WorldWideScience

Sample records for program grazing leases

  1. Environmental Assessment of Beale AFB Grazing Lease Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Beale AFB will use livestock (cattle, sheep and goats ) on its properties throughout the year as needed for the control of noxious weeds, reduction...initiating a wildfire. California Farm Bureau Federation policy recognizes that grazing is the most practical and environmentally acceptable way to...Site Monitoring Well Installation and Annual Targeted Goat Grazing Project, Placer County, California. 21 September 2011.  

  2. 7 CFR 772.7 - Leasing minor program loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing minor program loan security. 772.7 Section 772..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.7 Leasing minor program loan security. (a) Eligibility. The Agency may consent to the borrower leasing all or a portion of security...

  3. Oil and gas leasing/production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimberger, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and oil offshore by conducting lease sales. Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the Federal offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program. In FY 1991, this program was the third largest producer of non-tax revenue for the US Treasury, contributing more than $3 billion. This report presents Federal offshore leasing, sales, production, and exploration activities, and environmental monitoring activities

  4. Solar lease grant program. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Progress on a lease program for the installation of a solar water heater with no installation charge is reported. Information on the announcement of the program, the selection of participants, the contractural agreement, progress on installation of equipment, monitoring, and evaluation is summarized. The status of the budget concerned with the program is announced. Forms used for applications for the program and an announcement from Resource Alternatives for Cilco customers are presented.

  5. Final environmental statement for the geothermal leasing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-12-31

    This second of the four volumes of the Geothermal Leasing Program final impact statement contains the individual environmental statements for the leasing of federally owned geothermal resources for development in three specific areas: Clear Lake-Geysers; Mono Lake-Long Valley; and Imperial Valley, all in California. It also includes a summary of the written comments received and departmental responses relative to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement issued in 1971; comments and responses on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement; consultation and coordination in the development of the proposal and in the preparation of the Draft Environmental Statement; and coordination in the review of the Draft Environmental Statement.

  6. Final Environmental assessment for the Uranium Lease Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a programmatic environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed action to continue leasing withdrawn lands and DOE-owned patented claims for the exploration and production of uranium and vanadium ores. The Domestic Uranium Program regulation, codified at Title 10, Part 760.1, of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), gives DOE the flexibility to continue leasing these lands under the Uranium Lease Management Program (ULMP) if the agency determines that it is in its best interest to do so. A key element in determining what is in DOE's ''best interest'' is the assessment of the environmental impacts that may be attributable to lease tract operations and associated activities. On the basis of the information and analyses presented in the EA for the ULMP, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 United States Code 4321 et seq.), as amended.Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required for the ULMP,and DOE is issuing this Finding, of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  7. Final Environmental assessment for the Uranium Lease Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a programmatic environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed action to continue leasing withdrawn lands and DOE-owned patented claims for the exploration and production of uranium and vanadium ores. The Domestic Uranium Program regulation, codified at Title 10, Part 760.1, of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), gives DOE the flexibility to continue leasing these lands under the Uranium Lease Management Program (ULMP) if the agency determines that it is in its best interest to do so. A key element in determining what is in DOE`s ``best interest`` is the assessment of the environmental impacts that may be attributable to lease tract operations and associated activities. On the basis of the information and analyses presented in the EA for the ULMP, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 United States Code 4321 et seq.), as amended.Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required for the ULMP,and DOE is issuing this Finding, of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. 77 FR 24734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [Docket No. BOEM-2012-0011] Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of an...

  9. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26...

  10. Dynamic programming for optimization of timber production and grazing in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; J. Douglas Brodie; David W. Hann

    1982-01-01

    Dynamic programming procedures are presented for optimizing thinning and rotation of even-aged ponderosa pine by using the four descriptors: age, basal area, number of trees, and time since thinning. Because both timber yield and grazing yield are functions of stand density, the two outputs-forage and timber-can both be optimized. The soil expectation values for single...

  11. Analysis of farmers' willingness to participate in pasture grazing programs: Results from a discrete choice experiment with German dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danne, M; Musshoff, O

    2017-09-01

    Over the last decades, the usage of pasture for grazing of dairy cows has decreased considerably. Pasture grazing programs initiated by dairy companies try to counteract this trend. The present paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in such grazing programs. A special aim was to quantify the price premiums farmers require for program participation and to identify determinants influencing the premium level. The empirical analysis is based on a discrete choice experiment with 293 German dairy farmers. Models are estimated in terms of willingness to accept. It was found that farmers have no substantial preference for whether the pasture grazing program is financed by the food industry, a governmental scheme, or the dairy company. However, an extension of the annual or daily grazing period results in a decreasing willingness of farmers to participate in a pasture grazing program. In addition, farmers decline the option of a feeding standard prescribing the use of only green fodder when offered an alternative program that merely reduces the amount of concentrated feed or maize silage in the diet. Farmers' with an aversion toward program participation have a significant higher price demand for fulfilling the program requirements. Furthermore, the required price premiums increase with growing milk yields and a greater number of cows kept on the farm. However, if the availability of pasture is high, farmers are more likely to participate. The estimated price premiums and factors influencing farmers' willingness to participate found by this study should be considered by dairies and policymakers to gain insights into the design of possible pasture grazing programs from the perspective of farmers. Thereby, paying price premiums to farmers may increase the attractiveness of pasture grazing, which could finally result in an extended usage of pasture grazing. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 10 CFR 760.1 - Uranium leases on lands controlled by DOE. (Domestic Uranium Program Circular No. 760.1, formerly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium leases on lands controlled by DOE. (Domestic Uranium Program Circular No. 760.1, formerly (AEC) Domestic Uranium Program Circular 8, 10 CFR 60.8). 760.1 Section 760.1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOMESTIC URANIUM PROGRAM § 760.1 Uranium leases on lands...

  13. 76 FR 70156 - Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Analysis for the OCS 5-Year Program 2012-2017: Theory and Methodology (BOEM 050-2011), a paper containing a..., which remain the two areas of highest resource potential and interest, the Proposed Program schedules..., and setting the fiscal terms and conditions by individual lease sale, based on a current assessment of...

  14. 78 FR 16483 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Protection Agency (EPA); Colorado Department of Transportation; Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining, and... via the internet at http://ulpeis.anl.gov/ gov/. DOE will give equal weight to written, email, and... Court, among other things, invalidated the July 2007 PEA and FONSI; stayed the ULP leases; and ordered...

  15. Conventional Leasing vs Islamic Leasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leasing developed in time, from the simple form of renting to the modern modality of financial from nowadays, as an alternative for loan. It is present in the entire world, being used both by the financial specialized companies and banks, and the clients are companies and population. The object of leasing contract can be assets and also services, which are rented by the financier (lessor, on definite period, to the client (lessee, in exchange for a leasing rate (rent. The registering in accounting and the fiscal implications in the companies financial administration are different, according to the leasing form which they are using. The capitalist system has in view to obtain profit from renting, but the Islamic System, based on Șaria, forbids renting “haram” assets and services, obtaining interest from renting and using the leasing contract for the transfer of the property.

  16. Solar Leasing Summary, Houston Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mary [City of San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-02-14

    A relatively new option for homeowners looking to add solar to their home is the solar lease. At present, the solar lease option can be found in California, Arizona, Texas, Colorado, Hawaii, New York and Oregon. The most active companies currently offering solar leases are NRG Energy, Sungevity, Solar City and Sun Run. With the uncertainty and/or lack of subsidies the states participating in these programs have ebbed and flowed over the last few years. However, there is an expectation that in the current market solar leasing will make solar viable without the utility and federal subsidies. NRG Energy is currently testing this expectation in Houston, TX where currently no subsidies or incentives beyond the federal tax incentives, exist. Following is an explanation on the state of solar leasing in Houston, TX and explanation of the current financing options.

  17. Vegetation changes over 12 years in ungrazed and grazed Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands in the central and southern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S.; Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.; Terrell, James W.

    2005-01-01

    diminished structural diversity of vegetation (Peet and others, 1975; Rice and Parenti, 1978; Butler and Briske, 1988; Campa and Winterstein, 1992). Recommendations for the timing of disturbance to increase grass and forb species diversity range from 3 to 8 years following establishment of seeded grasslands in the northern Great Plains and Midwest (Duebbert and others, 1981; Higgens, 1987; Millenbah and others, 1996). The management interval, however, is affected by climatic conditions, soils, grass species, and management history of the individual stand. We quantified changes in vegetation structure and species composition across the typical 10-year contract period in undisturbed southern and central Great Plains CRP fields (fig. 2) planted to introduced and native grasses. In addition, we compared changes in vegetation in fields grazed during the emergency release of 1996 by comparing conditions prior to grazing and two and four years post grazing relative to changes in similar fields that were not grazed. Documentation of long-term changes in vegetation structure and composition for fields planted to common grass seed mixtures across a wide range of environmental conditions provides information to improve long-term wildlife habitat potential, guide program administration, and define management practices that yield economic benefits to operators while still meeting wildlife and conservation objectives. Emergency grazing provisions of the CRP are controversial. Although grazing can alter vegetative characteristics and reduce habitat quality in the short-term (Temple and others, 1999), periodic disturbance may be necessary to maintain habitat quality, and more information is needed assessing long-term effects of emergency grazing on vegetative structure and species composition. 

  18. 77 FR 6479 - Leased Commercial Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video Programming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Commercial Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video Programming Distribution and Carriage... contained in the Second Report and Order, FCC 11-119, pertaining to carriage of video programming vendors by multichannel video programming distributors (program carriage rules). This notice is consistent with the Secord...

  19. 76 FR 60651 - Leased Commercial Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video Programming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... programming services seeking access through their conduit.''); H.R. Rep. No. 102-628 (1992), at 41 (``[T]he... Programming Distribution and Carriage; Revision of the Commission's Program Carriage Rules; Final Rule and... Programming Distribution and Carriage AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  20. Impact of end of lease contracts’ option on joint pricing and inventory decisions of remanufacturable leased products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rabbani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leasing currently plays an important role for the global economy. The equipment leasing earning acquired through leasing rather than cash or credit, has reached a dominant level. With this regards, this paper represents a basic mixed-integer non-linear programming model. The study deliberates a firm that leases new products and remanufactured leased merchandises. The proposed study considers the end of lease contract, which contains several options: Return the leased product, return the used product and purchase other remanufactured product and buying the leased product. The primary objective is to maximize the discrepancy between the revenue and the costs of a firm, which leases new products as well as selling remanufactured ones. The product deteriorates with time and the difference between a new and used good is obvious. The product must undergo a remanufacturing procedure before being sold as a remanufactured product.

  1. 13 CFR 120.870 - Leasing Project Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing Project Property. 120.870... Company Loan Program (504) Leasing Policies Specific to 504 Loans § 120.870 Leasing Project Property. (a... recorded lien against the leasehold estate and other collateral as necessary. (b) If the Project is for new...

  2. Rethinking the Buy vs. Lease Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Navy! Navy! SSN 721! 16! 44! 60! Navy! Navy! SSN 722! 23! 50! 73! Navy! Navy! CG 50! 18! 33! 51! Navy! Navy! CG 51! 27! 36! 63! Navy! Navy! FEG 57! 20...United States and Canada , FedEx operates FedEx Feeder on a damp lease program; the contractor leases the aircraft from FedEx fleet and provides a crew

  3. Truth in Leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school economics students, this pamphlet discusses the Consumer Leasing Act. The act requires leasing companies to inform consumers of the costs and terms of their contracts, limits any extra payments at the end of a lease, and regulates lease advertising. The pamphlet focuses on…

  4. 77 FR 32015 - Revision to the Section 8 Management Assessment Program Lease-Up Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... the HCV program and programmatic inefficiency. To eliminate such complexity, and reduce inefficiency... many HCVs, so the PHA may need to hold turnover HCVs so they will be available to assist new PBV... created after SEMAP began) have separate procedures or requirements that reduce the PHA's control over...

  5. 7 CFR 767.102 - Leasing non-real estate inventory property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing non-real estate inventory property. 767.102..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Lease of Real Estate Inventory Property § 767.102 Leasing non-real estate inventory property. The Agency does not lease non-real estate...

  6. Leasing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Franco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En agosto de 2010, La International Accounting Standards Board (IASB y Financial AccountingStandards Board (FASB presentó un proyecto que propone un nuevo modelo de tratamientocontable para el arrendamiento. El propósito principal del Discussion Paper: Leases PreliminaryViews 2009 y el Exposure Draft: Leases 2010, emitidos conjuntamente por IASB y FASB, esla unificación en la presentación y tratamiento contable de la información financiera delarrendamiento a nivel internacional.Por un lado, la propuesta presentada en el Discussion Paper 2009 modificará los estándares delos arrendamientos e impactará aquellas empresas que utilicen contratos de arrendamientooperativo para sus activos fijos. Esto debido a que, bajo la actual NIC 17, el arrendatario noreconoce todas las obligaciones que genera el arrendamiento y por lo tanto, distorsiona losresultados afectando el proceso de toma de decisiones.Por otro lado, la propuesta del FASB plantea que, en el Estado de Situación Financiera,deben reconocerse los derechos y obligaciones del arrendatario bajo cualquier modelo dearrendamiento. Esto significará que se reconocerá un activo por el arrendamiento1 y un pasivopor los pagos futuros2. Asimismo la contabilidad del arrendador también se verá afectada, yaque la propuesta sugiere que el arrendador escoja entre dos modelos contables, los cualesdependen de la transferencia de riesgos y beneficios al momento de realizar el contrato dearrendamiento. Por lo tanto, la presente investigación tiene comoobjetivo analizar los impactos y dificultades de lanueva propuesta. Para esto se tendrán en cuentatanto la perspectiva de los arrendadores comode los arrendatarios.

  7. Leasing nemovitostí

    OpenAIRE

    BRONCOVÁ, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this bachelor´s thesis is to offer closer look at not very well known form of property financing called property leasing. The thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part is focused on basic characteristics of leasing i.e. subject of leasing, forms of financing, advantages and disadvantages. The second part includes the definition of property leasing and subsequent terms. Property leasing development in the Czech Republic from 2000 to 2009 is also included. The thesis...

  8. Full Service Leasing

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Ján

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this master thesis is to describe the service of Full Service Leasing, as a modern form of financing and management of assets, primarily automobile fleet. Description of full service leasing is designed as a comprehensive and complete guide to support reader's position when deciding to finance and manage a fleet by this service. Whether the reader is an entrepreneur, CFO, fleet manager, new employee of leasing company, or anyone who is interested in this service, this master thesis wil...

  9. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  10. Telecom infrastructure leasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, R.

    1995-01-01

    Slides to accompany a discussion about leasing telecommunications infrastructure, including radio/microwave tower space, radio control buildings, paging systems and communications circuits, were presented. The structure of Alberta Power Limited was described within the ATCO group of companies. Corporate goals and management practices and priorities were summarized. Lessons and experiences in the infrastructure leasing business were reviewed

  11. 7 CFR 767.103 - Managing leased real estate inventory property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Managing leased real estate inventory property. 767... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Lease of Real Estate Inventory Property § 767.103 Managing leased real estate inventory property. (a) The Agency will pay for...

  12. 47 CFR 76.971 - Commercial leased access terms and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operators that have not satisfied their statutory leased access requirements shall accommodate part-time..., educational and governmental access programming, provided that the operator's franchise agreement requires it... leased commercial channels. Cable operators may impose reasonable insurance requirements on leased access...

  13. 47 CFR 76.977 - Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated commercial leased access capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minority and educational programming used in... Cable Rate Regulation § 76.977 Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated... of programming from a qualified minority programming source or from any qualified educational...

  14. Innovations in Funding the Maritime Prepositioning Ships Program - A Case Analysis of the How and Why the Lease Option was Successful

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, John

    2004-01-01

    ... and equipment in strategic areas of the world. It will explain why the lease option was eventually approved when initially so many participants in the decision-making process objected to this type of financing for shipbuilding...

  15. THE OBJECT OF LEASING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Antoanetta TOMESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The leasing operation according to article 1, paragraph (2 of Government Ordinance 51/1997 covers movable or immovable property by their nature or which become movable by destination and by the definition of the leasing operation that the legislator offers in the same law, the leasing operation appears to be reduced to signing a lease agreement. But as practice proves, and recognized by part of the legal doctrine, leasing operations cannot be reduced only to the conclusion of the lease agreement. If the lease agreement represents the materialization of the will of the parties (lender and user, it is fact only a stage (final stage of several operations that precede and accompany the leasing operations along their development. It is recognized in the doctrine that within the leasing operations we have a sequence of operations and contracts without which the final act, namely the lease agreement would not exist. We are referring to the sale-purchase contract signed by the financier with the supplier of goods, the mandate contract of the financier concluded with the user and the actual funding contract, the last two coexisting in the wording of the lease agreement. Through the study developed, we aimed to individualize concretely the specific subject of each of these legal operations, with the intention of consolidate the own identity of the lease agreement and of the leasing operations implicitly.

  16. Grazing disturbance increases transient but decreases persistent soil seed bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Miaojun; Walck, Jeffrey L; Ma, Zhen; Wang, Lipei; Du, Guozhen

    2018-04-30

    Very few studies have examined whether the impacts of grazing disturbance on soil seed banks occur directly or indirectly through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. The potential role of the seed bank in alpine wetland restoration is also unknown. We used SEM (structural equation modeling) to explore the direct effect of grazing disturbance on the seed bank and the indirect effect through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. We also studied the role of the seed bank on the restoration potential in wetlands with various grazing intensities: low (fenced, winter grazed only), medium (seasonally grazed), and high (whole-year grazed). For the seed bank, species richness and density per plot showed no difference among grazing intensities for each depth (0-5, 5-10, 10-15 cm) and for the whole depth (0-15 cm) in spring and summer. There was no direct effect of grazing disturbance on seed bank richness and density both in spring and summer, and also no indirect effect on the seed bank through its direct effect on vegetation richness and abundance. Grazing disturbance indirectly increased spring seed bank density but decreased summer seed bank density through its direct effect (negative correlation) on soil moisture and total nitrogen and its indirect effect on vegetation abundance. Species composition of the vegetation changed with grazing regime, but that of the seed bank did not. An increased trend of similarity between the seed bank and aboveground vegetation with increased grazing disturbance was found in the shallow depth and in the whole depth only in spring. Although there was almost no change in seed bank size with grazing intensities, grazing disturbance increased the quantity of transient seeds but decreased persistent seeds. Persistent seeds stored in the soil could play a crucial role in vegetation regeneration and in restoration of degraded wetland ecosystems. The seed bank should be an integral part of alpine wetland restoration programs.

  17. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  18. New Trends in Leasing Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Traian Cristin

    2017-01-01

    An entity shall apply IFRS 16 Leasing contracts for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019. IFRS 16 sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure for accountimg of the leases. The objective is to ensure that leasing companies and locators provide relevant information in a way that accurately represents those transactions. Based on this information, users of financial statements can assess the effect that leases have on an entity's financial position, financial performance and cash flows.

  19. 75 FR 78632 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... The new threshold for exempt consumer leases in the CLA goes into effect on July 21, 2011. Accordingly... and 213.4) and when the availability of consumer leases on particular terms is advertised (Sec. 213.7... regulation also contain rules about advertising consumer leases. The information collection pursuant to...

  20. 36 CFR 251.103 - Mediation of term grazing permit disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation of term grazing... Lands § 251.103 Mediation of term grazing permit disputes. (a) Decisions subject to mediation. In those States with Department of Agriculture certified mediation programs, any holder of a term grazing permit...

  1. Mobile dental units: leasing or buying? A dollar-cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Oscar; Saman, Daniel M; Bonaime, Alice; Skelton, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The decision to acquire a mobile dental unit is based on a standard capital budgeting analysis. The next step is to determine whether to obtain the use of the mobile dental unit by borrowing and purchasing or by leasing. As a financing mechanism, leases are simply another way of borrowing money to pay for the asset. To compare lease vs. debt as financial vehicles to acquiring a mobile dental unit. An estimate for a new mobile unit was obtained. Lease and loan proposals from financial lenders were collected. A cost of capital rate was chosen for comparison. Cash flows associated with borrowing and leasing vs. buying were determined fortwo different scenarios: for profit (FP) vs. not-for-profit (NFP), at 5 years. A dollar-cost analysis was utilized to determine the option with the lowest capitalized value. There was a net advantage to buying vs. leasing for both for FP and NFP organizations. Due to tax advantages, owning and leasing were substantially less expensive for FP than for NFP. Slight decreases in the monthly lease payments would make leasing competitive to the buying approach. Exploring alternative financing vehicles may allow dental programs to expand their services through the acquisition of a mobile unit. Though programs generally own assets, it is the use of the asset which is important rather than the ownership. Dental programs can find leasing an attractive alternative by offering access to capital with cash-flow advantages.

  2. PERPETUAL LEASE: FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Yurchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article namely deals with the peculiarities of legal regulation of the right to use someone else's land for agricultural purposes under the perpetual lease contract. Recognition of the legitimacy of perpetual lease as an intangible asset and, therefore, the object of accounting was justified. The features of the primary account perpetual lease rights were analyzed. It was found that for documenting transactions receipt, commissioning, de-recognition perpetual lease specialized forms of primary documents is not installed. The main aspects of accounting reflection of land under perpetual lease contracts were identified and ways of their improving were developed. The period on which the land is transferred for use under perpetual lease contract was proposed. During the study, general scientific methods – induction, deduction, synthesis, analysis, dialectical, historical, generalizations and specific methods of accounting – documentation, evaluation, accounting records were used. Keywords: accounting, land, perpetual lease, intangible assets, the right to use.

  3. Effects of past and present livestock grazing on herpetofauna in a landscape-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Geoffrey M; Mortelliti, Alessio; Tulloch, Ayesha; Barton, Philip; Florance, Daniel; Cunningham, Saul A; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-04-01

    Livestock grazing is the most widespread land use on Earth and can have negative effects on biodiversity. Yet, many of the mechanisms by which grazing leads to changes in biodiversity remain unresolved. One reason is that conventional grazing studies often target broad treatments rather than specific parameters of grazing (e.g., intensity, duration, and frequency) or fail to account for historical grazing effects. We conducted a landscape-scale replicated grazing experiment (15,000 km 2 , 97 sites) to examine the impact of past grazing management and current grazing regimes (intensity, duration, and frequency) on a community of ground-dwelling herpetofauna (39 species). We analyzed community variables (species richness and composition) for all species and built multiseason patch-occupancy models to predict local colonization and extinction for the 7 most abundant species. Past grazing practices did not influence community richness but did affect community composition and patch colonization and extinction for 4 of 7 species. Present grazing parameters did not influence community richness or composition, but 6 of the 7 target species were affected by at least one grazing parameter. Grazing frequency had the most consistent influence, positively affecting 3 of 7 species (increased colonization or decreased extinction). Past grazing practice affected community composition and population dynamics in some species in different ways, which suggests that conservation planners should examine the different grazing histories of an area. Species responded differently to specific current grazing practices; thus, incentive programs that apply a diversity of approaches rather than focusing on a change such as reduced grazing intensity should be considered. Based on our findings, we suggest that determining fine-scale grazing attributes is essential for advancing grazing as a conservation strategy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. new lease accounting and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Mindy

    2016-05-01

    Recently released lease accounting standards from the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) present three significant challenges for healthcare organizations: All leases must be reported on a company's balance sheet, increasing liabilities on the balance sheets of healthcare organizations considerably. Contractual agreements not previously considered leases will now be treated as leases. Classification of some equipment leases could change.

  5. Oil-Spill Analysis: Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lease Sales, Eastern Planning Area, 2003-2007 and Gulfwide OCS Program, 2003-2042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Federal Government plans to offer U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in the Eastern Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) for oil and gas leasing. This report summarizes results of that analysis, the objective of which was to estimate the risk of oil-spill contact to sensitive offshore and onshore environmental resources and socioeconomic features from oil spills accidentally occurring from the OCS activities.

  6. Advantages and disadvantages of leasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wiśniewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is systematization of knowledge on leasing as a source of financing for enterprises. This paper defines the leasing and presented its nature according to the norms of civil, tax and accounting law. It shows the basic classification of leases and briefly describes each type. This article discusses the key benefits gained from using the financial tools and the most common business problems. Presented the consequences arising from the signing of the lease. Description was written based on literature studies on the issues of lease. Concerns the benefits and drawbacks arising from the lease agreement for use of this form of financing for enterprises. The article can help entrepreneurs in making the correct choice of the method of financing.

  7. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  8. Leasing of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioli, Enzo.

    1977-01-01

    The high costs to be borne in industrialised countries for expanding nuclear programmes make leasing, in terms of funding, an attractive proposition even in times of recession. This system is advantageous to both parties: the bodies providing funds make substantial profits without untoward risk, given the internationally-recognised regime of channelling liability onto the nuclear operator and because such contracts usually provide that ownership of the property involved will eventually be transferred to the operator. The latter obtains the sums needed by a simple, speedy procedure enabling him to start operations more quickly than if he had to seek funds by a more conventional method. The problem in Italy is that nuclear electricity generating plants are a State monopoly while leasing is a private enterprise. The Italian 1975 Siting Act provides a consultation procedure of regional and State authorities, with the ultimate decision taken by the latter. To maintain the momentum, arrangements could be made for leasing, before starting the licensing procedure proper according to the Act. (NEA) [fr

  9. MMS trims proposed schedule for OCS oil and gas lease sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Interior Department has proposed only 18 Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease sales in its new 5 year schedule. Eleven of the sales are in the Gulf of Mexico, one off the east Coast, none off the West Coast, and six off Alaska. Congress has 60 days in which to reject the 5 year lease sale plan but is not expected to. An earlier draft plan called for 23 sales. The Minerals Management Service, which administers the offshore leasing program, the the new schedule emphasizes leasing of gas prone areas

  10. Teaching Ethics with Apartment Leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerenke, Paula J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in a corporate-communications class in which students examine the design and the language of their apartment leases. Discusses how this assignment teaches students about the Plain English laws and the need for plain English in leases and in ethics. (SR)

  11. 12 CFR 714.3 - Must you own the leased property in an indirect leasing arrangement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must you own the leased property in an indirect leasing arrangement? 714.3 Section 714.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.3 Must you own the leased property in an indirect leasing...

  12. LEASING AS IMPORTANT TOOL OF AIRLINE FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Afanasiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article corers current state of airline financing using such instrument as aviation leasing indifferent forms, such as finance leasing its different forms, operational leasing and its different types, sale and lease back analyzed all pluses and minuses of each form. The main questions of Capetown Convention on international warranties concerning moving equipment also discussed.

  13. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  14. BLM Colorado Oil Shale Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ file Format –This data set contains the Oil Shale Leases for the State of Colorado, derived from Legal Land Descriptions (LLD) contained in the US Bureau of Land...

  15. Lucerne varieties for continuous grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    severe grazing with heifers in two cutting/grazing managements. Two new varieties, Verbena and Camporegio, and an older variety Luzelle were established in 2009 in pure stands and in two different mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Camporegio had the lowest yield, the lowest competitive...... strength, the lowest plant density in spring, and the density was most reduced during grazing. The results could not confirm significant differences between the new and the older varieties. The results for Luzelle were generally between Verbena and Camporegio. The varieties did not differ in herbage...

  16. 78 FR 49079 - Lease Modifications, Lease and Logical Mining Unit Diligence, Advance Royalty, Royalty Rates, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Management 43 CFR Parts 3000, 3400, 3430, et al. Lease Modifications, Lease and Logical Mining Unit Diligence... Lease Modifications, Lease and Logical Mining Unit Diligence, Advance Royalty, Royalty Rates, and Bonds... producing coal and has achieved diligence; (3) the value of any unpaid bonus payments; and (4) 100 percent...

  17. Inventory of Owned and Leased Properties (IOLP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Inventory of Owned and Leased Properties (IOLP) allows users to search properties owned and leased by the General Services Administration (GSA) across the United...

  18. 77 FR 69735 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Part 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 12 CFR Part 1013 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Reporting and recordkeeping... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  19. Operating-Lease Disclosures: an empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lückerath-Rovers, Mijntje

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn 2008, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), in cooperation with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), will issue a new proposal to change the current accounting regulation with respect to leasing to an alternative approach. This new lease-accounting approach, called the “asset and liability approach”, capitalises all leases on the balance sheet. This contrasts with the current lease-accounting approach, called the “risk and reward approach”, which disc...

  20. 32 CFR 644.136 - Leasing guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Leasing guidelines. 644.136 Section 644.136 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Leasing § 644.136 Leasing guidelines. Division and District...

  1. 23 CFR 710.407 - Leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leasing. 710.407 Section 710.407 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Real Property Management § 710.407 Leasing. (a) Leasing of real property acquired with title 23 of...

  2. Formation of the oil and gas lease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, E.M.; Piercy, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The legal nature of an oil and gas lease was described and the challenges associated with working with the freehold oil and gas lease were discussed. This paper also reviewed the formalities of execution under seal, issues relating to capacity of the executing party, ability of an executor of an estate to grant the lease, and homestead rights. Precautions that should be taken to ensure that oil and gas lease documents are properly executed so as not to void a lease are also discussed. 46 refs

  3. Lease of agricultural land in public ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the legal norms which regulate leasing of agricultural land in public ownership. The basic hypothesis is that the main goal of land leasing should be to achieve an efficient allocation and maximization of public rental income. It was concluded that we should eliminate all restrictions that serve as barriers to market allocation. These include provisions that restrict some groups from participating in the land lease auctions, then the preemptive right of lease, as well as the ban on subleasing. It also criticizes the application of the principles of affectation, or restriction of freedom of local governments in the use of funds received from land leasing.

  4. Federal coal lease readjustments: will reason prevail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolf, C W

    1988-01-01

    After 1920, when the US Congress passed the Mineral Lands Leasing Act (MLLA), coal owned by the Federal government could only be developed by leasing under the MLLA. Most Federally owned coal is in the west, where the Federal government enjoys a near monopoly in coal ownership and its development. In 1976, congress enacted the Federal Coal Leasing Amendments ACT (FCLAA), over President Ford's veto, in order to: increase rents and royalties on Federal coal leases; force lessees holding Federal coal leases not in production to open mines on the non-producing leases; and end 'speculation' in Federal coal leases. The book maintains that in passing the FCLAA, Congress did not understand the western coal industry, and neither did the Department of the Interior (DOI) in concluding that Congress had mandated that the FCLAA must be applied to pre-FCLAA leases, even those in production, when such leases are readjusted. In the resulting lawsuits, the western coal industry has not been explained to the Federal courts and the decisions regarding the applicability of the FCLAA upon readjustment of pre-FCLAA leases have consequently been wrong. The book examines the record to date and aims to demonstrate the validity of these conclusions. It also describes which actions the DOI should have taken to accomplish the objectives of congress set forth in the FCLAA, to readjust pre-FCLAA leases without litigation.

  5. Ecology of grazing lawns in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hempson, GP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available otherwise outcompete lawn species for light. Regular grazing that prevents shading and maintains sward quality is thus the cornerstone of grazing lawn dynamics. The strong interplay between abiotic conditions and disturbance factors, which are central...

  6. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  7. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior to the date of legislation which designates...

  8. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible grazing losses. 760.305 Section 760.305... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... period for the specific type of grazing land or pastureland for the county.) (b) A grazing loss is not...

  9. 30 CFR 256.50 - Dating of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dating of leases. 256.50 Section 256.50 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of Leases § 256.50 Dating of leases. All leases issued under...

  10. 12 CFR 614.4356 - Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. 614... OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4356 Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. The Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation may enter into a lease agreement with a lessee if the consolidated amount of...

  11. 78 FR 33897 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Management Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts-- Final Sale Notice and Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and...; MMAA104000] Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

  12. Oyster leases in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1997) [oyster_leases_USACE_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set indicates the locations of oyster leases in Louisiana. The lease areas should be polygons, however, the source data has very poor topology including...

  13. 30 CFR 285.201 - How will MMS issue leases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS issue leases? 285.201 Section 285... Energy Leases General Lease Information § 285.201 How will MMS issue leases? The MMS will issue leases on... noncompetitively, as provided under §§ 285.230 and 285.232. We will issue leases on forms approved by MMS and will...

  14. Credit constraints, consumer leasing and the automobile replacement decision

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen W. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a model of consumer automobile replacement in the presence of leasing. The model incorporates credit constraints to distinguish between the leasing and purchasing options. It demonstrates how leasing increases the probability that a household replaces its automobile and how households that lease choose higher quality automobiles. The qualitative choice model of the household's decision to lease provides support for the observation that households that lease face credit con...

  15. Leveraged Leasing in the Federal Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    entity obtains cash while the private investors can depreciate the property and obtain investment tax credits and other tax benefits. The costs are borne...lease from a common base point to familiarize the reader with the applicable portions of generally accepted accounting principles, GAAP , and how they...chapter identifies the differences between a basic lease and a leveraged lease in terms of structure and accounting requirements relative to GAAP

  16. Lease Accounting in Australia: Further Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Salleh; Christopher, Theo

    1998-01-01

    Key words: Australia; Accounting standard; Efficient contracting; Lease accounting; Signalling The objective of this study is to examine the economic factors motivating Australian listed lessee firms to adopt capitalization of finance leases policy from 1985 to 1987 as permitted by the transitional provision of AAS 17. Capitalization is considered as the preferred accounting policy for finance leases compared to footnote disclosure. Adopting a joint efficient contracting and quality signaling pers...

  17. Lease Operations Environmental Guidance Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau of Land Management

    2001-02-14

    This report contains discussions in nine different areas as follows: (1) Good Lease Operating Practices; (2) Site Assessment and Sampling; (3) Spills/Accidents; (4) Containment and Disposal of Produced Waters; (5) Restoration of Hydrocarbon Impacted Soils; (6) Restoration of Salt Impacted Soils; (7) Pit Closures; (8) Identification, Removal and Disposal of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM); and (9) Site Closure and Construction Methods for Abandonment Wells/Locations. This report is primary directed towards the operation of oil and gas producing wells.

  18. Optimal Lease Contract for Remanufactured Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, B. P.; Wangsaputra, R.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Husniah, H.

    2018-03-01

    In the last two decades, the business of lease products (or equipment) has grown significantly, and many companies acquire equipment through leasing. In this paper, we propose a new lease contract under which a product (or equipment) is leased for a period of time with maximum usage per period (e.g. 1 year). This lease contract has only a time limit but no usage limit. If the total usage per period exceeds the maximum usage allowed in the contract, then the customer (as a lessee) will be charged an additional cost. In general, the lessor (OEM) provides a full coverage of maintenance, which includes PM and CM under the lease contract. It is considered that the lessor offers the lease contract for a remanufactured product. We presume that the price of the lease contract for the remanufactured product is much lower than that of a new one, and hence it would be a more attractive option to the customer. The decision problem for the lessee is to select the best option offered that fits to its requirement, and the decision problem for the lessor is find the optimal maintenance efforts for a given price of the lease option offered. We first find the optimal decisions independently for each party, and then the joint optimal decisions for both parties.

  19. Determinants of leasing business in emerging country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariang Siagian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to examine leasing business in Indonesia, if there is any effect of leasing literacy to the access into leasing company, motivation to buy and ability to pay liabilities. The research’s object is customers of leasing companies who have been buying leasing products and live around Jakarta. While the methodology used will be the qualitative method by using survey and questionnaire. The outcomes revealed that 68.5% of respondents have the average income of less than 5 million per month, and the type of product leased is dominated by motorcycles and cars. Furthermore, the result of regression analysis is the literacy to the access into leasing company has no effect. But on the other hand, the result shows that there is an effect of literacy on motivation and ability to pay liabilities. From this study, it can be concluded that generally, customers do not care about the insight into leasing business. Most of the customers used the literacy for to get the products and to be able to pay the installments obligations. Hence, they need sufficient information about leasing company and its services.

  20. Leasing instruments of high-rise construction financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Olga; Ivleva, Elena; Sukhacheva, Viktoria; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The leasing sector of the business economics is expanding. Leasing instruments for high-rise construction financing allow to determine the best business behaviour in the leasing economy sector, not only in the sphere of transactions with equipment and vehicles. Investments in high-rise construction have a multiplicative effect. It initiates an active search and leasing instruments use in the economic behaviour of construction organizations. The study of the high-rise construction sector in the structure of the leasing market participants significantly expands the leasing system framework. The scheme of internal and external leasing process factors influence on the result formation in the leasing sector of economy is offered.

  1. Grass composition and rangeland condition of the major grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One area represented lightly grazed government ranches or parks which were used as benchmarks, another area represented the seasonal grazing areas with an intermediate grazing pressure and the remaining were the heavily grazed roadsides, lakeshores and other communal grazing lands. The range condition ...

  2. The grazing pattern of Muturu cattle under range system | Nweze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty Muturu cattle were grazed on rangeland, twice daily for two years to determine their grazing pattern. Twenty bulls and cows each between two to four years and forty calves between one to three months were used. The field grazing time (FGT), active grazing time (GT) and grazing travel time (GTT) were monitored.

  3. Critical reflections on the Chemical Leasing concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Carpenter, Angela; Lozano, Francisco J.

    Chemical Leasing has been developed as a collaborative business model to complement the two main approaches (policy initiatives and scientific/ technological) used to foster green chemistry and sustainable chemistry. Chemical Leasing is based on using chemicals more efficiently, reducing waste, and

  4. Operating-Lease Disclosures: an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lückerath-Rovers (Mijntje)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn 2008, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), in cooperation with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), will issue a new proposal to change the current accounting regulation with respect to leasing to an alternative approach. This new lease-accounting approach,

  5. 12 CFR 560.41 - Leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... principal and interest payments that a lessor would receive if the finance lease were structured as a market... property at the expiration of the term of the lease. (c) Finance leasing—(1) Investment limits. A Federal... loans), 5(c)(2)(A) (commercial, business, corporate or agricultural loans), 5(c)(2)(B) (nonresidential...

  6. 29 CFR 779.225 - Leased departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.225 Leased departments. (a) As stated in section 3(r) of the... without) a separate entrance, and operates under a separate name, with his own separate employees and... “leased department” and will not be included in the same enterprise with the lessor. (e) The employees of...

  7. Application of Securitization of Leasing Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Viktorovich Linev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Securitization of leasing assets was widely adopted abroad within the last decades. Securitization of leasing assets usually is meant as process of formation of a portfolio based on future leasing payments of one and (or more leasing company and sale of securities to investors for the subsequent refinancing of leasing operations. These securities can be bonds, actions or bills. Thus the asset leased, acts as providing these papers. Nomenclature of property includes office, medical (first of all, stomatology, training, video the equipment, and also a car, motor-equipment, towers of cellular communication production of heavy mechanical engineering and computers. The essence of securitization of leasing assets consists in isolation of streams of leasing payments from risk of bankruptcy of the leasing company. As the considered mechanism has the greatest development in the USA, so far as consideration of experience of its application in this country is represented especially actual. The special attention is deserved by a question of decrease in credit risk of the investor. External and internal providing is applied to its decision in different types. Interest of participants in securitization of leasing assets consists in distribution of risks between them, emergence of a new source of financing, depreciation of attracted resources, increase of liquidity of a leasing portfolio and optimization by management by balance of the enterprise. Appeal of this tool to the leasing company in a case when it has no available own funds for business development, represents separate interest. Securitization allows the leasing company to expand sources of attraction of the capital and to receive a reserve for the future, and also to broaden the sphere of options of activity and to give it new opportunities for financing of projects. Widespread introduction of schemes of securitization in practice of the Russian leasing business, requires development, and on some

  8. Leasing wind turbines (and its alternatives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, Jonathan H.

    1999-01-01

    The financing of wind farms has historically consisted of a mixture of traditional debt and equity, with debt generally being provided by high street or specialist banks, through inter-company loans, or from International Funding Agencies (IFA's) via National Funding Agencies in developing countries. The use of more innovative financing methods has to date been limited. One possible methods of attracting finance for wind farms is the leasing of wind turbines, and this paper sets out the reasons leasing is particularly appropriate for renewable energy (RE) projects (in particular wind farms), the effect leasing may have on returns available to investors, and some of the obstacles that have to be overcome by the RE and wind industry to increase the utilisation of leasing. This paper concludes by discussing the possibility of using a pan-European leasing company as means of providing overseas aid to developing countries, thereby facilitating the implementation of wind energy in these important regions. (Author)

  9. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  10. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d` Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  11. 18 CFR 367.18 - Criteria for classifying leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the lessee) must not give rise to a new classification of a lease for accounting purposes. ... classifying the lease. (4) The present value at the beginning of the lease term of the minimum lease payments... taxes to be paid by the lessor, including any related profit, equals or exceeds 90 percent of the excess...

  12. 30 CFR 256.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 256.80 Section 256.80 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 256.80 Leases of other minerals. The...

  13. 49 CFR 639.33 - Management of leased assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management of leased assets. 639.33 Section 639.33..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Lease Management § 639.33 Management of leased assets. Each recipient must maintain an inventory of capital assets acquired by standard FTA project management...

  14. 47 CFR 76.978 - Leased access annual reporting requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... against the cable system with the Commission or a Federal district court regarding a commercial leased..., which provides the following information for the calendar year: (1) The number of commercial leased... commercial leased access channel. (3) The rates the cable system charges for full-time and part-time leased...

  15. 47 CFR 1.9020 - Spectrum manager leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. 1.9020... Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9020 Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. (a) Overview... may enter into a spectrum manager leasing arrangement, without the need for prior Commission approval...

  16. 77 FR 21803 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ..., COC-70615] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... described below in Gunnison County, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will be...

  17. Effects of livestock grazing on grasshopper abundance on a native rangeland in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kevin M; Olson, Bret E; Wallander, Roseann; Rolston, Marni G; Seibert, Catherine E

    2010-06-01

    Livestock grazing can affect habitat quality for grasshoppers through effects on food and oviposition site availability, microclimate, and other factors. Because of this, some authors have suggested that grazing programs can be used to help manage pest grasshopper populations. In a 6-yr study, we controlled access of cattle to replicated experimental plots on an Agropyron spicatum/Poa sandbergii pasture to create consistent year-to-year differences in postgrazing plant cover, with resultant affects on microclimate. After sampling grasshoppers multiple times after grazing treatments each summer, we found evidence of between-treatment differences in grasshopper abundance for the entire assemblage during 4 of the 6 yr. Some species, including Melanoplus sanguinipes (perhaps the worse rangeland grasshopper pest in the western United States), tended to be more abundant on ungrazed plots, whereas Melanoplus gladstoni often had greater densities on heavily-grazed plots. The effect of grazing on grasshopper densities in this study was lower in magnitude and less consistent among years than in a study we conducted simultaneously at a nearby site where the vegetation was dominated by the exotic species crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). Our results generally support proposals that grazing could be used to reduce pest grasshopper densities, although the effectiveness of a particular grazing scheme may vary among sites, years, and grasshopper and vegetation assemblages.

  18. 77 FR 71612 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore...), Interior. ACTION: Proposed Sale Notice for commercial leasing for wind power on the Outer Continental Shelf... sale of commercial wind energy leases on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Rhode Island and...

  19. Herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.A.C.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature is given of
    - nine possible methods for estimating herbage intake by grazing ruminants, with special attention to the sward-cutting and indirect animal methods
    - the factors determining the herbage intake by grazing ruminants.

    The

  20. 75 FR 29572 - Information Collection; Grazing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Control Number 1004-0019] Information Collection; Grazing Management AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... submitted an information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for a 3-year... INFORMATION: Title: Grazing Management (43 CFR 4120). OMB Number: 1004-0019. Forms: 4120-6 (Cooperative Range...

  1. 25 CFR 162.605 - Negotiation of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation of leases. 162.605 Section 162.605 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Non-Agricultural Leases § 162.605 Negotiation of leases. (a) Leases of individually owned land or tribal land may be negotiated by those owners or their...

  2. Geopressure industrial forums, newsletter and lease support. Final report, April 7, 1981-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, C.F.

    1983-12-01

    In the course of this contract C. K. GeoEnergy: (1) planned, organized, conducted, and reported on six DOE/Industry Forum meetings where the progress of DOE's resource development program was outlined and discussed (these six forum meetings included three meetings of the Drilling and Testing Subgroup and three meetings of the Overview Group), (2) prepared and distributed 15 newsletters, and (3) prepared three reports for DOE lease support. This final report includes summaries of each of the forum meetings as well as the three lease support meetings and the newsletter program.

  3. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST MARKET OF LEASE LAND IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunko L.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The land is the main asset of the farmer. The basic production of agricultural products, the food security of the state and its export potential today depend directly on the ability of agricultural producers to conduct sustainable production. However, in addition to the natural elements that stand in the way of stabilizing the situation in the field of agriculture, we also have a chronic presence of numerous "man-made" problems that remain unsettled for years. One of the most significant and painful of them is the state registration of the right to lease land. Long-term disorder, corporate wars between state authorities for the right to land relations, negligent attitude to information on land rights and their encumbrances, the shifting of competence among registrars of land tenure rights continue to cause complaints from agricultural producers. But the peculiarities of the legal regulation of the state registration of the right to lease land for agricultural purposes did not become the subject of a separate scientific study. Consequently, the purpose of this work is to study and analyze the problems of legal regulation of state registration of the right to lease land and to find an acceptable option for their further solution. Since the reform of the agrarian sector of Ukraine, the most common form of land use in agricultural production is the use of land by agricultural producers on a lease. The advantage of leasing relations in agricultural production is enshrined in the Concept of the State Target Program for Land Relations Development in Ukraine for the period up to 2020, which was approved by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated June 17, 2009 No. 743-p. The right to lease a land plot is mediated by a contract concluded in accordance with the Article 20 of the Law of Ukraine "On land lease" is subject to mandatory state registration,on the other hand in Article 125 of the Land Code of Ukraine, it is stated that the

  4. Financial distress prediction and operating leases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether including operating lease commitments in financial distress prediction models would increase the classification accuracy of these models. Classification accuracy measures the percentages of correctly classified companies in either of the two categories (healthy or

  5. Lease vs. Purchase in Defense Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hensley, Carlton L; Tinjum, Archie L

    2008-01-01

    With declining budgets and consolidation in the defense industry, should competition between prime and sub-prime contractors be fostered through innovative lease arrangements similar to the Navy's TAKX...

  6. Emerging accounting trends accounting for leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valletta, Robert; Huggins, Brian

    2010-12-01

    A new model for lease accounting can have a significant impact on hospitals and healthcare organizations. The new approach proposes a "right-of-use" model that involves complex estimates and significant administrative burden. Hospitals and health systems that draw heavily on lease arrangements should start preparing for the new approach now even though guidance and a final rule are not expected until mid-2011. This article highlights a number of considerations from the lessee point of view.

  7. An Evaluation of Grazing-Incidence Optics for Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    The refractive index for most materials is slightly less than unity, which opens an opportunity to develop the grazing incidence neutron imaging optics. The ideal material for the optics would be natural nickel and its isotopes. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has active development program on the nickel replicated optics for use in x-ray astronomy. Brief status report on the program is presented. The results of the neutron focusing optic test carried by the MSFC team at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are also presented. Possible applications of the optics are briefly discussed.

  8. LEASE FINANCING: A NEW DUAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leasing is an important additional financing technique used by many companies, enabling them to use property, plant and equipment without making large initial cash outlays. It also provides flexibility, allowing entities to address obsolescence risks. Under current accounting rules, when referring to the operating leasing in particular, there is a lack of comparability between the financial position and operating results of companies that buy assets and the financial position and operating results of those that lease similar assets. This has led critics to assert that the current accounting does not portray the economics of lease arrangements. In response to this criticism, the IASB and FASB have developed a new approach to lease accounting that would require a lessee to recognise assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by leases, this providing greater transparency and comparability for financial statements users. On the other hand, the proposals will affect almost every company and the impact of the proposed changes may be significant, as recognising additional assets and liabilities and finance expense will affect key performance ratios and, consequently, the ability to satisfy debt covenants.

  9. A framework for determining optimal petroleum leasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The techniques of auction theory and option theory are combined to allow valuation under both geologic and oil price uncertainty. The primary motivation for developing this framework is to understand the prevalence of leasing in transferring ownership of oil properties. Under a standard oil lease, the landowner sells an oil company the right to explore and develop a tract of land for a fixed period of time. If oil is found, a fraction of the revenues is reserved for the landowner. Compared to the outright sale of the minerals, leasing has the disadvantages of: (1) lowering total oil field value through alteration of investment incentives; (2) providing the seller with a more risk cash flow; and (3) increasing legal and administrative costs. It is demonstrated here that in lease sales as compared to full mineral interest sales, the relative disadvantages are offset by more effective value transfer to the seller. For the base-case parameters, the optimal lease in a bonus auction gives the seller 28% more value than the sale of the full mineral interest. There is a loss in the leasing process from distortion of development timing incentives

  10. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on the...

  11. Productivity of grasslands under continuous and rotational grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantinga, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the Netherlands, rotational grazing, with grazing periods of 2 to 5 days, is the most common grazing system at present. In contrast with other countries of North-western Europe, the continuous grazing system is used here only to a limited extent. However, the results of numerous

  12. The ABCs of Technology Leasing: Get the Facts on the Pros and Cons of Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robb

    2005-01-01

    Ownership means control. What one buys is easier to manage with respect to upgrading or getting rid of equipment that is no longer adequate for the job. Purchasing can put severe demands on cash flow, however, so sometimes the budget drives the decision to lease. Not surprisingly, leasing reverses the advantages and disadvantages of ownership. For…

  13. 30 CFR 250.182 - When may the Secretary cancel a lease at the exploration stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may the Secretary cancel a lease at the... Requirements, Lease Term Extensions, and Lease Cancellations § 250.182 When may the Secretary cancel a lease at... be modified to avoid the condition(s). The Secretary may cancel the lease if: (a) The primary lease...

  14. 25 CFR 162.229 - How long can the term of an agricultural lease run?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long can the term of an agricultural lease run? 162... AND PERMITS Agricultural Leases Lease Requirements § 162.229 How long can the term of an agricultural lease run? (a) An agricultural lease must provide for a definite lease term, specifying the commencement...

  15. 26 CFR 1.514(f)-1 - Definition of business lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of business lease. 1.514(f)-1 Section... § 1.514(f)-1 Definition of business lease. (a) In general. The term business lease means any lease... extension, the lease shall be considered a 3-year lease and hence does not meet the definition of a business...

  16. 26 CFR 1.280F-5T - Leased property (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... incidental leasing activity is insufficient. For example, a person leasing only one passenger automobile during a taxable year is not regularly engaged in the business of leasing automobiles. In addition, an... listed property leased or held for leasing by any person regularly engaged in the business of leasing...

  17. Grazing management that regenerates ecosystem function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing management that regenerates ecosystem function and grazingland ... in ecosystem improvement, productivity, soil carbon and fertility, water-holding ... for sufficient time to produce resource improvement, sound animal production, and ...

  18. 48 CFR 23.704 - Application to Government-owned or -leased facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application to Government... and Services 23.704 Application to Government-owned or -leased facilities. Executive Order 13101...

  19. Grazing function g and collimation angular acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Peggs

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The grazing function g is introduced—a synchrobetatron optical quantity that is analogous (and closely connected to the Twiss and dispersion functions β, α, η, and η^{′}. It parametrizes the rate of change of total angle with respect to synchrotron amplitude for grazing particles, which just touch the surface of an aperture when their synchrotron and betatron oscillations are simultaneously (in time at their extreme displacements. The grazing function can be important at collimators with limited acceptance angles. For example, it is important in both modes of crystal collimation operation—in channeling and in volume reflection. The grazing function is independent of the collimator type—crystal or amorphous—but can depend strongly on its azimuthal location. The rigorous synchrobetatron condition g=0 is solved, by invoking the close connection between the grazing function and the slope of the normalized dispersion. Propagation of the grazing function is described, through drifts, dipoles, and quadrupoles. Analytic expressions are developed for g in perfectly matched periodic FODO cells, and in the presence of β or η error waves. These analytic approximations are shown to be, in general, in good agreement with realistic numerical examples. The grazing function is shown to scale linearly with FODO cell bend angle, but to be independent of FODO cell length. The ideal value is g=0 at the collimator, but finite nonzero values are acceptable. Practically achievable grazing functions are described and evaluated, for both amorphous and crystal primary collimators, at RHIC, the SPS (UA9, the Tevatron (T-980, and the LHC.

  20. 78 FR 21912 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Crab Rationalization (CR) Program: Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... consolidation, absentee quota share (QS) ownership, and changes in crew compensation as some of the program's... financial impacts of high lease rates, the amount of any lease payments charged to crews could be limited or...

  1. Grazing behavior and intake of goats rotationally grazing Tanzania-grass pasture with different post-grazing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia H.M.R. Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate intake and ingestive behavior of goats rotationally grazing Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia 1 pastures with 2 levels of post-grazing residue. The experimental area consisted of 1.2 ha of Tanzania pasture divided into 12 paddocks (24 areas, managed under 2 post-grazing residues: low green (leaf + stem herbage mass (GHM post-grazing (LR, approximately 1,500 kg/ha GHM; and high GHM post-grazing (HR, approximately 3,000 kg/ha GHM. Each paddock was grazed for 3 consecutive days (D1, D2, D3 followed by 33 days rest and evaluated from October 2005 to April 2006. Animal behavior (grazing time, bite rate and bite size/weight was evaluated on each grazing day. While goats spent more time grazing on LR than HR (P=0.02, bite rate did not differ between treatments or among days (P=0.31 and averaged 26.5 bites/min. In contrast, bite weight was greater in HR (0.15 g/bite than in LR (0.12 g/bite, and decreased from D1 to D3 (P<0.001. Absolute dry matter intake of goats was greater in the HR (2.19 kg/d than the LR (1.89 kg/d treatment; however, differences were not significant (P>0.05 when intake was determined on a body weight or metabolic weight basis. Our findings are consistent with the general assumption that bite weight is a trade-off between quantity and quality of the herbage mass and is the main determinant of animal performance. More studies are needed to determine animal performance on the various treatments and to determine management strategies to provide a desirable balance between animal weight gain and pasture stability.Keywords: Animal behavior, foraging, grazing systems, Megathyrsus maximus, plant - animal relations.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(491-100

  2. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  3. DEVELOPMENT FEATURES OF LEASING RELATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patimat A. Abdulkhalikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives Leasing, which is an alternative to traditional forms of investment for Russia, is currently among the most effective methods of financing construction organisations. Under conditions of shortage of available financial resources, leasing allows the modernisation of production to be carried out, modern equipment to be used or new production facilities to be opened in the shortest possible time. The purpose of the study is to comprehensively substantiate the specifics of leasing operations in construction and demonstrate its advantages as a tool for financing construction organisations. Methods The theoretical basis of the study was the fundamental provisions of economic, financial and management theory. During the process of research, logical, statistical and comparative analysis methods were used alongside expert evaluation and factor analysis approaches. Results For a leasing company whose purpose is to identify potential risk areas associated with the possibility of exceeding planned costs, it is recommended that a feasibility analysis be carried out prior to forming a loan portfolio. It is established that the transactions of a leasing company with a construction organisation can be presented as a separate investment project with a complex financial structure and a combination of interrelated long-term contracts. It is shown that the standardisation of principles of corporate governance and risk management is capable not only of reducing the susceptibility of a construction organisation to risk, but also of increasing the degree of trust on the part of customers and counterparties. Conclusion The expediency of using leasing in construction is due to the insufficient volume of private funds for the acquisition of equipment, which becomes particularly relevant against the background of rapidly aging facilities of construction organisations. Under conditions of largescale technical re-equipment, in which advanced

  4. 25 CFR 211.51 - Surrender of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... received by the superintendent or area director; (g) If oil, gas, or geothermal resources are being drained from the leased premises by a well or wells located on lands not included in the lease, the Secretary...

  5. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Leasing Versus Purchasing Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arceneaux, Alan

    1997-01-01

    .... In constructing this model, several factors were considered, including: The purchase cost of computer equipment, annual lease payments, depreciation costs, the opportunity cost of purchasing, tax revenue implications and various leasing terms...

  6. FINANCIAL REPORTING AND TAX IMPLICATIONS OF REAL ESTATE LEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Snežana Miletić; Savka Vučković Milutinović

    2013-01-01

    Leasing is a very popular way of acquiring fixed assets, but despite its importance and presence the users of financial statements are often not in a position to realistically consider reporting entity's lease transactions and their impact on entity's financial position and performance. For years, current financial reporting for leases has been subject to many critiques. The reason for this primary lies in the fact that it left a lot of opportunities for manipulation during the lease classifi...

  7. Allelopathic cover crop prior to seeding is more important than subsequent grazing/mowing in grassland establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchunas, Daniel G.; Vandever, Mark W.; Ball, Leonard O.; Hyberg, Skip

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grazing, mowing, and type of cover crop were evaluated in a previous winter wheat–fallow cropland seeded to grassland under the Conservation Reserve Program in eastern Colorado. Prior to seeding, the fallow strips were planted to forage sorghum or wheat in alternating strips (cover crops), with no grazing, moderate to heavy grazing, and mowing (grazing treatments) superimposed 4 yr after planting and studied for 3 yr. Plots previously in wheat had more annual and exotic species than sorghum plots. Concomitantly, there were much greater abundances of perennial native grass and all native species in sorghum than wheat cropped areas. The competitive advantage gained by seeded species in sorghum plots resulted in large increases in rhizomatous western wheatgrass. Sorghum is known to be allelopathic and is used in crop agriculture rotations to suppress weeds and increase crop yields, consistent with the responses of weed and desired native species in this study. Grazing treatment had relatively minor effects on basal and canopy cover composition of annual or exotic species versus perennial native grass or native species. Although grazing treatment never was a significant main effect, it occasionally modified cover crop or year effects. Opportunistic grazing reduced exotic cheatgrass by year 3 but also decreased the native palatable western wheatgrass. Mowing was a less effective weed control practice than grazing. Vegetative basal cover and aboveground primary production varied primarily with year. Common management practices for revegetation/restoration currently use herbicides and mowing as weed control practices and restrict grazing in all stages of development. Results suggest that allelopathic cover crop selection and opportunistic grazing can be effective alternative grass establishment and weed control practices. Susceptibility, resistance, and interactions of weed and seeded species to allelopathic cover species/cultivars may be a fruitful area

  8. The grazing capacity of sweetveld: 2. A model to estimate grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relations between grazing capacity and three independent variables were investigated in the False Thornveld of the Eastern Cape. The variables were veld condition, rainfall and density of woody species. These relations were used to develop a preliminary model to assess grazing capacity in the veld type. Despite its ...

  9. 25 CFR 215.7 - Advertisement of sale of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement of sale of leases. 215.7 Section 215.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.7 Advertisement of sale of leases. Upon authority being granted by...

  10. 24 CFR 982.603 - SRO: Lease and HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false SRO: Lease and HAP contract. 982... Types Single Room Occupancy (sro) § 982.603 SRO: Lease and HAP contract. For SRO housing, there is a separate lease and HAP contract for each assisted person. ...

  11. 18 CFR 367.19 - Accounting for leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for leases. 367.19 Section 367.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.19 Accounting for leases. (a) All leases must be classified as either capital or operating...

  12. 7 CFR 765.252 - Lease of security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as security for FLP loans. (1) For loans secured by real estate before December 23, 1985, the Agency has a security interest in any mineral rights the borrower has on the real estate pledged as... Lease of security. (a) Real estate leases. The borrower may lease real estate security provided the...

  13. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ..., COC-74219] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... in the Wadge Seam described below in Routt County, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The...

  14. An Auction-Based Spectrum Leasing Mechanism for Mobile Macro-Femtocell Networks of IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is a vision of the upcoming society. It can provide pervasive communication between two or more entities using 4G-LTE (Long Term Evolution communication technology. In 4G-LTE networks, there are two important problems: helping manage the spectrum demands of IoT devices and achieving much more revenue with the limited resource. This paper proposes a pricing framework to investigate the spectrum leasing in mobile heterogeneous networks with single macrocell and multiple femtocells. We modeled the leasing procedure between the macrocell service provider (MSP and femtocell holders (FHs as an auction to motivate the MSP to lease its spectrum resource. All FHs act as the bidders, and the monopolist MSP acts as the auctioneer. In the auction, FHs submit their bids to rent the spectrum resource so that they can make a profit by selling it to their subscribers. The MSP determines the spectrum leasing amount and chooses the winning FHs by solving the dynamic programming-based 0–1 knapsack problem. In our proposed framework, we focus on the spectrum pricing strategy and revenue maximization of the MSP. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides effective motivation for the MSP to lease the spectrum to FHs, and both the MSP and FHs can benefit from spectrum leasing.

  15. An Auction-Based Spectrum Leasing Mechanism for Mobile Macro-Femtocell Networks of IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Xing, Lei; Qiu, Tie; Li, Zhuo

    2017-02-16

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a vision of the upcoming society. It can provide pervasive communication between two or more entities using 4G-LTE (Long Term Evolution) communication technology. In 4G-LTE networks, there are two important problems: helping manage the spectrum demands of IoT devices and achieving much more revenue with the limited resource. This paper proposes a pricing framework to investigate the spectrum leasing in mobile heterogeneous networks with single macrocell and multiple femtocells. We modeled the leasing procedure between the macrocell service provider (MSP) and femtocell holders (FHs) as an auction to motivate the MSP to lease its spectrum resource. All FHs act as the bidders, and the monopolist MSP acts as the auctioneer. In the auction, FHs submit their bids to rent the spectrum resource so that they can make a profit by selling it to their subscribers. The MSP determines the spectrum leasing amount and chooses the winning FHs by solving the dynamic programming-based 0-1 knapsack problem. In our proposed framework, we focus on the spectrum pricing strategy and revenue maximization of the MSP. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides effective motivation for the MSP to lease the spectrum to FHs, and both the MSP and FHs can benefit from spectrum leasing.

  16. Optical design of grazing incidence toroidal grating monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouey, M.; Howells, M.R.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1982-01-01

    Design rules using geometrical optics and physical optics associated with the phase balancing method are discussed for stigmatic toroidal grazing incidence monochromators. To determine the optical performance of devices involving mirrirs and/or gratings, ray tracing programs using exact geometry are quite widely used. It is then desirable to have some way to infer the practical performance of an instrument from a spot diagram created by tracing a limited number of rays. We propose a first approach to this problem involving an estimation of the geometrical intensity distribution in the image plane and the corresponding line spread function. (orig.)

  17. Innovative leasing engineering as tool for synchronization of innovative, leasing and buying cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalia; Alekseeva, Tatyana

    2017-10-01

    This article suggests a new principle of cyclic synchronization of innovative, leasing and buying cycles in construction “innovative leasing engineering” which facilitates the accelerated transition of the national economy to the innovative way of development. Cyclical nature of economic phenomena is not only their immanent property, but also the subject of economic analysis. Modern format of decision making management requires analysis of the many cycles which fill any kind of activity. Accounting and reconciliation of construction, design, investment, buying, reproduction, leasing and other cycles is important for investment and construction sphere from the point of view of necessity for synchronization and position of determining the nature of trends in sectoral development.

  18. 78 FR 76643 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 3 (ATLW3) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ...; MMAA104000] Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 3 (ATLW3) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental.... ACTION: Proposed Sale Notice for Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Maryland. SUMMARY: This document is the Proposed Sale Notice (PSN) for the sale of commercial wind...

  19. Leasing: una alternativa de financiamiento para PYMES

    OpenAIRE

    Bedjan, María Belén

    2008-01-01

    En la actualidad las pequeñas y medianas empresas encuentran dificultades para acceder a las líneas tradicionales de créditos bancarios. Por otro lado las empresas necesitan actualizarse constantemente para poder ser competitivas en el mercado. Es aquí donde el leasing nace como una alternativa de financiación para las PyMEs. Este trabajo pretendió demostrar la conveniencia financiera del leasing con respecto a los préstamos bancarios para la compra de maquinarias agrícolas ...

  20. LEASE AS INSTITUTE OF OBLIGATORY AND REAL RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kontrec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease contract often occurs in practice and is one of the contract on the temporary transfer and use of things and goods. General regulation of the lease agreement stipulates by Obligations Act, on the other hand there are a number of special regulations governing contracts for the lease of specific types of things (agricultural land, office, ship. The article specifically points to the case law dealing with the institution of lease, especially talking about the lease as an institute real (land rights.

  1. RESIDUAL VALUE RISK IN AUTOMOTIVE OPERATING LEASE CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in this paper are automotive operating lease contracts in the Croatian business practice. The provisions of the general terms and conditions for operating lease contracts of the Croatian leasing companies are being analysed, particulary those relating to the rights and obligations of the parties to the contract after the operating lease contract was terminated and the motor vehicle returned to the lessor. The existence of three contractual models of the automotive operating lease contract in the Croatian business practice is established, which vary with regard to the assignment and the distribution of the residual value risk. Those contractual models are being compared with the two most common contractual models of automotive lease contracts in the Austrian and German business practice: the lease contract with the excess mileage adjustment and the lease contract with the terminal rent adjustment. On the basis of the results of this comparison, applicability of the legal solutions, developed in the Austrian and German jurisprudence and legal literature regarding the lease contract with the excess mileage adjustment and the lease contract with the terminal rent adjustment, to the automotive operating lease contract within the framework of Croatian law, is being examinded.

  2. International experience in the use of leasing relations in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Mikhalchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the market of leasing relations in the UK, Germany, France, the USA. Comparative analysis of development of leasing in foreign countries has been carried out in order to use international experience of leasing relations in Ukraine at the present stage of development of state economy. In spite of prevalence of leasing in developed countries, this kind of relationship is still uncommon in the economic environment of Ukraine because of its novelty and lack of experience. Relevance of leasing development in Ukraine, including the formation of leasing market, primarily is caused by a significant proportion of obsolete equipment and low efficiency of its use. One of solutions to these problems can be leasing which brings together all the elements of international trade, credit, and investment operations.

  3. Grazing-incident PIXE Analysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongri; Wang Guangpu; Liang Kun; Yang Ru; Han Dejun

    2009-01-01

    In the article, the grazing incidence technology is first applied to the PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) analysis. Three pieces of samples were investigated, including the contaminated aluminium substrate, the SIMOX (separated by oxygen implantation) SOI (Silicon on Insulator) sample and the silicon wafer implanted with Fe + . The results reveal that the grazing-incident proton can improve the sensitivity of PIXE in trace analysis, especially for samples contaminated on surface. With the penetration depth of the proton bean decreased, the ratio of the peak area to the detection limit raised observably and the sensitivity near the sample surface increased. (authors)

  4. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  5. Effect of grazing frequency and intensity on Lolium perenne L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) system. Low frequency, low intensity grazing produced lower CDMD and herbage N levels than higher grazing frequencies and intensities. These differences were, however, generally small. Overall, levels of herbage digestibility (estimated ...

  6. Advantage from Funding Durable Centers Leasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Zając

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In present market conditions huge number of businessmen has problems from gain over from banks capital on purchase of durable centers not only, but also on develop - ment and operating activity Individual can use with different forms funding investment, it which is between different leasing.

  7. Financier-led asset lease model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Angelov, S.A.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Meersman, R.A.; Dillon, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the business globalisation trend drives organisations to spread their business worldwide, which in turn generates vast asset demands. In this context, broader asset channels and higher financial capacities are required to boost the asset lease sector to meet the increasing asset demands

  8. Why your lease is an important asset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jason P; Wood, Patrick J

    2008-07-01

    The authors represent more than 3,500 dentists in California and have utilized their experience, knowledge and actual client examples to provide a thorough guide to protecting your future income and sale of your dental practice. This article is intended to provide an in-depth prospective of the value of the lease for your dental practice.

  9. 76 FR 78500 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 [Docket No. CFPB-2011-0026] RIN 3170-AA06 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Interim final rule... Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) transferred rulemaking authority for a number of consumer financial...

  10. A review of experiments comparing systems of grazing management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments comparing different systems of grazing management on natural pastures in various parts of the world are reviewed. In experiments in which various rotational systems were tested against continuous grazing, fewer than half revealed pasture improvement relative to continuous grazing. In the majority of ...

  11. Performance and Grazing Pattern of West African Dwarf Sheep to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) West African Dwarf sheep managed semi intensively and grazing on natural pastures were used in a study to determine the performance and grazing pattern to seasonal forage supply and quality. The animals were allowed to graze for about 6 hours daily for four months each in the dry and wet seasons, ...

  12. How Does “Hunger” Level Impact Grazing Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing behavior can be influenced through feeding and grazing management decisions. Research at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ruminal fill, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect grazing behavior. Cows that had less ruminal fill took a bigger bite that was shallow and wide, compared to a ‘full’ cow ...

  13. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  14. Forage patch use by grazing herbivores in a South African grazing ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Prins, H.H.T.; Slotow, R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how different herbivores make forage patch use choices explains how they maintain an adequate nutritional status, which is important for effective conservation management of grazing ecosystems. Using telemetry data, we investigated nonruminant zebra (Equus burchelli) and ruminant red

  15. Grazing incidence polarized neutron scattering in reflection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. January 2012 physics pp. 1–58. Grazing incidence polarized ..... atomic distances, the neutron has an energy which is low compared to molecular binding ...... cores and that of the Co ions in the AF oxide coatings. ...... [32] C Leighton, M R Fitzsimmons, P Yashar, A Hoffmann, J Nogus, J Dura, C F Majkrzak and.

  16. Dietary selection by steers grazing kikuyu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    being grazeA for a period of 3,5 days in a four-week rotation, at ... Cattle improve the quality of their diet by actively seeking ... of stem in their diet. This would explain why the stem fraction mad~ no significant contribution to the equation predicting diet~ry selection. A:1unusual fact which emerged is that the animals selected.

  17. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recognition by the Commissioner are: (1) The members of the association must be grazing permittees and.... (d) The Commissioner may withdraw his recognition of the association whenever: (1) The majority of... constitution and bylaws. All of the association's livestock will be run under an association brand properly...

  18. Grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, Eeva

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify limiting factors and to develop adjusted grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming conditions. The focus was to combine the aspects of plant, animal and organic production, as they are all involved in organic dairy pastures.

  19. Phosphorus supplementation of Karakul sheep grazing natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phosphorus (P) status of adult Karakul ewes grazing natural pasture was determined by measuring the P content of blood, saliva, faecal, and bone samples. The ewes were divided into four groups of 20 ewes each, viz. ewes supplemented with P+ and P- which lambed during May and October. All lambs born were ...

  20. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  1. Bivalve grazing can shape phytoplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Lisa; Cloern, James E.; Thompson, Janet K.; Stacey, Mark T.; Koseff, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bivalve filter feeders to limit phytoplankton biomass in shallow waters is well-documented, but the role of bivalves in shaping phytoplankton communities is not. The coupled effect of bivalve grazing at the sediment-water interface and sinking of phytoplankton cells to that bottom filtration zone could influence the relative biomass of sinking (diatoms) and non-sinking phytoplankton. Simulations with a pseudo-2D numerical model showed that benthic filter feeding can interact with sinking to alter diatom:non-diatom ratios. Cases with the smallest proportion of diatom biomass were those with the fastest sinking speeds and strongest bivalve grazing rates. Hydrodynamics modulated the coupled sinking-grazing influence on phytoplankton communities. For example, in simulations with persistent stratification, the non-sinking forms accumulated in the surface layer away from bottom grazers while the sinking forms dropped out of the surface layer toward bottom grazers. Tidal-scale stratification also influenced vertical gradients of the two groups in opposite ways. The model was applied to Suisun Bay, a low-salinity habitat of the San Francisco Bay system that was transformed by the introduction of the exotic clam Potamocorbula amurensis. Simulation results for this Bay were similar to (but more muted than) those for generic habitats, indicating that P. amurensis grazing could have caused a disproportionate loss of diatoms after its introduction. Our model simulations suggest bivalve grazing affects both phytoplankton biomass and community composition in shallow waters. We view these results as hypotheses to be tested with experiments and more complex modeling approaches.

  2. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  3. 25 CFR 166.307 - Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 166.307 Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not... trust or non-trust rangeland in common with the permitted land. Grazing capacity will be established... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze...

  4. Wilderness and woodland ranchers in California: A total income case study of public grazing permits and their impacts on conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo Pro, J. L.; Huntsinger, L.; Campos, P.; Caparros, A.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean woodlands in California are managed as agro-silvo-pastoral systems producing a number of commercial products as well as a huge variety of environmental services, including private amenities for the landowner. In many parts of the woodlands, grazing on government owned (public) lands has traditionally had an important role in private ranching. In recent decades the risk of conversion to alternative uses (such as urban development or vineyards) has threatened these woodlands due to the increasing opportunity costs of capital. Understanding the economy of these woodlands and the potential effects of public grazing policies on the total income perceived by the landowner is crucial when considering strategies attempting to slow or stop land use change. However, traditional cash-flow analyses are lacking crucial information needed to understand all the elements that have an important role in the economic decisions that landowners make about their woodlands. For more than half a century, the use of public lands by private ranchers has been one of the most controversial debates in the American west. Wilderness conservationist groups have denounced grazing as destructive and argue for the removal of any kind of livestock. Ranchers have fought for their right to hold public grazing leases, arguing that they are crucial for the continuity of private ranching and consequently for the conservation of extensive rangeland habitat that otherwise could be converted to alternative uses. In this study, we apply the Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS) methodology to a California oak woodland case study to estimate the total private income generated in an accounting period. The presented case study is characterized by a household economy with self-employed labour and with part of the grazing dependent on public land leases. The AAS methodology extends traditional cash-flow analysis in order to estimate the total private income that would accurately explain the woodland

  5. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David N.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Moore, Peggy E.; McDougald, Neil K.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer's reed grass (Calamagrostis breweri Thurber), and tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.]. Horses and mules grazed experimental plots at intensities of 15 to 69% utilization for 4 seasons. In all 3 meadows, grazing caused decreases in productivity. The mean reduction after 4 years of grazing was 18% in the shorthair sedge meadow, 17% in the Brewer's reed grass meadow, and 22% in the tufted hairgrass meadow. Grazing also caused shifts in basal groundcover (usually a reduction in vegetation cover and increase in bare soil cover), and changes in species composition. Productivity and vegetation cover decreased as percent utilization increased, while bare soil cover increased as utilization increased. Changes in species composition were less predictably related to differences in grazing intensity. Passive management of grazing is insufficient in wilderness areas that are regularly used by groups with recreational stock. Wilderness managers need to monitor meadow conditions and the grazing intensities that occur. Our study suggests that biomass and ground cover are more sensitive indicators of grazing impact than species composition. Managers must make decisions about maximum acceptable levels of grazing impact and then develop guidelines for maximum use levels, based on data such as ours that relates grazing intensity to meadow response.

  6. Marketing Factors Affecting Leasing Selection in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Case Study on VB Leasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Ljeskovica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In constantly changing environment all types of companies need some support from various types of funding institutions. Companies use their own resources to finance some projects or purchases but also take loans, mostly from banks to have additional support or in case of lack of money. Beside small, medium, as well as big companies, physical persons also use different types of financing to achieve their goals and fulfil their needs. Financing companies need to recognize the criteria on which prospective customers establish their financing selection decision. Planning a proper marketing strategy in order to attract new customers is of crucial importance in identifying these criteria. The main purpose of the study is to identify which factors affects people to choose leasing services. For data collection and analyse both, qualitative and quantitative study is conducted. Data for this study were collected through surveys delivered to 65 VB Leasing users from Sarajevo region. Out of 65, 57 useful responses were accepted for further analysis. Also interview was done with director of VB Leasing for qualitative study in order to get more insights in this topic. Findings of the study show what are the important factors for leasing selection and these information can support leasing managers in designing marketing strategies for perspective customers.

  7. Decision Tree Approach to Discovering Fraud in Leasing Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat Ivan; Pejić Bach Mirjana; Merkač Skok Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fraud attempts create large losses for financing subjects in modern economies. At the same time, leasing agreements have become more and more popular as a means of financing objects such as machinery and vehicles, but are more vulnerable to fraud attempts. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to estimate the usability of the data mining approach in discovering fraud in leasing agreements. Methods/Approach: Real-world data from one Croatian leasing firm was used for creating tow mo...

  8. An analysis of the buy-vs-lease decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank J

    2006-02-01

    This article presents a financial model to analyze the buy-vs-lease decision. The model is constructed from the perspective of a lessee with an operating lease and uses the concept of net present value, which calculates the current value of predicted cash flows in the future. Predicted cash flows of an operating lease compared with buying are presented in the model, as is the after-tax borrowing rate, the appropriate discount rate used in a model of this type. The article also discusses nonfinancial factors that may influence the buy-vs-lease decision, including the need for flexibility in working capital and the anticipated technological obsolescence of equipment.

  9. EVALUAREA CONTRACTELOR DE LEASING LA NIVELUL ÎNTREPRINDERII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a framework for lease vs buy analysis. It also hightlines various aspectsof the lease/buy decision. The decision to lease or buy needs a comparison of alternativefinancing arrangements for the use of an asset. We provide a format for comparing netpresent value of the options, taking into account the analzsis of lease and buy using loans.Net present value is a more simple criterion to use in practice than dicounting costs, directlyreflecting the increasing value of the company as a result of its decision.

  10. 78 FR 59968 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... technical and financial qualifications can be found at: http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program... submissions of indications of interest in obtaining a commercial lease for wind energy development on the OCS... area described in this notice, the potential environmental consequences of wind energy development in...

  11. 78 FR 760 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... technical and financial qualifications can be found at: http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program... lease for wind energy development on the OCS offshore New York for the area identified in this notice... project to supply the Long Island and New York City region with renewable energy, consistent with New York...

  12. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbach, B.

    1983-01-01

    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  13. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  15. Theory of Financial Lease Contracts - Why all capital goods are not leased

    OpenAIRE

    Penttinen, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    The economic theory states that the capital structure of a firm is irrelevant in a perfect frictionless world. Hence when the assumptions of the Modigliani–Miller theorem and the CAPM hold, the question about the optimal source of funding of capital investments is also irrelevant. In practice though, capital leasing is widely used and the decision to lease or own assets is hardly a matter of indifference to firms or individuals. The motivation of this thesis is to identify when and why leasin...

  16. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    The major purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there are significant differences in vegetation structure, plant species composition, and soil chemical properties in relation to type of grazing animals, various levels of grazing intensity and grazing type, and if potential differences alter with ecosystem productivity (increase in more productive ecosystems). The study was conducted in three mountain ranges of the Romanian Carpathians with a predominance of alkaline substrates (the Bucegi Mts, the Little Retezat Mts and the Ceahlău Massif). Statistical analyses were performed in R statistical software environment. The effects of grazing animals (cattle, horses and sheep), grazing types (fence, regular, irregular) and grazing intensity (low, medium, high) on the community structure were tested using ordination methods. In the case of soil properties, General Linear Mixed Model was applied. Special statistical approach eliminated the differences between the examined mountains and sites. Type of grazing animal does not significantly influence species cover but it is related to specific species occurrence. According to our results, grazing horses had similar effects as cattle compared to sheep. Grazing in restricted areas (surrounded by fence) and regular unrestricted grazing were more similar if compared to irregular grazing. When comparing the intensity of grazing, high and medium intensity were more similar to each other than to the low intensity grazing. Cattle grazed sites had significantly higher lichens cover, while the sheep patches were covered with increased overall herb layer (forbs, graminoids and low shrubs together). Medium grazing intensity decreased the lichens cover, cover of overall herb layer, and total vegetation cover compared to high and low grazing intensity. Grazing type had important impact on the lichens cover and cover of overall herb layer. The lichens cover appeared to decrease while the cover of overall herb layer

  17. A New Lease on Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Pellicer, Leonard O.

    1993-01-01

    South Carolina has found that meaningful improvement in Chapter 1 schools requires taking six crucial steps: (1) set meaningful goals; (2) pay attention to school culture; (3) revamp the curriculum; (4) pick up the pace; (5) integrate learning objectives with the regular program; and (6) change teaching tactics. An insert summarizes changes…

  18. Financial Leasing: Problems and Prospects of Development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Gridina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the current state of the financial services market, in particular financial leasing, which is a form of intensification of the investment process in Ukraine. The main problems of financial leasing development and prospects of its development in Ukraine are revealed. The shortcomings and advantages of financial leasing and its characteristics are determined. The article assesses the state of the Ukrainian market of leasing services and identifies the main problems of its functioning. An estimation of the development of the number of leasing companies in Ukraine is made. It is established that the number of legal entities - lessors remains almost unchanged, but financial companies that provide financial leasing services are rapidly developing. It is substantiated that financial companies providing financial leasing services as universal institutions provide a wider range of financial services in crisis conditions; it serves as the basis for the growth of their number. In these circumstances, these financial institutions can take over the functions of banks and develop at the expense of a larger portfolio of financial services than in highly specialized institutions. Distribution of concluded financial leasing agreements is characterized by the fact that transport, agriculture and construction were the most significant decrease. The services sector, machine building and metallurgy were almost not influenced of the destructive processes. Extractive industry, in contrast to the rest of the industries, has increased the volumes of financial leasing contracts. In the course of the study, the hypothesis of the substitutability of bank lending by leasing was confirmed, which is confirmed by the growing number of financial companies providing financial leasing services while simultaneously reducing the number of banks.

  19. Carbon budgets for an irrigated intensively grazed dairy pasture and an unirrigated winter-grazed pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John E.; Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Phillips, Rebecca L.

    2016-05-01

    Intensification of pastoral agriculture is occurring rapidly across New Zealand, including increasing use of irrigation and fertiliser application in some regions. While this enables greater gross primary production (GPP) and livestock grazing intensity, the consequences for the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) of the pastures are poorly known. Here, we determined the NECB over one year for an irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed dairy pasture and a neighbouring unirrigated, unfertilised, winter-grazed pasture. Primary terms in the NECB calculation were: net ecosystem production (NEP), biomass carbon removed by grazing cows and carbon (C) input from their excreta. Annual NEP was measured using the eddy-covariance method. Carbon removal was estimated with plate-meter measurements calibrated against biomass collections, pre- and post-grazing. Excreta deposition was calculated from animal feed intake. The intensively managed pasture gained C (NECB = 103 ± 42 g C m-2 yr-1) but would have been subject to a non-significant C loss if cattle excreta had not been returned to the pasture. The unirrigated pasture was C-neutral (NECB = -13 ± 23 g C m-2 yr-1). While annual GPP of the former was almost twice that of the latter (2679 vs. 1372 g C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration differed by only 68 % between the two pastures (2271 vs. 1352 g C m-2 yr-1). The ratio of GPP to the total annual water input of the irrigated pasture was 37 % greater than that of the unirrigated pasture, i.e. the former used the water input more efficiently than the latter to produce biomass. The NECB results agree qualitatively with those from many other eddy-covariance studies of grazed grasslands, but they seem to be at odds with long-term carbon-stock studies of other New Zealand pastures.

  20. Hanford Federal Facility state of Washington leased land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared to provide information concerning past solid and hazardous waste management practices for all leased land at the US DOE Hanford Reservation. This report contains sections including land description; land usage; ground water, air and soil monitoring data; and land uses after 1963. Numerous appendices are included which provide documentation of lease agreements and amendments, environmental assessments, and site surveys

  1. 12 CFR 714.4 - What are the lease requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the lease requirements? 714.4 Section 714.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... reasonably expect to recoup your entire investment in the leased property, plus the estimated cost of...

  2. Hanford Federal Facility state of Washington leased land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared to provide information concerning past solid and hazardous waste management practices for all leased land at the US DOE Hanford Reservation. This report contains sections including land description; land usage; ground water, air and soil monitoring data; and land uses after 1963. Numerous appendices are included which provide documentation of lease agreements and amendments, environmental assessments, and site surveys.

  3. FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF ECOLOGICAL CLEAN LEASE IN CARPATHIAN MACROREGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Sus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The features of the modern development of the agricultural land lease market in Ukraine are considered. The possible two scenarios of development of land relations in the context of the moratorium on land sales and financial crisis are proposed. The basic directions of development of land relations and the threat of sale of agricultural land bypass the moratorium by perpetual lease transaction are considered. Because of the difficult economic conditions in Ukraine, devaluation of the national currency and decreasing of real rent, increasing poverty among the rural population perpetual lease agreements will gain more and more popularity. This creates dangerous tendencies for legal land quasi market organization in terms of the moratorium and in modern realities it is gaining popularity among large agricultural holdings. The increasing popularity of perpetual lease promotes the factor that land owners are able to obtain a large sum of money immediately after contract conclusion, but not in parts during the lease term. Inducing factors of such a scenario of land relations development and the gaps in legal support of agricultural reform are considered. Financial problems of ecological clean land lease and the ways of their solution are outlined. Key words: ecological agricultural production, lease, perpetual lease, rent, land  relations. JEL: Q 14, R 58

  4. Chemical Leasing business models and corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Frank; Jakl, Thomas; Joas, Reihard; Dondi, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Chemical Leasing is a service-oriented business model that shifts the focus from increasing sales volume of chemicals towards a value-added approach. Recent pilot projects have shown the economic benefits of introducing Chemical Leasing business models in a broad range of sectors. A decade after its introduction, the promotion of Chemical Leasing is still predominantly done by the public sector and international organizations. We show in this paper that awareness-raising activities to disseminate information on this innovative business model mainly focus on the economic benefits. We argue that selling Chemical Leasing business models solely on the grounds of economic and ecological considerations falls short of branding it as a corporate social responsibility initiative, which, for this paper, is defined as a stakeholder-oriented concept that extends beyond the organization's boundaries and is driven by an ethical understanding of the organization's responsibility for the impact of its business activities. For the analysis of Chemical Leasing business models, we introduce two case studies from the water purification and metal degreasing fields, focusing on employees and local communities as two specific stakeholder groups of the company introducing Chemical Leasing. The paper seeks to demonstrate that Chemical Leasing business models can be branded as a corporate social responsibility initiative by outlining the vast potential of Chemical Leasing to improve occupational health and safety and to strengthen the ability of companies to protect the environment from the adverse effects of the chemicals they apply.

  5. Aspects of royalty clauses inside freehold oil and gas leases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, N.T.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the most common royalty clauses currently used are discussed with particular emphasis on the CAPL 88 and the CAPL 91 petroleum and natural gas lease forms and the provisions regarding lessors and lessees. The problems regarding their practical applications are described. The legal status of a royalty inside a freehold oil and gas lease is also examined. 4 refs

  6. Developmental instability and fitness in Periploca laevigata experiencing grazing disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alados, C.L.; Giner, M.L.; Dehesa, L.; Escos, J.; Barroso, F.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of developmental instability measurements (leaf fluctuating asymmetry, floral radial asymmetry, and shoot translational asymmetry) to a long‐standing natural stress (grazing) in a palatable tannin‐producing shrub (Periploca laevigata Aiton). We also assessed the relationship between these measures of developmental instability and fitness components (growth and floral production). Developmental instability, measured by translational asymmetry, was the most accurate estimator of a plant’s condition and, consequently, environmental stress. Plants with less translational asymmetry grew more and produced more flowers. Plants from the medium‐grazed population were developmentally more stable, as estimated by translational and floral asymmetry, than either more heavily or more lightly grazed populations. Leaf fluctuating asymmetry was positively correlated with tannin concentration. The pattern of internode growth also responded to grazing impact. Plants under medium to heavy grazing pressure accelerated early growth and consequently escaped herbivory later in the season, i.e., at the beginning of the spring, when grazing activity was concentrated in herbaceous plants. Periploca laevigata accelerated growth and finished growing sooner than in the other grazing treatment. Thus, its annual growth was more mature and less palatable later in the season when grazers typically concentrate on shrubs. The reduction of developmental instability under medium grazing is interpreted as a direct effect of grazing and not as the release from competition.

  7. Ecological Effects of Grazing in the Northern Tianshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the effects of grazing is critical for the conservation, protection and sustainable use of arid grassland ecosystems. However, research regarding the ecological effects of grazing along mountainous elevation gradients is limited in arid areas, particularly at the regional scale. Using the Biome-BGC grazing model, we explored the effects of grazing on grassland net primary productivity (NPP, evapotranspiration (ET and water use efficiency (WUE from 1979 to 2012 along an elevation gradient in the northern Tianshan Mountains. The NPP, ET and WUE values were generally lower under the grazing scenario than under the ungrazed scenario; the differences between the grazing and ungrazed scenarios showed increasing trends over time; and distinct spatial heterogeneity in these differences was observed. Distinct decreases in NPP and WUE under the grazing scenario mainly occurred in regions with high livestock consumption. The decrease in ET was greater in mountainous areas with high grazing intensity due to decreased transpiration and increased surface runoff. This study contributes to a better understanding of the ecological effects of grazing along an elevation gradient in the northern Tianshan Mountains and provides data to support the scientific management of grassland ecosystems.

  8. Livestock grazing and the desert tortoise in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldemeyer, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A large part of the Mojave Desert is not in pristine condition, and some current conditions can be related to past grazing-management practices. No information could be found on densities of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) or on vegetative conditions of areas that had not been grazed to allow managers a comparison of range conditions with data on tortoises. Experimental information to assess the effect of livestock grazing on tortoises is lacking, and researchers have not yet examined whether the forage that remains after grazing is sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of desert tortoises.

  9. Dealing with Operating Leases in Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Aswath Damodaran

    1999-01-01

    Most firm valuation models start with the after-tax operating income as a measure of the operating income on a firm and reduce it by the reinvestment rate to arrive at the free cash flow to the firm. Implicitly, we assume that the operating expenses do not include any financing expenses (such as interest expense on debt). While this assumption, for the most part, is true, there is a significant exception. When a firm leases an asset, the accounting treatment of the expense depends upon whethe...

  10. 12 CFR 714.10 - What other laws must you comply with when engaged in leasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or provide the member with greater protections or benefits than the Consumer Leasing Act. You are... leasing? You must comply with the Consumer Leasing Act, 15 U.S.C. 1667-67f, and its implementing regulation, Regulation M, 12 CFR part 213. You must comply with state laws on consumer leasing, but only to...

  11. 30 CFR 285.437 - When can my lease or grant be canceled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When can my lease or grant be canceled? 285.437... Administration Lease Or Grant Cancellation § 285.437 When can my lease or grant be canceled? (a) The Secretary will cancel any lease or grant issued under this part upon proof that it was obtained by fraud or...

  12. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas...

  13. 12 CFR 714.7 - What are the insurance requirements applicable to leasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to leasing? 714.7 Section 714.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.7 What are the insurance requirements applicable to leasing? (a) You must maintain a contingent liability insurance policy with an endorsement for leasing or be named as...

  14. 30 CFR 285.210 - How does MMS initiate the competitive leasing process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS initiate the competitive leasing... OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Process § 285.210 How does MMS initiate the competitive leasing process? The MMS may publish in the Federal Register a public notice of Request for Interest to...

  15. 30 CFR 285.436 - Can MMS require lease or grant contraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can MMS require lease or grant contraction? 285... Administration Lease Or Grant Contraction § 285.436 Can MMS require lease or grant contraction? At an interval no more frequent than every 5 years, the MMS may review your lease or grant area to determine whether the...

  16. 30 CFR 285.202 - What types of leases will MMS issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of leases will MMS issue? 285.202 Section 285.202 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Renewable Energy Leases General Lease Information § 285.202 What types of leases will MMS issue? The MMS may...

  17. 25 CFR 215.6 - Applications for leases; consent of Indian owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a new lease be executed and delivered (or advertised for sale to the highest bidder) unless the... be personally incompetent to transact ordinary business affairs, has agreed to the terms of said lease or the terms under which said lease is advertised for lease, except in cases where the land is...

  18. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  19. Angular Distributions of Sputtered Atoms from Semiconductor Targets at Grazing Ion Beam Incidence Angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekowski, M.; Burenkov, A.; Martinez-Limia, A.; Hernandez-Mangas, J.; Ryssel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Angular distributions of ion sputtered germanium and silicon atoms are investigated within this work. Experiments are performed for the case of grazing ion incidence angles, where the resulting angular distributions are asymmetrical with respect to the polar angle of the sputtered atoms. The performed experiments are compared to Monte-Carlo simulations from different programs. We show here an improved model for the angular distribution, which has an additional dependence of the ion incidence angle.

  20. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  1. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junye; Cardenas, Laura M.; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Cuttle, Steve; Thorman, Rachel E.; Li Changsheng

    2012-01-01

    Grazed grassland systems are an important component of the global carbon cycle and also influence global climate change through their emissions of nitrous oxide and methane. However, there are huge uncertainties and challenges in the development and parameterisation of process-based models for grazed grassland systems because of the wide diversity of vegetation and impacts of grazing animals. A process-based biogeochemistry model, DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), has been modified to describe N 2 O emissions for the UK from regional conditions. This paper reports a new development of UK-DNDC in which the animal grazing practices were modified to track their contributions to the soil nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry. The new version of UK-DNDC was tested against datasets of N 2 O fluxes measured at three contrasting field sites. The results showed that the responses of the model to changes in grazing parameters were generally in agreement with observations, showing that N 2 O emissions increased as the grazing intensity increased. - Highlights: ► Parameterisation of grazing system using grazing intensity. ► Modification of UK D NDC for the UK soil and weather conditions. ► Validation of the UK D NDC against measured data of N 2 O emissions in three UK sites. ► Estimating influence of animal grazing practises on N 2 O emissions. - Grazing system was parameterised using grazing intensity and UK-DNDC model was modified and validated against measured data of N 2 O emissions in three UK sites.

  2. An Integrated Model for a Water Leasing System on the Middle Rio Grand, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, D. S.; Coursey, D. L.; Tidwell, V. C.; Broadbent, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    motivated by a utility function specific to each water users needs. Currently twelve experiments have been run in four different climatic scenarios (decreasing, increasing, normal and dry water scenarios) for the generalized water leasing system, and the sophisticated farmer decision process. The results have shown the market to be robust, with multiple trades occurring in each trading year. The trading process is efficient with positive gains being realized from participation in the marketplace. This material is based upon work supported in part by SAHRA (Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas) under the STC Program of the National Science Foundation, Agreement No. EAR-9876800 and through Sandia National Laboratory Research and Development Program. Special thanks go to Kyle Carpenter, Ramon Vasquez, Ann Demint, for programming of various software components and to Jake Grandy and Frannie Miller for help in running the experiments.

  3. Remedying breaches or non-performance of the lease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sali, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses how natural gas and petroleum leases should be handled in the event of a dispute or non-performance, particularly in cases when the original parties to the lease have assigned their interests to others, which is currently a common practice. The most obvious concern is premature termination or default which, however, can be easily prevented by paying all delay rentals in a timely fashion, and at the proper address. In other types of default, most leases in use today contain a default clause which requires the party that asserts the existence of a default to serve notice to the party allegedly in default. Remedying the default is permitted, as it is in many other contracts. Interruptions in production is a frequent occasion for claiming default and many leases deal with shut-in production in special ways, but care must be exercised in interpreting the lease in question, for if there is an intention by the lessee to shut-in production due to economic or other considerations after the primary term expires there is virtually no way to bring that lease back to life, unless the facts clearly show that the parties knowingly effectively constructed a new lease

  4. Chemical leasing in the context of sustainable chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Frank; Karavezyris, Vassilios; Blum, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Chemical leasing is a new and innovative approach of selling chemicals. It aims at reducing the risks emanating from hazardous substances and ensuring long-term economic success within a global system of producing and using chemicals. This paper explores how, through chemical leasing, the consumption of chemicals, energy, resources and the generation of related wastes can be reduced. It also analyses the substitution of hazardous chemicals as a tool to protect environmental, health and safety and hence ensure compliance with sustainability criteria. For this, we are proposing an evaluation methodology that seeks to provide an answer to the following research questions: (1) Does the application of chemical leasing promote sustainability in comparison to an existing chemicals production and management system? 2. If various chemical leasing project types are envisaged, which is the most promising in terms of sustainability? The proposed methodology includes a number of basic goals and sub-goals to assess the sustainability for eight different chemical leasing case studies that have been implemented both at the local and the national levels. The assessment is limited to the relative assessment of specific case studies and allows the comparisons of different projects in terms of their relative contribution to sustainable chemistry. The findings of our assessment demonstrate that chemical leasing can be regarded as promoting sustainable chemistry in five case studies with certainty. However, on the grounds of our assessment, we cannot conclude with certainty that chemical leasing has equivalent contribution to sustainable chemistry in respect of three further case studies.

  5. Dairy farmers using mob grazing in Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proponents of ultra-high stocking density grazing emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 500,000 lb per acre of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods up to 180 days. However, it is unclear if this management tec...

  6. Day and night grazing by cattle in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of night grazing on feeding behavior, nutrition and performance of cattle was studied. Twenty-four steers weighing 367 kg (SD = 76) grazed either from 0900 to 1900 (day grazers), 2100 to 0700 (night grazers) or 0900 to 1900 and 2400 to 0400 (day-and-night grazers) during 13 weeks. Four

  7. Resilience of soils and vegetation subjected to different grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resilience of rangeland soils and vegetation to different levels of grazing is still poorly understood. A study was conducted to determine the recovery of a rangeland grazed at different intensities and allowed a two-year rest period. The following treatments were applied to 0.5 hectare plots: 0, 4, 8 and 16 heifers per ...

  8. Soil contamination of plant surfaces from grazing and rainfall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Stoll, J.M.; Tobler, L.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminants often attach to soil particles, and their subsequent environmental transport is largely determined by processes that govern soil movement. We examined the influence of grazing intensity on soil contamination of pastures. Four different grazing densities of sheep were tested against an ungrazed control plot. Scandium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis and was used as a tracer of soil adhesion on vegetation. Soil loadings ( g soil kg -1 dry plant) increased 60% when grazing intensity was increased by a factor of four (p 0.003). Rain and wind removed soil from vegetation in the ungrazed control plots, but when grazing sheep were present, an increase in rain from 0.3 to 9.7 mm caused a 130% increase in soil contamination. Multiple regression was used to develop an equation that predicts soil loadings as a function of grazing density, rainfall and wind speed (p = 0.0001, r 2 = 0.78). The model predicts that if grazing management were to be used as a tool to reduce contaminant intake from inadvertent consumption of resuspended soil by grazing animals, grazing densities would have to be reduced 2.5 times to reduce soil loadings by 50%. (author)

  9. White clover regenerative ability under N fertilizing and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Leto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, ecological and economic factors in milk and meat production stimulate use of legumes and grass-legumes mixtures, with zero or minimum mineral N as alternative to grass monoculture with high rate of mineral N. Research objective was to examine the effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S on white clover: growing points number, stolon lenght, stolon dry weight, dry matter yield and clover contribution to total annual herbage production. N150 significantly reduced the growing points number, stolon length and stolon dry weight for more than 70 % compared to N0. Grazing treatment affected stolon population density only in interaction with N application because of N150 significantly reduced white clover population density only in sheep grazing. S-treatment had higher clover DM yield (0.21 t ha-1 than C-treatment (0.13 t ha-1. N0 had higher clover DM yield (0.25 t ha-1 than N150 (0.09 t ha-1. However, the interaction grazing management x N rate was significant for clover DM yield and clover contribution to total DM yield. N150 reduced both parameters for 80 % only in sheep grazing while difference in DM yield and clover contribution to total DM yield between grazing treatment was recorded only in N0 Sheep grazing increased DM yield for 150 % and clover contribution for 99 % compared to cattle grazing.

  10. Grass species selection patterns on rotationally-grazed Dohne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbaceous species preference was studied during autumn and winter periods of occupation, on rotationally-grazed Dohne Sourveld, at four different stocking rates. Reports on species selection by cattle and sheep grazing together. Illustrates with graphsLanguage: English. Keywords: Grass species; Herbage availibility; ...

  11. Transformation of a savanna grassland by drought and grazing | O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative effects of drought and heavy grazing on the floristic composition, population size and and structure, and basal cover of an African savanna grassland were differentiated by comparing changes over eight years over eight years, which included a severe drought year, across a gradient of grazing history. Drought ...

  12. The evaluation of four Eragrostis curvula ecotypes with grazing sheep.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant differences in the dry matter production and chemical composition of the clipped samples of the ecotypes. Keywords: afrikaans; chemical composition; dry matter production; ecotypes; eragrostis curvula; grazing; live mass; live mass gains; open rotational grazing system; production; sheep; south ...

  13. Mixed farming in a grazing reserve in Northern Nigeria | Babalobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's main pastoral development strategy is the settlement of pastoralists in grazing reserves. The goal of the strategy is to turn such nomadic pastoralists into mixed farmers who will take up crop farming to supplement livestock farming. Using the Bobi Grazing Reserve, Niger State, Nigeria as case study, the attainment ...

  14. Review: Behavior and daily grazing patterns of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregorini, P.; Tamminga, S.; Gunther, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grazing ruminants consume their food in discrete grazing events. The frequency and distribution of these events depend on the current physiological state of the animal and its environment. Within a small spatio-temporal scale, foraging decisions such as when to begin, which frequency, and how to

  15. Possibilities and constraints for grazing in high output dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennessy, D.; Delaby, L.; Pol, van den A.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    In temperate and oceanic regions, grazed grass is the lowest cost feed available for milk production. In other regions, grazed grass is less important but can contribute to the diet of livestock. Within high output systems the interaction between the animal and sward is challenging for a host of

  16. The grazing index method of range condition assessment | du Toit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owing to the difficulty of examining succession theory in the Karoo, it is suggested the ecological index method (EIM), be replaced by the grazing index method (GIM), through the introduction of grazing index values (GIV) for Karoo plant species. The GIM may provide more acceptable range condition scores and more ...

  17. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  18. Livestock Grazing as a Driver of Vernal Pool Ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, J.; McCarten, N. F.

    2017-12-01

    Vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that host rare plant communities of high conservation priority. Plant community composition is largely driven by pool hydroperiod. A previous study found that vernal pools grazed by livestock had longer hydroperiods compared with pools excluded from grazing for 10 years, and suggests that livestock grazing can be used to protect plant diversity. It is important to assess whether observed differences are due to the grazing or due to water balance variables including upland discharge into or out of the pools since no a priori measurements were made of the hydrology prior to grazing. To address this question, in 2016 we compared 15 pools that have been grazed continuously and 15 pools that have been fenced off for over 40 years at a site in Sacramento County. We paired pools based on abiotic characteristics (size, shape, slope, soil type) to minimize natural variation. We sampled vegetation and water depth using Solinst level loggers. We found that plant diversity and average hydroperiod was significantly higher in the grazed pools. We are currently measuring groundwater connectivity and upland inputs in order to compare the relative strength of livestock grazing as a driver of hydroperiod to these other drivers.

  19. Effect of mowing and grazing on ramet emergence of Leymus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... experiment was conducted in the spring of 2004 to investigate the effects on the surface soil temperature caused by mowing, grazing and grazing exclusion, and the influence of these factors on the ramets emergence characteristics. The primary effect of the treatments was significant changes in.

  20. Vegetation patterns and nutrients in relation to grazing pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major challenge confronting managers of extensive grazing systems is uneven use of erbaceous forage plants by livestock. The concentration of grazing in preferred areas or around foci points (e.g. water points) eventually results in adverse impacts in soil nutrients, vegetation structure, production and composition.

  1. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  2. Construction permit of nuclear power plants in case of leasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Guiding lines (unofficial): 1. A leasing company can be founded to finance and to operate a nuclear power plant. 2. The leasing company does not require a license according to section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act, for it neither constructs nor posesses the nuclear power plant. 3. This also applies if the proprietor, and later on operator, of the nuclear power plant holds an interest in this leasing company as a shareholder. Section 7, and 19 subsection 3 of the Atomic Energy Act. Higher Administrative Court of Rhineland Palatinate, Decision of July 20sup(th), 1982. (orig.) [de

  3. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously.Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years.We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a 'win-win' solution for farmers and

  4. Grazing behavior and production characteristics among cows differing in residual feed intake while grazing late season Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to determine if cows classified as either low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI) differed in BW, BCS, and winter grazing activity over time. Thirty Hereford x Angus (LRFI = 16; HRFI = 14) 2-year-old cows grazed sagebrush-steppe for 78 d beginning 29 September 2016. Body...

  5. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  6. The Leasing Contract. Harmonizing National Legislation with the Lease Specific International Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Dinu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By elaborating the proposed work, we want to bring theoretical contributions and enter a scientific domain which may not be at the beginning of its course to Romanian society, but which we consider to be able to handle improvements under doctrinaire and practical aspects. Objectively, we intend to reinforce the “statute” of leasing operations on a national level, operations which are still searching for their own identity, lacking any “legacy” gained from experience or historical post-December accumulations, and what has been gained has been assumed in a rush, under the influence of the Romanian society’s processes of democratization and European integration and are mechanical accumulations/teachings which resulted from the enforcement and necessity of complying with certain treaties and agreements which have not been sufficiently analyzed. Because they were taken in fractions, a series of norms resulted, lacking the consistency and sufficiency needed to improve education in the leasing domain, which has often led to contractual imbalances and a considerable decrease of the leasing market in Romania.

  7. Effects of grazing strategy on limiting nitrate leaching in grazed grass-clover pastures on coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    -term mean. The experiment was initiated in a 4-yr-old grass-clover sward in south Denmark. Three treatments were as follows grazing only (G), spring cut followed by grazing (CG) and both spring and autumn cuts with summer grazing (CGC). Nitrate leaching was calculated by extracting water isolates from 80 cm......Urinations of ruminants on grazed pastures increase the risk of nitrate leaching. The study investigated the effect of reducing the length of the grazing season on nitrate leaching from a coarse sandy, irrigated soil during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. In both years, precipitation was above the long...... depth using ceramic suction cups. Because of considerable variation in measured nitrate concentrations, the 32 installed suction cups per treatment were insufficient to reveal differences between treatments. However, weighted nitrate leaching estimations for G, CG and CGC showed estimated mean nitrate N...

  8. Characterization and typification of small ruminant farms providing fuelbreak grazing services for wildfire prevention in Andalusia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Y; Ruiz-Mirazo, J; Ruiz, F A; Castel, J M

    2016-02-15

    Several wildfire prevention programs in Spain are using grazing livestock to maintain fuelbreaks with low levels of biomass. Even though shepherds are remunerated for these services, many of their farms are hardly viable in the current socio-economic context. By analyzing 54 small ruminant farms participating in the Grazed Fuelbreak Network in Andalusia (southern Spain), this research aimed to identify the main types and characteristics of such farms and, considering the challenges they are facing, propose strategies to improve both their economic viability and their effectiveness in fuelbreak grazing. Based on data collected through a survey on key farm management aspects, a multivariate analysis was performed and four main types of farm were identified: two clusters of dairy goat farms and two composed mostly of meat-purpose sheep farms. Farms in all clusters could benefit from improvements in the feeding and reproductive management of livestock, either to enhance their productivity or to make better use of the pasture resources available. Dairy goat farms remain more dependent on external animal feed to ensure a better lactation, therefore they should either diminish their workforce costs per animal or sell transformed products directly to consumers to improve their economic viability. Best fuelbreak grazing results were related to larger flocks combining sheep and goats, lower ratios of fuelbreak surface area per animal, and longer (year-long) grazing periods on fuelbreaks. Therefore, such farm features and adjusted fuelbreak assignments should be favored in wildfire prevention programs using grazing services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Grazing Affects Exosomal Circulating MicroRNAs in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroya, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Hojito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are associated with physiological adaptation to acute and chronic aerobic exercise in humans. To investigate the potential effect of grazing movement on miRNA circulation in cattle, here we profiled miRNA expression in centrifugally prepared exosomes from the plasma of both grazing and housed Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Microarray analysis of the c-miRNAs resulted in detection of a total of 231 bovine exosomal miRNAs in the plasma, with a constant expression level of let-7g across the duration and cattle groups. Expression of muscle-specific miRNAs such as miR-1, miR-133a, miR-206, miR-208a/b, and miR-499 were undetectable, suggesting the mildness of grazing movement as exercise. According to validation by quantitative RT-PCR, the circulating miR-150 level in the grazing cattle normalized by the endogenous let-7g level was down-regulated after 2 and 4 months of grazing (P cattle equalized when the grazing cattle were returned to a housed situation. Likewise, the levels of miR-19b, miR-148a, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-361, and miR-486 were temporarily lowered in the cattle at 1 and/or 2 month of grazing compared to those of the housed cattle (P cattle at 2 months of grazing (P = 0.044). The elevation of miR-451 level in the plasma was coincident with that in the biceps femoris muscle of the grazing cattle (P = 0.008), which suggests the secretion or intake of miR-451 between skeletal muscle cells and circulation during grazing. These results revealed that exosomal c-miRNAs in cattle were affected by grazing, suggesting their usefulness as molecular grazing markers and functions in physiological adaptation of grazing cattle associated with endocytosis, focal adhesion, axon guidance, and a variety of intracellular signaling, as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. PMID:26308447

  10. Resilience of South African communal grazing lands after the removal of high grazing pressure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison, YA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available , et al., 1990; Dahlberg, 1993; Scoones, 1993; Shackleton, 1993; Sullivan, 1996). Invariably `overstocking' and hence overgrazing are deemed to be responsible for the apparent degradation. Despite this o cial perspective, most communal lands have... ones (Kelly and Walker, 1976; O'Connor and Pickett, 1992; Parsons, et al., 1997). However, these studies have not indicated the permanence, or reversibility, of the measured changes, and the magnitude of grazing eC128ects is usually minor relative...

  11. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Axial grazing collisions with insulator surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar; Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-05-15

    Electron capture and emission processes from insulator surfaces produced by grazing impact of fast ions are investigated under axial incidence conditions. For crystal surfaces we develop a model based on distorted wave methods, which allows us to express the coherent transition amplitude along the projectile path as a sum of atomic amplitudes, each one associated with a different lattice site. The method is applied to 100 keV protons colliding with LiF surfaces. For electron transitions from a given initial crystal state, the probabilities display strong interference effects as a function of the crystal orientation. But the interference patterns disappear when these partial probabilities are added to derive the total probability from the surface band.

  13. Axial grazing collisions with insulator surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Electron capture and emission processes from insulator surfaces produced by grazing impact of fast ions are investigated under axial incidence conditions. For crystal surfaces we develop a model based on distorted wave methods, which allows us to express the coherent transition amplitude along the projectile path as a sum of atomic amplitudes, each one associated with a different lattice site. The method is applied to 100 keV protons colliding with LiF surfaces. For electron transitions from a given initial crystal state, the probabilities display strong interference effects as a function of the crystal orientation. But the interference patterns disappear when these partial probabilities are added to derive the total probability from the surface band

  14. Poultry performance in different grazing densities: forage characteristics, losses due to grazing and feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Cristiano França

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of three forage species grazed by rustic poultry in stocking were evaluated. Coast-cross fodder, kikuyu grass, and stylosanthes were planted in 33-m2 paddocks with two densities (m2/animal: D1 = 3m2/animal and D2 = 1m2/animal. The design was a randomized complete block with a 3 x 2 factorial (three grasses and two densities and three replications. Grass canopy height, grass mass, morphological composition (leaf, stem, and dead material, losses due to grazing, poultry weight gain and consumption, and concentrate feed conversion ratio and efficiency were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, forage and leaves masses were considered low to stylosanthes in D2 (0.28 to 0.03 kg/m2 and to kikuyu grass in D1 (0.13 to 0.05 kg/m2 and in D2 (0.11 and 0.03 kg/m2, respectively. In addition, the grass canopy height was considered low for stylosanthes (6.50 cm that could jeopardize the entry of new poultry lot. The three grass species had similar weight gain and revealed better results for 3m²/ chicken (3.20 kg/animal. Coast-cross fodder, kikuyu grass, and stylosanthes, with some exceptions, can be considered suitable for grazing fattening poultry at 3m2/animal at the evaluated time of the year (autumn.

  15. 30 CFR 282.15 - Cancellation of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lease would probably cause serious harm or damage to life (including fish and other aquatic life), to... due to the failure of one or more partners to exercise due diligence, the innocent parties shall have...

  16. The application of chemical leasing business models in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Petra; Moser, Frank

    2006-03-01

    To better address the requirements of the changing multilateral order, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Cleaner Production Programme, in 2004, developed the new Sustainable Industrial Resource Management (SIRM) approach. This approach is in accordance with the principles decided at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992. Unlike the traditional approaches to environmental management, the SIRM concept captures the idea of achieving sustainable industrial development through the implementation of circular material and energy flows in the entire production chain and reduction of the amount of material and energy used with greater efficiency solutions. The SIRM approach seeks to develop new models to encourage a shift from selling products to supplying services, modifying, in this manner, the supplier/user relationship and resulting in a win-win situation for the economy and the environment. Chemical Leasing represents such a new service-oriented business model and is currently being promoted by UNIDO's Cleaner Production Programme. MAIN FEATURES. One of the potential approaches to address the problems related to ineffective use and over-consumption of chemicals is the development and implementation of Chemical Leasing business models. These provide concrete solutions to the effective management of chemicals and on the ways negative releases to the environment can be reduced. The Chemical Leasing approach is a strategy that addresses the obligations of the changing international chemicals policy by focusing on a more service-oriented strategy. Mexico is one of the countries that were selected for the implementation of UNIDO's demonstration project to promote Chemical Leasing models in the country. The target sector of this project is the chemical industry, which is expected to shift their traditional business concept towards a more service and value-added approach. This is

  17. 29 CFR 779.306 - Leased departments not separate establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service... leased departments, controls the space location, determines the type of goods that may be sold...

  18. 30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and Sulphur Management... any lease is offered or issued an area may be (1) withdrawn from disposition pursuant to section 12(a...

  19. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  20. El leasing financiero internacional en el tratado UNIDROIT

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Doña, Mª Sierra

    1998-01-01

    El Tratado UNIDROIT se refiere al contrato de leasing financiero internacional, esto es, al celebrado entre una Sociedad de leasing y un empresario con establecimientos (principal o secundario) situados en el territorio de dos Estados contratantes y caracterizado porque la primera adquiere elementos integrantes del patrimonio empresarial a un fabricante, según las instrucciones recibidas por su cliente y a quien se le entregará para su uso a cambio del pago de cuotas períodicas, al margen de ...

  1. Dynamic interaction between markets for leasing and selling automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Andrikopoulos, Athanasios; Markellos, Raphael N.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a model of dynamic interactions between price variations in leasing and selling markets for automobiles. Our framework assumes a differential game between multiple Bertrand-type competing firms which offer differentiated products to forward-looking agents. Empirical analysis of our model using monthly US data from 2002 to 2011 shows that variations in selling (cash) market prices lead rapidly dissipating changes of leasing market prices in the opposite direction. We discuss the pra...

  2. Plasma protein loss associated with gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, A Y; Holmes, P H; Parkins, J J; Armour, J

    1983-01-01

    Some pathophysiological effects of parasitic gastroenteritis in two groups of lambs grazing paddocks either heavily or lightly contaminated with trichostrongyle larvae were investigated between July and October 1980. The leak of plasma protein was measured on three occasions at pasture using 51chromic chloride. Total faecal output was measured indirectly using chromic oxide. Losses of 51chromic chloride-labelled plasma protein into the gastrointestinal tract were significantly higher in the lambs grazing the heavily contaminated pasture than in those grazing lightly infected ground in both July and August. The increased plasma losses were associated with high faecal egg counts, hypoalbuminaemia and elevated levels of plasma pepsinogen.

  3. Aplanatic grazing incidence diffraction grating: a new optical element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    We present the theory of a grazing incidence reflection grating capable of imaging at submicron resolution. The optic is mechanically ruled on a spherical or cylindrical surface with varied groove spacings, delivering diffraction-limited response and a wide field of view at a selected wavelength. Geometrical aberrations are calculated on the basis of Fermat's principle, revealing significant improvements over a grazing incidence mirror. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic versions of the grating have applications in both imaging and scanning microscopes, microprobes, collimators, and telescopes. A 2-D crossed system of such gratings, similar to the grazing incidence mirror geometry of Kirkpatrick and Baez, could potentially provide spatial resolutions of --200 A

  4. Impact of processing on in vitro digestion of milk from grazing organic and confined conventional herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debate on differences between milk from grazing and non-grazing cows has not addressed the effects that standard processing may have on milk digestibility. In this study, raw milk from grazing organic (ORG) and non-grazing conventional (CONV) herds was adjusted to 0 and 3.25% fat and processed as fo...

  5. Telecommunications Circuit Allocation Programs - Kansas City Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, William

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether DoD circuit allocation programs identified and used the most effective configurations for leased long-haul, special-purpose telecommunications circuits...

  6. The effect of grazing on cow mortality in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2011-01-01

    The effect of summer grazing in large Danish dairy herds and certain management characteristics of grazing were studied for their impact on dairy cow mortality. Mortality data (from the Danish Cattle Database) from 391 Danish dairy herds (>100 cows) were combined with information from...... a questionnaire survey of grazing procedures on these herds in 2008. In all, 131 of the herds were identified as summer grazing and 260 as zero-grazing herds. The mortality was affected by an interaction of summer grazing and milking system. The risk of a cow dying was reduced to 46% in a grazing compared...... and pasture was associated with increased cow mortality....

  7. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique

  8. Phosphorus and the grazing ruminant. 2. The effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Animal Science, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch. The effects of .... rosis, severely impaired locomotion and therefore grazing behaviour ..... Studies in mineral metabolism. XXXVII. The influence of variations in the dietary ...

  9. Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in Namibia. ... small mammal communities on two differently managed farmlands (cattle and game farm) in Namibia over the course of one year. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effects of the emerging grazing policies on land degradation in Nigeria using soil, vegetation ... imposed land use controls divorced from economic and demographic ... may be either positive or negative.

  11. Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in Arusha City, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... findings, majority (84.6%) of the cow's enclosures were of poor hygiene.

  12. High motility reduces grazing mortality of planktonic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Jurgens, K.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the impact of bacterial swimming speed on the survival of planktonic bacteria in the presence of protozoan grazers. Grazing experiments with three common bacterivorous nanoflagellates revealed low clearance rates for highly motile bacteria. High-resolution video microscopy demonstrated...... size revealed highest grazing losses for moderately motile bacteria with a cell size between 0.2 and 0.4 mum(3). Grazing mortality was lowest for cells of >0.5 mum(3) and small, highly motile bacteria. Survival efficiencies of >95% for the ultramicrobacterial isolate CP-1 (less than or equal to0.1 mum......(3), >50 mum s(-1)) illustrated the combined protective action of small cell size and high motility. Our findings suggest that motility has an important adaptive function in the survival of planktonic bacteria during protozoan grazing....

  13. Ecological status of species on grazing gradients on the shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological status of species on grazing gradients on the shallow soils of the western ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Vegetation data were gathered in such a way that those of different successional stages could be identified.

  14. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    to effects of livestock grazing. Rangeland science experts identified ground cover as a high monitoring priority for assessing range condition and emphasized the importance of tracking livestock numbers and grazing dates. Ultimately, the most effective monitoring program may entail both increased data collection effort and the integration of alternative monitoring approaches (for example, remote sensing or monitoring teams). In the course of our study, we identified three additional datasets that could potentially be used for range-wide analyses: spatial allotment boundary data for all BLM allotments range-wide, LHS evaluations of BLM allotments, and livestock use data (livestock numbers and grazing dates). It may be possible to use these spatial datasets to help prioritize monitoring activities over the extensive land areas managed by BLM. We present an example of how we used spatial allotment boundary data and LHS data to test whether remotely sensed vegetation characteristics could be used to predict which allotments met or did not meet LHS. This approach may be further improved by the results of current efforts by BLM to test whether more intensive (higher resolution) LHS assessments more accurately describe land health status. Standardized data collection in more ecologically meaningful land units may improve our ability to use local-level data for broad-scale analyses.

  15. Central Gulf of Mexico lease sale draws weak industry response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that interest in oil and gas leases in the Gulf of Mexico continued spiraling downward at the latest Minerals Management Service offshore sale. Companies participating in Outer Continental Shelf Sale 139 last week in New Orleans offered 196 bids for 151 blocks in the central Gulf of Mexico. MMS offered 5,213 blocks for lease. The number of tracts receiving bids was the fewest at a central gulf lease sale since 114 tracts garnered high bids totaling $146.4 million at Sale 104 in April 1986. Apparent high bids in Sale 139 totaled $56,195,552, and all bids offered totaled just $65,300,864. Both bidding totals were the lowest in a Gulf of Mexico lease sale since MMS began area-wide gulf leasing at Sale 72 in May 1983. Only 64 of 93 qualified companies participated in Sale 139. Fifty-five companies offered apparent winning bids. By comparison, 123 companies at central gulf lease Sale 131 in March 1991 offered 637 bids totaling $320.5 million for 464 tracts. Apparent high bids last spring totaled $259.9 million. At central gulf lease Sale 123 in March 1990, high bids totaled $427.4 million for 538 tracts. In that sale, BP Exploration Inc. led all bidders, exposing $78 million in 79 high bids, including 60 for deepwater tracts. Since then, interest in deepwater tracts has waned in part because of sagging oil and gas prices as U.S. operators sought bigger prospects outside the U.S. Ironically, Sale 139 was dominated by the U.S. subsidiary of an Italian holding company

  16. 41 CFR 102-73.130 - When may Federal agencies consider acquiring leases with purchase options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consider leasing with a purchase option at or below fair market value, consistent with the lease-purchase... and other advantages to the Government and is consistent with the Government's goals. (b) The...

  17. Analisis Yuridis Tentang Berlakunya Force Majeur Terhadap Wanprestasi Dalam Kontrak Leasing

    OpenAIRE

    Sidauruk, Masnur

    2011-01-01

    Dengan berkembangnya kegiatan ekonomi nasional, maka berkembang jugalah kegiatan masyarakat dalam bidang usaha ekonomi. Kegiatan usaha yang saat ini banyak berkembang di masyarakat adalah sewa guna usaha atau yang biasa disebut dengan leasing. Leasing adalah kegiatan pembiayaan dalam bentuk penyediaan barang modal baik secara Sewa Guna Usaha dengan hak opsi (Finance Lease) maupun Sewa Guna Usaha tanpa hak opsi (Operating Lease) untuk digunakan oleh Penyewa Guna Usaha (Lessee) selama jangka w...

  18. The Commercial Office Market and the Markup for Full Service Leases

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan A. Wiley; Yu Liu; Dongshin Kim; Tom Springer

    2014-01-01

    Because landlords assume all of the operating expense risk, rents for gross leases exceed those for net leases. The markup, or spread, for gross leases varies between properties and across markets. Specifically, the markup is expected to increase with the cost of real estate services at the property, and to be influenced by market conditions. A matching procedure is applied to measure the services markup as the percentage difference between the actual rent on a gross lease relative to the act...

  19. Decision Tree Approach to Discovering Fraud in Leasing Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Ivan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fraud attempts create large losses for financing subjects in modern economies. At the same time, leasing agreements have become more and more popular as a means of financing objects such as machinery and vehicles, but are more vulnerable to fraud attempts. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to estimate the usability of the data mining approach in discovering fraud in leasing agreements. Methods/Approach: Real-world data from one Croatian leasing firm was used for creating tow models for fraud detection in leasing. The decision tree method was used for creating a classification model, and the CHAID algorithm was deployed. Results: The decision tree model has indicated that the object of the leasing agreement had the strongest impact on the probability of fraud. Conclusions: In order to enhance the probability of the developed model, it would be necessary to develop software that would enable automated, quick and transparent retrieval of data from the system, processing according to the rules and displaying the results in multiple categories.

  20. 13 CFR 120.871 - Leasing part of Project Property to another business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing part of Project Property....871 Leasing part of Project Property to another business. (a) The costs of interior finishing of space to be leased out to another business are not eligible Project costs. (b) Third-party loan proceeds...

  1. 30 CFR 285.408 - May I assign my lease or grant interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Lease and Grant... application to MMS. The assignment application must include: (1) The MMS-assigned lease or grant number; (2) A... required financial assurance. (c) If you submit an application to assign a lease or grant, you will...

  2. 24 CFR 982.616 - Shared housing: Lease and HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Lease and HAP... Types Shared Housing § 982.616 Shared housing: Lease and HAP contract. For assistance in a shared housing unit, there is a separate HAP contract and lease for each assisted family. ...

  3. 24 CFR 982.607 - Congregate housing: Lease and HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Lease and HAP... Types Congregate Housing § 982.607 Congregate housing: Lease and HAP contract. For congregate housing, there is a separate lease and HAP contract for each assisted family. ...

  4. 24 CFR 982.611 - Group home: Lease and HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group home: Lease and HAP contract... Types Group Home § 982.611 Group home: Lease and HAP contract. For assistance in a group home, there is a separate HAP contract and lease for each assisted person. ...

  5. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  6. 12 CFR 714.2 - What are the permissible leasing arrangements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the permissible leasing arrangements? 714.2 Section 714.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... leasing. In direct leasing, you purchase personal property from a vendor, becoming the owner of the...

  7. 12 CFR 714.6 - Are you required to retain salvage powers over the leased property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are you required to retain salvage powers over the leased property? 714.6 Section 714.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.6 Are you required to retain salvage powers over the leased...

  8. Farm Equipment Leasing. A New Financial Strategy. Staff Report No. AGES870302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, William S.

    For farmers with high debt/asset ratios, leasing is an attractive option for securing the use of farm machinery. Under the current tax laws, financial leasing carries lower after-tax costs than loan purchasing. By size, farms with more than $500,000 in sales had the highest proportion of U.S. expenditures for farm equipment leasing. By region, the…

  9. 30 CFR 203.63 - Does my application have to include all leases in the field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The Regional Director maintains a Field Names Master List with updates of all leases in each... application for all leases that are part of the designated field on the date of application, except as... eventually become part of the authorized field. Therefore, if you have any other leases that you believe may...

  10. 18 CFR 367.1011 - Account 101.1, Property under capital leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 101.1, Property under capital leases. 367.1011 Section 367.1011 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... date, (4) Original cost or fair market value of property leased, (5) Future minimum lease payments, (6...

  11. 75 FR 32221 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Andrews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ..., Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Andrews International, Inc., Evansville, IN... that workers leased from Andrews International, Inc. were employed on-site at the Evansville, Indiana... findings, the Department is amending this certification to include leased workers from Andrews...

  12. 75 FR 41895 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Andrews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ..., Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Andrews International, Inc., M.H. Equipment, and... 10321). The notice was amended on May 25, 2010 to include on-site leased workers from Andrews... workers of Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, including on-site leased workers from Andrews...

  13. 76 FR 26178 - Modifications to Treatment of Aircraft and Vessel Leasing Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Modifications to Treatment of Aircraft and Vessel Leasing Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... final regulations addressing the treatment of certain income and assets related to the leasing of... controlled foreign corporations that derive income from the leasing of aircraft or vessels in foreign...

  14. 49 CFR 604.8 - Leasing FTA funded equipment and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leasing FTA funded equipment and drivers. 604.8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Exceptions § 604.8 Leasing FTA funded equipment and drivers. (a) A recipient may lease its FTA-funded equipment and drivers to registered charter providers...

  15. 30 CFR 285.231 - How will MMS process my unsolicited request for a noncompetitive lease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a noncompetitive lease? 285.231 Section 285.231 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... described in §§ 285.640 through 285.648. (e) The MMS will coordinate and consult with affected Federal.... (1) Within 10 business days after you receive the lease copies you must: (i) Execute the lease; (ii...

  16. 12 CFR 616.6300 - Leasing policies, procedures, and underwriting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property and associated risks; (e) Property tax and sales tax reporting; (f) Title and ownership of leased... engaged in lease underwriting must adopt a written policy (or policies). Management, at the direction of the board, must develop procedures that reflect lease practices that control risk and comply with all...

  17. 36 CFR 18.5 - May property be leased without receiving fair market value rent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... without receiving fair market value rent? 18.5 Section 18.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... leased without receiving fair market value rent? Property may be leased under this part only if the lease requires payment of rent to the government equal to or higher than the property's fair market value rent...

  18. Land lease contract and prior right of lessee to concluding the new land lease contract - case of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bandlerová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land lease is one of the few possible ways to use the agricultural land effectively. This is caused by problems in the proprietary and user relationships, therefore the agricultural land lease and its legal regulation is especially important for Slovakia. This paper deals with the selected legal arrangements related to the agricultural land lease in Slovakia with an objective to identify application problems faced by lessees and lessors of agricultural land. When regulating the agricultural land lease relationships, the Slovak law maker prefers dispositive legal norms. However, this method is rarely used in the application practice. Contracting parties often focus only on obligatory characters of the contract, relying on the legal text of dispositive provisions. The legal arrangement of the lessee’s prior right to sign the new lease contract attracts a particular attention. Current legal regulation of this lessee’s right seems to be unenforceable; on the other hand, it collides with the basic human rights. This provision needs to be either cancelled or adjusted so that it achieves the objective defined by the law maker and so that it is legally enforceable in compliance with superior legal norms.

  19. Rotation grazing as a conservation management tool : Vegetation changes after six years of application in a salt marsh ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; Howison, Ruth A.; Esselink, Peter; Ubels, Richard; Smit, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Grazing is commonly used in conservation to promote biodiversity, but the search for a grazing management regime that optimises biodiversity is still ongoing. Rotation grazing, where grazing is followed by a relatively long period of non-grazing, is a relative new tool in conservation management,

  20. Population Dynamics and Transcriptomic Responses of Chorthippus albonemus (Orthoptera: Acrididae to Herbivore Grazing Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghu Qin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing can trigger outbreaks of insect pests in steppe ecosystems of Inner Mongolia in China. However, the physiological responses of the grasshopper Chorthippus albonemus to grazing are not well-understood. Here we investigated the effects of sheep grazing on the population dynamics and transcriptomic response of C. albonemus. We collected the insects three times (about 20 days apart in 1.33-ha plots in which there were no grazing, light grazing, moderate grazing, heavy grazing, or overgrazing. Our results showed that continuous grazing significantly decreased plant biomass and influenced plant succession. Total insect species diversity significantly declined along the grazing intensity gradient and over time. Results of the first two collections of C. albonemus indicated that moderate grazing significantly increased the abundance of C. albonemus. However, abundance was significantly decreased in plots that were overgrazed, possibly because of food stress and environmental pressures. Under moderate grazing, betA and CHDH genes were significantly upregulated in C. albonemus. In response to higher grazing intensity, upregulated genes included those involved in serine-type peptidase activity, anatomical structure development, and sensory organ development; downregulated genes included those involved in the structural constituents of the ribosome and ribosome processes. Genes strongly upregulated in response to heavy grazing pressure included adaptive genes such as those encoding ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein and HSP. These findings improve our understanding of the role of the transcriptome in C. albonemus population response to livestock grazing and may provide useful targets for grasshopper control.

  1. The Effects of Timing of Grazing on Plant and Arthropod Communities in High-Elevation Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stacy C.; Burkle, Laura A.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Cutting, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock grazing can be used as a key management tool for maintaining healthy ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of using grazing to modify habitat for species of conservation concern depends on how the grazing regime is implemented. Timing of grazing is one grazing regime component that is less understood than grazing intensity and grazer identity, but is predicted to have important implications for plant and higher trophic level responses. We experimentally assessed how timing of cattle grazing affected plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands of southwest Montana to better evaluate its use as a tool for multi-trophic level management. We manipulated timing of grazing, with one grazing treatment beginning in mid-June and the other in mid-July, in two experiments conducted in different grassland habitat types (i.e., wet meadow and upland) in 2011 and 2012. In the upland grassland experiment, we found that both early and late grazing treatments reduced forb biomass, whereas graminoid biomass was only reduced with late grazing. Grazing earlier in the growing season versus later did not result in greater recovery of graminoid or forb biomass as expected. In addition, the density of the most ubiquitous grassland arthropod order (Hemiptera) was reduced by both grazing treatments in upland grasslands. A comparison of end-of-season plant responses to grazing in upland versus wet meadow grasslands revealed that grazing reduced graminoid biomass in the wet meadow and forb biomass in the upland, irrespective of timing of grazing. Both grazing treatments also reduced end-of-season total arthropod and Hemiptera densities and Hemiptera biomass in both grassland habitat types. Our results indicate that both early and late season herbivory affect many plant and arthropod characteristics in a similar manner, but grazing earlier may negatively impact species of conservation concern requiring forage earlier in the growing season. PMID:25338008

  2. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  3. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Oyster Leases, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_oyster_lease_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) oyster leases data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  4. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  5. Graphite irradiated by swift heavy ions under grazing incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Müller, C; Neumann, R

    2002-01-01

    Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is irradiated with various heavy projectiles (Ne, Ni, Zn, Xe and U) in the MeV to GeV energy range under different oblique angles of incidence. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the impact zones are imaged as hillocks protruding from the surface. The diameter of surface-grazing tracks varies between 3 nm (Ne) and 6 nm (U), which is about twice as large as under normal beam incidence. Exclusively for U and Xe projectiles, grazing tracks exhibit long comet-like tails consisting of successive little bumps indicating that the damage along the ion path is discontinuous even for highest electronic stopping powers.

  6. 1000 years of sustainable grazing in Nordic conditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    landscapes at different spatial levels. Information on much of this sort of regulation has however been lost through modern times, tended to prefer modern (nature) scientific methods primarily developed as general (meaning not spatially contextual) recommendations for raising productivity. During the later...... years this modern tradition has also been preferred by investigations to find solutions for non-sustainable types of land use in grazing systems. However, much sustainability-relevant wisdom has been accumulated in historical grazing-systems that should be included in the repertoire of knowledge...

  7. X-ray grazing incidence diffraction from multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, S.; Boeni, P.; Swygenhoven, H. van; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Grazing incidence scattering geometries using synchrotron radiation have been applied in order to characterise the roughness profiles and the structural coherence of multilayers. The lateral correlation length of the roughness profiles was evaluated using diffuse reflectivity in the `out of plane` geometry. This type of measurement is the only diffuse reflectivity technique allowing large lateral momentum transfer. It is typically suitable for correlation lengths smaller than 1000 A. The lateral structural coherence length of Ni{sub 3}Al/Ni multilayers as a function of the layer thickness was obtained by grazing incidence diffraction (GID). 3 figs., 1 ref.

  8. 24 CFR 882.511 - Lease and termination of tenancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 5, subpart L, in all cases where domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, or criminal activity directly related to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is involved or claimed to be... prohibited by HUD. (2) The lease must provide that drug-related criminal activity engaged in on or near the...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.408 - Lease of security property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lease of security property. 3560.408 Section 3560.408 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... facilities related to a housing project (e.g., central kitchens, recreation facilities, laundry rooms, and...

  10. Scooter Leasing : A Cradle-to-Cradle Sound Strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, F.H.J.; De Brito, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the application of the Cradle-to-Cradle approach to the electric scooter vehicle, and how the concept of leasing can be used as a means to make it operational. This research is a result of a research project with Eco-Movement, a Dutch firm currently selling electric

  11. 78 FR 48343 - Reporting and Paying Royalties on Federal Leases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Government may benefit because (1) the reduced burden of reporting may extend the life on marginal... its leases in the unit or communitization agreement. These imbalances led to numerous questions about... a member of such staff is required to perform work on a specific case. Section 304(b) of FLPMA...

  12. Leases – Public Discussion of a New Common Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Valášková, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    The paper focus on the importance of public discussion for developing a new common standard in case of topical lease accounting. To stimulate the public discussion the IASB and the FASB have done several outreach activities and going to continue in obtaining more views from stakeholders

  13. 76 FR 64099 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    .... The tract will be leased to the qualified bidder of the highest cash amount provided that the high bid...-way as required by typical mining practices. The total mineable stripping ratio of the coal in bank... containing approximately 0.27 percent sulfur. These quality averages place the coal reserves at the high end...

  14. Buying and leasing real estate for veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzsieder, Karl R

    2006-03-01

    The major factors to be considered in the real estate purchase decision are the interest rate, the depreciation schedule, the property appreciation, the income tax impact, and the impact of paying a principal payment as part of the real estate mortgage. All these factors must be compared with the costs of leasing.

  15. 32 CFR 644.135 - Lease authorization and approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... work to the Government for the expected life of the lease shall be less than the cost of alternative... geographical area in which the availability of Government-owned space was surveyed, together with reasons for limiting the area. The mission is to be set forth in detail, along with the reason(s) why space in this...

  16. Leasing Retirees: Smart Business or Gaming the System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, a high school principal in a large Arizona school district met individually with 18 of his most senior teachers to inform them that they would not have a job the following year. Why didn't tenure protect them from wholesale dismissal? The answer is they all had one thing in common: they were retirees who had been leased or hired…

  17. RELATIVE PROLIFERATION RISKS FOR NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING ARRANGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHENG, L.Y.; YUE, M.; BARI, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a probabilistic approach to quantify the proliferation risks of fuel leasing and recycling. A Markov model approach is applied to evaluate the probability of proliferation success by diversion or theft. Proliferation risk is calculated as a product of the probability of success and the corresponding consequences

  18. 47 CFR 76.975 - Commercial leased access dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... declaration and the party submitting the protected material. The Commission has full authority to fashion... leased access complaint within 90 days of the close of the pleading cycle. (2) The Media Bureau, after... the proposals or choose to fashion its own remedy. (i) During the pendency of a dispute, a party...

  19. Lessee's obligations under the oil and gas lease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Obligations of a lessee under the present day freehold petroleum and natural gas lease are described. The effect of recent cases relating to fiduciary and good faith duties on the lessee's obligations are also examined. Every lease under the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) must specifically deal with rights to be granted, the obligations to drill, royalties, the length of the primary term, the amount of the rental rights, rights to pool, and offset obligations. In Alberta, the most accepted petroleum and natural gas lease form is the CAPL 91. This form is presently being revised to create the 1998 version. The contents of this discussion included: (1) historical lease interpretation, (2) fiduciary obligations, (3) the definition of the doctrine of good faith, (4) implied and express covenants, (5) application of the default clause and (6) force majeur provisions. Although Alberta law does not recognize the doctrine of good faith, nevertheless the court will review the obligations of the lessee and if they do not feel that the lessee has acted fairly with respect to the lessor and damages have resulted, the court will find for the lessor

  20. 26 CFR 48.4217-1 - Lease considered as sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lease considered as sale. 48.4217-1 Section 48... article by a manufacturer, producer, or importer shall be considered a sale of the article. The term “lease” means a contract or agreement, written or verbal, which gives the lessee an exclusive, continuous...

  1. Lease accounting trouble looms for corporate real estate management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, S.; Schelle, T.G.F.; Appel - Meulenbroek, H.A.J.A.; van Egmond, B.; Hesselink, M.; Leersum, van L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) lease accounting changes might have on corporate real estate (CRE) strategies, and what the consequences for future corporate real estate portfolio decisions might be.

  2. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...... out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing...

  3. Herbage availability €rs a stress factor on grazed Coastcross II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) relationships for Coastcross ll Bermuda grass grazed for four consecutive summer periods by young growing beef cattle. Stocking rate affected the daily. LWG/animal through its influence on herbage availability. Rota- tional grazing showed a ...

  4. Re-targeting the Graze performance debugging tool for Java threads and analyzing the re-targeting to automatically parallelized (FORTRAN) code

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Pedro T. H.

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This research focuses on the design of a language-independent concept, Glimpse, for performance debugging of multi-threaded programs. This research extends previous work on Graze, a tool designed and implemented for performance debugging of C++ programs. Not only is Glimpse easily portable among different programming languages, (i) it is useful in many different paradigms ranging from few long-lived threads to many short-lived...

  5. 77 FR 1743 - Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs... Appendix C are to be used for cost-effectiveness analysis, including lease-purchase analysis, as specified... (Revised December 2011) Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness, Lease Purchase, and Related Analyses...

  6. 76 FR 7881 - Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs... Appendix C are to be used for cost-effectiveness analysis, including lease-purchase analysis, as specified... (Revised December 2010) DISCOUNT RATES FOR COST-EFFECTIVENESS, LEASE PURCHASE, AND RELATED ANALYSES...

  7. 78 FR 6140 - Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs... in Appendix C are to be used for cost-effectiveness analysis, including lease-purchase analysis, as...) Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness, Lease Purchase, and Related Analyses Effective Dates. This appendix...

  8. Impact of Graze-­‐Out in Hard Red Winter Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Diwash; Moss, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between wheat graze-­‐out and cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level and examine the impact of graze-­‐out on wheat yield in major wheat-­‐producing states in US. Results indicate that cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level affect farmers’ graze out decision and graze-­‐out have significant impact on wheat yield.

  9. Influence of grazing regimes on cattle nutrition and performance and vegetation dynamics in Sahelian rangelands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayantunde, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    In the West African Sahel, common herd management practices such as night grazing and corralling influence time available for grazing. When animals are used to deposit manure in the cropping fields, conflicts often arise between the need for animals to graze long enough for adequate feed

  10. Prescribed grazing for management of invasive vegetation in a hardwood forest understory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald A. Rathfon; Songlin Fei; Jason Tower; Kenneth Andries; Michael. Neary

    2014-01-01

    Land managers considering prescribed grazing (PG) face a lack of information on animal stocking rates, timing of grazing, and duration of grazing to achieve desired conditions in natural ecosystems under invasion stress from a variety of nonnative invasive plant (NNIP) species. In this study we tested PG treatments using goats for reducing NNIP brush species and...

  11. 36 CFR 222.53 - Grazing fees in the East-noncompetitive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lands and the total costs (other than grazing fee costs) of operating on National Forest System lands... the percentage change in the cost of alternative livestock feed. (3) Computation of Annual Grazing Fee... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing fees in the East...

  12. Steers grazing of a rye cover crop influences growth of rye and no-till cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small grain cover crops offer opportunities for grazing but effects on following row crops are not well understood. From 1999 through 2008, stocker steers sequence grazed small grains in a 2-paddock rye-cotton-wheat-fallow- rye rotation. Treatments imposed on rye included 1) zero-grazing from 1999; ...

  13. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of seasonal shortages of herbage production from natural pastures in the Ethiopian highlands was investigated. This was done by comparing the available biomass amounts on the pastures with biomass amounts required for livestock grazing and for protecting land slope from soil erosion within a given slope ...

  14. Livestock grazing has minimal effect on the species richness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Succulent Karoo, one of two arid biodiversity hotspots in the world, is known for its high plant species richness, but little is known about the influence of topography and how it mediates the potentially deleterious effects of grazing. Changes in vegetation species composition, cover and species diversity were examined ...

  15. Ingestive Behaviour of Grazing Ewes Given Two Levels of Concentrate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was expected that concentrate supplementation would reflect directly on forage intake owing to the substitution effect, which causes sheep where the supplement supplied a small proportion of net energy requirement, to have a greater grazing intensity. The two breeds differed in the time spent ruminating or lying, with the ...

  16. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Lazarev, N.M.; Romanov, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131 I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  17. The evolution of institutions and rules governing communal grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper traces the tradition and evolution of the institutions and rules governing communal grazing lands in Botswana. It shows how the problem of resource overuse arose partly from the dismantling and delegitimization of traditional resource management institutions that occurred during the colonial period, and was ...

  18. Bacterial production, protozoan grazing, and mineralization in stratified Lake Vechten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN, size 2-20 μm) in grazing on bacteria and mineralization of organic matter in stratified Lake Vechten was studied.

    Quantitative effects of manipulation and fixation on HNAN were checked. Considerable losses were caused by

  19. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... policies on land degradation in Nigeria using soil, vegetation and sustainability as variables for the assessment. ... animals per kilometer square of land and 15,000 persons and 12,500 grazing animals per kilometer square of water. ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  20. Stability, resilience and animal production in continuously grazed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jones-Sandland model, popularly used in southern Africa, may be criticised because it ignores firstly the long-term effects of grazing intensity on the acceptability and productivity of pasture or veld, and secondly possible discontinuities in the animal performance - stocking rate relationship. A mathematical model is ...

  1. Influence of sward characteristics on grazing behaviour and short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative to temperate systems, there has been few reported detailed assessments of sward characteristics and associated grazing behavior from natural and ... in highly heterogeneous pastures has the potential to provide integrated (sward, animal, management) strategies for sustainable livestock production in Nigeria.

  2. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cáceres

    Full Text Available Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E. Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2-5 µm and >5 µm and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11-1.60 d(-1, especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15-1.29 d(-1, suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres.

  3. The national grazing strategy of the Republic of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The White Paper on Agricultural Policy, tabled in May 1984, made reference to the alarming deterioration of natural rangelands and led to the drawing up of the National Grazing Strategy (NGS), released to parliament in May 1985, which was endorsed by the Department of Agriculture and accepted in its entirety by the ...

  4. The impact of grazing on forage quality of the herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on research conducted in the Mamoro cork oak forest of Morocco to describe the impacts of sheep grazing in March, April, May and June of 1987 and 1988 on seasonal changes in forage quality of the herbaceous vegetation. The study showed that trends in herbage quality were related mainly to plant maturity.

  5. Grazing on Regeneration Sites Encourages Pine Seedling Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Renee G. Denton

    1995-01-01

    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the...

  6. The Occurrence and Toxicity of Indospicine to Grazing Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary T. Fletcher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indospicine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid which occurs in Indigofera species with widespread prevalence in grazing pastures across tropical Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Americas. It accumulates in the tissues of grazing livestock after ingestion of Indigofera. It is a competitive inhibitor of arginase and causes both liver degeneration and abortion. Indospicine hepatoxicity occurs universally across animal species but the degree varies considerably between species, with dogs being particularly sensitive. The magnitude of canine sensitivity is such that ingestion of naturally indospicine-contaminated horse and camel meat has caused secondary poisoning of dogs, raising significant industry concern. Indospicine impacts on the health and production of grazing animals per se has been less widely documented. Livestock grazing Indigofera have a chronic and cumulative exposure to this toxin, with such exposure experimentally shown to induce both hepatotoxicity and embryo-lethal effects in cattle and sheep. In extensive pasture systems, where animals are not closely monitored, the resultant toxicosis may well occur after prolonged exposure but either be undetected, or even if detected not be attributable to a particular cause. Indospicine should be considered as a possible cause of animal poor performance, particularly reduced weight gain or reproductive losses, in pastures where Indigofera are prevalent.

  7. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  8. Holistic Management: Misinformation on the Science of Grazed Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 3 billion hectares of lands worldwide are grazed by livestock, with a majority suffering degradation in ecological condition. Losses in plant productivity, biodiversity of plant and animal communities, and carbon storage are occurring as a result of livestock grazing. Holistic management (HM has been proposed as a means of restoring degraded deserts and grasslands and reversing climate change. The fundamental approach of this system is based on frequently rotating livestock herds to mimic native ungulates reacting to predators in order to break up biological soil crusts and trample plants and soils to promote restoration. This review could find no peer-reviewed studies that show that this management approach is superior to conventional grazing systems in outcomes. Any claims of success due to HM are likely due to the management aspects of goal setting, monitoring, and adapting to meet goals, not the ecological principles embodied in HM. Ecologically, the application of HM principles of trampling and intensive foraging are as detrimental to plants, soils, water storage, and plant productivity as are conventional grazing systems. Contrary to claims made that HM will reverse climate change, the scientific evidence is that global greenhouse gas emissions are vastly larger than the capacity of worldwide grasslands and deserts to store the carbon emitted each year.

  9. Research note: Grazing-index method procedures of vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, veld condition in the Karoo was assessed using the ecological index methods. This recently changed to the graxing-index method on account of the of the differently estimated grazing-index values being used. The principles governing the method of survey remain the same. The method employs ...

  10. Phosphorus and the grazing ruminant. 1. The effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.Sc.-tesis,. Universiteit Stellenbosch. DUDZINSKI, M.L. & ARNOLD, G.W., 1973. Comparison of diets of sheep and cattle grazing together on sown pastures on the southern tablelands of New South Wales by principal components analysis. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 24, 899. DU TOlT, P.J., MALAN, AI. & ROSSOUW, S.D., 1930.

  11. Effects of UV-B irradiated algae on zooplankton grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the effects of UV-B stressed algae on grazing rates of zooplankton. Four algal species ( Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Cryptomonas sp., Scenedesmus obliquus and Microcystis aeruginosa) were used as food and fed to three zooplankton species ( Daphnia galeata, Bosmina longirostris and

  12. Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in the veld condition of Lambert's Bay Strandveld, South Africa. ... from which a minimum number of species necessary to monitor trends in the condition of the veld were determined, making it user-friendly for land-users, extension officers and others. The key ...

  13. Grazing animal husbandry based on sustainable nutrient management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, C.; Vereijken, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable husbandry systems for grazing animals (cattle and sheep) can be achieved by sustainable nutrient management (SNM). This implies the tuning of inputs to outputs of nutrients, to achieve and maintain optimum ranges of agronomically wanted and ecologically acceptable reserves of single

  14. Improved grazing activity of dairy heifers in shaded tropical grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Tavares de Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Trees in the production systems can effectively reduce hot weather-induced stress in the Brazilian Midwest. High temperatures cause changes in animals daily routine, and trees into pastures can promote benefits. The aim of this research was to evaluate the behavior of dairy heifers in silvopastoral systems in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A herd of 24 crossbreed heifers (3/4 and 7/8 Holstein/Zebu, 350kg average weight, was evaluated over three seasons. Piatã grass was managed under three shade levels: full-sun, moderate-shade, and intensive-shade provided by 10 to 12m high Eucalyptus trees. Behavior data were collected every 15 minutes from 8:30h to 16h. Shade availability significantly impacted heifer behavior, mainly affecting grazing frequency and time during the hottest hours. Grazing behavior was affected by shade levels during the different seasons. Heifers showed preferred grazing times. Heifers in the intensive-shade system visited shady areas during the hottest hours throughout the seasons. Heifers in the full sun-system avoided grazing during the warmer times, ceasing feeding activities. Our results from the Brazilian Midwest showed that shade availability causes breed heifers to change their daily routine.

  15. Phytoplankton Growth and Microzooplankton Grazing in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos; Taboada, Fernando González; Höfer, Juan; Anadón, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E). Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2–5 µm and >5 µm) and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11–1.60 d−1), especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15–1.29 d−1), suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres. PMID:23935946

  16. Surface - atmosphere exchange of ammonia over grazed pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantaz, M.A.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and grazed pasture in an area of intensive livestock breeding. The term exchange is used because gaseous ammonia can be taken up (dry deposition) as well as released (emission) by this type of surface.
    Ammonia exchange

  17. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    carbon sequestration and water filtration. ... temperature of 13oc in the north during the harmattan in ... vegetation cover is removed with the view to obtain ... data concerning environmental degradation mitigation ... in terrestrial ecosystems and driving processes that .... Grazing systems, ecosystem response, and global.

  18. Effects of rainfall, competition and grazing on flowering of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds, hares and small antelope consumed 10-50% of the flowers. Size-class distributions indicated that little recent recruitment had taken place on a ranch where palatable plants were scarce and where O. sinuatum flower production was severely depressed by grazing sheep.Language: English. Keywords: Asteraceae ...

  19. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Mitchel P. McClaran; Peggy E. Moore; Neil K. McDougald

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer’s reed grass (...

  20. Preliminary survey on tsetse flies and trypanosomosis at grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary survey on tsetse flies and trypanosomosis were conducted between. July and August 2007 at grazing fields and villages in and around the Nech Sar national park, with the ultimate intention of forwarding baseline information on the extent of the problem and possible control strategies. . Entomological (Tsetse.

  1. Determining grazing capacity in Namibia with the aid of remote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Namibian rangelands consist of a mixture of herbaceous and woody components. The main source of income is from farming systems with grass production the predominant source of forage. For rangeland managers to utilise this source sustainably, the accurate determination of grazing capacity is vital since it allows ...

  2. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Begall, S.; Červený, Jaroslav; Neef, J.; Burda, H.; Vojtěch, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 36 (2008), s. 13451-13455 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : grazing behavior * magnetic alignment * magnetoreception * resting behavior * spatial orientation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.380, year: 2008

  3. Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Debinski, Diane M.; Koford, Rolf R.; Miller, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of land for modern agriculture has resulted in losses of native prairie habitat. The small, isolated patches of prairie habitat that remain are threatened by fire suppression, overgrazing, and invasion by non-native species. We evaluated the effects of three restoration practices (grazing only, burning only, and burning and grazing) on the vegetation characteristics and butterfly communities of remnant prairies. Total butterfly abundance was highest on prairies that were managed with burning and grazing and lowest on those that were only burned. Butterfly species richness did not differ among any of the restoration practices. Butterfly species diversity was highest on sites that were only burned. Responses of individual butterfly species to restoration practices were highly variable. In the best predictive regression model, total butterfly abundance was negatively associated with the percent cover of bare ground and positively associated with the percent cover of forbs. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that sites with burned only and grazed only practices could be separated based on their butterfly community composition. Butterfly communities in each of the three restoration practices are equally species rich but different practices yield compositionally different butterfly communities. Because of this variation in butterfly species responses to different restoration practices, there is no single practice that will benefit all species or even all species within habitat-specialist or habitat-generalist habitat guilds. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Production response of lambs receiving creep feed while grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the production responses of lambs receiving either creep feed or not while grazing two different pastures. The production of ewes within each treatment was also recorded. The study was conducted at both the Kromme Rhee and Langgewens Research Farms. At Kromme Rhee, sheep ...

  5. Effects of Grazing Abandoned Grassland on Herbage Production and Utilization, and Sheep Preference and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Steinshamn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of farmland are abandoned in Norway, which for various reasons are regarded as undesirable. Loss of farmland may have negative implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function and food production potential. The objectives of this study were to assess forage mass production and utilization, botanical composition, lamb performance, and grazing distribution pattern when reintroducing livestock grazing to an abandoned grassland. The study area was located in Central Norway, unmanaged for 12 years. Sheep grazed the area for 10 weeks in 2013 and 4 weeks in spring and autumn, respectively, in 2014 and 2015. During the summer of 2014 and 2015, the area was subjected to the following replicated treatments: (1 No grazing, (2 grazing with heifers, and (3 grazing with ewes and their offspring. The stocking rate was similar in the grazed treatments. Forage biomass production and animal intake were estimated using grazing exclosure cages and botanical composition by visual assessment. Effect on lamb performance was evaluated by live weight gain and slaughter traits in sheep subjected to three treatments: (1 Common farm procedure with summer range pasturing, (2 spring grazing period extended by 1 month on the abandoned grassland before summer range pasturing, and (3 spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland. Grazing distribution patterns were studied using GPS position collars on ewes. Total annual biomass production was on average 72% higher with summer grazing than without. Annual consumption and utilization was on average 218 g DM/m2 and 70% when summer grazed, and 25 g DM/m2 and 18% without grazing, respectively. Botanical composition did not differ between treatments. Live weight gain was higher in lambs subjected to an extended spring grazing period (255 g/d compared to common farm practice (228 g/d and spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland (203 g/d, and carcass value was 14% higher in lambs on extended spring

  6. 30 CFR 203.71 - How does MMS allocate a field's suspension volume between my lease and other leases on my field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Pre-Act Deep Water Leases and for Development... or post-November 2000 deep water lease to your field after we approve your application We will not..., or the minimum suspension volume of the authorized field, whichever is greater (i) You toll the time...

  7. Simulating grazing practices in a complete livestock system model: estimating soil carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions in grazed versus un-grazed agroecosystems using the Manure-DNDC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E. E.; Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    In livestock agroecosystems, the combined contributions of enteric fermentation, manure management, and livestock grazing and/or feed production play an important role in agroecosystem carbon (C) storage and GHG losses, with complete livestock system models acting as important tools to evaluate the full impacts of these complex systems. The Manure-DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model is one such example, simulating impacts on C and nitrogen cycling, estimating methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and ammonium dynamics in fields, manure storage, and enteric emissions. This allows the evaluation of differences in GHG and soil C impacts between conventional and organic dairy production systems, which differ in their use of grazed pasture versus confined feeding operations. However, Manure-DNDC has received limited testing in representing variations in grazed pasture management (i.e. intensive rotational grazing versus standard grazing practices). Using a set of forage biomass, soil C, and GHG emissions data collected at four sites across New England, we parameterized and validated Manure-DNDC estimations of GHG emissions and soil C in grazed versus un-grazed systems. Soil observations from these sites showed little effect from grazing practices, but larger soil carbon differences between farms. This may be due to spatial variation in SOC, making it difficult to measure and model, or due to controls of edaphic properties that make management moot. However, to further address these questions, model development will be needed to improve Manure-DNDC simulation of rotational grazing, as high stocking density grazing over short periods resulted in forage not re-growing sufficiently within the model. Furthermore, model simulations did not account for variation in interactions between livestock and soil given variability in field microclimates, perhaps requiring simulations that divide a single field into multiple paddocks to move towards more accurate evaluation of

  8. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-06-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool. PMID:19152713

  10. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus in two meadows in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool.

  11. The influence of grazing on surface climatological variables of tallgrass prairie. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seastedt, T.R.; Dyer, M.I.; Turner, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Mass and energy exchange between most grassland canopies and the atmosphere are mediated by grazing activities. Ambient temperatures can be increased or decreased by grazers. Data have been assembled from simulated grazing experiments on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area and observations on adjacent pastures grazed by cattle show significant changes in primary production, nutrient content, and bidirectional reflectance characteristics as a function of grazing intensity. The purpose of this research was to provide algorithms that would allow incorporation of grazing effects into models of energy budgets using remote sensing procedures. The approach involved: (1) linking empirical measurements of plant biomass and grazing intensities to remotely sensed canopy reflectance, and (2) using a higher resolution, mechanistic grazing model to derive plant ecophysiological parameters that influence reflectance and other surface climatological variables

  12. The Growing Importance and Value Implications of Recreational Hunting Leases to Agricultural Land Investors in America

    OpenAIRE

    John S. Baen

    1997-01-01

    This study considers the evolution and explosion growth of recreational hunting leases in America. The traditional European practice of leasing rural lands for the exclusive rights of tenants to hunt and fish is now an important revenue source for American agricultural land investors/owners. Hunting lease income can enhance value to the point that recreation becomes the highest and best use of rural land for both the market and income approaches to valuation. This study offers new perspective...

  13. A RANGELAND GRASSHOPPER INSURANCE PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Skold, Melvin D.; Davis, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of benefits and costs from controlling rangeland grasshoppers on public grazing lands poses problems of economic efficiency and distributional equity. Public grasshopper control programs operate like public disaster assistance. However, grasshopper infestations are an insurable risk. This article proposes a rangeland grasshopper insurance program which reduces the economic inefficiencies and distributional inequities of the existing program.

  14. Competitive bidding for OCS leases and environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years, the role of environment has become increasingly contentious in the process of competitive bidding for exploration and development rights of offshore petroleum leases in the outer continental shelf (OCS). Although an extensive literature exists on OCS leasing per se, relatively little work focuses on the role of environmental factors. This paper examines the effect on environmental risk on the number of firms (or joint ventures) entering bids for a given tract, which relates to the effective competition for the tracts. The next section outlines a theoretical model of bidding behavior under environmental risk. The third section presents the data used to estimate the model. The fourth section gives empirical results of an analysis of Sale No. 42, conducted in 1979 for Georges Bank in the North Atlantic. The last section provides concluding remarks

  15. LEASE AGREEMENTS FINANCIAL REPORTING ISSUES ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MAISURADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available On January 13th 2016, the Board for International Accounting Standards  published the  new International Standard 16 of Financial Reporting,   named as “Lease”, which will substitute the International Accounting Standard 17 of financial reporting “Lease”. ISFR 16 ensures reflection of practically all lease agreements in the financial reporting, which, in is part, meets the requirements of investors regarding reliability and transparency of the information related to a financial state of an enterprise. The Article considers the changes caused by ISFR 16, which relate to recognition of the lease agreements as the asset, their accounting and, impact on the financial reporting. Relevant conclusions are provided regarding the above mentioned issues.

  16. The Feasibility of Solar Panel Leasing in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to analyse the feasibility of solar panel leasing in Finland. The research was conducted using the exploratory research design, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data. The data was collected from secondary sources, e.g. industry reports, government publications, and newspaper articles. During the literature review, methods for answering the thesis question were recognized. The chosen method was to analyse the market and industry feasibility, product or ser...

  17. Competitive Analysis for Online Leasing Problem with Compound Interest Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xingyu; Zhang, Weiguo; Xu, Weijun; Zhang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the compound interest rate into the continuous version of the online leasing problem and discuss the generalized model by competitive analysis. On the one hand, the optimal deterministic strategy and its competitive ratio are obtained; on the other hand, a nearly optimal randomized strategy is constructed and a lower bound for the randomized competitive ratios is proved by Yao's principle. With the help of numerical examples, the theoretical results show that the interest rate pu...

  18. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  19. Case studies of geothermal leasing and development on federal lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trummel, Marc

    1978-09-29

    In response to a widely expressed need to examine the impact of the federal regulatory system on the rate of geothermal power development, the Department of Energy-Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) has established a Streamlining Task Force in cooperation with appropriate federal agencies. The intent is to find a way of speeding development by modification of existing laws or regulations or by better understanding and mechanization of the existing ones. The initial focus was on the leasing and development of federal lands. How do the existing processes work? Would changes produce positive results in a variety of cases? These are questions which must be considered in a national streamlining process. This report presents case studies of federal leasing actions on seven diverse locations in the western region. Characteristics of existing high geothermal potential areas are quite diverse; geography, environment, industry interest and the attitudes and activities of the responsible federal land management agencies and the interested public vary widely. Included are descriptions of post and current activities in leasing exploration and development and discussions of the probable future direction of activities based on current plans. Implications of these plans are presented. The case studies were based on field interviews with the appropriate State and District BLM officer and with the regional forester's office and the particular forest office. Documentation was utilized to the extent possible and has been included in whole or in part in appendices as appropriate.

  20. Optimising stocking rate and grazing management to enhance environmental and production outcomes for native temperate grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgery, Warwick; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Broadfoot, Kim; Kemp, David; Mitchell, David

    2015-04-01

    Stocking rate and grazing management can be altered to enhance the sustainable production of grasslands but the relative influence of each has not often been determined for native temperate grasslands. Grazing management can range from seasonal rests through to intensive rotational grazing involving >30 paddocks. In large scale grazing, it can be difficult to segregate the influence of grazing pressure from the timing of utilisation. Moreover, relative grazing pressure can change between years as seasonal conditions influence grassland production compared to the relative constant requirements of animals. This paper reports on two studies in temperate native grasslands of northern China and south eastern Australia that examined stocking rate and regionally relevant grazing management strategies. In China, the grazing experiment involved combinations of a rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure of sheep in spring, then moderate or heavy grazing in summer and autumn. Moderate grazing pressure at 50% of the current district average, resulted in the better balance between maintaining productive and diverse grasslands, a profitable livestock system, and mitigation of greenhouse gases through increased soil carbon, methane uptake by the soil, and efficient methane emissions per unit of weight gain. Spring rests best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced livestock productivity due to lower feed quality from grazing later in the season. In Australia, the grazing experiment compared continuous grazing to flexible 4- and 20-paddock rotational grazing systems with sheep. Stocking rates were adjusted between systems biannually based on the average herbage mass of the grassland. No treatment degraded the perennial pasture composition, but ground cover was maintained at higher levels in the 20-paddock system even though this treatment had a higher stocking rate. Overall there was little difference in livestock production (e.g. kg

  1. Leasing as a Source of Finance by the Major US Airlines: Hidden Debt and its Changes Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritta, Richard D.; Lippman, Ellen J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper updates prior research on aircraft leasing and contrasts the findings of current data with prior results. Usage of leases by air carriers is a means to lessen the impact of financial obligations from fleet purchases. The study revisits two previous studies, one in 1969 and one in 1991, which is analyzed the incidence of leases by major air carriers. The current study updates these past studies to consider air carriers current usage of leases. Additionally, since operating leases are not reflected in the balance sheets of airlines, operating lease information was capitalized using a present value of future operating lease payments. Then, financial debt burden ratios were computed to determine the impact from the capitalization of lease information. The usage of operating leases increased, significantly from the first study to the 1991 study, and this trend continues. The incidence of leasing, the classification of leases as operating, and the percentage of operating leases to total fleet have all increased for the majority of the airlines reviewed. When operating lease data were capitalized, debt ratios weakened, providing further evidence of deterioration in the financial health of air carriers.

  2. Competition and performance in OCS oil and gas lease sales and lease development, 1954-1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Walter J.; Sorensen, Philip Edward

    1980-01-01

    The oil and gas resources of the Outer Continental Shelf represent one of America's largest publicly-owned assets. Through 1978, OCS oil and gas leases had yielded \\$40.5 billion in gross production value and produced over \\$28.3 billion in direct revenue to the federal government.Policies and procedures for managing the oil and gas resources of the OCS were established by Congress in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act of 1953. The Department of Interior was given the central responsibility for carrying out this management role in the 1953 Act; this responsibility has been re-established in the 1978 Amendments to the OCS Lands Act. As stated in the 1978 legislation, the goals of OCS management are to:...preserve, protect and develop oil and natural gas resources in a manner which is consistent with the need (A) to make such resources available to meet the Nation's energy needs as rapidly as possible... (C) to insure the public a fair and equitable return on the resources of the Outer Continental Shelf, and (D) to preserve and maintain free enterprise competition.As part of its continuing effort to monitor the effectiveness of federal policies relating to OCS oil and gas resources, the Conservation Division of U.S. Geological Survey, Department of Interior, has sponsored the research which is the basis for the present report. The objectives of the research have been to determine the extent to which the historical policies of OCS management have resulted in achievement of the goals set forth by Congress in the section quoted above.

  3. An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Mytnichenko, S V

    2001-01-01

    An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating, representing a thin grating placed on a multilayer mirror, is proposed. A high efficiency of grating diffraction can be obtained by the possibility of changing the phase shift of the wave diffracted from the multilayer under the Bragg and total external reflection conditions. A grazing incidence phase multilayer grating consisting of Pt grating stripes on a Ni/C multilayer and optimized for the hard X-ray range was fabricated. Its diffraction properties were studied at photon energies of 7 and 8 keV. The obtained maximum value of the diffraction efficiency of the +1 grating order was 9% at 7 keV and 6.5% at 8 keV. The data obtained are in a rather good accordance with the theory.

  4. Invariant polygons in systems with grazing-sliding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, R; Osinga, H M

    2008-06-01

    The paper investigates generic three-dimensional nonsmooth systems with a periodic orbit near grazing-sliding. We assume that the periodic orbit is unstable with complex multipliers so that two dominant frequencies are present in the system. Because grazing-sliding induces a dimension loss and the instability drives every trajectory into sliding, the system has an attractor that consists of forward sliding orbits. We analyze this attractor in a suitably chosen Poincare section using a three-parameter generalized map that can be viewed as a normal form. We show that in this normal form the attractor must be contained in a finite number of lines that intersect in the vertices of a polygon. However the attractor is typically larger than the associated polygon. We classify the number of lines involved in forming the attractor as a function of the parameters. Furthermore, for fixed values of parameters we investigate the one-dimensional dynamics on the attractor.

  5. Adjustable Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Reid, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    With its unique subarcsecond imaging performance, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory illustrates the importance of fine angular resolution for x-ray astronomy. Indeed, the future of x-ray astronomy relies upon x-ray telescopes with comparable angular resolution but larger aperture areas. Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, mass, and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. The goal of this technology research is to enable the cost-effective fabrication of large-area, lightweight grazing-incidence x-ray optics with subarcsecond resolution. Toward this end, the project is developing active x-ray optics using slumped-glass mirrors with thin-film piezoelectric arrays for correction of intrinsic or mount-induced distortions.

  6. Active Full-Shell Grazing-Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    MSFC has a long history of developing full-shell grazing-incidence x-ray optics for both narrow (pointed) and wide field (surveying) applications. The concept presented in this paper shows the potential to use active optics to switch between narrow and wide-field geometries, while maintaining large effective area and high angular resolution. In addition, active optics has the potential to reduce errors due to mounting and manufacturing lightweight optics. The design presented corrects low spatial frequency error and has significantly fewer actuators than other concepts presented thus far in the field of active x-ray optics. Using a finite element model, influence functions are calculated using active components on a full-shell grazing-incidence optic. Next, the ability of the active optic to effect a change of optical prescription and to correct for errors due to manufacturing and mounting is modeled.

  7. Convergence of IFRS and US GAAP in the field of lease: the impact of new methodological approaches for operating lease reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Svoboda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002 the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB has begun significantly cooperate in the creation of standards based on the same principals. This is a process of convergence. It is realized through a series of sub-projects aimed at short-term or long-term period. Revenue recognition and lease reporting projects represent priority areas of convergence. The issue of leases belongs to one of the areas in which there have been, after a relatively long time, criticized the very principles applied in international accounting standards. The result of the convergence activities should be the creation of such methodological approaches of reporting the lease contracts on the side of lessee and then lessor that would eliminate the main weaknesses of the current system of reporting based on the classification of lease contracts in connection with the execution or non execution of the transfer of risks and benefits associated with the lease to the lessee. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of implementation of the newly proposed methodological approach for lease reporting in the field of operating leases into the financial statements that will be affected by this change of methodology (balance sheet, income statement. Subsequently, it is evaluated also the impact into selected indicators of financial analysis with a focus on indicators, in whose construction are used items of statements that are significantly affected by the change of the methodological approach.

  8. Bite frequency measured by head pitch movements in grazing experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W.; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2010-01-01

    . ECPLF      2007 Skiathos, Greece. p 111-116 Pulido, R.G. & Leaver, J.D., 2001. Quantifying the influence of sward height, concentrate level and initial      milk yield on the milk production and grazing behaviour of continuously stocked dairy cows. Grass      and Forage Science 56, 57-67.    ...

  9. Grazing and metabolism of Euphausia pacifica in the Yellow Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhencheng Tao

    Full Text Available Grazing and metabolism of Euphausia pacifica in the Yellow Sea were studied from September 2006 to August 2007. Euphausia pacifica is a selective-feeding omnivore and grazing rates among different months were monitored using a Coulter Counter and batch culture feeding experiments. Euphausia pacifica mainly grazed microzooplankton in August and September, which resulted in an increase in chlorophyll a concentration. Oxygen consumption rate of E. pacifica was 38.7-42.5 μmol O2 g(-1 DW h(-1 in March, which was four times higher than the oxygen consumption rates in September and December. The vigorous metabolism of E. pacifica in March consumed 3.1% of body carbon daily, which is likely related to its high reproduction and grazing rate. Respiration and metabolism of E. pacifica in September and December were similar and were lower. O:N ratio of E. pacifica was the highest (17.3-23.8 in March when spawning activity occurred and when food was abundant. The energetic source of E. pacifica during September and December was mostly protein from eating a carnivorous diet, including such items as microzooplankton. Euphausia pacifica was found in cold water at the bottom of the Yellow Sea in summer and autumn and maintained a low consumption status. O:N ratios of E. pacifica in March, September, and December were negatively correlated with SSTs and no significant correlation was found between O:N ratios and chlorophyll a concentration. Seawater temperature is clearly the most important parameter influencing the metabolism of E. pacifica.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Nitrogen on Grazed Karst Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Boyer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian region. Karst areas comprise about 18% of the region’s land area. An estimated one-third of the region’s farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are located on karst terrain. Mean nitrate concentrations in several karst springs in southeastern West Virginia exhibit a strong linear relationship with the percentage of agriculture land cover. Development of best management practices for efficient nitrogen (N use and reduction of outflow of N to water from karst areas requires knowledge about N dynamics on those landscapes. Water extractable NO3-N and NH4-N were measured along transects at four soil depths in two grazed sinkholes and one wooded sinkhole. Distribution of soil NO3-N and NH4-N were related to frequency of animal presence and to topographic and hydrologic redistribution of soil and fecal matter in the grazed sinkholes. Karst pastures are characterized by under drainage and funneling of water and contaminants to the shallow aquifer. Control of NO3-N leaching from karst pasture may depend on management strategies that change livestock grazing behavior in sinkholes and reduce the opportunity for water and contaminants to quickly reach sinkhole drains.

  11. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native perennial bunchgrasses. The authors also presented several statements regarding the benefits of winter grazing on post-fire plant community responses. However, this commentary will show that the study by Davies et al. has underlying methodological flaws, lacks data necessary to support their conclusions, and does not provide an accurate discussion on the effect of grazing on rangeland ecosystems. Importantly, Davies et al. presented no data on the post-fire mortality of the perennial bunchgrasses or on the changes in plant community composition following their experimental fires. Rather, Davies et al. inferred these conclusions based off their observed fire behavior metrics of maximum temperature and a term described as the “heat load”. However, neither metric is appropriate for elucidating the heat flux impacts on plants. This lack of post-fire data, several methodological flaws, and the use of inadequate metrics describing heat cast doubts on the authors’ ability to support their stated conclusions. This article is a commentary highlights the scientific shortcomings in a forthcoming paper by Davies et al. in the International Journal of Wildland Fire. The study has methodological flaw

  12. Nuclear Fuel Leasing, Recycling and proliferation: Modeling a Global View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crozat, M P; Choi, J; Reis, V H; Hill, R

    2004-01-01

    On February 11, 2004, U.S. President George W. Bush, in a speech to the National Defense University stated: ''The world must create a safe, orderly system to field civilian nuclear plants without adding to the danger of weapons proliferation. The world's leading nuclear exporters should ensure that states have reliable access at reasonable cost to fuel for civilian reactors, so long as those states renounce enrichment and reprocessing. Enrichment and reprocessing are not necessary for nations seeking to harness nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.'' This concept would require nations to choose one of two paths for civilian nuclear development: those that only have reactors and those that contain one or more elements of the nuclear fuel cycle, including recycling. ''Fuel cycle'' states would enrich uranium, manufacture and lease fuel to ''reactor'' states and receive the reactor states' spent fuel. All parties would accede to stringent security and safeguard standards, embedded within a newly invigorated international regime. Reactor states would be relieved of the financial, environmental (and political) burden of enriching and manufacturing fuel and dealing with spent fuel. Fuel cycle states would potentially earn money on leasing the fuel and perhaps on sales of reactors to the reactor states. Such a leasing concept is especially interesting in scenarios which envision growth in nuclear power, and an important consideration for such a nuclear growth regime is the role of recycling of civilian spent fuel. Recycling holds promise for improved management of spent fuel and efficient utilization of resources, but continues to raise the specter of a world with uncontrolled nuclear weapons proliferation. If done effectively, a fuel-leasing concept could help create a political and economic foundation for significant growth of clean, carbon-free nuclear power while providing a mechanism for significant international cooperation to reduce proliferation concern. This

  13. 36 CFR 228.104 - Consideration of requests to modify, waive, or grant exceptions to lease stipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Oil and Gas Resources Leasing § 228... led the Forest Service to require the inclusion of the stipulation in the lease can be met without...

  14. THE USE EFFICIENCY OF FINANCIAL LEASING FOR THE RENEWAL OF FIXED CAPITAL OF THE RAILWAY INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Strilets

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the dynamics of development and global structure of the leasing market are analyzed, the advantages of using the financial leasing for upgrading the fixed capital of railway industry are formulated.

  15. 77 FR 14832 - Plumchoice, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ...., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing, and Technisource..., Insight Global Staffing, and Technisource, Scarborough, Maine. The workers are engaged in activities... leased workers from Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing, and Technisource, Scarborough, Maine, who...

  16. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P < 0.01) for mature body weight (BW) but not for rate of maturing. Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.01) mean mature BW than Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than all genotype x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the

  17. Introducing cattle grazing to a noxious weed-dominated rangeland shifts plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh S. Davy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive weed species in California's rangelands can reduce herbaceous diversity, forage quality and wildlife habitat. Small-scale studies (5 acres or fewer have shown reductions of medusahead and yellow starthistle using prescribed grazing on rangelands, but little is published on the effects of pasture-scale (greater than 80 acres prescribed grazing on weed control and plant community responses. We report the results of a 6-year collaborative study of manager-applied prescribed grazing implemented on rangeland that had not been grazed for 4 years. Grazing reduced medusahead but did not alter yellow starthistle cover. Medusahead reductions were only seen in years that did not have significant late spring rainfall, suggesting that it is able to recover from heavy grazing if soil moisture is present. Later season grazing appears to have the potential to suppress medusahead in all years. In practice, however, such grazing is constrained by livestock drinking water availability and forage quality, which were limited even in years with late spring rainfall. Thus, we expect that grazing treatments under real-world constraints would reduce medusahead only in years with little late spring rainfall. After 10 years of grazing exclusion, the ungrazed plant communities began to shift, replacing medusahead with species that have little value, such as ripgut and red brome.

  18. Zooplankton grazing in a eutrophic lake: implications of diel vertical migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampert, W.; Taylor, B.E.

    1985-01-01

    During summer and fall, depth profiles of zooplankton community grazing were determined in situ during day and night in the Schoehsee, a small eutrophic lake. Labeled algae of two different sizes were mixed with the natural suspension of phytoplankton in a grazing chamber. A small blue-green alga (Synechococcus, 1 μm) was labeled with 32 P; a larger green alga (Scenedesmus, 4-15 μm) was labeled with 14 C. During summer, grazing in the upper 5 m was negligible during day but strong at night. Hence, algae grow relatively unimpeded by grazing during daytime but are harvested at night. Vertical and diel differences in grazing rates disappeared when the vertical migration ceased in fall. Selectivity of grazing was controlled by the zooplankton species composition. Eudiaptomus showed a strong preference for Scenedesmus. Daphnia showed a slight preference for Scenedesmus, but Ceriodaphnia preferred Synechococcus. Cyclopoid copepodites did not ingest the small blue-green. Because Daphnia and Eudiaptomus were dominant, grazing rates on larger cells were usually higher than grazing rates on the small cells. Negative electivity indices for scenedesmus occurred only when the biomass of large crustaceans was extremely low (near the surface, during day). Zooplankton biomass was the main factor controlling both vertical and seasonal variations in grazing. Highest grazing rates (65%/d) were measured during fall when zooplankton abundance was high. Because differential losses can produce substantial errors in the results, it was necessary to process the samples on the boat immediately after collection, without preservation

  19. Dynamics of forage accumulation in Elephant grass subjected to rotational grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the accumulation dynamics of forage and its components in Elephant grass cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. that were subjected to three post-grazing height treatments (30, 50, and 70 cm from February through May 2009 (experiment one and December 2009 through May 2010 (experiment two. In experiment one, the grazing events started when the light interception by the canopy reached 95%. The same was adopted for experiment two, except for the first grazing event, which was based on the height of the apical meristems of basal tillers. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized complete block with three replications. The pastures that were managed at a post-grazing height of 30 cm exhibited lower rates of leaf and stem growth, total growth and forage accumulation than those that were managed at 50 or 70 cm, indicating that post-grazing height affects Elephant grass. The pastures that were managed at 50 cm exhibited relatively stable accumulation rates and less stem accumulation. Pastures managed at 70 cm of pos-grazing height presented more leaf and stem accumulation. Most apical meristems of Elephant grass should be removed in the first grazing when they reach the post-grazing target height of 50 cm. The elevation in the residual post-grazing height, especially in the summer, raises the regrowth vigor in the Elephant grass cv. Napier pasture. The post-grazing height of 30 cm reduces the growth of the Elephant grass cv. Napier.

  20. Finanční leasing z pohledu nájemce dle české legislativy a IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Ťápalová, Hana

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor's thesis is to create a comprehensive view of the problematics of the financial leasing from the leaseholder's point of view. The first part is focused on theoretical background of the financial leasing regulated by Czech legislation. It also describes financial leasing in light of accounting (evaluation and evidence, reporting leasing or advance payment) and taxes (corporation income tax, VAT and other ones). The second part is focused on International Financia...

  1. How to electrify more of the public to lease electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huestis, E.P. [City of Vacaville, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The City of Vacaville, in Northern California, aims to become the city which boast the highest number of electric vehicles per capita (residential) in both California and the United States. To that effect, it secured a $300,000 grant from the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program in order to provide an incentive of $6,000 to 35 customers over the life of the three-year lease of a qualifying electric vehicle. Additional electric charging infrastructure throughout the Vacaville and the replacement of some aging City fleet vehicles with electric vehicles will be possible using the remainder of the grant money. The incentive program proved so popular, through word of mouth and positive press coverage, that 75 customers expressed an interest in the program. Several of the customers had just taken delivery of an electric vehicle from General Motors or Ford. Unable to provide the same incentive to all customers from the original grant, the City of Vacaville applied for a $600,000 additional grant from the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality to serve 50 more customers, as well as for the provision of additional charging stations at strategic locations. The expansion of the program has received preliminary approval for its second grant application.

  2. Grazing exit versus grazing incidence geometry for x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the presented study the grazing exit x-ray fluorescence was tested for its applicability to x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic in droplet samples. The experimental results have been compared to the findings of former analyses of the same samples using a grazing incidence (GI) setup to compare the performance of both geometries. Furthermore, the investigations were accomplished to gain a better understanding of the so called self-absorption effect, which was observed and investigated in previous studies using a GI geometry. It was suggested that a normal incidence-grazing-exit geometry would not suffer from self-absorption effects in x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis due to the minimized path length of the incident beam through the sample. The results proved this assumption and in turn confirmed the occurrence of the self-absorption effect for GI geometry. Due to its lower sensitivity it is difficult to apply the GE geometry to XAFS analysis of trace amounts (few nanograms) of samples but the technique is well suited for the analysis of small amounts of concentrated samples

  3. Transitions and coexistence along a grazing gradient in the Eurasian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haiyan; Taube, Friedelm; Zhang, Yingjun; Bai, Yongfei; Hu, Shuijin

    2017-04-01

    Ecological resilience theory has often been applied to explain species coexistence and range condition assessment of various community states and to explicate the dynamics of ecosystems. Grazing is a primary disturbance that can alter rangeland resilience by causing hard-to-reverse transitions in grasslands. Yet, how grazing affects the coexistence of plant functional group (PFG) and transition remains unclear. We conducted a six-year grazing experiment in a typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, using seven grazing intensities (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 9.0 sheep/ hectare) and two grazing systems (i.e. a continuous annual grazing as in the traditional grazing system, and a mixed grazing system combining grazing and haymaking), to examine grazing effects on plant functional group shifts and species coexistence in the semi-arid grassland system. Our results indicate that the relative richness of dominant bunchgrasses and forbs had a compensatory coexistence at all grazing intensities, and the richness of rhizomatous grasses fluctuated but was persistent. The relative productivity of dominant bunchgrasses and rhizomatous grasses had compensatory interactions with grazing intensity and grazing system. Dominant bunchgrasses and rhizomatous grasses resist grazing effects by using their dominant species functional traits: high specific leaf area and low leaf nitrogen content. Our results suggest that: 1. Stabilizing mechanisms beyond grazing management are more important in determining plant functional group coexistence and ecological resilience. 2. Plant functional group composition is more important in influencing ecosystem functioning than diversity. 3. Ecosystem resilience at a given level is related to the biomass of dominant PFG, which is determined by a balanced shift between dominant species biomass. The relatively even ecosystem resilience along the grazing gradient is attributed to the compensatory interactions of dominant species in their biomass variations

  4. 76 FR 19466 - Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Reliable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Reliable Staffing, and Third Dimension Waverly, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network... Group including on-site leased workers from Reserves Network, Jackson, Ohio. The workers produce...

  5. 75 FR 20390 - Robert Bosch LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch Management Services North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ...-site leased workers of Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital... leased workers of Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital, Huffmaster Inc..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community...

  6. 75 FR 55613 - Dupont Teijin Films Including On-Site Leased Workers From Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, SC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, SC; Amended Certification... Teijin Films, including on-site leased workers from Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, South Carolina... leased workers of Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, South Carolina, who became totally or partially...

  7. 41 CFR 102-73.170 - What types of special purpose space may the Department of Agriculture lease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purpose space may the Department of Agriculture lease? 102-73.170 Section 102-73.170 Public Contracts and... § 102-73.170 What types of special purpose space may the Department of Agriculture lease? The Department of Agriculture is delegated the authority to lease the following types of special purpose space: (a...

  8. 41 CFR 102-72.30 - What are the different types of delegations related to real estate leasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... types of delegations related to real estate leasing? 102-72.30 Section 102-72.30 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 72-DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY Delegation of Authority § 102-72.30 What are the different types of delegations related to real estate leasing? Delegations related to real estate leasing...

  9. 76 FR 18778 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Leases MTM 89460, MTM 89461, MTM 89467...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... that affect these lands. The lessee agrees to new lease terms for rentals and royalties of $10 per acre and 16\\2/3\\ percent. The lessee paid the $500 administration fee for the reinstatement of each lease... leases; The increased rental of $10 per acre; The increased royalty of 16\\2/3\\ percent; and The $163 cost...

  10. 75 FR 66795 - TTM Technologies, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Aerotek, and an On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... follows: ``All workers TTM Technologies, including on-site leased workers from Kelly Services and Aerotek... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-64,993] TTM Technologies, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Aerotek, and an On-Site Leased Worker From Orbotech...

  11. 77 FR 21588 - Hart and Cooley, Inc., A Subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC Including On-Site Leased Workers from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC Including On- Site Leased Workers from Reliable, Masiello Employment Services..., applicable to workers of Hart and Cooley, Inc., a subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC, including on-site leased... workers. Based on these findings, the Department is amending this certification to include workers leased...

  12. 78 FR 8190 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore North Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ...] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore North Carolina--Call for... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Offshore North Carolina (Call), published on December 13, 2012 (77 FR 7204). DATES: BOEM must receive your nomination describing your interest in obtaining a commercial wind lease...

  13. 77 FR 47877 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine; Request for Interest... Request for a Commercial OCS Wind Lease, Request for Interest, and Request for Public Comment SUMMARY: The... (Statoil NA) to acquire an OCS wind lease; (2) solicit public input regarding the proposal, its potential...

  14. 76 FR 62452 - Avon Products, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    .... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH; Amended Certification Regarding... workers of the subject firm. The company reports that workers leased from Spherion/Source Right were...., including on-site leased workers from Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio, who became totally or...

  15. 76 FR 62451 - Avon Products, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio; Amended Certification... workers of the subject firm. The company reports that workers leased from Spherion/Source Right were...., including on-site leased workers from Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio, who became totally or...

  16. 77 FR 61028 - Hasbro, Inc.; Hasbro Managerial Services, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers of Entegee East...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... relevant period and that the subject firm had sufficient control over the leased workers for the Department to determine that there was operational control of the leased workers by the subject firm. The... Managerial Services, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers of Entegee East Longmeadow, MA Amended...

  17. 30 CFR 210.205 - What reports must I submit to claim allowances on Indian coal leases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on Indian coal leases? 210.205 Section 210.205 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Minerals § 210.205 What reports must I submit to claim allowances on Indian coal leases? General. You must... coal leases: (1) Form MMS-4292, Coal Washing Allowance Report, to claim an allowance for the reasonable...

  18. Lease of agricultural land of the Treasury in the light of new regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majchrzak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available After 1992 lease was in Poland the primary form of land management of Treasury agricul-ture property. It was preferred by both the state because of the possibility of quick disposal of property and by farmers because of the need to involve the smaller one-off funding, which could be used instead for production and investment. In recent years the importance of leasing as a way of public land management has been decreasing in favour of the sale. It follows with the growing demand for agricultural land, as well as government policies and actions undertaken by the Agricultural Property Agency. This results in the new law regula-tions on public agricultural property management, which on 3 December 2011 introduced significant changes in the public land lease. The aim of new regulations is to accelerate the privatization of state land resources, which will be carried out in the first place by disabling part of the leased agricultural land from large-area farms, as well as for sale of the land, for which the lease will be ended. In this article the author tries to assess the impact of introduced regulations on the role of leasing of public agricultural land in Poland. It is expected that due to the new law, the lease will concern mainly small plots, while interest in the lease as a way to increase land resources by individual farmers will be reduced.

  19. 76 FR 46839 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease NDM 95192

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... and royalties of $10 per acre and 16\\2/3\\ percent. The lessees paid the $500 administration fee for... River Royalty Corporation timely filed a petition for reinstatement of competitive oil and gas lease NDM... original terms and conditions of the lease; The increased rental of $10 per acre; The increased royalty of...

  20. 78 FR 28642 - Eastman Kodak Company, Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Kodak Company, Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco and Datrose, Spencerport, New York; Eastman Kodak Company, IPS, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Dayton, Ohio... Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) filed on behalf of Eastman Kodak Company, Electrographic Print...

  1. 78 FR 19530 - Eastman Kodak Company (GCG), Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Kodak Company (GCG), Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco and Datrose, Spencerport, New York; Eastman Kodak Company, IPS, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco..., 2011, applicable to workers of Eastman Kodak Company (GCG), Electrographic Print Solutions, including...

  2. 75 FR 43555 - Experian, Global Technology Services, a Subsidiary of Experian, Including a Leased Employee From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Technology Services, a Subsidiary of Experian, Including a Leased Employee From Tapfin Working Off-Site in... Experian, Global Technology Services, a subsidiary of Experian, including on-site leased workers from... control of the Schaumburg, Illinois location of Experian, Global Technology Services, a subsidiary of...

  3. Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaechter, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters

  4. 75 FR 76487 - Haldex Brake Corporation, Commercial Vehicle Systems, Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ..., Commercial Vehicle Systems, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Johnston Integration Technologies, a... Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (``Act''), 19 U.S.C... system components. The company reports that workers leased from Johnston Integration Technologies, a...

  5. 77 FR 72439 - Residential, Business, and Wind and Solar Resource Leases on Indian Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... to streamline and expedite the leasing process, advance economic development, and spur renewable... entities; however, many tribes requested clarification regarding other taxation arising in the context of... residential, business, and WSR leasing subparts to subpart A. This section now addresses not only taxation of...

  6. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Leafstone... Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken, New Jersey. The workers are engaged... to include all leased workers on-site at UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas...

  7. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... No. BOEM-2011-0008] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind lease in the area offshore... a Request for Interest (RFI) in the Federal Register on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21653). Bluewater Wind...

  8. 76 FR 14681 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0063] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Request for Interest (RFI) in Commercial Wind Energy... (BOEMRE) is reopening the comment period on the RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore...

  9. 76 FR 2881 - Fishlake National Forest; Utah; Oil and Gas Leasing EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... leasing, and to determine what lease stipulations would apply to those lands. The proposal also includes amending the FNF Land and Resource Management Plan (LRMP) to update management direction for minerals management, specifically oil and gas. The scope of the analysis is forest-wide. A Notice of Intent (NOI) was...

  10. 26 CFR 1.861-16 - Income from certain craft first leased after December 28, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income from certain craft first leased after... the United States § 1.861-16 Income from certain craft first leased after December 28, 1980. (a) General rule. If a taxpayer— (1) Owns a qualified craft (as defined in paragraph (b) of this section). (2...

  11. 78 FR 52982 - Regal Beloit Corporation; Springfield, Missouri Division Including On-site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... these workers were sufficiently under the control of the subject firm to be considered leased workers...; Springfield, Missouri Division Including On-site Leased Workers From Penmac Personnel Services and GCA Services Group Springfield, Missouri; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker...

  12. 76 FR 175 - Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Technologies Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Servcies and Emcon Technologies, Troy, MI..., applicable to workers of Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies, Troy, Michigan, including on-site leased workers from Adecco Employment Services, Troy, Michigan. The Department's notice of determination was...

  13. 75 FR 81637 - Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and... Renewable Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') for the Cape Wind Energy Project... requirements of 30 CFR 285.231. The Lease is for the Cape Wind Energy Project (``Project'') which grants Cape...

  14. 30 CFR 285.510 - May MMS reduce or waive my lease or grant payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May MMS reduce or waive my lease or grant... Financial Assurance Requirements Payments § 285.510 May MMS reduce or waive my lease or grant payments? (a) The MMS Director may reduce or waive the rent or operating fee or components of the operating fee...

  15. 13 CFR 120.131 - Leasing part of new construction or existing building to another business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing part of new construction or existing building to another business. 120.131 Section 120.131 Business Credit and Assistance... § 120.131 Leasing part of new construction or existing building to another business. (a) If the SBA...

  16. The evaluation of new methodological approaches to lease reporting on the side of lessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002 the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB has begun significantly cooperate in the development of standards based on the same principles. The cooperation is realised through a series of short term or long term projects. Revenue recognition and lease reporting projects represent priority areas of convergence. The development of methodological approaches for lease reporting on the side of lessee and lessor that would eliminate the main weaknesses of the current system of reporting based on the classification of lease contracts in connection with the lease term and the transfer of risks and benefits associated with the lease to the lessee should be the result of the convergence activity in the area of lease reporting. The evaluation of the impact of the newly proposed methodological approaches to lease reporting in the field of operating leases into the financial statements of lessor that will be affected by this change of methodology (financial position, comprehensive income statement is the main aim of the paper. The impact into selected indicators of financial analysis with a focus on indicators, in whose construction are used items of statements that are significantly affected by the change of the methodological approach is evaluated as well.

  17. 25 CFR 162.212 - When will the BIA advertise Indian land for agricultural leases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... laws and leasing policies that have been made applicable to the land under §§ 162.109 and 162.203 of..., unless a preference in favor of individual Indians is required by a superseding tribal law or leasing policy. (c) Advertisements will require sealed bids, and they may also provide for further competitive...

  18. The choice of leasing companies for automobile fleet updating on the basis of hierarchies analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Dorohov, А.

    2007-01-01

    The basic criteria of leasing companies choice by the transport enterprises for automobile fleet updating such as terms of financing, size of advance, assortment time of existence at the market, have been determined. The determination of the best leasing company according to these parameters on the basis of hierarchies analysis method has been offered.

  19. 76 FR 42725 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease COC64399

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... (USA), for lands in Garfield County, Colorado. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by...: Milada Krasilinec, BLM Land Law Examiner, Fluid Minerals Adjudication, at (303) 239-3767. Persons who use... requirements for reinstatement of the lease as set out in Section 31(d) and (e) of the Mineral Lands Leasing...

  20. 76 FR 35909 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease COC64168

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ..., LTD, for lands in Gunnison County, Colorado. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all...: BLM, Milada Krasilinec, Land Law Examiner, Branch of Fluid Minerals Adjudication, at (303) 239-3767... requirements for reinstatement of the lease as set out in Section 31(d) and (e) of the Mineral Lands Leasing...

  1. 78 FR 19520 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale COC-74813, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal coal reserves (Red Wash Tracts 1 and 2) in Moffat and Rio Blanco Counties, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act... Fourth Floor Conference Room of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Colorado State Office, 2850...

  2. 77 FR 9696 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease COC30486

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... (USA) Inc., for lands in Mesa County, Colorado. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by...: Milada Krasilinec, BLM Land Law Examiner, Fluid Minerals Adjudication, at (303) 239-3767. Persons who use... requirements for reinstatement of the lease as set out in Section 31(d) and (e) of the Mineral Lands Leasing...

  3. 77 FR 11155 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease COC73670

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Inc., for lands in Huerfano County, Colorado. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by...: Milada Krasilinec, BLM Land Law Examiner, Fluid Minerals Adjudication, at (303) 239-3767. Persons who use... requirements for reinstatement of the lease as set out in Section 31(d) and (e) of the Mineral Lands Leasing...

  4. 75 FR 53981 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 47609, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CA-920-1310-FI; CACA 47609] Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 47609, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Management (BLM) received a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 47609 from Mirada Petroleum...

  5. 76 FR 22422 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 49187, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 49187, LLCA920000 L1310000 FI0000] Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 49187, California AGENCY: Bureau of... of Land Management (BLM) received a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 49187 from...

  6. 75 FR 38543 - Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 46594

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management CA-920-1310-FI; CACA 46594] Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 46594 AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... for reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 46594 from Gasco Production Company. The petition was...

  7. 75 FR 32812 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 44900, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CA-920-1310-FI; CACA 44900] Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 44900, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Management (BLM) received a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 44900 from NW. Lost Hills...

  8. 76 FR 66080 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 52030, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 52030, LLCA920000 L1310000 FI0000] Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 52030, California AGENCY: Bureau of... oil and gas lease CACA 52030 from Plains Exploration & Production Co. The petition was filed on time...

  9. 77 FR 9959 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 50123, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 50123, LLCA920000 L1310000 FI0000] Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 50123, California AGENCY: Bureau of... of Land Management (BLM) received a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 50123 from...

  10. De invloed van IFRS 16 leases op de jaarrekening van lessees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Coen; Tahtah, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The article describes the outcome of a research (simulation) to the impact of new lease accounting rules to the 2016 financial statements of companies of the AEX- and AMX-index. In deze bijdrage wordt verslag gedaan van de verwachte gevolgen van IFRS 16 Leases voor lessees op de jaarrekening over

  11. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM New Jersey Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Draxl, C.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development and evaluation of the delineations for the New Jersey (NJ) WEA. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the New Jersey WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL identified a selection of leasing areas and proposed delineation boundaries within the established NJ WEA. The primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  12. A Decision Optimization Model for Leased Manufacturing Equipment with Warranty under Forecasting Production/Maintenance Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Hajej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the expensive production equipment, many manufacturers usually lease production equipment with a warranty period during a finite leasing horizon, rather than purchasing them. The lease contract contains the possibility of obtaining an extended warranty for a given additional cost. In this paper, based on the forecasting production/maintenance optimization problem, we develop a mathematical model to study the lease contract with basic and extended warranty based on win-win relationship between the lessee and the lessor. The influence of the production rates in the equipment degradation consequently on the total cost by each side during the finite leasing horizon is stated in order to determine a theoretical condition under which a compromise-pricing zone exists under different possibilities of maintenance policies.

  13. The Role and Importance of the Lease Towards the Farms’ Size Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease reactivation, within the agrarian relations, at year 1994, was considered as a "normal economic phenomenon". The rent, as a price of the land lease, should equal gratify the interest of those two marketer partners, land owner and leaseholder. The estimations prove the restrictive character of the lease for owner of the land, not through the hectare's quantum, but through the total income size gained by the family, as a result of the farm low size, or of the plot of land gave to lease. The lease as a landed market's action has demonstrated its role within the agriculture farm size increase, merely through the restrictive manufactures factors character at the renters, which has substituted to the households.

  14. The Role and Importance of the Lease Towards the Farms’ Size Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease reactivation, within the agrarian relations, at year 1994, was considered as a "normal economic phenomenon". The rent, as a price of the land lease, should equal gratify the interest of those two marketer partners, land owner and leaseholder. The estimations prove the restrictive character of the lease for owner of the land, not through the hectare’s quantum, but through the total income size gained by the family, as a result of the farm low size, or of the plot of land gave to lease. The lease as a landed market’s action has demonstrated its role within the agriculture farm size increase, merely through the restrictive manufactures factors character at the renters, which has substituted to the households.

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF THE BRAŞOV CONSUMER BEHAVIOR REGARDING THE USE OF THE LEASING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA BĂRBULESCU (ŞEITAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The leasing market is in a constant diversification, the services provided within having the role, on the one hand, to stimulate the sales of high quality goods, and on the other hand, to reduce the flows of cheap and poor quality goods. Thus, if, initially, the use of leasing services had as a main purpose the acquisition of vehicles, now there is a growing demand for the financing of the equipment and buildings. Under the effect of the economic – financial crisis, the Romanian leasing market registered significant decreases across all customer segments. In this context, it appeared the necessity of drawing up some market researches in order to investigate the using behavior of the consumers of leasing services, their results could be using in the development and implementation of the marketing strategies adopted by the companies from the leasing sector.

  16. [Financing problems of capital goods: part 1: leasing as a solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, C C; Bauer, M; Saleh, A; Picker, O

    2008-06-01

    The provision of financial support of hospitals by States for buying capital goods is becoming increasingly more limited. In order to still make investments, alternative forms of financing such as leasing must be considered in hospitals. However, the change from the classical form of dual financing and the decision to opt for a leasing model involves much more than just a question of costs. Leasing results in easily manageable expenditure, flexibility and adaptability for the choice of model but the leasing installments must be directly financed by the turnover from diagnosis-related groups and so lead to a reduction in the annual profit. In this article the authors try to give the reader an overview of the complex and sometimes counter-productive effect of financial instruments for investments in hospitals using leasing financing as an example. In the follow-up article the decision-making procedure using dynamic investment calculations will be demonstrated using a concrete example.

  17. Density and success of bird nests relative to grazing on western Montana grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Ball, I.J.

    2004-01-01

    Grassland birds are declining at a faster rate than any other group of North American bird species. Livestock grazing is the primary economic use of grasslands in the western United States, but the effects of this use on distribution and productivity of grassland birds are unclear. We examined nest density and success of ground-nesting birds on grazed and ungrazed grasslands in western Montana. In comparison to grazed plots, ungrazed plots had reduced forb cover, increased litter cover, increased litter depth, and increased visual obstruction readings (VOR) of vegetation. Nest density among 10 of 11 common bird species was most strongly correlated with VOR of plots, and greatest nest density for each species occurred where mean VOR of the plot was similar to mean VOR at nests. Additionally, all bird species were relatively consistent in their choice of VOR at nests despite substantial differences in VOR among plots. We suggest that birds selected plots based in part on availability of suitable nest sites and that variation in nest density relative to grazing reflected the effect of grazing on availability of nest sites. Nest success was similar between grazed plots and ungrazed plots for two species but was lower for nests on grazed plots than on ungrazed plots for two other species because of increased rates of predation, trampling, or parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Other species nested almost exclusively on ungrazed plots (six species) or grazed plots (one species), precluding evaluation of the effects of grazing on nest success. We demonstrate that each species in a diverse suite of ground-nesting birds preferentially used certain habitats for nesting and that grazing altered availability of preferred nesting habitats through changes in vegetation structure and plant species composition. We also show that grazing directly or indirectly predisposed some bird species to increased nesting mortality. Management alternatives that avoid

  18. Traditional cattle grazing in a mosaic alkali landscape: effects on grassland biodiversity along a moisture gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Török

    Full Text Available Extensively managed pastures are of crucial importance in sustaining biodiversity both in local- and landscape-level. Thus, re-introduction of traditional grazing management is a crucial issue in grassland conservation actions worldwide. Traditional grazing with robust cattle breeds in low stocking rates is considered to be especially useful to mimic natural grazing regimes, but well documented case-studies are surprisingly rare on this topic. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Hungarian Grey cattle grazing as a conservation action in a mosaic alkali landscape. We asked the following questions: (i How does cattle grazing affect species composition and diversity of the grasslands? (ii What are the effects of grazing on short-lived and perennial noxious species? (iii Are there distinct effects of grazing in dry-, mesophilous- and wet grassland types? Vegetation of fenced and grazed plots in a 200-ha sized habitat complex (secondary dry grasslands and pristine mesophilous- and wet alkali grasslands was sampled from 2006-2009 in East-Hungary. We found higher diversity scores in grazed plots compared to fenced ones in mesophilous- and wet grasslands. Higher cover of noxious species was typical in fenced plots compared to their grazed counterparts in the last year in every studied grassland type. We found an increasing effect of grazing from the dry- towards the wet grassland types. The year-to-year differences also followed similar pattern: the site-dependent effects were the lowest in the dry grassland and an increasing effect was detected along the moisture gradient. We found that extensive Hungarian Grey cattle grazing is an effective tool to suppress noxious species and to create a mosaic vegetation structure, which enables to maintain high species richness in the landscape. Hungarian Grey cattle can feed in open habitats along long moisture gradient, thus in highly mosaic landscapes this breed can be the most suitable

  19. Department of the Navy FY 1990/FY 1991 Biennial Budget Estimates. Military Construction and Family Housing Program FY 1990. Justification Data Submitted to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    properly configured for optimum space use, are inadequate, overcrowded, and cannot acca -modate all the children who need child care. Comeercial child... F6 -4 l’mestic Leasing Fiscal Year Summary: PY 1988 - The domestic leasing program consists of 1,324 units requiring funding of 09,551.0. runding in

  20. ASAS FREIES ERMESSEN DAN ASPEK PERPAJAKAN LEASING MENURUT KEPUTUSAN MENTERI KEUANGAN NO. 1169/KMK.01/1991 TENTANG KEGIATAN SEWA GUNA USAHA (LEASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syofrin Syofyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the government’s role in granting tax incentives in support of the leasing business which in itself already functions as a financing instrument. The author purports to show how the government’s (the state administration’s freedom in making policy rules based on the principle of freies ermessen is realized in the economic (tax sector. The policy rules being discussed is the Ministry of Finance’ Decree no. 1169/KMK.01/1991 re. Leasing.

  1. Comparison of financial leasing according to the Czech accounting legislation and IAS/IFRS including taximplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is intensive effort of the harmonisation of accounting in the world. Primary sence of harmonisation is ensured that individual financial statements of all accounting units were comparable. Notwithstanding there are still significant differences in same areas. This contribution is aimed at define of posting and showing financial leasing according to Czech accounting legislation and international accounting standards IAS/IFRS, and determination of significant differences in these legislation.The leasing is one of the form of purchase of property. So International Accounting Standards require so that a tenant (leasee notices the subject of leasing in his assests and correlationally with obligation. After that the subject of leasing can be amortized. Argument for this way of billing is the fact, that the tenant (leasee obtaines economic gain from use of the subject of leasing during its essential economic lifetime. For it the tenant (leasee has to pay an amount that is about equal to real value and financial costs.The companies recording leasing according to czech legal form this fact do not record in accounting so value of their assests and obligations is lower than their actual (true value. This procedure dis­fi­gu­res financial indicators to be important for review of financial situation of company according to International accounting standardsBecause financial leasing is the most favourite form of leasing relation, the aim of this article is determination all changes in tax legislation to be related to financial leasing during three last years. And of course outline effect of these changes on the leasing market.

  2. Temporal profiles of vegetation indices for characterizing grazing intensity on natural grasslands in Pampa biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Heemann Junges

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Pampa biome is an important ecosystem in Brazil that is highly relevant to livestock production. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential use of vegetation indices to discriminate grazing intensities on natural grasslands in the Pampa biome. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI images from Jan to Dec, 2000 to 2013 series, were analyzed for natural grassland experimental units managed under high (forage allowance of 5 ± 2 % live weight – LW, moderate (13 ± 5 % LW and low grazing intensity (19 ± 7 % LW. Regardless of intensity, the temporal profiles showed lower NDVI and EVI during winter, increased values in spring because of summer species regrowth, slightly decreased values in summer, especially in years when there is a water deficit, and increased values in the fall associated with the beginning of winter forage development. The average temporal profiles of moderate grazing intensity exhibited greater vegetation index values compared with low and high grazing intensities. The temporal profiles of less vegetation index were associated with lower green biomass accumulation caused by the negative impact of stocking rates on the leaf area index under high grazing intensity and a floristic composition with a predominance of tussocks under low grazing intensity. Vegetation indices can be used for distinguishing moderate grazing intensity from low and high intensities. The average EVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during any season, and the NDVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during spring and winter.

  3. Grazing reduces soil greenhouse gas fluxes in global grasslands: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shiming; Tian, Dashuan; Niu, Shuli

    2017-04-01

    Grazing causes a worldwide degradation in grassland and likely alters soil greenhouse gas fluxes (GHGs). However, the general patterns of grazing-induced changes in grassland soil GHGs and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we synthesized 63 independent experiments in global grasslands that examined grazing impacts on soil GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O). We found that grazing with light or moderate intensity did not significantly influence soil GHGs, but consistently depressed them under heavy grazing, reducing CO2 emission by 10.55%, CH4 uptake by 19.24% and N2O emission by 28.04%. The reduction in soil CO2 was mainly due to decreased activity in roots and microbes (soil respiration per unit root and microbial biomass), which was suppressed by less water availability due to higher soil temperature induced by lower community cover under heavy grazing. N2O emission decreased with grazing-caused decline in soil total N. The inhibitory effect on methanotroph activities by water stress is responsible for the decreased CH4 uptake. Furthermore, grazing duration and precipitation also influenced the direction and magnitude of responses in GHGs fluxes. Overall, our results indicate that the reduction in soil CO2 and N2O emission under heavy grazing is partially compensated by the decrease in CH4 uptake, which is mainly regulated by variations in soil moisture.

  4. Financing wind plants, taking leasing into special account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltrup, M.

    1993-01-01

    Leasing cannot be managed without a special sort of external financing of wind power plants. Specifically for wind energy, it was found from an investigation of less than a year that an intended erection of a wind power plant should be carried out in the months of September or October, so that the autumn and winter months rich in energy can be used. For the erection of small wind power plants, it was found that taking advantage of the Investment Cost Grant is more sensible than the Operating Cost Grant. (orig./HW) [de

  5. Competitive Analysis for Online Leasing Problem with Compound Interest Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyu Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the compound interest rate into the continuous version of the online leasing problem and discuss the generalized model by competitive analysis. On the one hand, the optimal deterministic strategy and its competitive ratio are obtained; on the other hand, a nearly optimal randomized strategy is constructed and a lower bound for the randomized competitive ratios is proved by Yao's principle. With the help of numerical examples, the theoretical results show that the interest rate puts off the purchase date and diminishes the uncertainty involved in the decision making.

  6. LEASING SECTOR IN MACEDONIA-STATES AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA BOSKOVSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of limited access to traditional sources of funding when lending a privilege of the largest and most creditworthy companies, contemporary, alternative ways of funding, including the leasing are increasingly gaining importance. They are particularly attractive for small and medium enterprises that grow rapidly and are facing a shortage of funds. In terms of general illiquidity of the Macedonian economy, on the one hand, and restrictive credit policies of banks on the other hand, creating a business climate where will apply and promote alternative modes of financing in the Republic of Macedonia is a very importance for the operation and development of small and medium enterprises.

  7. El Leasing como herramienta de financiación

    OpenAIRE

    Chorén, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo de investigación es planteado para ser utilizado por las Pymes para evaluar la oportunidad de aplicar el Leasing frente a una posibilidad de inversión en activos fijos; ya que hoy en día es tenido en cuenta en los países desarrollados como la herramienta de financiamiento más conveniente y perfecto que existe debido a sus amplios beneficios. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo primordial establecer las ventajas impositivas, jurídicas, financieras y operativas para que las...

  8. Using digital photography to examine grazing in montane meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Susan K.; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H.; Berg, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) numbers on national forests are allocated based on allotment grazing capacity, but spatial patterns of timing and density at smaller scales are difficult to assess. However, it is often in meadows or riparian areas that grazing may affect hydrology, biodiversity, and other important ecosystem characteristics. To explore real-time animal presence in montane meadows we distributed 18 digital cameras across nine sites in the Sierra National Forest, California. Our objectives were to document seasonal and diurnal presence of both cattle and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), identify the effects of three fencing treatments on animal distribution, and test digital photography as a tool for documenting cattle presence. We recorded 409 399 images during daylight hours for two grazing seasons, and we identified 5 084 and 24 482 cattle "marks" (instances of animal occurrence) in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Deer presence was much lower, with 331 marks in 2006 and 598 in 2007. Morning cattle presence was highest before 0800 hours both years (13.7% and 15.4% of total marks for 2006 and 2007, respectively). Marks decreased until 1100 hours and then increased around 1400 hours and remained relatively stable until 1900 hours. Marks then rose precipitously, with >20% of total marks recorded after 1900 hours both years. Deer presence was less than 10% per hour until 1800 hours, when >20% of total marks were recorded after this time both years. Among treatments, cattle marks were highest outside fences at partially fenced meadows, and deer were highest within completely fenced meadows. Our experience suggests that cameras are not viable tools for meadow monitoring due to variation captured within meadows and the time and effort involved in image processing and review.

  9. Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Identify the Most Suitable Lessor of Freight Car Finance Leasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finance leasing (also “equipment leasing” saves the cost, improves the efficiency and benefit, larger the manufacture supply channels, which is an optimal solution for equipment supply with uncertain freight demand. The article collects the definitions of Finance Leasing based on the four pillars theory of finance leasing, also divides the lessors in Freight Car finance leasing into three categories according to their major business: manufacturers, banks as the representative financial institutions, firms that specialized in finance leasing. To identify the most suitable lessor for each railway department, an indicator system is built and operated by Yaahp (a software based on Analytic Hierarchy Process.

  10. Annual methane budgets of sheep grazing systems were regulated by grazing intensities in the temperate continental steppe: A two-year case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Zhong, Mengying; Zhu, Yuhao; Yang, Helong; Johnson, Douglas A.; Rong, Yuping

    2018-02-01

    Methane (CH4) emission from animal husbandry accounts for a large percentage of anthropogenic contributions to CH4 emissions. Fully understanding of grazing management effects on the CH4 budget is essential for mitigating CH4 emissions in the temperate grazing steppe systems. Annual CH4 budgets for the sheep grazed steppes at various grazing intensities, un-grazing (UG, 0 sheep ha-1year-1), defer grazing (DG, 1.0 sheep ha-1 year-1), moderate grazing (MG, 1.43 sheep ha-1year-1), and heavy grazing (HG, 2.43 sheep ha-1year-1) were assessed across 2012-2014 in the agro-pastoral region of northern China. Annual soil CH4 uptake averaged across 2012-2014 were 1.1 ± 0.1, 2.4 ± 0.2, 2.2 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 for UG, DG (only 2013-2014), MG and HG sites. Non-growing season CH4 uptake comprised 50.0 ± 4.3% of annual CH4 uptake in 2012-2013 and 37.7 ± 2.0% in 2013-2014. DG and MG significantly promoted annual soil CH4 uptake (P 0.05). Bell-shaped relationship was presented between stocking rates and soil CH4 uptake (r2 = 0.59, P budgets for the grazed grasslands were -1.1 ± 0.1, 5.7 ± 0.6, 11.5 ± 1.5 and 15.5 ± 1.3 kg CH4-C ha-1 year-1 in UG, DG (only 2013-2014), MG and HG across 2012-2014. Soil CH4 uptake could offset 29.7 ± 5.6, 15.9 ± 4.3 and 6.8 ± 1.0% of total annual CH4 emissions from sheep, sheepfold and faeces in DG, MG, and HG. All grazed steppes are sources for atmospheric CH4 and the magnitude is regulated by grazing intensities. Sheep CH4 emissions for 1-g liveweight gain were 0.21, 0.32 and 0.37 g CH4-C in DG, MG and HG, respectively. DG is the recommended grazing management in this region to achieve greater herbage mass, higher sheep performance and lower CH4 emissions simultaneously.

  11. Review of grazing studies on plutonium-contaminated rangelands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    Literature is cited that has provided data on tissue actinide concentrations in grazing animals when the actinide dosages resulted from artificial administration or from periodic exposure. Only one long-term study is known where a reproducing beef herd was restricted to a plutonium-contaminated environment. Highlights of this study that are reviewed and discussed include: relationship of ingesta concentrations to food habits; tissue concentration related to length of exposure and level of exposure; and the concentration range in various tissues. Emphasis is given to the gonadal concentration which is approximately 25 times that of muscle and blood. Future study plans are also discussed

  12. Vegetation and Grazing in the St. Katherine Protectorate, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5. Grazing pressure. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. P lant health. Unk . La bita e. Le gu m ino s a e. Co m p o sita e. A m ara nthac ea e. B ora gin ace ae. C h en opo dia c e ae. E u ph orb iac ea e. S cro ph ula ria cea e. A sc lep id ac e ae. C a ry o phy lla cea e. R ese dace ae. C a pp arace ae. Cuc urb ita cea e. Cruc ife rae. Gram inae. U m be.

  13. Ionization by ion impact at grazing incidence on insulator surface

    CERN Document Server

    Martiarena, M L

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the energy distribution of electrons produced by ionization of the ionic crystal electrons in grazing fast ion-insulator surface collision. The ionized electrons originate in the 2p F sup - orbital. We observe that the binary peak appears as a double change in the slope of the spectra, in the high energy region. The form of the peak is determined by the initial electron distribution and its position will be affected by the binding energy of the 2p F sup - electron in the crystal. This BEP in insulator surfaces will appear slightly shifted to the low energy side with respect the ion-atom one.

  14. Genetic strain and diet effects on grazing behavior, pasture intake, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, A J; Kolver, E S; Roche, J R

    2011-07-01

    Understanding how dairy cows adjust their grazing behavior in response to feed supplements is important for the development of management strategies that optimize profit from supplementation. New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows have been selected for milk production on a predominantly pasture-based diet; in comparison, HF cows of North American (NA) ancestry have been selected almost exclusively for milk yield and fed diets high in nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). We hypothesized, therefore, that supplementation would have differing effects on grazing behavior, pasture dry matter intake (DMI), and milk production in these genetic strains at peak, mid, and late lactation. A study was conducted over 2 consecutive lactations, with NA and NZ cows randomly allocated at calving to 0, 3, or 6 kg of dry matter/day concentrate plus unrestricted access to pasture. Pasture DMI, milk production, and grazing behavior were recorded at peak, mid, and late lactation. Concentrates were fed in equal amounts at morning and afternoon milking. The NA cows produced more milk and milk components, and had a greater pasture DMI, despite spending less time grazing. Declines in time spent grazing and pasture DMI were associated with increasing concentrate DMI. Grazing behavior following morning supplementation was different from that recorded following afternoon supplementation. Grazing ceased following morning supplementation before rumen fill could be a limiting factor, and the length of the grazing interval was inversely proportional to the amount of concentrate offered; these results suggest that physiological rather than physical stimuli were responsible for grazing cessation. The decrease in time spent grazing with increasing concentrate DMI is consistent with changes in neuroendocrine factors secreted in response to the presence of food in the digestive tract or with circulating products of digestion. After afternoon supplementation, sunset signaled the end of grazing irrespective of

  15. The impact of cattle and goats grazing on vegetation in oak stands of varying coppicing age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Thomas G.; Platis, Panayiotis D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of cattle and goats grazing on oak shoot growth and herbaceous vegetation in three oak forest stands with different coppicing age (1, 4 and 7 yrs after the clear cutting) were investigated. In April 1997, an experimental area was chosen with three forest stands, which were clear cut in 1996 (CL1996), 1993 (CL1993), and 1990 (CL1990). All stands were grazed by cattle and goats after they were clear cut. In each forest stand, five 10 m × 10 m paired plots were located, which represented grazed and protected patches. Herbage biomass within protected and grazed plots was measured four times each year (spring: May-June, summer: July-August, autumn: September-October, and winter: November-December). Behavioural observations on grazing animals were conducted in the same periods. In both protected and open plots the height and basal diameter of all oak shoots on 5 preselected stumps were measured at the end of five growing periods from 1997 to 2001. All forest stands carried a similar amount of available herbage (averaged over forest stands and growing season, 2614 kg/ha). Grazing animals removed on average 1057 kg/ha throughout the growing period. Cattle mainly consumed herbage (97% of bites) while goats consumed a mixture of oak browse (41% bites), herbaceous species (34% bites), and other woody species browse (25% bites). The height, diameter and volume of oak shoots were affected by grazing. The three forest stands had similar shoot heights in the protected plots in 2001 after 5 years of grazing protection. The volume of oak shoots of the grazed plots were 146.7 cm3 for CL1996, 232.9 cm3 for CL1993, and 239.1 cm3 for CL1990 in 2001 (i.e. 5, 8, and 11 years grazing after the clear cuttings, respectively). The protected plots carried greater volumes of oak shoots, CL1996: 496.0 cm3 (few months grazing before protection), CL1993: 690.0 cm3 (4 years grazing before protection), and CL1990: 344.0 cm3 (7 years grazing before protection). In conclusion, almost

  16. Synergistic Interactions within a Multispecies Biofilm Enhance Individual Species Protection against Grazing by a Pelagic Protozoan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem K. Raghupathi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation has been shown to confer protection against grazing, but little information is available on the effect of grazing on biofilm formation and protection in multispecies consortia. With most biofilms in nature being composed of multiple bacterial species, the interactions and dynamics of a multispecies bacterial biofilm subject to grazing by a pelagic protozoan predator were investigated. To this end, a mono and multispecies biofilms of four bacterial soil isolates, namely Xanthomonas retroflexus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, were constructed and subjected to grazing by the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. In monocultures, grazing strongly reduced planktonic cell numbers in P. amylolyticus and S. rhizophila and also X. retroflexus. At the same time, cell numbers in the underlying biofilms increased in S. rhizophila and X. retroflexus, but not in P. amylolyticus. This may be due to the fact that while grazing enhanced biofilm formation in the former two species, no biofilm was formed by P. amylolyticus in monoculture, either with or without grazing. In four-species biofilms, biofilm formation was higher than in the best monoculture, a strong biodiversity effect that was even more pronounced in the presence of grazing. While cell numbers of X. retroflexus, S. rhizophila, and P. amylolyticus in the planktonic fraction were greatly reduced in the presence of grazers, cell numbers of all three species strongly increased in the biofilm. Our results show that synergistic interactions between the four-species were important to induce biofilm formation, and suggest that bacterial members that produce more biofilm when exposed to the grazer not only protect themselves but also supported other members which are sensitive to grazing, thereby providing a “shared grazing protection” within the four-species biofilm model. Hence, complex interactions shape the dynamics of the biofilm and

  17. Aridity and grazing as convergent selective forces: an experiment with an Arid Chaco bunchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, R Emiliano; Golluscio, Rodolfo A; Blanco, Lisandro J; Fernández, Roberto J

    2010-10-01

    It has been proposed that aridity and grazing are convergent selective forces: each one selects for traits conferring resistance to both. However, this conceptual model has not yet been experimentally validated. The aim of this work was to experimentally evaluate the effect of aridity and grazing, as selective forces, on drought and grazing resistance of populations of Trichloris crinita, a native perennial forage grass of the Argentinean Arid Chaco region. We collected seeds in sites with four different combinations of aridity and grazing history (semiarid/ subhumid x heavily grazed/lightly grazed), established them in pots in a common garden, and subjected the resulting plants to different combinations of drought and defoliation. Our results agreed with the convergence model. Aridity has selected T. crinita genotypes that respond better to drought and defoliation in terms of sexual reproduction and leaf growth, and that can evade grazing due to a lower shoot: root ratio and a higher resource allocation to reserves (starch) in stem bases. Similarly, grazing has selected genotypes that respond better to drought and defoliation in terms of sexual reproduction and that can evade grazing due to a lower digestibility of leaf blades. These results allow us to extend concepts of previous models in plant adaptation to herbivory to models on plant adaptation to drought. The only variable in which we obtained a result opposite to predictions was plant height, as plants from semiarid sites were taller (and with more erect tillers) than plants from subhumid sites; we hypothesize that this result might have been a consequence of the selection exerted by the high solar radiation and soil temperatures of semiarid sites. In addition, our work allows for the prediction of the effects of dry or wet growing seasons on the performance of T. crinita plants. Our results suggest that we can rely on dry environments for selecting grazing-resistant genotypes and on high grazing pressure

  18. Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

    2011-05-01

    Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

  19. Hydrology of coal-lease areas near Durango, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tom

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management leases Federal lands and minerals for coal mining near Durango, Colorado. This report addresses the hydrologic suitability of those lands for coal leasing; the report describes the general hydrology of the Durango area and, more specifically, the hydrology of the Stollsteimer Creek study area 32 miles east of the Durango and the Hay Gulch study area, 12 miles southwest of Durango. The most productive aquifers in the Durango study area are Quaternary alluvium and the tertiary Animas Formation. Water wells completed in alluvium typically yield 5 to 20 gallons/min; wells completed is the Animas Formation yield as much as 50 gallons/min. Water quality in these aquifers is variable, but it generally is suitable for domestic use. The coal-bearing Cretaceous Fruitland and Menefee Formations are mined by surface methods at the Chimney Rock Mine in the Stollsteimer Creek study area and by underground methods at the National King Coal Mine in the Hay Gulch study area. Effects of surface mining in the Stollsteimer Creek area are: (1) Dewatering of an alluvial aquifer; and (2) Local degradation of alluvium water quality by spoil-pile effluent. Effects of underground mining in the Hay Gulch area are: (1) Introduction of water with greater dissolved-solids concentrations into the upper Hay Gulch alluvium from mine runoff; (2) Subsidence fracturing which could dewater streams and the alluvial aquifer. (USGS)

  20. CONDITIONS AND EFFECTS OF THE COMMISSORIA LEX IN THE LEASING CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Tomescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problem with the execution of a leasing contract in Romania is that there are still shortcomings to the laws in force. The complexity of this contract which, at first sight, seems so commonplace, as well as the void in our ambiguous law are an inexhaustible source of research and exploration, but also the origin of controversial conflicts. With this paper I decided to elaborate I would like to contribute to consolidating the ”status” of national leasing operations, which are still in search of their own identity. Aiming to place the leasing contract back in its rightful place, that of a contract from which nobody has anything to lose but everything to gain, I consider it appropriate to analyse the conditions and effects of the commissoria lex fragments inserted in the leasing contract. One of the most controversial aspect of these last years brought to the attention of the courts of law cases where the financier, once the leasing contract was cancelled, requests the foreclosure of the user. The cancellation we are taking into account is based on the commissoria lex inserted in the clauses of the leasing contract. We have therefore to an alyse whether the foreclosure of the user can be carried on, based on the provisions of GO 51/1997 referring to leasing contracts.

  1. Cook Inlet Planning Area oil and gas lease sale 149: Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) discusses a proposed oil and gas lease sale in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, analyzes its potential effects on the environment, describes alternatives, presents major issues determined through the scoping process and staff analyses, and evaluates potential mitigating measures. Descriptions of the (1) leasing and scoping process are given in Section 1, (2) alternatives and mitigating measures in Section 2, and (3) description of the environment in Section 3. The potential effects of the lease sale are analyzed in Section 4. Alternative 1, the proposed action, is based on offering for lease 402 blocks (approximately 0.8 million hectares--1.98 million acres) in lower Cook Inlet that range from about 5 to 50 kilometers (3 to 25 mi) offshore. Alterative 2 (No Lease Sale) would cancel the proposed lease sale tentatively scheduled for April 1996. Alternative 2 (Delay the Sale) would delay the proposed sale for 2 years. Alternatives 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 would defer from leasing areas adjacent to the lower Cook Inlet and northwestern Shelikof Strait: the size of areas deferred ranges from about 5 to 45% of the area proposed for Alternative 1. After a thorough review, the Secretary of the Interior will decide which alternative or combination of alternatives will be included in the Notice of Sale

  2. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Z. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fields, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elliott, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development of three delineated leasing area options for the Massachusetts (MA) WEA and the technical evaluation of these leasing areas. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the MA WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL worked with BOEM to identify an appropriate number of leasing areas and proposed three delineation alternatives within the MA WEA based on the boundaries announced in May 2012. A primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  3. Policy for equipment’s leasing period extension with minimum cost of maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, C.; Kurniati, N.

    2018-04-01

    The cost structure for equipment investment including purchase cost and maintenance cost is getting more expensive. The company considers to lease the equipment instead of purchase it under a contractual agreement. Offering to extend the lease period, following to the base lease period, will provide more benefits for both the lessor (owner) and the lessee (user). Whenever the lease period extension offered at the beginning of the contract, there are some risks in finance e.g. uncertainty of the equipment performance and lessor responsibility. Therefore, this research attempts to model the optimal maintenance policy for lease period extension offered at the end of the contract. Minimal repair is performed to rectify a failed equipment, while imperfect preventive maintenance is conducted to improve the operational state of the equipment when reaches a certain control limit to avoid failures. The mathematical model is constructed to determine the optimal control limit, the number and degree of preventive maintenance, and the multiplication number of the lease period extension. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the influences of the optimal length of the extended lease and the maintenance policy to minimize the maintenance cost.

  4. The influence of external factors on the credit risk in leasing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Farsad Amanollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk consists of probability of non-return, which may be in the form of bankruptcy or a decrease in financial and credit situation of the lessee. The variables are extracted from the Central Bank. In this study the independent variables are measured with six factors that are called external factors. The external factors are size of leasing, ownership interest rate, foreign exchange, inflation, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP. The present study uses related observations from 31 leasing companies from 2008 to 2013 to find out the determinants of the credit risk. The combined evidences suggest that internal factors such as upfront prepayment, credit insurance contract, security deposits, time and period contract, collateral and guarantees, contract amount, as well as external factors such as interest rate, inflation, foreign exchange, Gross Domestic Product infrastructure, and credit risk are determinants in the policy-making process involving the industrial leasing. Furthermore, the empirical results indicate the size of leasing and ownership are not the significant determinants of credit risk. The results of this dissertation provide several implications for policy-makers in the leasing industry. Policy-makers will be better off employing different procedures for leasing activities in the leasing industry.

  5. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy R.; Savage, Sabrina; Champey, Patrick; Cheimets, Peter N.; Hertz, Edward; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; Ranganathan, Jaganathan; Marquez, Vanessa; Allured, Ryan; Parker, Theodore; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2017-08-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument designed to obtain spatially resolved soft X-ray spectra of the solar atmosphere in the 6-24 Å (0.5-2.0 keV) range. The instrument consists of a single shell Wolter Type-I telescope, a slit, and a spectrometer comprising a matched pair of grazing incidence parabolic mirrors and a planar varied-line space diffraction grating. The instrument is designed to achieve a 50 mÅ spectral resolution and 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along a +/-4-arcminute long slit, and launch is planned for 2019. We report on the status and our approaches for fabrication and alignment for this novel optical system. The telescope and spectrometer mirrors are replicated nickel shells, and are currently being fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The diffraction grating is currently under development by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); because of the strong line spacing variation across the grating, it will be fabricated through e-beam lithography.

  6. Governing Grazing and Mobility in the Samburu Lowlands, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek Pas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral mobility is seen as the most effective strategy to make use of constantly shifting resources. However, mobile pastoralism as a highly-valued strategy to manage grazing areas and exploit resource variability is becoming more complex, due to recurrent droughts, loss of forage, government-led settlement schemes, and enclosure of land for community conservation, among other reasons. Yet knowledge of how Samburu pastoralists perceive these changes, and govern and innovate in their mobility patterns and resource use, has received limited attention. This paper seeks to understand how Samburu pastoralists in the drylands of northern Kenya use and govern natural resources, how livestock grazing and mobility is planned for, and how boundaries and territory are constructed and performed both within and beyond the context of (nongovernmental projects. Fieldwork for this paper was conducted in Sesia, Samburu East, and consisted of interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory observation. Findings show that livestock mobility involves longer periods and more complex distances due to a shrinking resource base and new rules of access. Although access was previously generated based on the value of reciprocity, the creation of new forms of resource management results in conditional processes of inclusion and exclusion. Policy and project implementation has historically been driven by the imperative to secure land tenure and improve pasture in bounded areas. Opportunities to support institutions that promote mobility have been given insufficient attention.

  7. Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in grazing Irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Luke; Doherty, Michael L; Mulligan, Finbar J

    2008-04-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a significant production disease of dairy cattle. Previous concerns have been raised over the occurrence of SARA in pasture-fed dairy cattle and the potential consequences of laminitis and lameness. Highly digestible perennial rye grass contains high concentrations of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate and low concentrations of physical effective fibre that may result in SARA. This study conducted a point prevalence survey of rumen health status in grazing Irish dairy cattle fed predominantly perennial rye grass-based pasture. The survey assessed rumen fluid, animal health status, milk production data and pasture composition. A total of 144 cows between 80 and 150 days in milk were sampled on 12 farms. Eleven percent of cows were classified as affected with SARA (pH 5.8). The study showed that low rumen pH is prevalent in grazing Irish dairy cattle consuming perennial rye grass-based pasture and raises concerns regarding effective pasture utilisation and possible consequences for animal health.

  8. Dissolution of coccolithophorid calcite by microzooplankton and copepod grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, A. N.; Suffrian, K.; Holste, L.; Müller, M. N.; Nejstgaard, J. C.; Simonelli, P.; Carotenuto, Y.; Putzeys, S.

    2008-01-01

    Independent of the ongoing acidification of surface seawater, the majority of the calcium carbonate produced in the pelagial is dissolved by natural processes above the lysocline. We investigate to what extent grazing and passage of coccolithophorids through the guts of copepods and the food vacuoles of microzooplankton contribute to calcite dissolution. In laboratory experiments where the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi was fed to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the heterotrophic flagellate Oxyrrhis marina and the copepod Acartia tonsa, calcite dissolution rates of 45-55%, 37-53% and 5-22% of ingested calcite were found. We ascribe higher loss rates in microzooplankton food vacuoles as compared to copepod guts to the strongly acidic digestion and the individual packaging of algal cells. In further experiments, specific rates of calcification and calcite dissolution were also measured in natural populations during the PeECE III mesocosm study under differing ambient pCO2 concentrations. Microzooplankton grazing accounted for between 27 and 70% of the dynamic calcite stock being lost per day, with no measurable effect of CO2 treatment. These measured calcite dissolution rates indicate that dissolution of calcite in the guts of microzooplankton and copepods can account for the calcite losses calculated for the global ocean using budget and model estimates.

  9. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  10. Effect of the Silica Content of Diatoms on Protozoan Grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwen Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect that silica content in diatom cells has on the behavior of protists. The diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and T. pseudonana were cultured in high or low light conditions to achieve low and high silica contents, respectively. These cells were then fed to a heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and a ciliate Euplotes sp. in single and mixed diet experiments. Our results showed that in general, N. scintillans and Euplotes sp. both preferentially ingested the diatoms with a low silica content rather than those with a high silica content. However, Euplotes sp. seemed to be less influenced by the silica content than was N. scintillans. In the latter case, the clearance and ingestion rate of the low silica diatoms were significantly higher, both in the short (6-h and long (1-d duration grazing experiments. Our results also showed that N. scintillans required more time to digest the high silica-containing cells. As the high silica diatoms are harder to digest, this might explain why N. scintillans exhibits a strong preference for the low silica prey. Thus, the presence of high silica diatoms might limit the ability of the dinoflagellate to feed. Our findings suggest that the silica content of diatoms affects their palatability and digestibility and, consequently, the grazing activity and selectivity of protozoan grazers.

  11. Trends in grazing emission x-ray analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieken, R. van; Tsuji, K.; Injuk, J.

    2000-01-01

    In grazing-emission x-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) spectrometry, XRF is made surface-sensitive, not by grazing incidence of the exciting radiation as in total reflection XRF (TXRF), but by detecting only that part of fluorescence radiation that is emitted at grazing angles above a polished sample carrier or above a flat wafer. In case of GEXRF, and contrary to TXRF, wavelength-dispersive (WD) detection can be used. Applications are, in principle, similar to those of (variable angle) TXRF. At the laboratory scale, only prototype instruments are available, and the GEXRF unit can be an accessory to a commercial WD-XRF instrument. The detection limits of GEXRF are in the higher pg range, corresponding to a concentration of between 0.4-3 μg/l, if a sample volume of 100 μl is examined. Because of the WD detection, GEXRF also lends itself for the analysis of low-Z elements, from Z > 5; this is an advantage over conventional TXRF (but similar to TXRF using a thin-window energy-dispersive detector). Since the GEXRF prototype is a sequential rather than a simultaneous instrument, the analysis time is long when many elements have to be determined. Moreover, because the soft characteristic radiation is more strongly absorbed in its longer path through the matrix than in TXRF, the linear response for trace analysis using GEXRF is limited; this was proven by calculating the fluorescence intensities as a function of layer thickness and composition. The specimens are very limited in thickness. The sample preparation procedure for liquid or other samples to be analyzed with the GEXRF unit is thus very problematic. Results for water samples, bio-materials and pigment and aerosol samples have indeed shown that the quantitative nature of GEXRF for trace analysis is poor. The most promising features of GEXRF are in the field of surface and thin-layer analysis. Trace contaminations on silicon wafers can be determined and depth profiling can characterize stratified near-surface layers. But

  12. Vegetation selection by Angus crossbred vs. Raramuri Criollo nursing cows grazing Chihuauan Desert rangeland in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined vegetation selection patterns of nursing Angus X Hereford crossbred (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert vegetation during the growing season. Eleven cows of each group grazed separately in two large pastures (1190ha, 1165ha) from mid-July until mid-August 2015 (...

  13. Competition between two grass species with and without grazing over a productivity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D.P.J.; Dubbeld, J.; Bakker, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Soil nutrient-level and herbivory are predicted to have opposing effects on the allocation pattern of the competitive dominant plant species. Lower stem and higher leaf allocation are favoured when plants are grazed, whereas a higher stem allocation is favoured at high nutrient levels. Grazing by

  14. Dairy cattle on Norwegian alpine rangelands – grazing preferences and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sickel, H; Abrahamsen, R K; Eldegard, K; Lunnan, T; Norderhaug, A; Petersen, M.A.; Sickel, M.; Steenhuisen, F.; Ohlson, M.

    2014-01-01

    The results from the study ‘Effects of vegetation and grazing preferences on the quality of alpine dairy products’ will be presented. The main objective of the project was to investigate the connections bet - ween alpine rangeland vegetation, landscape use and grazing preferences of free ranging

  15. 36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... livestock use permits. 222.3 Section 222.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.3 Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. (a) Unless otherwise specified by the Chief, Forest Service, all...

  16. Long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures by compacting soil and increasing runoff and sediment delivery to waterways. Limited information exists on the effects of grazing management and best management practices (BMPs), such as buffer strips, on soil erosion from pastures. The obje...

  17. Effects of grazing intensity on small mammal population ecology in wet meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Bildsøe, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Livestock grazing is common management practice in wet grasslands. However, knowledge of its effects on small mammals is limited. We studied the influence of grazing intensity on small mammals in general and field voles Microtus agrestis in particular in two Danish wet meadows, 1998-2000. General...

  18. Contrasting responses of insect communities to grazing intensity in lowland heathlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallis de Vries, Michiel; Noordijk, Jinze; Colijn, Ed O.; Smit, John T.; Veling, Kars

    2016-01-01

    Grazing at low stocking rates is often recommended for the preservation of the characteristic biodiversity of open landscapes. However, the fine-tuning of grazing management still lacks a good evidence base. This is particularly true for insect communities, as available evidence indicates that

  19. Root Characteristics of Perennial Warm-Season Grasslands Managed for Grazing and Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Minirhizotrons were used to study root growth characteristics in recently established fields dominated by perennial C4-grasses that were managed either for cattle grazing or biomass production for bioenergy in Virginia, USA. Measurements over a 13-month period showed that grazing resulted in smaller total root volumes and root diameters. Under biomass management, root volume was 40% higher (49 vs. 35 mm3 and diameters were 20% larger (0.29 vs. 0.24 mm compared to grazing. While total root length did not differ between grazed and biomass treatments, root distribution was shallower under grazed areas, with 50% of total root length in the top 7 cm of soil, compared to 41% in ungrazed exclosures. These changes (i.e., longer roots and greater root volume in the top 10 cm of soil under grazing but the reverse at 17–28 cm soil depths were likely caused by a shift in plant species composition as grazing reduced C4 grass biomass and allowed invasion of annual unsown species. The data suggest that management of perennial C4 grasslands for either grazing or biomass production can affect root growth in different ways and this, in turn, may have implications for the subsequent carbon sequestration potential of these grasslands.

  20. Case study: dairies utilizing ultra-high stocking density grazing in Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-high stocking density (UHSD) grazing has gained interest in the forage industry. Proponents of UHSD emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 560,425 kg ha**-1 of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods of up t...

  1. Effects of livestock grazing on neotropical migratory landbirds in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. Bock; Victoria A. Saab; Terrell D. Rich; David S. Dobkin

    1993-01-01

    Livestock grazing is a widespread and important influence on neotropical migratory birds in four major ecosystems in western North America: grasslands of the Great Plains and Southwest, riparian woodlands, Intermountain shrubsteppe, and open coniferous forests. We have reviewed available literature on avian responses to grazing in these habitats. Among 35 plains...

  2. Cattle grazing and fish recovery on US federal lands: can social-ecological systems science help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Hannah Gosnell; Kendra L Wendel; Mary M Rowland; Michael J Wisdom

    2018-01-01

    In the western US, grazing management on federal lands containing habitat for fish species listed under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA) has sparked social conflict and litigation for decades. To date, the problem has been addressed through a top-down environmental governance system, but rangeland managers and grazing permittees now believe there is a need for more...

  3. Grasshopper responses to fire and postfire grazing in the northern Great Plains vary among species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland management practices such as burning and grazing management may affect grasshopper populations by impacting development, survival and reproduction. Experiments are lacking in the northern Great Plains examining the effects of fire and grazing intensity on grasshoppers. As part of a larger ...

  4. Some effects of winter grazing of Dohne sour veld | PF | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilisation of spared sour veld poses practical problems. As a result of the development of high level protein or nitrogen supplements it has however become possible to efficiently graze spared veld. Results of experiments during three winters where spared sour veld was grazed off either by sheep or by cattle are given.

  5. Physical impact of grazing by sheep on the dynamics of Nama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS

    Physical impact of sheep grazing on arid Karoo subshrub/grass rangeland,. South Africa ... sustainability of rangeland resources, soil and vegetation responses to various grazing systems (Teague &. Dowhower .... The only significant decrease (F3,4 = 18.14, P <0.01) in basal cover of the total herbaceous layer for the 1995 ...

  6. Grazing management, resilience and the dynamics of a fire driven rangeland system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderies, J.M.; Janssen, M.A.; Walker, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a stylized mathematical model to explore the effects of physical, ecological, and economic factors on the resilience of a managed fire-driven rangeland system. Depending on grazing pressure, the model exhibits one of three distinct configurations: a fire-dominated, grazing-dominated, or

  7. Using NDVI to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northea...

  8. Habitat preference of geese is affected by livestock grazing : Seasonal variation in an experimental field evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Stahl, Julia; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.

    The number of staging geese in northwestern Europe has increased dramatically. Growing goose numbers put strong grazing pressure on agricultural pastures. Damage to agricultural land may be mitigated by managing nature reserves in order to optimally accommodate large numbers of grazing geese.

  9. Food supply and demand, a simulation model of the functional response of grazing ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Brunsting, A.M.H.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the functional response is a first prerequisite to be able to bridge the gap between local feeding ecology and grazing rules that pertain to larger scales. A mechanistic model is presented that simulates the functional response, growth and grazing time of ruminants. It is based on

  10. The effect of seasonal grazing on the infiltration capacity of soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infiltration measurements were determined by means of a flood type concentric ring infiltrometer. The results showed that grazing during any one of the seasons reduced the infiltration capacity of the soils. The detrimental effects of summer and autumn grazing were, however, larger titan those of winter and spring ...

  11. Grassland Fire and Cattle Grazing Regulate Reptile and Amphibian Assembly Among Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Danelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches ( ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing ( ɛ ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  12. Sierra Nevada grasslands: interactions between livestock grazing and ecosystem structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara H. Allen-Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Livestock grazing plays an integral role in the grass-dominated ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada. Grazing has been asserted to influence such key ecological characteristics as water quality, net primary productivity, nutrient cycling, plant and animal diversity, wildlife habitat availability, and oak regeneration (Belsky and others 1999, Kauffmann and Krueger 1984)....

  13. X-ray diffraction study of surface-layer structure in parallel grazing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtypulyak, N.I.; Yakimov, I.I.; Litvintsev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction method is described for study of thin polycrystalline and amorphous films and surface layers in an extremely asymmetrical diffraction system in parallel grazing rays using a DRON-3.0 diffractometer. The minimum grazing angles correspond to diffraction under conditions of total external reflection and a layer depth of ∼ 2.5-8 nm

  14. Impact of grazing on range plant community components under arid Mediterranean climate in northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: Rotational grazing, full protection, continuous grazing species richness,

    species diversity, soil seed bank, Bayesian methods, Salsola vermiculata, seed

    longevity, rangeland management, Syria.

    Rangelands represent 70% of the semi-arid and arid

  15. Comparison of techniques for estimating herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.; Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Tamminga, S.; Elgersma, A.

    2005-01-01

    For estimating herbage intake during grazing, the traditional sward cutting technique was compared in grazing experiments in 2002 and 2003 with the recently developed n-alkanes technique and with the net energy method. The first method estimates herbage intake by the difference between the herbage

  16. Tree-shrub associations in grazed woodlands: First rodents, then cattle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.; Verwijmeren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial associations of tree saplings with spiny or toxic plants in grazed woodlands are generally explained by associational resistance, i. e., protection against grazing via a well-defended neighbor. In this study, we tested whether directed seed dispersal and post-dispersal seed removal by wood

  17. Effects of buffer strips and grazing management on soil loss from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive grazing pressure can cause soil erosion from pastures causing increased sediment loading to aquatic systems. The objectives of this work were to determine the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures fertilized with broiler litter. Field stud...

  18. Voluntary automatic milking in combination with grazing of dairy cows : Milking frequency and effects on behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.; Ipema, A.H.; Ouwerkerk, van E.N.J.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) enable cows to be milked without human interference. Such systems are more acceptable to consumers and from the animal welfare point of view if they can be combined with grazing in the summer season. In this study, grazing was combined with fully automatic milking for

  19. Gradients in fracture force and grazing resistance across canopy layers in seven tropical grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Scheper, J.A.; Benvenutti, M.A.; Gordon, I.J.; Poppi, D.P.; Elgersma, A.

    2013-01-01

    In reproductive swards, stems can act as a barrier that affects the grazing behaviour of ruminant livestock. The barrier effect of stems is closely associated with both the force required to fracture the stems and the density of these stems (in combination, these make up grazing resistance), and

  20. Tillering dynamics in pastures of guinea grass subjected to grazing severities under intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to analyze the tillering dynamics of the species Panicum maximum cv. Mombaca subjected to three post-grazing heights: residue of 30 cm (30; residue of 50 cm (50; and residue of 50 cm during spring and summer, lowered to 40 cm in the first fall season grazing and to 30 cm in the following grazing cycle, resuming to 50 cm after the first grazing of the following spring season (50-30. Grazings were initiated whenever the swards intercepted 95% of the incident light. The post-grazing heights were allocated in the experimental units in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The density of basal tillers did not vary between the residual heights evaluated. Swards managed with variable residual height (50-30 presented higher rates of appearance and mortality of basal tillers during the summer of 2007, indicating high tiller renovation. Regardless of the post-grazing height evaluated, lower rates of appearance of basal tillers were found in the spring of 2006. The stability index of guinea grass cv. Mombaca was close to 1.0 throughout the experimental period. Swards managed with variable post-grazing present structural changes able to improve the regrowth vigor, which may be important to maximize the use of the forage species in the production system.