sold in Singapore, so as to identify public health risks that could arise from consuming salads and to determine areas for improvement in the management of food safety. The most frequently encountered organism in pre-packed salad samples was B. cereus, particularly in pasta salads (33.3%, 10/30). The most commonly detected organism in salad bar ingredients was L. monocytogenes, in particular seafood ingredients (44.1%, 15/34), largely due to contaminated smoked salmon. Further investigation showed that 21.6% (37/171) of the pre-packed smoked salmon sold in supermarkets contained L. monocytogenes. Significantly higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes and higher Standard Plate Count were detected in smoked salmon at salad bars compared to pre-packed smoked salmon in supermarkets, which suggested multiplication of the organism as the products move down the supply chain. Further molecular analysis revealed that L. monocytogenes Sequence Type (ST) 2 and ST87 were present in a particular brand of pre-packed salmon products over a 4-year period, implying a potential persistent contamination problem at the manufacturing level. Our findings highlighted a need to improve manufacturing and retail hygiene processes as well as to educate vulnerable populations to avoid consuming food prone to L. monocytogenes contamination.

  15. LMSS SERVICES FINANCIAL REPORT PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this Services Finance Report program is to provide a means for comparing alternative designs of LMSS systems or other services systems. This program is actually a Multiplan worksheet. The labels used in the worksheet were chosen for a satellite-based cellular communication service (LMSS - Land Mobile Satellite System) but the analysis is not restricted to such cases. A comprehensive financial model is used to calculate a 'figure of merit' which can be used to compare effects of equipment and operating costs, pricing strategy, and customer demand for different systems. The program also calculates the price that a company would have to charge customers to meet all its expenses and make a specified profit. A price estimate can be obtained for almost any service which is heavily dependent on capital investment and which has operating costs that depend on the amount of service sold. The economic analysis has two main components: supplier finances and customer finances. Supplier finances include amortization, interest, insurance, taxes, and operating and maintenance expenses. Customer finances include usage rate, subscription fees, equipment costs, and estimated traffic. Prices can defined as real or nominal to account for effects of escalation and inflation, and the profits can be regulated or unrestricted This program is written for interactive execution with Multiplan (version 1.2) and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS (version 2.11). The LMSS worksheet has a space requirement of approximately 38K of 8 bit bytes. This worksheet was developed in 1984.

  16. The impact of interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets open to the general public: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier-Brown, F C; Summerbell, C D; Moore, H J; Routen, A; Lake, A A; Adams, J; White, M; Araujo-Soares, V; Abraham, C; Adamson, A J; Brown, T J

    2017-02-01

    Ready-to-eat meals sold by food outlets that are accessible to the general public are an important target for public health intervention. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of such interventions. Studies of any design and duration that included any consumer-level or food-outlet-level before-and-after data were included. Thirty studies describing 34 interventions were categorized by type and coded against the Nuffield intervention ladder: restrict choice = trans fat law (n = 1), changing pre-packed children's meal content (n = 1) and food outlet award schemes (n = 2); guide choice = price increases for unhealthier choices (n = 1), incentive (contingent reward) (n = 1) and price decreases for healthier choices (n = 2); enable choice = signposting (highlighting healthier/unhealthier options) (n = 10) and telemarketing (offering support for the provision of healthier options to businesses via telephone) (n = 2); and provide information = calorie labelling law (n = 12), voluntary nutrient labelling (n = 1) and personalized receipts (n = 1). Most interventions were aimed at adults in US fast food chains and assessed customer-level outcomes. More 'intrusive' interventions that restricted or guided choice generally showed a positive impact on food-outlet-level and customer-level outcomes. However, interventions that simply provided information or enabled choice had a negligible impact. Interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals sold by food outlets should restrict choice or guide choice through incentives/disincentives. Public health policies and practice that simply involve providing information are unlikely to be effective. © 2016 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  17. The North Korean Missile Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2001-04-01

    In recent years, the development of ballistic missiles by North Korea has been a key motivation for US efforts to stem missile proliferation and to develop defenses against intermediate and long-range missiles. In the 1980s, North Korea reverse-engineered short-range Soviet Scud missiles and began to produce and sell them. In 1993, it flight-tested a missile reported to have a range of up to 1,300 kilometers, which would allow it to target most of Japan. In 1998, it launched a multi-stage missile over Japan; it later announced that the launch had been an attempt to place a satellite in orbit. An important question is what these tests imply for its current capability and its possible future missile development. Since North Korea has sold missiles to countries in the Middle East and South Asia and is reported to be assisting Iran's missile development program, understanding its capabilities is relevant to security concerns in several parts of the world. In this talk I will discuss my analysis of the publicly available information about North Korea's missile tests, and my conclusions about possible future developments. This includes estimates of ranges and payloads of its next potential generation of missiles, and comments about their potential military utility.

  18. Jamaica: a middle-aged program searches for new horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The advertising and marketing consultant for Jamaica's Commercial Distribution of Contraceptives (JCDC) program, states that the program has reached a state of maturity that has resulted in some inertia. Although still the leader among contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs in reaching the greatest percentage of its target market, product sales are no longer on an upswing, and retail outlets are not increasing in number. The project is hoping that the introduction of a new thin condom can help, but more than 1 new product may be needed to recapture momentum. The JCDC began in 1974 when Westinghouse Health Systems won a 3 year Agency for International Development (AID) award to create a Jamaican CSM program. Challenges facing the new social marketing project included: oral contraceptives (OCs) were sold only by prescription; most pharmacies were located in urban areas; many consumers associated condoms with prostitution and disease; and retailers were reluctant to carry contraceptives and ignorant of OC side effects. The 1st breakthrough came when Westinghouse obtained government permission to sell a project pill without prescription. After market research, project managers chose the name "Perle" for the JCDC's pill, manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday. "Panther" became the project's condom. Prices were set at US17 cents for a Panther 3-pack and 34 cents for a Perle cycle. Advertising messages appeared on television, radio, bus shelters, cinema screens, billboards, and point of purchase displays. By the end of the 1st year's sales, a soft goods manufacturer had asked permission to produce Panther T-shirts and a Reggae composer had popularized songs about the product. Such promotional tactics boosted sales of all contraceptives on the island. About 690,000 Panther condoms and 450,000 other brands were sold in 1976; 195,000 Perle cycles were purchased compared with 135,000 cycles for all other brands combined. By 1977, Westinghouse was reducing

  19. Fiscalização de verduras comercializadas no município de Ribeirão Preto, SP Monitoring of vegetables commercially sold in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo M. Takayanagui

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de verduras cruas constitui importante meio de transmissão de várias doenças infecciosas. Este estudo tem como objetivo a avaliação microbiológica e parasitológica de verduras comercializadas no município de Ribeirão Preto, SP, abrangendo todos os pontos de venda ao consumidor. Do total de 172 estabelecimentos fixos ou ambulantes analisados, 115 (67% apresentaram hortaliças com irregularidades: elevada concentração de coliformes fecais em 63%, presença de Salmonella em 9% e de enteroparasitas em 33%. Os pontos de venda com maior freqüência de hortaliças com resultados inadequados foram: mercearias (92%, CEAGESP (75%, quitandas (71%, vendedores ambulantes (71%, feiras-livres (69%, supermercados (52% e hortas (18%. O tipo de contaminação apresentou distribuição uniforme em relação aos locais de venda e à variedade da hortaliça. A maioria (61% das verduras contaminadas era procedente de hortas localizadas no município de Ribeirão Preto. Considerando a elevada freqüência de contaminação fecal e o potencial risco de doenças veiculadas pelas hortaliças, sugerimos uma vigilância sanitária mais atuante na fiscalização de alimentos oferecidos à população.The ingestion of raw vegetables represents an important means of transmission of several infectious diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a microbiological and parasitological evaluation of the vegetables commercially sold in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Of a total of 172 commercial concerns analyzed, 115 (67% presented irregularities in the vegetables they sold, such as elevated concentration of fecal coliforms in 63%, presence of Salmonella in 9%, and presence of enteroparasites in 33%. The commercial concerns with the highest frequencies of vegetables showing inadequate results were: grocery stores (92%, CEAGESP (75%, fruit and vegetables stores (71%, traveling vendors (71%, fairs (69%, supermarkets (52%, and

  20. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  1. Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s Fiscal Year 1997 financial statement audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-27

    The Department of Energy Isotope Production and Distribution Program mission is to serve the national need for a reliable supply of isotope products and services for medicine, industry and research. The program produces and sells hundreds of stable and radioactive isotopes that are widely utilized by domestic and international customers. Isotopes are produced only where there is no U.S. private sector capability or other production capacity is insufficient to meet U.S. needs. The Department encourages private sector investment in new isotope production ventures and will sell or lease its existing facilities and inventories for commercial purposes. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund established by the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act and maintains financial viability by earning revenues from the sale of isotopes and services and through annual appropriations. The FY 1995 Energy and Water Appropriations Act modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Although the Isotope Program functions as a business, prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research purposes may not achieve full-cost recovery. As a result, isotopes produced by the Isotope Program for research and development are priced to provide a reasonable return to the U.S. Government without discouraging their use. Commercial isotopes are sold on a cost-recovery basis. Because of its pricing structure, when selecting isotopes for production, the Isotope Program must constantly balance current isotope demand, market conditions, and societal benefits with its determination to operate at the lowest possible cost to U.S. taxpayers. Thus, this report provides a financial analysis of this situation.

  2. Inibidores bacterianos no leite tipo ''B" comercializado no município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil Bacterial inhibitors in B-type milk sold in the city S. Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Seferin Martins

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available No leite tipo "B", comercializado no município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil, foram pesquisadas a presença de inibidores bacterianos (penicilina, água oxigenada, formol e cloro. As amostras de leite utilizadas foram provenientes das quatro marcas de maior consumo pela população, coletadas no período de 14 de julho de 1982 a 20 de março de 1983. Foi constatada alta prevalência de inibidores bacterianos (4,70%. A incidência de resíduos de penicilina e de inibidores não identificados foi de 0,7% e de 3,40%, respectivamente. Houve uma baixa proporção de amostras com água oxigenada e formol e ausência de cloro.B-type milk sold in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, was examined for bacterial inhibitors, such as penicilin, hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde and chlorine. Samples were taken from the four brands of greatest consumption in the period from June 14th, 1982 throught March 20th, 1933. The prevalence of bacterial inhibitors was high (4.70%. The incidence of penicillin residues and unidentified inhibitors was 0.7% and 3.40% respectively. The proportion of samples containing hydrogen peroxide and formadehyde was low and chloride was absent from all.

  3. Quality Assurance Assessment of the F-35 Lightning II Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Australia, Denmark , and Norway. The F-35 has three variants. The Conventional Takeoff and Landing (CTOL), Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing...On-Board Oxygen Generation System (OBOGS), Backup Oxygen System (BOS), and Service Connection Package. Figure 11 is a diagram of the Life Support... Backup Oxygen Supply (BOS) Contractor Assessments DODIG-2013-140 │ 45 Figure 12. Honeywell Findings Human Resources (6.2) Competence, Training, and

  4. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College, Volume 19, Number 6, November-December 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    or in keeping their programs sold and better job for our men and women in even a negative effect, on the fully funded during their watches. uniform...preferential treatment in adefense contractors to bid on defense very important national interests, to-be-defined manner. The EDIG contracts in participating...system concept, identify major cost N9’Q .X, neesar tov asur vih roability ofc~t I re aheeti aac .... -’ .- ’/. i. . ,L.L. . . drivers, assure that

  5. Field handling conditions of raw milk sold in vending machines: experimental evaluation of the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato G. Zanoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The direct sale by farmers of raw milk for human consumption has been allowed in Italy since 2004. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of selected foodborne pathogens in raw milk sold in vending machines, in field handling conditions, and during shelf-life from production to consumption. Temperature of storage of raw milk in 33 farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk were investigated from farm to vending machine delivery, together with consumer habits in one province of the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. Failure to maintain appropriate low temperatures during shelf-life was recorded and 43% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption. Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni strains were inoculated into raw milk samples, and the best (4°C as established by law and worst temperature storage conditions detected (variable temperature were simulated. Boiling tests were performed for each pathogen considered at high and low levels of contamination. Results showed an increase in L. monocytogenes in milk stored at 4°C and at variable temperatures recorded in shelf-life monitoring, an increase in E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium at variable temperatures but not at 4°C, and a decrease in C. jejuni in all storage conditions. Boiling milk is effective in making it safe for consumers. This study provides evidence that appropriate handling of raw milk, maintaining low temperatures, together with consumer education concerning boiling raw milk before consumption are key factors in preventing foodborne infections linked to raw milk consumption, and helps assess the risk of foodborne infection linked to raw milk consumption.

  6. Paediatric HUS Cases Related to the Consumption of Raw Milk Sold by Vending Machines in Italy: Quantitative Risk Assessment Based on Escherichia coli O157 Official Controls over 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, F; Bonilauri, P; Piva, S; Scavia, G; Amatiste, S; Bianchi, D M; Losio, M N; Bilei, S; Cascone, G; Comin, D; Daminelli, P; Decastelli, L; Merialdi, G; Mioni, R; Peli, A; Petruzzelli, A; Tonucci, F; Liuzzo, G; Serraino, A

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) was developed to estimate haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases in paediatric population associated with the consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. The historical national evolution of raw milk consumption phenomenon since 2008, when consumer interest started to grow, and after 7 years of marketing adjustment, is outlined. Exposure assessment was based on the official Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2014, microbial growth during storage, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. In case of boiling milk before consumption, we assumed that the risk of HUS is fixed at zero. The model estimates clearly show that the public health significance of HUS cases due to raw milk STEC contamination depends on the current variability surrounding the risk profile of the food and the consumer behaviour has more impact than milk storage scenario. The estimated HUS cases predicted by our model are roughly in line with the effective STEC O157-associated HUS cases notified in Italy only when the proportion of consumers not boiling milk before consumption is assumed to be 1%. Raw milk consumption remains a source of E. coli O157:H7 for humans, but its overall relevance is likely to have subsided and significant caution should be exerted for temporal, geographical and consumers behaviour analysis. Health education programmes and regulatory actions are required to educate people, primarily children, on other STEC sources. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Sponsorship of junior sport development programs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wendy L; Brunner, Rebecca; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the nature and extent of unhealthy food, beverage, alcohol and gambling sponsors of children's sport development programs. Websites of junior development sport programs (n=56) associated with sporting organisations that received funding from the Australian Sporting Commission were analysed. Sponsors were considered unhealthy if they were alcohol or gambling companies or sold food and/or beverages that failed independent nutrition criteria. The websites of the sport development programs were also analysed for types of promotion. There were 246 sponsors identified. Eleven (4.5%) sponsors were food, beverage, alcohol or gambling companies of which 10 (91%) were unhealthy. Surf Lifesaving (n=4) and athletics (n=3) websites had the highest number of unhealthy sponsors. Promotions associated with unhealthy sponsorship included logo placement on homepages (100%), naming rights (31%), logo on sport uniforms (27%) and branded participant packs (31%). The majority of food and beverage company sponsors in sport development programs are companies associated with unhealthy products. Two websites hosting junior development program information included an alcohol company sponsor and a gambling company sponsor. Unhealthy product sponsorship of children's sport should be addressed as part of a comprehensive regulation designed to reduce exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Anisakidae in fishing products sold in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the parasite diseases associated with the consumption of raw fish that occurs with some frequency is the anisakiasis, a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larval nematodes of the genus Anisakis, family Anisakidae. At the National Reference Centre for Anisakiasis (C.Re.N.A. from October 2012 to February 2013, a number of 231 bony fish (Trichiuridae, Engraulidae, Scombridae and Clupeidae were received from different fishing sites in Sicily. Anisakis pegreffii is the main species detected in fish, as identified by molecular analysis based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, while Anisakis simplex sensu stricto was found only in Scomber scombrus caught in the Mediterranean Sea (Fishing Areas 37, in the Spanish coast (Fishing Areas 37 and in the Atlantic Ocean (Fishing Areas 34. Larvae of the genus Pseudoterranova were found only in fish caught in the Norwegian Sea.

  9. Participation in collectivily sold private renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, S.; Stolwijk, G.

    2011-01-01

    Several pilot projects have spawned an increasing number of schemes involving individuals in renovation. A well known and awarded (World Habitat Awards 2008) project is the “Wallisblok” also known as “De Dichterlijke Vrijheid”. This project involved the sale (for a symbolic amount) of a run down

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF GREEN CHUTNEYS SOLD IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. aureus was selected on Baird –Parker agar, characterized for production of coagulase, Thermostable DNAse activity, catalase and hemolysine production and mannitol fermentation. Colonies of coagulase positive S. aureus were further tested for the production of enterotoxins A, B, C and D by reverse passive latex ...

  11. Parenting Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martín-Quintana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at emphasizing the importance of using parenting programs to promote parental competences. There is a need for this support taking into account the complexity of the parenting task in our modern societies. Following the European recommendation on positive parenting, those parenting programs are considered important measures to support parents in their educational role. Forward, several generations of parenting programs at the international context were briefly described and some examples of programs within the national context, as well. This paper provides some reflection on three models of parental education, and shows the results of an experiential parenting programs addressed to parents in psychosocial risk situation in two Spanish communities. A new program “Crecer felices en familia”, still in the implementation phase, was also described. As a conclusion, the paper emphasized the importance of evaluating programs in order to know more about their efficacy and to improve the way of implementation in real settings.

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF HOMOGENIZED MEAT SOLD BY A SUPERMARKET OF GOIÂNIA (GO QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE HOMOGENEIZADA COMERCIALIZADA EM UM HIPERMERCADO DE GOIÂNIA - GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Sales Prado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Seventy samples of homogenized meat produced and sold by a supermarket in Goiânia (GO, were analysed, from February 1996 to October 1997, in order to evaluate their microbiological quality. The microbiological analysis were mesophilic and psychrotrophic plate count, coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli most probable number (MPN, Salmonella research, Streptococcus of D group MPN, Staphylococcus (positive coagulase enumeration and sulfide-reductor clostridia enumeration. In general the results indicated the good microbiological quality of the products. However, three positive samples to Salmonella were found, standing out the necessity of a permanent control, to avoid the transmission and dissemination of foodborne diseases.

    KEY-WORDS: Homogenized meat; microbiological quality; foodborne diseases.

    Foram analisadas 70 amostras de carne homogeneizada produzidas e comercializadas por um hipermercado de Goiânia (GO, no período de fevereiro de 1996 a outubro de 1997, para verificação da qualidade microbiológica. Foram realizadas análises para contagem padrão de microrganismos aeróbios ou facultativos mesófilos viáveis e de psicrotróficos, NMP de coliformes totais, fecais e de Escherichia coli, pesquisa de Salmonella, NMP de Streptococcus do grupo D, contagem de Staphylococcus (coagulase positiva e contagem de clostrídios sulfito-redutores. Os resultados indicaram, de maneira geral, a boa qualidade microbiológica dos produtos analisados. Entretanto, foram encontradas três amostras positivas para a pesquisa de Salmonella, ressaltando a necessidade de uma vigilância permanente, evitando a transmissão e a disseminação de toxinfecções de origem alimentar à população.

  13. Plantas medicinales que se venden en el mercado El Río, Camagüey, Cuba Medicinal plants sold at the El Río Market, Camagüey, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daimy Godínez-Caraballo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la información obtenida de las plantas medicinales vendidas en el mercado El Río, Camagüey, Cuba, se registró un total de 184 especies pertenecientes a 69 familia de plantas vasculares. La familia más importante fue Fabaceae s.l. con 13 especies, seguida por Lamiaceae con 12 y Asteraceae con 8. Más de 90 indicaciones medicinales en general fueron recogidas para tratar un amplio rango de enfermedades y dolencias. El mayor número de especies y aplicaciones fueron reportadas para desórdenes del sistema digestivo, sistema musculoesquelético (reumatismo y contusiones, problemas renales y trastornos ginecológicos. Las partes de las plantas más usadas fueron la hoja (42.9% y el fruto (22.3%. Los remedios se preparan principalmente como decocción (51.6% e infusión (39.1%. Los datos recolectados muestran el conocimiento y uso de la medicina herbolaria por parte de la población camagüeyana para tratar varias enfermedades.Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Río Market, Camagüey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal indications were recorded to treat a wide range of illnesses and ailments. The highest number of species and applications were reported for digestive system disorders, the musculoskeletal system (rheumatism and the complex of contusions, kidney and other urological problems, and gynecological disorders. The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaf (42.9% and the fruit (22.3%. The remedies were mainly prepared as a decoction (51.6% and an infusion (39.1%. The present data document the knowledge of herbal medicine by villagers of Camagüey for to treat health problems.

  14. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    , and color, but additionally being capable of sensing, actuating, and computing. Indeed, computers will not be things in and by themselves, but embedded into the materials that make up our surroundings. This also means that the way we interact with computers and the way we program them, will change....... Consequently we ask what the practice of programming and giving form to such materials would be like? How would we be able to familiarize ourselves with the dynamics of these materials and their different combinations of cause and effect? Which tools would we need and what would they look like? Will we program...... these computational composites through external computers and then transfer the code them, or will the programming happen closer to the materials? In this feature we outline a new research program that floats between imagined futures and the development of a material programming practice....

  15. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  16. Program Fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  17. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  18. Programming F#

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Why learn F#? This multi-paradigm language not only offers you an enormous productivity boost through functional programming, it also lets you develop applications using your existing object-oriented and imperative programming skills. With Programming F#, you'll quickly discover the many advantages of Microsoft's new language, which includes access to all the great tools and libraries of the .NET platform. Learn how to reap the benefits of functional programming for your next project -- whether it's quantitative computing, large-scale data exploration, or even a pursuit of your own. With th

  19. Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  20. Choreographic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    , as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programming paradigm that in this dissertation we refer to as Choreographic Programming. Recent studies show...... endpoint described in a choreography can then be automatically generated, ensuring that such implementations are safe by construction. However, current formal models for choreographies do not deal with critical aspects of distributed programming, such as asynchrony, mobility, modularity, and multiparty...... sessions; it remains thus unclear whether choreographies can still guarantee safety when dealing with such nontrivial features. This PhD dissertation argues for the suitability of choreographic programming as a paradigm for the development of safe distributed systems. We proceed by investigating its...

  1. 78 FR 39067 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... accompaniments such as butter, cream cheese, salad dressing, etc. Entr e items sold la carte must contain no more... advocacy organizations; health care organizations; industry and trade associations; farm and industry...

  2. Programming Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  3. Análise multivariada de parâmetros físico-químicos em amostras de vinhos tintos comercializados na região metropolitana do Recife Multivariate analysis of phisico-chemical parameters in samples of red wines sold in the metropolitan area of Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Farias de Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian legislation requires analysis of certain parameters to classify a wine and allow its commercialization. Some physico-chemical and some color parameters were determined in this work in samples of different red wines sold in the metropolitan area of Recife. Multivariate analysis comprising principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis was employed to distinguish the analyzed wines. The results for pH, chloride concentration, color parameters and ammonium content were the most important variables for sample classification. It was also possible to classify the wines as soft or dry wines and amongst the soft wines we could determine two out of four winegrowing producers.

  4. Programming Python

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 8 9 15 17 20 22 2. A Sneak Preview "Programming Python: The Short Story" The Task Step 1: Representing Records Step 2: Storing Records Persistently Step 3...

  5. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  6. [Thirty Years of Health Surveillance of Foods in Barcelona: The "ICSA" Food Quality Research Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Rodellar-Torras, Santiago; Portaña-Tudela, Samuel; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The Food Health Quality Research Program (Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos [ICSA]) of the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona [ASPB]) was initiated in 1984 to carry out surveillance of certain chemical and microbiological parameters related to the sanitary and safety of foods sold in the city. The present article analyzes the importance of health surveillance and provides details of the uses of the ICSA program. The main aim of this program is to evaluate whether marketed foods comply with the absence and/or established tolerance levels of specific parameters. Nevertheless, the program is able to incorporate or suppress parameters or foods that pose emerging dangers or interests not represented in current legislation. Besides, the program not only obtains a view of the parameters studied at a specific time period in each report, but also accumulates data over time, allowing risk assessment, calculation of dietary intake of contaminants, analysis of tendencies, and evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations to reduce contaminants. The program can also help in the planning of food control programs. The information obtained is disseminated nationally and internationally and is included in dossiers of contaminants issued by national and European health agencies. This demonstrates that a locally-developed surveillance system can have a wider scope and broader objectives and can provide useful information for managers, administrations, economic operators and consumers.

  7. Army Programs: Army Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-03

    the Energy Program. o Expands the responsibilities of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (para 1-4). o Includes ridesharing as...not been highlighted. Summary. This regulation establishes poli- cies, procedures, and responsibilities for the Army Energy Program. Applicability ...Energy Technology Service (FETS) • 3–13, page 6 Energy Surveys • 3–14, page 6 Army Energy Awareness Seminars • 3–15, page 6 Army ridesharing • 3–16

  8. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Commission on Cancer National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers National Cancer Database National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer Oncology Medical Home Accreditation Program Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation Program Cancer Programs Staff Information Children's ...

  9. Programming Algol

    CERN Document Server

    Malcolme-Lawes, D J

    2014-01-01

    Programming - ALGOL describes the basics of computer programming using Algol. Commands that could be added to Algol and could increase its scope are described, including multiplication and division and the use of brackets. The idea of labeling or naming a command is also explained, along with a command allowing two alternative results. Most of the important features of Algol syntax are discussed, and examples of compound statements (that is, sets of commands enclosed by a begin ... end command) are given.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the digital computer an

  10. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  11. ICD programming

    OpenAIRE

    Biffi, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Appropriate ICD programming is the key to prevent inappropriate shock delivery, that is closely associated to a negative patients' outcome. Methods: Review of the literature on ICD therapy to generate ICD programmings that can be applied to the broad population of ICD and CRT-D carriers. Results: Arrhythmia detection should occur with a detection time ranging 9″–12″ in the VF zone, and 15″–60″ in the VT zone. Discriminator should be applied at least up to 200 bpm. ATP therap...

  12. Improving Training and Performance of Navy Teams: A Design for a Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Vol. 4, No. 4, 1979, pp. 589-600. Sugarman , R. C., S. L. Johnson, and W. F. H. Ring, B-I Systems Approach to Training, Final Report, Volume I...20009 175 Dr. Arnold F. Kanarick Honeywell, Ic. 2600 2idqevay Pkvy sinneapolis, I 5513 177 Er. David Kieras Department of Psycholoqy University of...Rothkopf Bell Laboratories 600 Mountain Avenue Murray Hill. NJ 07974 193 Dr. David Ruselhart Center for Hunan Information Processinq Univ. of Californias

  13. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Conference Registry Login SCR Training and Testing Cancer Cancer Programs Cancer Programs Overview of Cancer Programs Cancer Programs News American Joint Committee on ...

  14. 76 FR 39918 - Honeywell International, Inc., Metropolis Works; License Amendment Request and Request for a Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... concise statement of the alleged facts or expert opinions which support the position of the petitioner and... 6.0 and RESRAD-Build 3.0 Computer Codes,'' where appropriate. Ultimately, the staff will review the..., policies, and procedures. The Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (the Licensing Board) will set the time and...

  15. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

    1982-01-01

    The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 5040 square feet of liquid cooled flat plate collectors; a 4000 gallon thermal storage tank; one 25 ton capacity organic Rankine cycle engine assisted water chillers; a forced draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes for providing space conditioning and hot water to the building. Data monitored during the 4 months of the operational test period found that the solar system collected 285 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 1040 MMBtu and provided 210 MMBtu for cooling and 10 MMBtu for heating and hot water. The net electrical energy saving due to the solar system was approximately 2600 kWh(e), and fossil energy saving was about 20 million Btu (MMBtu).

  16. Performance evaluation of Honeywell silicon piezoresistive pressure transducers for oceanographic and limnological measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VijayKumar, K.; Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Prabhudesai, S.; Nagvekar, S.; Damodaran, V.

    and limnological measurements, have been carried out at four differing temperatures (10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees, and 40 degrees C) to evaluate their suitability for such applications. The full-scale pressure range of these shallow water absolute pressure...

  17. Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services, Phoenix, Arizona, Petition to Object to Title V Operating Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. 76 FR 20231 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. LTS101 Series Turboshaft Engines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... turbine blades. We are issuing this AD to prevent fracture of the power turbine blade airfoil, which could... prevent fracture of the power turbine blade airfoil, which could result in sudden loss of engine power and... the products listed above. This AD requires removing certain power turbine rotors from service using a...

  19. 75 FR 78937 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International LTS101 Series Turboshaft Engines and LTP101...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    .... The actions specified by this proposed AD are intended to prevent fracture of the power turbine blade... corrected, could result in fracture of the power turbine blade airfoil, which could result in sudden loss of... fracture of a power turbine airfoil of an LTS101 series turboshaft engine installed on a twin-engine...

  20. 78 FR 1735 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Air Data Pressure Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... parameter errors. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct inaccuracies of the pressure sensors, which... ; Internet http://www.airbus.com . You may review copies of the referenced service information at the FAA... INFORMATION: ] Discussion We received a report of a pressure measurement error in the air data pressure sensor...

  1. 77 FR 64831 - Confirmatory Order; In the Matter of Honeywell International Inc.; Metropolis, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... install a Web browser plug-in from the NRC Web site. Further information on the Web-based submission form, including the installation of the Web browser plug-in, is available on the NRC's public Web site at http.... Participants are requested not to include personal privacy information, such as Social Security numbers, home...

  2. 75 FR 12663 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. TFE731 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ...-Aviation or Dassault Aviation. Falcon 10 (Falcon 100) and Mystere-Falcon 20, 50, 900 and MF900 series... specified unless the actions have already been done. Removing LPCR Discs From Service (f) For engines with...

  3. 75 FR 22519 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc., Primus EPIC and Primus APEX Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ..., Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ 190 Airplanes, and Pilatus Aircraft... limited to, Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ 190 airplanes, and...

  4. 77 FR 42419 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... augmentation system (WAAS) global navigation satellite sensor units (GNSSU). This AD requires you cease all... positioning system (GPS) sensor and the same software as the Model KGS200 Mercury\\2\\ GNSSU. A software problem...

  5. Program Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

  6. Sprego Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csernoch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Spreadsheet management is a border-land between office applications and programming, however, it is rather communicated that spreadsheet is nothing more than an easily handled fun piece. Consequently, the complexity of spreadsheet handling, the unprepared end-users, their problem solving abilities and approaches do not match. To overcome these problems we have developed and introduced Sprego (Spreadsheet Lego. Sprego is a simplified functional programming language in spreadsheet environment, and such as can be used both as introductory language and the language of end-user programmers. The essence of Sprego is that we use as few and simple functions as possible and based on these functions build multilevel formulas. With this approach, similar to high level programming, we are able solve advanced problems, developing algorithmic skills, computational thinking. The advantage of Sprego is the simplicity of the language, when the emphasis is not on the coding but on the problem. Beyond that spreadsheets would provide real life problems with authentic data and tables which students are more interested in than the artificial environment and semi-authentic problems of high level programming languages.

  7. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  8. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  9. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Inspiring Quality Initiative Resources Continuous Quality Improvement ACS Clinical Scholars in Residence AHRQ Safety Program for ISCR ... Advocacy Efforts Cancer Liaison Program Cancer Programs Conference Clinical Research Program Commission on Cancer National Accreditation Program ...

  10. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  11. Programming Razor

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, Jess

    2011-01-01

    Take Razor for a test drive and discover first hand how this scripting syntax simplifies the way you create dynamic, data-driven websites. With this concise guide, you'll work with Razor syntax by building example websites with Microsoft WebMatrix and ASP.NET MVC. You'll quickly learn how Razor lets you combine code and content in a fluid and expressive manner on Windows-based servers. Programming Razor also explores components of the Razor API, and shows you how Razor templates are turned into rendered HTML. By the end of this book, you'll be able to create Razor-based websites with custom

  12. Isotope production and distribution Programs Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 Financial Statement Audit (ER-FC-96-01)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-12

    The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium and deuterium, and related isotope services. Services provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund, as established by the Fiscal Year 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act (Public Law 101-101). The Fiscal Year 1995 Appropriations Act (Public Law 103-316) modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research may not achieve full-cost recovery. Isotope Program costs are financed by revenues from the sale of isotopes and associated services and through payments from the isotope support decision unit, which was established in the DOE fiscal year 1995 Energy, Supply, Research, and Development appropriation. The isotope decision unit finances the production and processing of unprofitable isotopes that are vital to the national interest.

  13. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accreditation Program Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation Program Cancer Programs Staff Information Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Verification ...

  15. Annotated Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Straccia, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    We present Annotated Answer Set Programming, that extends the ex pressive power of disjunctive logic programming with annotation terms, taken from the generalized annotated logic programming framework.

  16. 78 FR 26485 - Community Programs Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Agency is revising the paragraph to more clearly convey to the public the Agency's policy with respect to... equipment of an otherwise non-recreational eligible community facility such as childcare, educational, or...

  17. Functional Python programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This book is for developers who want to use Python to write programs that lean heavily on functional programming design patterns. You should be comfortable with Python programming, but no knowledge of functional programming paradigms is needed.

  18. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quality Improvement Program About Standards Apply Participant Use Data File (PUF) Resources & FAQs Find a MBSAQIP Center ... Programs BleedingControl.org Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement Program Mentoring for Excellence ...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview of Cancer Programs Cancer Programs News American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Advocacy Efforts Cancer Liaison ... Validation Programs Accredited Education Institutes CME Accreditation CME Joint Providership Program Verification of Knowledge and Skills Resources ...

  2. Behavioral program synthesis with genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Genetic programming (GP) is a popular heuristic methodology of program synthesis with origins in evolutionary computation. In this generate-and-test approach, candidate programs are iteratively produced and evaluated. The latter involves running programs on tests, where they exhibit complex behaviors reflected in changes of variables, registers, or memory. That behavior not only ultimately determines program output, but may also reveal its `hidden qualities' and important characteristics of the considered synthesis problem. However, the conventional GP is oblivious to most of that information and usually cares only about the number of tests passed by a program. This `evaluation bottleneck' leaves search algorithm underinformed about the actual and potential qualities of candidate programs. This book proposes behavioral program synthesis, a conceptual framework that opens GP to detailed information on program behavior in order to make program synthesis more efficient. Several existing and novel mechanisms subs...

  3. NASA's educational programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  4. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  5. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Šmit, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  6. Operations Program Executive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fague, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Ground Resource Operations Program executive (GROPE) is control program for binding system of programs into single, easily operated entity. It relieves user from complexity arising from decomposition of large application into number of interacting program units. System simplifies job control, data management, and recordkeeping for interacting programs.

  7. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  8. Structured Programming: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Peter

    Designed for use by computer programming teachers, this booklet presents the concepts of structured programming and provides examples of how to implement this methodology, which provides a systematic way of organizing programs so that even large and complex programs are easier to understand and modify than unstructured programs. After a brief…

  9. Energy Technology Programs: program summaries for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Energy Technology Programs in the BNL Department of Energy and Environment cover a broad range of activities, namely: electrochemical research, chemical energy storage, chemical heat pumps, solar technology, fossil technology, catalytic systems development, space-conditioning technology, and technical support/program management. Summaries of the individual tasks associated with these activities along with publications, significant accomplishments, and program funding levels are presented.

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement Program Mentoring for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals ...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2016 Annual Meeting Women's Committee Mentorship Program Outside Activities ACS Archives Contact Us Quality Programs Quality Programs ... Quality in Geriatric Surgery Project Project Goals and Activities Stakeholder Organizations Project Team Resources News Contact Us ...

  12. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accreditation Program for Breast Centers About NAPBC Accreditation Education NAPBC Standards Cancer Programs News Quality in Geriatric ... 4 and Recertification SSR Login MIPS Resources and Education Quality and Safety Conference Trauma Trauma Programs Trauma ...

  13. New Parent Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... preparation and guidance. View More Search All Installation Program Directory Find programs and services at your local installation. View a directory of installations Select a program or service Enter the name of an installation ...

  14. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at NTP Study Types Nominations to the Testing Program Study Results & Research Projects Areas of Research Data & ... on for decisions that matter. The National Toxicology Program provides the scientific basis for programs, activities, and ...

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meeting Women's Committee Mentorship Program Outside Activities ACS Archives Contact Us Quality Programs Quality Programs Overview About ... The Hartford Consensus News Coverage Stop the Bleed Archives and History Archives and History Archives and History ...

  16. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conference Publications and Posters National Trauma System Injury Prevention and Control Quality and Safety Conference Quality and ... Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery Room Choosing Wisely Educational Programs Educational Programs Educational ...

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement Program Mentoring for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, ... Patients Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find a Treatment Center Patient Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program ...

  19. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo ...

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy ...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Education ACS Education and Training Courses Publications Education Program Videos Contact Us Clinical Congress Clinical Congress 2017 ... Treatment Center Patient Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery Room Choosing Wisely Educational Programs Educational ...

  2. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of

  3. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program for Hospitals Trauma Systems Consultation Program Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Conference Publications and Posters National Trauma System Injury ...

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals Trauma Systems Consultation Program Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Conference Publications and Posters ...

  5. LANL Meteorology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-09

    The goal of the Meteorology Program is to provide all routine meteorology measurements for LANL operational requirements. This report discusses the program, its routine operations, and other services.

  6. About the Clusters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Innovation Clusters Program advises cluster organizations, encourages collaboration between clusters, tracks U.S. environmental technology clusters, and connects EPA programs to cluster needs.

  7. Leadership Under Challenge: Information Technology R&D in a Competitive World. An Assessment of the Federal Networking and Information Technology R&D Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Technology MEMBERS F. Duane Ackerman Erich Bloch Raul J. Fernandez Richard H. Herman E. Floyd Kvamme E. Kenneth Nwabueze Luis M. Proenza Hector de Jesus Ruiz ...Inc. Nance K. Dicciani President and CEO, Honeywell Specialty Materials Raul J. Fernandez CEO, ObjectVideo Marye Anne Fox Chancellor, University of...Director, Renaissance Computing Institute Hector de Jesus Ruiz Chairman and CEO, Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. George Scalise President, Semiconductor

  8. [PIC Program Evaluation Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. J.

    These 4 questionnaires are designed to elicit teacher and parent evaluations of the Prescriptive Instruction Center (PIC) program. Included are Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness (14 items), M & M Evaluation of Program Implementation (methods and materials specialists; 11 items), Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness--Case Study…

  9. Derivation of sorting programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Joseph; Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1990-01-01

    Program synthesis for critical applications has become a viable alternative to program verification. Nested resolution and its extension are used to synthesize a set of sorting programs from their first order logic specifications. A set of sorting programs, such as, naive sort, merge sort, and insertion sort, were successfully synthesized starting from the same set of specifications.

  10. Stochastic Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    To model combinatorial decision problems involving uncertainty and probability, we introduce stochastic constraint programming. Stochastic constraint programs contain both decision variables (which we can set) and stochastic variables (which follow a probability distribution). They combine together the best features of traditional constraint satisfaction, stochastic integer programming, and stochastic satisfiability. We give a semantics for stochastic constraint programs, and propose a number...

  11. Laser Programs Highlights 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, H.; Cassady, C.

    1999-12-01

    This report covers the following topics: Commentary; Laser Programs; Inertial Confinement Fusion/National Ignition Facility (ICF/NIF); Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS); Laser Science and Technology (LS&T); Information Science and Technology Program (IS&T); Strategic Materials Applications Program (SMAP); Medical Technology Program (MTP) and Awards.

  12. Program refinement in UNITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, T.E.J.; Swierstra, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Program refinement has received a lot of attention in the context of stepwise development of correct programs, since the introduction of transformational programming techniques by [Wir71, Hoa72, Ger75, BD77] in the seventies. This report presents a new framework of program refinement, that is

  13. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...... are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc....

  14. Availability of Foods and Beverages in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Authorized Dollar Stores in a Region of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Batada, Ameena; Solomon, Corliss A; Story, Mary

    2016-10-01

    There are >25,000 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorized dollar stores throughout the United States; many are located in lower-income neighborhoods and provide an accessible food and beverage source for area residents. The purpose of this research was to determine the percent of food deserts within 16 counties in North Carolina that include a SNAP dollar store; examine the types of foods and beverages at SNAP dollar stores in these counties; test whether the foods and beverages offered vary by SNAP dollar store chain; and test whether the foods and beverages available differ by rural and urban location. This cross-sectional study used a combination of publicly available data and primary data to investigate the research questions. Secondary data sources were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's SNAP retailer locator, the US Census, and the US Department of Agriculture's Food Access Research Atlas. Availability of foods and beverages was assessed among a sample of 90 SNAP dollar stores in 16 counties in southern and western sections of North Carolina. Data were collected in June 2014. About half (52%) of the food deserts in the research area included a SNAP dollar store. Most of the sampled stores sold healthier food staples, such as frozen meats, brown rice, 100% whole-wheat bread, and dried beans. None of the stores sold fresh fruits or vegetables. Some of the foods and beverages offered (eg, frozen fruit, frozen unseasoned vegetables, nonfat or low-fat milk, frozen ground beef) varied by SNAP dollar store chain. The foods and beverages offered did not differ by rural or urban county location. SNAP dollar stores offer a number of healthy food staples; however, they do not sell fresh fruits or vegetables. Further food environment research should include dollar stores. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. C++ Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  16. Generating Consistent Program Tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a tool that supports construction of program tutorials. A program tutorial provides the reader with an understanding of an example program by interleaving fragments of source code and explaining text. An example program can for example illustrate how to use a library...... or a framework. We present a means for specifying the fragments of a program that are to be in-lined in the tutorial text. These in-line fragments are defined by addressing named syntactical elements, such as classes and methods, but it is also possible to address individual code lines by labeling them...... with source markers. The tool helps ensuring consistency between program tutorial and example programs by extracting fragments of source code based on the fragment specifications and by detecting when a program tutorial is addressing program fragments that do not exist. The program tutorials are presented...

  17. Federal Wind Energy Program. Program summary. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the Federal Wind Energy Program is to accelerate the development of reliable and economically viable wind energy systems and enable the earliest possible commercialization of wind power. To achieve this objective for small and large wind systems requires advancing the technology, developing a sound industrial technology base, and addressing the non-technological issues which could deter the use of wind energy. This summary report outlines the projects being supported by the program through FY 1977 toward the achievement of these goals. It also outlines the program's general organization and specific program elements.

  18. Transverse emittance and phase space program developed for use at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Fermilab A0 Photoinjector is a 16 MeV high intensity, high brightness electron linac developed for advanced accelerator R&D. One of the key parameters for the electron beam is the transverse beam emittance. Here we report on a newly developed MATLAB based GUI program used for transverse emittance measurements using the multi-slit technique. This program combines the image acquisition and post-processing tools for determining the transverse phase space parameters with uncertainties. An integral part of accelerator research is a measurement of the beam phase space. Measurements of the transverse phase space can be accomplished by a variety of methods including multiple screens separated by drift spaces, or by sampling phase space via pepper pots or slits. In any case, the measurement of the phase space parameters, in particular the emittance, can be drastically simplified and sped up by automating the measurement in an intuitive fashion utilizing a graphical interface. At the A0 Photoinjector (A0PI), the control system is DOOCS, which originated at DESY. In addition, there is a library for interfacing to MATLAB, a graphically capable numerical analysis package sold by The Mathworks. It is this graphical package which was chosen as the basis for a graphical phase space measurement system due to its combination of analysis and display capabilities.

  19. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  20. Multiobjective programming and planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cohon, Jared L

    2004-01-01

    This text takes a broad view of multiobjective programming, emphasizing the methods most useful for continuous problems. It reviews multiobjective programming methods in the context of public decision-making problems, developing each problem within a context that addresses practical aspects of planning issues. Topics include a review of linear programming, the formulation of the general multiobjective programming problem, classification of multiobjective programming methods, techniques for generating noninferior solutions, multiple-decision-making methods, multiobjective analysis of water reso

  1. Evaluasi Program English Club

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Mirdan; Herpratiwi, Herpratiwi; Purnomo, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to 1) reveal students' perceptions about instructional English club program 2) reveal the students' perceptions about instructional English fun day program 3) reveal perception of students about instructional English wall magazine program. From the results of the study it was concluded that 1) students' perceptions of the instructional English club program was less advantages for students, 2) students' perceptions of instructional English fun day program have ...

  2. Inductive Temporal Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolter, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We study the extension of techniques from Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to temporal logic programming languages. Therefore we present two temporal logic programming languages and analyse the learnability of programs from these languages from finite sets of examples. In first order temporal logic the following topics are analysed: - How can we characterize the denotational semantics of programs? - Which proof techniques are best suited? - How complex is the learning task? In propositional ...

  3. Teaching Programming with Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    MIHALIČ, PETRA

    2014-01-01

    There are quite a few good programing languages and environments for teaching kids how to program. They help beginners learn basic programming constructs usually with help of interactive environment. In this thesis I will describe and compare a few of those languages and environments. Scratch is a language and programming environment that is also intended for learning programming using blocks that make writing complicated instructions easier and reduce beginners' difficulties with syntax erro...

  4. Defense Logistics Agency’s Warstopper Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-15

    protection barrier consisting of a prefabricated, multicellular system made of a welded steel-wire mesh, heavily galvanized, with a nonwoven geotextile...chamber. DLA decided to fund the construction of an additional Nesatron chamber with the option to sell it to the contractor at fair market value at...pharmaceuticals sold in the commercial healthcare industry. The data are used in the Medical Commercial Product Visibility system for market research and

  5. [Basic family health program in Magdalena Medio y Bajo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, R

    1992-12-01

    The Program of Information, Education, and Services for Basic Family Health Care in Magdalena Medio and Bajo was designed to increase knowledge and use of contraception and to improve basic health practices and nutrition in the region, which includes municipios belonging to 9 different departments and a total population of 1,720,000. Poverty levels in the area are high. During the 1st year of the project, which was underway from February 1988-May 1991, home visits were made to inform each family about basic family health, to weigh and measure children under 5 not receiving health care elsewhere, and to refer families to the nearest health services. Talks were presented to small groups on family planning, intestinal parasites, sexually transmitted diseases, nutrition, vaccination, cancer prevention, malaria, acute diarrhea, and acute respiratory infection. Community workshops were presented in the 2nd year. Community distribution posts were created for contraceptive and other health product distribution. Information and communication materials from PROFAMILIA were used, and other materials were specially designed for the project by the Foundation for Development of Health Education in Colombia. PROFAMILIA's system of service statistics was used for quantitative evaluation of the information and education activities and sales of contraceptives, antiparasitics, and oral rehydration packets of each instructor. In the 3 years of the program, 89.086 cycles of pills, 398,772 condoms, 29,080 vaginal tablets, 209.791 antiparasitics, and 49,305 oral rehydration packets were sold. 9295 talks were presented to 143,227 residents of the region. 22,000 children were enrolled in the growth monitoring program, and almost 40,000 women were referred for prenatal care and cytology. The instructors gave 900 talks to distributors of contraceptives, antiparasitics, and oral rehydration packets. Surveys of women aged 15-49 residing in the municipios covered by the project were conducted

  6. Programming Models in HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, Galen M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-13

    These are the slides for a presentation on programming models in HPC, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Computing Summer School. The following topics are covered: Flynn's Taxonomy of computer architectures; single instruction single data; single instruction multiple data; multiple instruction multiple data; address space organization; definition of Trinity (Intel Xeon-Phi is a MIMD architecture); single program multiple data; multiple program multiple data; ExMatEx workflow overview; definition of a programming model, programming languages, runtime systems; programming model and environments; MPI (Message Passing Interface); OpenMP; Kokkos (Performance Portable Thread-Parallel Programming Model); Kokkos abstractions, patterns, policies, and spaces; RAJA, a systematic approach to node-level portability and tuning; overview of the Legion Programming Model; mapping tasks and data to hardware resources; interoperability: supporting task-level models; Legion S3D execution and performance details; workflow, integration of external resources into the programming model.

  7. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  8. Avaliação da qualidade das amostras comercias de Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja vendidas no Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050 Quality Evaluation of Commercial Samples of Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja sold in Paraná State - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Vicente Pereira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a avaliação da qualidade de 12 amostras comerciais de ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. que são empregadas na medicina tradicional como estomáquicas e diuréticas e são vendidas em estabelecimentos comerciais farmacêuticos no Estado do Paraná, visando ao preparo de chás. Foram avaliados parâmetros de qualidade preconizados na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica: características dos rótulos e bulas, análise sensorial, autenticidade das amostras, material estranho e doseamento de marcadores químicos. Todos os produtos avaliados apresentaram algum tipo de irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessária maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 12 samples prepared with ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. used in traditional medicine as stomachic and diuretic medicines, and sold in commercial pharmacies in Paraná State. The analyses used parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. The methodology consisted in evaluating the product labels and instructions of the samples to verify their accordance to the specific legislation, sensorial analysis, authenticity of the samples, purity and dosage of chemical markers. All products showed some type of mistake or irregularity according to the official codes. These results showed that is necessary to intensify the inspection of medicinal plants in Brazil.

  9. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  10. The CHROME Honors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The CHROME Honors Program was designed as a two-week residential program for 9th and 1Oth grade students participating in CHROME clubs. The curriculum focused on the health sciences with instruction from: (1) the science and health curriculum of the Dozoretz National Program for Minorities in Applied Sciences (DNIMAS) Program of Norfolk State University (NSU); (2) the humanities curriculum of the NSU Honors Program; (3) NASA-related curriculum in human physiology. An Advisory Committee was formed to work with the Project Coordinator in the design of the summer program.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that 29(11.6%) out of the 250 vegetable samples examined had intestinal parasites. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in these plant tissues was found to be 22.0% in Cabbage, 14.0% in Carrot, 12.0% in lettuce and 10.0% in Green leafy vegetables. No parasites were detected in the 50 cucumber samples.

  12. CERN’s light guide sold for a good cause

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 26 March, a light guide donated by CERN received the lion’s share at a prestigious Sotheby’s auction in favour of the WISH foundation (Women in Science and Humanities). The WISH foundation, created by EPFL (Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne) professors, with the support of the Lombard-Odier bank, is aimed at promoting women’s careers in science, engineering and architecture. Among their numerous dedicated projects, scholarships and special events, the yearly gala dinner ending in a special auction organised by Sotheby’s is definitely the most glamorous. This year, CERN was asked by EPFL to contribute to the cause of women in science by donating a symbolic or historical object. The choice of a light guide was a winning one. Polished and "lit" by CERN’s central workshops, CERN’s light guide (probably coming from the UA1 or UA2 experiments) got the lion’s share at the auction, defying the competition of eight d...

  13. Bacteriology of sachet water sold in Lagos, Nigeria | Egwari | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the health risks associated with methods of hawking of sachet water in the streets of Lagos. Design: Eight brands of sachet water were collected from four different receptacles; unopen packs from factory, pail and wheelbarrow containing ice-blocks as coolants, and domestic refrigerators. Bacterial ...

  14. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized beverages. The study included labels of carbonated soft drinks n = 33 – sugar drinks (n = 21 or diet drinks (n = 12 – of five different flavors.All carbonated soft drinks evaluated have sodium in its composition. However, the sodium presence in carbonated sugar drinks was significantly lower when compared with carbonated diet drinks (69.05 ± 16.55 vs. 145.30 ± 47.36mg Na/l, respectively.Studies to identify children's eating habits related with increased consumption of foods and drinks manufactured are needed to identify, reduce and prevent high blood pressure.

  15. quality and safety characteristics of cassava crisps sold in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Le chips de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) deviant de plus en plus populaire dans les zones urbaines du. Kenya. Les chips son generalemant consommes sous forme de gouter en dehors de la maison et au mileu de deux repas. Neanmoins, tres peu ... Lab L*, a* and b* scale, with L* indicating lightness, a* indicating ...

  16. Microbial Load of Some Medicinal Plants Sold in Some Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the microbial load on 17 randomly selected plant samples from 60 ethnobotanically collected medicinal plants from five local markets in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Method: The pour plate method was used to cultivate serially diluted portions of the medicinal plant samples investigated.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRINCE.DR SOLOMON ADEJAYAN CHAIRMAN NURTW ONDO STATE

    Carrot, 12.0% in lettuce and 10.0% in Green leafy vegetables. No parasites were detected in the 50 cucumber samples. Intestinal parasites detected included ova of Ascaris lumbricoides (51.7%), Hookworm larvae (27.6%) and larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis (20.7%). This study shows a high prevalence of intestinal ...

  18. Fungal Contaminants of Powdered Herbal Drugs Sold in Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fungal contamination of powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from some herbal retail outlets in some parts of Nsukka and Enugu metropolis in Enugu State. The assessments of the contamination of the herbal products were carried out using standard procedures: ...

  19. Hospital marketers sold on value of custom publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    1998-01-01

    More and more hospital marketing and public relations executives are recognizing that publications, such as newsletters and magazines, are a very important part of their arsenal of marketing tools. They're also finding that custom publishers are valuable allies when it comes to target market opportunities.

  20. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Amaranthus Sp. L Sold

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abba & Ibrahim

    Acute. Cadmium intoxication is a potentially fatal, but very rare event. (Bronstein, 2012). Chronic exposure to Cadmium presents a larger threat to human health ... Waste water of urban effluent is the major source of irrigation water. K/Sauri: its located on latitude 13°00'26.92”N and 7°36'55.87”E,. Waste water of urban ...

  1. Quality of Artesunate Tablets Sold in Pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Artesunate tablets were purchased from pharmacies in Kumasi for the study. The mechanical ... Colorimetric methods were used to determine the presence of artesunate and to assay the tablets. Result: ... Keywords: Artesunate tablets, Artemisinins, Fast-red TR salt, Counterfeit drugs, Substandard drugs. Tropical ...

  2. Quality of packaged waters sold in ibadan, nigeria | Ajayi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    categories, those that are packed and sealed in bottles by larger factories (bottled water), those sealed in nylon sachets by small scale industries (A Type), and those put in nylon sachets and manually tied by itinerary vendors (B Type). These samples were subjected to physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis. Hanna ...

  3. Sources of Microbial Contamination of Local Herbal Medicines Sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four hundred traditional herbalists operating in an open air market in Ilala, Dar es. Salaam, Tanzania were interviewed using a questionnaire to establish the stage at which contamination takes place during the processesing of herbal medicine preparations. Among the interviewees, 82.0 % were true traditional medicine.

  4. Bacteriological Investigation of Poultry Feeds Sold Within Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal feeds can potentially become contaminated with food borne bacteria either during harvesting, processing at the feed mill or during storage. ... obtained from their trade outlets in Jos, Bukuru and K-Vom, Nigeria were examined for their microbiological qualities using standard microbiological and analytical methods.

  5. The mineral composition of five insects as sold for human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two caterpillars were notably high in Fe and Zn, which are important nutrients for combating iron deficiency anemia. Na content varied both between and within species, suggesting that some sellers add quantities of salt that could be harmful to health. Mn levels were high in edible termites. We concluded that caterpillars ...

  6. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Amaranthus Sp. L Sold

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abba & Ibrahim

    inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers or in the treatment of soils with sewage sludge cupper content of normal plant tissue (Walsh,. 1971). Lead is toxic to plants at ... grinding in a ceramic coated grinder (WHO, 2000). The dried samples were stored in a clean polythene bag prior to digestion. Digestion of Plant Sample.

  7. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in fish sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contamination of foods by pesticides can give rise to carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Pesticides are also accountable for toxic effects on the nervous, immune, reproductive, renal, hepatic and hematopoietic systems. For the present ... The fishing port of Vridi was the most contaminated site. The species ...

  8. Determination of dichlorvos residue levels in vegetables sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... limit as set by Zambian Food and Drugs Act on vegetables. Conclusion: Locally grown vegetables from around Lusaka have higher than maximum acceptable limits. This may have implications on human health as the cumulative effect of organophosphates in human body has potential to cause long term health problems.

  9. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes; Sonia Maria Freire; Maria Margarida Castel-Branco; Isabel Vitória Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized...

  10. Bacteriology of sachet water sold in Lagos, Nigeria | Egwari | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to microbial load of the sachet water (p>0.05). Conclusion: Organisms contained in the wastewater were inevitably the source of contaminants on the sachet surface. The water vendors and their patrons contributed to the overall contamination of hawked sachet water. East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(5) 2005: 235-240 ...

  11. Ozone Generators That Are Sold as Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spores than either high efficiency particle filters or electrostatic precipitators. (Shaughnessy et al., 1994; Pierce, et al., 1996). ... that the effectiveness of particle air cleaners, including electrostatic precipitators, ion generators, or pleated filters varies widely (U.S. ...

  12. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among the middle and high income earners as it is generally perceived to be pure, clean and of good quality. This has led to the sale of different brands of bottled water on the Ghanaian market. Although disease outbreaks due to ...

  13. Microbial Load of Some Medicinal Plants Sold in Some Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Preparation and sterilization of media and samples. The media used were nutrient agar (NA) and. Sabouraud agar (SA) for enumeration of bacteria and fungi, respectively. They were prepared according to the manufacturer's guide and sterilized in an autoclave at 121oC for 15 min. The dried plant samples were ground into ...

  14. Assessment of Pesticide Residue Levels in Vegetables sold in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. kelechi

    harm, and endocrine disruption (TAC, 2015). Children in particular may be susceptible to adverse neurological, developmental and other effects from pesticides exposures (CPDIC,. 1993; Weiss et. al., 2004). They may induce adverse health effect including cancer, effects on reproduction, immune or nervous systems.

  15. Ethics and quality assessment of cowpea grains sold in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... Good grains in each bag had the financial value of seven thousand, four hundred and twenty Naira, while the bad grains had the financial estimate of three thousand and seventy ... price of ten thousand five hundred Naira per bag of Iron white cowpea grain.

  16. chemical characteristic of selected imported and local honey sold

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. In this study, analysis of nine samples of imported honey from Argentina, Italy and Turkey and local honey sourced from Kaduna, Adamawa, Zaria, Jigawa, Bauchi and Hadejia were incorporated in the study. The concentration of reducing sugars, sucrose, free fatty acid, pH, moisture and ash content were ...

  17. Chemical characteristic of selected imported and local honey sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of nine samples of imported honey from Argentina, Italy and Turkey and local honey sourced from Kaduna, Adamawa, Zaria, Jigawa, Bauchi and Hadejia were incorporated in the study. The concentration of reducing sugars, sucrose, free fatty acid, pH, moisture and ash content were determined using ...

  18. The effects of acute administration of Chinese aphrodisiacs sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chinese aphrodisiacs have become popular remedy for sexual dysfunction and improvement of libido in men in Malawi. However, selling of these drugs seems not to be well regulated. Probably the aphrodisiacs that are currently on the market have unknown efficacy, potency and safety profiles. The aim of this ...

  19. Microbial quality of soft drinks sold in Abuja, Nigeria | Okpalugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates were identified using growth on nutrient agar and broth, Gram's reaction, colony morphology, biochemical tests results and criteria for disregarding negative cultures. Resistance of isolates from soft drinks was determined using the antibiotic sensitivity test (zones of inhibition). Twenty six bacterial isolates belonging ...

  20. Last time buy decisions for products sold under warranty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Iskandar, B.P.

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturers supplying products under warranty need a strategy to deal with failures during the warranty period: repair the product or replace it by a new one, depending on e.g. age and/or usage of the failed product. An (implicit) assumption in virtually all models is that new products to replace

  1. Incidence of Faecal coliforms Isolated From Different Foods Sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-six (66) food products and ten water samples were collected from food vendors and restaurants and examined for bacteriological quality using both the most probable number (MPN) technique and the plate count of Escherichia coli on Eosin Ethylene Blue (EMB) and lactose fermenters on MacConkey agar. All results ...

  2. Parasites contamination of salad vegetables sold in Abakaliki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cucumber (Cucumis sativus), carrot (Daucus carota), cabbage (Brassica olerecea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), were investigated for parasites using sedimentation and floatation methods. Out of 430 samples of the vegetables screened, 258(60%) were found to be contaminated with helminth ova/larvae and protozoan cysts.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRINCE.DR SOLOMON ADEJAYAN CHAIRMAN NURTW ONDO STATE

    leafy vegetables were bought randomly from five different markets and examined for parasites in the laboratory using sedimentation ... The prevalence of intestinal parasites in these plant tissues was found to be 22.0% in Cabbage, 14.0% in. Carrot, 12.0% ... transmission of protozoan cysts and oocysts (Giardia,. Entamoeba ...

  4. Microbiological quality of milk sold directly from producers to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyz-Łukasik, R; Paszkiewicz, W; Tatara, M R; Brodzki, P; Bełkot, Z

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of raw cow milk from direct sale points. Raw cow milk samples were collected from 5 randomly selected direct sale points for microbiological evaluation. The samples were analyzed to determine total aerobic bacterial count, somatic cell count (SCC), counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus, and presence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and inhibitory substances. The mean counts of total aerobic bacterial in samples from all direct sale points were between 9.2×10(4) and 3.6×10(7) cfu/mL. Milk samples collected from 5 direct sale points revealed counts Enterobacteriaceae ranging from 6.4×10(1) to 1.7×10(6) cfu/mL. Escherichia coli were detected in 12 milk samples with counts ranging from 5.0×10(0) to 1.1×10(2) cfu/mL. Staphylococcus spp. bacteria were found in all milk samples, at counts ranging from 1.6×10(3) to 5.1×10(4) cfu/mL. Listeria monocytogenes bacteria were detected in 1 sample, and SCC in all samples ranged from 78,000 to 1,730,000/mL. The examined samples did not contain Salmonella rods or inhibitory substances. In the samples examined in this study, international hygiene standards were exceeded for total aerobic bacterial count (n=48) as well as for SCC (n=19). Two milk samples contained pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) that pose a potential hazard for consumer health. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of acute administration of Chinese aphrodisiacs sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arginine, and other hormone replacement therapy are used world wide to .... Table 1: The effect of tonique tea treatment on guinea pig sexual behaviour. Spermatogenesis studies. Guinea pig sperm motility and concentration were significantly ...

  6. The Bacteriological Quality assessment of some bottled water sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety-nine (99) isolates were obtained and the completed test revealed the presence of Escherichia coli (3%) and Enterobacter species (97%). All the bottled water brands did not meet up with the standard stipulated by the Nigerian Industrial Standard for drinking water quality and the World Health Organization standard.

  7. Bacteriological Quality of Dried Sliced Beef (Kilishi) Sold In Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    bacteriological quality, and this can make it a potential source of food infection. ... consequences of contamination with food poisoning .... (1996). Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 33: 103–120. Brown, M.H., Baird-Parker, A.C., (1982). The microbiological examination of meat.

  8. Sources of Microbial Contamination of Local Herbal Medicines Sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four hundred traditional herbalists operating in an open air market in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were interviewed using a questionnaire to establish the stage at which contamination takes place during the processesing of herbal medicine preparations. Among the interviewees, 82.0 % were true traditional medicine ...

  9. Documentation on Medicinal Plants Sold in Markets in Abeokuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Evaluation of Microbiological Safety of Herbal Concoctions Sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... yeast (75%), Aspergillus spps. (41.67%). Penicillium spps. (16.67%), Mucor spps. (33.33%), Rhizopus spps. (41.67%). The findings showed a high microbial contamination among the varieties of concoctions sampled. Adoption of hygiene and good manufacturing practices are therefore recommended as they can improve ...

  11. Quality and safety characteristics of cassava crisps sold in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... safety in terms of cyanide levels of cassava crisps commercially traded in Mombasa and Nairobi areas in Kenya. Samples of six commercially traded crisp brands were collected in duplicates, from venders and supermarkets; and evaluated for moisture, oil, cyanide and sodium chloride contents. Product colour and texture ...

  12. microbiological quality of re-packaged sweets sold in metropolitan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    samples from brand C had aerobic bacterial and fungal counts of 1.30 x 104 cfu/g and 6.80 x 102 .... contaminants (Tables 2 and 3). Table 1: Mean bacterial and fungal counts and percent moisture contents of the re-packaged sweet samples. Brand code. (n = 24). Bacterial ..... Public awareness on food-borne illnesses: A.

  13. Microbiological quality of re-packaged sweets sold in metropolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural, morphological and biochemical characterization of the isolates showed the presence of two bacterial genera (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and five fungal genera (Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus and Fusarium) as the predominant contaminants. The average bacterial and fungal counts for the control ...

  14. chemical characteristic of selected imported and local honey sold

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    cancer-preventing and anti-tumor properties. Honey is the ideal liver fuel because it contains a ... liver is central to optimal glucose metabolism during sleep and exercise. Keywords: Chemical, Honey, Reducing sugar, Sucrose ... artificial feeding of the bees with the sugar during the winter or during periods of drought (White, ...

  15. Fungal Profile and Aflatoxin Contamination in Poultry Feeds Sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin contamination of animal feeds is common and widely spread, especially in the tropics, due to the ubiquity of the producing fungi. The detection of aflatoxin in five samples of animal feed was carried out; using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples were taken from five different areas in Abeokuta.

  16. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study include...

  17. Hidden Risks of Erectile Dysfunction "Treatments" Sold Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several such "dietary supplements" (see sidebar for list). Viagra Ingredient Found Working with other FDA components, the ... similar substances. Six of the 17 products contained sildenafil (the active ingredient in Viagra) or a substance ...

  18. Assessment of Pesticide Residue Levels in Vegetables sold in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated pesticide residue levels in the two vegetables commonly eaten in Lagos state Nigeria. The vegetables (Telfairia occidentalis and Celosia argentea) were purchased from six markets (Oyingbo, Mile 12, Mushin, Ajah, Agege and Festac) in Lagos. The pesticide residue levels were determined using gas ...

  19. Bacteriological quality of sachet water produced and sold in Teshie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to good quality drinking water is a challenge in most towns and cities in Ghana and households have for years depended on other sources of water to supplement their activities. The introduction of sachet water to consumers was to provide safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public. Although ...

  20. "Finnish embryo transfer breeding program ""ASMO"": description of the goals and a summary of the results of initial selection"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. MÄNTYSAARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1990 the organizations responsible for Finnish dairy breeding established an open nucleus multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET breeding program called ASMO. The aim was, besides to test effectiveness of MOET, to improve the protein to fat ratio in milk produced by Finnish Ayrshires but without sacrificing the progress in protein yield. The relative weights of traits were such that equal importance was assigned to protein % and protein yield. Negative weight was assigned to fat % to ensure it remained unaltered. The MOET work continued until 1994 after which the performance of selected animals has been monitored. During the five years the scheme operated, 276 cows were flushed for embryos, and 2751 embryos were recovered, of which 1810 were transferable. More than 1600 embryos were transferred to recipients, and 813 calves were born. Eighty bull calves were sold for the artificial insemination test scheme. In December 1995 the first 125 ET daughters were evaluated with the national animal model program. Their mean estimated breeding values (EBVs were +0.13 for protein % and -0.18 for fat % compared with the genetic base of progeny tested sires born in 1986-1988, and the protein yield EBVs were 12 kg above the genetic base. Despite the efficiency of selection, the program was discontinued in 1994. Due to the difficulty of maintaining sufficient control over donor animals, there were fewer than expected embryos per flush and also too few flushes per donor.;

  1. Parallel programming with PCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.

    1991-09-01

    PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, a set of tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. It includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underlie PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous FTP from Argonne National Laboratory at info.mcs.anl.gov.

  2. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation Program Cancer Programs Staff Information Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Verification ACS NSQIP Pediatric Fees and Invoices Quality and ...

  3. Health Programs for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Administration » Health Programs for Veterans Veterans Health Administration Health Programs for Veterans Beyond the doctors and ... families of patients receiving medical care at major military and VA medical centers Geriatrics & Extended Care Geriatric ...

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... entire surgical team with quality, comprehensive education. The standardized interactive program has been developed by the American ... Ostomy Home Skills Hospital Quality Improvement Package The standardized interactive program has been developed by the American ...

  5. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  6. Social marketing program sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This table presents data on social marketing program sales for projects that provide more than 5000 couple-years of protection. Cited are social marketing programs in Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, and Sri Lanka. Included in the table are data on program funding, product sales (generally condoms, pills, and foaming tablets), and couple-years of protection provided. Among the social marketing programs reporting particularly high couple-years of protection levels are the Bangladesh Family Planning Social Marketing Program (1,165,100), the Egyptian Family Planning Association's Family for the Future Program (732,200), India's Nirodh Marketing Program (2,225,000), and Pakistan's Social Marketing Contraceptive Program (280,000).

  7. Daily bowel care program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000133.htm Daily bowel care program To use the sharing features on this page, ... Work with your health care provider. Basic Bowel Program Keeping active helps prevent constipation. Try to walk, ...

  8. NCLOS program 2010 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The North Carolina Level of Service (NCLOS) program is a planning-level highway capacity analysis tool : developed for NCDOT under a previous project. The program uses the operational methodologies in the 2010 : Highway Capacity Manual (HCM), along w...

  9. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACS Insurance Programs ACS Discount Programs FACS Resources Career Connection Update Your Profile Member Communities Leadership Opportunities ... Group Icons in Surgery Archives Catalog Contact Us Careers at ACS Careers at ACS Careers at ACS ...

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Safety Conference Upcoming Educational Opportunities MBSAQIP News Contact Us Breast Disease National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers About NAPBC ...

  11. Advanced General Dentistry Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Douglas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A description of the University of Maryland at Baltimore's one-year postdoctoral program in advanced general dentistry focuses on its goals and objectives, curriculum design, patient population, faculty and staff, finances, and program evaluation measures. (MSE)

  12. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... System Strategic Partnership Military Health System Strategic Partnership Military Health System Strategic Partnership About Excelsior Surgical Society ... Quality Programs Overview About Quality Programs ACS Leadership in Quality ACS Leadership in Quality Setting the ...

  13. Intergenerational Programs in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Jensen, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence, types, and perceived impact of intergenerational programs in schools. Programs involving senior volunteers assisting children, or children participating in activities with older people were considered. Of the schools reached, 47% reported intergenerational programming. Thirty-three schools in the Tel-Aviv region participated in the study. Data were collected from 85 seniors, 26 teachers, and 20 coordinators. Assessments included program characteristics, program preparation, and perceived benefits and difficulties. Both programs were reported to have beneficial effects for seniors and to benefit children in the academic, social, and emotional domains. However, programs appeared to attract different types of volunteers and different degrees of volunteer commitment. Findings suggest that there is a need to pay additional attention to both participants' specific requests and needs and to the allocation of resources to improve the design and implementation of intergenerational programs.

  14. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  15. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  16. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accreditation Program for Breast Centers About NAPBC Accreditation Education NAPBC Standards News Quality in Geriatric Surgery Coalition ... 4 and Recertification SSR Login MIPS Resources and Education Quality and Safety Conference Trauma Trauma Programs Trauma ...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Invoices Quality and Safety Conference Bariatric Surgery Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program ...

  18. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  19. Automated preventive maintenance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, E. J.; Grieger, T. H.

    1971-01-01

    Maintenance program which is concise and inexpensive to operate adapts to almost any system that has a FORTRAN compiler. Program operates on a stored data base with an output consisting of scheduling information and various management reports.

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Cancer Education Cancer Programs Conference: Creating a Culture of Quality CoC Events Quality Education Quality Education ... OR EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection New Medicare Card Project Medicare Enrollment and Participation ...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Trauma Programs BleedingControl.org Trauma Quality Programs Violence Prevention National Trauma Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement ... Benefits Current Openings Newsroom Newsroom Newsroom Press Releases Media Resources The FIRST Trial ACS Publications ACS in ...

  2. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Associate Fellows Residents Medical Students Affiliate Members ACS Insurance Programs ACS Discount Programs FACS Resources Career Connection ... and Awards Overview Scholarships, Fellowships, and Awards Overview Health Policy Scholarships Scholarships for International Surgeons Research Scholarships ...

  3. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Canada) International Fellows Associate Fellows Residents Medical Students Affiliate Members ACS Insurance Programs ACS Discount Programs FACS Resources Career Connection Update Your Profile Member Communities Leadership Opportunities ...

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find a Treatment Center Patient Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery ... Trauma CME Nora Institute Nora Institute for Surgical Patient Safety Nora Institute for Surgical Patient Safety Advanced Skills ...

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Be a YFA Leader Meetings and Events YFA Mentor Programs Top 10 Reasons to Participate Resources Webinars ... National Trauma Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement Program Mentoring for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life ...

  6. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My OR EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection New Medicare Card Project Medicare Enrollment and Participation ... self-care checklist Evaluation (Complete the Ostomy Patient Survey . We need your opinion!) Program outcomes The ACS ...

  7. ICASE Computer Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering computer science program is discussed in outline form. Information is given on such topics as problem decomposition, algorithm development, programming languages, and parallel architectures.

  8. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  9. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  10. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Fellows International Fellows Associate Fellows Residents Medical Students Affiliate Members Fees and Dues Realize the Potential ... and Canada) International Fellows Associate Fellows Residents Medical Students Affiliate Members ACS Insurance Programs ACS Discount Programs ...

  12. Coalbed Methane Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalbed Methane Outreach Program, voluntary program seeking to reduce methane emissions from coal mining activities. CMOP promotes profitable recovery/use of coal mine methane (CMM), addressing barriers to using CMM instead of emitting it to atmosphere.

  13. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  14. Astrophysics Program Overview; Briefing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    This is an overview briefing of the NAS Astrophysics programs. These program should lead the opening scientific frontiers and disseminate new knowledge, as the Hubble Space Telescope and Compton Gamma Ray Observatory are currently doing...

  15. Python to learn programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanchikov, A.; Zhaparov, M.; Suliyev, R.

    2013-04-01

    Today we have a lot of programming languages that can realize our needs, but the most important question is how to teach programming to beginner students. In this paper we suggest using Python for this purpose, because it is a programming language that has neatly organized syntax and powerful tools to solve any task. Moreover it is very close to simple math thinking. Python is chosen as a primary programming language for freshmen in most of leading universities. Writing code in python is easy. In this paper we give some examples of program codes written in Java, C++ and Python language, and we make a comparison between them. Firstly, this paper proposes advantages of Python language in relation to C++ and JAVA. Then it shows the results of a comparison of short program codes written in three different languages, followed by a discussion on how students understand programming. Finally experimental results of students' success in programming courses are shown.

  16. Materials Sciences Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation and index of the ERDA materials sciences program is presented. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs. (GHT)

  17. Parallel programming with PCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.

    1991-12-01

    PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. In includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underly PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous FTP from Argonne National Laboratory in the directory pub/pcn at info.mcs.anl.gov (c.f. Appendix A).

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals Trauma Systems Consultation Program Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths ...

  19. Korea space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jai-Hak

    Though Korea's space activities are just in the infant stage, we are looking forward to joining the advanced countries in the space field. We have three on-going space programs: the KOREASAT Program, a sounding rocket program, and the KITSAT Program. And, we have three more programs that we are in the process of formulating: a small remote sensing satellite program, a data receiving station construction program, and the second generation KOREASAT program. We have several organizations which are involved with space-related activities: KARI, ETRI, SERI, and KAIST. KARI was founded in 1989 in accordance with the Aerospace Industry Development & Promotion Act for the purpose of conducting research on aicraft, satellites and scientific rockets, and supporting national aerospace development projects.

  20. NASA's Technology Utilization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    NASA's Technology Utilization Program is described, illustrating how it can be useful in achieving improved productivity, providing more jobs, solving public sector challenges, and strengthening the international competitive situation. Underlying the program is the fact that research and development conducted in NASA's aeronautics and space programs have generated much technical information concerning processes, products, or techniques which may be useful to engineers, doctors, or to others. The program is based on acquisition and publication, working with the user, and applications engineering.

  1. Reactive Programming in Java

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Reactive Programming in gaining a lot of excitement. Many libraries, tools, and frameworks are beginning to make use of reactive libraries. Besides, applications dealing with big data or high frequency data can benefit from this programming paradigm. Come to this presentation to learn about what reactive programming is, what kind of problems it solves, how it solves them. We will take an example oriented approach to learning the programming model and the abstraction.

  2. Photovoltaic systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    Each of the Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Systems Program projects funded and/or in existence during fiscal year 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) are described. The project sheets list the contractor, principal investigator, and contract number and funding and summarize the programs and status. The program is divided into various elements: program assessment and integration, research and advanced development, technology development, system definition and development, system application experiments, and standards and performance criteria. (WHK)

  3. Joint Program Management Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    by that Service. The Program/Product Manger, the Program / Project Management Office , and, in turn, the functional elements of each Participating...manning document for the Program/ Project Management Office which will incorporate the positions to be occupied by representatives of the Participating...Participating Service Senior Representative(s) within the Program/ Project Management Office will: (1) Speak for his parent Service in all matters

  4. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Portfolio Management 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for program portfolio management, including the program portfolio management process, program analysis, performance assessment, stakeholder interactions, and cross-cutting issues.

  5. Cost of providing injectable contraceptives through a community-based social marketing program in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Downing, Janelle; Bell, Suzanne; Weidert, Karen; Godefay, Hagos; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2016-06-01

    To provide a cost analysis of an injectable contraceptive program combining community-based distribution and social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia. We conducted a cost analysis, modeling the costs and programmatic outcomes of the program's initial implementation in 3 districts of Tigray, Ethiopia. Costs were estimated from a review of program expense records, invoices, and interviews with health workers. Programmatic outcomes include number of injections and couple-year of protection (CYP) provided. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the average number of injections provided per month by community health workers (CHWs), the cost of the commodity, and the number of CHWs trained. The average programmatic CYP was US $17.91 for all districts with a substantial range from US $15.48-38.09 per CYP across districts. Direct service cost was estimated at US $2.96 per CYP. The cost per CYP was slightly sensitive to the commodity cost of the injectable contraceptives and the number of CHWs. The capacity of each CHW, measured by the number of injections sold, was a key input that drove the cost per CYP of this model. With a direct service cost of US $2.96 per CYP, this study demonstrates the potential cost of community-based social marketing programs of injectable contraceptives. The findings suggest that the cost of social marketing of contraceptives in rural communities is comparable to other delivery mechanisms with regards to CYP, but further research is needed to determine the full impact and cost-effectiveness for women and communities beyond what is measured in CYP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recommendation: Comprehensive Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Judith

    1989-01-01

    This article summarizes recommendations of the Richardson Study regarding a comprehensive approach to programing for gifted students. Basic components of comprehensive programing are outlined, and seven steps deemed essential to program development and implementation are described, as implemented by the Pyramid Project in four school districts in…

  7. Modern programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  8. Pressure simulation program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoll, B.; Phaff, J.C.; Gids, W.F. de

    1995-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to predict the wind pressure coefficients Cp on facades and roofs of block shaped buildings. The program is based on fits of measured data, including wind shielding by obstacles and terrain roughness. Main advantages of the program are: it needs no expertise of

  9. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo ...

  10. Programming the BBC micro

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, John D; Macari, Louie; Williams, Peter H

    1983-01-01

    Programming the BBC Micro is a 12-chapter book that begins with a description of the BBC microcomputer, its peripheral, and faults. Subsequent chapters focus on practice in programming, program development, graphics, words, numbers, sound, bits, bytes, and assembly language. The interfacing, file handling, and detailed description of BBC microcomputer are also shown.

  11. Linear Projective Program Syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.

    2004-01-01

    Based on an extremely simple program notation more advanced program features can be developed in linear projective program syntax such as conditional statements, while loops, recursion, use of an evaluation stack, object classes, method calls etc. Taking care of a cumulative and bottom up

  12. Surgical Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This surgical technology program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a surgical technology program. The program guide is designed to relate primarily to the development of those skills needed by individuals in the field to provide services in the…

  13. Volunteer Mother Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Arthur, Ed.

    Five members of a school library administration class developed guidelines for a Volunteer Mother Program in public school libraries. Guidelines were stated for the following aspects of volunteer programs: (1) reasons for using volunteers; (2) introduction to the program; (3) recruitment; (4) qualifications; (5) amount of help needed; (6)…

  14. Engineering honours program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir Antoine waal; Ir. Peter van Kollenburg

    2011-01-01

    In September 2009 the department of Engineering of Fontys University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands has started a pilot honours program for excellent engineering students called PRogram OUstanding Development (PROUD). Aim of this program is to give those engineering students, who have the

  15. Special Milk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  16. Programming Languages RESONAN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we will briefly review various programming lan- ... notation should also match the type of algorithm. For example, programming languages to solve science and engineering problems should support arithmetic using wide ranging, high .... programs using a library of reusable 'components' was imperative.

  17. Customer Service Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Use of computer program STRCMACS has enabled Illinois Bell Telephone, a subsidiary of American Telephone and Telegraph to cut software development costs about 10 percent by reducing program maintenance and by allowing the department to bring other software into operation more quickly. It has also been useful in company training of programming staff.

  18. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  19. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  20. Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A federal Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) license is required onboard any vessel deployed in scallop fisheries in Federal waters off Alaska (except for...

  1. Fuels from biomass program. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the period Oct. 1, 1976--Sept. 30, 1977 is presented. Accomplishments are highlighted and plans for continued activities are included. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: the Fuels from Biomass Program; organizational and functional responsibilities; program funding; fiscal year 1977 summary tables; current projects: production and collection of biomass and conversion of biomass; bibliography; index of contractors; and, appendix--unsolicited proposal requirements. (JGB)

  2. Beginning programming for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Do you think the programmers who work at your office are magical wizards who hold special powers that manipulate your computer? Believe it or not, anyone can learn how to write programs, and it doesn't take a higher math and science education to start. Beginning Programming for Dummies shows you how computer programming works without all the technical details or hard programming language. It explores the common parts of every computer programming language and how to write for multiple platforms like Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux. This easily accessible guide provides you with the tools

  3. C++ how to program

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    This best-selling comprehensive text is aimed at readers with little or no programming experience. It teaches programming by presenting the concepts in the context of full working programs and takes an early-objects approach. The authors emphasize achieving program clarity through structured and object-oriented programming, software reuse and component-oriented software construction. The Ninth Edition encourages students to connect computers to the community, using the Internet to solve problems and make a difference in our world. All content has been carefully fine-tuned in response to a team of distinguished academic and industry reviewers.

  4. Programming in COBOL

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, G T

    2014-01-01

    Programming in COBOL is a simple yet concise how-to book that teaches the programming language in a short yet effective step-by-step manner, which can be easily understood by anyone with sufficient knowledge in information technology. Covering first the advantages of COBOL over other programming languages, the book discusses COBOL's divisions - identification, environment, procedure, and data, and then describes the testing of the COBOL source programs and program questions. The book is valuable for those who wish to learn basic COBOL language, but do not have the time to take manufacturers' o

  5. Program enhancements demonstrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-11

    Enhancements to the Gastran Program for simulation of steady-state gathering systems are outlined. The operation of the modifications, as well as 2 new major engineering programs (Pipetran and Matbal), is discussed as an example of useable software programs to assist oil and gas production. Pipetran is a program that utilizes the best available multiphase flow correlations in a network structure for design and analysis of multiphase flow gathering systems. Matbal is a general purpose oil material balance program for obtaining reservoir performance information at a reasonable cost for all reservoirs with pressure below the bubble point.

  6. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... environmental advocates (American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Appliance Standards Awareness...

  7. Mini Project Programming Exams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt; Thomsen, Lone Leth; Torp, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    A number of different types of final programming exams used or considered at the Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, are identified and analyzed. Based on this analysis, a new type of programming exam is introduced called a Mini Project Programming (MIP) exam. MIP is a group......-based programming assignment that is intended as a medium-scale programming effort followed by a final oral exam. MIP is characterized and compared to existing types of final programming exams by use of a number of independent criteria. The paper motivates the MIP approach and reports on our experience over four...... years. The MIP exam is a compromise between (1) a long problem-based project exam and (2) a short oral or written programming exam. It is concluded that the strengths of MIP are the high degree of realism in the exam assignment and comprehensiveness relative to the course syllabus. The main challenge...

  8. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...

  9. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...

  10. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify......Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...

  11. On the usability of `compensated temperature` output of Honeywell PPTR sensor for coastal oceanographic and limnological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Vijaykumar, K.; Sundar, D.; Tengali, S.

    and those of Aanderraa current meter's Fenwall GB 32JM19 thermistor probe and NIO water level recorder's YSI thermistor probes were encouraging. However, while the Fenwall GB 32JM19 thermistor probe and the YSI thermistor probes detects changes...

  12. Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services, Phoenix, Arizona, Dec. 10, 2007 Petition to Object to Title V Operating Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Utility Green Pricing Programs: A Statistical Analysis of Program Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Olson, S.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-02-01

    This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs.

  14. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  15. Veiculação de Campylobacter spp. através de carne e miúdos de frangos comercializados no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil | Transmission of Campylobacter spp. through chicken meat and organs sold in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Martins Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O consumo da carne de frango é comum no Brasil por ser um alimento proteico de alto valor biológico e baixo custo, sendo acessível a toda população. Uma causa comum de infecções alimentares tem sido a ingestão de produtos avícolas contaminados, crus ou insuficientemente cozidos, fazendo da contaminação de cortes de frango fontes potenciais de Campylobacter spp. para o homem. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de Campylobacter e verificar a possível veiculação da campilobacteriose através de cortes e miúdos de frangos resfriados e comercializados para consumo em supermercados de grande porte no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso, foram coletadas 40 amostras resfriadas de frango, das quais 19 foram embaladas pela indústria e 21 manipuladas pelos supermercados, submetendo-as a três metodologias distintas denominadas: in natura, enriquecimento e incubação da água de lavagem. Os resultados obtidos revelaram a presença de espécies de Campylobacter zoonóticas resistentes a antimicrobianos em cortes de frango comercializados para consumo humano, indicando que pedaços e miúdos de frango crus ou insuficientemente cozidos são fontes potenciais de campilobacteriose para a população. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The consumption of chicken meat is common in Brazil because this protein-rich food is low cost, has high nutritional value, and is accessible to the entire population. A common cause of foodborne illness has been the ingestion of contaminated, raw, or undercooked poultry products, making contaminated chicken meat a potential source of Campylobacter spp. to humans. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of Campylobacter and assess the potential transmission of campylobacteriosis through refrigerated chicken meat and organs sold for consumption in large supermarkets in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this purpose, 40 samples of

  16. Microbiological evaluation of sugarcane juice sold at street stands and juice handling conditions in São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil Avaliação microbiológica de caldo de cana comercializado em ruas e condições de manuseio de manipuladores em São Carlos, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristine Garcia Oliveira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Fresh sugarcane juice is sold by street vendors without any heat treatment in São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four samples of point-of-sale juice were tested by standard methods to determine heterotrophic bacteria, total and thermo-tolerant coliform counts, Salmonella, and parasites in the juice. 25% of samples showed poor sanitary conditions, with thermo-tolerant coliform levels higher than allowed by Brazilian standards. Salmonella spp. and parasites were absent in all samples. Thermo-tolerant coliforms were detected on the hands of 37% of juice handlers, and heterotrophic bacterial counts reached 2.0 x 10³ cfu/per hand. Escherichia coli was detected in one hand sample, and no Salmonella spp. was detected. Screening questionnaires were used to interview the vendors, and 62% of interviewees were either unfamiliar with or failed to adopt adequate hygiene for food handling.O caldo de cana é recém-preparado e comercializado por manipuladores sem tratamento térmico em São Carlos, São Paulo, Brasil. Vinte e quatro amostras da bebida obtidas em condição de consumidor nos pontos de venda foram avaliadas utilizando-se métodos convencionais na determinação de bactérias heterótrofas, contagens de coliformes totais e termo-tolerantes, Salmonella spp. e parasitas. Observou-se que 25% das amostras apresentaram condições sanitárias insatisfatórias, com níveis de coliformes termo-tolerantes superiores aos permitidos pelos padrões brasileiros. Salmonella spp. e parasitas não foram detectados em nenhuma amostra. Em 37% das mãos de manipuladores do produto detectou-se coliformes termo-tolerantes e as contagens de organismos heterótrofos atingiu valores de 2,0x103UFC/por mão. Em uma amostra de mão detectou-se a presença de Escherichia coli e ausência de Salmonella spp. Utilizaram-se entrevistas por meio de questionários com os vendedores e 62% destes não admitiram conhecimento ou adoção de quaisquer práticas higi

  17. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  18. Programming Scala Scalability = Functional Programming + Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Wampler, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Learn how to be more productive with Scala, a new multi-paradigm language for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that integrates features of both object-oriented and functional programming. With this book, you'll discover why Scala is ideal for highly scalable, component-based applications that support concurrency and distribution. Programming Scala clearly explains the advantages of Scala as a JVM language. You'll learn how to leverage the wealth of Java class libraries to meet the practical needs of enterprise and Internet projects more easily. Packed with code examples, this book provides us

  19. Programming in biomolecular computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a top-down approach to biomolecular computation. In spite of widespread discussion about connections between biology and computation, one question seems notable by its absence: Where are the programs? We identify a number of common features in programming that seem...... conspicuously absent from the literature on biomolecular computing; to partially redress this absence, we introduce a model of computation that is evidently programmable, by programs reminiscent of low-level computer machine code; and at the same time biologically plausible: its functioning is defined...... by a single and relatively small set of chemical-like reaction rules. Further properties: the model is stored-program: programs are the same as data, so programs are not only executable, but are also compilable and interpretable. It is universal: all computable functions can be computed (in natural ways...

  20. Programming in biomolecular computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a top-down approach to biomolecular computation. In spite of widespread discussion about connections between biology and computation, one question seems notable by its absence: Where are the programs? We introduce a model of computation that is evidently programmable......, by programs reminiscent of low-level computer machine code; and at the same time biologically plausible: its functioning is defined by a single and relatively small set of chemical-like reaction rules. Further properties: the model is stored-program: programs are the same as data, so programs are not only...... in a strong sense: a universal algorithm exists, that is able to execute any program, and is not asymptotically inefficient. A prototype model has been implemented (for now in silico on a conventional computer). This work opens new perspectives on just how computation may be specified at the biological level....

  1. MIDI Programming in Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    makes it possible to carry out systematic modifications and transformations of MIDI contents with use of pure functional programming. Side by side with the XML-inspired MIDI language, the paper describes an Emacs-based, textual programming environment that supports the MIDI programming process....... The programming environment also supports a variety of interactive features - similar to MIDI sequencers - but restricted to a textual representation of the music. The main contributions of the work are considered to be (1) An accumulated MIDI function library, which can transform MIDI files in many non......-trivial ways; (2) A proposed working process alternating between creative mode and programmatic editing mode within a MIDI programming environment; and (3) A textual MIDI programming environment with embedded support of many interactive, MIDI-related functionalities....

  2. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    that state, in functional programming you model programs by describing how functions translate input data to output data. Functions themselves are considered to be data you can manipulate and much of the strength of functional programming comes from manipulating functions; that is, building more complex......Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...

  3. A nursing bioethics program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrizio, M A; Ozuna, J; Mattheis, R; Saunders, J

    1992-01-01

    In 1985 the Seattle Veterans' Administration Medical Center nursing service implemented a nursing program for bioethics with three goals: (1) to expand the nurse's knowledge of bioethical principles, (2) to develop the nurse's ability and confidence in analyzing bioethical dilemmas, and (3) to increase bioethical application at the bedside. Two psychosocial clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) led this highly successful nursing program that prepared nurses to more actively and responsibly participate in bioethical decision making within the medical center. The program offers an annual workshop for new members, holds a monthly discussion group, conducts a yearly enrichment program, and completes an annual evaluation report. This article describes nursing service bioethics program from planning through evaluation and the role of the CNS as program coordinator, facilitator, and educator in the expanding field of bioethics.

  4. Test-driven programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, are presented some possibilities concerning the implementation of a test-driven development as a programming method. Here is offered a different point of view for creation of advanced programming techniques (build tests before programming source with all necessary software tools and modules respectively). Therefore, this nontraditional approach for easier programmer's work through building tests at first is preferable way of software development. This approach allows comparatively simple programming (applied with different object-oriented programming languages as for example JAVA, XML, PYTHON etc.). It is predictable way to develop software tools and to provide help about creating better software that is also easier to maintain. Test-driven programming is able to replace more complicated casual paradigms, used by many programmers.

  5. 76 FR 56949 - Biomass Crop Assistance Program; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... means for communication (Braille, large print, audio tape, etc.) should contact the USDA Target Center... between the text in the ] preamble and the rule. Those inconsistencies do not require corrections to the...

  6. 24 CFR 906.39 - Contents of a homeownership program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include an affirmative fair housing marketing strategy for such families, including specific steps to... applicable to the particular factual situation: (a) Method of Sale: The PHA should indicate how units will be sold, including a description of the exact method of sale, such as, for example, fee simple conveyance...

  7. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  8. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Programming Language Pragmatics is the most comprehensive programming language textbook available today. Taking the perspective that language design and language implementation are tightly interconnected, and that neither can be fully understood in isolation, this critically acclaimed and bestselling book has been thoroughly updated to cover the most recent developments in programming language design. With a new chapter on run-time program management and expanded coverage of concurrency, this new edition provides both students and professionals alike with a solid understanding of the most impo

  9. Constraints in Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikow, Cezary Z.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic programming refers to a class of genetic algorithms utilizing generic representation in the form of program trees. For a particular application, one needs to provide the set of functions, whose compositions determine the space of program structures being evolved, and the set of terminals, which determine the space of specific instances of those programs. The algorithm searches the space for the best program for a given problem, applying evolutionary mechanisms borrowed from nature. Genetic algorithms have shown great capabilities in approximately solving optimization problems which could not be approximated or solved with other methods. Genetic programming extends their capabilities to deal with a broader variety of problems. However, it also extends the size of the search space, which often becomes too large to be effectively searched even by evolutionary methods. Therefore, our objective is to utilize problem constraints, if such can be identified, to restrict this space. In this publication, we propose a generic constraint specification language, powerful enough for a broad class of problem constraints. This language has two elements -- one reduces only the number of program instances, the other reduces both the space of program structures as well as their instances. With this language, we define the minimal set of complete constraints, and a set of operators guaranteeing offspring validity from valid parents. We also show that these operators are not less efficient than the standard genetic programming operators if one preprocesses the constraints - the necessary mechanisms are identified.

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Cancer Education Cancer Programs Conference: Creating a Culture of Quality CoC Events Quality Education Quality Education Quality Education Quality and Safety Conference ...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Records (EHR) Incentive Program Physician Quality Reporting System Value-Based Payment Modifier ... Practice Management Practice Management Practice Management CPT Coding Bulletin Articles ...

  12. Construction program management

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, it lags behind other industries in its implementation of modern management techniques such as those contained in the Standard for Program Management (the Standard) by the Project Management Institute (PMI(R)). Construction Program Management details the successful use of the PMI(R) approach for the construction of capital programs. It demonstrates, through case studies, how implementation of PMI's set of tools and techniques can improve the chances of program success. Exploring tactical and strategic management method

  13. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Maintenance of Certification Quality Quality Quality Electronic Health Records (EHR) Incentive Program ... Practice Management Practice Management Practice Management CPT Coding Bulletin Articles ...

  14. Program management model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J. J.; Russell, J. E.; Seline, J. R.; Sumner, N. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Two models, a system performance model and a program assessment model, have been developed to assist NASA management in the evaluation of development alternatives for the Earth Observations Program. Two computer models were developed and demonstrated on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computer Facility. Procedures have been outlined to guide the user of the models through specific evaluation processes, and the preparation of inputs describing earth observation needs and earth observation technology. These models are intended to assist NASA in increasing the effectiveness of the overall Earth Observation Program by providing a broader view of system and program development alternatives.

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs ... The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn ...

  16. Veterinary Services Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...

  17. Privacy Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing that training and awareness are critical to protecting agency Personally Identifiable Information (PII), the EPA is developing online training for privacy contacts in its programs and regions.

  18. An extended day program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a pilot project evaluation, carried out as an action investigation whose aim was to provide a better quality extended day for primary school students. The project included the training of teachers involved in extended day program, designing of special activities performed by teachers with children once a week as well as changes and equipping of premises where children stay. The aims of the program were conception and performance of activities in a less formal way than during regular instructional days, linking of learning at school and acquired knowledge to everyday experiences, and work on contents contributing to the development of child's interests and creativity. The program was accomplished in a Belgrade primary school during the 2001/2002 academic year, comprising students of 1st and 2nd grades (N=77. The effects of the program were monitored throughout the academic year (observation and teachers' reports on accomplished workshops and at the end of the academic year (teachers and students' opinions of the program, academic achievement and creativity of students attending the extended day program compared with students not attending it. Findings about positive effects of the program on students' broadening of interests and willingness to express themselves creatively, indicate unequivocally that there is a need for developing special extended day programs. The extended day program is an opportunity for school to exert greater educational influence that has yet to be tapped.

  19. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Federal Legislation Federal Legislation Federal Legislation Health Care Reform Summary Letters on Health Care Reform Medicare Physician Payment Medical Liability Reform GME ...