WorldWideScience

Sample records for program foundation stone

  1. New Project in Huacheng Paper of Guangxi State Farms Sugar Group Laid the Foundation Stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The foundation-stone laying ceremony of 200,000 t/y culture paper project in Huacheng Paper, a member of Guangxi State Farms Sugar Group, was held in Laibin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, on October 18, 2009.

  2. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  3. Consolidation Theory for a Stone Column Composite Foundation under Multistage Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenggen Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation theories considering instant load cannot fully reveal the consolidation mechanism of a stone column composite foundation used in the expressway embankments due to the time effect of loading; that is, the expressway embankments are often constructed in several stages for a long time. Meanwhile, owing to the special property that the pile-soil stress ratio is larger than 1, the consolidation theory for sand drain well foundation cannot be used directly in the consolidation analysis of stone column composite foundation. Based on the principle that the vertical load applied on the composite foundation is shared by the stone column and the surrounding soil, the governing solutions for the stone column composite foundation under a multistage load are established. By virtue of the separation of variables, the corresponding solutions of degree of consolidation for loading stage and maintaining load stage are derived separately. According to the Carrillo theorem, the solution for the average total degree of consolidation of entire composite foundation is also obtained. Finally, the reasonableness of the present solution has been verified by comparing the consolidation curve calculated by the present solution with that measured by site test.

  4. Sloan foundation nuclear education program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kursunoglu, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation realized the time had come for a real and significant contribution to the enlightenment of university students concerning nuclear matters. The Sloan Foundation chose to educate the youth of four-year colleges and universities with a curriculum established with the resource information sieved from three workshops for professors in these institutions. The three workshops were organized by groups at Harvard-MIT (two-week Summer Program on Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control), the University of California, San Diego (two-week Summer Seminar on Global Security and Arms Control), and the University of Miami (one-week Winter Workshop on Enlightenment: The Best Security in a Nuclear-Armed World). In this report the author focuses on a unified presentation of the basic facts, aims, and results of the Sloan Foundation Nuclear Education Program based on three workshops directed by Jack Ruina (MIT), Herbert York (USCD), and Behram Kursunoglu (UM) and offered from 1983-1990

  5. Consolidation Theory for a Stone Column Composite Foundation under Multistage Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shenggen; Feng, Yingtao; Liu, Hao; Wu, Wenbing; Mei, Guoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The consolidation theories considering instant load cannot fully reveal the consolidation mechanism of a stone column composite foundation used in the expressway embankments due to the time effect of loading; that is, the expressway embankments are often constructed in several stages for a long time. Meanwhile, owing to the special property that the pile-soil stress ratio is larger than 1, the consolidation theory for sand drain well foundation cannot be used directly in the consolidation ana...

  6. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients.

  7. Dynamic Characteristics of Saturated Silty Soil Ground Treated by Stone Column Composite Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shaking table model test was carried out to develop an understanding of the performance improvement of saturated silty soil ground using stone column composite foundation as reinforcement. It is found that at less than 0.161 g loading acceleration, soil between piles has not yet been liquefied, the response acceleration scarcely enlarges, and the shear displacement almost does not appear in silty soil. At 0.252 g loading acceleration, as a result of liquefaction of soil between piles, the response acceleration increases rapidly and reaches its peak, and the shear displacement of silty soil increases significantly. At 0.325 g loading acceleration, the integral rigidity of foundation decreases greatly, which reduces its capability of vibration transmission and result in the response acceleration amplification coefficient is less than that at the former loading acceleration, but the shear displacement of silty soil further increases. The stone column composite foundation can greatly reduce both the shear displacement and the settlement of ground compared with untreated foundation. Under the condition of 7-degree seismic fortification, the design meets seismic resistance requirements.

  8. Numerical Modelling of Connections Between Stones in Foundations of Historical Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewlocki, Jaroslaw; Zielinska, Monika; Grebowski, Karol

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the behaviour of old building foundations composed of stones (the main load-bearing elements) and mortar, based on numerical analysis. Some basic aspects of historical foundations are briefly discussed, with an emphasis on their development, techniques, and material. The behaviour of a foundation subjected to the loads transmitted from the upper parts of the structure is described using the finite element method (FEM). The main problems in analysing the foundations of historical buildings are determining the characteristics of the materials and the degree of degradation of the mortar, which is the weakest part of the foundation. Mortar is graded using the damaged-plastic model. In this model, exceeding the bearing capacity occurs due to the degradation of materials. The damaged-plastic model is the most accurate model describing the work and properties of mortar because it shows exactly what happens with this material throughout its total load history. For a uniformly loaded fragment of the foundation, both stresses and strains were analysed. The results of the analysis presented in this paper contribute to further research in the field of understanding both behaviour and modelling in historical buildings’ foundations.

  9. Toward a global space exploration program: A stepping stone approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; McKay, Chris; Rummel, John D.; Foing, Bernard H.; Neal, Clive R.; Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Ansdell, Megan; Peter, Nicolas; Zarnecki, John; Mackwell, Steve; Perino, Maria Antionetta; Billings, Linda; Mankins, John; Race, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    developing countries and emerging space nations in an international space exploration program, it will be possible to create a critical bottom-up support structure to support program continuity in the development and execution of future global space exploration frameworks. With a focus on stepping stones, COSPAR can support a global space exploration program that stimulates scientists in current and emerging spacefaring nations, and that will invite those in developing countries to participate—pursuing research aimed at answering outstanding questions about the origins and evolution of our solar system and life on Earth (and possibly elsewhere). COSPAR, in cooperation with national and international science foundations and space-related organizations, will advocate this stepping stone approach to enhance future cooperative space exploration efforts.

  10. Stepping Stones to Evaluating Your Own School Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Jeri; Carnahan, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Stepping Stones to Literacy is a tool for elementary school improvement teams to evaluate and strengthen their reading programs. Each Stepping Stone is a guided activity to stimulate reflection and guide systematic inquiry. It is a collaborative, active research approach to evaluation (Levesque & Hinton 2001). The goal is to eliminate the gap…

  11. Foundation stones for a real socio-environmental integration in projects' impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Dominguez-Gomez, J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA), have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it a parallel progress in addressing their main shortcomings: insufficient integration of environmental and social features into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their diagnosis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of schemes which impact on the environment, and in consequence, to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argue that, in a sociological context of growing complexity, four foundation-stones are required to underpin research methodologies (for both diagnosis and assessment) in the socio-environmental risks of development projects: a theoretical foundation in actor-network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized though not always carried through into practice; a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation.

  12. Dynamic Programming Foundations and Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Sniedovich, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on the modeling and solution of deterministic multistage decision problems, this book looks at dynamic programming as a problem-solving optimization method. With over 400 useful references, this edition discusses the dynamic programming analysis of a problem, illustrates the rationale behind this analysis, and clarifies the theoretical grounds that justify the rationale. It also explains the meaning and role of the concept of state in dynamic programming, examines the purpose and function of the principle of optimality, and outlines solution strategies for problems defiant of conventi

  13. General Atomics Sciences Education Foundation Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Patricia S.

    1997-11-01

    Scientific literacy for all students is a national goal. The General Atomics (GA) Foundation Outreach Program is committed to playing a major role in enhancing pre-college education in science, engineering and new technologies. GA has received wide recognition for its Sciences Education Program, a volunteer effort of GA employees and San Diego science teachers. GA teacher/scientist teams have developed inquiry-based education modules and associated workshops based on areas of core competency at GA: Fusion -- Energy of the Stars; Explorations in Materials Science; Portrait of an Atom; DNA Technology. [http://www.sci-ed-ga.org]. Workshops [teachers receive printed materials and laboratory kits for ``hands-on" modules] have been presented for 700+ teachers from 200+ area schools. Additional workshops include: University of Denver for Denver Public Schools; National Educators Workshop; Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials; Update '96 in Los Alamos; Newspapers in Education Workshop (LA Times); American Chemical Society Regional/National meetings, and California Science Teachers Association Conference. Other outreach includes High School Science Day, school partnerships, teacher and student mentoring and the San Diego Science Alliance [http://www.sdsa.org].

  14. Experimental assessment of dry stone retaining wall stability on a rigid foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Villemus , B.; Morel , J.C.; Boutin , C.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Dry stone masonry retaining walls are present in the majority of mountainous areas all around the world, but the technique is marginal today in developed countries. The emergence of the concept of sustainable development calls for renewed use of this technique, both for the repair of existing retaining walls and the building of new ones. The objective of this research was to seek the knowledge necessary to ensure the stability of these structures, using experimental in...

  15. Foundation Skills for Scientists: An Evolving Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Khoo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have undertaken an integrated and collaborative approach to developing foundational skills of students in a first year, Introductory Biology course. The course is a large lecture and laboratory course with enrollments ranging from 800-1000 per year. Teaching and Learning experts were brought into the course as weekly ‘Foundation Skills for Scientists’ sessions were created. The initial challenges were to have effective knowledge exchange between collaborators and create an integrated course syllabus. Once effective sessions were created, the next challenge was to improve student valuation of them. High value was only achieved when the skill sessions were tightly linked to course assignments and activities and was delivered ‘just in time’. Even then, the challenge has been to motivate students to realize that the sessions are directly relevant to them. Overall, student performance has improved since the program was initiated as measured by rate of retention in the course, overall course marks and quality of writing.Nous avons utilisé une approche intégrée et collaborative pour approfondir les compétences de base des étudiants de première année qui suivent un cours d’introduction à la biologie. Il s’agit d’un cours magistral et en laboratoire, auquel s’inscrivent entre 800 et 1000 étudiants par an. Ce cours a bénéficié de l’apport d’experts en enseignement et en apprentissage afin d’appuyer le développement de séances hebdomadaires portant sur les compétences de base en sciences. Les difficultés initiales étaient de susciter un échange de connaissances efficace entre les collaborateurs et de créer un plan de cours intégré. Une fois les séances organisées, la difficulté suivante a été de faire en sorte que les étudiants les apprécient davantage. Ces derniers les ont jugées très utiles uniquement lorsqu’elles étaient étroitement liées aux tâches et aux

  16. Progeria Research Foundation Diagnostic Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share the DVD Meet the Kids in the Movie Bring LATS to the classroom! Close News/Events ... this could severely affect their research results and interpretation. Through the PRF Diagnostics Program, each cell line ...

  17. Mastering cloud computing foundations and applications programming

    CERN Document Server

    Buyya, Rajkumar; Selvi, SThamarai

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Cloud Computing is designed for undergraduate students learning to develop cloud computing applications. Tomorrow's applications won't live on a single computer but will be deployed from and reside on a virtual server, accessible anywhere, any time. Tomorrow's application developers need to understand the requirements of building apps for these virtual systems, including concurrent programming, high-performance computing, and data-intensive systems. The book introduces the principles of distributed and parallel computing underlying cloud architectures and specifical

  18. Laying a Solid Foundation: Strategies for Effective Program Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Geri

    2009-01-01

    The replication of proven social programs is a cost-effective and efficient way to achieve large-scale, positive social change. Yet there has been little guidance available about how to approach program replication and limited development of systems--at local, state or federal levels--to support replication efforts. "Laying a Solid Foundation:…

  19. An investment in children's health, nutrition and education is the foundation stone for all national development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, S

    1991-01-01

    A medical student at the Christian Medical College in Ludhiana, India, won first place in the First Annual Dr. S.M. Gupta Memorial Essay Contest with this essay on investing in the health, nutrition, and education of India's children. The health, nutrition, and education condition of India's children is substandard. 10% of infants die before their first birthday. 15% of children die before age 5. Many Indian children suffer from diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. Investment in immunization, oral rehydration therapy, hygiene, and health education would prevent many of these deaths and illnesses. Illness and death cost parents time, energy, and money. Children suffering from malnutrition and sickness cannot concentrate on learning. The state of today's children foretells the state of tomorrow's adults, work force, and leaders. Poor nutrition and health contribute to India's substandard economic productivity. India has 14% of the world's population, but produces only 1.2% of its gross national product. Even though India was the first country to have a national family planning program, its fertility and population growth rates are high. Investment in children's health would show parents the benefits of planning their families. It would also improve India's poor performance in sports and war as well as national prestige and socioeconomic development. The considerable number of illiterates reflect India's failure to invest in education. Females have a lower literacy rate than males. Girls in India suffer much discrimination. They receive less food, less medical care, less opportunities for education, and less recreation. National development depends on the active participation of girls. Prevention is the key: nourish the children, educate them, and keep them healthy.

  20. A Linear Programming Model to Optimize Various Objective Functions of a Foundation Type State Support Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Orville R.

    The purpose of this study was to formulate a linear programming model to simulate a foundation type support program and to apply this model to a state support program for the public elementary and secondary school districts in the State of Iowa. The model was successful in producing optimal solutions to five objective functions proposed for…

  1. Foundations of Total Functional Data-Flow Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar Trancón y Widemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of declarative stream programming (discrete time, clocked synchronous, modular, data-centric is divided between the data-flow graph paradigm favored by domain experts, and the functional reactive paradigm favored by academics. In this paper, we describe the foundations of a framework for unifying functional and data-flow styles that differs from FRP proper in significant ways: It is based on set theory to match the expectations of domain experts, and the two paradigms are reduced symmetrically to a low-level middle ground, with strongly compositional semantics. The design of the framework is derived from mathematical first principles, in particular coalgebraic coinduction and a standard relational model of stateful computation. The abstract syntax and semantics introduced here constitute the full core of a novel stream programming language.

  2. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program leadership training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; McBride, Angela Barron; Etcher, LuAnn; Deming, Katie

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program was created to address the nursing shortage via development of the next generation of national leaders in academic nursing. The leadership training combined development at the scholar's home institution with in-person didactic and interactive sessions with notable leaders in nursing and other disciplines. A curriculum matrix, organized by six domains, was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. What set this program apart is that it immersed junior faculty in concerted leadership development with regard to all aspects of the faculty role so that teaching interactively, making use of the latest in information technology, giving testimony before a policy-making group, participating in strategic planning, and figuring out how to reduce the budget without jeopardizing quality were all envisioned as part of the faculty role. The domains covered by this program could easily be used as the framework to plan other leadership-development programs for the next generation of academic leaders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laying the Foundation for a Genomic Rosetta Stone: Creating Information Hubs through the User of Consensus Idenifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Brabant, Bart; Kyrpides, Nikos; Glockner, Frank Oliver; Gray, Tanya; Field, Dawn; De Vos, Paul; De Baets, Bernard; Dawyndt, Peter

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a holistic approach that illustrates how the semantic hurdle for integration of biological databases might be overcome when mapping sources that provide information on individual genes and complete genomes to sources that provide information on the biological resources from which these sequences where derived, and vice versa. In particular we will explain how each of the completed and ongoing whole-genome sequencing projects in the Genomes OnLine Database and each of the ribosomal RNA sequences in the SILVA ribosomal RNA database have been persistently cross-referenced with the StrainInfo.net bioportal, serving both a genome centric and an organism centric view to the life on our blue planet as one more stepping stone towards the establishment of fully integrated and flexible biological information networks.

  4. Mentoring Faculty: Results from National Science Foundation's ADVANCE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Faculty mentoring programs are common components of National Science Foundation ADVANCE awards. The ADVANCE program aims to increase the number of women on the faculty in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) departments through grants to individuals and to entire institutions. These grants target a change in institutional culture so that faculty from non-majority groups will succeed and thrive. Mentoring programs are generally designed to fit the particular institution(s) or target population (e.g., meteorologists at the beginning of their careers). A successful mentoring program makes the implicit knowledge necessary for faculty success explicit: policies and practices are made transparent; routes for finding answers are clarified or generated with faculty input; faculty overcome a sense of isolation and develop a community. Mentoring programs may be formal, with assigned mentors and mentees, or informal, with opportunities for beginning, middle and advanced career STEM faculty to mingle, generally over food and sometimes with a formal speaker. The programs are formally evaluated; in general, attention to mentoring generates better outcomes for all faculty. Research indicates that most successful scientists have a network of mentors rather than relying on one person to help navigate department, institution, and profession. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's (UNL) award, ADVANCE-Nebraska, offered opportunities for faculty to informally network over luncheons with women speakers, advanced in their careers. We also offered after-hours networking receptions. In response to faculty feedback, we shifted to a series of panel discussions entitled "Conversations". Most panels were conducted by successful UNL faculty; about one-third had an outside expert on a given topic. Topics were chosen based on faculty feedback and targeted specifically to beginning faculty (How to Start Up a Lab; How to Balance Teaching and Writing), mid-career faculty (Putting

  5. Clearinghouse Goes beyond Foundation Walls to Link Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quill and Scroll, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Recounts how the Newspaper Association of America Foundation is setting up a clearinghouse to conduct research with those to be served (young people), is designing a site, and is implementing the project. States that the Foundation sent questionnaires to leaders in youth service areas asking for 13 different kinds of information and that response…

  6. Measuring stone surface area from a radiographic image is accurate and reproducible with the help of an imaging program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Abraham; Ganpule, Arvind; Muthu, V; Sabnis, R B; Desai, Mahesh

    2009-01-01

    The surface area of the stone from a radiographic image is one of the more suitable parameters defining stone bulk. The widely accepted method of measuring stone surface area is to count the number of square millimeters enclosed within a tracing of the stone outline on graph paper. This method is time consuming and cumbersome with potential for human error, especially when multiple measurements are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and reproducibility of a commercially available imaging program, Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for the measurement of stone surface area. The instructions to calculate area using the software are simple and easy in a Windows-based format. The accuracy of the imaging software was estimated by measuring surface areas of shapes of known mathematical areas. The efficiency and reproducibility were then evaluated from radiographs of 20 persons with radiopaque upper-tract urinary stones. The surface areas of stone images were measured using both graph paper and imaging software. Measurements were repeated after 10 days to assess the reproducibility of the techniques. The time taken to measure the area by the two methods was also assessed separately. The accuracy of the imaging software was estimated to be 98.7%. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was R(2) = 0.97. The mean percentage variation using the imaging software was 0.68%, while it was 6.36% with the graph paper. The mean time taken to measure using the image analyzer and graph paper was 1.9 +/- 0.8 minutes and 4.5 +/- 1.08 minutes, respectively (P stone surface area from radiographs compared with manual measurements using graph paper.

  7. 45 CFR 660.3 - What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What programs and activities of the Foundation are... (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.3 What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations...

  8. BeHealthy Charities Aid Foundation Program, Russia: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhina, Marina; Novikova, Irina

    2014-09-01

    In 2007, the Charities Aid Foundation Branch in Russia, under the initiative of and with financial support from the Mondelēz International Foundation and Mondelēz International, launched the charitable BeHealthy Program. The program's main focus is the implementation of four interrelated activities: conducting lessons for schoolchildren on healthy nutrition, with an emphasis on breakfast; healthy cooking lessons with children; cultivating nutritional plants; and providing conditions to encourage children to engage in more physical activity. The program serves more than 13,000 children attending public schools in the Leningrad (Lomonosovskii District), Vladimir, and Novgorod regions. BeHealthy provides funding for schools and comprehensive educational materials to help schoolchildren develop habits of healthy nutrition and physical activity, as well as consulting and expert support for school staff and other key stakeholders. The program brings in experts on program implementation and training for teachers. Curriculum support also includes printed and Web-based healthy lifestyle educational materials on best practices and positive experience, as well as meetings and conferences with school representatives and local authorities. One of the biggest challenges for program managers is to fully understand the complexities of the program, and why and how it is expected to induce changes in healthy lifestyle behaviors of the schoolchildren. For more comprehensive understanding, we performed a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis to identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs) and a suite of core indicators of the program's impact on healthy lifestyles. The findings were presented at the Healthy Life-styles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. First, we developed an updated logic model based on how the program was executed. We then translated the logic model into a PIP

  9. 振冲碎石桩加固高层建筑粉砂土地基实例分析%Case Study on Improving Silty Sand Foundation of Tall Building by Vibro-replacement Stone Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新宇; 应宏伟; 夏建中

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the case studies of two tall buildings built on silty sand improved by vibro-replacement stone column in Hangzhou are reported. The design and computation method for vibro-replacement stone column composite foundation are introduced. Based on field testing results,the construction techniques of vibro-replacement stone column and the appraisement of improvement effect are discussed. It is the first time that the vibro-replacement stone column method has been successfully applied to improve silty sand foundation of tall building in Hangzhou.%本文介绍杭州两座高层建筑物采用振冲碎石桩加固粉砂土地基的工程实例。结合有关现场测试成果,探讨了高层建筑振冲碎石桩地基设计计算、振冲碎石桩施工控制和加固效果评价等有关问题。为振冲碎石桩在同类地基中的推广应用提供一些成功经验。

  10. Doing Good with Foundation Assets: An Updated Look at Program-Related Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Steven

    2010-01-01

    For four decades U.S. foundations have had the ability to make below-market-rate investments in activities consistent with their missions, and count these investments as part of their annual charitable distributions. Program-related investments, or PRIs, provide the opportunity for a philanthropic multiplier effect, as foundations invest the…

  11. Foundations and Applications of Theory in the First Impressions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura E.; McDonald, John; Chase, Lisa C.; Sewake, Geoffrey; Stencel, Beverly; Northrop, Andy; Kelly, Miriah; Faulkner, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    The First Impressions program was designed to help communities learn about their strengths and shortcomings through the "fresh eyes" of first-time visitors. This Extension-led community assessment program has been implemented in over 500 communities since the 1990s, yet scant literature exists regarding the program's theoretical…

  12. Creating a foundation for a synergistic approach to program management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Karyn T.

    1992-01-01

    In order to accelerate the movement of humans into space within reasonable budgetary constraints, NASA must develop an organizational structure that will allow the agency to efficiently use all the resources it has available for the development of any program the nation decides to undertake. This work considers the entire set of tasks involved in the successful development of any program. Areas that hold the greatest promise of accelerating programmatic development and/or increasing the efficiency of the use of available resources by being dealt with in a centralized manner rather than being handled by each program individually are identified. Using this information, an agency organizational structure is developed that will allow NASA to promote interprogram synergisms. In order for NASA to efficiently manage its programs in a manner that will allow programs to benefit from one another and thereby accelerate the movement of humans into space, several steps must be taken. First, NASA must develop an organizational structure that will allow potential interprogram synergisms to be identified and promoted. Key features of the organizational structure are recommended in this paper. Second, NASA must begin to develop the requirements for a program in a manner that will promote overall space program goals rather than achieving only the goals that apply to the program for which the requirements are being developed. Finally, NASA must consider organizing the agency around the functions required to support NASA's goals and objectives rather than around geographic locations.

  13. Crafting a Foundation for Evaluating a Worksite Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Teresa A.; Dutram, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Background: Businesses have been exposed to many positive accounts of the benefits of employee wellness to improve employee performance as well as reduce health and injury claims costs for the employer. However, many do not have the tools or experience to effectively demonstrate the benefits of a workplace wellness program for their own management…

  14. Prenatal Foundations: Fetal Programming of Health and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    The fetal programming and developmental origins of disease models suggest that experiences that occur before birth can have consequences for physical and mental health that persist across the lifespan. Development is more rapid during the prenatal period as compared to any other stage of life. This introductory article considers evidence that…

  15. Perceptions of user studies as a foundation for public programming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of user studies and the evaluation of services in the development of effective public programming initiatives by the public archives of east and southern Africa. Users of the archives are the backbone of effective archival services. Sadly, it appears that the records are more ...

  16. Physical foundations, use instructions and applications of the Powderspec program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran L, V.; Gonzalez T, L.

    1991-09-01

    A simple FORTRAN program, called Powderspec, for simulating the second order powder patterns and the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of ions in an orthorhombic crystal field, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from a crystal with quadrupole interaction, is introduced. Powderspec can be used over the full range 0 to 1/3 of the orthorhombic field parameter λ = E/D, or that of the equivalent asymmetry parameter , η, 0 to 1, which is used in NMR work. This program is about 60 times faster than those based on the 'grid' or on the Monte Carlo methods. It also produces very smooth powder patterns and spectra capable of revealing fine spectral features. (Author)

  17. Basic Research in Artificial Intelligence and Foundations of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    abstracted models of The creation and management of large knowledge (rule models) as a guide to knowledge bases has become a central problem acquisition...real about the use of knowledge. world settings. Both of these mean an emphasis on the accumulation and management - AIM-281 CS-567 of large collections...contribute to the development of such theories. knowlede about the program’s subject domain This paper concentrates on the assumptions (e.g. numbers

  18. Resource List--Using Evidence-Based Programs as the Foundation of Comprehensive Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Youth, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have identified dozens of programs that are effective in helping young people reduce their risk for pregnancy, HIV, and STDs. These evidence-based programs utilize strategies that include the provision of accurate, honest information about abstinence as well as contraception and can serve as the foundation for comprehensive sex…

  19. Recursion Of Binary Space As A Foundation Of Repeatable Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Horne

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Every computation, including recursion, is based on natural philosophy. Our world may be expressed in terms of a binary logical space that contains functions that act simultaneously as objects and processes (operands and operators. This paper presents an outline of the results of research about that space and suggests routes for further inquiry. Binary logical space is generated sequentially from an origin in a standard coordinate system. At least one method exists to show that each of the resulting 16 functions repeats itself by repeatedly forward-feeding outputs of a function operating over two others as new operands of the original function until the original function appears as an output, thus behaving as an apparent homeostatic automaton. As any space of any dimension is composed of one or more of these functions, so the space is recursive, as well. Semantics gives meaning to recursive structures, computer programs and fundamental constituents of our universe being two examples. Such thoughts open inquiry into larger philosophical issues as free will and determinism.

  20. Building a Bright Future. The Hydro Research Foundation's Fellowship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, Brenna [Hydro Research Foundation, Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Linke, Deborah M. [Hydro Research Foundation, Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States)

    2015-12-29

    The Hydro Fellowship Program (program) began as an experiment to discover whether the hydropower industry could find mechanisms to attract new entrants through conducting relevant research to benefit the industry. This nationwide, new-to-the-world program was started through funding from the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE). Between 2010-2015, the Hydro Research Foundation (HRF) designed and implemented a program to conduct valuable research and attract new entrants to the hydro workforce. This historic grant has empowered and engaged industry members from 25 organizations by working with 91 students and advisors at 24 universities in 19 states. The work funded answered pressing research needs in the fields of civil, mechanical, environmental, and electrical engineering, as well as law, energy engineering and materials innovation. In terms of number of individuals touched through funding, 148 individuals were supported by this work through direct research, mentorship, oversight of the work, partnerships and the day-to-day program administration. Based on the program results, it is clear that the funding achieved the hoped-for outcomes and has the capacity to draw universities into the orbit of hydropower and continue the conversation about industry research and development needs. The Foundation has fostered unique partnerships at the host universities and has continued to thrive with the support of the universities, advisors, industry and the DOE. The Foundation has demonstrated industry support through mentorships, partnerships, underwriting the costs and articulating the universities’ support through in-kind cost sharing. The Foundation recommends that future work be continued to nurture these graduate level programs using the initial work and improvements in the successor program, the Research Awards Program, while stimulating engagement of academia at the

  1. Floating Foundations: "Kairos," Community, and a Composition Program in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. R.; Letter, Joe; Livingston, Judith Kemerait

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe their individual and collective experiences reconstructing their New Orleans-based university composition program in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. They emphasize how the concept of "floating foundations" helps account for changes in their students' interests, and they suggest that this idea is applicable to the…

  2. 78 FR 79643 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... consumer behavior; and questions about why comments on the Draft National Climate Assessment were not... Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for Reconsideration AGENCY: Office of... Energy Consumers of America (IECA), American Gas Association (AGA), Cato Institute Center for Study of...

  3. RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION FILL MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a recommended foundation fill materials standard for new construction houses in Florida. he radon-control construction standard was developed by the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ill material standards are formulated for: (1)...

  4. Using a systems orientation and foundational theory to enhance theory-driven human service program evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Deborah L

    2010-05-01

    This paper offers a framework for using a systems orientation and "foundational theory" to enhance theory-driven evaluations and logic models. The framework guides the process of identifying and explaining operative relationships and perspectives within human service program systems. Self-Determination Theory exemplifies how a foundational theory can be used to support the framework in a wide range of program evaluations. Two examples illustrate how applications of the framework have improved the evaluators' abilities to observe and explain program effect. In both exemplars improvements involved addressing and organizing into a single logic model heretofore seemingly disparate evaluation issues regarding valuing (by whose values); the role of organizational and program context; and evaluation anxiety and utilization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-Foundational Discourse Analysis: A Suggestion for a Research Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Marttila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-foundational discourse analysis, also labeled as Essex School in Discourse Analysis, has been observed to suffer from a considerable methodological deficit that limits its applicability in empirical research. The principal aim of this article is to overcome this methodological deficit by constructing the research program of the post-foundational discourse analysis that facilitates its operationalization in empirical research. In accordance with Imre LAKATOS (1970 and David HOWARTH (2004a, a research program is referred to an internally consistent and openly scrutinizable system of theoretical, methodological and phenomenal concepts that opens up the possibility to distinguish between the "negative" and the "positive" heuristics of empirical research. The first three sections develop the positive heuristics of the post-foundational discourse analysis by elucidating its theoretical foundations, methodological position and phenomenal framework. The concluding fourth section draws on the presented positive heuristics to outline the analytical stages and strategies of the post-foundational discourse analysis and discusses suitable methods for sampling and interpreting empirical data. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150319

  6. Promising and Established Investigators' Experiences Participating in the National Athletic Trainers' Association Foundation Research Mentor Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara L; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Barrett, Jessica L

    2017-04-01

      Mentorship is a helpful resource for individuals who transition from doctoral student to tenure-track faculty member. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Research & Education Foundation offers a Research Mentor Program to provide mentorship to promising investigators, particularly as they work to establish independent lines of research.   To gain the perspectives of promising and established investigators on their participation in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program.   Qualitative, phenomenological research.   Higher education institutions.   Seven promising investigators (5 women, 2 men) and 7 established investigators (2 women, 5 men), all of whom had completed the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Data Collection and Analysis We developed and piloted intervi: ew guides designed to gain participants' perspectives on their experiences participating in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Semistructured telephone interviews were completed with each individual and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach, and saturation was obtained. Trustworthiness was established with the use of member checking, multiple-analyst triangulation, and data-source triangulation.   Three themes emerged from the interviews: (1) motivation, (2) collaboration, and (3) resources. Participants were motivated to become involved because they saw the value of mentorship, and mentees desired guidance in their research. Participants believed that collaboration on a project contributed to a positive relationship, and they also desired additional program and professional resources to support novice faculty.   Promising and established investigators should be encouraged to engage in mentoring relationships to facilitate mentees' research agendas and professional development. The NATA Foundation and athletic training profession may consider providing additional resources for novice faculty, such as training on

  7. How the Avahan HIV prevention program transitioned from the Gates Foundation to the government of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaier, Sema K; Ramakrishnan, Aparajita; Dhingra, Neeraj; Wadhwani, Alkesh; Alexander, Ashok; Bennett, Sara; Bhalla, Aparajita; Kumta, Sameer; Jayaram, Matangi; Gupta, Pankaj; Piot, Peter K; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Anthony, John

    2013-07-01

    Developing countries face diminishing development aid and time-limited donor commitments that challenge the long-term sustainability of donor-funded programs to improve the health of local populations. Increasing country ownership of the programs is one solution. Transitioning managerial and financial responsibility for donor-funded programs to governments and local stakeholders represents a highly advanced form of country ownership, but there are few successful examples among large-scale programs. We present a transition framework and describe how it was used to transfer the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's HIV/AIDS prevention program, the Avahan program, to the Government of India. Essential features recommended for the transition of donor-funded programs to governments include early planning with the government, aligning donor program components with government structures and funding models prior to transition, building government capacity through active technical and management support, budgeting for adequate support during and after the transition, and dividing the transition into phases to allow time for adjustments and corrections. The transition of programs to governments is an important sustainability strategy for efforts to scale up HIV prevention programs to reach the populations most at risk.

  8. HSC Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in disability information or services and that add value to our existing programs. The Foundation also works to bring additional support to initiatives by serving as funding partners on projects that have local impact and national relevance. Supporting a Continuum of Care The HSC Foundation ...

  9. Stepping Stones Triple P: An RCT of a Parenting Program with Parents of a Child Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Whilst the Triple P Positive Parenting Program has a large evidence base (Sanders, "Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review" 2:71-90, 1999; Sanders, "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" 68:624-640, 2000) and preliminary evidence indicates that Stepping Stones Triple P is also efficacious (Roberts, "Journal of Clinical Child and…

  10. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars Program: An opportunity for junior nurse faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Maren J.; Goodman, Janice H.; Thomas, Tami L.; Roberson, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program provides promising junior faculty extramural funding, expert mentoring, and the training needed to be successful in the academic role. The Nurse Faculty Scholars program, which admitted its first cohort in 2008, is designed to address the nursing faculty shortage by enhancing leadership, educational, and research skills in junior nursing faculty. This article provides an overview of the program, its purpose, and its eligibility requirements. The authors give strategies for selecting mentors, developing the written application, and preparing for an oral interview. Finally, the authors provide an analysis of funded institutions, research design and methods from current and recently funded projects, and rank and positions held by nursing mentors. PMID:22818282

  11. Vasculitis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Board Our Team Anniversary Vasculitis Foundation Newsletters Annual Reports Press Page Literature Order Form Join Contact Us Dream Big Donate Donate Support the VF Through the Amazon Smile Program United Way Giving Ways to Give ...

  12. PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS - A CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR NURSES OF THE AMERICAN NURSES FOUNDATION/ASSOCIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Nurses Association/Foundation will develop online, in print and pre conference continuing education (CE) children's environmental health protection programs to meet the objective of the program. The first CE program is on school environments, the second on home and ...

  13. The Feed Materials Program of the Manhattan Project: A Foundational Component of the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2014-12-01

    The feed materials program of the Manhattan Project was responsible for procuring uranium-bearing ores and materials and processing them into forms suitable for use as source materials for the Project's uranium-enrichment factories and plutonium-producing reactors. This aspect of the Manhattan Project has tended to be overlooked in comparison with the Project's more dramatic accomplishments, but was absolutely vital to the success of those endeavors: without appropriate raw materials and the means to process them, nuclear weapons and much of the subsequent cold war would never have come to pass. Drawing from information available in Manhattan Engineer District Documents, this paper examines the sources and processing of uranium-bearing materials used in making the first nuclear weapons and how the feed materials program became a central foundational component of the postwar nuclear weapons complex.

  14. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Overview of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn; Ladden, Maryjoan D; McBride, Angela Barron; Cimino, Andrea; Kostas-Polston, Elizabeth; Deming, Katie

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program was created to address the nursing faculty shortage and thereby decrease the nursing shortage. The purpose of the study was to describe the program development, implementation, and ongoing outcome evaluation. Data on scholarly productivity, impact of research, research funding, and leadership positions were compiled, including an h-index (impact of publications) comparison with a comparison group of other interdisciplinary faculty at the same institutions of the 90 current and alumni scholars. There is evidence of the achievements of the individual scholars; however, the effect of the synergy of the multiple components of the program is difficult to capture in traditional evaluation strategies. The sense of possibility and responsibility (to the profession, to improving the health of all Americans, and to one's school of nursing and university) was a significant outcome of the program. Lessons learned from the program are important for the leadership development and retention of nursing faculty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Costs to implement an effective transition-to-parenthood program for couples: Analysis of the Family Foundations program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Damon E.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Hostetler, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The transition to parenthood involves many stressors that can have implications for the couple relationship as well as the developmental environment of the child. Scholars and policymakers have recognized the potential for interventions that can help couples navigate these stressors to improve parenting and coparenting strategies. Such evidence-based programs are scarcely available, however, and little is known about the resources necessary to carry out these programs. This study examines the costs and resources necessary to implement Family Foundations, a program that addresses the multifaceted issues facing first-time parents through a series of pre- and post-natal classes. Costs were determined using a 6-step analytic process and are based on the first implementation of the program carried out through a five-year demonstration project. This assessment demonstrates how overall costs change across years as new cohorts of families are introduced, and how cost breakdowns differ by category as needs shift from training group leaders to sustaining program services. Information from this cost analysis helps clarify how the program could be made more efficient in subsequent implementations. We also consider how results may be used in future research examining economic benefits of participation in the program. PMID:24603052

  17. Costs to implement an effective transition-to-parenthood program for couples: analysis of the Family Foundations program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Damon E; Feinberg, Mark E; Hostetler, Michelle L

    2014-06-01

    The transition to parenthood involves many stressors that can have implications for the couple relationship as well as the developmental environment of the child. Scholars and policymakers have recognized the potential for interventions that can help couples navigate these stressors to improve parenting and coparenting strategies. Such evidence-based programs are scarcely available, however, and little is known about the resources necessary to carry out these programs. This study examines the costs and resources necessary to implement Family Foundations, a program that addresses the multifaceted issues facing first-time parents through a series of pre- and post-natal classes. Costs were determined using a 6-step analytic process and are based on the first implementation of the program carried out through a five-year demonstration project. This assessment demonstrates how overall costs change across years as new cohorts of families are introduced, and how cost breakdowns differ by category as needs shift from training group leaders to sustaining program services. Information from this cost analysis helps clarify how the program could be made more efficient in subsequent implementations. We also consider how results may be used in future research examining economic benefits of participation in the program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ~30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ~70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ('clean rain'). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30?? from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60?? or 85??. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at Washington, DC

  19. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  20. Foundations in Science and Mathematics Program for Middle School and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Karna Mahadev; Yang, Jing; Hemann, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The Foundations in Science and Mathematics (FSM) is a graduate student led summer program designed to help middle school and high school students strengthen their knowledge and skills in mathematics and science. FSM provides two-week-long courses over a broad spectrum of disciplines including astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer programming, geology, mathematics, and physics. Students can chose two types of courses: (1) courses that help students learn the fundamental concepts in basic sciences and mathematics (e.g., "Precalculus"); and (2) knowledge courses that might be excluded from formal schooling (e.g., "Introduction to Universe"). FSM has served over 500 students in the Bloomington, IN, community over six years by acquiring funding from Indiana University and the Indiana Space Grant Consortium. FSM offers graduate students the opportunity to obtain first hand experience through independent teaching and curriculum design as well as leadership experience.We present the design of the program, review the achievements, and explore the challenges we face. We are open to collaboration with similar educational outreach programs. For more information, please visit http://www.indiana.edu/~fsm/ .

  1. The Philosopher's Stone: How Basic Skills Programs Fare in Troubled Financial Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relative position of basic skills programs with transfer and career technical programs in a large suburban community college in California during the three-year period of budget reductions from 2009-2010 through 2011-2012. The budget line dedicated to part-time or non-contract instruction was analyzed along…

  2. The Barrett Foundation: Undergraduate Research Program for Environmental Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Paul, M.; Farmer, C.; Larson, P.; Matt, J.; Sentoff, K.; Vazquez-Spickers, I.; Pearce, A. R.

    2007-12-01

    A new program sponsored by The Barrett Foundation in the University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences (UVM) supports undergraduate students in Environmental Engineering, Earth and Environmental Sciences to pursue independent summer research projects. The Barrett Foundation, a non-profit organization started by a UVM Engineering alum, provided a grant to support undergraduate research. Students must work with at least two different faculty advisors to develop project ideas, then independently prepare a research proposal and submit it to a faculty panel for review. The program was structured as a scholarship to foster a competitive application process. In the last three years, fourteen students have participated in the program. The 2007 Barrett Scholars projects include: - Using bacteria to change the chemistry of subsurface media to encourage calcite precipitation for soil stability and pollutant sequestration - Assessing structural weaknesses in a historic post and beam barn using accelerometers and wireless data collection equipment - Using image processing filters to 1) evaluate leaf wetness, a leading indicator of disease in crops and 2) assess the movement of contaminants through building materials. - Investigating the impact of increased water temperature on cold-water fish species in two Vermont streams. - Studying the impacts of light duty vehicle tailpipe emissions on air quality This program supports applied and interdisciplinary environmental research and introduces students to real- world engineering problems. In addition, faculty from different research focuses are presented the opportunity to establish new collaborations around campus through the interdisciplinary projects. To date, there is a successful publication record from the projects involving the Barrett scholars, including students as authors. One of the objectives of this program was to provide prestigious, competitive awards to outstanding undergraduate engineers

  3. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines.

  4. Stone coalgebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Kupke (Clemens); A. Kurz (Alexander); Y. Venema

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we argue that the category of Stone spaces forms an interesting base category for coalgebras, in particular, if one considers the Vietoris functor as an analogue to the power set functor on the category of sets. We prove that the so-called descriptive general frames, which

  5. Endoscopic Stone Measurement During Ureteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Wesley W; Lim, Sunghwan; Stoianovici, Dan; Matlaga, Brian R

    2018-01-01

    Currently, stone size cannot be accurately measured while performing flexible ureteroscopy (URS). We developed novel software for ureteroscopic, stone size measurement, and then evaluated its performance. A novel application capable of measuring stone fragment size, based on the known distance of the basket tip in the ureteroscope's visual field, was designed and calibrated in a laboratory setting. Complete URS procedures were recorded and 30 stone fragments were extracted and measured using digital calipers. The novel software program was applied to the recorded URS footage to obtain ureteroscope-derived stone size measurements. These ureteroscope-derived measurements were then compared with the actual-measured fragment size. The median longitudinal and transversal errors were 0.14 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.18) and 0.09 mm (95% CI 0.02, 0.15), respectively. The overall software accuracy and precision were 0.17 and 0.15 mm, respectively. The longitudinal and transversal measurements obtained by the software and digital calipers were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.93). Neither stone size nor stone type was correlated with error measurements. This novel method and software reliably measured stone fragment size during URS. The software ultimately has the potential to make URS safer and more efficient.

  6. 'Responsible drinking' programs and the alcohol industry in Brazil: killing two birds with one stone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantani, Daniela; Sparks, Robert; Sanchez, Zila M; Pinsky, Ilana

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian alcohol industry - which for years has ignored alcohol problems - inaugurated responsible drinking programs (RDPs). This paper reports findings from an exploratory study that investigated the RDP-related activities of six leading alcohol companies in Brazil (three national, three transnational) focusing on program goals and components, target populations and evaluation methods. Interviews were conducted from October 2007 to February 2008 with nine key-informants, and 71 corporate documents were collected along with additional web information about the programs. Content analysis of interviews and institutional documents was used to identify the companies' RDP activities. Three types of RDPs were found that focused respectively on institutional action, drinking and driving, and underage drinking. All three transnational firms were involved in RDPs, whereas national firms demonstrated limited involvement. The majority of RDPs were implemented using television. No targeted research appears to have been undertaken by the companies to assess the efficacy of the strategies in terms of changes in drinking behavior. The evidence for both national and transnational firms means that is difficult to confirm that the responsible drinking programs produced so far in Brazil have been undertaken to systematically reduce alcohol problems, or mainly as part of a public relations strategy to reduce criticism and potentially forestall government regulations (Babor, 2006, 2009; Jernigan, 2009). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Initial evaluation of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Kathleen T; Hodges, Eric A; Thomas, Tami L; Coffman, Maren J; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Johnson-Mallard, Versie M; Goodman, Janice H; Jones, Randy A; Kuntz, Sandra; Galik, Elizabeth; Gates, Michael G; Casida, Jesus M

    2014-01-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars (RWJF NFS) program was developed to enhance the career trajectory of young nursing faculty and to train the next generation of nurse scholars. Although there are publications that describe the RWJF NFS, no evaluative reports have been published. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the first three cohorts (n = 42 scholars) of the RWJF NFS program. A descriptive research design was used. Data were derived from quarterly and annual reports, and a questionnaire (seven open-ended questions) was administered via Survey Monkey Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA). During their tenure, scholars had on average six to seven articles published, were teaching/mentoring at the graduate level (93%), and holding leadership positions at their academic institutions (100%). Eleven scholars (26%) achieved fellowship in the American Academy of Nursing, one of the highest nursing honors. The average ratings on a Likert scale of 1 (not at all supportive) to 10 (extremely supportive) of whether or not RWJF had helped scholars achieve their goals in teaching, service, research, and leadership were 7.7, 8.0, 9.4, and 9.5, respectively. The majority of scholars reported a positive, supportive relationship with their primary nursing and research mentors; although, several scholars noted challenges in connecting for meetings or telephone calls with their national nursing mentors. These initial results of the RWJF NFS program highlight the success of the program in meeting its overall goal-preparing the next generation of nursing academic scholars for leadership in the profession. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone — experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.; Reddy, Michael M.; Reimann, Karl J.; Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30° to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ˜ 15 to ˜ 30 μm yr -1 for marble, and from ˜ 25 to ˜ 45 μm yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ˜ 30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ˜ 70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ("clean rain"). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30° from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60° or 85°. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at

  9. Stepping Stones Triple P: an RCT of a parenting program with parents of a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sanders, Matthew R

    2009-05-01

    Whilst the Triple P Positive Parenting Program has a large evidence base (Sanders, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 2:71-90, 1999; Sanders, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68:624-640, 2000) and preliminary evidence indicates that Stepping Stones Triple P is also efficacious (Roberts, Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(2):180-193, 2006), to date Stepping Stones has not been evaluated with the ASD population. Fifty-nine families with a child with ASD aged between 2 and 9 participated in this randomized controlled trial. The results demonstrate significant improvements in parental reports of child behaviour and parenting styles with the treatment effects for child behaviour, parental over reactivity and parental verbosity being maintained at follow-up 6 months later. Further, the results suggest significant improvements in parental satisfaction and conflict about parenting as well as a sleeper effect for parental efficacy. The results indicate that Stepping Stones Triple P is a promising intervention for parents of children with ASD. Limitations and future research are also addressed.

  10. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  11. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: I...... with careful consideration of stone size and location, symptoms, patient comorbidity and radiation dose. CONCLUSION: In case of infective hydronephrosis, compromised renal function or persistent pain despite adequate analgesic treatment acute intervention is indicated....

  12. Autobiography, Disclosure, and Engaged Pedagogy: Toward a Practical Discussion on Teaching Foundations in Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Jennifer L.; Jupp, James C.; Hoyt, Mei Wu; Kaufman, Mitzi; Grumbein, Matthew; O'Malley, Michael P.; Carpenter, B. Stephen, II; Slattery, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this research reflection, we develop a portrait of our engaged pedagogy for teaching educational foundations classes in teacher education. Our engaged pedagogy--based on autobiography and self-disclosure traditions-- emphasizes instructors and students' self-disclosure of lived experiences as being central to practical curriculum in teaching…

  13. Poverty and Malnutrition in Latin America. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Ernesto; And Others

    This book presents a comprehensive review of empirical research on early childhood education and human development in Latin America. Commissioned in 1976 by the Office of Latin America and the Caribbean, part of the International Division of the Ford Foundation, New York, the study was two-faceted. First, researchers were instructed to review…

  14. Infection (urease) stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D P; Osborne, C A

    1987-01-01

    Infection-induced stones in man probably form solely as a consequence of urealysis which is catalyzed by the bacterial protein urease. Urease stones composed of struvite and carbonate-apatite may form primarily, or as secondary stones or pre-existent metabolic stones. Struvite stones form and grow rapidly owing to (a) supersaturation of urine with stone forming salts, (b) 'salting out' of poorly soluble organic substances normally dissolved in urine and (c) ammonia-induced destruction of the normally protective urothelial glycosaminoglycan layer. Immature (predominantly organic) matrix stones mature into densely mineralized stones. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone and by eradicating all urinary and parenchymal infection. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches are available. Patient treatment must be individualized inasmuch as some patients are better candidates for one type of treatment than another.

  15. Assessment of stone composition in the management of urinary stones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijvikai, Kittinut; de la Rosette, J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Several explanations have been suggested to account for the failure of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment in patients with urinary stones, including large stone volume, unfavorable stone location or composition and the type of lithotriptor used. Unfavorable stone composition is

  16. The Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation Summer Research Internship Program: the benefits of preprofessional experience for prospective physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenbring, Benjamin D; McKee, Katherine C; Wilson, Betsy V; Henry, Timothy D

    2008-08-01

    There is a distinct shortage of preprofessional opportunities for undergraduate premedical students. During the last 7 summers, the Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation Summer Research Internship Program has exposed interested students to cardiology and clinical research. The goals of the internship program are threefold: to bring students in contact with the medical profession, to offer experiences in the various disciplines of cardiology, and to introduce students to clinical research. The success of the program can be measured by its influence on participants' academic pursuits and scholarly contributions. Of the 65 internship alumni, 52 are studying to become physicians and most of the others are in health-related fields. Interns have also contributed abstracts and manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals and presented their research at major conferences.

  17. Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ureteral Stones: Evaluation of Patient and Stone Related Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yazici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the patient and stone related factors which may influence the final outcome of SWL in the management of ureteral stones.Materials and Methods:Between October 2011 and October 2013, a total of 204 adult patients undergoing SWL for single ureteral stone sizing 5 to 15 mm were included into the study program. The impact of both patient (age, sex, BMI, and stone related factors (laterality, location, longest diameter and density as CT HU along with BUN and lastly SSD (skin to stone distance on fragmentation were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Stone free rates for proximal and distal ureteral stones were 68.8% and 72.7%, respectively with no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.7. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, while higher BMI (mean: 26.8 and 28.1, p=0.048 and stone density values (mean: 702 HU and 930 HU, p<0.0001 were detected as statistically significant independent predictors of treatment failure for proximal ureteral stones, the only statistically significant predicting parameter for the success rates of SWL in distal ureteral stones was the higher SSD value (median: 114 and 90, p=0.012.Conclusions:Our findings have clearly shown that while higher BMI and increased stone attenuation values detected by NCCT were significant factors influencing the final outcome of SWL treatment in proximal ureteral stones; opposite to the literature, high SSD was the only independent predictor of success for the SWL treatment of distal ureteral stones.

  18. Do Parental Attributions Affect Treatment Outcome in a Parenting Program? An Exploration of the Effects of Parental Attributions in an RCT of Stepping Stones Triple P for the ASD Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted in conjunction with a randomised controlled trial of the parenting program Stepping Stones Triple P for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Fifty-nine families with a child with ASD participated. This study focussed upon the role of parental attributions in predicting treatment outcome. Stepping…

  19. A Solid Foundation: Key Capacities of Construction Pre-Apprenticeship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Matt; Blair, Amy; Gerber, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This publication shares research from site visits conducted to construction pre-apprenticeship programs in Baltimore, Hartford, Milwaukee and Portland (OR). Findings from the site visits, which included interviews and focus groups with pre-apprenticeship program staff, public officials, philanthropic leaders, construction industry leaders and…

  20. Evaluation of the Pilot Mentoring Program at the Research Foundation for SUNY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-Harr, Amy; Caggiano-Siino, Kathleen; Prewitt, Ashlee

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a description of an 18-month pilot program focused on the leadership development of the next generation of research administrators (RAs) in the State University of New York system (SUNY). The key questions for the evaluators were: 1) can we create a developmental program that effectively prepares the next generation of RAs;…

  1. 31 CFR 103.140 - Anti-money laundering programs for dealers in precious metals, precious stones, or jewels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anti-money laundering programs for... FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.140 Anti-money...) Anti-money laundering program requirement. (1) Each dealer shall develop and implement a written anti...

  2. Hydro Ottawa's apprenticeship program : building the foundation of our business and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferies, L. [Hydro Ottawa Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Hydro Ottawa is a local distribution company (LDC) with a workforce of 551 people and 127 line maintainers. Apprentices are required due to the physically demanding nature of power line maintenance as well as due to the fact that the utility's workforce is aging. Hydro Ottawa's apprenticeship program was designed as a long-term investment in the utility's future. The cost of the program is offset by a reduced need for hiring contractors. Experienced trades staff are re-deployed to fill many other positions within the utility. The program includes constant monitoring of new recruits during probation to ensure that potential employees are suited to the job. Training resources are optimized to create a safe, focused environment that focuses on the development of core skills. The recruitment process has a strong marketing focus and has the following 5 stages: (1) resume screening, (2) college testing, (3) an interview, (4) a heights and confined space test, and (5) a physical fitness test and medical. The first year of the program involves dedicated training, a boot camp, bi-weekly individual reviews, and testing at a facility. Formal trades training is also conducted. The second year of the program includes a yearly site rotation and attendance at a formal trade school. The third year includes a 4 month stint on an emergency response team. figs.

  3. Building the Foundation for a Health Education Program for Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Eun; Parker, Stephany; Hermann, Janice; Phelps, Joshua; Shin, Yeon Ho

    2018-01-01

    We explored rural older adults perceptions of health to inform health promotion program development, using social marketing as our framework. Participants in seven focus groups viewed independence and holistic health as indicators of health and identified healthful eating and physical activity as actions to promote health. Barriers to these…

  4. A Foundation for Flow-Based Program Matching Using Temporal Logic and Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Doligez, Damien; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    an extension of the temporal logic CTL has been applied to the problem of specifying and verifying the transformations commonly performed by optimizing compilers. Nevertheless, in developing the Coccinelle program transformation tool for performing Linux collateral evolutions in systems code, we have found......, using a transformation rule that fixes several reference count bugs in Linux code....

  5. Building a Foundation against Violence: Impact of a School-Based Prevention Program on Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bruce W.; Bacon, Tina P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Too Good for Violence Prevention Program (TGFV), a multifaceted interactive intervention. Grounded in Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the TGFV curricula focus on developing personal and interpersonal skills to solve conflict non-violently and resist social influences that lead to violence.…

  6. Stepping Stones Triple P-Positive Parenting Program for children with disability: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellegen, Cassandra L; Sanders, Matthew R

    2013-05-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the treatment effects of a behavioral family intervention, Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) for parents of children with disabilities. SSTP is a system of five intervention levels of increasing intensity and narrowing population reach. Twelve studies, including a total of 659 families, met eligibility criteria. Studies needed to have evaluated SSTP, be written in English or German, contribute original data, and have sufficient data for analyses. No restrictions were placed on study design. A series of meta-analyses were performed for seven different outcome categories. Analyses were conducted on the combination of all four levels of SSTP for which evidence exists (Levels 2-5), and were also conducted separately for each level of SSTP. Significant moderate effect sizes were found for all levels of SSTP for reducing child problems, the primary outcome of interest. On secondary outcomes, significant overall effect sizes were found for parenting styles, parenting satisfaction and efficacy, parental adjustment, parental relationship, and observed child behaviors. No significant treatment effects were found for observed parenting behaviors. Moderator analyses showed no significant differences in effect sizes across the levels of SSTP intervention, with the exception of child observations. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed. Analyses suggested that publication bias and selective reporting bias were not likely to have heavily influenced the findings. The overall evidence base supported the effectiveness of SSTP as an intervention for improving child and parent outcomes in families of children with disabilities. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ABIM Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In conjunction with the… mailchi.mp View on Facebook ABIM Foundation shared Business Radio Powered by The Wharton School's post. 2 days ago View on Facebook ABIM Foundation 2 days ago The Android version ...

  8. Basic-research foundations for public-education programs in energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, J B; Misch, M R

    1980-09-01

    The processes whereby people make decisions about specific behavior, the forces that operate on these decisions, and the interaction of several decisions and their modifying effect upon each other are studied. An overview of the current approach to decision study and behavior-change studies is presented. Brief papers prepared by such experts as Maccoby, Tversky, Cialdine, Margolin, Simon, Heider, Festinger, and Lervin are presented. Methodological considerations are discussed. Task B focuses on the specific issue of the purchase of energy-efficient appliances. Task C investigates individual and small-group data-quantification techniques. Task D explains monitoring of ongoing energy-relevant consumer/purchaser surveys. A cost-benefit analysis is made and discussed in Task E of other public and private information programs designed to serve the public welfare. A number of useful findings are presented with the caveat that cost-benefit analysis is not a precise technique. The application of this study to the needs of the energy-conservation program is summarized. (MCW)

  9. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... self-care; Nephrolithiasis and self-care; Stones and kidney - self-care; Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate ... provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care ...

  10. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. It is associated different gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. The colourful stones physical insight is to be building blocks for quarks and leptons. (Author) [pt

  11. Everybody Must Get Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Darvill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely recognised that monument building in the fourth and third millennia cal BC often involved transporting selected blocks of preferred stone many kilometres over difficult terrain. Some structures incorporated blocks from several different sources, brought together as an ensemble in much the same way perhaps that assemblages of flint and stone axes reflect both local and distant sources. This article explores alternative models accounting for the selection of stones, contrasting those that foreground symbolic attachments and imposed meanings with those that focus on the intrinsic qualities of particular types of stone and their source. The assemblage of different stone types that accumulated at Stonehenge, Wiltshire, over a period of more than a thousand years is used as a case study.

  12. Calcium oxalate stone and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil

    2009-12-01

    Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease.

  13. Training for Quality: Improving Early Childhood Programs through Systematic Inservice Training. Monographs of the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Number Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ann S.

    The Training of Trainers (ToT) Evaluation investigated the efficacy of the High/Scope model for improving the quality of early childhood programs on a national scale. To address this question, the High/Scope Foundation undertook a multimethod evaluation that collected anecdotal records from the consultants and 793 participants in 40 ToT projects,…

  14. Use of Local Stone: Successes, Failures and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerns, Edward; Will, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Stone has been used in construction for thousands of years. Until relatively recently, local stone was used almost exclusively due to limited transportation options and to reduce costs. . Historically, the stone was often taken from nearby fields, known as fieldstone, without any specific quarrying operations and used to create unique assemblages of vernacular buildings. Stone, perhaps more than any other natural building material, has numerous varieties and characteristics within the broader classifications of stone: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. In exterior applications, stone historically has been used for foundations, localized cladding elements and in some instances entire building facades. Many of these local stones are appropriate for foundations, but not necessarily for cladding systems, particularly once the stone was quarried and modified rather than used in its natural form. These issues tended to be less significant in historic buildings when wall systems were much thicker and had more redundancies in the cladding systems Since around 1880, the use of these thinner applications of quarried stones as more traditional cladding systems (rather than cladding and structure) has resulted in challenges including unanticipated weathering characteristics, residual stresses and detrimental inclusions. These conditions can result in expensive and extensive repairs and maintenance. Often the options to address these characteristics are limited or potentially drastic depending on the scale of installation. It is important to understand the cause of the issues, understand if these issues are significant and finally how to address them appropriately. Where and how these unique local stones are installed as well as climate and weathering patterns certainly contribute to the potential unanticipated conditions. This presentation will be divided into two general parts. The first will address various stones used historically throughout regions within the United

  15. Sustainability of Foundation-Funded Grant Programs beyond Initial Funding: A Multicase Study at Selective Liberal Arts Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Deborah Chang

    2010-01-01

    College and university leaders must remain responsive to their environments by promoting institutional innovation and change. External grant-funders, such as foundations, view themselves as initiators of change. Foundations can provide the necessary tools to jump start innovation within colleges and universities. However, despite the best…

  16. Corporate Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Heidi; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    action between business and NGOs through convening, translation, collaboration, and mediation. Our study provides valuable insights into the tri-part relationship of company foundation NGO by discussing the implications of corporate foundations taking an active role in the realm of corporate social...... responsibility (CSR). The paper hence illuminates the fascinating and overlooked role of corporate foundations as potential bridges between business and civil society. It also informs theory on boundary organizations by clarifying challenges and limits of such institutions.......This paper aims to explore the potential of Danish corporate foundations as boundary organizations facilitating relationships between their founding companies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Hitherto, research has been silent about the role of corporate foundations in relation to cross...

  17. Evaluating health inequity interventions: applying a contextual (external) validity framework to programs funded by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kaye; Müller-Clemm, Werner; Ysselstein, Margaretha; Sachs, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    Including context in the measurement and evaluation of health in equity interventions is critical to understanding how events that occur in an intervention's environment might contribute to or impede its success. This study adapted and piloted a contextual validity assessment framework on a selection of health inequity-related programs funded by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF) between 1998 and 2006. The two overarching objectives of this study were (1) to determine the relative amount and quality of attention given to conceptualizing, measuring and validating context within CHSRF funded research final reports related to health-inequity; and (2) to contribute evaluative evidence towards the incorporation of context into the assessment and measurement of health inequity interventions. The study found that of the 42/146 CHSRF programs and projects, judged to be related to health inequity 20 adequately reported on the conceptualization, measurement and validation of context. Amongst these health-inequity related project reports, greatest emphasis was placed on describing the socio-political and economical context over actually measuring and validating contextual evidence. Applying a contextual validity assessment framework was useful for distinguishing between the descriptive (conceptual) versus empirical (measurement and validation) inclusion of documented contextual evidence. Although contextual validity measurement frameworks needs further development, this study contributes insight into identifying funded research related to health inequities and preliminary criteria for assessing interventions targeted at specific populations and jurisdictions. This study also feeds a larger critical dialogue (albeit beyond the scope of this study) regarding the relevance and utility of using evaluative techniques for understanding how specific external conditions support or impede the successful implementation of health inequity interventions. Copyright

  18. Radon reduction in wood foundation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, an issue of growing concern to the building industry. Silently, invisibly, it invades existing structures as it will future foundation structures. This paper addresses the nature and causes of radon, and cost-effective prevention and retrofit techniques used for wood foundation systems. Radon also can enter homes with foundations that use the under-floor as an air distribution system. These building practices will be shown; even materials used in construction may release radon, for example, this may be a problem in a house that has a solar heating system in which its heat is stored in large beds of stone. Stone is most often used in wood foundation construction. The common radon entry points will be looked at, and the latest prevention techniques will be illustrated, such as natural and forced ventilation, sealing major radon sources and entry routes, and sub-slab and sump crock ventilations

  19. Thermoluminescence of pyramid stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Eid, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    It is the aim of the present study to investigate some thermoluminescence properties of pyramid stones. Using a few grammes of pyramid stones from Pyramids I and II, the TL glow peaks were observed at 250 and 310 0 C, respectively. The TL glow peaks of samples annealed at 600 0 C, then exposed to 60 Co γ-rays were observed at 120, 190 and 310 0 C, respectively. The accumulated dose of natural samples is estimated to be around 310 Gray (31 krad). By assuming an annual dose is 1 mGy, the estimated age of pyramid stones is 0.31 M year. (author)

  20. Thermoluminescence of pyramid stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, M A; Eid, A M [Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt)

    1982-01-01

    It is the aim of the present study to investigate some thermoluminescence properties of pyramid stones. Using a few grammes of pyramid stones from Pyramids I and II, the TL glow peaks were observed at 250 and 310/sup 0/C, respectively. The TL glow peaks of samples annealed at 600/sup 0/C, then exposed to /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays were observed at 120, 190 and 310/sup 0/C, respectively. The accumulated dose of natural samples is estimated to be around 310 Gray (31 krad). By assuming an annual dose is 1 mGy, the estimated age of pyramid stones is 0.31 M year.

  1. Foundation Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Method of installing a bucket foundation structure comprising one, two, three or more skirts, into soils in a controlled manner. The method comprises two stages: a first stage being a design phase and the second stage being an installation phase. In the first stage, design parameters are determined...... relating to the loads on the finished foundation structure; soil profile on the location; allowable installation tolerances, which parameters are used to estimate the minimum diameter and length of the skirts of the bucket. The bucket size is used to simulate load situations and penetration into foundation...

  2. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  3. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  4. Fire effects on flaked stone, ground stone, and other stone artifacts [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Deal

    2012-01-01

    Lithic artifacts can be divided into two broad classes, flaked stone and ground stone, that overlap depending on the defining criteria. For this discussion, flaked stone is used to describe objects that cut, scrape, pierce, saw, hack, etch, drill, or perforate, and the debris (debitage) created when these items are manufactured. Objects made of flaked stone include...

  5. Marfan Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Click to see what's happening around the country! Marfan syndrome is a life-threatening genetic disorder, and an ...

  6. CARES Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation Video Get Involved EMS and Newborn Screening campaigns Clincal trials Fundraisers Support groups Connect and promote with Social Media: Facebook , Twitter , Instagram and LinkedIn News & Notes from ...

  7. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 1, 0.01 Foundations and footings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for footings - spread/strip/grade beams; foundation walls; foundation dampproofing/waterproofing; excavation/backfill/ and piles & caissons.

  8. Foundations of Neuromorphic Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    paradigms: few sensors/complex computations and many sensors/simple computation. Challenges with Nano-enabled Neuromorphic Chips A wide variety of...FOUNDATIONS OF NEUROMORPHIC COMPUTING MAY 2013 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...2009 – SEP 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FOUNDATIONS OF NEUROMORPHIC COMPUTING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM

  9. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  10. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Khalique

    2017-02-24

    Feb 24, 2017 ... (SIUT-ERC-B4-2013). All clinical and radiological data were collected and analyzed using. Statistical Package for Social Sciences Program (SPSS) version. 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Descriptive statistics were used. Continuous variables such as age, size of stones, serum cre- atinine were ...

  11. Characterization of bridge foundations workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    "In 2013, the Federal Highway Administration proposed a new research program for the characterization of bridge foundations. To narrow the focus and develop a research roadmap for the program, a workshop on Characterization of Bridge Foundations...

  12. Arthritis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vision Leadership News Partners & Sponsors Careers Code of Ethics Financials Annual Report Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions Donate Press Store Blog Community Local Offices Kids Get Arthritis Too Español Arthritis Today Social Media Newsletters Sign Up for E-Newsletters Arthritis Foundation ...

  13. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual...... and physical techniques, where each step and mechanic imparts and inscribes knowledge beyond the 1:1. These constructs are visual keys, used to inspire and influence all decision-making processes in a design project. These architectural Rosetta Stones document and amplify quantitative information about a site...

  14. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U. S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A. (US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1992-06-01

    Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried limestone and marble have been exposed to the environment to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Erosion due to grain loss did not seem to be influenced by rainfall acidity, but may be influenced by dry deposition of sulphur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions suggest that around 30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulphur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining 70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in 'clean' rain. 17 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Healing stone ... by infection

    OpenAIRE

    Micallef, Roderick

    2014-01-01

    Roderick Micallef has a long family history within the construction industry. He coupled this passion with a fascination with science when reading for an undergraduate degree in Biology and Chemistry (University of Malta). http://www.um.edu.mt/think/healing-stone-by-infection/

  16. Modeling Stone Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge

    2017-07-11

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns. Some guidelines for obtaining these simplified geometrical models are provided and the particular case of groups of columns under footings is also analyzed. For the latter case, there is a column critical length that is around twice the footing width for non-encased columns in a homogeneous soft soil. In the literature, the column critical length is sometimes given as a function of the column length, which leads to some disparities in its value. Here it is shown that the column critical length mainly depends on the footing dimensions. Some other features related with column modeling are also briefly presented, such as the influence of column installation. Finally, some guidance and recommendations are provided on parameter selection for the study of stone columns.

  17. Prediction of axial limit capacity of stone columns using dimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaruddin A., T.; Mohamed, Zainab; Mohd Azizul, L.; Hafez M., A.

    2017-08-01

    Stone column is the most favorable method used by engineers in designing work for stabilization of soft ground for road embankment, and foundation for liquid structure. Easy installation and cheaper cost are among the factors that make stone column more preferable than other method. Furthermore, stone column also can acts as vertical drain to increase the rate of consolidation during preloading stage before construction work started. According to previous studied there are several parameters that influence the capacity of stone column. Among of them are angle friction of among the stones, arrangement of column (two pattern arrangement most applied triangular and square), spacing center to center between columns, shear strength of soil, and physical size of column (diameter and length). Dimensional analysis method (Buckingham-Pi Theorem) has used to carry out the new formula for prediction of load capacity stone columns. Experimental data from two previous studies was used for analysis of study.

  18. Stone composition and metabolic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibilash, B S; Vijay, Adarsh; Fazil Marickar, Y M

    2010-06-01

    This paper aims to study the correlation between biochemical risk factors of the stone former and the type of oxalate stone formed, namely calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD). A retrospective study of 487 patients who had been attending the urinary stone clinic, Trivandrum during 1998-2007 was conducted. The stones retrieved from them were subjected to chemical analysis and FTIR spectrographic analysis. They were categorized into COM, COD, mixed COM+COD and others. Of 142 pure calcium oxalate stone patients, 87 were predominantly COM stone formers and 55 COD stone formers. Their metabolic status of 24 h urine and serum was assessed. The values of urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, magnesium, creatinine, oxalate, citric acid, sodium and potassium, serum values of calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, magnesium and creatinine and calculated values of creatinine clearance, tubular reabsorption of phosphate, calcium magnesium ratio and calcium oxalate ratio were recorded. Comparison was made between the COM stone group and the COD stone group. Patients forming COM stones had significantly higher mean values for urine calcium (P stone forming patients. All other values failed to show significant difference. Patients, with higher urine oxalate, formed COM stones. Those with low magnesium (which is an inhibitor) formed more of COD stones. Urine calcium was high in both groups without showing significant variation from the mean. In patients with high calcium-oxalate and calcium-magnesium ratios, there is higher chance of forming a COD stone than COM. Identification of the crystallization pattern of the calcium stone will help in selecting treatment modalities.

  19. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shipley, B.; de Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Lariberté, E.; Laughlin, D. C.; Reich, P. B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 4 (2016), s. 923-931 ISSN 0029-8549 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Comparative ecology * Functional ecology * Intraspecific variation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.130, year: 2016

  20. Sustainable materials used as stone column filler: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukri, Azhani; Nazir, Ramli

    2018-04-01

    Stone columns (also known as granular piles) are one of the methods for soft soil stabilization and typically used to increase bearing capacity and stability of slope.; Apart from decreasing the compressibility of loose and fine graded soils, it also accelerates the consolidation effect by improving the drainage path for pore water pressure dissipation and reduces the liquefaction potential of soils during earthquake event. Stone columns are probably the most “natural” ground treatment method or foundation system in existence to date. The benefit of stone columns is owing to the partial replacement of compressible soil by more competent materials such as stone aggregate, sand and other granular materials. These substitutes also act as reinforcement material, hence increasing overall strength and stiffness of the soft soil. Nowadays, a number of research has been conducted on the behaviour and performance of stone columns with various materials utilized as column filler replacing the normal aggregate. This paper will review extensively on previously conducted research on some of the materials used as stone column backfill materials, its suitability and the effectiveness as a substitute for regular aggregates in soft soil improvement works.

  1. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is extended. It is associated differents matter and gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. A massive Yang Mills is obtained. A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. Structures identified as quarks and leptons are generated. A discussion about colour meaning is presented. (Author) [pt

  2. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual and ...... on Anholt Island through qualitative means. They are tools for uncovering realities previously unseen or unimagined through the manipulation of data via personal experience....

  3. Lessons from a Stone Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, John P.; Rao, P. Nagaraj

    2007-04-01

    The stone farm is a system for measuring macroscopic stone growth of 12 calcium stones simultaneously. It is based on mixed suspension, mixed product removal continuous crystallization principles and the stones are grown continuously for about 500 hours or more. The growth of the stones follows a surface area dependent pattern and the growth rate constants are very similar irrespective of whether the stating materials are fragments of human stone or pieces of marble chip. Increasing citrate from 2mM to 6mM caused a significant growth inhibition which persisted in the presence of urinary macromolecules. Phytate was a very effective inhibitor (about 50% at sub-μM concentrations) but the effective concentration was increased by an order of magnitude in the presence of urinary macromolecules. The effective concentration for inhibition in a crystallization assay was a further two orders of magnitude higher. Urinary macromolecules or almost whole urine were also strongly inhibitory although neither human serum albumin nor bovine mucin had any great effect. The relationship between the size distribution of crystals in suspension and the stone enlargement rate suggests that the primary enlargement mechanism for these in vitro stones is through aggregation. The stone farm is a powerful tool with which to study crystallization inhibitors in a new light. Some differences between inhibition of crystallization and inhibition of stone growth have emerged and we have obtained quantitative evidence on the mechanism of stone enlargement in vitro. Our findings suggest that the interface between crystals in suspension and the stone surface is the key to controlling stone enlargement.

  4. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  5. a History of Funding for WOMEN’S Programs at the National Science Foundation: from Individual Powre Approaches to the Advance of Institutional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.; Lane, Eliesh O'neil

    The biennial reports on women, minorities, and persons with disabilities produced by the National Science Foundation (NSF) because of congressional mandate laid the statistical foundation for NSF initiatives to redress the underrepresentation of these groups. Programs established in the 1980s such as Research Opportunities for Women, Visiting Professorships for Women, Graduate Fellowships for Women, and Career Advancement Awards provided support to individual women for their research. In the 1990s, the NSF also began to focus on systemic initiatives, creating the Program for Women and Girls, although it continued to address the problem through support of individual researchers in the newly created Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education (POWRE) initiative. The responses from more than 400 awardees during the 4 years of POWRE provide insights into the current issues these women perceive surrounding their grants, funding, and interactions with NSF bureaucracy and staff members. The results of the POWRE survey support the institutional, systemic thrust of the NSF’s new ADVANCE initiative to attempt to solve problems such as balancing career and family that cannot be addressed solely by supporting research projects of individual female scientists and engineers.

  6. Promoting physical therapists’ of research evidence to inform clinical practice: part 1 - theoretical foundation, evidence, and description of the PEAK program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for theoretically grounded and evidence-based interventions that enhance the use of research evidence in physical therapist practice. This paper and its companion paper introduce the Physical therapist-driven Education for Actionable Knowledge translation (PEAK) program, an educational program designed to promote physical therapists’ integration of research evidence into clinical decision-making. The pedagogical foundations for the PEAK educational program include Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory and Malcolm Knowles’s adult learning theory. Additionally, two complementary frameworks of knowledge translation, the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) and Knowledge to Action (KTA) Cycle, were used to inform the organizational elements of the program. Finally, the program design was influenced by evidence from previous attempts to facilitate the use of research in practice at the individual and organizational levels. Discussion The 6-month PEAK program consisted of four consecutive and interdependent components. First, leadership support was secured and electronic resources were acquired and distributed to participants. Next, a two-day training workshop consisting of didactic and small group activities was conducted that addressed the five steps of evidence based practice. For five months following the workshop, participants worked in small groups to review and synthesize literature around a group-selected area of common clinical interest. Each group contributed to the generation of a “Best Practices List” - a list of locally generated, evidence-based, actionable behaviors relevant to the groups’ clinical practice. Ultimately, participants agreed to implement the Best Practices List in their clinical practice. Summary This, first of two companion papers, describes the underlying pedagogical theories, knowledge translation frameworks, and research evidence used to derive the PEAK program

  7. Promoting physical therapists' of research evidence to inform clinical practice: part 1--theoretical foundation, evidence, and description of the PEAK program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, Julie K; Mickan, Sharon

    2014-06-25

    There is a need for theoretically grounded and evidence-based interventions that enhance the use of research evidence in physical therapist practice. This paper and its companion paper introduce the Physical therapist-driven Education for Actionable Knowledge translation (PEAK) program, an educational program designed to promote physical therapists' integration of research evidence into clinical decision-making. The pedagogical foundations for the PEAK educational program include Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory and Malcolm Knowles's adult learning theory. Additionally, two complementary frameworks of knowledge translation, the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) and Knowledge to Action (KTA) Cycle, were used to inform the organizational elements of the program. Finally, the program design was influenced by evidence from previous attempts to facilitate the use of research in practice at the individual and organizational levels. The 6-month PEAK program consisted of four consecutive and interdependent components. First, leadership support was secured and electronic resources were acquired and distributed to participants. Next, a two-day training workshop consisting of didactic and small group activities was conducted that addressed the five steps of evidence based practice. For five months following the workshop, participants worked in small groups to review and synthesize literature around a group-selected area of common clinical interest. Each group contributed to the generation of a "Best Practices List" - a list of locally generated, evidence-based, actionable behaviors relevant to the groups' clinical practice. Ultimately, participants agreed to implement the Best Practices List in their clinical practice. This, first of two companion papers, describes the underlying pedagogical theories, knowledge translation frameworks, and research evidence used to derive the PEAK program - an educational program designed to

  8. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Christopher; Gupta, Nikhil; Leavitt, David; Hoenig, David; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, ...

  9. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Gupta, Nikhil; Leavitt, David; Hoenig, David; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

  10. The economics of stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canvasser, Noah E; Alken, Peter; Lipkin, Michael; Nakada, Stephen Y; Sodha, Hiren S; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Lotan, Yair

    2017-09-01

    The rising prevalence of kidney stone disease is associated with significant costs to healthcare systems worldwide. This is in part due to direct procedural and medical management costs, as well as indirect costs to health systems, patients, and families. A number of manuscripts evaulating the economics of stone disease have been published since the 2008s International Consultation on Stone Disease. These highlight costs associated with stone disease, including acute management, surgical management, and medical management. This work hopes to highlight optimization in care by reducing inefficient treatments and maximizing cost-efficient preventative strategies.

  11. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip C; Bailey, Michael R; Harper, Jonathan D

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the ureteropelvic junction with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing ureteropelvic junction stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic.

  12. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  13. Parkinson's Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving Day Walk Parkinson's Champions Create Your Own Fundraiser Advocate With ... one of our signature fundraising programs. Whether you walk with us at Moving Day®, run in a marathon or fundraise your ...

  14. A study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Jeon Ki; Lee, Han Yeang [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Causes of building stone contamination are acid rains in polluted areas, iron bearing minerals in stone itself, salts, sealants, cutting and grinding processes in stone factory and steel compounds structures such as stone anchors, bolts, rain culvert and guide frames. Contaminations on the building stone surface of Sejong culture center can be found around floor stones, stair stones, parterre stones, pillar stones and other outdoor stone panels. The parterre stones are contaminated by white tarnishes and rust flows are occurred on the surface of pillar stones and outdoor stone panels around entrance. Black tarnishes are cumulated on the pillar stones and other outdoor decorated stone panels and change the original granite color. Causes of building stone contaminations from Sejong culture center are wet method to attach stone panels, rust from steel compounds structures and air pollutants. Cement and mortar used from wet method react with sulfur dioxides in polluted air and from fine calcite crystals (white tarnish). Rusts from steel compounds structures such as rainwater culvert and steel guide frames can move to the stone surface by rain and leave rust flows on it. Pollutants (tar compounds, carbons, dusts, etc.) in air are cumulated with humidity on the stone surface and change color from white granite color to dusty dark color. Historical stone sculptures such as man and animal shaped stone crafts, tombstones, square stone tables in front of a tomb and guide and circumference stones around tomb in Royal Tombs (Donggu rung, Yung rung, Seoou rung and Hunin rung) distributed in Kyunggi province are contaminated by various moss and air pollutants and its original colors are deeply changed. (author). 21 refs., 11 tabs., 22 figs.

  15. Diversity: A key aspect of 21st century faculty roles as implemented in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Linda Thompson; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Deming, Katie

    Academic nursing faculty play a vital role in recruiting a diverse student body to increase the diversity of the profession and educate students to provide culturally sensitive care to expand equitable health care. The purpose of the study is to present the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program diversity initiatives and outcomes. Data on the diversity of the 90 scholars and their diversity-related leadership positions were compiled. Although the program was designed with selection criteria to encourage racial/ethnic and gender diversity, it was not until a diversity strategic plan was designed and implemented that sufficient diversity in the applicant pool and consistent diversity among the scholars was achieved. The program also included highly evaluated leadership content in diversity and inclusion. Lessons learned from the program are important for the assurance of continued diversity among tenure-track nursing faculty, commitment to diversity in the nursing workforce among all faculty, and support in nursing education on providing culturally sensitive nursing care and nursing research that addresses health inequities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recumbent Stone Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  17. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  18. Grasping the Formless in Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    and the repertoire of used forms. The chapter demonstrates that neither anthropomorphic perceptions nor the agency of the stone material alone make up the ritual aesthetics in which the stones are involved. Rather, applying concepts from landscape phenomenology and cognitive theories including the role of material...

  19. Physical foundations, use instructions and applications of the Powderspec program; Fundamentos fisicos, instrucciones de uso y aplicaciones del programa Powderspec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran L, V. [ICN, UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez T, L. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1991-09-15

    A simple FORTRAN program, called Powderspec, for simulating the second order powder patterns and the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of ions in an orthorhombic crystal field, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from a crystal with quadrupole interaction, is introduced. Powderspec can be used over the full range 0 to 1/3 of the orthorhombic field parameter {lambda} = E/D, or that of the equivalent asymmetry parameter , {eta}, 0 to 1, which is used in NMR work. This program is about 60 times faster than those based on the 'grid' or on the Monte Carlo methods. It also produces very smooth powder patterns and spectra capable of revealing fine spectral features. (Author)

  20. Acoustic sensing of renal stone fragmentation in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele, Fiammetta

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the research carried out by the author on the exploitation of acoustic emissions detected during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (a non-invasive procedure for the treatment of urinary stones) to develop a new diagnostic system. The work formed part of a research project on lithotripsy undertaken by the University of Southampton in collaboration with Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (London) and a UK based company, Precision Acoustics Ltd (Dorche...

  1. Empirical Design of Scour Protections around Monopile Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, L.; De Rouck, J.; Troch, P.

    2012-01-01

    combined wave and current loading. In part 1 (De Vos et al., 2011), preceding this paper, a static design guideline for a scour protection around a monopile is suggested, based on a combined wave and current flow field. By allowing some movement of the top layer stones of the scour protection, a more...... economical design is obtained. This paper describes the derivation of a dynamic design formula to calculate the required stone size for a scour protection around a monopile foundation in a combined wave and current climate. The formula is based on the results of an experimental model study, described...... in this paper. The formula gives an expected damage level to the scour protection, based on the wave orbital velocity, wave period, steady current velocity, water depth, relative stone density and stone size. When applying the formula for a typical situation in the North Sea, a reduction of 20% to 80...

  2. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  3. Stone cladding engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa Camposinhos, Rui de

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents new methodologies for the design of dimension stone based on the concepts of structural design while preserving the excellence of stonemasonry practice in façade engineering. Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements. Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the most commonly used modern anchorage systems. Calculation examples allow designers to solve several anchorage engineering problems in a detailed and objective manner, underlining the key parameters. The design of the anchorage metal parts, either in stainless steel or aluminum, is also presented.

  4. Stone Soup Partnership: A Grassroots Model of Community Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittredge, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Stone Soup Partnership is a collaboration between California State University at Fresno and its surrounding community to address serious problems in a high-crime, impoverished apartment complex near the university. The program involves students in service learning for university credit, and has expanded from a single summer youth program to a…

  5. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  6. Trends in urological stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin W; Reynard, John M; Noble, Jeremy G; Keoghane, Stephen R

    2012-04-01

    To summarize the changes in prevalence and treatment of upper urinary tract stone disease in the UK over the last 10 years. Data from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) website (http://www.hesonline.nhs.uk) were extracted, summarized and presented. The number of upper urinary tract stone hospital episodes increased by 63% to 83,050 in the 10-year period. The use of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for treating all upper tract stones increased from 14,491 cases in 2000-2001 to 22,402 cases in 2010 (a 55% increase) with a 69% increase in lithotripsy for renal stones. There was a 127% increase in the number of ureteroscopic stone treatments from 6,283 to 14,242 cases over the 10-year period with a 49% increase from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010. There was a decline in open surgery for upper tract stones from 278 cases in 2000/2001 to 47 cases in 2009/2010 (an 83% reduction). Treatment for stone disease has increased substantially in comparison with other urological activity. In 2009/2010, SWL was performed almost as frequently as transurethral resection of the prostate or transurethral resection of bladder tumour, ureteroscopy for stones was performed more frequently than nephrectomy, radical prostatectomy and cystectomy combined, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed more frequently than cystectomy. The present study highlights the increase in prevalence and treatment of stone disease in the UK over the last 10 years. If this trend continues it has important implications for workforce planning, training, service delivery and research in the field of urolithiasis. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  7. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER ORIG ORIG Percutaneous stone removal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an effective procedure to treat patients with complex renal stones,. e.g. staghorn calculi and stones greater than 20 mm in diameter. The treatment of choice for small, less com- plex renal stones is extracorporeal shock-wave litho- tripsy (ESWL).1 We have treated renal stones mainly.

  9. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction......, fulfilled the quality requirements. According to the current standard, chemical analysis is considered to be insufficient for stone analysis, whereas infrared spectroscopy or X-ray diffraction is mandatory. However, the poor results of infrared spectroscopy highlight the importance of equipment, reference...... spectra and qualification of the staff for an accurate analysis of stone composition. Regular quality control is essential in carrying out routine stone analysis....

  10. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation Experts Can Answer Your Questions! The Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation's team of experts is available to answer ... a law firm. Read more about the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation . TO GET HELP CALL: (877) End-Meso ...

  11. Beginning programming with C for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Learn the basics of programming with C with this fun and friendly guide! C offers a reliable, strong foundation for programming and serves as a stepping stone upon which to expand your knowledge and learn additional programming languages. Written by veteran For Dummies author Dan Gookin, this straightforward-but-fun beginner's guide covers the fundamentals of using C and gradually walks you through more advanced topics including pointers, linked lists, file I/O, and debugging. With a special focus on the subject of an Integrated Development Environment, it gives you a solid understanding of

  12. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  13. Shielding features of quarry stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez V, C.; Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-10-01

    Quarry stone lineal attenuation coefficient for gamma-rays has been obtained. In Zacatecas, quarry stone is widely utilized as a decorative item in buildings, however its shielding features against gamma-rays unknown. The aim of this work is to determine the shielding properties of quarry stone against γ-rays using Monte Carlo calculations where a detailed model of a good geometry experimental setup was carried out. In the calculations 10 pieces 10 X 10 cm 2 of different thickness were utilized to evaluate the photons transmission as the quarry stone thickness is increased. It was noticed that transmitted photons decay away as the shield thickness is increased, these results were fitted to an exponential function were the linear attenuation coefficient was estimated. Also, using XCOM code the linear attenuation coefficient from several keV up to 100 MeV was estimated. From the comparison between Monte Carlo results and XCOM calculations a good agreement was found. For 0.662 MeV γ-rays the attenuation coefficient of quarry stone, whose density is 2.413 g-cm -3 , is 0.1798 cm -1 , this mean a X 1/2 = 3.9 cm, X 1/4 = 7.7 cm, X 1/10 = 12.8 cm, and X 1/100 = 25.6 cm. Having the information of quarry stone performance as shielding give the chance to use this material to shield X and γ-ray facilities. (Author)

  14. An Examination of General Psychology as a Foundation Block in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Thomas S.; Swenka, Jobyna J.

    2007-01-01

    What is "General Psychology?" Is it just one course that could be an elective, part of a minor, or part of a student's major? Or could "General Psychology" literally be the "corner stone" or "foundation block" upon which all the other psychology courses, taken afterwards, add to like bricks upon a "foundation block?" This paper will seek to…

  15. Kidney Stones and Ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dursun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic causes such as hypercalciuria, urinary tract infection, and obstruction are the most common aetiologies of urolithiasis, and drugs, although important in this regard, are rarely the cause of urolithiasis. Administration of one of these drugs, ceftriaxone (CTX, has been associated with biliary pseudolithiasis in adult and paediatric patients, and rarely may cause urolithiasis. Several factors, including drug concentration and incubation time, are very important for determining the degree of CTX/calcium (Ca crystallisation in the urine. According to this data, CTX crystallisation was a dose and time-dependent reaction. It is particularly important to monitor patients on high-dose long-term CTX treatment with the urinary Ca to creatinine ratios, ultrasound sonography, and renal function testing, as these individuals may be at greater risk of large stones and renal damage. This type of screening may help prevent permanent complications in the future. This underlying review will help to educate readers on the pathophysiology and interaction between CTX and urolithiasis.

  16. Student Contributions to Citizen Science Programs As a Foundation for Independent and Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental monitoring projects on the grounds of a campus can serve as data collection sites for undergraduate research. Penn State Brandywine has utilized students in independent study projects to establish two citizen science programs and to begin collecting data, with the data sets serving as a foundation for authentic inquiry-based exercises in introductory-level Earth science courses. The first citizen science program is The Smithsonian Institution's Global Tree Banding Project, which contributes to research about tree biomass by tracking how trees respond to climate. We are going beyond the requirements of the Smithsonian project. Instead of only taking two measurements each in the spring and fall, undergraduate researchers are taking measurements every two weeks throughout the year. We started taking measurements of ten trees on campus in 2012 will continue until each tree outgrows its tree band. The data is available for download in Google Spreadsheets for students to examine changes in tree diameter within one or between growing seasons, supplemented with temperature and precipitation data (see http://sites.psu.edu/treebanding/). A second citizen science program we have begun on campus is the NASA-funded Digital Earth Watch (DEW) Picture Post Project, allowing students to monitor the environment and share observations through digital photography. We established four Picture Post sites on campus, with students taking weekly photos to establish an environmental baseline of the campus landscape and to document future environmental changes pre- and post-construction. We started taking digital photos on campus in 2014 will continue well past the completion of construction to continue to look for changes. The image database is less than a year old, but the images provide enough information for some early analyses, such as the variations in "greenness" over the seasons. We have created a website that shares the purpose of our participation in the Picture Post

  17. George Chester Stone (1924-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    George Chester Stone was born February 21, 1924, and died on July 13, 2013. A quiet revolutionary, George was a founder of the field of health psychology. George played critical roles conceptualizing the field of health psychology, charting its bounds and potential, promulgating guidelines for training, founding the first doctoral program in health psychology, editing influential volumes defining the new field, launching the flagship journal for the field, and establishing a home for the field within APA. He was able to accomplish all this through his talent for working collaboratively. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  19. Depoliticizing Public Action by Politicizing Issues, Practices and Actors. The Role of Resilience Thinking in a Program of the Cariplo Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto d'Albergo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We are apparently living in an age of "hyperdepoliticisation". But what is meant today by de-politicization and how does this phenomenon impact upon the forms taken by political functions in con-temporary complex societies? The aim of this article is that of answering these questions through a re-search-based analysis of the specific role played in depoliticization processes by the use of the concept of resilience and resilience thinking, analyzing the "Resilient Communities" (Comunità Resilienti program of the Cariplo Foundation. We argue that an intertwined and complementary movement between the depo-liticization of public action and politicization of collective action carried out by non-political actors exists, which does not extirpate the political from social processes, but alters its qualities, characteristics and borders. Such dual movement is composed of pro-active and reactive forms of both depoliticization and politicization, which are defined and investigated in the article, putting empirical evidence against the background of theoretical discussion.

  20. Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh.

  1. Luminescence dating of anthropogenic features of the San Luis Valley, Colorado: from stone huts to stone walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Shannon; Donlan, Rebecca A.; Kardos, Barbara Maat

    2015-01-01

    The Snake Nest Wall site and the Crestone Stone Huts are in the northern San Luis Valley, Colorado, and provide a unique opportunity to date high-altitude archeological sites of unknown age and origin using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). We sampled sediment underlying foundation stones of these structures to establish a chronological framework for each site's construction. OSL dating of the quartz grains directly under the Snake Nest Wall suggest that the stones and, therefore, the structure was most recently emplaced between 1855 and 1890 A.D. Dating of the sediment beneath the Crestone Stone Huts suggests the construction time of these huts is between 1860 and 1890 A.D. Analysis of the equivalent dose (DE) dispersion of the OSL samples at Snake Nest Wall and the Crestone Huts shows that the majority of sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and the low scatter suggests that short-term or shallow alluvial processes were the dominant transport for sediments. In both cases, the OSL ages show that the construction was during very recent historical times, although it is likely that the Snake Nest Wall was rebuilt in the late 19th century. Further study is warranted at the Snake Nest Wall since it shows signs of greater antiquity and a continued presence of human use. The Crestone Huts are shown to be a product of railroad building during the boomtown days of Lucky and Crestone.

  2. The Impact of the GE Foundation "Developing Futures"™ in Education Program on Mathematics Performance Trends in Four Districts. Research Report # RR-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinides, Philip; Supovitz, Jonathan; Tognatta, Namrata; May, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, the GE Foundation initiated a commitment of expertise and financial resources to a set of urban school districts to improve public education and enhance student achievement in mathematics and science. This report analyzes the impacts of the GE Foundation commitment to the partner districts by examining trends in student…

  3. Assessment of scientific programs: a necessary procedure for Brazilian scientific policy - the Young Investigator Program of the State of São Paulo Research Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. de Pian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs of Science and Technology research have grown significantly in Brazil over the last decades. Until the 1980s the so-called undirected programs, without specific goals and requiring only scientific merit, prevailed. The few programs with defined goals in this period were never objectively assessed. The same situation occurred in developed countries. In the early 1990s, the assessment of programs supported by public funding became mandatory in US and some European countries. In Brazil, program assessment has so far not been implemented yet. The Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa no Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP (Brazilian funding agency Young Investigator (YI Program is in its eleventh year, with approximately eight hundred projects awarded. Although it is free-demand based as concerns areas of knowledge, it has specific goals : (1 conceding grants to YI in view of the balance between funding, merit and real needs so as to enable satisfactory working conditions in the short term, (2 providing priority for institutions with a less extensive background in research, (3 granting a special fellowship to YI with no employment connection and (4 introduction of new research fronts in centers with a sound research background. This assessment provided evidence for the achievement of first three goals. The fourth one is still pending on additional data requiring survey assessment. Actions in this direction are recommended.Programas de Ciência e Tecnologia cresceram significativamente no Brasil nas últimas décadas. Até a década de 80 os assim chamados programas não dirigidos, sem metas específicas e requerendo apenas mérito científico prevaleciam. Os poucos programas com metas definidas neste período não foram jamais objetivamente avaliados. A mesma situação ocorria nos países desenvolvidos. No início da década de 90, a avaliação de programas dependentes de recursos públicos tornou-se mandatória nos Estados Unidos e em alguns pa

  4. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  5. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  6. Programmatic Considerations to Reduce the Risk of Adverse Renal Stone Events in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity exposure may alter the likelihood that astronauts will experience renal stones. The potential risk includes both acute and chronic health issues, with the potential for significant impact on mission objectives. Methods: To understand the role of the NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) research agenda in both preventing and addressing renal stones in spaceflight, current astronaut epidemiologic data and a summary of programmatic considerations are reviewed. Results: Although there has never been a symptomatic renal stone event in a U.S. crewmember during spaceflight, urine chemistry has been altered - likely due to induced changes in renal physiology as a result of exposure to microgravity. This may predispose astronauts to stone formation, leading the HRP to conduct and sponsor research to: 1) understand the risk of stone formation in space; 2) prevent stones from forming; and 3) address stones that may form by providing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Discussion: The development of a renal stone during spaceflight is a significant medical concern that requires the HRP to minimize this risk by providing the ability to prevent, diagnose, monitor and treat the condition during spaceflight. A discussion of the risk as NASA understands it is followed by an overview of the multiple mitigations currently under study, including novel ultrasound techniques for stone detection and manipulation, and how they may function as part of a larger exploration medical system.

  7. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  8. Incidence and Distribution of Pulp Stones Found in Radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall incidence of pulp stones in the patients and their correlations between female and male patients and between the right‑side and left‑side occurrences were analyzed by computer program, SPSS 15. (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA) with using the χ2 test. Differences were considered as significant when P < 0.05.

  9. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  10. Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for large ureteric stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sayyad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a safe and effective approach for selected patients with large proximal ureteric stones with reduced postoperative pain and short hospital stay, and should be considered as a treatment option for such stones.

  11. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  12. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The last day of March 1978 marked the completion of the first 3 years of operation of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. RERF was established on 1 April 1975 as successor to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission which had been in continuous operation since 1947. This record of the first 3 years of operation consists of selected reports and other documents prepared in the course of conducting the business of RERF and includes a brief history, a late radiation effects that might be conducted at RERF. The wisdom and thought given to the research program and its operation by the Scientific Council and the Board of Directors is reflected in the minutes of their meetings which are included in the Appendix. (Mori, K.)

  13. Foundations for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidlein, H.C. [German Agency Scherer Schnell Walser und Partner (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In Germany, 77 foundations promote renewable energy technology with around Euro 25 million annually. The most important internationally active foundations, however, can be found in the Anglo-Saxon countries. (orig.)

  14. Toxicology Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bodies and our world. Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation! Our mission is to enhance public understanding ... In with us, follow our Tweets, choose Toxicology Education Foundation as your preferred charity through Smile.Amazon. ...

  15. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  16. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Diri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL.

  17. Stone stability under non-uniform flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoan, N.T.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that many studies on the stability of stones in bed protections under flowing water have been conducted, our knowledge is still far from advanced and reliable. Issues like how to quantify the hydraulic loads exerted on the stones on a bed and the associated stability of the stones

  18. The Danish Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    and governed, what role it plays in the Danish economy, and how industrial foundation-owned companies perform. The book is the result of a large collaborative research project, led by the author, on industrial foundations. Some global companies such as IKEA, Robert Bosch or the Tata Group are foundation...

  19. Solar panel foundation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1983-03-29

    A transportable solar panel foundation device which has a bottom member, at least one upstanding side member, and an essentially open top. The side members are angled to permit nesting of a plurality of the foundation devices, and reinforcement pads are carried by the foundation device to support legs for one or more solar panels.

  20. Treatment of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones in the laparoscopic era

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei-jie; Xu, Gui-fang; Huang, Qin; Luo, Kun-lun; Dong, Zhi-tao; Li, Jie-ming; Wu, Guo-zhong; Guan, Wen-xian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for stone can be carried out by either laparoscopic transcystic stone extraction (LTSE) or laparoscopic choledochotomy (LC). It remains unknown as to which approach is optimal for management of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones (CBDS) in Chinese patients. Methods: From May 2000 to February 2009, we prospective treated 346 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones and CBDS with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and LCBDE....

  1. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  2. Pancreatic Stones: Treat or Ignore?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Howell

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Painful, chronic pancreatitis is of complex etiology, but increasing clinical experience suggests that removal of pancreatic duct stones in many cases significantly improves patients’ symptoms. The development and refinement of therapeutic endoscopic retrograde choledochopancreatography have permitted improved access to the pancreatic duct, which makes the development of new techniques of stone fragmentation and fragment removal a much more successful nonsurgical intervention. A major step forward has been the understanding of the safety and efficacy of pancreatic sphincterotomy, which is necessary for the removal of these difficult stones. The recognition that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be delivered safely with good efficacy has revolutionized the nonsurgical management of pancreatic duct stones. Nevertheless, advanced and sophisticated therapeutic endoscopy is necessary to achieve clearance of the duct, which can generally be accomplished in the majority of selected patients. State-of-the-art treatments are described, and some new approaches using pancreatoscopy and electrohydrolic lithotripsy are discussed. Newly recognized long term complications are reviewed. Finally, it must be recognized that chronic pancreatitis is an ongoing disease that does not have a simple treatment or cure, and frequently represents a process of remissions and relapses requiring interventions and problem solving.

  3. Stone material investigations of the Riga Stock Exchange building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaune-Blumberga, S.; Vitina, I.; Lindina, L.; Timma, I.; Barbane, I.

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the stone material investigation of former Riga Stock Exchange building and presents the following aspects: characterization of materials, analyses of mortars for sealing and cladding of artificial marble, decors, bricks, render of sealing, analyses of soluble salts, analyses of deteriorated granite surface of foundation. The last damage by fire was in 1979 which caused the collapse of the roof and consequently an infiltration of rain water. The conditions of the objects were found in very bad condition-deterioration represented by salt efflorescence's, cracking and in very large areas there was a complete loss of the artificial marble (stucco marble).

  4. Stone material investigations of the Riga Stock Exchange building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igaune-Blumberga, S; Vitina, I; Lindina, L; Timma, I; Barbane, I

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the stone material investigation of former Riga Stock Exchange building and presents the following aspects: characterization of materials, analyses of mortars for sealing and cladding of artificial marble, decors, bricks, render of sealing, analyses of soluble salts, analyses of deteriorated granite surface of foundation. The last damage by fire was in 1979 which caused the collapse of the roof and consequently an infiltration of rain water. The conditions of the objects were found in very bad condition-deterioration represented by salt efflorescence's, cracking and in very large areas there was a complete loss of the artificial marble (stucco marble).

  5. Do stone size and impaction influence therapeutic approach to proximal ureteral stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Primary therapeutic approach to lumbar ureteral stones is still contraversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of stone impaction and size on the effectiveness of proximal ureteral stone lithotripsy. Methods. A total of 123 patients with proximal ureteral stones were investigated in this prospective study performed in a 10- month period. The patients were divided into the group I - 86 patients treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and the group II - 37 patients treated with 'Swiss' Lithoclast. In the group I, 49 stones (57% were classified as impacted, while 20 stones (23.3% were larger than 100 mm2. In the group II, 26 stones (70.3% were impacted, and 11 stones (29.7% were larger than 100 mm2. Stones were defined as impacted by the radiographic, echosonographic as well as endoscopic findings in the group II of patients. Stone size was presented in mm2. Chemical composition of stones were almost the same in both groups of the patients. Results. Generally, there was no statistically significant difference in the treatment success between the groups. However, stones larger than 100 mm2 were statistically more successfully treated endoscopically, while there was no statistical difference in the treatment success of impacted stones between these two groups. Conclusion. ESWL can by considered as primary first therapeutic approach in treatment of all proximal ureteral stones except for stones larger than 100 mm2 that should primarily be treated endoscopically.

  6. Stones used in Milan architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folli, Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Milan lies in a plain with clayey soil well suited to brick-making, but no stone deposits. An ample supply of stone is available, however, in the surrounding hills and mountains, which are connected to the city via both natural and artificial waterways. The types of stone used since Roman times include: granite, marble and gneiss from Ossola Valley; dolomite from Lake Maggiore; detrital limestone from Ceresio Valley; sandstone from the Brianza Hills; black limestone and marble from Lake Como; and conglomerate and sandstone from the Adda River basin. Traditionally, the chief uses have been dimension stone (all stones, column shafts (granite, slabs (marble, moulding (dolomite, limestone and ornamental (marble, dolomite, limestone.La ciudad de Milán se encuentra en una llanura de suelo arcilloso adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos pero en la cual no hay yacimientos de rocas. No obstante, en las colinas y montañas circundantes, que están comunicadas con la ciudad mediante vías navegables naturales y artificiales, sí existe una abundante cantidad de piedra. Entre los tipos de piedra utilizados desde la época de los romanos se encuentran granitos, mármoles y gneises del valle de Ossola, dolomías del lago Mayor, calizas detríticas del valle de Ceresio (Lugano, areniscas de las colinas de la Brianza, calizas negras y mármoles del lago Como y conglomerados y areniscas de la cuenca del río Adda. Tradicionalmente, los principales usos han sido la piedra de fábrica (todas ellas, fustes de columnas (granito, losas (mármol, molduras (dolomía, caliza y ornamental (mármol, dolomía, caliza.

  7. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  8. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  9. Secondary Waste Simulant Development for Cast Stone Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, Donald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a waste form testing program to implement aspects of the Secondary Liquid Waste Treatment Cast Stone Technology Development Plan (Ashley 2012) and the Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap (PNNL 2009) related to the development and qualification of Cast Stone as a potential waste form for the solidification of aqueous wastes from the Hanford Site after the aqueous wastes are treated at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The current baseline is that the resultant Cast Stone (or grout) solid waste forms would be disposed at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Data and results of this testing program will be used in the upcoming performance assessment of the IDF and in the design and operation of a solidification treatment unit planned to be added to the ETF. The purpose of the work described in this report is to 1) develop simulants for the waste streams that are currently being fed and future WTP secondary waste streams also to be fed into the ETF and 2) prepare simulants to use for preparation of grout or Cast Stone solid waste forms for testing.

  10. Movable scour protection. CFD calculation of flow and scour around foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.

    2002-07-01

    In the design of scour protections a basic parameter is the variation of the bed shear stress around the structure and the potential of the flow for using the stones of the scour protection. This report investigates whether it is: 1. Possible to calculate the correct bed shear stress for various wave and current situations at the base of the foundations, 2. Possible to calculate the scour depths with and without scour protection or in the case of movable scour protection. A number of test runs were made with the Elypsos computer code with the added morphological module (=sediment transport module). It turned out that it is possible to make such calculations but they are extremely time consuming on even a large computer for a simple structure like the circular foundation. It turns out that the computations overpredict the scour depth somewhat. Therefore a more practical approach was made. The morphological model was taken out. Instead the distribution of bottom shear stress distribution around the base of the structure was calculated. This is the important parameter for designing the armour layer of the scour protection. The Shields criterion was used for predicting stable stones and a suitable high value of the shear stress is used. The high bottom shear stress appears for a horizontal bottom. If the sea bottom is allowed to deepen in the areas with maximum shear stress amplification the horseshoe eddy is weakened. This again reduces the shear stress amplification. The computer program was used to perform such calculations and it turned out to be a powerful tool for this. The shear stress amplification can be reduced with a factor 2. Interactively, it is thus possible to calculate the form of a scour hole by trial and error. The scour protection surface shape with the smallest amplification of the shear stress and with the shear stress below the critical Shields Parameter is the optimum scour protection. The program can be used interactively to calculate the extent

  11. Management of ureteric stone in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Minevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of ureteral stones in children is becoming more similar to that in adults. A number of factors must be taken into account when selecting one′s choice of therapy for ureteral stone in children such as the size of the stone, its location, its composition, and urinary tract anatomy. Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. The safety and efficacy of Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy make it the intracorporeal lithotriptor of choice. Given its minimally invasive features, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL has become a primary mode of treatment for the pediatric patients with reno-ureteral stones. Stone-free rates have been reported from 59% to 91% although some patients will require more than one treatment session for stone clearance. It appears that the first-line of therapy in the child with distal and mid-ureteral stones should be ureteroscopic lithotripsy. While ESWL is still widely considered the first-line therapy for proximal ureteral calculi, there is an increasing body of evidence that shows that endoscopic or ESWL are equally safe and efficacious in those clinical scenarios. Familiarity with the full spectrum of endourological techniques facilitates a minimally invasive approach to pediatric ureteral stones.

  12. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Evaluation Strategy Developed by RAND for the Broad Foundation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chun, Tammi

    2001-01-01

    ... attempt to provide evidence that a leadership initiative is influencing student outcomes. As the W. K. Kellogg Foundation claims, evaluation can lead the foundation and those it supports to greater learning opportunities and more effective programs...

  14. Open stone surgery: a still-in-use approach for complex stone burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakici, Özer Ural; Ener, Kemal; Keske, Murat; Altinova, Serkan; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Aldemir, Mustafa; Ardicoglu, Arslan

    2017-06-30

    Urinary stone disease is a major urological condition. Endourologic techniques have influenced the clinical approach and outcomes. Open surgery holds a historic importance in the management of most conditions. However, complex kidney stone burden may be amenable to successful results with open stone surgery. In this article, we report our eighteen cases of complex urinary stone disease who underwent open stone removal. A total of 1701 patients have undergone surgical treatment for urinary stone disease in our clinic between July 2012 and July 2016, comprising eighteen patients who underwent open stone surgery. Patients' demographic data, stone analysis results, postoperative clinical data, and stone status were evaluated retrospectively. The choice of surgical approach is mostly dependent on the surgeon's preference. In two patients, open surgery was undertaken because of perioperative complications. We did not observe any Clavien-Dindo grade 4 or 5 complications. Three patients were managed with a course of antibiotics due to postoperative fever. One patient had postoperative pleurisy, one patient had urinoma, and two patients had postoperative ileus. Mean operation time was 84 (57-124) minutes and mean hospitalization time was 5.5 (3-8) days. Stone-free status was achieved in 15 patients (83.3%). Endourologic approaches are the first options for treatment of urinary stone disease. However, open stone surgery holds its indispensable position in complicated cases and in complex stone burden. Open stone surgery is also a valid alternative to endourologic techniques in all situations.

  15. Low specific-grinding energy machining of ceramics by a laser dressed diamond grinding stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodan, K.; Matsumaru, K.; Ishizaki, K.

    2003-01-01

    A laser dressing is an effective dressing method to accomplish efficient ceramic grinding. Since laser dressing achieves protrusion heights of abrasive-grains without grain dislodgment, the number of abrasive-grains in a laser dressed grinding stone (LGS) is higher than that in a mechanically dressed grinding stone (MGS), remaining the initial grain distribution. Thus, the LGS contains higher number of effective cutting edges, and forms higher number of ground grooves on a ground surface than the MGS. Consequently, the LGS can achieve lower specific grinding energy than the MGS. Copyright (2003) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Research Foundations: Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundations Bioscience Computing & Information Science Electromagnetics Engineering Science Geoscience Mexico Small Business Assistance Program Sandia Science & Technology Park Careers Community Library Events Careers View All Jobs Students & Postdocs Internships & Co-ops Fellowships

  17. Foundations for Security Aware Software Development Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Jeffrey T

    2005-01-01

    Software vulnerability is part and parcel of modern information systems. Even though eliminating all vulnerability is not possible, reducing exploitable code can be accomplished long term by laying the right programming foundations...

  18. Research Award: Foundations for Innovation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... The Foundations for Innovation program wishes to better ... disciplines: science, technology and innovation policy; development studies; or economics. ... research to local, national, and/or regional policy debates in Africa.

  19. Using Pretend Play to Promote Foundations for Text Comprehension: Examples from a Program for Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol; Wilson, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This review article starts with an overview of changing education paradigms and the literature on cognitive and linguistic relationships in imaginative play related to comprehension of oral and written texts. Strategies for developing the cognitive and linguistic foundations for text comprehension through play are described. A review of current…

  20. The Exchange Program of the Belgian American Educational Foundation 1920-1940 : An Institutional Perspective on Persona Formation (1920-1940)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huistra, P.A.; Wils, Kaat

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF) that sent

  1. Behind the scenes of GS: precious stones

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Since the laying of the foundation stone for the Synchrocyclotron in June 1954, CERN has been expanding constantly to reach a current constructed surface area of 580,000 m2 covered by some 650 buildings (just 125 of which account for 70% of this area).   This year, while CERN’s 60th anniversary is an important milestone in the Laboratory’s history, it also highlights another reality: CERN is a collection of ageing buildings, no less than 60% of which are more than 40 years old. “Of the 580,000 m2 of buildings, around 52,000 m2 are nearing the end of their useful life and 140,000 m2 are in need of extensive renovations,” says Natacha Lopez, GS-SE-PO Section Leader. “Of course, we’ve already started several renovation projects, but it's a huge challenge as we have to renovate buildings constructed in the 1960s and 70s while complying with modern standards, which are very different from those that were in force when they were bu...

  2. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  3. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  4. Impact of Stepping Stones Triple P on Parents with a Child Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanVoorhis, Richard W.; Miller, Kenneth L.; Miller, Susan M.; Stull, Judith C.

    2015-01-01

    The Stepping Stones Positive Parenting Program (Stepping Stones Triple P; SSTP) was designed for caregivers of children with disabilities to improve select parental variables such as parenting styles, parental satisfaction, and parental competency, and to reduce parental stress and child problem behaviors. This study focused on SSTP training for…

  5. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  6. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Osorio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators′ experience, patients′ preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  7. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

    2008-10-01

    Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators' experience, patients' preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  8. Papillary Ductal Plugging is a Mechanism for Early Stone Retention in Brushite Stone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, James C; Borofsky, Michael S; Bledsoe, Sharon B

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mechanisms of early stone retention in the kidney are under studied and poorly understood. To date attachment via Randall's plaque is the only widely accepted theory in this regard, which is best described in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Brushite stone formers are known...... to have distinct papillary morphology relative to calcium oxalate stone formers. As such we sought to determine whether stone attachment mechanisms in such patients may be similarly unique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing percutaneous and or ureteroscopic procedures for stone removal consented...... to endoscopic renal papillary examination and individual stone collection. Each removed stone was processed using micro computerized tomography to assess the 3-dimensional microstructure and the minerals contained, and search for common structural features indicative of novel mechanisms of early growth...

  9. Establishing a University Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  10. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  11. Modelling Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Modelling Foundations and Applications, held in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, in July 2012. The 20 revised full foundations track papers and 10 revised full applications track papers presented were carefully reviewed...

  12. The Monopod Bucket Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Ahle, Kim; Nielsen, Søren A.

    2009-01-01

    Following the successful installation of a prototype of a monopod bucket foundation, also called a “monopod suction caisson”, at Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, in 2009, DONG Energy is currently developing a commercialization strategy. The monopod bucket foundation is a promising...

  13. The Jan Korec Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this video-film activities of the the Jan Korec Foundation are presented. The Jan Korec Foundation supports students of technical sciences, sport activities, science and support of book publishing, humanitarian supports, the environment protection as well as support of different social projects.

  14. Life cycle management in the U.S.: Stone and Webster's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Life Cycle Management (LCM) is a sound methodology that integrates plant operations, maintenance requirements and practices, capital improvements, radioactive waste strategies, decommissioning, and life extension. It is a structured decision-making process for plant aging management and performance improvement. Stone and Webster has used this process for many fossil plants, and is now using it at several nuclear plants. This paper discusses Stone and Webster's experiences with LCM programs at U.S. nuclear power plants. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  15. COMORBIDITY OF KIDNEY STONES AND PYCHIATRIC DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Bilić, Vedran; Marčinko, Darko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a patient who is suffering from PTSD with elements of hypochondria, panic attacks and episodes of 0depression in comorbidity with kidney stones. Kidney stones provoked egzacerbation of psychiatric symptoms. Kidney stones and frustration about them have taken part of provoking factor, the last drop, which led to regression of otherwise precarious, but compensated patient’s mental functioning which resulted in development of psychiatric symptoms.

  16. Building stones can be of geoheritage significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    Building stones have generally been assigned values according to their cultural, aesthetic, and rarity significance, amongst other criteria, but they also may have geoheritage significance. This is akin to the geoheritage significance ascribed to minerals and fossils housed as ex situ specimens in museums. We proffer the notion that building stones can be of geoheritage value particularly where they comprise permanent buildings, they illustrate significant windows into the history of the Earth, and they can be visited as an ex situ museum locality (e.g., the "Blue Granite" of Iceland) for education as part of building-stone tours. For some rocks the quarries that supplied the building stone are no longer in existence and hence the building stones provide the only record of that type of material; for other rocks, the building stone may illustrate features in the lithology no longer present in the quarry itself (e.g., rare and large xenoliths). Building stones are particularly significant as they are often polished and manifest structures, fabrics, and textures not evident in outcrop. We illustrate here examples of building stone of geoheritage significance using Australian and International examples. Australian designated stones could include the "Sydney Sandstone" or "Victorian Bluestone". For international examples, there is the famous "Carrara Marble" in Italy and the widely known "Portland Limestone" from southern England, the latter having been utilized for St Pauls Cathedral in London and the UN building in New York City.

  17. The role of foundations: Rockefeller Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller, David

    The consequences of climate change and the impacts of human activity on the environment have made it clearer than ever before that we must evolve our current model of public health to better account for the inextricable link between human health and the natural systems on which it depends-creating a "public health 2.0" that builds on the innovations of the twentieth century to account for a world where humans have bypassed planetary boundaries to achieve well-being. First coined at the Rockefeller Foundation's Centennial gathering in Beijing in 2013, "Planetary Health" will factor in future health and environmental harms over present-day gains, particularly those that disproportionately affect the poor and those in developing nations. To build this new field, foundations must address the challenge of information, increasing support for research to bridge knowledge gaps on the links between economic development, natural systems, and human health.

  18. An experimental study on compressive behavior of rubble stone walls retrofitted with BFRP grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Jia, Bin; Li, Wenjing; Liu, Xiao; Yang, Dan; Deng, Chuanli

    2018-03-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the compressive behavior of rubble stone walls retrofitted with BFRP grids. The experimental program consisted of four rubble stone walls: one unretrofitted rubble stone wall (reference wall) and three BFRP grids retrofitted rubble stone walls. The main purpose of the tests was to gain a better understanding of the compressive behavior of rubble stone walls retrofitted with different amount of BFRP grids. The experimental results showed that the reference wall failed with out-of-plane collapse due to poor connection between rubble stone blocks and the three BFRP grids retrofitted walls failed with BFRP grids rupture followed by out-of-plane collapse. The measured compressive strength of the BFRP grids retrofitted walls is about 1.4 to 2.5 times of that of the reference wall. Besides, the rubble stone wall retrofitted with the maximum amount of BFRP grids showed the minimum vertical and out-of-plane displacements under the same load.

  19. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N069; FXRS1265030000S3-123-FF03R06000] Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and... plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR) for...

  20. Lifting and transport by sea of great stone columns: evidence of traditional methods used in 18th and 19th century building programs as a clue to reconstructing Roman marble transport processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barresi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to investigate the traditional technologies of lifting and sea transport of large stone blocks (time spent for sea transport, ways of charging and stewing large stone pieces, number of people engaged with evidence from 18th and 19th century Italy, as a key to understand ancient Roman practices. I shall use data from reconstruction of the 5th century Christian basilica of St. Paul at Rome, burnt in 1823, where new granite shafts, mainly from Italian quarries, replaced the Roman ones. Other documentary sources help to understand some details related to heavy transport, otherwise unknown for Roman period. It should be obviously dangerous to induce directly that the same technologies used for lifting and transport of columns in 18th or 19th century were in use also in Roman Imperial age, but the study of such processes can help us to put in the right view our reconstruction of ancient reality.

  1. A Lion of a Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm. This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  2. Do You Have Symptoms of a Kidney Stone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Or, the stone will be removed with treatment. Dogs, Cats, and Kidney Stones Humans aren't the only ones affected by kidney and bladder stones. Dogs, cats, and other animals can also have kidney ...

  3. Introductory guide to foundations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Donaldson, GW

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available . The secret of successful foundations is knowing just how much the subsoil can support. As one goes deeper, the ability of the ground to support a load becomes greater so that the foundation engineer can choose between deep foundations and the expense... beginstoinaease. When the house is ~ ~ p l e t e d it shelters the gmund f f ~ m sun and wind and the moisture content i- wen more rapidly- Leaking pipes and sewers increase the volume of water fed to the clay while ornamental trees planted around the house...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A CAST STONE FORMULATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOKE; ATTERIDGE; AVILA

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the location of plutonium production for the US. nuclear weapons program, is the focal point of a broad range of waste remediation efforts. This presentation will describe a test program to develop a ''cast stoney'' formulation for the stabilization of certain Hanford tank wastes (Lockrem 2005). The program consisted of (1) a short series of tests with nonradioactive simulant to select preferred dry reagent formulations (DRF) and determine allowable liquid addition levels, (2) waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the DRF formulations using low-activity waste (LAW) simulant, (3) waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF using LAW, (4) waste form validation testing on a selected nominal cast stone formulation using the preferred DRF and LAW simulant, and (5) technetium ''getter'' testing with cast stone made with LAW simulant and with LAW. In addition, nitrate leaching observations were drawn from nitrate leachability data obtained in the course of waste form performance testing. The nitrate leachability index results are presented along with data on other performance criteria The results of this study led to the selection of a specific DRF. The key attributes of the DRF/waste loading combination considered were presence of ''bleed'' (or free) water, volume change on curing, compressive strength, maximum curing temperature, toxicity characteristic leaching testing, ANSYANS-16.1 (Measurement of the Leachability of Solidified Low-Level Radioactive Wastes by a Short-Term Test Procedure) leachability, and hydraulic conductivity. Important considerations included that the monoliths could be produced using readily available, low-cost reagents. The key results from each of these testing and evaluation activity categories will be summarized

  5. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submissions. MORE We Imagine a World Without Pulmonary Fibrosis The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation mobilizes people and resources to provide ... its battle against the deadly lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis (PF). PULMONARY FIBROSIS WALK SURPASSES PARTICIPATION AND FUNDRAISING GOALS Nearly ...

  6. Women's Heart Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Email: Click for e-News archive The Women's Heart Foundation is a 501c3 dedicated to prevention, ... Care Initiative® to achieve excellence of care of women. Executive nurses, civic leaders, women survivors and sponsors ...

  7. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  8. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  9. The foundations of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Leonard J

    1972-01-01

    Classic analysis of the foundations of statistics and development of personal probability, one of the greatest controversies in modern statistical thought. Revised edition. Calculus, probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra are recommended.

  10. National Psoriasis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 723-9166 | Submit a Question | Learn More National Psoriasis Foundation provides you with the help you need to best manage your psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, while promoting research to find ...

  11. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  12. Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MMRF Founder Kathy Giusti named 1 of 100 Visionaries of our time by the Einstein Foundation Learn More September 8, 2017 Tom Brokaw gives inspiring speech at MMRF Leadership Circle Summit on how his life was changed, ...

  13. American Lyme Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases, 35: 451-464, 2002) What is Lyme Disease? Lyme disease (LD) is an infection caused by ... mission with your own tax-deductible contribution. American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. PO Box 466 Lyme, CT 06371 ...

  14. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Place Vitiligo Voices Contact Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation Home Page Top Isabella T., California An ... 20.00 USD 20 for - 35.00 USD Vitiligo Doesn't Scare Me by Kim Kirkland Kim ...

  15. Moebius Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... craniofacial/neurological disorder. Individuals with Moebius syndrome cannot smile or frown, and do not have lateral eye ... the organization to ensure that they are in line with the mission of the Moebius Syndrome Foundation. ...

  16. National Headache Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Topic Sheets (Spanish) Headache FAQ NHF Webinars Education Modules MigrainePro™ Children’s Headache Disorders New Perspectives on Caffeine and Headache War Veterans Health Resource Initiative National Headache Foundation Brochures ...

  17. Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARTNERSHIPS Meet our Fundraising Partners Tweet Welcome Intracranial hypertension (IH) is the general term for the neurological ... high. (Old names for IH include Benign Intracranial Hypertension and Pseudotumor Cerebri). The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation ...

  18. Oral Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get involved Understanding Dental Research People Resources About Understanding Events Get involved Dental Research Resources Contact Sitemap The Oral Cancer Foundation admin 2017-11-12T16:49:25+ ...

  19. Foundations of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stenholm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    A simple presentation of the theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this text helps students to apply theory to calculations with a systematic series of examples and exercises. 1984 edition.

  20. International OCD Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and productive lives. Join Donate Volunteer Events International OCD Foundation Research. Resources. Respect. About OCD About IOCDF ... Donate Here Why Should You Attend the Annual OCD Conference? Watch the Video Find Help Search the ...

  1. Contribution of stone size to chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Etemadi, Samira Motedayen; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahbob; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Ayati, Mohsen; Mir, Alireza; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether stone burden correlates with the degree of chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers. A total of 97 extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy candidates aged 18 years and older were included. Size, number and location of the kidney stones, along with cumulative stone size, defined as the sum of diameters of all stones) were determined. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was determined using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration cystatin C/creatinine equation, and chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease. The relationship persisted even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, presence of microalbuminuria, history of renal calculi, history of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, number and location of the stones (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.52). The same was not observed for individuals with a cumulative stone size ≥ 20 mm. In kidney stone formers with a cumulative stone size up to 20 mm, estimated glomerular filtration rate linearly declines with increasing cumulative stone size. Additionally, cumulative stone size is an independent predictor of chronic kidney disease in this group of patients. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Percutaneous suprapubic stone extraction for posterior urethral stones in children: efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, Ahmed S; Hameed, Diaa A; Elgammal, Mohamed A; Abdelsalam, Yasser M; Abolyosr, Ahmad

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous suprapubic stone extraction (PSPSE) for pediatric posterior urethral stones. Between July 2007 and June 2010, 54 boys presenting with acute urinary retention due to posterior urethral stones underwent PSPSE. Patients were a mean age of 66.4 months (range, 8-180 months). The stone size was 0.7-1.9 cm. Patients were placed under general anesthesia, and a 7F urethroscope was used to pushback the stone to the bladder. A 3-mm suprapubic puncture with a scalpel was performed, followed by insertion of a straight narrow hemostat through the puncture aided with cystoscopic guidance. The stone was grasped with the hemostat in its narrowest diameter and was extracted percutaneously or crushed if friable. The suprapubic puncture was closed with a single 4-0 Vicryl (Ethicon) suture. Intact stone retrieval was achieved in 45 patients, and the stone was crushed into minute fragments in 9 patients. Intraperitoneal extravasation developed in 1 patient that required open surgical intervention. Mean operative time was 22 minutes. Patients were monitored for up to 17 months, with complete resolution of symptoms and stone clearance. PSPSE provides a minimally invasive approach for the extraction of urethral and bladder stones in the pediatric population. The use of a straight hemostat for suprapubic stone extraction or crushing is a good alternative to suprapubic tract dilation, with minimal morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic Characteristics and Risks Associated with Stone Recurrence in Korean Young Adult Stone Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Pil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Sang-Cheol

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence in young adult stone patients in Korea. The medical records of 1532 patients presenting with renal or ureteric stones at our stone clinic between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped according to age (young adult, 18-29 years; intermediate onset, 30-59 years; old age, ≥60 years) at first presentation, and measurements of clinicometabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence were compared. Overall, excretion of urinary stone-forming substances was highest in the intermediate onset group, followed by the young adult and old age groups. Importantly, excretion of urinary citrate was lowest in the young adult group. Kaplan-Meier analyses identified a significant difference between the three age groups in terms of stone recurrence (log rank test, p adult stone patients. Younger age (18-29 years) at first stone presentation was a significant risk factor for stone recurrence, and urinary citrate excretion was an independent risk factor affecting recurrence in this group. Metabolic evaluation and potassium citrate therapy should be considered for young adult stone patients to prevent recurrence.

  4. Foundational aspects of security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.......This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security....

  5. Foundations of measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Foundations of Measurement offers the most coherently organized treatment of the topics and issues central to measurement. Much of the research involved has been scattered over several decades and a multitude of journals--available in many instances only to specialties. With the publication of Volumes two and three of this important work, Foundations of Measurement is the most comprehensive presentation in the area of measurement.

  6. A Boy with a Large Bladder Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shen Chow

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the frequent association of urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and urinary calculi, since vesicouretal reflux is induced by bladder stones, the coexistence of vesicoureteral reflux and bladder stones is rare. Because of its occurrence in children belonging to poor socioeconomic groups, it is believed to be a deficiency disorder. Most cases of bladder stones occur between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Common clinical presentations of bladder stones include urinary dribbling and enuresis, frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, pelvic pain and hematuria. We report the occurrence of a large bladder stone in a boy, who experienced intermittent lower abdominal pain and urinary incontinence, both during the day and at night. He had been diagnosed with enuresis and treated in pediatric clinics for 1 year. Delayed diagnosis resulted in bladder stone formation. The stone was larger than 2.5 cm and open vesicolithotomy was therefore selected as the best and safest treatment choice. His symptoms disappeared after surgery. Thorough metabolic and environmental evaluations of such cases are required on an individual basis. Bladder stones should be considered as a possible diagnosis in children presenting with urinary incontinence.

  7. Sculpture: Stone Shapes, Art: 6683.08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubocq, Edward R.

    This elective course for grades 7-12 was created with a three fold purpose: 1) to create in the student an awareness of the effect of sculptural forms on his environment; 2) to introduce the student to an appreciation of stone sculpture; and 3) to further enhance the artistic abilities of the student through sculpting in stone. Course content…

  8. Evolution of stone management in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Chak; Bariol, Simon Virgil

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? There is very little contemporary data regarding stone management in Australia. This study assesses the impact of technological advances on stone management practises, and raises questions as to why there is an increasing rate of intervention for stone disease in Australia. Knowledge of management trends as demonstrated in this paper give individual surgeons a guideline for contemporary practise in this country. • To examine trends in the operative management of upper urinary tract stone disease in Australia over the past 15 years. • The Medicare Australia and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare databases were used to determine the annual number of renal colic presentations and procedural interventions undertaken for stone disease. • In Australia over the past 15 years, the annual number of procedural interventions for upper urinary tract stones has increased, primarily due to the rising number of endoscopic procedures performed. • During this period, shock wave lithotripsy numbers have remained steady whilst open and percutaneous procedures have been in decline. • The introduction of and subsequent preference for less invasive techniques has changed the management pathway of patients presenting with stone disease in Australia. • Further studies are necessary to determine whether this escalation in endoscopic procedures is due to an increase in the incidence of stone disease, earlier detection, a lower intervention threshold or a higher retreatment rate. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  9. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the rate of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stones in adult patients with renal insufficiency. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 117 adult patients who underwent ESWL. The indications for ESWL were determined by the ...

  10. Stone Formation in the Infected Pediatric Enterocystoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Proteus mirabilis is one of the most frequent bacterial agents that can induce infection stone formation by urease production. In recent years the influence of Proteus mirabilis on stone formation in enterocystoplasties has been primarily related to the presence of

  11. Proficiency of virtual reality simulator training in flexible retrograde ureteroscopy renal stone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-liang; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Guo-feng; Li, Ning-chen; Yuan, Xue-li; Na, Yan-qun

    2013-10-01

    Minimally invasive flexible ureteroscopy techniques have widely adopted in the management of patients with renal stones. We performed this study to investigate the value of virtual reality simulator training in retrograde flexible ureteroscopy renal stone treatment for catechumen. Thirty catechumen, included 17 attending physicians and 13 associate chief physicians, were selected for study. The trainees first underwent 1-hour basic training to get familiar with the instrument and basic procedures, then followed by 4-hour practice on virtual reality simulators. Before and after the 4-hour training, all trainees undertake an assessment with task 7 program (right low pole calyces stone management). We documented for each trainee the total time of procedure, time of progressing from the orifice to stone, stone translocation and fragmentation time, laser operate proficiency scale, total laser energy, maximal size of residual stone fragments, number of trauma from the scopes and tools, damage to the scope and global rating scale (GRS). The proficiency of this training program was analyzed by the comparison of the first and second assessment outcomes. Significant improvement was observed in retrograde flexible ureteroscopy management of renal stone on virtual reality simulators after finishing the 4 hour special-purpose training. This was demonstrated by improvement in total procedure time ((18.37±2.59) minutes vs. (38.67±1.94) minutes), progressing time from the orifice to stone ((4.00±1.08) minutes vs. (13.80±2.01) minutes), time of stone translocation ((1.80±0.71) minutes vs. (6.57±1.01) minutes), fragmentation time ((4.43±1.25) minutes vs. (13.53±1.46) minutes), laser operate proficiency scale (8.47±0.73 vs. 3.77±0.77), total laser energy ((3231.6±401.4) W vs. (5329.8±448.9) W), maximal size of residual stone fragments ((2.66±0.39) mm vs. (5.77±0.63) mm), number of trauma from the scopes and tools (3.27±1.01 vs. 10.37±3.02), damage to the scope (0 vs

  12. Effect of stone coverage on soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Heng, B. P.; Brovelli, A.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.

    2010-12-01

    Soil surface coverage has a significant impact on water infiltration, runoff and soil erosion yields. In particular, surface stones protect the soils from raindrop detachment, they retard the overland flow therefore decreasing its sediment transport capacity, and they prevent surface sealing. Several physical and environmental factors control to what extent stones on the soil surface modify the erosion rates and the related hydrological response. Among the most important factors are the moisture content of the topsoil, stone size, emplacement, coverage density and soil texture. Owing to the different inter-related processes, there is ambiguity concerning the quantitative effect of stones, and process-based understanding is limited. Experiments were performed (i) to quantify how stone features affect sediment yields, (ii) to understand the local effect of isolated surface stones, that is, the changes of the soil particle size distribution in the vicinity of a stone and (iii) to determine how stones attenuate the development of surface sealing and in turn how this affects the local infiltration rate. A series of experiments using the EPFL 6-m × 2-m erosion flume were conducted at different rainfall intensities (28 and 74 mm h-1) and stone coverage (20 and 40%). The total sediment concentration, the concentration of the individual size classes and the flow discharge were measured. In order to analyze the measurements, the Hairsine and Rose (HR) erosion model was adapted to account for the shielding effect of the stone cover. This was done by suitably adjusting the parameters based on the area not covered by stones. It was found that the modified HR model predictions agreed well with the measured sediment concentrations especially for the long time behavior. Changes in the bulk density of the topsoil due to raindrop-induced compaction with and without stone protection revealed that the stones protect the upper soil surface against the structural seals resulting in

  13. Corner Office Interview: Gates Foundation's Deborah Jacobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    U.S. libraries gave the world a top talent when Deborah Jacobs left her transformational role as City Librarian of Seattle in 2008 to head the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Global Libraries program, the international sibling to the U.S. Libraries program. The initiative fosters national-scale projects with grantees in transitioning countries…

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.; Kuan, L.L.; Bakar, M.A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Kidney stone samples of the types calcium oxalate, uric acid, and xanthine were analyzed for their elemental contents by neutron activation analysis to study both the elemental correlation and influence of element on stone precipitation processes. Elements, such as Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe,H, I, K, Mg, Na, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were determined quantitatively. Calcium oxalate stones contained higher concentration of all the elements analyzed compared to uric acid or xanthine stones. The concentrations of Cl, Fe, K, Na, Sr, and Zn were relatively higher than Au, Co, Cr, and Sb. A positive correlation exists between Ca and Zn, whereas a negative correlation exists between Sr and Ca. Zinc may play an important role in the formation of calcium oxalate stone

  15. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy of Primary Intrahepatic Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Hwan; Lee, Sung Koo; Min, Young Il; Lee, Mun Gyu; Sung, Kyu Bo; Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Sung Gyu; Min, Pyung Chul

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy (ESWL) was performed in intrahepatic stone patients (n = 18) by Dornier MPL 9,000 with ultrasound guidance. The patients had T-tube (n = 9) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainge tube (n = 9). Average treatment session was four and shock-wave numbers were in the range of 3,064 to 12,000 (average 6,288 shocks). Intrahepatic stones were removed completely in 16 patients over a 3 month period by ESWL and combined stone extraction maneuver such as cholangioscopic or interventional radiologic method. Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy was very helpful in facilitating extraction of stones in unfavorable locations or located above the severe stricture. In summary, extracorporeal Shockwave lithotripsy, followed by percutaneous stone extraction, will provide an improvement in the success rate and duration of treatment required for complete removal of primary hepatolithiasis. PMID:1477027

  16. Factors affecting stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of staghorn stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nahas, Ahmed R; Eraky, Ibrahim; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shoma, Ahmed M; el-Assmy, Ahmed M; el-Tabey, Nasr A; Soliman, Shady; Elshal, Ahmed M; el-Kappany, Hamdy A; el-Kenawy, Mahmoud R

    2012-06-01

    To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates. The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Empirical Design of Scour Protections around Monopile Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, L.; De Rouck, J.; Troch, P.

    2011-01-01

    in a current alone situation), at present, little design guidelines exist for the specific case of a scour protection around a monopile foundation subjected to a combined wave and current loading. This paper describes the derivation of a static design formula to calculate the required stone size for a scour......Together with new opportunities, offshore wind farms raise new engineering challenges. An important aspect relates to the erosion of bottom material around the foundation of the wind turbines, caused by the local increase of the wave and current induced flow velocities by the pile's presence....... Typically, the expected scour has a considerable impact on the stability and dynamic behavior of the wind turbine and a scour protection is placed to avoid erosion of the soil close to the foundation. Although much experience exists on the design of scour protections around bridge piers (which are placed...

  18. Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

    2013-03-01

    We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Student Science Training Program in Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science. Final Report to the National Science Foundation. Artificial Intelligence Memo No. 393.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Harold; diSessa, Andy

    During the summer of 1976, the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory sponsored a Student Science Training Program in Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science for high ability secondary school students. This report describes, in some detail, the style of the program, the curriculum and the projects the students under-took. It is hoped that this…

  20. Microsoft Windows Identity Foundation Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    This book is written in a simple, easy to understand format, with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations.If you are a .NET developer looking forward to building access control in your applications using claims-based identity, then this is the best guide for you. This book is also an excellent choice for professionals and IT administrators trying to enable Single Sign-On across applications within the enterprise, and in the cloud spanning interoperable platforms. No previous knowledge on the subject is necessary, however a strong foundation in the C# programming language and .NET Fra

  1. Mourning in Bits and Stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    We mourn our dead, publicly and privately, online and offline. Cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites make up parts of todays intricately weaved and interrelated network of death, grief and memorialization practices [1]–[5]. Whether cut in stone or made of bits, graves, cemeteries......, memorials, monuments, websites and social networking services (SNS) all are alterable, controllable and adaptive. They represent a certain rationale contrary to the emotive state of mourning (e.g. gravesites function as both spaces of internment and places of spiritual and emotional recollection). Following...... and memorialization by discussing the publicly and privately digital and social death from a spatial, temporal, physical and digital angle. Further the paper will reflect on how to encompass shifting trends and technologies in ‘traditional’ spaces of mourning and remembrance....

  2. In bits, bytes and stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline. Combined, the cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... designs'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites, applications and software services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by discourses of publics, economics, power, technology and culture. Designers, programmers, stakeholders and potential end-users often...... the respondents and interviewees are engaged with a prototype design that encompasses digitally enhanced experiences and interactions regarding mourning, memory and remembrance. The design is situated in a traditional public place of death, the Almen Cemetery of Aalborg in Denmark....

  3. Foundations of mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorski, Henryk; Bazanski, Stanislaw; Gutowski, Roman; Slawianowski, Jan; Wilmanski, Krysztof; Wozniak, Czeslaw

    1992-01-01

    In the last 3 decades the field of mechanics has seen spectacular progress due to the demand for applications in problems of cosmology, thermonuclear fusion, metallurgy, etc. This book provides a broad and thorough overview on the foundations of mechanics. It discusses theoretical mechanics and continuum mechanics, as well as phenomenological thermodynamics, quantum mechanics and relativistic mechanics. Each chapter presents the basic physical facts of interest without going into details and derivations and without using advanced mathematical formalism. The first part constitutes a classical exposition of Lagrange's and Hamiltonian's analytical mechanics on which most of the continuum theory is based. The section on continuum mechanics focuses mainly on the axiomatic foundations, with many pointers for further research in this area. Special attention is given to modern continuum thermodynamics, both for the foundations and applications. A section on quantum mechanics is also included, since the phenomenological description of various quantum phenomena is becoming of increasing importance. refs.; figs.; tabs

  4. The moon as a stepping stone for a spacefaring civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaup, K.

    2008-09-01

    After Columbia In early 2004, U.S. president George Bush introduced the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). Conceived in the aftermath of the Columbia tragedy, it called for NASA to first return astronauts to the moon by 2020 and then send crews to Mars and beyond thereafter. Bush's plan has once again enlivened the long-lasting discussion of manned spaceflight vs. robotic exploration. Also, the plan to use the moon as a stepping stone has come under scrutiny and is being debated. Alternate approaches minimizing or deleting manned lunar exploration in the frame of the VSE were proposed. Fig. 1 A composite manned spacecraft departing Earth orbit en route to the moon. Image: NASA. In order to assess the value of us going back to the moon, it is necessary to debate without bias the meaning of human spaceflight in general and to discuss the role of science in future efforts. Lunar disenchantment Whithin the scientific community, manned exploration programs are put into question time and again. It is demanded that in light of supposedly immense costs any endeavour concerning this matter shall be justified by an indisputable scientific return — and in current debates, scientific value is not recognized in such a way that funding appears well-invested. It is lamented that funds are drawn from what is considered real science. In the past, robotic exploration has opended our eyes to the many wonders of the solar system. Through the eyes of Cassini , Mars Express, and other successful spacecraft, we have seen exotic landscapes—yet on second sight, some appeared all too familiar. BepiColombo will fly to Mercury to unravel its mysteries and the Jovian system may receive a new earthly visitor in the not too distant future. By means of machines like Spirit and Opportunity, we have roamed the surfaces of Mars—without actually ever setting foot there. Therefore, the question is often asked, "Why send crews?" Fig. 2 The upcoming Lunar Reconnisance Orbiter (LRO) as it circles

  5. NEWS: Solid foundations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Among the initiatives to be found at UK universities is a vocational award with the title `University Foundation Degree' at Nottingham Trent University. This qualification will be offered in 14 different subjects including four in the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, in the areas of applied biology, applied sciences, chemistry and physics. The courses will be available on a two-year full-time, three-year sandwich or a part-time basis. Set at a higher standard and specification than the Higher National Diplomas which it replaces, the UFD has been devised in consultation with industry and will cover the technical and specialist areas demanded by employers to combat skills shortages. The UFD in applied sciences concentrates on practical applications through laboratory, IT and project work, supported by lectures and seminars. At the end students can enter the employment market or transfer onto the second year of a degree course. Science-based careers including research and development would be the aim of those taking the UFD in physics. The first year develops the fundamentals of modern physics supported by studies in mathematics, IT and computer programming, whilst year 2 is vocational in nature with industrial problem solving and work experience as well as an academic theme associated with environmental aspects of the subject. Those who complete the UFD will be allowed automatic progression to a specified honours degree course and would normally be expected to study for a further two years for this award. However, those demonstrating an outstanding academic performance can transfer to the linked degree programme at the end of the first year via fast-track modules. Back in May the UK's Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) announced new standard benchmarks for degrees. These will be introduced into higher education institutions from 2002 to outline the knowledge, understanding and skills a student should gain from a particular higher education course. These benchmark

  6. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  7. Foundations of Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Foundations of Risk Analysis presents the issues core to risk analysis - understanding what risk means, expressing risk, building risk models, addressing uncertainty, and applying probability models to real problems. The author provides the readers with the knowledge and basic thinking they require to successfully manage risk and uncertainty to support decision making. This updated edition reflects recent developments on risk and uncertainty concepts, representations and treatment. New material in Foundations of Risk Analysis includes:An up to date presentation of how to understand, define and

  8. Foundations of stochastic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M M; Lukacs, E

    1981-01-01

    Foundations of Stochastic Analysis deals with the foundations of the theory of Kolmogorov and Bochner and its impact on the growth of stochastic analysis. Topics covered range from conditional expectations and probabilities to projective and direct limits, as well as martingales and likelihood ratios. Abstract martingales and their applications are also discussed. Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the basic Kolmogorov-Bochner theorem, followed by a discussion on conditional expectations and probabilities containing several characterizations of operators and mea

  9. Optimization Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, H Ronald

    2011-01-01

    A thorough and highly accessible resource for analysts in a broad range of social sciences. Optimization: Foundations and Applications presents a series of approaches to the challenges faced by analysts who must find the best way to accomplish particular objectives, usually with the added complication of constraints on the available choices. Award-winning educator Ronald E. Miller provides detailed coverage of both classical, calculus-based approaches and newer, computer-based iterative methods. Dr. Miller lays a solid foundation for both linear and nonlinear models and quickly moves on to dis

  10. Foundations of predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' two decades of experience in applied modeling and data mining, Foundations of Predictive Analytics presents the fundamental background required for analyzing data and building models for many practical applications, such as consumer behavior modeling, risk and marketing analytics, and other areas. It also discusses a variety of practical topics that are frequently missing from similar texts. The book begins with the statistical and linear algebra/matrix foundation of modeling methods, from distributions to cumulant and copula functions to Cornish--Fisher expansion and o

  11. Pattern of family history in stone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    Genetic predisposition to urolithiasis is a much discussed topic. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of family members of proved urinary stone patients, who have a history of urinary stone formation. The study population consisted of 2,157 urinary stone patients interviewed in 2003-2007 in the urinary stone clinic. Family members with stone history were classified as group 1--first order single (one person in the immediate family-father, mother, siblings, or children), group 2--first order multiple (more than one member in the above group), group 3--second order single (one person in the blood relatives in family--grandparents, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc.) and group 4--second order multiple (more than one member in the above group). Of the 2,157 patients studied, 349 patients gave positive history of stone disease constituting 16.18%. Of these, 321 were males and 28 were females. Subdivision of the family members showed that 282 patients (80.80%) had single family member with stones and the rest 67 (19.20%) had multiple family members with history of stone disease. Group 1 which constituted one family member in the immediate family had 255 involvements (father: 88, mother: 16, brother: 135, sister: 2, son: 10, and daughter: 4); Group 2 with multiple members in the immediate family constituted 51 relatives; of these, father and brother combination was the most common with 35 occurrences. Group 3 with one person in the distant relatives in family namely grandparents, grand children, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc. constituted 27 occurrences and Group 4 with more than one member in the distant family constituted 16 occurrences. It is concluded that single family member involvement was more than multiple involvements. Males predominated. Stone occurrence was more in the immediate family members than distant relatives. Brothers formed the most common group to be involved with stone disease. Study of stone risk in the family members should

  12. [Hygienic assessment of metal-lurgical slag crushed stone for its use in road-building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Iu P; Ippolitova, V P; Bezrokov, M E

    2010-01-01

    The increasing amount of industrial waste generates a need for its use as recycled materials. The paper presents the results of hygienic assessment of metallurgic slag crushed stone to be added to natural materials in highway building. The research program has included the measurement of content of water-soluble forms of metals, the evaluation of the acute toxicity of waste after oral administration to mice and rats, the study of the toxicity of waste by biotesting and the activity of natural radionuclides. The slag crushed stone virtually lacks water-soluble elements when it contains a high level of bulk forms of metals. According to acute toxicity for warm-blooded animals, the slag crushed stone belongs to Hazard Class IV by GOST 12.1.007-76 (low hazard substances). The biotesting on hydrocoles, the slag crushed stone is also referred to as Class IV (low hazard substances). In terms of the level of natural radionuclides, the slag crushed stone poses no hazard to the environment. The performed studies give grounds to recommend metallurgical slag crushed stone to be added to natural materials for highway building.

  13. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    inherently cause some breakage and abrasion of the individual stones and thereby also reduced stability. In order to avoid excessive abrasion a high stone quality is demanded or larger stones must be applied when constructed. To allow the designer to account for abrasion and armour stone breakage due...

  14. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    have been identified [1,3]. These include stone characteristics, the type of lithotripter used, LPC anatomy and body habitus. For iso- lated LPC stones, the pelvicalyceal angle, infundibulum length and width are considered important determinants for stone clearance. The impact of body habitus on stone clearance has so far ...

  15. Prediction of the Effect of Using Stone Column in Clayey Soil on the Behavior of Circular Footing by ANN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khaleel Ismael Al-Kubaisi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shallow foundations are usually used for structures with light to moderate loads where the soil underneath can carry them. In some cases, soil strength and/or other properties are not adequate and require improvement using one of the ground improvement techniques. Stone column is one of the common improvement techniques in which a column of stone is installed vertically in clayey soils. Stone columns are usually used to increase soil strength and to accelerate soil consolidation by acting as vertical drains. Many researches have been done to estimate the behavior of the improved soil. However, none of them considered the effect of stone column geometry on the behavior of the circular footing. In this research, finite element models have been conducted to evaluate the behavior of a circular footing with different stone column configurations. Moreover, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model has been generated for predicting these effects. The results showed a reduction in the bending moment, the settlement, and the vertical stresses with the increment of the stone column length, while both the horizontal stress and the shear force were increased. ANN model showed a good relationship between the predicted and the calculated results.

  16. Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy-resistant kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The newer flexible ureteroscopes, 150-200-microm holmium YAG laser fibres and superflexible Dormia baskets have made it possible to reach and treat stones in all parts of the kidney. The object of this evaluation was to study the outcome of retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS......) for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-resistant kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 consecutive patients (18 males, 20 females) participated in the study. All patients had undergone ESWL prior to RIRS without success. In all cases the stones could be reached with the endoscope. Calculi...... ranged in size from 3 to 20 mm (mean 9 mm). In 32 cases the stones were fragmented using a holmium YAG laser and in six the stones could be extracted using zero-tip Dormia baskets without fragmentation. Sixteen patients had lower calyceal calculi and eight had an abnormal anatomy of the upper urinary...

  17. Providing Transparency and Credibility: The Selection of International Students for Australian Universities. An Examination of the Relationship between Scores in the International Student Admissions Test (ISAT), Final Year Academic Programs and an Australian University's Foundation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kelvin; Nankervis, Susan; Story, Margot; Hodgson, Wayne; Lewenberg, Michael; Ball, Marita MacMahon

    2008-01-01

    Throughout 2003-04 five cohorts of students in their final year of school studies in various Malaysian colleges and a group of students completing an Australian university foundation year in Malaysia sat the International Student Admissions Test (ISAT). The ISAT is a multiple-choice test of general academic abilities developed for students whose…

  18. Success stories showing the diversity of kidney foundations: Turkish Kidney Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Timur

    Founded in 1985, the Turkish Kidney Foundation serves the society with 3 dialysis centers and a 113-bed general hospital. Interacting with public authorities and advocating end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients' rights are essential services of this non-governmental organization (NGO). Over the last 30 years, keeping with the trend of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the country, the foundation raised awareness in the population for this condition and prepared an activity road map by using statistical facts and data. Goals were set keeping in mind the local culture and traditions, debating on them with colleagues, PR agencies, and other experts in this field. The best strategy embrace the society, and all activities are made as cost-effective as possible in keeping with a tight budget. Various communication channels, especially social media, are used to communicate the message to the public, always keeping in mind that such messages are to be succinct and precise. Every effort is taken to make our foundation reliable and trustworthy in the eyes of the public at large. Reliability, credibility, and trust are the key success corner stones of our NGO. Every opportunity is taken to capitalize on participation of celebrities and real stories of people. Testimonies of real ESRD patients are always interesting and can touch the hearts of the rest of the population.

  19. Introduction. Leave no stone unturned: Perspectives on ground stone artefact research

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Rosenberg; Yorke Rowan; Tatjana Gluhak

    2016-01-01

    Ground stone tools served in many physical and social contexts through millennia, reflecting a wide variety of functions. Although ground stone tool studies were neglected for much of early archaeology, the last few decades witnessed a notable international uptick in the way archaeologists confront this multifaceted topic. Today, with the advance of archaeology as a discipline, research into ground stone artefacts is moving into a new phase that integrates high resolution documentation with n...

  20. Lymphoma Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow LRF Watch LRF Contact Us National Headquarters Wall Street Plaza 88 Pine Street, Suite 2400 | New York, NY 10005 212-349-2910 | 212-349-2886 Fax LRF@lymphoma.org LRF Helpline 800-500-9976 Helpline@lymphoma.org © 2012 Lymphoma Research Foundation | Privacy Policy

  1. Impedance of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Modern offshore wind turbines are flexible structures with natural frequencies near the excitation frequencies related to wave and wind-induced loads. In order to obtain a reliable prediction of the structural response, the dynamic stiffness of the foundation must be evaluated accurately. This pa...

  2. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  3. Foundations of factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti

  4. Buckling of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the risk of structural buckling during installation of large-diameter bucket foundations is addressed using numerical methods. Imperfect geometries are introduced based on the pre-buckling mode shapes from a linear Eigenvalue buckling analysis. Various imperfect geometries are intr...

  5. American Porphyria Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nicole Castelano Gregary Edwards Megan Parrish ~ How the dog I didn't want became the dog I'd always dreamed of Darnisha Davenport Liz ... or through the site for commercial or public purposes. The American Porphyria Foundation (APF) Tax Forms 990 ...

  6. Foundations of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libenson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to physicochemical foundations and technology of metal powders, moulding and sintering of bars, made of them or their mixtures with nonmetal powders. Data on he design of basic equipment used in the processes of powder metallurgy and its servicing are presented. General requirements of safety engineering when fabricating metal powders and products of them are mentioned

  7. Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, A.E.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection

  8. Practical Soil-Shallow Foundation Model for Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Leblouba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-shallow foundation interaction models that are incorporated into most structural analysis programs generally lack accuracy and efficiency or neglect some aspects of foundation behavior. For instance, soil-shallow foundation systems have been observed to show both small and large loops under increasing amplitude load reversals. This paper presents a practical macroelement model for soil-shallow foundation system and its stability under simultaneous horizontal and vertical loads. The model comprises three spring elements: nonlinear horizontal, nonlinear rotational, and linear vertical springs. The proposed macroelement model was verified using experimental test results from large-scale model foundations subjected to small and large cyclic loading cases.

  9. Gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen-Ling; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Wan-Ju; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2018-04-01

    Most cases of colorectal cancer develop via an adenoma to carcinoma sequence. Gallbladder polyps share some risk factors with colorectal polyps. Little is known about the relationship between gallbladder diseases and different status of colorectal polyps by gender. This study was to investigate the association of gallbladder stones and polyps with colorectal adenomas by gender in a Taiwanese population. A total of 7066 eligible subjects who underwent a total colonoscopy as a part of health check-up between January 2001 and August 2009 were recruited. Colonoscopic findings were classified into polyp-free, non-neoplastic polyps and colorectal adenomas. Gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps were diagnosed based on ultrasonographic findings. There was a significant difference in the status of colon polyps between subjects with and without gallbladder polyps. However, the status of colon polyps was not significantly different between subjects with or without gallbladder stones. After adjusting obesity, fasting plasma glucose, and other variables, there was a positive relationship between gallbladder polyps and colorectal adenomas (odds ratio [OR]: 1.396, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.115-1.747) but not non-neoplastic polyps in all subjects. In men, gallbladder polyps (OR: 1.560, 95% CI: 1.204-2.019) and gallbladder stones (OR: 1.465, 95% CI 1.081-1.984) were positively associated with colorectal adenomas. In women, neither gallbladder polyps nor gallbladder stones were significantly related to colon polyps. Both gallbladder polyps and gallbladder stones were associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas in men but not in women. Gender difference was significant for the association between gallbladder lesions and colorectal polyps. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Compositions of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actins, A.; Spricis, A.; Zekunde, A.; Nemerova, A.

    2004-01-01

    By means of x-ray analysis composition of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale was investigated. Corrosion products of tuffa materials were identified on surfaces of some investigated monuments. Similarity of composition of products of stone corrosion for monuments from Latvia and Poland was recognised. Content of heavy metals at stone materials of historical monuments and at the surface layers of these monuments was investigated by means of atomic absorption and potentiometric stripping methods. Reasons of formation of compounds and pollution of investigated samples were discussed. (full text)

  11. IGCP 637 Heritage Stone Designation: A UNESCO and IUGS project on natural stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Cooper, Barry; Schouenborg, Björn; Marker, Brian; Kramar, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    IGCP 637 was approved in 2015 to facilitate establishment of a new international geological standard for building and ornamental stones. Formal international recognition of those natural stone types that have achieved widespread utilization in human culture is now underway and the term "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) has been proposed for this designation. Stones that have been used in heritage construction, sculptural masterpieces, as well as in utilitarian (yet culturally important) applications are obvious GHSR candidates. In co-ordination with these aims the project has an associated role to promote the adoption and use of the GHSR designation. Consequently an interim list of potential GHSRs is maintained and a register of GHSR approved stones is being created. IGCP 637 also enhances the capacity of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) in the realm of dimension stone and geological standards as it is the first IUGS involvement in this subject. As a consequence, the largest known international grouping of dimension stone professionals has been established. Within IGCP 637 a web page has been created at www.globalheritagestone.com, including information on the Working Group and also specific information on the evolution of the project. Several researchers were funded to attend the Heritage Stone working group activities, including researchers from Algeria, Malawi, India, Italy and Russia. We also have produced many publications, both as individual papers and special issues in journals included in the Journal Citation Reports. Monographs are being prepared at present. Hopefully, IGCP 637 will help to widen the circle of researchers interested in natural stones as part of our geoheritage. Heritage Stone references: articles and special issues - Pereira, D. and Marker, B. (2016) The value of original natural stone in the context of architectural heritage. Geosciences, 6, 13. - Heritage Stone 1. Ed. Pereira and Pratt. (2016). Geoscience

  12. Effect of Tamsulosin on Stone Passage for Ureteral Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ralph C; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Whitaker, Evans; Neilson, Jersey; Allen, Isabel Elaine; Stoller, Marshall L; Fahimi, Jahan

    2017-03-01

    Tamsulosin is recommended for patients receiving a diagnosis of a ureteral stone less than 10 mm who do not require immediate urologic intervention. Because of conflicting results from recent meta-analyses and large randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of tamsulosin is unclear. We perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of tamsulosin on stone passage in patients receiving a diagnosis of ureteral stone. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were searched without language restriction through November 2015 for studies assessing the efficacy of tamsulosin and using a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial design. Meta-analysis was conducted with a random-effects model and subgroup analyses were conducted to determine sources of heterogeneity. Eight randomized controlled trials (N=1,384) contained sufficient information for inclusion. The pooled risk of stone passage in the tamsulosin arm was 85% versus 66% in the placebo arm, but substantial heterogeneity existed across trials (I 2 =80.2%; Ptamsulosin (risk difference=22%; 95% confidence interval 12% to 33%; number needed to treat=5). The meta-analysis of the small stone subgroup (Tamsulosin significantly improves stone passage in patients with larger stones, whereas the effect of tamsulosin is diminished in those with smaller stones, who are likely to pass their stone regardless of treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Production and characterization of composite stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leirose, G.D.; Lameiras, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    Composite stone is a product similar to natural granite or marble, produced with particles of these materials. This material is used like natural stone as lining. The fabrication of artificial stones using residues of banded iron formations is a promising alternative to its actual destination (storage in dam). This research aims the characterization of composite stone to prove the efficacy of this kind of processing. It was used first, natural quartz as a raw material. The patterns of the samples were confirmed by IR spectra and XRD patterns, ensuring the reproducibility of processing applied. Moreover, this material is homogeneous, with low porosity and high flexural strength, confirmed by its structural characterization. Thus, it can be affirmed that the process chosen is suitable, enabling the application of this methodology to the use of waste. (author)

  14. Robust Detection of Stepping-Stone Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Ting; Tong, Lang

    2006-01-01

    The detection of encrypted stepping-stone attack is considered. Besides encryption and padding, the attacker is capable of inserting chaff packets and perturbing packet timing and transmission order...

  15. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  16. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun

    1988-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization was

  17. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-06-15

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization

  18. Evidence Report: Risk of Renal Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The formation of renal stones poses an in-flight health risk of high severity, not only because of the impact of renal colic on human performance but also because of complications that could potentially lead to crew evacuation, such as hematuria, infection, hydronephrosis, and sepsis. Evidence for risk factors comes from urine analyses of crewmembers, documenting changes to the urinary environment that are conducive to increased saturation of stone-forming salts, which are the driving force for nucleation and growth of a stone nidus. Further, renal stones have been documented in astronauts after return to Earth and in one cosmonaut during flight. Biochemical analysis of urine specimens has provided indication of hypercalciuria and hyperuricemia, reduced urine volumes, and increased urine saturation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. A major contributor to the risk for renal stone formation is bone atrophy with increased turnover of the bone minerals. Dietary and fluid intakes also play major roles in the risk because of the influence on urine pH (more acidic) and on volume (decreased). Historically, specific assessments on urine samples from some Skylab crewmembers indicated that calcium excretion increased early in flight, notable by day 10 of flight, and almost exceeded the upper threshold for normal excretion (300mg/day in males). Other crewmember data documented reduced intake of fluid and reduced intake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and citrate (an inhibitor of calcium stone formation) in the diet. Hence, data from both short-duration and long-duration missions indicate that space travel induces risk factors for renal stone formation that continue to persist after flight; this risk has been documented by reported kidney stones in crewmembers.

  19. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  20. [Pharmacotherapy for preventing calcium containing stone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masao; Takayama, Tatsuya; Mugiya, Souichi; Ohzono, Seiichiro

    2011-10-01

    Many urinary tract stones consist of calcium, and has high relapse rate. Accordingly, it is very important to prevent calcium-containing stone formation. This paper describes about effects and mechanisms for Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, citrate formulation, magnesium formulation, thiazides, vitamin B(6), extract of Quercus salicina Blume and chorei-to (medical herb) . Recent new drugs and the elucidation of new metabolic pathways may lead to the development of prevention of urolithiasis.

  1. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  2. Female stone disease: the changing trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis patients during the period 1971-2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various metabolic parameters including 24-h urine volume, urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine and citrate, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and magnesium and calculated parameter calcium:magnesium ratio were studied. The possible causes for the change in incidence of stone disease in the female sex were elucidated. Of the patients studied, 12.7% (1,091) were females. There was a definite increase in the incidence of female urolithiasis over the past 37 years (P stone genesis, together with the increased excretion of calcium and oxalate may have contributed to the increasing incidence of stone disease in females. This might be due to changes in living standards and dietary habits.

  3. Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.5±1.4 mm compared with 9.9±2.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (pESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure. PMID:25598937

  4. Netherlands foundation for radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A report of the board is followed by departmental reports from the Westerbork Telescope Group, Dwingeloo Telescope Group, Computer Group, Laboratory and Central Technical Services, Astronomy Group, Administration of the Foundation/General Affairs and Personnel Council. Astronomical reports describe radio astronomical research carried out by the Foundation staff and at the Kapteyn Laboratory Groningen, Leiden Observatory, Utrecht Observatory and the Laboratorio di Radioastronomia Bologna, Italy. Progress in the extension of the synthesis radio telescope and investigations into the possibility of substantially increasing the SRT data rate for solar observations, are outlined. Appendices shows the organisational structure, the names of the employees, the operating budget, the observing facilities at Westerbork and Dwingeloo, and the publications and reports published in 1978 and related to observations made with these facilities. (C.F.)

  5. Antithetic Foundations of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Marin DINU

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at decrypting the manner in which the foundations of Economics as a science and the meanings of the relevant explanatory formulas are being shaped. My analytical endeavor focuses on understanding the peculiarities of what is referred to as the object of study of the science known as Economics, an academic synthesis of concept-related breakthroughs regarding economicity. The explicit purpose of this analysis is to identify perennial benchmarks in economic c...

  6. Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, R; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics details the core concepts of the mathematical principles employed in thermodynamics. The book discusses the topics in a way that physical meanings are assigned to the theoretical terms. The coverage of the text includes the mechanical systems and adiabatic processes; topological considerations; and equilibrium states and potentials. The book also covers Galilean thermodynamics; symmetry in thermodynamics; and special relativistic thermodynamics. The book will be of great interest to practitioners and researchers of disciplines that deal with thermodyn

  7. Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Terrence W

    2008-01-01

    Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field

  8. Foundations of image science

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Harrison H

    2013-01-01

    Winner of the 2006 Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award! A comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and statistics of image science In today's visually oriented society, images play an important role in conveying messages. From seismic imaging to satellite images to medical images, our modern society would be lost without images to enhance our understanding of our health, our culture, and our world. Foundations of Image Science presents a comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and st

  9. Foundations for Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Velleman, J. David

    2015-01-01

    In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism, a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. David Velleman shows that different communities can indeed be subject to incompatible moralities, because their local mores are rationally binding. At the same time, he explains why the mores of different communities, even when incompatible, are still variations on the same moral themes. The book thus maps out a universe of many moral world...

  10. Wronski's Foundations of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Roi

    2016-09-01

    Argument This paper reconstructs Wronski's philosophical foundations of mathematics. It uses his critique of Lagrange's algebraic analysis as a vignette to introduce the problems that he raised, and argues that these problems have not been properly appreciated by his contemporaries and subsequent commentators. The paper goes on to reconstruct Wronski's mathematical law of creation and his notions of theory and techne, in order to put his objections to Lagrange in their philosophical context. Finally, Wronski's proof of his universal law (the expansion of a given function by any series of functions) is reviewed in terms of the above reconstruction. I argue that Wronski's philosophical approach poses an alternative to the views of his contemporary mainstream mathematicians, which brings up the contingency of their choices, and bridges the foundational concerns of early modernity with those of the twentieth-century foundations crisis. I also argue that Wronski's views may be useful to contemporary philosophy of mathematical practice, if they are read against their metaphysical grain.

  11. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  12. Theoretical computation background for transformation of foundations using pile drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of foundations for buildings and structures of various purposes, including improved risk, weak water-saturated clay soils with low mechanical characteristics are often found on a construction site. One of the possible ways of using them as a foundation is to seal them in various ways, including using pile drains of sand or rock stone material that are capable of both absorbing the load at the base and accelerating the process of filtration consolidation. This paper describes an analytical solution to the problem of interaction between the pile and the mattress with the surrounding soil of the foundation, taking into account the possibility of expanding the pile shaft. Solutions are obtained for determining the stresses in the shaft of the pile drain and in the soil under the mattress. The solution takes into account the influence of the pre-stressed state of the foundation after compaction on the formation of a stress-strain state during the erection and operation of structures. The solutions are relevant for consolidating pile drains made of rubble or for jet grouting piles, the rigidity of which is comparable to the rigidity of the surrounding soil. The paper describes the technique for determining the characteristics of the strength and deformability of the converted foundation and the results of large-scale tests at the experimental site for the construction of a large energy facility in Russia.

  13. Think Tank Initiative - Hewlett Foundation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation are collaborating on the Think Tank Initiative, a new program to strengthen independent think tanks and policy research centres in the developing world. These organizations provide critical input for the creation of effective public policy to promote growth and reduce ...

  14. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF) score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Benjamin; Robertson, William; Wiseman, Oliver; Amaro, Carmen Regina P. R.; Leitão, Victor A.; Silva, Isabela Leme da; Amaro, João Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation) changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers.Materials and Methods: Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate...

  15. Kidney stone erosion by micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation and consequent kidney stone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Osman Yavuz; Şeşen, Muhsincan; Gozuacik, Devrim; Koşar, Ali

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal the potential of micro scale hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation for the use of kidney stone treatment. Hydrodynamically generated cavitating bubbles were targeted to the surfaces of 18 kidney stone samples made of calcium oxalate, and their destructive effects were exploited in order to remove kidney stones in in vitro experiments. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was used as the working fluid under bubbly cavitating conditions in a 0.75 cm long micro probe of 147 μm inner diameter at 9790 kPa pressure. The surface of calcium oxalate type kidney stones were exposed to bubbly cavitation at room temperature for 5 to 30 min. The eroded kidney stones were visually analyzed with a high speed CCD camera and using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques. The experiments showed that at a cavitation number of 0.017, hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation device could successfully erode stones with an erosion rate of 0.31 mg/min. It was also observed that the targeted application of the erosion with micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation may even cause the fracture of the kidney stones within a short time of 30 min. The proposed treatment method has proven to be an efficient instrument for destroying kidney stones.

  16. Treatment of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones in the laparoscopic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-jie; Xu, Gui-fang; Huang, Qin; Luo, Kun-lun; Dong, Zhi-tao; Li, Jie-ming; Wu, Guo-zhong; Guan, Wen-xian

    2015-01-26

    Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for stone can be carried out by either laparoscopic transcystic stone extraction (LTSE) or laparoscopic choledochotomy (LC). It remains unknown as to which approach is optimal for management of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones (CBDS) in Chinese patients. From May 2000 to February 2009, we prospective treated 346 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones and CBDS with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and LCBDE. Intraoperative findings, postoperative complications, postoperative hospital stay and costs were analyzed. Because of LCBDE failure,16 cases (4.6%) required open surgery. Of 330 successful LCBDE-treated patients, 237 underwent LTSE and 93 required LC. No mortality occurred in either group. The bile duct stone clearance rate was similar in both groups. Patients in the LTSE group were significantly younger and had fewer complications with smaller, fewer stones, shorter operative time and postoperative hospital stays, and lower costs, compared to those in the LC group. Compared with patients with T-tube insertion, patients in the LC group with primary closure had shorter operative time, shorter postoperative hospital stay, and lower costs. In cases requiring LCBDE, LTSE should be the first choice, whereas LC may be restricted to large, multiple stones. LC with primary closure without external drainage of the CBDS is as effective and safe as the T-tube insertion approach.

  17. Orthopaedic research and education foundation and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurth, Gene R; Sherr, Judy H; Coffman, Thomas M

    2003-07-01

    Members of orthopaedic industry commit a significant amount of funds each year to support research and education programs that are directly related to their product(s). In addition, industry supports organizations such as the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation. The relationship between the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and industry began in the early 1980s. The support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation from industry primarily has come in the form of unrestricted grants. These grants best can be looked at as an investment rather than a contribution. This form of giving, once called corporate philanthropy is more accurately referred to as strategic philanthropy. Members of industry make these investments to enhance their reputations, build brand awareness, market their products and services, improve employee morale, increase customer loyalty, and establish strategic alliances. The specialty of orthopaedics is among the leaders in medicine in the amount of funding raised within the specialty for research and education programs. This is because of the amount of support from members of industry and the surgeons. During the past 15 years, 40% of the annual support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation has come from industry and the balance has come from surgeons and members of lay public. Future industry support of the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and other organizations within the specialty of orthopaedics will be dependent on the continued demonstration of tangible returns in areas described.

  18. Use of reinforced soil foundation (RSF) to support shallow foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of this research study is to investigate potential benefits of using the reinforced soil foundations to improve the bearing capacity and to reduce the settlement of shallow foundations on soils. This includes examining influences o...

  19. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies.

  20. A stone mould from Klinovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-piece stone mould that reached the National Museum at Vranje in 1966 had been recovered from a depth of about one meter at the site known as Tri Kruške (Three Pear-trees, the village of Klinovac. The site is situated on a river terrace on the right bank of the Krševica River some 15 kilometers south of Vranje. The mould was carved out of metamorphic rock from the class of schist, more exactly, of greenschist (with chlorite and mica as its constituent minerals that is widespread in the area, which geologically belongs to the upper (Vlasina complex of the Serbian-Macedonian mass. The mould was intended for casting four kinds of bronze weapons: three chisels and a winged axe. More sensitive as dating evidence, the winged axe (Ärmchenbeil may be broadly dated to the last three centuries of the second millennium BC. The type is geographically related with the Aegean, while its northernmost findspot so far is Pobit Kamak in northern Bulgaria. The chisels cast in this mould do not have direct analogies, although many hoards of similar tools have been registered in Croatia, Romania and Central Europe. Apparently the mould was made by a local workshop and from the locally available raw material. The possible activity of local workshops in the above mentioned period has already been presumed by scholars, and the Klinovac mould constitutes yet another corroboration of the hypothesis. Nevertheless its Aegean origin should not be ruled out completely, because cultural contacts between the Late Bronze Age population inhabiting the region and their southern neighbours seem quite certain, as evidenced by Mycenaean pottery discovered on the site of Resulja at Lučani near Bujanovac.

  1. Cover stones on liquefiable soil bed under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behavior of cover stones on a liquefiable soil bed exposed to a progressive wave. The soil was silt with d50=0.098mm. Stones, the size of 4cm, were used as cover material. The effect of packing density of stones, and that of number...... of stone layers (including the effect of an intermediate filter layer) were investigated. Pore pressure was measured across the soil depth. The experiments show that the soil liquefaction depended mainly on two parameters: the packing density of stones, and the number of stone layers. When the liquefaction...

  2. Can sonography define the chemical composition of gall stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, B.; Faehndrich, R.; Arnan-Thiele, B.

    1983-01-01

    Eight sonographic patterns caused by gall stones are described. In an attempt to explain these different appearances, 62 stones were analysed chemically and physically. The chemical composition of the stones did not correlate with their sonographic pattern. Cholesterol stones cannot be recognised as such by sonography. The formation of an acoustic shadow depends largely on the position of the stone within the acoustic beam. It therefore follows that the examination must be done by keeping the focal plane of the transducer in proper relationship to the stone. (orig.) [de

  3. Impact of stone density on outcomes in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Onal, Bulent; Modi, Pranjal

    2013-01-01

    were assigned to a low stone density [LSD, ≤ 1000 Hounsfield units (HU)] or high stone density (HSD, > 1000 HU) group based on the radiological density of the primary renal stone. Preoperative characteristics and outcomes were compared in the two groups. Results. Retreatment for residual stones...... was more frequent in the LSD group. The overall stone-free rate achieved was higher in the HSD group (79.3% vs 74.8%, p = 0.113). By univariate regression analysis, the probability of achieving a stone-free outcome peaked at approximately 1250 HU. Below or above this density resulted in lower treatment...

  4. Significance of lower-pole pelvicaliceal anatomy on stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy in nonobstructive isolated renal pelvic stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozen, Sinan; Kupeli, Bora; Acar, Cenk; Gurocak, Serhat; Karaoglan, Ustunol; Bozkirli, Ibrahim

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the probable effect of lower-pole pelvicaliceal anatomy on stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in patients with nonobstructive renal pelvic stones. The clinical records of patients with isolated renal pelvic stones who underwent SWL between 1996 and 2005 were reviewed. After excluding patients with obstruction leading to dilatation, major anatomic abnormalities, noncalcium stones, metabolic abnormalities, history of recurrent stone disease, multiple stones, and previous renal surgery, 153 patients were enrolled in the study. Lower pole infundibulopelvic angle (IPA) and infundibular length and width were measured from intravenous urography. Patients were classified into three groups according to stone burden (group 1, renal pelvis, and both in 50 (32.6%), 29 (18.9%), and 8 (5.2%) patients, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in pelvicaliceal anatomic features except narrower IPA (P=0.02) in group 1 patients with residual stones. The falling of stone fragments to the lower calix in spite of the ureter whether clinically significant or not after SWL of pelvic stones initially seems to be related to stone burden rather than lower caliceal anatomy. However, existence of a more narrow IPA in group 1 patients with residual fragments led us to believe that lower-pole IPA can play a role in stone clearance, especially for smaller stones, probably because of smaller residual fragment size or the more mobile nature of the primary stone.

  5. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  6. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...

  7. Unknown foundation determination for scour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Unknown foundations affect about 9,000 bridges in Texas. For bridges over rivers, this creates a problem : regarding scour decisions as the calculated scour depth cannot be compared to the foundation depth, and a : very conservative costly approach m...

  8. Wave Forces on Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested....

  9. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Top Deadly Mistakes Made by Teen Drivers -- AAA AAA: Road debris causes avoidable crashes, deaths Save the ... and 500 deaths! Foundation News Stay Tuned New AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety website coming Fall 2017 ...

  10. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  11. Foundation helps refurbish buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenzind, B.

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at the activities of the Swiss 'Climate-Cent' foundation, which is helping support the energetic refurbishment of building envelopes. The conditions which have to be fulfilled to receive grants are explained. Work supported includes the replacement of windows and the insulation of roofs and attics as well as outside walls. Details on the financial support provided and examples of projects supported are given. The source of the finance needed to provide such support - a voluntary levy on petrol - and further support provided in certain Swiss cantons is commented on

  12. Mathematical foundations of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Jerrold E

    1994-01-01

    This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con

  13. Web services foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguettaya, Athman; Daniel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Web services and Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) have become thriving areas of academic research, joint university/industry research projects, and novel IT products on the market. SOC is the computing paradigm that uses Web services as building blocks for the engineering of composite, distributed applications out of the reusable application logic encapsulated by Web services. Web services could be considered the best-known and most standardized technology in use today for distributed computing over the Internet.Web Services Foundations is the first installment of a two-book collection coverin

  14. Instant Zurb Foundation 4

    CERN Document Server

    Arévalo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    A quick and easy guide that follows a practical approach to rapidly create responsive web pages using Foundation 4 framework, following the mobile-first philosophy.If you are a web developer who wants to get the most out of your HTML5/CSS/JavaScript skills, this book is ideal for you. It is assumed that you will have some experience with these languages, but for those who don't, you can also be up and running in an instant.

  15. Two Birds with One Social Policy Stone: Youth Employment and Regional Skills Shortages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Joanne; Bertone, Santina; Grace, Marty; Broadbent, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, the Victorian State Government introduced the Regional Jobs Package (RJP)--a twelve-month pilot program that attempted to kill two social policy problems with one stone. The problems were youth unemployment and skills shortages in regional areas of Victoria, Australia. The intention of the RJP was to create a "win-win"…

  16. Problem solving in foundation engineering using foundationPro

    CERN Document Server

    Yamin, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This book is at once a supplement to traditional foundation engineering textbooks and an independent problem-solving learning tool. The book is written primarily for university students majoring in civil or construction engineering taking foundation analysis and design courses to encourage them to solve design problems. Its main aim is to stimulate problem solving capability and foster self-directed learning. It also explains the use of the foundationPro software, available at no cost, and includes a set of foundation engineering applications. Taking a unique approach, Dr. Yamin summarizes the general step-by-step procedure to solve various foundation engineering problems, illustrates traditional applications of these steps with longhand solutions, and presents the foundationPro solutions. The special structure of the book allows it to be used in undergraduate and graduate foundation design and analysis courses in civil and construction engineering. The book stands as valuable resource for students, faculty, ...

  17. Do Urinary Cystine Parameters Predict Clinical Stone Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Canvasser, Noah E; Morgan, Monica S C; Mollengarden, Daniel; Best, Sara; Pearle, Margaret S

    2018-02-01

    An accurate urinary predictor of stone recurrence would be clinically advantageous for patients with cystinuria. A proprietary assay (Litholink, Chicago, Illinois) measures cystine capacity as a potentially more reliable estimate of stone forming propensity. The recommended capacity level to prevent stone formation, which is greater than 150 mg/l, has not been directly correlated with clinical stone activity. We investigated the relationship between urinary cystine parameters and clinical stone activity. We prospectively followed 48 patients with cystinuria using 24-hour urine collections and serial imaging, and recorded stone activity. We compared cystine urinary parameters at times of stone activity with those obtained during periods of stone quiescence. We then performed correlation and ROC analysis to evaluate the performance of cystine parameters to predict stone activity. During a median followup of 70.6 months (range 2.2 to 274.6) 85 stone events occurred which could be linked to a recent urine collection. Cystine capacity was significantly greater for quiescent urine than for stone event urine (mean ± SD 48 ± 107 vs -38 ± 163 mg/l, p stone activity (r = -0.29, p r = -0.88, p r = -0.87, p stone quiescence. Decreasing the cutoff to 90 mg/l or greater improved sensitivity to 25.2% while maintaining specificity at 90.9%. Our results suggest that the target for capacity should be lower than previously advised. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra.

  19. Pile foundation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, W.J.; Thomaz, E.; Rideg, P.; Girao, M.

    1978-01-01

    The subject of pile foundation used for nuclear power plant structures, considering the experience gained by the designers of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3 in Brazil is dealt with. The general concept of the pile foundations, including types and execution of the piles, is described briefly. Then the two basic models, i.e. the static model and the dynamic one, used in the design are shown, and the pertinent design assumptions as related to the Angra project are mentioned. The criteria which established the loading capacity of the piles are discussed and the geological conditions of the Angra site are also explained briefly, justifying the reasons why pile foundations are necessary in this project. After that, the design procedures and particularly the tools - i.e. the computer programs - are described. It is noted that the relatively simple but always time consuming job of loading determination calculations can be computerized too, as it was done on this project through the computer program SEASA. The interesting aspects of soil/structure interaction, applicable to static models, are covered in detail, showing the theoretical base wich was used in the program PILMAT. Then the advantage resulting from computerizing of the job of pile reinforcement design are mentioned, describing briefly the jobs done by the two special programs PILDES and PILTAB. The point is stressed that the effort computerizing the structural design of this project was not so much due to the required accuracy of the calculations, but mainly due to the need to save on the design time, as to allow to perform the design task within the relatively tight time schedule. A conclusion can be drawn that design of pile foundations for nuclear power plant structures is a more complex task than the design of bearing type of foundation for the same structures, but that the task can be always made easier when the design process can be computerized. (Author)

  20. Interpreting Stone's model of Berry phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    We show that a simple quantum-mechanical model, put forward by Stone some time ago, affords a description of site magnetoelectricity, a phenomenon which takes place in crystals (and molecular systems) when space inversion is locally broken and coexistence of electric and magnetic moments is permitted by the site point group. We demonstrate this by identifying a local order parameter, which is odd under both space inversion and time reversal. This order parameter (a magnetic quadrupole) characterizes Stone's ground state. Our results indicate that the model, extended to a lattice of sites, could be relevant to the study of electronic properties of transition-metal oxides. A generalization of Stone's Hamiltonian to cover cases of different symmetry is also discussed. (letter to the editor)

  1. Crushed stone production plant for NPP building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obolenskij, V.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The project of the granite-crushed stone quarry - the large modern plant producing building materials, is presented. The quarry is designated for providing NPP and other power objects building with high-strength crushed stone. The plant consists of: quarry; crushing-sorting plant with maintenance objects arranged on its ground; basis and service stores of explosive materials; tail facility and purifying systems; water supply purifying stations; water storage basin. The plant is reserved for 2335 thousand m 3 yearly utoput of crushed stone; the staff consists of 535 persons, the budgeted cost of building is 26.6 million rubles. Physicochemical characteristics of granosyenites of the ''Granitnoye'' deposit - the raw material resource base of the plant and technological scheme of the crushing-sorting plant are given. Planned measures on building organization and recultivation of disturbed grounds are presented

  2. EPR of some irradiated renal stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeseoglu, R.; Koeseoglu, E.; Koeksal, F.; Basaran, E.; Demirci, D.

    2005-01-01

    Some renal stones were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance of their untreated, UV-photolyzed and gamma-irradiated states. Powder X-ray diffraction technique indicated that the renal stones were made mainly from CaC 2 O 4 , MgC 2 O 4 , MgCO 3 and NH 4 MgPO 4 .6H 2 O. Before radiation treatment, the renal stones yielded a signal that could be attributed to a C 2 O 4 - radical. UV-photolysis seems to slightly increase the intensity of this signal, but does not produce any new centres. Gamma-irradiation initially gives -CH 2 C (CH 3 )-R and CO 2 - radicals, and while the intensity of the -CH 2 C (CH 3 )-R signal decreases, the intensity of the CO 2 - signal increases as time elapses

  3. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements.

  4. Natural Stone in Spain: trends and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchán Sanz, C.; Regueiro y González-Barros, M.; Delgado Arenas, P.

    2017-01-01

    The natural stone sector was severely affected by the national construction sector crisis. Production, both exworks and processed, has been also harshly affected dropping from 8Mt/y in 2007 to 3,49Mt/y in 2015, particularly in the marble and granite sectors, since slate has always been a mainly exporting sub-sector. In the latest times, thanks mainly to exports, production apparently has slowly started to recover. In this paper, we review the typology of the Spanish natural stone products and the production data of the main stone subsectors (marble, granite and slate) in the last 10 years and we review possible future trends in the framework of the first steps of the economic recovery. [es

  5. [Ultraminipercutaneous nephrolithotripsy in treating kidney stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martov, A G; Dutov, S V; Andronov, A S

    2016-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) is the recommended method of surgical treatment of kidney stones of size greater than 2 cm. Trends in the development of modern urology have been steadily toward less traumatic method to treat nephrolithiasis - minimally invasive PNL. The present work aimed to explore of the possibilities of one of the modern variants of minimally invasive PNL - ultra-mini-PNL in treating nephrolithiasis. The study included 60 patients (mean age 45.6+/-7.2 years) with isolated kidney calculus, up to 2.0 cm or several stones with a total size of up to 2.5 cm. All patients were found to have 77 kidney stones, six of which had a size of 10 mm, 51 had a size of 11-15 mm and 20 had a size of 16-20 mm. 45% of patients had isolated renal pelvic stones and 28.3% had stones in the renal pelvis and lower calyx. All patients underwent ultra-mini-PNL using nephroscope size 7.5 Ch and tube size 12 Fr. The average duration of surgery from the moment of the puncture of the pyelocaliceal system to installing the nephrostomy tube was 65.4 minutes. Complete clearance of stones after single-stage ultra-mini-PNL was observed in 80% of cases. Nephrostomy tube was removed on days 2-3. The average postoperative hospital stay was 5.1 days. The most common complication was postoperative exacerbation of pyelonephritis (13.3% of patients), successfully treated with conservative measures. There were no cases of postoperative bleeding, accompanied by anemia and needed a blood transfusion. Considering high effectiveness and low rate of complications of ultra-mini-PNL, it can be successfully used in treating nephrolithiasis among a wide group of patients.

  6. A case report of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Yung; Rhee, Song Joo; Choi, Ki Chul [School of Medicine, Jeongbug National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Urinary lithiasis is one of the most common disease of the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in men than in women but rare in children and in blacks; a familial predisposition is often encountered. Ureteral stones originate in the kidney. Gravity and peristalis contribute to spontaneous passage into and down the ureter. Ureterovesical junction is the most frequent lodging site of stone. In our hospital one case of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone were found respectively and they were confirmed by radiological examination and surgery on Aug. 1978 and Jan. 1979. Ureteral cast stone which had been introduced and named first by Kiyonobu Tari and Kikjiro So in 1972 was very giant unusually. It may be the only one till now. Our patient was 36 years old female who has been suffered from intermittent right flank pain for 10 years. On KUB giant cylindrical radiopaque shadow was shown on RLQ extended to right minor pelvis and this was confirmed as a stone by retrograde ureteral catheterization. A stone measured 13cm x 1.5cm was found above the ureterovesical junction during operation. Follow up excretory urogram one year after operation showed no functional improvement of right kidney. Urethral stone is also unusual urinary lithiasis. This 60 years old male patient was been suffered from non-tender palpable hard mass on scrotal area and intermittent urinary retention. When urinary retention was occurred it was relieved by manipulation of the mass by himself. On plain film oval shaped giant radiopaque shadow was shown on cavernous urethral region. On urethrocystogram anterior urethra was opacified, but posterior urethra and bladder were not opacified and multiple fistulous leakage was identified. A stone measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm was found in cavernous urethra during operation.

  7. A case report of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone, respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Yung; Rhee, Song Joo; Choi, Ki Chul

    1980-01-01

    Urinary lithiasis is one of the most common disease of the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in men than in women but rare in children and in blacks; a familial predisposition is often encountered. Ureteral stones originate in the kidney. Gravity and peristalis contribute to spontaneous passage into and down the ureter. Ureterovesical junction is the most frequent lodging site of stone. In our hospital one case of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone were found respectively and they were confirmed by radiological examination and surgery on Aug. 1978 and Jan. 1979. Ureteral cast stone which had been introduced and named first by Kiyonobu Tari and Kikjiro So in 1972 was very giant unusually. It may be the only one till now. Our patient was 36 years old female who has been suffered from intermittent right flank pain for 10 years. On KUB giant cylindrical radiopaque shadow was shown on RLQ extended to right minor pelvis and this was confirmed as a stone by retrograde ureteral catheterization. A stone measured 13cm x 1.5cm was found above the ureterovesical junction during operation. Follow up excretory urogram one year after operation showed no functional improvement of right kidney. Urethral stone is also unusual urinary lithiasis. This 60 years old male patient was been suffered from non-tender palpable hard mass on scrotal area and intermittent urinary retention. When urinary retention was occurred it was relieved by manipulation of the mass by himself. On plain film oval shaped giant radiopaque shadow was shown on cavernous urethral region. On urethrocystogram anterior urethra was opacified, but posterior urethra and bladder were not opacified and multiple fistulous leakage was identified. A stone measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm was found in cavernous urethra during operation

  8. Strides in Preservation of Malawi's Natural Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanga, Tamara; Chisenga, Chikondi; Katonda, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The geology of Malawi is broadly grouped into four main lithological units that is the Basement Complex, the Karoo Super group, Tertiary to Quaternary sedimentary deposits and the Chilwa Alkaline province. The basement complex rocks cover much of the country and range in age from late Precambrian to early Paleozoic. They have been affected by three major phases of deformation and metamorphism that is the Irumide, Ubendian and The Pan-African. These rocks comprise gneisses, granulites and schists with associated mafic, ultramafic, syenites and granite rocks. The Karoo System sedimentary rocks range in age from Permian to lower Jurassic and are mainly restricted to two areas in the extreme North and extreme Alkaline Province - late Jurassic to Cretaceous in age, preceded by upper Karoo Dolerite dyke swarms and basaltic lavas, have been intruded into the Basement Complex gneisses of southern Malawi. Malawi is endowed with different types of natural stone deposits most of which remain unexploited and explored. Over twenty quarry operators supply quarry stone for road and building construction in Malawi. Hundreds of artisanal workers continue to supply aggregate stones within and on the outskirts of urban areas. Ornamental stones and granitic dimension stones are also quarried, but in insignificant volumes. In Northern Malawi, there are several granite deposits including the Nyika, which is the largest single outcrop occupying approximately 260.5 km2 , Mtwalo Amazonite an opaque to translucent bluish -green variety of microcline feldspar that occurs in alkali granites and pegmatite, the Ilomba granite (sodalite) occurring in small areas within biotite; apatite, plagioclase and calcite. In the Center, there are the Dzalanyama granites, and the Sani granites. In the South, there are the Mangochi granites. Dolerite and gabbroic rocks spread across the country, treading as black granites. Malawi is also endowed with many deposits of marble. A variety of other igneous

  9. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  10. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, conventional rubble mound breakwaters are designed with stable armour units, and consequently, very large stones or even artificial armour units are required. reshaping breakwater designs allow reshaping of the seaward slope thus involving stone movements. Ultimately, dependent on ...

  11. Dental pulp stone formation during orthodontic treatment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-21

    Jun 21, 2015 ... the presence of dental pulp stone, gender, age, tooth type and arches. Results: Dental pulp ... primary and permanent dentition.[1] Dental pulp stones .... interpretation provided training to familiarize the other observer with the ...

  12. Estimation of bearing capacity of floating group of stone columns

    OpenAIRE

    Fattah, Mohammed Y.; Al-Neami, Mohammed A.; Shamel Al-Suhaily, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Stone column is one of the ground improvement techniques. This technique has a proven performance, short time schedule, durability, constructability and low costs. The stone column technique has been used as a method of reinforcement of soft ground over the past 30 years. The bearing capacity of the stone column still has high level of uncertainties because the existing formulas for the estimation of the bearing capacity are general and do not take into consideration the type of the stone col...

  13. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  14. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, D J; Vernon, D R; Toouli, J

    2006-01-01

    10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery.......10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery....

  15. Abdominal colic due to ureteric diverticulum with stone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roodhooft, A.M.; Boven, K.; Acker, K.J. van; Gentens, P.

    1987-01-01

    In a 15-year-old boy right lower abdominal colicky pain was caused by intermittent obstruction of the ureter by stones which had accumulated in a ureteric diverticulum. As was shown by repeated X-rays, each of these stones had moved to the ureter and back to the diverticulum. Ureteric diverticulum mostly remains asymptomatic in children: stone formation and obstruction of the ureter by the stones is one of the instances which may cause symptoms. (orig.)

  16. Foundations of quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lindesay, James

    2013-01-01

    Exploring how the subtleties of quantum coherence can be consistently incorporated into Einstein’s theory of gravitation, this book is ideal for researchers interested in the foundations of relativity and quantum physics. The book examines those properties of coherent gravitating systems that are most closely connected to experimental observations. Examples of consistent co-gravitating quantum systems whose overall effects upon the geometry are independent of the coherence state of each constituent are provided, and the properties of the trapping regions of non-singular black objects, black holes, and a dynamic de Sitter cosmology are discussed analytically, numerically, and diagrammatically. The extensive use of diagrams to summarise the results of the mathematics enables readers to bypass the need for a detailed understanding of the steps involved. Assuming some knowledge of quantum physics and relativity, the book provides textboxes featuring supplementary information for readers particularly interested ...

  17. Foundations of signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...

  18. On Thursday 28 February, a ceremony was held to lay the foundation stone of Building 774

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    in attendance were Stéphane Donnot, Sub-Prefect of the Ain, Octavio Mestre and Francesco Soppelsa, the building's architects, and Sigurd Lettow, Director of Administration and Infrastructure. The building will be located just opposite the CERN Control Centre (CCC); its construction is to be completed by early 2014.

  19. Microbial monitoring in treated stone at the Royal Chapel of Granada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Pinar, Guadalupe; González-Muñoz, Maria Theresa; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Viridiplantae. The molecular strategy used here is proposed as an effective monitoring system to evaluate the impact of the application of bacterially induced calcium carbonate mineralization as restoration/conservation procedure for decayed ornamental stone. Moreover, these results confirm that the biotreatment, proposed by González Muñoz et al (2008), is friendly for the microbiota inhabiting the stone, which reaches stability after relatively few years. References: González-Muñoz et al. (2008) Spanish Patent no. 2008/009771 Acknowledgements: Supported by the Junta de Andalucia (grants RNM-3493) and by "José Castillejo" program from the "Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte" (I-D+i 2008-2011).

  20. Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to…

  1. 'Saurashtra stone anchors' (Ring-stones) from Dwarka and Somnath, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Last two decades of marine archaeological research along the Indian coast has brought to light a large number of stone anchors of different types and sizes, indicating that the Indian coast has witnessed brisk maritime activities in the past...

  2. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  3. [Statistics and analysis on acupuncture and moxibustion projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China of traditional Chinese medicine universities and colleges in recent 10 years: taking the General Program and National Science Fund for Young Scholars as examples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingling; Ma, Qiang; Li, Dan; Liu, Nana; Yang, Jiahui; Sun, Chun; Cheng, Cheng; Jia, Xuezhao; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Yonglei

    2018-03-12

    To analyze statistically the situation of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from 2007 to 2016 in the field of acupuncture and moxibustion for supporting the national Universities colleges of traditional Chinese medicine on the General Program (GP) and the National Science Fund for Young Scholars (NSFYS). In view of five aspects, named fund, supporting units, key words, method, disorder and signal path, the differences were compared between GP and NSFYS, the following characteristics were summarized. ① The fund aid was increased from 2007 through 2013 and down-regulated from 2013 through 2016. In recent ten years, the funding condition was fluctuated, but increasing in tendency generally. ② The relevant projects of the same research direction had been approved continuously for over 3 years in a part of TCM universities, in which, the research continuity was the hot topic. ③ Regarding the therapeutic methods, acupuncture was the chief therapy; electroacupuncture, moxibustion and acupoints were involved as well. ④ The disorders involved in the research were cerebral ischemia, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. It is suggested that the ischemic disorder is predominated in the research. ⑤ The signal path occupied the main research index system, including cell proliferation, metabolism, immune, apoptosis and autophagy. The researches on the other aspects were less.

  4. National Science Foundation Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences Tony Chan (USA) visiting CMS experiment on 23rd May 2007 with Spokesperson T. Virdee, Deputy Spokesperson R. Cousins, Advisor to CERN Director-General J. Ellis, US CMS Research Program Deputy Manager D. Marlow and FNAL D. Green

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    National Science Foundation Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences Tony Chan (USA) visiting CMS experiment on 23rd May 2007 with Spokesperson T. Virdee, Deputy Spokesperson R. Cousins, Advisor to CERN Director-General J. Ellis, US CMS Research Program Deputy Manager D. Marlow and FNAL D. Green

  5. Systemic sclerosis in a stone cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna N

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Several occupational hazards especially exposure to silica have been implicated as eliciting factors for the development of scleroderma-like disorders. We here report a case of manual stone-cutter who developed progressive scleroderma, interstitial lung disease and decreased oesophageal motility after several years of exposure to silica dust.

  6. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  7. Microstructural characterization of stone wool fibre network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie; Brøndsted, Povl; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of fibrous network as complex as stone wool materials requires a relevant description of their microstructure and architecture. In this study, different methods have been proposed to characterize the fibre orientation, diameter and length of fibres as well...

  8. Stone Stability in Non-uniform Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoan, N.T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Booij, R.; Hofland, B.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on stone stability under nonuniform turbulent flow, in particular expanding flow. Detailed measurements of both flow and turbulence and the bed stability are described. Than various manners of quantifying the hydraulic loads exerted on the

  9. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle fibers in their wall, commonly encountered in adults, and involve the posterior urethra. Differential diagnosis for UD includes syringoceles (cystic dilatation of the Cowper's gland), sequestration cysts, epidermoid and epithelial inclusion cysts. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones. Mohanty D, Garg PK, ...

  10. Effect of moisture on tuff stone degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Nijland, T.G.

    2016-01-01

    Tuff stone elements with a large length/width ratio often suffer damage in the form of cracks parallel to the surface and spalling of the outer layer. The response of tuff to moisture might be a reason for this behaviour. This research aimed at verifying if differential dilation between parts with

  11. Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-08-01

    Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone.

  12. Study on the Elasticity-Plasticity-Stickiness of the Railway Crushed Stone Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liang

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly aimed at the mechanics characteristic elas of ticity-plasticitystickiness existed in the CWR (continuously welded rails) track plane of the railway crushed stone ballast. As an important mechanics parameter of the CWR track plane, the ballast resistance is mainly influenced by this mechanics characteristic. Through the systematic experimental research and the theoretical analysis, this mechanics characteristic of the ballast resistance is revealed and a reasonable theoretical model is built for it. This study set a sound foundation for further studying the CWR track deformation property. It will be beneficial to the development of high-speed railway in China.

  13. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock

    2006-12-01

    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college on the GI Bill and became a mechanical engineer. He and his wife raised three sons: Dwight, Ronald, and Gavin. They lived in a number of locations across the U.S. before settling at last in Downer's Grove when Ron was in the fourth grade. Ron's interest in astronomy began when he was given a toy planetarium projector while still in grade school, and later a small telescope. In high school, he also built his own telescope, grinding the 6-inch mirror by hand. He completed grade school and high school in Downer's Grove and did his undergraduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, majoring in astronomy and physics and graduating cum laude in 1968. The following year, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for two years, including a stint in Vietnam. Although his primary assignment was auditing, he was also involved in the defense of the Long Binh base in Vietnam. He was honorably discharged from the service in 1971 and enrolled that fall at the University of Chicago. While a graduate student working with Bill van Altena, Ron developed his life long interest in the field of astrometry. Van Altena recalls him as "a quiet and cheerful student who wanted to learn, and [who] worked hard to understand the intricacies of astrometry... deriving the most precise proper motions from the 40-inch [Yerkes] refractor plates." Working at Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, he completed a thesis entitled, "Mean Secular Parallax at Low Galactic Latitude." While living in Wisconsin, Ron also became engaged to Ellen Mickel, and the two were married at his parents' home in Downer's Grove. After earning

  14. Obesometric factors associated with increased skin-to-stone distances in renal stone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Christopher B; Shuster, Anatoly; Pinthus, Jehonathan H; Farrokhyar, Forough; Raees, A; Patlas, Michael; Matsumoto, Edward D; Whelan, J Paul

    2012-12-01

    Obese patients are at increased risk for renal stones as well as treatment failures due to increased skin-to-stone distances (SSD) and harder stone compositions. We investigated the relationships between obesometric parameters (body mass index [BMI], body fat distribution and obesity-related hormone levels) with SSD and stone hardness. We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing stone interventions at our institution. Computed tomography (CT) scans were analyzed; adipose tissue was identified according to Hounsfield units (HU) and separated into subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) components. The pixels were averaged at three levels to calculate fat distribution: %VAT = (VAT)/(VAT + SAT). SSD was measured and HU were used as a surrogate for stone hardness. Obesity-related hormones leptin and adiponectin were measured by ELISA. Seventy-nine patients were prospectively enrolled. Mean BMI and %VAT were 30.02 kg/m2 and 40.13 kg/m2. Mean leptin and adiponectin levels were 17.5 ng/mL and 7.67 mcg/mL indicating high risk for metabolic consequences of obesity. Females had greater proportions of subcutaneous fat than males (%VAT 28.4 versus 46.94, p r = 0.454, p = 0.008). Obese patients with %VAT > 40 versus stone compositions as measured by HU than non-diabetics (982.86 versus 648.86, p = 0.001). Obesometric parameters such as BMI, body fat distribution, and the presence of diabetes mellitus are important considerations in the management of renal stone disease. A large proportion of subcutaneous fat, which can be estimated by physical examination, predicts SSD among obese patients and may aid treatment decisions in patients, particularly those without pre-treatment CT scans. Further studies are needed to refine the role of obesometrics in personalizing treatment decisions.

  15. Effect of blind treatment on stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2010-06-01

    Most of the drugs administered to stone patients appear to be inappropriate and doing more harm than good to the patients. The objective of this paper is to identify the prevalence of blind chemotherapy among the stone patients and find out the real indication for the drugs administered. Patients who attended the stone clinic for the first time were interviewed to find out what drugs they had been taking before the attendance at the stone clinic. 350 patients consuming specific drugs relevant to stone formation at least for a period of 15 days were selected for a detailed assessment. The type of drug consumed, the dose, the duration, the side effects, compliance rate and effect on stone disease were assessed. The biochemical profile of the patients was assessed to identify the role of the therapeutic modalities utilised. Conclusions regarding the utility of drugs in the process of stone formation were made. The values were compared with those of patients not on medication and considering laboratory standards. Of the 350 patients studied, 96 patients were consuming potassium citrate in different doses, 50 were consuming allopurinol, 44 cystone, 27 potassium citrate + magnesium, 25 calcury, 24 rowatinex, 21 ayurvedic drugs, 17 dystone, 17 homeopathic medicines and 17 other drugs. The longest duration of compliance was for cystone-2.5 years. All other drugs were stopped by the patients themselves due to recurrence of symptoms. As much as 93% of the patients did not feel that there was any significant relief of symptoms. The side effects which prompted the patients to stop medicine were gastro intestinal upset, particularly with potassium citrate, rowatinex and potassium citrate + magnesium combination. The relevant biochemical changes noted were increased urinary citrate levels in patients consuming potassium citrate alone or in combination with magnesium. Serum uric acid was within normal limits in patients consuming allopurinol. Urine uric acid levels were also

  16. Genetic Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has used its fundraising efforts to help further research programs at Mount Sinai. Spotlight: Gaucher Gaucher Disease is the most common of the lipid storage diseases. Learn about its symptoms, how it ...

  17. 78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N259; FXRS1265030000-134-FF03R06000] Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive... significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...

  18. Sarsen Stones of Stonehenge: How and by what route were the stones transported? What is the significance of their markings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P A

    1961-04-21

    A route via Lockeridge and the Avon Valley, involving a slide down the chalk escarpment, is postulated for the sarsen stones of Stonehenge. The transportation problem would have been greatly simplified if the stones had been relayed from point to point over snow or slush during successive winters. Markings on the stones hitherto undescribed are interpreted.

  19. Using a three-dimensional computer assisted stone volume estimates to evaluate extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy treatment of kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Lene Hyldgaard; Ulriksen, Peter Sommer; Omar, Omar Salah

    2016-01-01

    Hospital between April 2013 and January 2014 and follow-up was possible in 77 (95 %) patients. NCCT was used before and after treatment. Treatment response was expressed as a reduction of the stone volume. Stone characteristics as the stone volumes, HU, SSD and localization were measured by radiologist...

  20. Stone comminution correlates with the average peak pressure incident on a stone during shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N; Zhong, P

    2012-10-11

    To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (R(h)=7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P(+(avg))) incident on the stone (D=10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P(+(avg)) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P(+(avg))) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A radiologic study of salivary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyo Suck; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1986-01-01

    The author examined fifty cases of sialolithiasis diagnosed in the Dept. of Oral Radiology in SNUH by conventional radiography and sialography, and patient's age, sex, location, radiodensity, numbers, shapes, and relation with ducts a nd parenchymas. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The average age of patients was 38.6 years in submandibular sialolithiasis, and 39.2 years in parotid sialolithiasis. 2. There was slightly higher incidence in males (58.0%) than in females (42.0%). 3. Salivary stones were found to be much more in the submandibular gland and duct (82.0%) than in the parotid gland and duct (18.0%). 4. Of 62 submandibular salivary stones, 33 (53.2%) occurred in the main duct, 25 (40.3%) occurred in the hilum, and 4 (6.5%) occurred in the parenchyma. Of 18 parotid salivary stones, 9(50.0%) occurred in the main duct, 5(27.8%) occurred in the parenchyma, and 4 (22 .2%) occurred in the hilum. 5. Of the submandibular salivary stones, the number of radiopaque type was 45 (75.8%), and the number of radiolucent type was 17 (24.2%). Of the parotid salivary stones, the number of radiopaque type was 12 (66.7%), and the number of radiolucent type was 6 (33.3%). 6. The single type was 30 cases (73.2%) in submandibular gland, 6 cases (66.7%) in parotid gland, and the multiple type was 11 cases (26.8%) in submandibular grand, and 3 cases (33. 3%) in parotid gland. 7. Round shape was 35 cases (43.8%), ovoid shape was 22 cases (27.5%), irregular shape was 17 cases (21.3%), and cylindrical shape was 6 cases (7.5%).

  2. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    , soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for

  3. An experimental study on advancement of damping performance of foundations in soft ground. Pt.2: Experiment focusing on damping and antivibration performance of side surface of foundation blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, S.; Shimomura, Y.; Kawamuram, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Hata, I.; Miwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    To aim at progress of damping performance of foundations that will be built at soft ground, we have proposed an improved foundation work of backfilling a damping material into trenches dug along a foundation supported by improved soil medium. This damping material is a mixture of asphalt with crushed stones and rubber chips (MACSRC) and has itself high attenuation and mitigation performance. Not only to comprehend the attenuation ability of the improved foundation work quantitatively and qualitatively but also to verify the effectiveness of this work, we carried out forced vibration tests for two test blocks, which were constructed by a normal construction work and the above improved foundation work. According to the experiment results of the blocks by the normal construction work and by the improved foundation work that were excited by the vibration generator, magnitude of amplitudes of the latter became half than the former. Effectiveness in the attenuation performance of MACSRC was confirmed. When the block by the normal construction work was vibrated, the improved foundation work decreased magnitude of amplitude of the adjacent block than the normal construction work. It is expected that MACSRC would exert mitigation ability against earthquakes or other external and internal forces. (authors)

  4. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. The logical foundations of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hatcher, William S

    1981-01-01

    The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and

  6. Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndromes (SADS) Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SADS Foundation UK SADS Foundation Netherlands SADS Foundation China SADS Foundation Hong Kong Search for: Log in ... research crucial for health of patients and the economy 7/18/2017 More funding for heart disease ...

  7. INCREASING DEMANDS FOR NATURAL STONES USAGE AROUND THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASAN ÜÇPIRTI

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to great demands in construction business, the stone industry has been growing very fast around the world. In fact, the technological iınproveınents on the ınachinery of marble and granite processing plant and quarry in recent years gives impulse to the stone business. According to studies reported� there are recognizable increments on both productions and constructions. Natural stones become driving forces in tl1e countries economy. In this study� so ın e statistical nuınbers for productions and consumption of natural stones will be presented in a base of countries that strongly involve in stone business. The importance of the econoınical impacts of natural stone on countries econoıny wiJI be emphasized. Then, the future of natural stones and its business will be discussed

  8. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Liu, T.Y.; Cheng, H.S.; Zhu, H.X.; Yang, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  9. Occasional, obligatory, and habitual stone tool use in hominin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, John J

    2017-09-01

    Archeologists have long assumed that earlier hominins were obligatory stone tool users. This assumption is deeply embedded in traditional ways of describing the lithic record. This paper argues that lithic evidence dating before 1.7 Ma reflects occasional stone tool use, much like that practiced by nonhuman primates except that it involved flaked-stone cutting tools. Evidence younger than 0.3 Ma is more congruent with obligatory stone tool use, like that among recent humans. The onset of habitual stone tool use at about 1.7 Ma appears correlated with increased hominin logistical mobility (carrying things). The onset of obligatory stone tool use after 0.3 Ma may be linked to the evolution of spoken language. Viewing the lithic evidence dating between 0.3-1.7 Ma as habitual stone tool use explains previously inexplicable aspects of the Early-Middle Pleistocene lithic record. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Approach to Residual Kidney Stone Fragments After Shock Wave Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumay Ižpekci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For kidney stones up to 2 cm in diameter shock wave therapy (SDT is safely applied and kidney stones smaller than 5mm remaining in the kidney after treatment are regarded as clinically insignificant. Management of this condition is still controversial among clinicians. These stones in the kidney may continue to persist without any clinical symptoms or begin to cause clinical signs. In the event that the clinical symptoms are present, it requires detailed urological examination and treatment. The aim in the surgical treatment of urinary tract stones is completely stone clearance but in stones that are not infected, not causing urinary tract obstruction and without clinical symptoms medical treatment is also beneficial fort he prevention of growth and recurrence. In addition, surgical intervention is also possible for the residual stone fragments which become symptomatic during follow-up.

  11. Contemporary Management of Medium-Sized (10-20 mm) Renal Stones: A Retrospective Multicenter Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiremit, Murat Can; Guven, Selcuk; Sarica, Kemal; Ozturk, Ahmet; Buldu, Ibrahim; Kafkasli, Alper; Balasar, Mehmet; Istanbulluoglu, Okan; Horuz, Rahim; Cetinel, Cihangir Ali; Kandemir, Abdulkadir; Albayrak, Selami

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate contemporary management approaches to medium-sized (10-20 mm) renal stones. A total of 935 patients treated for medium-sized renal stones (10-20 mm) between July 2012 and March 2014 were included in the study program. Contemporary minimally invasive approaches applied in the management of such stones were evaluated and compared. The cohort consisted of 561 male (60%) and 374 female (40%) patients. Of the 935 patients with medium-sized renal calculi, 535 (57.2%) were treated with shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), 201 (21.4%) with retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), 110 (11.7%) with minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (miniperc), and the remaining 89 (11.7%) patients with micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy (microperc). In the SWL group, stones were located mostly in the pelvis (51%), while in the miniperc and microperc groups, they were located mainly in the lower pole (46%, 53%, respectively). Stone-free rates after a single session were 77.2%, 86.1%, 88.8%, and 83.6% in the SWL, RIRS, microperc, and miniperc groups, respectively. Although no serious complications (above Clavien level III) were noted in any of the groups evaluated, Clavien I to II complications were common in the miniperc group. Although SWL is the preferred treatment option for patients with medium-sized (10-20 mm) renal stones, endourologic methods also have been found to have a significant role. Relatively lower complication rates along with higher stone-free status observed with the RIRS technique compared with percutaneous approaches have made this method a valuable option in the management of such stones in recent years.

  12. The "Global Heritage Stone Resource": Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry

    2013-04-01

    The "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation arose in 2007 as a suggested mechanism to enhance international recognition of famous dimension stones. There were also many aspects of dimension stone study that had no formal recognition in mainstream geology and which could be recognised in a formal geological sense via an internationally acceptable geological standard. Such a standard could also receive recognition by other professionals and the wider community. From the start, it was appreciated that active quarrying would an important aspect of the designation so a designation different to any other standard was needed. Also the project was linked to the long-established Commission C-10 Building Stone and Ornamental Rocks of the International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG C-10). Since 2007, the "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) proposal has evolved in both in stature and purpose due to an increasing number of interested international correspondents that were actively sought via conference participation. The "English Stone Forum" in particular was pursuing similar aims and was quick to advise that English dimension stone types were being recognised as having international, national or regional importance. Furthermore the proposed designation was suggested as to having significant value in safeguarding designated stone types whilst also providing a potential mechanism in preventing heritage stone replacement by cheap substitutes. During development it also became apparent that stone types having practical applications such as roofing slates and millstones or even stone types utilised by prehistoric man can also be recognised by the new designation. The heritage importance of architects was also recognised. Most importantly an international network evolved, primarily including geologists, that now seems to be the largest international grouping of dimension stone professionals. This has assisted the project to affiliate with the

  13. A study on the utilization of stone powder sludge (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chi Kwon; Sohn, Jeong Soo; Kim, Byung Gyu [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This study was performed to activate the building stone industry by increasing the recycling amounts of waste resources and minimizing the generation of the environmental pollution materials. In order to utilize the waste stone and stone powder sludge generated from the domestic quarry and cutting process of stone plates, the manufacturing technology of the artificial stone plate as a building material was developed. Based on the first and second year results, this third-year study was performed for manufacturing the large-scale artificial stone plate of 500 x 500 x 20 mm. Also for applying these artificial stone plates to the flooring and interior materials in the building industry, the manufacture of the large-scale artificial stone plates with various patterns and colors was carried out by changing the species and the ratio of raw materials, amounts of binder and molding pressure. Artificial stone plate was composed of waste crushed stone, stone powder sludge and binder which was used for binding waste stone and rock powder each other. In order to investigate the physical properties of large-scale artificial stone, the measure of specific gravity, absorption ratio, P-wave velocity, compressive strength, tensile strength, Young`s modulus, and Poisson`s ratio were carried out. As a result of testing physical properties, there was no difference between small-scale artificial stone and large-scale one. At the optimum conditions it was shown that the properties of artificial stones were as follows, 2.32 of specific gravity, 0.33 of water-absorption ratio, 780 kg/cm{sup 2} of compressive strength and 98 kg/cm{sup 2} of tensile strength. Based on the above results, the preliminary economic estimation on the manufacture of the artificial stone plate was carried out. It was shown that the manufacturing cost of the artificial stone plate was 18,000 won/m{sup 2}, which was merely half that of natural stone plate, and the application of these on the building stone industry

  14. Antithetic Foundations of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at decrypting the manner in which the foundations of Economics as a science and the meanings of the relevant explanatory formulas are being shaped. My analytical endeavor focuses on understanding the peculiarities of what is referred to as the object of study of the science known as Economics, an academic synthesis of concept-related breakthroughs regarding economicity. The explicit purpose of this analysis is to identify perennial benchmarks in economic cognition whereby this ensures its consistency. The implicit purpose is to shape a cognitive model in line with the specifics of the conceptual universe of Economics, as well as with the sources of the economic realities that are subject to a sui-generis relativism. The primary benefit of this endeavor consists in systemizing the conceptual prospects with an antithetic nature that allow for the explanations of the state of economic rationality and generate the understanding of what the source of economicity is and how it behaves. As such, the conclusions are marked by the stringent need of more precisely defining economic knowledge in order to match the changing nature of economic reality, as an expression that embraces the meeting point of two ontological vistas that are methodologically separated by some theories: human nature and human condition. Economics as a science thus features, apart from a conceptual substrate that needs to be spotted, an ontological background that needs to be revealed. The role played by this background appears to be most frequently ignored. The joint identification of both direct and contextual determinants for a sensitive area of humankind, i.e. the economy, is a direction to be followed by the royal path of rational knowledge.

  15. Numerical simulation of installation of skirt foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelsten, Bjoern Vidar

    1997-12-31

    Skirt foundation has been increasingly used for permanent offshore oil installations and anchors for drilling ships. Suction is commonly used in skirt foundation installing. If a large amount of suction is applied, the soil around the foundation may fail and the foundation become useless. This thesis studies failure due to high seepage gradients, aiming to provide a basis for reducing the risk of such failures. Skirt penetration model testing has shown that to solve the problem one must understand what is going on at the skirt tip during suction installation. A numerical model based on micro mechanics was developed as continuum hypothesis was seen to be unsuitable to describe the processes in the critical phases of the failure. The numerical model combines two-dimensional elliptical particles with the finite difference method for flow to model water flow in a granular material. The key idea is to formulate the permeability as a function of the porosity of the grain assembly and so obtain an interaction between the finite difference method on flow and the particle movement. A computer program, DYNELL, was developed and used to simulate: (1) weight penetration of a skirt wall, (2) combined suction and weight penetration of a skirt wall, and (3) critical gradient tests around a skirt wall to study failure mechanisms. The model calculations agree well with laboratory experiments. 16 refs., 124 figs., 21 tabs.

  16. Probability and sensitivity analysis of machine foundation and soil interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králik J., jr.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of the sensitivity and probabilistic analysis of the reliability of the machine foundation depending on variability of the soil stiffness, structure geometry and compressor operation. The requirements to design of the foundation under rotating machines increased due to development of calculation method and computer tools. During the structural design process, an engineer has to consider problems of the soil-foundation and foundation-machine interaction from the safety, reliability and durability of structure point of view. The advantages and disadvantages of the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the machine foundation resistance are discussed. The sensitivity of the machine foundation to the uncertainties of the soil properties due to longtime rotating movement of machine is not negligible for design engineers. On the example of compressor foundation and turbine fy. SIEMENS AG the affectivity of the probabilistic design methodology was presented. The Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS simulation method for the analysis of the compressor foundation reliability was used on program ANSYS. The 200 simulations for five load cases were calculated in the real time on PC. The probabilistic analysis gives us more complex information about the soil-foundation-machine interaction as the deterministic analysis.

  17. Correlation between Copper, Zinc and some lipids in serum, bile and stones of patients with gall stone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Farsakh, F.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of Cu, Zn and some lipid concentrations were carried out in serum, bile and gall stone samples collected from 76 patients undergoing surgery for removal of gall stones. The results showed that Cu and Zn were present in micromolar concentration in bile (average Cu concentration = 13.4 ± 0.92, average Zn concentration = 13.4 ± 1.05) and gall stones (average Cu concentration = 2.8 ± 0.16, average Zn concentration = 1.8 ± 0.16 mmol/ g stone). Cross-tabulation of the results showed significant positive linear correlations (p< 0.01) between stone Zn vs. bile cholesterol (r = 0.253), stone Zn vs. bile bilirubin (r = 0.396) (in mixed stones only). This suggested that the more hydrophobic the bile sample, the more Zn co-precipitate with cholesterol or bilirubin. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Theodore Presser and His Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, William J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the life of Theodore Presser and the establishment of the Presser Foundation in 1916. Presser was a music publisher and the founder of "Etude" magazine. The Presser Foundation provides scholarships to music students, aid to elderly music teachers, and help to colleges for building music facilities. (CS)

  19. National Skills Standards Development Program: Organization and Operation of Technical Committees To Develop National Skill Standards for Competency in the Electronics Industry. The Third Party Summative Evaluation of the Electronic Industries Foundation Project. Phase I & II. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Charles

    The Electronics Industries Foundation was awarded a project to develop national entry-level standards and a certification system. Ten specialties were included: automotive electronics, avionics, biomedical electronics, business machines, consumer products electronics, general electronics, industrial electronics, instrumentation, microcomputer, and…

  20. Piezoelectric extracorporeal lithotripsy of gallbladder stones: New inclusion criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Shin, Yong Moon; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Yoon, Yong Bum; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    To establish the optimal inclusion criteria for the patients with gallbladder stones to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) by retrospectively analyzed our current results. Data obtained from 201 patients with gallbladder stones treated with ESWL and oral chemolytic agent from November 1988 to July 1992 were retrospectively analyzed. Ninety-six had radiolucent stones and 105 had radiopaque stones. We used piezoelectric lithotriptor(EDAP LT. 01) and there were no limitation in number of sessions or total number of shock waves. ESWL was repeated until the size of the largest fragment is smaller than 4 mm. Follow up ultrasound was done in every three months after the successful fragmentation. Average length of the follow up was 205 days. We analyzed the rate of successful fragmentation, number of shock waves needed to achieve successful fragmentation according to the size, number of stones as well as the presence of the calcification. Stone-free rate after 6 months was also calculated from all subgroups and compared to each other. The rate of successful fragmentation was 76.2% for radiolucent stones and 65.6% for radiopaque stones(p> 0.05) after 46,731 and 56,111 shock wave respectively(p > 0.05) The rate of successful fragmentation was highest in patients with single, radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm(91.7%) followed by single radiolucent stone larger than 2 cm(83.3%), multiple calcified stones smaller than 2 cm (77.4%) and single calcified stone smaller than 2 cm(72.1%). The rate of complete stone clearance after 6 month follow-up was highest in patients with single radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm (63.3%) and followed by multiple calcified stones smaller than 2 cm(37.3%), single calcified stone smaller than 2 cm(33.9%)(p < 0.05). To obtain better results with ESWL in patients with gallbladder stone, the authors propose a more strict inclusion criteria, which is the patient with a single, radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm.

  1. Piezoelectric extracorporeal lithotripsy of gallbladder stones: New inclusion criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Shin, Yong Moon; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Yoon, Yong Bum; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung

    1994-01-01

    To establish the optimal inclusion criteria for the patients with gallbladder stones to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) by retrospectively analyzed our current results. Data obtained from 201 patients with gallbladder stones treated with ESWL and oral chemolytic agent from November 1988 to July 1992 were retrospectively analyzed. Ninety-six had radiolucent stones and 105 had radiopaque stones. We used piezoelectric lithotriptor(EDAP LT. 01) and there were no limitation in number of sessions or total number of shock waves. ESWL was repeated until the size of the largest fragment is smaller than 4 mm. Follow up ultrasound was done in every three months after the successful fragmentation. Average length of the follow up was 205 days. We analyzed the rate of successful fragmentation, number of shock waves needed to achieve successful fragmentation according to the size, number of stones as well as the presence of the calcification. Stone-free rate after 6 months was also calculated from all subgroups and compared to each other. The rate of successful fragmentation was 76.2% for radiolucent stones and 65.6% for radiopaque stones(p> 0.05) after 46,731 and 56,111 shock wave respectively(p > 0.05) The rate of successful fragmentation was highest in patients with single, radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm(91.7%) followed by single radiolucent stone larger than 2 cm(83.3%), multiple calcified stones smaller than 2 cm (77.4%) and single calcified stone smaller than 2 cm(72.1%). The rate of complete stone clearance after 6 month follow-up was highest in patients with single radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm (63.3%) and followed by multiple calcified stones smaller than 2 cm(37.3%), single calcified stone smaller than 2 cm(33.9%)(p < 0.05). To obtain better results with ESWL in patients with gallbladder stone, the authors propose a more strict inclusion criteria, which is the patient with a single, radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm

  2. Stone tools from locality Crkvine in Stubline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonović Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone artifacts from excavations in Crkvine in 2008. originate from two stratigraphic units, both chronologically defined as the final stage of the Vinča culture: 1. distruction layer above and 2. from the floor of House 1/2008. None of the stone artifact types showed any specific regularity in vertical distribution. However, in the southern part of the Structure/House 1 there is higher abundance in horizontal distribution of both types of tools. Abundance of cores, blades for rejuvenation of the cores and unretouched blades among the chipped artifacts suggest that, most probably, this object was a working place where the artifacts were made (Fig. 9/1. Ground stone artifacts - all rought-out and final products, whole and fragmented pieces, ground-edge and abrasive tools, are equally distributed in the House 1/2008 as well as in the distruction layer above it. Only non-determined fragments and pieces of raw material, both defined as products of making stone tools, are far more numerous in the distruction layer above the House 1/2008. Higher concentrations of finds are situated in the House 1/2008, especially in its southern part, on the floor and above it, while the number of finds out of the House significantly decreases (Fig. 9/2. Such distribution of ground stone artifacts indicates that the production of stone artifacts was done within the household (large number of flakes of „light white stone“, presence of grindstone and whetstone, as well as that there occurred active preparation of food within the Vinča’s objects (querns and pounders within the houses. Findings of numerous quartzite, chert and jasper pebbles out of the House 1/2008, 2 metres away from the northeastern angle of the House (pottery group 1, could not be connected with production of chipped and ground stone artifacts. There are no any traces of treatment and utilization on the pebbles, and the pebbles themselves do not belong to raw material of good quality due to

  3. Various Stone-Wales defects in phagraphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openov, L. A.; Podlivaev, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Various Stone-Wales defects in phagraphene, which is a graphene allotrope, predicted recently are studied in terms of the nonorthogonal tight-binding model. The energies of the defect formation and the heights of energy barriers preventing the formation and annealing of the defects are found. Corresponding frequency factors in the Arrhenius formula are calculated. The evolution of the defect structure is studied in the real-time mode using the molecular dynamics method.

  4. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich; Korolev Evgeniy Valer’evich

    2015-01-01

    In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III) and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physica...

  5. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of bile duct stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Moo Sang; Jo, Jang Hwan; Kim, Byung Ro

    1989-01-01

    During the past one and half year, we performed ESWL therapy in 13 patients with common bile duct and intrahepatic duct stones, applying Lithostar-R (Siemens co. West Germany) and analyzed their results. In 13 patients, 9 residual common bile duct stones and 7 intrahepatic duct stones were selected postoperatively. The size of stones were ranged from 0.7 cm to 3.5 cm in diameter. 2 stones were multiple and the remained 14 were single in number. The visualization of stones were done with fluoroscopy after the injection of contrast media via cholangiographic T-tube or ERCP. ESWL were applied continuously until stone disintegration was visible, or upto maximum number of 3500 discharge of shock wave. If not disintegrated upto 3500, patients were underwent second or third lithotripsy session with interval of one week. Our results showed that among 9 common bile duct stones, 4 were completely disintegrated and passed out spontaneously, but 3 partially fragmented and removed by the additional procedure. 2 were failed. Among 7 intrahepatic stones, 3 completely and 2 partially were succeeded. One stone partially fragmented were retained without removal and other one were failed. Skin petechia in all patients were revealed on the entry port of shock wave, but no serous complication was not occurred

  6. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of bile duct stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Moo Sang; Jo, Jang Hwan; Kim, Byung Ro [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    During the past one and half year, we performed ESWL therapy in 13 patients with common bile duct and intrahepatic duct stones, applying Lithostar-R (Siemens co. West Germany) and analyzed their results. In 13 patients, 9 residual common bile duct stones and 7 intrahepatic duct stones were selected postoperatively. The size of stones were ranged from 0.7 cm to 3.5 cm in diameter. 2 stones were multiple and the remained 14 were single in number. The visualization of stones were done with fluoroscopy after the injection of contrast media via cholangiographic T-tube or ERCP. ESWL were applied continuously until stone disintegration was visible, or upto maximum number of 3500 discharge of shock wave. If not disintegrated upto 3500, patients were underwent second or third lithotripsy session with interval of one week. Our results showed that among 9 common bile duct stones, 4 were completely disintegrated and passed out spontaneously, but 3 partially fragmented and removed by the additional procedure. 2 were failed. Among 7 intrahepatic stones, 3 completely and 2 partially were succeeded. One stone partially fragmented were retained without removal and other one were failed. Skin petechia in all patients were revealed on the entry port of shock wave, but no serous complication was not occurred.

  7. Characterizing Rosetta Stone Exoplanets with JWST Transit Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nikole K.; Clampin, Mark; Seager, Sara; Valenti, Jeff A.; Mountain, Matt; JWST Telescope Scientist GTO Team

    2017-06-01

    JWST will for the first time provide for spectroscopic (R > 100) observation of systems hosting transiting exoplanets over the critical wavelength range from 0.6 to 28.5 microns. Our team will take advantage of JWST's spectral coverage and resolution to characterize a small number of exoplanets in exquisite detail. We plan to focus our efforts on single representative members of the hot-Jupiter, warm-Neptune, and temperate-Earth populations in both transmission and emission over the full wavelength range of JWST. Our JWST observations will hopefully become 'Rosetta Stones' that will serve as benchmarks for further observations of planets within each representative population and a lasting legacy of the JWST mission. Here we will describe our observational plan and how we turned our science goals into an implemented Cycle 1 JWST program.

  8. Pattern of urinary tract stone diseases in Mekelle, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Mekonnen Hagos

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate and analyze the pattern of patients with urinary stone diseases admitted to Mekelle Hospital. Between Sept 2003 to Sept 2006, 102 patients with urinary stone disease were admitted to Mekelle Hospital. In this descriptive retrospective audit, case notes were obtained from medical record office and were analyzed for age, sex, localization of the stone disease and the geographic back grounds. Seventy six (74.5%) of the patients were males and 26 (25.5%) were females. There were 102 (13.6%) cases of urinary stone disease admitted to Mekelle Hospital out of 750 total admissions for urological disease for intervention in the surgical ward during the study period. There were 76 (74.5%) males and 26 (25.5%) females and the sex ratio was (M: F: 2.9:1). Most (46.0%) of the urinary stone diseases were between 0-19 year age group both in males and females. The median age was 20 years (range from 2-74 years) and the mean was 25.4 years. Urinary bladder stones were the most common urinary tract stone diseases accounting for 47 (46.0%) followed by renal stones 29 (28.4%), ureteric 16 (15.6%) and urethral 10 (9.8%) stone disease; in that order of frequency. The geographical back ground of the patients with urinary tract stone disease in this report has shown that majorities (53.7%) were from urban and the remaining (44.2%) were from the rural areas. This study has depicted that urinary bladder stone diseases are the most common stone diseases affecting the younger age group. Since this is an institutional based study, it underestimates the magnitude and the pattern of urinary stone diseases at all level. Nevertheless, the audit provides useful information on the socio demographic variables, localization and the geographic back ground of the patients.

  9. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Erhard M.

    1987-06-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  10. Developing a stone database for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin W; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M

    2011-09-01

    Our objective was to design an intranet-based database to streamline stone patient management and data collection. The system developers used a rapid development approach that removed the need for laborious and unnecessary documentation, instead focusing on producing a rapid prototype that could then be altered iteratively. By using open source development software and website best practice, the development cost was kept very low in comparison with traditional clinical applications. Information about each patient episode can be entered via a user-friendly interface. The bespoke electronic stone database removes the need for handwritten notes, dictation, and typing. From the database, files may be automatically generated for clinic letters, operation notes. and letters to family doctors. These may be printed or e-mailed from the database. Data may be easily exported for audits, coding, and research. Data collection remains central to medical practice, to improve patient safety, to analyze medical and surgical outcomes, and to evaluate emerging treatments. Establishing prospective data collection is crucial to this process. In the current era, we have the opportunity to embrace available technology to facilitate this process. The database template could be modified for use in other clinics. The database that we have designed helps to provide a modern and efficient clinical stone service.

  11. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Industrial foundations are self-governing non profit institutions that own business companies. This ownership structure is found in a fair number of Northern European companies, some of them successful world class competitors. Standard agency theory would predict foundation-owned companies...... to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...

  12. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  13. Efficacy of surgical techniques and factors affecting residual stone rate in the treatment of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Hüseyin; Budak, Salih; Kumsar, Şükrü; Köse, Osman; Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Adsan, Öztuğ

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate, the efficacy of surgical methods and the factors affecting the residual stone rate by scrutinizing retrospectively the patients who had undergone renal stone surgery. Records of 109 cases of kidney stones who had been surgically treated between January 2010, and July 2013 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups in terms of surgical treatment; open stone surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Patients' history, physical examination, biochemical and radiological images and operative and postoperative data were recorded. The patients had undergone PNL (n=74; 67.9%), RIRS (n=22;20.2%), and open renal surgery (n=13; 11.9%). The mean and median ages of the patients were 46±9, 41 (21-75) and, 42 (23-67) years, respectively. The mean stone burden was 2.6±0.7 cm(2) in the PNL, 1.4±0.1 cm(2) in the RIRS, and 3.1±0.9 cm(2) in the open surgery groups. The mean operative times were 126±24 min in the PNL group, 72±12 min in the RIRS group and 82±22 min in the open surgery group. The duration of hospitalisation was 3.1±0.2 days, 1.2±0.3 days and 3.4±1.1 days respectively. While the RIRS group did not need blood transfusion, in the PNL group blood transfusions were given in the PNL (n=18), and open surgery (n=2) groups. Residual stones were detected in the PNL (n=22), open surgery (n=2), and RIRS (n=5) groups. PNL and RIRS have been seen as safe and effective methods in our self application too. However, it should not be forgotten that as a basical method, open surgery may be needed in cases of necessity.

  14. Melting behaviour of raw materials and recycled stone wool waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Falk, Vickie; Agersted, Karsten; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2018-01-01

    Stone wool is a widely used material for building insulation, to provide thermal comfort along with fire stability and acoustic comfort for all types of buildings. Stone wool waste generated either during production or during renovation or demolition of buildings can be recycled back into the sto...... wool melt production. This study investigates and compares the thermal response and melting behaviour of a conventional stone wool charge and stone wool waste. The study combines differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC reveals...... that the conventional charge and stone wool waste have fundamentally different thermal responses, where the charge experiences gas release, phase transition and melting of the individual raw materials. The stone wool waste experiences glass transition, crystallization and finally melting. Both DSC and HSM measurements...

  15. [Usefullness of the StoneBreaker lithotripter for percutaneous nephrolithotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Peso, Almudena Coloma; González, Inmaculada Fernández; Gálvez, Milagros Jiménez; Abad, Pablo Garrido; Fajardo, Gloria Bocardo; Fernández, Luis Miguel Herranz; Arjona, Manuel Fernández; Torres, Lorenzo Herrero; Sanz, Ignacio Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the history, many devices have been used for breaking urinary tract stones. StoneBreaker (LMA Urology, Gland, Switzerland) is a second generation of intracorporeal lithotripter, pneumatic and portable, which adds several new advantages, like effectiveness in stone fragmentation and easy handling, very useful during percutaneous lithotripsy. We report the case of a 40 year-old male patient, with a left kidney pyelic lithiasis, who was treated by percutaneous lithotripsy, under general anaesthesia, with StoneBreaker (LMA Urology, Gland, Switzerland) as lithotripter. StoneBreaker (LMA Urology, Gland, Switzerland) is a lithotripter usable with rigid and semirigid ureteroscopes, much more powerful than its predecessors. It is able to decrease the number of shocks necessary for stone fragmentation, without bigger tissue reaction. It also has a more comfortable design due to the absence of connections, and its power by replaceable carbon dioxide cartridges.

  16. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Azab

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: There is no statistically significant effect of stone size, anatomy of the lower calyx and BMI on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal stones. However, small stone size (≤2 cm, a shorter and wider infundibulum and a larger lower-pole infundibulopelvic angle seem to promote a more rapid and more complete stone clearance.

  17. Quantifying the Use of stones in the stone age Fireplaces of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sikk, Kaarel

    2017-01-01

    Fireplaces and burnt stones related to them are common features found at Stone Age settlement sites. Although information about them is present in archaeological reports and also available in publications, there has been no general research done regarding combustion features specifically. The purpose of this study was to fill the gap of relevant research and to test the hypothesis that the structural features of fireplaces reveal information on the subsistence model of settlements.The study is b...

  18. Physical Foundations of Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J M

    2006-01-01

    In 1952, Mme Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published a major paper, Theoreme d'existence pour certains systemes d'equations aux derivees partielles non lineaires (Acta Math. 88 141-225), which laid the foundation for modern studies of the Cauchy problem in general relativity. The fiftieth anniversary of this event was celebrated with an eponymous Cargese Summer School in 2002. The proceedings of that summer school are summarized electronically (as audio, video, transparencies and lecture notes, where available) on a DVD archive included with this volume, and are also available on the internet. However the organizers decided that a separate volume describing the 'state of the art in mathematical general relativity' would be useful, and this book is the result. It includes some material not covered in the school and excludes some school material which has been covered adequately elsewhere. About one fifth of the book is devoted to a survey of Smoothness at Null Infinity and the Structure of Initial Data by Helmut Friedrich. This is a modern study of gravitational radiation, and the analysis of Einstein's equations. It is extremely helpful to survey all of this material, including some of the latest developments, using a consistent notation. This article is strongly recommended to anyone hoping to gain a foothold in this area. Lars Andersson has surveyed, in The Global Existence Problem in General Relativity, some results and conjectures about the global properties of 3+1-dimensional spacetimes with a compact Cauchy surface. Again it is very useful to have essentially all of the known results presented in a consistent notation. This material is not on the DVD. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat has contributed a long research paper, Future Complete U(1) Symmetric Einsteinian Spacetimes, the Unpolarized Case. There is a non-linear stability theorem due to her and Vincent Moncrief in which spacetime is of the form M x R where M is a circle bundle over a compact orientable surface of genus

  19. Kaiser Family Foundation - Content Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Chartpacks, chartbooks, factsheets, reports, and slide presentations bring Kaiser Family Foundation information to life, and can be easily incorporated into your...

  20. Analysis of kidney stones by PIXE and RBS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkofai, M.M.; Hallak, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Human kidney stones were analyzed by PIXE and RBS techniques using 2 MeV He ++ beam. The stones were found to contain the elements: C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Br. Results obtained by PIXE agree with the results obtained by RBS within experimental errors. A Mechanism for the formation of the kidney stones is suggested. 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ziaie Moayed; B. Mohammadi-Haji

    2016-01-01

    Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of ...

  2. Strength Improvement of Clay Soil by Using Stone Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Sameer Abdulrasool

    2015-01-01

    Soil stabilization with stone powder is a good solution for the construction of subgrade for road way and railway lines, especially under the platforms and mostly in transition zones between embankments and rigid structures, where the mechanical properties of supporting soils are very influential. Stone powder often has a unique composition which justifies the need for research to study the feasibility of using this stone powder type for ground improvement applications. This paper presents re...

  3. Accuracy of endoscopic intraoperative assessment of urologic stone size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nishant; Chew, Ben; Knudsen, Bodo; Lipkin, Michael; Wenzler, David; Sur, Roger L

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopic treatment of renal calculi relies on surgeon assessment of residual stone fragment size for either basket removal or for the passage of fragments postoperatively. We therefore sought to determine the accuracy of endoscopic assessment of renal calculi size. Between January and May 2013, five board-certified endourologists participated in an ex vivo artificial endoscopic simulation. A total of 10 stones (pebbles) were measured (mm) by nonparticipating urologist (N.D.P.) with electronic calibers and placed into separate labeled opaque test tubes to prevent visualization of the stones through the side of the tube. Endourologists were blinded to the actual size of the stones. A flexible digital ureteroscope with a 200-μm core sized laser fiber in the working channel as a size reference was placed through the ureteroscope into the test tube to estimate the stone size (mm). Accuracy was determined by obtaining the correlation coefficient (r) and constructing an Altman-Bland plot. Endourologists tended to overestimate actual stone size by a margin of 0.05 mm. The Pearson correlation coefficient was r=0.924, with a p-valuestones (stones (≥4 mm), r=0.911 vs r=0.666. Altman-bland plot analysis suggests that surgeons are able to accurately estimate stone size within a range of -1.8 to +1.9 mm. This ex vivo simulation study demonstrates that endoscopic assessment is reliable when assessing stone size. On average, there was a slight tendency to overestimate stone size by 0.05 mm. Most endourologists could visually estimate stone size within 2 mm of the actual size. These findings could be generalized to state that endourologists are accurately able to intraoperatively assess residual stone fragment size to guide decision making.

  4. Analysis of kidney stones by PIXE and RBS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkofai, M M [Physics Dept., Yarmouk University, Irbid, (Jordan); Hallak, A B [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-10-01

    Human kidney stones were analyzed by PIXE and RBS techniques using 2 MeV He{sup ++} beam. The stones were found to contain the elements: C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Br. Results obtained by PIXE agree with the results obtained by RBS within experimental errors. A Mechanism for the formation of the kidney stones is suggested. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Can ureteral stones cause pain without causing hydronephrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Gee, Michael S; Noble, Vicki E; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-09-01

    While computerized tomography (CT) is the gold standard for diagnosis of ureterolithiasis, ultrasound is a less costly and radiation-free alternative which is commonly used to evaluate patients with ureteral colic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency with which patients with ureteral stones and renal colic demonstrate hydronephrosis in order to better understand the evaluation of these patients. Two hundred and forty-eight consecutive patients presenting with ureteral colic and diagnosed with a single unilateral ureteral stone on CT scan in an urban tertiary care emergency department were retrospectively reviewed. Radiology reports were reviewed for stone size, diagnosis, and degree of hydronephrosis. Of the 248 patients evaluated for suspected ureteral stone, 221 (89.1 %) demonstrated any hydronephrosis, while 27 (10.9 %) did not. Hydronephrosis grade, available in 194 patients, was as follows: mild-70.6 %, moderate-27.8 %, and severe-1.5 %. Mean patient age was 47.0 years (SD 15.5), gender distribution was 35.9 % female and 64.1 % male, and mean stone axial diameter was 4.1 mm (SD 2.4). Stone location was as follows: ureteropelvic junction-4.1 %, proximal ureter-21 %, distal ureter-24.9 %, and ureterovesical junction-47.1 %. Axial stone diameter and coronal length (craniocaudal) were both significant predictors of degree of hydronephrosis (ANOVA, p hydronephrosis. In patients with ureteral stones and colic, nearly 11 % do not demonstrate any hydronephrosis and a majority (nearly 71 %) will demonstrate only mild hydronephrosis. Stone diameter appears to be related to degree of hydronephrosis, whereas age, gender, and stone location are not. The lower incidence of hydronephrosis for small stones causing renal colic may explain the lower diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound when compared to CT for detecting ureteral stones.

  6. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    OpenAIRE

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.; Sigurdarson, S.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, conventional rubble mound breakwaters are designed with stable armour units, and consequently, very large stones or even artificial armour units are required. Reshaping breakwater designs allow reshaping of the seward slope thus involving stone movements. Ultimately, dependent on the degree of safety in the design, this reshaping process might end up in a stable profile where no changes in the cross sections occur even though stone movements are allowed.Unfortunately, large mov...

  7. EVALUATION OF CONSISTENCY AND SETTING TIME OF IRANIAN DENTAL STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F GOL BIDI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental stones are widely used in dentistry and the success or failure of many dental treatments depend on the accuracy of these gypsums. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of Iranian dental stones and comparison between Iranian and foreign ones. In this investigation, consistency and setting time were compared between Pars Dendn, Almas and Hinrizit stones. The latter is accepted by ADA (American Dental Association. Consistency and setting time are 2 of 5 properties that are necessitated by both ADA specification No. 25 and Iranian Standard Organization specification No. 2569 for evaluation of dental stones. Methods. In this study, the number and preparation of specimens and test conditions were done according to the ADA specification No. 25 and all the measurements were done with vicat apparatus. Results. The results of this study showed that the standard consistency of Almas stone was obtained by 42ml water and 100gr powder and the setting time of this stone was 11±0.03 min. Which was with in the limits of ADA specification (12±4 min. The standard consistency of Pars Dandan stone was obrianed by 31ml water and 100 gr powder, but the setting time of this stone was 5± 0.16 min which was nt within the limits of ADA specification. Discussion: Comparison of Iranian and Hinrizit stones properties showed that two probable problems of Iranian stones are:1- Unhemogrnousity of Iranian stoned powder was caused by uncontrolled temperature, pressure and humidity in the production process of stone. 2- Impurities such as sodium chloride was responsible fo shortening of Pars Dendens setting time.

  8. Foundations of genetic algorithms 1991

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 1991 (FOGA 1) discusses the theoretical foundations of genetic algorithms (GA) and classifier systems.This book compiles research papers on selection and convergence, coding and representation, problem hardness, deception, classifier system design, variation and recombination, parallelization, and population divergence. Other topics include the non-uniform Walsh-schema transform; spurious correlations and premature convergence in genetic algorithms; and variable default hierarchy separation in a classifier system. The grammar-based genetic algorithm; condition

  9. Experimental Research of Engine Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta-Elena Chiţan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries a compact presentation of experimental research of engine-foundations. The dynamic phenomena are so complex, that the vibrations cannot be estimated in the design stage. The design engineer of an engine foundation must foresee through a dynamic analysis of the vibrations, those measures that lead to the avoidance or limiting of the bad effects caused by the vibrations.

  10. Penyelesaian Persoalan Transportasi Fuzzy Cost Menggunakan Pendekatan Basis Tree dan Metode Nwc-stepping Stone

    OpenAIRE

    Ari, Maxsi; Herman, Asep

    2013-01-01

    The issue of transportation is a linier program. Practically, variables of transportation problems may vary that emerges more than single. Fuzzy cost idea in transportation problems is required. The application of basis tree approach and NWC-Stepping Stone method is used to determine a minimum cost of purchase and delivery of commodity occurred for some suppliers. The company can do a cost-saving and be more effective in determining goods purchase from the supplier. The method used is quanti...

  11. Can Hounsfield Unit Value Predict Type of Urinary Stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of this study is to determine the role of Hounsfield unit (HU in predicting results of stone analysis. Material and Method: This study included 199 patients to whom percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL procedures were applied between January 2008 and May 2011 in our clinic. Before the procedure HU values of kidney stones were measured using non-contrast computed tomography. After the operation, obtained stone samples were analysed using X-ray diffraction technique. HU values were compared with stone analysis results. Results: Stone analysis revealed eight different stone types. Distribution of stone types and HU value ranges were as follows: 85% calcium oxalate monohydrate, 730-1130 HU; 38% calcium oxalate dihydrate, 510-810 HU; 21% uric acid, 320-550 HU; 23% struvite, 614-870 HU; 7% calcium hydrogene phosphate, 1100-1365 HU; 3% cystine, 630-674 HU; 15% mixed uric acid plus calcium oxalate, 499-840 HU; and 7% mixed cystine plus calcium phosphate, 430-520 HU. HU values of all stone types ranged between 320 and 1365. There was a statistically significant relation between HU values of uric acid and non uric acid stones (p

  12. Uric acid stones increase the risk of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ching-Chia; Chien, Tsu-Ming; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Chun-Nung; Chou, Yii-Her

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of uric acid stones and their potential risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 401 patients (196 with uric acid stone and 205 without) were enrolled from our database of patients with urolithiasis. We analyzed the clinical demographic features, stone location, urine chemistries, and renal function. There was a significant difference (p uric acid group. Patients with uric acid stones had much lower pH of urine (p uric acid level (p = 0.002). Notably, those with uric acid stones had worse eGFR than those with non-uric acid stones. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age over 60 years (ORs = 9.19; 95% CI 3.5-24.3), female sex (ORs = 4.01; 95% CI 1.8-9.0), hyperuricemia (ORs = 8.47; 95% CI 1.6-43.5), and uric acid stone (OR = 2.86; 95% CI 1.2-6.7) were the independent predictors of poor prognoses in CKD. Therefore, an association exists between uric acid stones and higher prevalence of CKD. Patients with uric acid stones may need close monitoring of renal function during follow-up.

  13. Regional and detailed research studies for stone resources in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 6 subjects. 1) A study on the potentiality of building stone development from granite mass within Pocheon area, Kyeonggi Province. 2) The research on the variance of color and glossiness by means of Weather-Ometer. 3) Regional research studies on granites in Gimje-Yeonggwang area. 4) A study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone weathering. 5) Borehole radar survey at the granite quarry mine, Pocheon, Kyounggi province. 6) Borehole radar diffraction tomography. (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Mold attack on frescoes and stone walls of Gradac monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Miloš Č.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfungi can colonize stone surfaces and form sub-aerial biofilms which can lead to biodeterioration of historic monuments. In this investigation samples for mycological analyses were collected from stone material with visible alteration on stone walls of Gradac monastery exterior. The prevailing fungi found on stone walls were dematiaceous hyphomycetes with melanized hyphae and reproductive structures (Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium and Epicoccum species. The frescoes inside the monastery building were also analyzed for the presence of mycobiota. The predominant fungi found on frescoes were osmophilic species from genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The significant result is identification of human pathogen species Aspergillus fumigatus on frescoes.

  15. Novelda Stone: widely used within the Spanish architectural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Fort, R.; Bernabeu, A.; García del Cura, M. A.; López de Azcona, M. C.; Ordóñez, S.; Mingarro, F.

    2002-01-01

    Novelda Stone is a calcareous rock, of the biocalcarenite type. It is extracted from the «Vinalopó Medio» area (Alicante, eastern Spain). Novelda stone is known as construction material from the 13th century. From final of the 19th century until the present time, it has been used in Madrid, Valencia and Alicante. In the past, the main quarries from which this type of rock was extracted were located in the municipal districts of Monóvar (Almorquí Stone), Sax (Portazgo Stone) and Elda (Bateig S...

  16. Strength Improvement of Clay Soil by Using Stone Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sameer Abdulrasool

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil stabilization with stone powder is a good solution for the construction of subgrade for road way and railway lines, especially under the platforms and mostly in transition zones between embankments and rigid structures, where the mechanical properties of supporting soils are very influential. Stone powder often has a unique composition which justifies the need for research to study the feasibility of using this stone powder type for ground improvement applications. This paper presents results from a comprehensive laboratory study carried out to investigate the feasibility of using stone powder for improvement of engineering properties of clays. The stone powder contains bassanite (CaSO4. ½ H2O, and Calcite (CaCO3. Three percentages are used for stone powder (1%, 3% and 5% by dry weight of clay. Several tests are made to investigate the soil behavior after adding the stone powder (Atterberg limits, Standard Proctor density, Grain size distribution, Specific gravity, Unconfined Compressive test, and California bearing ratio test. Unconfined Compressive tests conducted at different curing. The samples are tested under both soaked and unsoaked condition. Chemical tests and X-ray diffraction analyses are also carried out. Stone powder reacts with clay producing decreasing in plasticity and The curves of grain size distribution are shifted to the coarse side as the stone powder percentage increase; the soil becomes more granular, and also with higher strength.

  17. Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities on Kidney Stone Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman, Anna L

    2017-10-06

    Nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent across all demographic groups in the Western world and beyond, and its incidence rates are rising. In addition to the morbidity of the acute event, stone disease often becomes a lifelong problem that requires preventative therapy to diminish ongoing morbidity. Across the majority of stone types, increased fluid intake and targeted dietary modifications are mainstays of therapy. Specific dietary interventions associated with reduced calcium stone risk include adequate dietary calcium intake and restriction of sodium, protein, and oxalate intake, among others. Pharmaceutical therapy may be required if lifestyle changes are insufficient to minimize risk of stone recurrence, and must be targeted to the specific metabolic abnormalities portending risk for a given patient. Therapeutic options for idiopathic calcium stone disease include thiazides, citrate salts, and uric acid-lowering agents. Alkali salts are also the treatment of choice for uric acid stone disease. Management of struvite stone disease is largely surgical, but acetohydroxamic acid is a proven second line therapy. Cystinuria requires lifestyle modifications and may call for thiol-binding agents. Significant heterogeneity of the clinical population with stone disease has previously limited opportunities for large randomized controlled trials. However, as clinical phenotypes and genotypes are increasingly clarified, there are mounting opportunities for targeted randomized controlled trials in stone prevention. In the meantime, the currently available evidence for both lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions is reviewed herein. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  19. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  20. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    , provides useful information for evaluation of the deterioration processes of heritage stones in a marine environment, and for conservation measures aimed at the in situ preservation of archaeological sites. Acknowledgements: Community of Madrid for financing Geomateriales2 program (P2013/MIT2914), CEI-Moncloa UCM-UPM, Applied Petrology for Heritage Stone Materials Conservation Research Group.

  1. Unravelling ground stone life histories: the spatial organization of stone tools and human activities at LN Makriyalos, Greece:

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoraki, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Unlike previous studies of ground stone technology in the Greek Neolithic, this paper follows a more contextualised approach by looking at contexts of deposition of ground stone from Late Neolithic Makriyalos, Northern Greece. The patterns attested in the distribution of ground stone objects between domestic and communal areas will be discussed in terms of the spatial and social contexts of tool use, curation and deposition, contributing to wider discussions about the way acts of production, ...

  2. Foundations of intervention research in instrumental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunde Hatfield

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A two-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy’s bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs.

  3. Humidity sorption on natural building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, C.; Mirwald, P.

    2003-04-01

    processes, physical, chemical or biological, depend on the presence of water. Like most porous materials building stone respond on humidity by water uptake. The sorption isotherm represents the equilibrium moisture, specific for each material. The determination of the isotherm for stone of low and small porosity like marble is difficult. With the help of a newly developed water sorption analysis chamber [2], which allows the simultaneous measurement of 11 samples, good results on stone/rock samples have been obtained. Even at marble species with pore volumes lower than 0.4 % isotherms are measured. This analytical method offers new insights in the pore behaviour of low porosity materials. The advantages of this technique which supplements other techniques (e.g. BET, Hg-porosimetry) are: i) the testing agent is identical to the weathering agent, water; ii) the atmospheric parameters at the measurement reflect the natural conditions - thus no changes to the material properties have to be considered; iii) due to the small diameter of the water molecule (~0.28 nm), smaller pores are reached than e.g. with N2 (~0.31 nm). Sorption isotherms of sandstone (Baumberg, Obernkirchen, Groeden), granite (Brixen), and marble (Sterzing, Laas) are presented. Particular as to marbles the resolution is considerably higher. A previously observed negative hysteresis [3] seems an effect due to limited data resolution. [1] Snethlage, R. (1984) Steinkonservierung, Bayer. LA Denkmalpflege, Ah. 22, 203 S. [2] Griesser, U.J., Dillenz, J. (2002) Neuartiges, vollautomatisches Feuchtesorptionsprüfgerät mit hohem Probendurchsatz, Feuchtetag 2002, Weimar, 85-93. [3] Fimmel, R. (1996) Verwitterungsverhalten der alpinen Marmore von Laas und Sterzing, Diss. Univ. Ibk, 116 S.

  4. Comparison of Different Methods of Denim Stone Washing by Pumice Stone, Acid Cellulases and Neutral Cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montazer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Denim is a casual garment normally used by young people and extremely influential in shaping the fashion industry. Among various garments, these garments are subjected to innovations. This work is an attempt to compare the different methods of stone washing using pumice stones, acid cellulases and neutral cellulases or in combination of these methods. The effects of different processing conditions on the garment are compared and reported. Color differences of samples are probed by reflective colorimeter on the front side as well as the backside and also the white pocket of the garment.The abrasion resistance, tensile strength and crease recovery angle of samples are also reported. The XRD spectra are used to calculate the crystalline degrees of the selected samples. Moreover, fiber surfaces of some treated samples have been observed by SEM. The results indicate that treatment of denim with pumice stone with equal weight of garment causes a small color differences. The addition of cellulases to the washing, however, accelerates the color fading. Also, lower staining observed on the white pocket when the garment was treated with cellulases. However, the neutralcellulases increase the garment fading and decrease the staining on the white pocket. It is also observed that pumice stone with cellulases damages the fabric surface, although it is of a minimal damage.

  5. Building stones from a muddy delta: Native natural stone from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Tolboom, H.J.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Most of the Netherlands a Quaternary delta, local supplies of natural stone suitable for building are rare. These include: Quaternary bog iron ores used in early medieval times (until c. 1200); erratics, deposited in boulder clay during the Saalian ice age in the northern Netherlands and gravel from

  6. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for the treatment of radiolucent renal stones in children: is it different opaque stone treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanur, Şenol; Ziypak, Tevfik; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Tepeler, Abdülkadir; Reşorlu, Berkan; Söylemez, Haluk; Dağgülli, Mansur; Özbey, İsa; Unsal, Ali

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), stone-free rates, and related complications in children with radiolucent renal stones. A total of 56 patients aged auxillary treatment method was detected as 94.6%. The total complication rate was 19.6% (11 patients). No adjacent organ injury was observed. All of the complications that occurred were minor according to the Clavien classification (Clavien Grades I-II). PNL can be applied to radiolucent pediatric renal stones in children with similar success, and complication rates as noted for radiopaque stones.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

  8. Stone's representation theorem in fuzzy topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘应明; 张德学

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a complete solution to the problem of Stone's repesentation theorem in fuzzy topology is given for a class of completely distributive lattices. Precisely, it is proved that if L is a frame such that 0 ∈ L is a prime or 1 ∈ L is a coprime, then the category of distributive lattices is dually equivalent to the category of coherent L-locales and that if L is moreover completely distributive, then the category of distributive lattices is dually equivalent to the category of coherent stratified L-topological spaces.

  9. Stone anchors from Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    and Ali Rajas of Kerala. It appears that the mainland had contact with these islands during the early centuries of the Christian era, if not earlier (Sila Tripati, 1999). Though Islam came to Lakshadweep after the 11th and 12th centuries AD..., stitches, ropes and even sails (Hourani, 1995). With the passage of time the maritime contacts between the people of Lakshadweep and Arabs became closer, as demonstrated by the discovery of an Indo- 3 Arabian stone anchor in the Jama Mosque on Minicoy...

  10. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt T.O.B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets (TEPs observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs, the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger when young or accretion growth (being smaller when young. We present a survey, the main goal of which is to find and then characterise TEPs in very young open clusters.

  11. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that lower infundibular length and width are significant anatomical factors in determining stone clearance following ESWL treatment of lower calyceal stones and these should be assessed before planning the treatment for lower calyceal stones.

  12. The composition of urinary stones in central sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.M.; Naqvi, S.Q.H.

    2014-01-01

    To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

  13. Prevalence of renal uric acid stones in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate uric acid renal stone prevalence rates of adults in different countries of the world. PubMed was searched for papers dealing with "urinary calculi and prevalence or composition" for the period from January 1996 to June 2016. Alternative searches were made to collect further information on specific topics. The prevalence rate of uric acid stones was computed by the general renal stone prevalence rate and the frequency of uric acid stones in each country. After the initial search, 2180 papers were extracted. Out of them, 79 papers were selected after the reading of the titles and of the abstracts. For ten countries, papers relating to both the renal stone prevalence in the general population and the frequency of uric stones were available. Additional search produced 13 papers that completed information on 11 more countries in 5 continents. Estimated prevalence rate of uric acid stones was >0.75% in Thailand, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, South Africa (white population), United States and Australia; ranged 0.50-0.75% in Turkey, Israel, Italy, India (Southern), Spain, Taiwan, Germany, Brazil; and uric acid stone formation. A hot and dry climate increases fluid losses reducing urinary volume and urinary pH. A diet rich in meat protein causes low urinary pH and increased uric acid excretion. On the other hand, uric acid stone formation is frequently associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2 that are linked to dietary energy excess mainly from carbohydrate and saturated fat and also present with low urine pH values. An epidemic of uric acid stone formation could be if current nutritional trends will be maintained both in developed countries and in developing countries and the areas of greater climatic risk for the formation of uric acid stones will enlarge as result of the "global warming".

  14. Developing a Theoretical Framework to Inform the Design of a Teacher Professional Development Program to Enable Foundation to Year 2 Teachers of Mathematics to Build on Indigenous and Low-SES Students' Cultural Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robyn; Stütz, Alexander; Cooper, Tom; Nason, Rod

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the early stages of the conceptualisation and implementation of the Accelerated Inclusive Mathematics-Early Understandings (AIM EU) project, a project whose major goals are to advance theory and practice in the improvement of Foundation to Year 2 (F-2) teachers' capacity to teach mathematics and through this to enhance F-2…

  15. Mathematical solution of the stone column effect on the load bearing capacity and settlement using numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madun, A.; Meghzili, S. A.; Tajudin, SAA; Yusof, M. F.; Zainalabidin, M. H.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Dan, M. F. Md; Ismail, M. A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The most important application of various geotechnical construction techniques is for ground improvement. Many soil improvement project had been developed due to the ongoing increase in urban and industrial growth and the need for greater access to lands. Stone columns are one of the best effective and feasible techniques for soft clay soil improvement. Stone columns increase the bearing capacity and reduce the settlement of soil. Finite element analyses were performed using the program PLAXIS 2D. An elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive relation, based on the Mohr–Coulomb criterion, governs the soft clay and stone column behaviour. This paper presents on how the response surface methodology (RSM) software is used to optimize the effect of the diameters and lengths of column on the load bearing capacity and settlement of soft clay. Load tests through the numerical modelling using Plaxis 2D were carried out on the loading plate at 66 mm. Stone column load bearing capacity increases with the increasing diameter of the column and settlement decreases with the increasing length of the column. Results revealed that the bigger column diameter, the higher load bearing capacity of soil while the longer column length, the lower settlement of soil. However, the optimum design of stone column was varied with each factor (diameter and length) separately for improvement.

  16. Foundation Networks and American Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Parmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The major American foundations constructed and sustained the rich texture of cooperative social, intellectual and political relations between key actors and institutions supportive of specific modes of thought that promoted US hegemony. Foundations also fostered and developed the attractive power-knowledge networks that not only radiated intellectual influence but also attracted some of the most creative minds. Finally, liberal internationalist foundations fostered globalism even when the American state was ‘isolationist’, and when US influence abroad unwelcome. Their significance in American hegemony building lay in their sustained, long-term cooperative relationship with the American state through which they helped build national, international and global institutions and networks. The latter process evidences the most significant impact of US foundations – the building of the domestic and international infrastructure for liberal internationalism which has transformed into a kind of “social neoliberalism”. Theoretical conclusions follow from these claims: the sustained and deep cooperation between the state and foundations suggests that we must revise our views of “how power works” in the United States and therefore influences its foreign relations. Therefore, the article shows that elite networks, consisting of state officials and private citizens are powerful means by which foreign policy shifts may be prepared, elite and mass opinion primed and mobilised, new consensus built, ‘old’ forces marginalised, and US hegemony constructed.

  17. The Civil Palaces in Gravina street, Alicante: building stones and salt weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, M.; García del Cura, M. A.; Spairani, Y.; de Blas, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study into the architecture and construction of the 18th Century Civil Palaces located in Gravina street (Provincial Museum of Fine Arts of Alicante), the building stones used and the mineral related decay processes that these materials have suffered. The original building stones and other stones used in subsequent restorations in these Civil Palaces are bioclastic limestones and/or calcarenites (San Julian Stone and Bateig Stone). Campello stone and other limestones ...

  18. Influence of granular material characteristics in the behaviour of “Bouregreg Valley” soft ground improved with stone columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehab Noura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of finite element analysis has become widespread in geotechnical practice as means of optimizing engineering tasks; it can be easily applied to the treated areas by stone columns, which are a method of improving the soil having low geotechnical properties and likely to deform significantly under load action, by incorporating granular material (commonly called ballast compacted by remounting passes, so they act mainly as inclusions with a higher stiffness, shear strength than the natural soil. Moreover the stone columns are highly permeable and act as vertical drains facilitating consolidation of the soft soil improving the performance of the foundation. However the characteristics of this granular material influence the behavior of soft soils treated by the stone columns technique, especially: the friction angle, the cohesion, the modular ratio and the constitutive model. The choice of the constitutive model depends on many factors but, in general, it is related to the type of analysis that we intend to perform. Numerical modeling must consider the diversity of the materials nature, the complex geometry of structures-land and the behavior of materials generally nonlinear (permanent deformation. It is a simple and effective alternative to approach the real behavior of soils reinforced by stone columns and the influence of materials characteristics, it allows settlement analysis, lateral deformation, vertical and horizontal stresses in order to understand the behavior of columns and soil. It also has the advantage of integrating the settlements of the underlying layers. This paper aims to study the mechanisms of functioning and interactions of stone columns with the surrounding ground, and vis-à-vis the various parameters characterizing the granular material "ballast" and the surrounding soil, which influence the behavior of the improved soil, The paper presents, in the first part, soil conditions and the parameters associated with

  19. Learning Theory Foundations of Simulation-Based Mastery Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Harris, Ilene B

    2018-06-01

    Simulation-based mastery learning (SBML), like all education interventions, has learning theory foundations. Recognition and comprehension of SBML learning theory foundations are essential for thoughtful education program development, research, and scholarship. We begin with a description of SBML followed by a section on the importance of learning theory foundations to shape and direct SBML education and research. We then discuss three principal learning theory conceptual frameworks that are associated with SBML-behavioral, constructivist, social cognitive-and their contributions to SBML thought and practice. We then discuss how the three learning theory frameworks converge in the course of planning, conducting, and evaluating SBML education programs in the health professions. Convergence of these learning theory frameworks is illustrated by a description of an SBML education and research program in advanced cardiac life support. We conclude with a brief coda.

  20. Large scale seismic test research at Hualien site in Taiwan. Results of site investigation and characterization of the foundation ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Toshiro; Kokusho, Takeharu; Nishi, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    An international joint research program called ''HLSST'' is under way. Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST) is to be conducted to investigate Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) during large earthquakes in the field in Hualien, a high seismic region in Taiwan. A 1/4-scale model building was constructed on the excavated gravelly ground, and the backfill material of crushed stones was placed around the model plant. The model building and the foundation ground were extensively instrumented to monitor structure and ground response. To accurately evaluate SSI during earthquakes, geotechnical investigation and forced vibration test were performed during construction process namely before/after the base excavation, after the structure construction and after the backfilling. Main results are as follows. (1) The distribution of the mechanical properties of the gravelly soil are measured by various techniques including penetration tests and PS-logging and it found that the shear wave velocities (Vs) change clearly and it depends on changing overburden pressures during the construction process. (2) Measuring Vs in the surrounding soils, it found that the Vs is smaller than that at almost same depth in the farther location. Discussion is made further on the numerical soil model for SSI analysis. (author)

  1. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schirripa Spagnolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography.

  2. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  3. Stone retropulsion during holmium:YAG lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho; Ryan, R Tres; Teichman, Joel M H; Kim, Jeehyun; Choi, Bernard; Arakeri, Navanit V; Welch, A J

    2003-03-01

    We modeled retropulsion during holmium:YAG lithotripsy on the conservation of momentum, whereby the force of ejected fragment debris off of the calculous surface should equal the force of retropulsion displacing the stone. We tested the hypothesis that retropulsion occurs as a result of ejected stone debris. Uniform calculous phantoms were irradiated with holmium:YAG energy in air and in water. Optical fiber diameter and pulse energy were varied. Motion of the phantom was monitored with high speed video imaging. Laser induced crater volume and geometry were characterized by optical coherence tomography. To determine the direction of plume laser burn paper was irradiated at various incident angles. Retropulsion was greater for phantoms irradiated in air versus water. Retropulsion increased as fiber diameter increased and as pulse energy increased (p <0.001). Crater volumes increased as pulse energy increased (p <0.05) and generally increased as fiber diameter increased. Crater geometry was wide and shallow for larger fibers, and narrow and deeper for smaller fibers. The ejected plume propagated in the direction normal to the burn paper surface regardless of the laser incident angle. Retropulsion increases as pulse energy and optical fiber diameter increase. Vector analysis of the ejected plume and crater geometry explains increased retropulsion using larger optical fibers. Holmium:YAG lithotripsy should be performed with small optical fibers to limit retropulsion.

  4. River pollution caused by natural stone industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktriani, Ani; Darmajanti, Linda; Soesilo, Tri Edhi Budhi

    2017-03-01

    The natural stone industry is classified as small industry. Current wastewater treatment still causes pollution in the river. This thesis aims to analyze the performance of wastewater treatment in natural stones industry. The data was collected from water quality test (parameters: temperature, pH, DO, and TSS). The wastewater treatment performance was in a slightly higher position compared to the 2nd class quality standards of Government Regulation No. 82/2001. The parameter that exceeded quality standards was the concentration of TSS, which was up to 240.8 mg/l. The high concentration of TSS was affected by the absence of sludge management schedule, which resulted in non-optimal precipitation. Besides that, the design of sedimentation basin was still not adapted with wastewater debit. Referring to the results, this study suggests the government of Cirebon District to provide wastewater treatment development through the village staff. Furthermore, the government also needs to give strict punishment to business owner who does not treat waste correctly and does not have a business license. Moreover, the sale value of sludge as byproduct of wastewater treatment needs to be increased.

  5. Stochastic response of rigid foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, A.L.; Kausel, E.

    1986-01-01

    While the study of Kinematic Interaction effects calls, in general, for advanced analytical and numerical techniques, an excellent approximation was proposed recently by Iguchi. This approximation was used by the authors to analyze embedded foundations subjected to spatially random SH-wave fields, i.e., motions that exhibit some degree of incoherence. The wave fields considered ranged from perfectly coherent motions (resulting from seismic waves arriving from a single direction) to chaotic motions resulting from waves arriving simultaneously from all directions. Additional parameters considered were the shape of the foundation (cylindrical, rectangular) and the degree of embedment. It was found that kinematic interaction usually reduces the severity of the motions transmitted to the structure, and that incoherent motions do not exhibit the frequency selectivity (i.e., narrow valleys in the foundation response spectra) that coherent motions do

  6. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    political and industrial forces(particularly in northern Europe) supporting the development of the offshore wind industry. The overall aim of the research presented in this thesis was to improve the design of offshore wind turbine foundations. The work was divided into two main researchefforts: geotechnical...... reduce the risks and costsrelated to offshore geotechnics. The thesis examines: 1.Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations 2. Modeling of Water Flow through Porous Media The outcomes of each of the research contributions are summarized in four research articles, either directly or indirectly...... engineering experiments to gain insight into the behavior of offshore bucket foundations, and development of methods to improve the study of infiltration intounsaturated soils, an important problem in geo-environmental engineering. The outcomes of the research have the potential to directly or indirectly...

  7. Process of preparing artificial stone from oil-shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-02-10

    A process for the preparation of artificial stone from oil-shale slag is characterized by the fact that the coarse part of the ground slag before working into artificial stone is saturated with water and serves as filler, while the fine part is milled to dust and forms the binding material.

  8. Urinary Exertion Of Calcium By Urinary Stone Disease Patients And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the urinary excretion of calcium by subjects in a known area of high incidence of urinary stone disease, and a known area of low incidence, 12 adult male patients with idiopathic calcigerous urinary stone disease in south-East Nigeria and 55 similar patients from Scotland, United Kingdom were analyzed ...

  9. Effect of Ferrous Additives on Magnesia Stone Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimich, V.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the modification of the magnesia binder with additives containing two- and three-valent iron cations which could be embedded in the chloromagnesium stone structure and also increase the strength from 60 MPa in a non-additive stone to 80MPa, water resistance from 0.58 for clear stone to 0.8 and reduce the hygroscopicity from 8% in the non-additive stone to 2% in the modified chloromagnesium stone. It is proposed to use the iron hydroxide sol as an additive in the quantities of up to 1% of the weight of the binder. The studies were carried out using the modern analysis methods: the differentialthermal and X-ray phase analysis. The structure was studied with an electron microscope with an X-ray microanalyzer. A two-factor plan-experiment was designed which allowed constructing mathematical models characterizing the influence of variable factors, such as the density of the zatcher and the amount of sol in the binder, on the basic properties of the magnesian stone. The result of the research was the magnesia stone with the claimed properties and formed from minerals characteristic for magnesian materials as well as additionally formed from amachenite and goethite. It has been established that a highly active iron hydroxide sol the ion sizes of which are commensurate with magnesium ions is actively incorporated into the structure of pentahydroxychloride and magnesium hydroxide changing the habit of crystals compacting the structure of the stone and changing its hygroscopicity.

  10. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Various types of stone anchors have been observed during inshore and offshore explorations along the east and west coasts of India. The earliest stone anchors of India have been recorded from the Harappan sites (3rd millennium BC), but their shape...

  11. Durability and Testing of Stone for use in Rubblemound structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magoon, O.T.; Baird, W.F.; Ahrends, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Rubblemound structures protected from wave action by a layer of quarried rock (stones) are the most common form of breakwaters. While extensive guidelines and procedures exist to select the size of stone there is very little information available on procedures to be followed to assure the quality...

  12. Book Review: Stones of Contention: A History of Africa's Diamonds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Book Review: Stones of Contention: A History of Africa's Diamonds. H Smith. Abstract. Stones of Contention: A History of Africa's Diamonds. Author: Todd Cleveland. Ohio University Press: Athens OH, 2014. 225pp ...

  13. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  14. Wave boundary layer over a stone-covered bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Martin; Hatipoglu, Figen; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation on wave boundary layers over a bed with large roughness, simulating stone/rock/armour block cover on the sea bottom. The roughness elements used in the experiments were stones the size of 1.4cm and 3.85cm in one group of experiments...

  15. Transcystic duct treatment of common bile duct stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberg, J.R.; Chun, G.

    1981-01-01

    Successful removal of 2 retained common bile duct stones following cholecystostomy is described. With the use of the steerable catheter and the wire basket, one stone was crushed and the second was extracted in retrograde fashion through the cystic duct and gallbladder. (orig.)

  16. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  17. Percutaneous transhepatic cholelithotripsy for difficult common bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, J G; Moesgaard, F; Grønvall, S

    1998-01-01

    or ureteroscope in ten patients and by stone removal by basket in the remaining four patients. The procedure was carried out using local anesthesia in the last 11 patients. Except for two patients with transient cholangitis, no complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Difficult bile duct and intrahepatic stones can...

  18. Sonographic and radiologic diagnosis of a pancreatic duct stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habscheid, W.; Kulke, H.; Heidbreder, E.

    1986-01-01

    A case is reported in which asymptomatic chronic pancreatitis of initially unknown etiology was detected as result of a routine follow-up examination of a patient with membraneproliferative glomerulonephritis. Ultrasound and endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography detected a stone in the major pancreatic duct. The stone was of such size and irregular form that endoscopic extraction was impossible. (orig.) [de

  19. Sonographic and radiologic diagnosis of a pancreatic duct stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habscheid, W.; Kulke, H.; Heidbreder, E.

    1986-09-01

    A case is reported in which asymptomatic chronic pancreatitis of initially unknown etiology was detected as result of a routine follow-up examination of a patient with membraneproliferative glomerulonephritis. Ultrasound and endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography detected a stone in the major pancreatic duct. The stone was of such size and irregular form that endoscopic extraction was impossible.

  20. Emergency extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for obstructing ureteral stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tligui, M; El Khadime, M R; Tchala, K; Haab, F; Traxer, O; Gattegno, B; Thibault, P

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate emergency treatment of obstructing ureteral stones by in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) during acute renal colic. From January 1994 to February 2000, 200 patients (mean age: 42 years) were treated by ESWL (EDAP LT-02) for obstructing ureteral stones causing acute renal colic refractory to medical treatment or recurring within 24hours of such treatment. Stones were visualised by fluoroscopic imaging and/or ultrasound. Follow-up included radiological and/or ultrasound examinations and lasted three months. Mean stone size was 7mm (3-20mm). At three months, 164/200 (82%) patients were stone-free. This rate ranged from 79% to 83% according to the location of the stone, and from 75% to 86% according to the size of the stone. These differences in rate were not significant. Two or three ESWL sessions were required in 79 patients. ESWL was well tolerated in 90% of patients. The only complication was a case of pyelonephritis requiring the placement of a JJ stent, administration of antibiotics, and distant ureteroscopy. The 36 patients, in whom ESWL failed, underwent ureteroscopy (n=23) or lithotripsy with a Dornier machine (n=13). Non-deferred ESWL for acute renal colic secondary to obstructing ureteral stones has a satisfactory success rate and very low morbidity.

  1. In vitro study of transmission of bacteria from contaminated metal models to stone models via impressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofou, A.; Larsen, T.; Öwall, B.

    2002-01-01

    Dental impression, stone model, bacterial contamination, cross-infection, dental clinic, dental laboratory......Dental impression, stone model, bacterial contamination, cross-infection, dental clinic, dental laboratory...

  2. Feedback of the behaviour of a silo founded on a compressible soil improved by floating stone columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Ramdane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The coastal city of Bejaia, located 250 kilometers east of the capital Algiers, Algeria, is characterized by soft soils. The residual grounds encountered on the first 40 meters usually have a low bearing capacity, high compressibility, insufficient strength, and subject to the risk of liquefaction. These unfavorable soil conditions require deep foundations or soil improvement. Since late 1990s, stone columns technique is used to improve the weak soils of the harbor area of the city. A shallow raft foundation on soft soil improved by stone columns was designed for a heavy storage steel silo and two towers. The improvement of 18m depth have not reached the substratum located at 39m depth. The stresses transmitted to the service limit state are variable 73 to 376 kPa. A rigorous and ongoing monitoring of the evolution of loads in the silo and settlements of the soil was carried out during 1400 days that is from the construction of foundations in 2008 to 2012. After the loading of the silo in 2010, settlement occurred affecting the stability of the towers due to excessive differential settlements. Consequently, the towers were inclined and damaged the transporter. This paper presents and discusses the experience feedback of the behavior of these structures. Numerical calculations by finite elements have been carried and the results are compared with the measurements.

  3. Lioz: The Stone that made Lisbon reborn - A Global Heritage Stone Resource Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Lioz: The Stone that made Lisbon reborn - A Global Heritage Stone Resource Proposal Explored since the Roman Period, the Lioz (Cenomanian age microcrystalline fossiliferous limestone) is the main stone used in the buildings and monuments of Lisbon. After the great cataclysm of 1755 (earthquake, tsunami and fire) of 1755, the already known great quality and the near occurrence of these limestones were wisely used in the great reconstruction of the "Capital do Império" (Capital of the Empire). At the time, Lisbon was one of the largest European cities and great business center of the World, so the necessary and urgent reconstruction was not so difficult to start. Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, better known as "Marquês de Pombal", Secretary of King José I, successfully took up the challenge of rebuilding Lisbon. Inside the actual Portuguese capital geographical limits, several quarries of the Cretaceous limestone were explored; some still exist and are classified as geomonuments (i.e., Rio Seco Geomonument, 38 ° 42'21 .67''N; 9 ° 11 '30.37''W). As the City boundaries expanded, the quarries stopped and now there is no one asset in Lisbon. The most important exploitation and processing Lioz stone center was situated in Pêro Pinheiro, 20 km NW of Lisbon. Most of the stones used in the National Palace-Convent of Mafra (1717) belongs to the four main types of Lioz (the cream/white "Abancado", the pink/dark pink "Encarnadão", the yellow "Amarelo de Negrais" and the blueish grey "Azulino"), either cut "against" (perpendicular to the bedding plane) or "along" (parallel to the bedding plane). The orientation stone cut deeply controls texture and mechanical properties of the rocks that behaves as different ones were considered. In the last two decades, the Lioz extraction was almost extinguished. However, some of the old quarries was reactivated and produces first quality blocks needed both for new works and restoration of historic buildings and monuments. The

  4. ITIL Foundation exam study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gallacher, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Everything you need to prepare for the ITIL exam The ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) exam is the ultimate certification for IT service management. This essential resource is a complete guide to preparing for the ITIL Foundation exam and includes everything you need for success. Organized around the ITIL Foundation syllabus, the study guide addresses the ITIL Service Lifecycles, the ITIL processes, roles, and functions, and also thoroughly explains how the Service Lifecycle provides effective and efficient IT services. Offers an introduction to IT service management and ITI

  5. Professional Team Foundation Server 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Ed; Holliday, Grant; Keller, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to using Microsoft Team Foundation Server 2012 Team Foundation Server has become the leading Microsoft productivity tool for software management, and this book covers what developers need to know to use it effectively. Fully revised for the new features of TFS 2012, it provides developers and software project managers with step-by-step instructions and even assists those who are studying for the TFS 2012 certification exam. You'll find a broad overview of TFS, thorough coverage of core functions, a look at extensibility options, and more, written by Microsoft ins

  6. Foundation Ownership, Reputation, and Labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Thomsen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    of profitability and growth, despite lacking governance mechanisms such as profit incentives or takeover threats. Given their non-profit ownership, they might be expected to behave more responsibly towards stakeholders, such as employees or customers (Hansmann, 1980), but so far there has been little empirical...... ratings. Secondary evidence on labour market behaviour is consistent with these findings. Using matched employer–employee data we show that foundation-owned companies are more stable employers, pay their employees better, and keep them for longer. Altogether, the evidence indicates that foundation...

  7. Physical foundations of technical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Malecki, I

    1969-01-01

    Physical Foundations of Technical Acoustics discusses theoretical foundations of acoustical engineering. It is not so much a technical compendium as a systematic statement of physical laws so conceived that technologists might find in it all the information they need to become acquainted with the physical meaning and mathematical expression of phenomena they encounter in their work. To facilitate the acquirement of notions, which lie beyond a layman's grasp, the plan of narration adopted consists in beginning with the simplest idealized cases and then gradually moving on to the truest possibl

  8. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  9. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Ed; Holliday, Grant; Keller, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative guide to TFS 2010 from a dream team of Microsoft insiders and MVPs!Microsoft Visual Studio Team Foundation Server (TFS) has evolved until it is now an essential tool for Microsoft?s Application Lifestyle Management suite of productivity tools, enabling collaboration within and among software development teams. By 2011, TFS will replace Microsoft?s leading source control system, VisualSourceSafe, resulting in an even greater demand for information about it. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010, written by an accomplished team of Microsoft insiders and Microsoft MVPs, provides

  10. Foundations of ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, O.N.; Pereslegin, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foundations of dosimetry in application to radiotherapy are presented. General characteristics of ionizing radiations and main characteristics of ionizing radiation sources, mostly used in radiotherapy, are given. Values and units for measuring ionizing radiation (activity of a radioactive substance, absorbed dose, exposure dose, integral dose and dose equivalent are considered. Different methods and instruments for ionizing radiation dosimetry are discussed. The attention is paid to the foundations of clinical dosimetry (representation of anatomo-topographic information, choice of radiation conditions, realization of radiation methods, corrections for a configuration and inhomogeneity of a patient's body, account of biological factors of radiation effects, instruments of dose field formation, control of irradiation procedure chosen)

  11. Temporally variable macroinvertebrate-stone relationships in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    of fauna parameter and stone variable from different sampling dates (n=9-11) were rarely correlated to any of the measures of stream stability, this study has demonstrated high temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships (CV's of regression slopes). Consequently, temporally un-replicated studies......Stones were used to sample macroinvertebrates and characterise microhabitats at monthly or bimonthly intervals in six Ecuadorian streams covering a gradient in four different stability measures and other stream characteristics. The physical variables current velocity, water depth, horizontal...... of families vs. individuals) were related to the physical characteristics of individual stone habitats. My second objective was to quantify temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships and to analyse if such variability was related to overall stability of stream reaches. Partial Least Squares (PLS...

  12. A Stone Resource Assignment Model under the Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Yao

    2012-01-01

    to tackle a stone resource assignment problem with the aim of decreasing dust and waste water emissions. On the upper level, the local government wants to assign a reasonable exploitation amount to each stone plant so as to minimize total emissions and maximize employment and economic profit. On the lower level, stone plants must reasonably assign stone resources to produce different stone products under the exploitation constraint. To deal with inherent uncertainties, the object functions and constraints are defuzzified using a possibility measure. A fuzzy simulation-based improved simulated annealing algorithm (FS-ISA is designed to search for the Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the model. Results and a comparison analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method, which proves to be very efficient compared with other algorithms.

  13. Radon in houses utilizing stone magazines for heat accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn and its daughters in three solar energy houses utilizing stone magazines for heat accumulation are reported. Theoretical calculations of the radon contribution from the stone magazines seem to be in good agreement with the measured values. The survey indicated that this method for heat accumulation could give a significant increase in the indoor radon concentration if the radium concentration of the stone material is high. The theoretical considerations suggest that a radium concentration of 1 pCi/g of the stone material could give an increment of the radon concentration in the indoor air of about 1 pCi/l. during the heating season in a house with air volume of 250 m 3 and a 10 5 -kg stone magazine. (author)

  14. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stone with infundibular stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Lee, Yong Moon; Yoon, Seok Hwan

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed retrospectively our experience to evaluate an effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stone with infundibular stenosis. From January 2002 to August 2005, 35 patients with renal stone with infundibular stenosis were treated with ESWL. The diagnosis of infundibular stenosis was made by intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography. The final follow-up check was performed by simple abdominal film or computed tomography and interview after 6 months to 24 months (mean 10 months). 7 (20.0%) of 35 patients was freed completely, but Stone free rate including less than 2 mm size was 80% (28/35). 30 (85.7%) patients became asymptomatic, 4 (11.4%) patients were continued, and 1 (2.9%) patient was required the percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. Although ESWL has a low complete stone free rate, We suggest that renal stone with infundibular stenosis should be treated with ESWL, because that is likely to produce a high symptom free and low complications

  15. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stone with infundibular stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Lee, Yong Moon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Hwan [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    We analyzed retrospectively our experience to evaluate an effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stone with infundibular stenosis. From January 2002 to August 2005, 35 patients with renal stone with infundibular stenosis were treated with ESWL. The diagnosis of infundibular stenosis was made by intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography. The final follow-up check was performed by simple abdominal film or computed tomography and interview after 6 months to 24 months (mean 10 months). 7 (20.0%) of 35 patients was freed completely, but Stone free rate including less than 2 mm size was 80% (28/35). 30 (85.7%) patients became asymptomatic, 4 (11.4%) patients were continued, and 1 (2.9%) patient was required the percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. Although ESWL has a low complete stone free rate, We suggest that renal stone with infundibular stenosis should be treated with ESWL, because that is likely to produce a high symptom free and low complications.

  16. Stepping Stones to Research: Providing Pipelines from Middle School through PhD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Baum, S. A.; RIT Insight Lab SSR Team; Carlson CenterImaging Science Faculty, Chester F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a decade's worth of strategies designed to promote and provide "Stepping Stones to Research" to provide a realistic pipeline of educational opportunities, with multiple gateways and exit points, for students moving towards STEM careers along the "STEM pipeline". We also illustrate how the Stepping Stones are designed to incidentally co-inside with related external opportunities through which we can also guide and support our mentees on their paths. We present programs such as middle school family science programs, high school research opportunities, high school internships, undergraduate research pathways, research experiences for undergraduates, and other opportunities. We will highlight the presentations being made at this very meeting -- from the first presentation of a high school student, to a dissertation presentation of a PhD graduate -- that have benefited from this stepping stone principle. We also reflect on the essential nature of building a "researcher-trust", even as a young student, of advocates and mentors who can support the continuation of a scientific career.

  17. A randomized controlled trial of group Stepping Stones Triple P: a mixed-disability trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Gemma; Sofronoff, Kate; Sanders, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting program designed for families of a child with a disability. The current study involved a randomized controlled trial of Group Stepping Stones Triple P (GSSTP) for a mixed-disability group. Participants were 52 families of children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, or an intellectual disability. The results demonstrated significant improvements in parent-reported child behavior, parenting styles, parental satisfaction, and conflict about parenting. Results among participants were similar despite children's differing impairments. The intervention effect was maintained at 6-month follow-up. The results indicate that GSSTP is a promising intervention for a mixed-disability group. Limitations of the study, along with areas for future research, are also discussed. © FPI, Inc.

  18. Nanobacteria: An Infectious Cause for Salivary Stone Formation and Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A El Badry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobacteria (NB contribute to pathological calcification in the human and animal body. It has been isolated from salivary stones and suggested that it may act as a nucleus for the initiation of these stones. In the present study, we examined its role in the recurrent salivary gland stones using immunodetection with NB-specific monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM hoping to provide a method for preventing the recurrence of these stones in the patient that has suffered from salivary stones. Our study comprised 30 patients with recurrent salivary gland stones (group I and 30 patients with salivary gland stones for the first time (group II, in addition to 30 normal controls (group III. We could detect 100–500 nm nanoparticles in 24/30 (80% cases in group I with significant difference <0.05 and <0.01 when compared with group II and group III in which they were detected in 19/30 (63.3% and 6/30 (20% respectively. Also there was a significant difference <0.05 between group II and group III. We proposed that salivary stone formation is a nanobacterial disease initiated by bacterial infection. This bacteria may play an important role in the recurrence of salivary stone. So the use of calcium chelator, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, before or in combination with the suitable antibiotic that is given in an amount effective to inhibit or prevent the growth and development of nanobacteria may eradicate these stones and prevent their recurrence.

  19. Retroperitoneoscopy for treatment of renal and ureteral stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Soares

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopy for treating stones in the renal pelvis and proximal ureter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from August 2003 to August 2004, 35 retroperitoneoscopies for treatment of urinary stones were performed on 34 patients. Fifteen patients (42% had stones in the renal pelvis, and in 2 cases, there were associated stones in the upper caliceal group. Twenty patients (58% had ureteral stones, all of them located above the iliac vessel. Twenty-five patients (71% had previously undergone at least one session of extracorporeal lithotripsy and 8 patients (26% also underwent ureteroscopy to attempt to remove the stone. Eight patients underwent retroperitoneoscopy as a primary procedure. Stone size ranged from 0.5 to 6 cm with a mean of 2.1 cm. RESULTS: Retroperitoneoscopy was performed by lumbar approach with initial access conducted by open technique and creation of space by digital dissection. We used a 10-mm Hasson trocar for the optics, and 2 or 3 additional working ports placed under visualization. Following identification, the urinary tract was opened with a laparoscopic scalpel and the stone was removed intact. The urinary tract was closed with absorbable 4-0 suture and a Penrose drain was left in the retroperitoneum. In 17 patients (49%, a double-J stent was maintained postoperatively. Surgical time ranged from 60 to 260 minutes with a mean of 140 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 3 days (1-10 days. The mean length of retroperitoneal urinary drainage was 3 days (1-10 days. There were minor complications in 6 (17.6% patients and 1 case of conversion due to technical difficulty. Thirty-three patients (94% became stone free. CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneoscopy is an effective, low-morbidity alternative for treatment of urinary stones.

  20. Retroperitoneoscopy for treatment of renal and ureteral stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rodrigo S; Romanelli, Pedro; Sandoval, Marcos A; Salim, Marcelo M; Tavora, Jose E; Abelha, David L

    2005-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopy for treating stones in the renal pelvis and proximal ureter. In the period from August 2003 to August 2004, 35 retroperitoneoscopies for treatment of urinary stones were performed on 34 patients. Fifteen patients (42%) had stones in the renal pelvis, and in 2 cases, there were associated stones in the upper caliceal group. Twenty patients (58%) had ureteral stones, all of them located above the iliac vessel. Twenty-five patients (71%) had previously undergone at least one session of extracorporeal lithotripsy and 8 patients (26%) also underwent ureteroscopy to attempt to remove the stone. Eight patients underwent retroperitoneoscopy as a primary procedure. Stone size ranged from 0.5 to 6 cm with a mean of 2.1 cm. Retroperitoneoscopy was performed by lumbar approach with initial access conducted by open technique and creation of space by digital dissection. We used a 10-mm Hasson trocar for the optics, and 2 or 3 additional working ports placed under visualization. Following identification, the urinary tract was opened with a laparoscopic scalpel and the stone was removed intact. The urinary tract was closed with absorbable 4-0 suture and a Penrose drain was left in the retroperitoneum. In 17 patients (49%), a double-J stent was maintained postoperatively. Surgical time ranged from 60 to 260 minutes with a mean of 140 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 3 days (1-10 days). The mean length of retroperitoneal urinary drainage was 3 days (1-10 days). There were minor complications in 6 (17.6%) patients and 1 case of conversion due to technical difficulty. Thirty-three patients (94%) became stone free. Retroperitoneoscopy is an effective, low-morbidity alternative for treatment of urinary stones.