Bushell, Mary; Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick
Introduction: Focus group methodology is commonly used to quickly collate, integrated views from a variety of different stakeholders. This paper provides an example of how focus groups can be employed to collate expert opinion informing amendments on a newly developed training program for integration into undergraduate pharmacy curricula. Materials and methods: Four focus groups were conducted, across three continents, to determine the appropriateness and reliability of a developed vaccination training program with nested injection skills training. All focus groups were comprised of legitimate experts in the field of vaccination, medicine and/or pharmacy. Results: Themes that emerged across focus groups informed amendments giving rise to a validated version of a training program. Discussion: The rigorous validation of the vaccination training program offers generalizable lessons to inform the design and validation of future training programs intended for the health sector and or pharmacy curricula. Using the knowledge and experience of focus group participants fostered collaborative problem solving and validation of material and concept development. The group dynamics of a focus group allowed synthesis of feedback in an inter-professional manner. Conclusions: This paper provides a demonstration of how focus groups can be structured and used by health researchers to validate a newly developed training program.
Full Text Available Introduction: Focus group methodology is commonly used to quickly collate, integrated views from a variety of different stakeholders. This paper provides an example of how focus groups can be employed to collate expert opinion informing amendments on a newly developed training program for integration into undergraduate pharmacy curricula. Materials and methods: Four focus groups were conducted, across three continents, to determine the appropriateness and reliability of a developed vaccination training program with nested injection skills training. All focus groups were comprised of legitimate experts in the field of vaccination, medicine and/or pharmacy. Results: Themes that emerged across focus groups informed amendments giving rise to a validated version of a training program. Discussion: The rigorous validation of the vaccination training program offers generalizable lessons to inform the design and validation of future training programs intended for the health sector and or pharmacy curricula. Using the knowledge and experience of focus group participants fostered collaborative problem solving and validation of material and concept development. The group dynamics of a focus group allowed synthesis of feedback in an inter-professional manner. Conclusions: This paper provides a demonstration of how focus groups can be structured and used by health researchers to validate a newly developed training program.
Carnes, S.A.; Garkovich, C.A.; Shriver, T.E. Jr.
While completing a congressionally mandated destruction of the US stockpile of unitary chemical weapons, the US Army decided that enhanced emergency planning was needed to reduce the consequences of an accidental release of agent. This decision is being implemented cooperatively by the US Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the form of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), with additional cooperation from other federal agencies and affected state and local governments. This manual supports that effort by providing information about a commonly used qualitative data and information gathering technique, focus group interviewing, that may be used to design public education materials and other wide enhance communication among CSEPP providers and users. The focus group technique is characterized by structured discussions on a specific topic among a carefully selected group of participants. This manual provides background information on the CSEPP and the current management plan for the CSEPP. It describes the focus group technique and how it may be applied, either by itself or in conjunction with other appropriate research techniques, by state and local government officials to investigate many of the behavioral and organizational impacts of the CSEPP. Sample questions and probes that may be useful in designing and conducting specific CSEPP focus groups are also provided. The manual also includes a list of suggested readings and other reference material that may be useful in designing focus groups. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Anderson, Karen; Ferguson, Neil; Partington, Gary; Byrne, Matt
In this article, the outcomes of The Happy Kids project, a strategy to improve the social and emotional well-being of primary school students, were examined. Results indicated that the Happy Kids program had demonstrated positive social and emotional outcomes for students in all schools, in particular, a positive impact upon students' confidence,…
Downey, Laura H.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; Florence, Joseph A.; Boulger, James G.; Hunsaker, Matt L.
Context: Over a decade ago, leaders in rural medical education established the Rural Medical Educators (RME) Group, an interest group within the National Rural Health Association, to support faculty in rural medical education programs. This group has convened an annual RME conclave since 2006. In 2008, this conclave convened 15 national leaders in…
A focus group is usually understood as a group of people brought together by a researcher to interact as a group. Focus group research explicitly uses interaction as part of its methodology. This article summarises the practice of running focus groups, explores the nature of focus group data and provides an example of focus group analysis.
Crane-Okada, Rebecca; Kiger, Holly; Anderson, Nancy L R; Carroll-Johnson, Rose Mary; Sugerman, Fred; Shapiro, Shauna L; Wyman-McGinty, Wendy
Little attention has been directed to the longer-term survivorship phase for older breast cancer survivors (BCSs) who often continue to struggle with late and long-term adverse effects of treatment including lower physical functioning, fear of recurrence, stress and anxiety, neuropathies, and pain. Creative and accessible strategies are needed that offer support to this population of cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to examine participant perceptions of the effects of a Mindful Movement Program intervention on quality of life and mindfulness through focus groups. This was part of a pilot feasibility study testing the intervention with older women at more than 1 year after treatment for breast cancer. Eight to 9 weeks after completion of 12 weekly, 2-hour mindful movement sessions, focus groups were held with 3 experimental group cohorts of participants who had attended on average 10.4 classes. Focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative techniques for recurrent themes. Four themes emerged from the direct quotes of the participants: freedom, rediscovering, body sense in moving, and in the moment. Participants also contributed opinions about program delivery. Participants described how the Mindful Movement Program experience affected their lives. Their feedback indicated that the intervention yielded positive results and was feasible for a variety of older BCSs. Research with a wider group of participants is needed. Preliminary indications are that mindful movement may offer an acceptable strategy for increasing activity and decreasing stress among older BCSs.
Ciao, Anna C; Ohls, Olivia C; Pringle, Kevin D
Most evidence-based body image programs for college students (e.g., the Body Project) are designed for female-only audiences, although body dissatisfaction is not limited to female-identified individuals. Furthermore, programs do not explicitly discuss diversity, although individuals with marginalized gender, racial, and sexual identities may be particularly vulnerable to body image disturbances. Making programs more inclusive may increase their disseminability. This qualitative study examined the feasibility of adapting the Body Project for universal and inclusive use with college students. Participants (N = 36; M age = 21.66 years; 73% female-identified; 20% sexual minority; 23% racial minority) attended one of five semi-structured focus groups to explore the inclusivity of appearance-based cultural norms using adapted Body Project activities and discuss the feasibility of universal and inclusive interventions. Inductive qualitative content analysis with three-rater consensus identified focus group themes. There was consensus that inclusive interventions could have a positive impact (broadening perspectives, normalizing body image concerns, increasing awareness) despite potential barriers (poor diversity representation, vulnerability). There was strong consensus regarding advice for facilitating inclusive interventions (e.g., skilled facilitation, education, increasing diversity). Results suggest that inclusive body image programs are desirable and provide a framework for creating the EVERYbody Project, a program for more universal audiences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2 prevention program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. RESULTS: Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. CONCLUSIONS: Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.
Dasgupta, Kaberi; Da Costa, Deborah; Pillay, Sabrina; De Civita, Mirella; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Leong, Aaron; Bacon, Simon; Stotland, Stephen; Chetty, V Tony; Garfield, Natasha; Majdan, Agnieszka; Meltzer, Sara
We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM) diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevention program. Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.
Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.
Hennink, Monique M
The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...
clarification. Determine demographics and number needed for focus groups (all male, all female, mixed gender , by rank, by section, etc.; 8–15...members (based on section, rank, race, gender , etc.) view an issue? Are the concerns focused in a single section or do they seem to be unit-wide...Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G
Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R
This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. © The Author(s) 2015.
Theadore, Geraldine; Laurent, Amy; Kovarsky, Dana; Weiss, Amy L.
Reflective practice requires that professionals carefully examine and integrate multiple sources of information when designing intervention and evaluating its effectiveness. This article describes the use of focus group discussion as a form of qualitative research for understanding parents' perspectives of a university-based intervention program…
Frattaroli, Shannon; McDonald, Eileen M; Tran, Nhan T; Trump, Alison R; OʼBrocki, Raymond C; Gielen, Andrea C
Smoke alarm canvassing is recognized as an empirically based, effective intervention for increasing access to and the presence of smoke alarms in homes. We sought to inform the implementation of an intervention designed to enhance an existing fire department smoke alarm canvassing program through an empirically grounded, participatory process. We conducted a series of focus groups with fire union leaders and firefighters involved with the canvassing program in 1 US city, shared the results with the participants, and presented the resulting recommendations to fire department leadership. This research occurred in Baltimore, Maryland. Focus group participants included firefighters who participate in the Fire Department's smoke alarm canvassing program and representatives from the local firefighters' union. The focus groups sought to capture firefighters' experiences with and opinions about the canvassing program and how to improve it as well as challenges to canvassing work. We conducted 10 focus groups with 65 participants. Firefighters' perspectives on the canvassing program and their recommendations for improving it were expressed through 3 categories of themes concerning program management, canvassing challenges, and attitudes about the program and the community. We also discuss the process of presenting these findings and recommendations to the participants and the fire department leadership, and describe how implementation of some of the recommendations has progressed. Both the process and outcomes of this formative work inform how to develop and implement community-based public health interventions in real-world settings through academic-community partnerships. The findings also have implications for how canvassing programs are being implemented.
Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Skoda, Eva-Maria; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E
Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is an eating disorder where cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) could already show reliable efficacy. Relying on basic research, CBT interventions which especially focus on impulsivity could be effective, because binge eating episodes represent highly impulsive eating behaviour. For this reason, we developed a treatment concept about an impulsivity-focused behavioural group intervention for patients with BED, called IMPULS. The efficacy of IMPULS is currently investigated in a randomised controlled trial 1. IMPULS is drafted as a weekly group training programme with 5-6 participants per group. The essential interventions are food-related cue exposure with response prevention and the development of self-control strategies. These interventions are adapted onto the impulsivity concept from conventional treatment of addictive disorders and BED. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Baumann, Maya; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Logwood, Steven J
We present the results of 3 focus groups conducted to assess the utility, appeal, and feasibility of the LIVE Network (LN), a 70-minute audio music program developed to educate and motivate HIV-infected persons to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and self-manage medication-related side effects. Participants included 15 African American, 2 caucasian, and 1 race unknown HIV-infected persons who had been taking ART for at least 6 months. In general, the LN was well liked, relevant, educational, and motivational. It empowered and motivated participants to be responsible for their adherence self-care. One of the more surprising findings was how freely focus group participants shared the program with family and friends as a means of education and also as a means of disclosure. Moreover, the positive reception of the LN by individuals outside of the focus groups, especially children and adolescents, speaks well for the potential broad appeal of this type of program.
Lindegaard, Laura Bang
that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic......Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...
Skubby, David; Bonfine, Natalie; Novisky, Meghan; Munetz, Mark R; Ritter, Christian
The Crisis Intervention Teams model (CIT) was originally developed as an urban model for police officers responding to calls about persons experiencing a mental illness crisis. Literature suggests that there is reason to believe that there may be unique challenges to adapting this model in rural settings. This study attempts to better understand these unique challenges. Thematic analysis of focus group interviews revealed that there were both external and internal barriers to developing CIT in their respective communities. Some of these barriers were a consequence of working in small communities and working within small police departments. Participants actively overcame these barriers through the realization that CIT was needed in their community, through collaborative efforts across disciplines, and through the involvement of mental health advocacy groups. These results indicate that CIT can be successfully implemented in rural communities.
Harvey, I S; Janke, M
Nearly half of rural residents in the USA have at least one chronic condition, and meeting the complex needs of these individuals has become a challenge for the current healthcare system. A self-management approach enables individuals with chronic illnesses to gain skills needed to improve the management of their conditions. Rural areas have a higher proportion of individuals who are likely to be affected by chronic conditions. Based on these factors, it is necessary to provide programs to help rural residents self-manage their health. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study is to explore the benefits perceived by rural residents due to their participation in six weekly group sessions, which are referred to as the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). Individuals who completed the CDSMP were recruited to participate in a focus group regarding their experience with the program. Thirty-four of the 45 respondents (75%) who completed the CDSMP participated in six focus groups. When the respondents returned for the scheduled focus groups, they were asked to share their experience with the CDSMP. Each focus group was located at the same site that housed the program in their community. Phenomenological and consensual qualitative approaches were used in the data analysis for the present study. The majority (91%) of the participants were female. Of those, 97% were non-Hispanic whites. The mean number of chronic conditions was two, with a range between one and eight chronic conditions per participant. Two prominent themes emerged from the six focus groups: respondent interaction in behavior change and prioritizing health behavior change. The study findings support that chronic disease self-management programs can initiate positive behavioral changes, and those lifestyle changes can influence and improve the health of rural populations. Similar programs can yield beneficial results on important behavior change for the rural communities, an underserved
Full Text Available Background: In response to transforming healthcare and pursuit of the Triple Aim, many health systems have added team members to expand the capabilities and effectiveness of the team to facilitate these aims. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and perceptions of pharmacist-physician collaboration among family medicine residents (FMR, family medicine faculty (FMF, and pharmacist faculty and residents in a practice where clinical pharmacy services were relatively new. Understanding the nuances of pharmacist-physician interactions will provide insight into how to improve FMR education to prepare learners for patient-centered, team-based practice. Methods: An exploratory descriptive qualitative study design was used to articulate perceptions of professional roles and team-based care in an interprofessional family medicine community-based clinical practice. Five, 60-minute focus groups were conducted in a clinical training setting that focuses on preparing family medicine physicians for collaborative rural primary care practice. Results: Twenty-one FMRs, eight FMF, and six clinical pharmacists participated. Three themes emerged from the focus groups and were consistent across the groups: 1 roles of pharmacists recognized by physicians in different settings, 2 benefits to collaboration, and 3 keys to successful pharmacist-physician collaboration which include a developing the relationship, b optimizing communication, c creating beneficial clinical workflow, d clarifying roles and responsibilities, and e increasing opportunities for meaningful interactions. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that by co-locating physicians and pharmacists in the same environment, and providing a basic structure for collaboration, a collaborative working relationship can be initiated. Practices looking to have more effective collaborative working relationships should strive to increase the frequency of interactions of the professions, help the
Cynthia A. Wood
Full Text Available The ethical practice of international service-learning requires participants and institutions to examine their potential impacts on vulnerable host communities. This study reports on a series of focus groups with leaders of short-term international service-learning and other study abroad programs. The results of these focus groups suggests that while program leaders do not generally take into account the potential impacts of their programs on local communities in the design or implementation of their programs, they are very open to considering ways to mitigate negative impacts and promote positive ones once the issue has been raised. Program leaders are also collectively able to generate many excellent and creative strategies for improving their programs with respect to effects on communities, and are enthusiastic about engaging in this dialogue. We conclude that more research as well as substantial institutional commitment to addressing the community impacts of international service-learning and other study abroad programs are necessary for positive change, including training and other support to program leaders. KEYWORDSinternational service-learning, community impacts, civic engagement, community partnerships
Onyechi, Kay C N; Eseadi, Chiedu; Umoke, Prince C I; Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, Amaka B; Otu, Mkpoikanke S; Obidoa, Jaachimma C; Agu, Fedinand U; Nwaubani, Okechukwu O; Utoh-Ofong, Anthonia N; Ncheke, Chijioke D; Ugwuozor, Felix O
Smoking is a learned habit that has an impact on the psychological and biochemical health of individuals. It is the leading preventable cause of chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program (GCBHEP) on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners. The study used a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Twenty inmates were identified through self-reporting, 1-to-1 counseling, and observation. The treatment group took part in a GCBHEP for 10 weeks, while the control group received 10 weeks' conventional counseling. After the intervention program, both the treatment and control groups were evaluated. The repeated measures analysis of variance was used for data analysis and partial η was also used as a measure of effect size. The findings showed that the GCBHEP had a strong effect on cigarette-smoking habits among the inmates in the treatment group compared with those in the control group. The effect of the GCBHEP by age was moderate, and modest by educational qualification. Group-focused cognitive behavioral health education is effective in breaking the habit of cigarette smoking among Nigerian prisoners. Therefore, future researchers are encouraged to adopt this approach in helping individuals with a smoking problem and other drug-abuse behaviors in Nigerian prisons.
Supporting the "Infrastructure Needs of 21st Century School Library Programs," also known as the Pennsylvania School Library Project, was a one-year project conducted in Pennsylvania to better identify and understand what stakeholders--teachers, administrators, parents, school and community leaders, and education associations--expect…
Mehra, S.; Dadema, T.; Kröse, B.J.A.; Visser, B.; Engelbert, R.H.H.; Van Den Helder, J.; Weijs, P.J.M.
Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise
This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say.
Chong, Eunice; Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne; Webel-Edgar, Lori; Muir, Sarah; Manson, Heather
Telephone focus groups have been increasingly popular in public health research and evaluation. One of the main concerns of telephone focus groups is the lack of nonverbal cues among participants, which could limit group interactions and dynamics during the focus group discussion. To overcome this limitation, we supplemented telephone focus groups with webinar technology in a recent evaluation of a provincial public health program in Ontario, Canada. In this article, we share the methods used and our experiences in conducting telephone focus groups supplemented with webinar technology, including advantages and challenges. Our experience will inform other researchers who may consider using telephone focus groups with webinars in future research and evaluation.
Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Mike A. Kilgore; Mae A. Davenport
In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were...
Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen
A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…
Poureslami, Iraj; Camp, Pat; Shum, Jessica; Afshar, Rowshanak; Tang, Tricia; FitzGerald, John Mark
There has been limited research on the role of peer support in self-management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs. This research explored patient acceptability of "peer supporters" in promoting sustained self-management practices after PR and to assess their perceived self-efficacy to manage their disease. This qualitative study used focus groups and individual interviews to identify perspectives of peer supporters and benefits of participation in a PR program. The analysis included systematically reading and reviewing transcripts of the sessions, establishing themes, and sorting responses into thematic categories. A total of 28 patients with COPD (15 males) participated in either a focus group or interview. The majority of participants considered peer supporters to be good facilitators for motivating ongoing exercise after completing PR. Exercise sessions were viewed as extremely beneficial for disease management, and many were satisfied with the care they had received. Most subjects wanted to receive followup sessions with either a professional or peer after the intensive phase of PR. Overall, the concept of having a peer supporter involved in ongoing maintenance of self-management efforts after PR was generally viewed as positive. Integrating a peer support model into PR programs may improve better long-term health outcomes for COPD management as many participants endorsed the need for continued support after the program. It also improved our understanding of the role of "peer supports" in exercise and self-care maintenance after PR. The selection of peers and the specific model used warrants further investigation in a randomized controlled trial.
Full Text Available In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC.The study team populated the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0 with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM, as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20-34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15-24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15-29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15-34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program's cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections.The VMMC program's impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15-34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25-34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them insufficient to support geographic targeting.
Cutts, J. A.
VEXAG’s Venus Bridge Focus Group is investigating whether viable Venus missions can be conducted within a $200M cost-cap. Progress reports on mission concept studies of combined in situ and orbiter missions will be presented.
Shek, Daniel T L
Ten focus groups comprising 42 program implementers recruited from 10 schools were conducted to evaluate the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 3) of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs) in the 2008/09 school year. Results showed that a majority of the program implementers used positive descriptors and metaphors to represent the program and they perceived that the program benefited the program participants in various psychosocial domains. In conjunction with the previous research findings, the present study provides further support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S.
Nolette, Shaun; Nguyen, Alyssa; Kogan, David; Oswald, Catherine; Whittaker, Alana; Chakraborty, Arup
Formative evaluation is a process utilized to improve communication between students and faculty. This evaluation method allows the ability to address pertinent issues in a timely manner; however, implementation of formative evaluation can be a challenge, especially in a large classroom setting. Using mediated formative evaluation, the purpose of this study is to determine if a student based focus group is a viable option to improve efficacy of communication between an instructor and students as well as time management in a large classroom setting. Out of 140 total students, six students were selected to form a focus group - one from each of six total sections of the classroom. Each focus group representative was responsible for collecting all the questions from students of their corresponding sections and submitting them to the instructor two to three times a day. Responses from the instructor were either passed back to pertinent students by the focus group representatives or addressed directly with students by the instructor. This study was conducted using a fifteen-question survey after the focus group model was utilized for one month. A printed copy of the survey was distributed in the class by student investigators. Questions were of varying types, including Likert scale, yes/no, and open-ended response. One hundred forty surveys were administered, and 90 complete responses were collected. Surveys showed that 93.3% of students found that use of the focus group made them more likely to ask questions for understanding. The surveys also showed 95.5% of students found utilizing the focus group for questions allowed for better understanding of difficult concepts. General open-ended answer portions of the survey showed that most students found the focus group allowed them to ask questions more easily since they did not feel intimidated by asking in front of the whole class. No correlation was found between demographic characteristics and survey responses. This may
Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.
Lukas, Catherine V.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie
Objective: Focus group (FG) interviews with students and adults were used to obtain a rich understanding of the "Cooking with Kids" classroom experience from the child and adult participant perspectives. Methods: FG topics included students' cooking experiences at school and home and perceptions of "Cooking with Kids". Verified transcripts of…
Miller, Kristell A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Mike A.; Davenport, Mae A.
In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were held per state with an average of eight participants each (49 total). While landowner participant types varied, overall convergence was reached on several key issues. In general, discussion results found that the current payment amounts offered for carbon credits are not likely, on their own, to encourage participation in carbon markets. Landowners are most interested in other benefits they can attain through carbon management (e.g., improved stand species mix, wildlife, and trails). Interestingly, landowner perceptions about the condition of their own forest land were most indicative of prospective interest in carbon management. Landowners who felt that their forest was currently in poor condition, or did not meet their forest ownership objectives, were most interested in participating. While the initial survey sought landowner opinions about carbon markets, a majority of focus group participants expressed interest in general carbon management as a means to achieve reduced property taxes.
Greenwood, Jennifer; Parsons, Myra
In Western Sydney, Australia, in 1996, the Area Health Service and the University of Western Sydney entered a strategic alliance to develop a nursing research culture in the health services. One of the strategies implemented to achieve this was the establishment of a network of research-receptive environments known as Clinical Development Units (CDUs). In terms of research receptivity, evidence at the time suggested that it could only be developed in units where the leadership style is democratic and participatory. In terms of CDUs, evidence suggested that their successful development depended critically on the effective management of CDU leadership stressors. In light of this, it was agreed to conduct a CDU leadership preparation program in Western Sydney. The program aimed to furnish CDU leaders with the participatory leadership skills required to develop and manage their units. It was expected that the acquisition of such leadership skills would serve to minimize the leadership stessors they could expect to experience. This is the second of two papers which report course evaluation data. The first focused on the more positive evaluation data; this paper focuses on the negative evaluation data and outlines how the current program has been modified in light of these data. In addition, it discusses two themes which emerged during data analysis. These were nurses' apparent mutual lack of trust and their pressing needs to be recognized as valuable and merit-worthy.
Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.
In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.
According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom
Franz, Nancy K.
Facilitating successful focus groups requires both science and art. One element that can fully challenge focus group facilitators includes how to handle the unfocused focus group. This article describes "unfocus" and the benefits and disadvantages of unfocus in focus groups. Lessons learned from and approaches taken on this journey are shared to…
Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua
Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…
Chong, Eunice; Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne; Webel-Edgar, Lori; Muir, Sarah; Manson, Heather
Telephone focus groups have been increasingly popular in public health research and evaluation. One of the main concerns of telephone focus groups is the lack of nonverbal cues among participants, which could limit group interactions and dynamics during the focus group discussion. To overcome this limitation, we supplemented telephone focus groups with webinar technology in a recent evaluation of a provincial public health program in Ontario, Canada. In this article, we share the methods used and our experiences in conducting telephone focus groups supplemented with webinar technology, including advantages and challenges. Our experience will inform other researchers who may consider using telephone focus groups with webinars in future research and evaluation. PMID:28462318
Full Text Available The paper presents a review of literature concerning the use of focus groups in research in psychology. Particulary, some specific problems with the implementation of focus groups as a researchmethod are emphasised, and some characteristics of analysis of focus group data are discussed. The main objectives are to define focus groups as a method of data collection, to draw attention to someparticularities of its use in psychological research and to encourage researchers to use focus groups as thoughtfully and meaningfully as possible.
Rise, Marit B; Gismervik, Sigmund Ø; Johnsen, Roar; Fimland, Marius S
Occupational medicine has shifted emphasis from disease treatment to disability rehabilitation and management. Hence, newly developed occupational rehabilitation programs are often generic and multicomponent, aiming to influence the sick-listed persons' perception on return to work, and thereby support the return to work process. The aim of this study was to explore sick-listed persons' experiences with taking part in an in-patient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Twenty-nine adults on sickness benefit or work assessment allowance due to musculoskeletal and/or common mental health disorders participated in this study. They were interviewed in focus groups at the beginning and at the end of a 3.5 week inpatient group-based occupational rehabilitation program in Central Norway. Key elements in the program were Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), physical exercise and creating a work-participation plan. The program was mainly group-based including participants with different diagnoses. Data was analyzed according to a phenomenological approach. At the start of the program most participants expressed frustration regarding being sick-listed, external anticipations as well as hindrances towards returning to work, and described hope that the program would provide them with the skills and techniques necessary to cope with health problems and being able to return to work. At the end of the program the participants described that they had embarked upon a long process of increased awareness. This process encompassed four areas; an increased awareness of what was important in life, realizing the strain from external expectations and demands, a need to balance different aspects of life, and return to work as part of a long and complex process. The occupational rehabilitation program induced a perceived meaningful reorientation encompassing several aspects of life. However, the return to work process was described as diffuse
Jayasekara, Rasika S
Focus groups have been increasingly used as a data collection method in nursing research. The key feature of focus groups is the active interaction among participants to explore their views and opinions. In this respect, focus groups are distinct from other methods such as Delphi groups, nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus panels, which seek to determine a consensus between participants. Compared with other data collection methods, it can be concluded that the real strength of focus groups is not simply in exploring what participants have to say, but in providing insights into the sources of complex behaviors and motivations. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the focus group as a research tool in nursing research, particularly in nursing education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Del Rio-Roberts, Maribel
The use of focus groups may provide researchers with important insights into research questions via participant discussion and interaction. As a human services practitioner and researcher, I became interested in learning how to conduct focus groups in order to apply these steps to my research and gain valuable insights about the human experience…
Nonverbal communication is often neglected during the analysis of focus group discussions. The aim of this research was to review the literature regarding the recording of nonverbal communication during focus group discussions. Specific objectives were to identify the methods used to record the nonverbal communication ...
Sharon Moloney PhD
Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.
Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...
Full Text Available Telephone focus groups have been increasingly popular in public health research and evaluation. One of the main concerns of telephone focus groups is the lack of nonverbal cues among participants, which could limit group interactions and dynamics during the focus group discussion. To overcome this limitation, we supplemented telephone focus groups with webinar technology in a recent evaluation of a provincial public health program in Ontario, Canada. In this article, we share the methods used and our experiences in conducting telephone focus groups supplemented with webinar technology, including advantages and challenges. Our experience will inform other researchers who may consider using telephone focus groups with webinars in future research and evaluation.
Pechak, Celia M; Black, Jill D
Physical therapist students are increasingly engaging in international clinical education (ICE). The growth of international engagement has been accompanied by appeals to ensure that these experiences are conducted in an ethical manner. Although detailed guidelines have been developed to guide global health training in general, they do not specifically address all aspects relevant to ICE in physical therapist education. The purpose of this study was to systematically develop recommendations for the implementation of ICE in physical therapist education to promote ethical practice. An initial virtual focus group of 5 physical therapist faculty with expertise in ICE provided input to review and revise global health training guidelines previously developed by non-physical therapists. The revised guidelines were distributed to a pool of 19 physical therapist faculty with ICE experience for additional review and revision through 3 online Delphi survey rounds. The participants accepted 31 of the original guidelines with or without revisions, rejected 2 guidelines, and developed 10 new guidelines or subguidelines. Most notably, they rejected a guideline related to students pursuing training outside of a structured program, stressing that ICE should never be done outside of a formal program. The primary limitation is that the study included only faculty from sending institutions and thus lacked the voices of the host institutions, students, partner organizations, or funders. This study systematically produced guidelines for ICE in physical therapist education using a range of ICE experts from sending institutions. The recommendations may be used by educators and other decision makers to optimally design new ICE opportunities or to improve existing ones. Additional validation should be done to ensure relevance for all stakeholders.
Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers
Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.
Background Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF. PMID:26849126
Eaton, Sarah Elaine
This manual is a practical training guide for graduate and undergraduate research assistants (RAs) working in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary. It may also be applicable to research assistants working in other fields or institutions. The purpose of this manual is to train RAs on how to plan and conduct focus groups for…
Mishra, Sushma; Draus, Peter; Caputo, Donald; Leone, Gregory; Kohun, Frederick; Repack, Diana
Previous research studies of women applying to, enrolling and completing computing degrees at the undergraduate collegiate level suggest a significant underrepresentation of females in the Information Technology domain in the past decade. This study employs a focus group approach to the gender gap that encompasses forays into the qualitative…
Tausch, Anja P; Menold, Natalja
Although focus groups are commonly used in health research to explore the perspectives of patients or health care professionals, few studies consider methodological aspects in this specific context. For this reason, we interviewed nine researchers who had conducted focus groups in the context of a project devoted to the development of an electronic personal health record. We performed qualitative content analysis on the interview data relating to recruitment, communication between the focus group participants, and appraisal of the focus group method. The interview data revealed aspects of the focus group method that are particularly relevant for health research and that should be considered in that context. They include, for example, the preferability of face-to-face recruitment, the necessity to allow participants in patient groups sufficient time to introduce themselves, and the use of methods such as participant-generated cards and prioritization.
Harassment and Gender Discrimination Policies ...................4 Program Oversight...oversees equal opportunity policies. ODMEO monitors the prevention of and response to sexual harassment and gender discrimination . The overall goal...2017 Service Academy Gender Relations Focus Groups Overview Report Additional copies of this report may be obtained from: Defense Technical
Wood, Felecia; Jacobson, Sharol
The purpose of this descriptive non-experimental research was to assess employee perceptions of desired diabetes education through focus groups. Thirteen employees of a southern university in three focus groups identified many standard and some emerging educational topics of interest including healthier food choices when eating out, increasing activity, deciding whether highly advertised "special" products for diabetes were necessary, and recognizing the importance of obesity among children. The employees were willing to attend group meetings related to diabetes, but not to pay for them. The information will be used to plan an intervention to promote diabetes prevention and self-management in a worksite environment where diabetes costs are rising rapidly, and to support the need for a university wellness program. Occupational health nurses can address both employees' needs and employers' costs through such a program.
Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.
In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…
Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina
The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer research to develop a social marketing program to promote walking and other moderate-intensity physical activities. Two phases of focus groups were conducted. Phase 1 groups, which included both men and women, were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a social marketing program based on social marketing concepts. Phase 1 also determined the intervention's target audience, which was irregularly active women aged 35 to 54. Phase 2 groups, composed of members of the target audience, were asked to further define the product and discuss specific promotion strategies. Phase 1 participants determined that the program product, or target behavior, should be walking. In addition, they identified price, place, and promotion strategies. Phase 2 participants determined that moderate-intensity physical activity is best promoted using the term exercise and offered suggestions for marketing walking, or exercise, to the target audience. There have been few published studies of social marketing campaigns to promote physical activity. In this study, focus groups were key to understanding the target audience in a way that would not have been accomplished with quantitative data alone. The group discussions generated important insights into values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt a product or behavior. The focus group results guided the development of a social marketing program to promote physical activity in the target audience in Sumter County, South Carolina.
Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther
Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.
Katrina L. Rodriguez PhD; Jana L. Schwartz PhD; Maria K. E. Lahman PhD; Monica R. Geist PhD
Focus groups are a frequently employed and valued method of data collection in the Social Sciences. This article specifically addresses maximizing the benefits of focus groups through the framework of culturally responsive research practice. Discussion of authors' research projects which utilized focus groups are presented in order to illuminate the advantages of using culturally responsive focus groups (CRFGs) in data collection. Three types of focus groups are discussed: traditional focus g...
Davis, Marilyn Diane
Teachers have reported that they have difficulty providing support to traumatized children and youth because of a lack of training in how to identify and respond to the needs of these children. The program, "Amazing Help Skills for Teachers to Unmask Trauma in Children and Youth" (AHSUM), is a trauma-focused training program, designed…
Karns, Robert J.
Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…
Dugan, V. L.
The Line-Focus Concentrating Collector Program has emphasized the development and dissemination of concentrating solar technology in which the reflected sunlight is focused onto a linear or line receiver. Although a number of different types of line-focus concentrators were developed, the parabolic trough has gained the widest acceptance and utilization within the industrial and applications sectors. The trough is best applied for application scenarios which require temperatures between 140 and 600 F. Another concept, the bowl, is investigated for applications which may require temperatures in the range between 600 and 1200 F. Current technology emphases are upon the reduction of system installation cost and the implementation of production oriented engineering.
Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence
peer-reviewed Focus groups are used by researchers in the social and behavioural sciences to explore phenomena and are accepted as a legitimate qualitative methodology. The primary goal of focus groups is to use interaction data resulting from discussion among participants to increase the depth of the enquiry and reveal aspects of the phenomenon assumed to be otherwise less accessible. This article, the first of three articles on focus groups, examines the nature of focus groups, issues...
Ryan, Katherine E.; Gandha, Tysza; Culbertson, Michael J.; Carlson, Crystal
In evaluation and applied social research, focus groups may be used to gather different kinds of evidence (e.g., opinion, tacit knowledge). In this article, we argue that making focus group design choices explicitly in relation to the type of evidence required would enhance the empirical value and rigor associated with focus group utilization. We…
Villard, Judith A.
This paper describes the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method. The focus group is a carefully designed discussion that allows people to express their points of view and provide researchers with indicators of program impact. Participants in focus groups possess certain characteristics related to the subject under study. They are…
Mayer, Ashley Bramlett; Harrison, Judy A.
In the development of an online food safety education intervention for college students, online focus groups were used to determine the appropriate format and messages. Focus groups are often used in qualitative research and formative evaluation of public health programs, yet traditional focus groups can be both difficult and expensive to…
Lee, Byoung Sook; Eo, Yong Sook; Lee, Mi Aie
The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the leadership experience of clinical nurses. During 2014, data were collected using focus group interviews. Three focus group interviews were held with a total of 20 clinical nurses participating. All interviews were recorded as they were spoken and transcribed and data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Fifteen categories emerged from the five main themes. 1) Thoughts on the leadership category: to lead others, to cope with problem situations adequately and to serve as a shield against difficulties. 2) Situations requiring leadership: situation that requires correct judgement, coping and situations that need coordination and cooperation. 3-1) Leadership behaviors: other-oriented approach and self-oriented approach. 3-2) Leadership behavior consequences: relevant compensation and unfair termination. 4-1) Facilitators of leadership: confidence and passion for nursing and external support and resources. 4-2) Barriers to leadership: non-supportive organization culture and deficiency in own leadership competencies. 5) Strategies of leadership development: strengthen leadership through self-development and organizational leadership development. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to enhance clinical nurses' leadership role in healthcare. Enhancement can be achieved through leadership programs focused on enlarging leadership experience, constant self-development, leadership training, and development of leadership competencies suited to the nursing environment.
Results from the evaluation of 11 demonstration programs designed to prevent child abuse are summarized in this working paper. The programs were of three types: perinatal programs; community-wide education, information, and referral projects; and culturally relevant parent education efforts. The four perinatal programs focused on extended…
Pluye, P; Potvin, L; Denis, J L; Pelletier, J
Program sustainability is an ongoing concern for most people in health promotion. However, the current notion of sustainability in organizations, namely routinization, needs refinement. This article examines organizational routines. In so doing, it refines the notion of sustainability and the assessment of routines. Drawing on the organizational literature, a routinized program is defined by the presence of routinized activities, meaning that these activities exhibit four characteristics of organizational routines: memory, adaptation, values and rules. To answer the question of how these characteristics are useful, we conducted an empirical study of the routinization of the Quebec Heart Health Demonstration Project in five community health centers. Our method consisted of a multiple-case study. We observed project activities in each center in 2000. The data came from documents and interviews with project actors. Our results show that, in one of the centers, no resources had been officially committed to project activities. Even so, the actors continued some activities on an informal basis. In another center, the activities satisfied three of the four routine characteristics. In the three others, activities satisfied all of the characteristics. These results suggest focusing the study of program sustainability on the routinization of activities resulting from it. They indicate four distinct degrees of sustainability: (1) the absence of sustainability; no program activity is continued; (2) precarious sustainability; some residual activities are pursued, at least unofficially; (3) weak sustainability; the program produces some official activities that are not routinized; and (4) sustainability through routinization; routinized activities result from the program.
Pavlović Jelena; Džinović Vladimir
This paper presents the positivist and constructivist theory and practice of focus groups. We pointed out to the paradigmatic differences in notional attributes of focus groups, as well as to the historic circumstances of their appearance. We analyzed the practice of focus groups in positivist and constructivist paradigm, through the combination of two interpretative frameworks. The fist level of analysis is Foucault’s genealogy which enables to observe the research as a social technology of ...
Karageorge, A; Murphy, M J; Newby, J M; Kirsten, L; Andrews, G; Allison, K; Loughnan, S; Price, M; Shaw, J; Shepherd, H; Smith, J; Butow, P
We developed an eight-lesson internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) program targeting anxiety and depression in early-stage cancer and cancer survivors. To explore the acceptability of the program, we showed volunteers the first two lessons and asked for their views. Focus groups (n = 3) and individual interviews (n = 5) were undertaken with 15 participants (11 survivors) with mainly breast (11 of the 15) cancer, who had reviewed intervention materials. Participants were asked to consider the acceptability of the iCBT program content and implementation design (timing, duration). Semi-structured questions guided discussion. Thematic analysis was conducted of participant reactions to the acceptability and/or suitability of materials created for use in a psychological intervention. We took a data-driven (inductive) approach to semantic theme development across the data set. Participants reported high acceptability of the internet delivery format, good engagement and user-friendly material. Participants were broadly supportive of combining depression and anxiety iCBT resources for early-stage cancer patients and survivors. Participants further indicated that a separate course would be needed to address the needs of patients with advanced stage disease. Participants welcomed the general development of an internet-delivered CBT intervention program to treat patients with clinical depression and/or anxiety. Furthermore, the sessions reviewed were highly acceptable to all participants. Study findings informed researchers on the development of iCBT resources for the cancer community.
Kristiansen, T. M.; Gronkjaer, M.
Aim: This article aims to demonstrate how focus group discussions act as a social arena for the negotiation of social norms and normativity and to discuss the implications for the analysis of focus group discussions. Participants and methods: We have used sequences of group interactions from...... a focus group study on everyday life and chronic illness to demonstrate how methodological tools from conversation analysis and discursive psychology can be used to facilitate a systematic analysis of the negotiation and legitimization of social norms and normativity in focus groups. The empirical data...... consisted of six focus groups with a total of 32 participants. Results: The analysis demonstrated negotiations on normativity concerning four central aspects related to living with chronic illness: negotiating normativity about adjustment to the disease, negotiating normativity about being a dutiful...
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.
Health educators use several different data collection techniques involving qualitative and quantitative methods. One common qualitative data collection technique is the focus group. Although a focus group, when utilized appropriately, can yield useful information, too often in health education practice it is misunderstood and thus misused. The…
Lunt, Peter; Livingstone, Sonia
Relates the history of the focus group as a research tool, explores its recent revival, and reappraises the method and its appropriateness for media and communications research. Argues that the focus group discussion should be regarded as a socially situated communication. Discusses the various relations this may bear toward different approaches…
Schreuder, R.; Visser, de C.L.M.
This report is the result of the EIP-AGRI Focus Group (FG) on Soil organic matter (SOM) content in Mediterranean regions, which was launched under the European Innovation Partnership Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability (EIP-AGRI). The Focus Group brought together 19 experts with different
Anja P. Tausch; Natalja Menold
Although focus groups are commonly used in health research to explore the perspectives of patients or health care professionals, few studies consider methodological aspects in this specific context. For this reason, we interviewed nine researchers who had conducted focus groups in the context of a project devoted to the development of an electronic personal health record. We performed qualitative content analysis on the interview data relating to recruitment, communication between the focus g...
Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha
and an effect of their drinking experience. We apply Coleman's micro-oriented perspective on local network mechanisms – with a specific focus on collective norms negotiated in the focus groups – in combination with Bourdieu's definition of social capital as resources. The data used in this article come from...... focus group interviews with 18–19-year-old Danes. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/16066351003725776...
Dennis B. Propst
Full Text Available Although focus groups are adaptable to unique situations, experts warn that the physical environment in which discussions take place should (a be free from distractions, (b be neutral, and (c permit participants to face each other. In 2004 and 2005 the authors experimented with roving focus groups in the rural landscape of Michigan (USA. As they moved along in a vehicle, participants discussed features that contributed to and detracted from rural landscape character. Results from a follow-up survey supported focus group themes. Such a congruence of results provides confidence in the procedure and expands interpretation of the concept, rural character. Qualitative procedures are rarely used to evaluate landscapes. In this study roving focus group results provided reliable and valid policy-relevant criteria at sufficient detail for planning purposes. The authors demonstrate the technology used to record the focus groups and discuss the pros and cons and ways of improving this procedure.
Baiardi, Janet M; Gultekin, Laura; Brush, Barbara L
To discuss the use of sociograms in our focus groups with homeless sheltered mothers and to assess facilitator influence and the distribution of power influence. An exploratory, descriptive qualitative design that utilizes both focus groups and sociograms. Two focus groups were conducted in December 2009 (N = 7) and January 2010 (N = 4). Data analysis included a content analysis and a process analysis using sociograms to graphically represent group participant dynamics. Use of the sociogram provided a means to assess the influence of the facilitator as well as quantify the degree to which group participants' voices are included. Using sociograms provides a viable mechanism to complement content analysis and increase the methodological rigor of focus groups in health care research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Focus groups are a useful data-generation strategy in qualitative health research when it is important to understand how social contexts shape participants’ health. However, when cross-lingual focus groups are conducted across cultural groups, and in languages in which the researcher is not fluent, questions regarding the usefulness and rigor of the findings can be raised. In this article, we will discuss three different approaches to cross-lingual focus groups used in a community-based participatory research project with pregnant and postpartum, African immigrant women in Alberta, Canada. In two approaches, we moderated focus groups in women’s mother tongue with the support of real-time interpreters, but in the first approach, audio recording was used and in the second approach, audio recording was not used. In the third approach, a bilingual moderator facilitated focus groups in women’s mother tongue, with transcription and translation of audio-recorded data upon completion of data generation. We will describe each approach in detail, including their advantages and challenges, and recontextualize what we have learned within the known literature. We expect the lessons learned in this project may assist others in planning and implementing cross-lingual focus groups, especially in the context of community-based participatory research.
Full Text Available This paper presents the positivist and constructivist theory and practice of focus groups. We pointed out to the paradigmatic differences in notional attributes of focus groups, as well as to the historic circumstances of their appearance. We analyzed the practice of focus groups in positivist and constructivist paradigm, through the combination of two interpretative frameworks. The fist level of analysis is Foucault’s genealogy which enables to observe the research as a social technology of disciplining and producing the discourse of subjectivity. Goffman’s metaphor of social interaction as a "scene" where the rituals of its maintenance and disturbance constantly take place is the second level of analysis of practice of focus groups. These two levels of analysis are the tool for understanding the complex relation between the way in which social practice of research is constituted and the knowledge it produces.
Orvik, Arne; Larun, Lillebeth; Berland, Astrid; Ringsberg, Karin C
.... By using Vicsek's framework of situational factors for analysis of focus group results as a starting point, we found that contextual factors were most frequently described in the method sections...
Mandić, Miroslav; Crnković, Ksenija; Vranešević, Tihomir
Focus groups, as important exploratory and qualitative methods of research, have become ever more present in theory and practice. The object of this research is to explore the applicability of online focus groups and to find out whether the traditional approach could possibly be exchanged with the new one. Also, the object is to summarize new reachable surveys and to compare theory with practice. The data was collected from in-depth interviews and secondary sources. The main questions are: Is...
Arne Orvik MPolSc
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see how contextual factors are expressed, used, and analyzed in data collected in focus group discussions (FGDs. The study includes an assessment of how the methodological reporting of contextual factors might influence and improve the trustworthiness of articles. Articles reporting workplace health, stress, and coping among health professionals were identified in a systematic review and used in the analysis. By using Vicsek's framework of situational factors for analysis of focus group results as a starting point, we found that contextual factors were most frequently described in the method sections and less frequently in the results and discussion sections. Vicsek's framework for the analysis of focus group results covers six contextual and methodological dimensions: interactional factors, personal characteristics of the participants, the moderator, the environment, time factors, and the content of FGDs. We found that the framework does not include a consideration of psychological safety, ethical issues, or organizational information. To deepen the analysis of focus group results, we argue that contextual factors should be analyzed as methodological dimensions and be considered as a sensitizing concept. Credibility, confirmability, dependability, and transferability can be strengthened by using, reporting, and discussing contextual factors in detail. The study contributes to elucidating how reporting of contextual data may enrich the analysis of focus group results and strengthen the trustworthiness. Future research should focus on clear reporting of contextual factors as well as further develop Vicsek's model to enhance reporting accuracy and transferability.
A multitude of intersecting factors including the graying of the broader society, a paradigm shift away from rehabilitation, fewer opportunities for parole, and retrospective prosecutions contribute to an exponential increase in number of geriatric inmates. Elderly prisoners are likely to live in small tight quarters with other inmates, have two or more chronic health conditions, and encounter multiple barriers impeding health promotion while incarcerated. The purpose of this study was to identify perceived challenges to the health of older male inmates and to explore their self-care strategies. Focus group methodology was used. Data were collected from 42 male inmates age 50 and over who were aging in place and living with comorbidity. Cost issues, prison personnel and policies, food concerns, fellow inmates, and personal barriers all challenged older inmates’ abilities to maintain their health in prison. However, these older inmates engaged in a variety of self-care strategies, including: accessing resources and support; staying positive; managing diet and weight; engaging in physical activity; and protecting self. A key motivator for pursuing good health was to be respected and perceived as healthy and strong by fellow inmates. Looking to the future, development and testing of programs to enhance inmates' self-management of chronic conditions and to facilitate health promotion are in order. PMID:20795581
Hurd, Noelle; Deutsch, Nancy
After-school programs offer young people opportunities for self-expression, exploring their talents, and forming relationships with supportive adults. That is, after-school programs promote young people's social and emotional learning (SEL) skills--whether the programs use that term or not. Despite these programs' potential, Noelle Hurd and Nancy…
Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor-student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians.
The focus groups (FG) are a “carefully planned series of discussions designed to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest in a permissive, non-threatening environment” (Krueger and Casey, 2000). The aim of the FG is to raise a discussion among the participants that makes the research to see...... a certain phenomenon from the participants’ perspective. In Periscope the Focus Group Methodology (FGM) will be used as a supplement to the quantitative methods in order to obtaining background information on health behavior in the institutions as well as in the family. In addition it will be used...
Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Shu-Ling
The purpose of this study was to explore the elderly's experience and perceptions of group music therapy. The residents of a long term care institution received group music therapy for one year. Afterwards, three interviews were conducted in focus groups of between six and eight of the elderly. Their ages ranged from 64 to 90. Ninety-five percent of these elderly subjects participated in the therapy for over ten months. The tape-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Six themes emerged regarding the elderly subjects' experiences and perceptions of group music therapy, as follows: (1) becoming more willing to participate; (2) feeling pain relief and more controlled moods; (3) getting physically better; (4) being more motivated to live; (5) learning positive personal interaction and obedience to the rules of the group; and (6) learning skills to improve personal health. This information might be used as a helpful and valuable reference in nursing education and by administrative organizations involved in the planning of therapeutic programs for the elderly.
Full Text Available Overdiagnosis is considered a risk associated with the diagnosis of osteoporosis-as many people diagnosed won't experience harm from the condition. As yet there's little evidence on community understanding of overdiagnosis outside cancer- where it is an established risk of some screening programs-or effective ways to communicate about it. We examined community understanding around overdiagnosis of osteoporosis, to optimise communication strategies about this problem.Using a qualitative design we recruited a community sample of women, 50-80 years, from the Gold Coast community around Bond University, Australia, using random digit dialing, and conducted 5 focus groups with 41 women. A discussion guide and 4-part presentation were developed and piloted, with independent review from a consumer and clinical experts. Initial discussion had 4 segments: osteoporosis; bone density vs. other risk factors; medication; and overdiagnosis. The second half included the 4 short presentations and discussions on each. Analysis used Framework Analysis method. Initially participants described osteoporosis as bone degeneration causing some fear, demonstrated imprecise understanding of overdiagnosis, had a view osteoporosis couldn't be overdiagnosed as bone scans provided "clear cut" results, expressed belief in early diagnosis, and interest in prevention strategies enabling control. Following presentations, participants expressed some understanding of overdiagnosis, preference for describing osteoporosis as a "risk factor" not "disease", concern about a poor risk-benefit ratio for medications, and surprise and unease the definition of osteoporosis decided bone density of young women was "normal", without age adjustment. Limitations include English-speaking backgrounds of the sample and complex materials.Our findings suggest a gap between community expectations and how experts sometimes arbitrarily set low diagnostic thresholds which label those at risk as "diseased
Moynihan, Ray; Sims, Rebecca; Hersch, Jolyn; Thomas, Rae; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten
Overdiagnosis is considered a risk associated with the diagnosis of osteoporosis-as many people diagnosed won't experience harm from the condition. As yet there's little evidence on community understanding of overdiagnosis outside cancer- where it is an established risk of some screening programs-or effective ways to communicate about it. We examined community understanding around overdiagnosis of osteoporosis, to optimise communication strategies about this problem. Using a qualitative design we recruited a community sample of women, 50-80 years, from the Gold Coast community around Bond University, Australia, using random digit dialing, and conducted 5 focus groups with 41 women. A discussion guide and 4-part presentation were developed and piloted, with independent review from a consumer and clinical experts. Initial discussion had 4 segments: osteoporosis; bone density vs. other risk factors; medication; and overdiagnosis. The second half included the 4 short presentations and discussions on each. Analysis used Framework Analysis method. Initially participants described osteoporosis as bone degeneration causing some fear, demonstrated imprecise understanding of overdiagnosis, had a view osteoporosis couldn't be overdiagnosed as bone scans provided "clear cut" results, expressed belief in early diagnosis, and interest in prevention strategies enabling control. Following presentations, participants expressed some understanding of overdiagnosis, preference for describing osteoporosis as a "risk factor" not "disease", concern about a poor risk-benefit ratio for medications, and surprise and unease the definition of osteoporosis decided bone density of young women was "normal", without age adjustment. Limitations include English-speaking backgrounds of the sample and complex materials. Our findings suggest a gap between community expectations and how experts sometimes arbitrarily set low diagnostic thresholds which label those at risk as "diseased". Optimal
Harden, Janet; Schafenacker, Ann; Northouse, Laurel; Mood, Darlene; Smith, David; Pienta, Kenneth; Hussain, Maha; Baranowski, Karen
To explore the experiences of couples living with prostate cancer, the impact of the illness on their quality of life, their ability to manage symptoms, and their suggestions for interventions that would help them to improve their daily experiences. Descriptive, qualitative. Six focus groups were used to obtain the data; two were patient-only groups, two were spouse-caregiver groups, and two were dyad groups. The focus groups were conducted at two comprehensive cancer centers in the midwestern region of the United States. 42 participants: 22 men with prostate cancer and 20 spouse-caregivers. Focus group discussions were tape-recorded, and the content was analyzed. Quality of life, symptom experience, and areas for intervention. Four major themes emerged from the data: enduring uncertainty, living with treatment effects, coping with changes, and needing help. Participants had a need for information and support. Both men and spouse-caregivers felt unprepared to manage treatment effects. Symptoms had a broad effect on couples, not just men. Positive effects of the illness, as well as negative effects, emerged from the themes. Attention needs to be given to methods of providing information and support to couples coping with prostate cancer. Both patients and partners need to be included in discussions about the effect of the illness and treatments so that both can feel more prepared to manage them.
Lange, J. de; Deusing, E.; Asch, I.F. van; Peeters, J.; Zwaanswijk, M.; Pot, A.M.; Francke, A.L.
To obtain insight into facilitating factors for case management in dementia care, we conducted a qualitative study with 13 online focus groups (OFGs). Participants were professionals involved in dementia case management (N = 99). We used mind-maps and the method of constant comparison for analysis.
Abortion is carried out daily in Nigeria despite the restrictive abortion law. This study was carried out to obtain information on societal attitude to the issues of family planning, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, adoption of children and laws relating to them. Focus group discussions were held in south-western Nigeria among 11 ...
Background. Physiotherapy in South Africa has not defined its contribution to the management of HIV. As part of developing an appropriate HIV/AIDS physiotherapy curriculum, focus group discussions (FGDs) with physiotherapy clinicians and educators were undertaken. Objectives. To understand the perceptions and ...
Rosen, Lisa H.; Scott, Shannon R.; DeOrnellas, Kathy
The current qualitative study used a focus group approach to examine teachers' perceptions of student aggressors and victims. Participants in the current study included 35 teachers from public elementary, middle, and high schools. Teachers' responses to five questions about risk factors for aggression and victimization, adaptive and maladaptive…
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices about prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) among clients in focus group in Togo. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 antenatal clinics involved in PMTCT activities from January 18 to February 6, 2010. Data were collected ...
In this article, we explain how we took an “active” approach to focus group discussions with teachers in three South African schools. The topic of discussion was their views on the implementation of inclusive education. We shall also show how we sought feedback from the participants on their experiences of these ...
Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon
Recent studies on peer review groups in second language classes have focused on various topics, including collaboration (Carr, 2008) and the effect of peer review versus teacher feedback on students' writing (Zhang, 1995). One area that has received little attention is the content of students' speech during peer review. This longitudinal case…
Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to point out the advantages and disadvantages of the focus group method in assessing the education needs of teachers and students in veterinary medicine. It is the first stage of a wider research aiming at developing problem-based teaching and learning methodologies in the field of veterinary medicine. The materials used consisted of literature documents on focus group as a research method in social sciences. The authors studied the literature available in the field and synthesised its main advantages and disadvantages. The paper is the first of this kind in Romania. Results show that there is no agreement yet on the advantages and disadvantages of this method. The research limitation is that there is almost no Romanian literature on focus group as a method. The usefulness of the paper is obvious: it allows other researchers in the field of education see the benefits of using such a research method. The originality of the paper consists in the fact that there has been no such research so far in Romanian higher education. Based on the results of the focus groups organised, the authors will design and implement a problem-based learning methodology for the students in veterinary medicine.
Dr. J. de Lange; E. Deusing; I.F.M. van Asch; J. Peeters; M. Zwaanswijk; A.M. Pot; A.L. Francke
To obtain insight into facilitating factors for case management in dementia care, we conducted a qualitative study with 13 online focus groups (OFGs). Participants were professionals involved in dementia case management (N = 99). We used mind-maps and the method of constant comparison for analysis.
This study used a focus group interview to examine teacher perceptions of classroom assessment. The interview took place in a school where the researcher had visited and observed classes taught by the majority of the teachers interviewed for the study. The majority of the interviewees seemed to embrace the notion of assessment for learning.…
Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha
alcohol experience and positive attitudes towards drinking are related to popularity and influence in the peer group. The function of alcohol in teenagers’ struggle for recognition is so strong that the participants who drink very little or not at all are put under considerable pressure. With alcohol...... as a central marker of maturity–and the drinking teenagers’ parents described as supporters of this view–non-drinking teenagers come out as the potential losers in the negotiation of status in the groups. The data are drawn from a large qualitative study in which 28 focus group interviews were conducted...
Stafstrom, Carl E; Havlena, Janice; Krezinski, Anthony J
Children with epilepsy are at risk for numerous psychological and social challenges. We hypothesized that art therapy focus groups would enhance the self-image of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Sixteen children with epilepsy, ages 7-18 years, were recruited from pediatric neurology clinics at the University of Wisconsin to participate in four art therapy sessions. Pre-group assessments included psychological screens (Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale; Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale; Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale) and art therapy instruments (Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale; Seizure Drawing Task; Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment). Developmental levels of drawings were significantly below age-expected standards. Following completion of focus groups, a repeat Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale showed no differences between pre- and post-test scores on any measure of this scale. However, subjects and parents were uniformly positive about their group experiences, suggesting a qualitative benefit from participation in art therapy focus groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karlin, Shary; Harnish, Dorothy
This report describes results of focus group evaluation of the first year of Georgia's CrossRoads program, an alternative public school program to provide chronically disruptive, committed, and/or non-attending students (grades 6-12) with the social services and individualized instruction they require and to make the public schools more secure by…
Abildsnes, Eirik; Flottorp, Signe; Stensland, Per
To explore the interactive process of sharing case stories in small-group activity in general practice. Qualitative focus group study. Peer-group meetings of doctors attending specialist training or continuous medical education in general practice. Twenty female and 30 male doctors working in general practice in Norway. The storyline of case presentations included detailed stories with emotional engagement, co-authored by other group members. The stories initiated discussions and reflections concerning patients' and doctors' perspectives, medical ethics as well as clinical problems. The safe atmosphere allowed testing out boundaries of socially shared knowledge. Sharing case stories in small groups in general practice initiated interaction that facilitated meaning-making, reflection and peer support.
Full Text Available Interaction between group participants is considered the distinct advantage and hallmark of focus group research. It is therefore necessary to include the social interaction dynamics in analysing focus group data. Little information is however available on analysis of the social interaction in the group and the analytical outcome for the content of the data. This paper contributes to the discussion of the value of participant interaction in focus group research by analysing sequences of interaction collected recently during a research project. This project utilized focus groups to investigate the perceptions and meanings of alcohol use in Denmark. As a frame for analysing group interaction, elements of conversation analysis were used. The aim of this paper is to illustrate group interaction and its impact on the content of focus group data, and highlight the role and some of the challenges posed by group interaction for moderating the focus group discussion. The interaction analyses led to the construction of four interactional events: Negotiating and constructing normality in interaction, disagreement and/or consensus, homogeneity and the impact on interaction and content, and coming to and making sense of a dead-end (including the risk of hierarchical issues. The interactional events are followed by considerations on the impact they may have on the role of the moderator.
Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibe, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). ICRR; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS
In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the ne-tuning remains modest. In this paper, we show that such gauge mediation models with ''focus point'' behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5) x U(3) product group unification.
Ashikali, E.-M.; Dittmar, H.; Ayers, S
This study examined adolescent girls’ views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15 to 18 (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1)\\ud Dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) Acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) Feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery, and (4) Cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosm...
Adams, Anne; Cox, Anna L.
With fast changing technologies and related human interaction issues, there is an increased need for timely evaluation of systems with distributed users in varying contexts (Pace, 2004). This has led to the increased use of questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus groups in commercial usability and academic research contexts. Questionnaires are usually paper based or delivered online and consist of a set of questions which all participants are asked to complete. Once the questionnaire ha...
Sugland, Barbara W.; Wilder, Kathleen J.; Chandra, Anita
Findings in this report summarize the first phase of a larger, multi-year study that is combining qualitative and quantitative methods to outline a conceptual framework to guide future demographic/fertility research, pregnancy prevention programs and policies. Twelve focus groups--involving a multiculturally representative group of male and female…
Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan
This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. © The Author(s) 2014.
Berland, Astrid; Bentsen, Signe Berit
To explore registered nurses' experiences of medication errors and patient safety in home care. The focus of care for older patients has shifted from institutional care towards a model of home care. Medication errors are common in this situation and can result in patient morbidity and mortality. An exploratory qualitative design with focus group interviews was used. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 20 registered nurses in home care. The data were analysed using content analysis. Five categories were identified as follows: lack of information, lack of competence, reporting medication errors, trade name products vs. generic name products, and improving routines. Medication errors occur frequently in home care and can threaten the safety of patients. Insufficient exchange of information and poor communication between the specialist and home-care health services, and between general practitioners and healthcare workers can lead to medication errors. A lack of competence in healthcare workers can also lead to medication errors. To prevent these, it is important that there should be up-to-date information and communication between healthcare workers during the transfer of patients from specialist to home care. Ensuring competence among healthcare workers with regard to medication is also important. In addition, there should be openness and accurate reporting of medication errors, as well as in setting routines for the preparation, alteration and administration of medicines. To prevent medication errors in home care, up-to-date information and communication between healthcare workers is important when patients are transferred from specialist to home care. It is also important to ensure adequate competence with regard to medication, and that there should be openness when medication errors occur, as well as in setting routines for the preparation, alteration and administration of medications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Varga-Atkins, Tünde; McIsaac, Jaye; Willis, Ian
In Higher Education Focus Groups and Nominal Group Technique are two well-established methods for obtaining student feedback about their learning experience. These methods are regularly used for the enhancement and quality assurance. Based on small-scale research of educational developers' practice in curriculum development, this study presents…
Bletzer, Keith V; Yuan, Nicole P; Koss, Mary P; Polacca, Mona; Eaves, Emery R; Goldman, David
Focus groups provide a source of data that highlight community ideas on a topic of interest. How interview data will be utilized varies by project. With this in mind, we identify ways that focus group data from a particular population (Native American) articulate a health issue of individual tribal concern (alcohol consumption). Taking our analytic framework from linguistics, one of the four fields of inquiry in anthropology, we examine format ties and the performance of humor as stylistic features of tribal focus groups and illustrate how linguistic devices can be used in analyzing aspects of adolescent and adult drinking. Focus group data require systematic review and analysis to identify useful findings that can lead to inquiry points to initiate collaborative work with local experts before the data can be developed and configured into effective program initiatives.
Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna
: For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations.
Krall, Kathleen; Douglas, Jae; Perrin, Nancy A; Austin, Donald; Lambert, William E; Heumann, Michael
Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, was found at high levels at an Oregon work site in 1998. According to a recent report released by the National Research Council, "the evidence on carcinogenic risk and other health hazards from exposure to trichloroethylene has strengthened since 2001." A convenience sample of 13 former workers from the Oregon work site was recruited for a series of focus groups. Information obtained on plant processes, safety procedures, attitudes regarding medical record access, and opinions about proxy accuracy was subjected to qualitative content analysis. Workers recalled few safety policies and no training or support for control of safety. Most thought co-workers and family members would be the best source of proxy exposure information and favored granting access to medical records. Job-role mobility confirmed the importance of using a job or task exposure matrix. Information obtained will be used in development of an exposure assessment interview tool.
Loman, Deborah G
To describe adolescent girls' views about physical activity and explore strategies that nurses can use to promote physical activity. A qualitative study using focus groups and interviews with 28 girls (12-18 years of age) recruited from schools and neighborhood health centers in a Midwest metropolitan area. An interview guide with 15 open-ended questions was used, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Most girls preferred the phrase "physical activity" over "exercise." The benefits most frequently mentioned included positive physical attributes, mental health benefits, and staying healthy. Three major themes were identified: autonomy (ask them what they like to do, and then provide choices), fun (being with friends, variation, and enjoyment), and body image (gaining weight, appearance, and self-confidence). Nursing interventions to promote physical activity and other healthy lifestyle changes that may prevent obesity should include active listening and a focus on the goals of the teen. Nurses need to evaluate their teaching and counseling approach, because the teens emphasized two points: "Don't tell me what to do" and "Don't put me down."
Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang
Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.
Chang, S C H; Woo, J S T; Yau, V; Gorzalka, B B; Brotto, L A
Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health
van Leerdam L
Full Text Available Lotte van Leerdam, Lianne Rietveld, Doreth Teunissen, Antoine Lagro-JanssenDepartment of Primary and Community Care, Gender and Women's Health, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsObjectives: One of the goals of the medical master's degree is for a student to become a gender-sensitive doctor by applying knowledge of gender differences in practice. This study aims to investigate, from the students’ perspective, whether gender medicine has been taught in daily practice during clerkship.Methods: A focus group study was conducted among 29 medical students from Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, who had just finished either their internal medicine or surgical clerkships. Data were analyzed in line with the principles of constant comparative analysis.Results: Four focus groups were conducted with 29 participating students. Clinical teachers barely discuss gender differences during students’ clerkships. The students mentioned three main explanatory themes: insufficient knowledge; unawareness; and minor impact. As a result, students feel that they have insufficient competencies to become gender-sensitive doctors.Conclusion: Medical students at our institution perceive that they have received limited exposure to gender-based education after completing two key clinical clerkships. All students feel that they have insufficient knowledge to become gender-sensitive doctors. They suppose that their clinical teachers have insufficient knowledge regarding gender sensitivity, are unaware of gender differences, and the students had the impression that gender is not regarded as an important issue. We suggest that the medical faculty should encourage clinical teachers to improve their knowledge and awareness of gender issues.Keywords: medical education, clerkship, gender, hidden curriculum, clinical teachers
Holm, Marianne S; Fålun, Nina; Gjengedal, Eva; Norekvål, Tone M
The intensive care unit (ICU) is not only a place to recover from injuries incurred during accidents and from serious illness. For many patients, it is also a place where they might die. Nursing care does not stop when a patient dies; rather, it continues with the care of the deceased and with family support. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the experiences and attitudes of nurses towards the use of ambient music in the ICU during after-death care and (2) to describe the feedback nurses received from relatives when music was used during the viewing. A qualitative design employing focus group interviews was used. Three focus group interviews with 15 nurses were conducted. All the interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six main categories of attitudes emerged from the analysis: (1) different attitudes among nurses towards the use of music; (2) music affects the atmosphere; (3) music affects emotions; (4) use of music was situational; (5) special choice of music and (6) positive feedback from the bereaved. This study demonstrates that music might be helpful for nurses during after-death care as well as for the care of the relatives. Including ambient music in an after-death care programme can help nurses show respect for the deceased as the body is being prepared. Music played during the viewing may be a way of helping relatives in their time of grieving. It may ease the situation by making that event special and memorable. However, standardizing this intervention does not seem appropriate. Rather, the individual nurse and the family must decide whether music is to be used in a particular situation. © 2012 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2012 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.
Warner, Laura A.
As change agents, Extension educators may begin their program planning by identifying the audience's perceived barriers and benefits to adopting some behavior that will benefit the community. Extension professionals and researchers have used in-person focus groups to understand an audience, and they can also administer them as…
Holdsworth, Emma; Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Howat, Douglas
Offender engagement in group offending behavior programs is poorly understood and under-theorized. In addition, there is no research on facilitators' engagement. This article presents the first ever theory to address this gap. A Program Engagement Theory (PET) was derived from a constructivist grounded theory analysis that accounts for both facilitators' and offenders' engagement in group offending behavior programs (GOBPs). Interviews and session observations were used to collect data from 23 program facilitators and 28 offenders (group members). The analysis revealed that group members' engagement involved shared identities and moving on as a group. In turn, this was dependent on facilitators personalising treatment frameworks and establishing a hook to help group members move on. The PET emphasizes the importance of considering change during treatment as a process rather than simply a program outcome. Solution-focused (SF) programs were more conducive to engagement and the change process than offence-focused programs.
Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Tkachenko, Natalia; Lucas, Johna; Burbrink, Amy; Kreppner, Wayne; Dickstein, Jodi B
Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is the second most prevalent sexual disorder in women. According to the most recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR), the term "marked distress" is central to the diagnosis of FOD. In practice, the term "distress" for use as a criterion for a clinical diagnosis is a medical construct and may not correlate with the language used by women with FOD to describe what they are experiencing. The objective of this study was to explore the terminology used by women to describe their feeling associated with difficulties in achieving orgasm. Women experiencing difficulties in achieving orgasm were invited to participate in a focus group. The focus groups included a characterization, picture sort and language exploration exercise and completing the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Desire, Arousal, Orgasm (FSDS-DAO) to determine the impact and emotional associations of decreased/lack of orgasms. Patient reported terminology for characterization of their FOD, and validity of question 15 of FSDS-DAO. Sixty-seven percent (44/66) of the women used the word "frustrated" when asked, "What one word would you use to describe your orgasm difficulties?" In the language exploration exercise, the most common term used to describe emotions associated with decreased orgasm was "frustration." Responses (0 = never to 4 = always) to question 15 (frustrated by problems with orgasm) of the FSDS-DAO, ranged from 1 to 4 (mean 3.0) indicating that women were very frustrated. The term "frustrated" was the most relevant and common emotion women feel when they have difficulties in achieving orgasm. Additionally, the women consistently supported the content validity of question 15 of the FSDS-DAO. Despite the use of the term "distress" in the DSM-IV-TR criteria for FOD, the term reflects the medical construct required to become a sexual dysfunction and does not appear to be an accurate representation of
Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T
Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martinez, Bethany S; Williams, Michael; Fuhr, Patti
With the aging of the population, more persons who are severely visually impaired are now caring for a spouse or significant other. The purpose of this qualitative study is to learn more about this previously unreported, yet vulnerable, population of visually impaired caregivers. Focus groups and 1-on-1 interviews were conducted with legally blind U.S. English-speaking adults who served as informal caregivers of adults. Visually impaired caregivers discussed the challenges of caregiving and how their visual impairment affected their caregiving responsibilities. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. Standardized questionnaires captured demographic and social characteristics. Fourteen adults participated. Seven major themes emerged from the interviews: (1) impact of lack of transportation, (2) concern over care recipient's quality of life, (3) utilization of support, (4) all encompassing demand, (5) cyclical adaptations, (6) anxieties of the caregivers, and (7) positive aspects of caregiving. Although visually impaired caregivers experience challenges similar to other caregivers, they differ in their report of added burden because of visual impairment, with extraordinary difficulty in transportation issues and the necessity of cyclical adaptations as their vision worsens. This is, to our knowledge, the first qualitative study of visually impaired caregivers and brings to light the unique problems faced by this special cohort of caregivers.
Walling, Anne; Istas, Kathryn; Bonaminio, Giulia A; Paolo, Anthony M; Fontes, Joseph D; Davis, Nancy; Berardo, Benito A
Phenomenon: Medical student perspectives were sought about active learning, including concerns, challenges, perceived advantages and disadvantages, and appropriate role in the educational process. Focus groups were conducted with students from all years and campuses of a large U.S. state medical school. Students had considerable experience with active learning prior to medical school and conveyed accurate understanding of the concept and its major strategies. They appreciated the potential of active learning to deepen and broaden learning and its value for long-term professional development but had significant concerns about the efficiency of the process, the clarity of expectations provided, and the importance of receiving preparatory materials. Most significantly, active learning experiences were perceived as disconnected from grading and even as impeding preparation for school and national examinations. Insights: Medical students understand the concepts of active learning and have considerable experience in several formats prior to medical school. They are generally supportive of active learning concepts but frustrated by perceived inefficiencies and lack of contribution to the urgencies of achieving optimal grades and passing United States Medical Licensing Examinations, especially Step 1.
Liedberg, Gunilla M; Björk, Mathilda; Hensing, Gunnel
Women and men are shaped over the courses of their lives by culture, society and human interaction according to the gender system. Cultural influences on individuals' social roles and environment are described in occupational therapy literature, but not specifically from a gender perspective. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how a sample of occupational therapists perceives the 'gender' concept. Four focus group interviews with 17 occupational therapists were conducted. The opening question was: 'How do you reflect on the encounter with a client depending on whether it is a man or a woman?' The transcribed interviews were analysed and two main themes emerged: 'the concept of gender is tacit in occupational therapy' and 'client encounters'. The occupational therapists expressed limited theoretical knowledge of 'gender'. Furthermore, the occupational therapists seemed to be 'doing gender' in their encounters with the clients. For example, in their assessment of the client, they focussed their questions on different spheres: with female clients, on the household and family; with male clients, on their paid work. This study demonstrated that occupational therapists were unaware of the possibility that they were 'doing gender' in their encounters with clients. There is a need to increase occupational therapists' awareness of their own behaviour of 'doing gender'. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate whether gendered perceptions will shorten or lengthen a rehabilitation period and affect the chosen interventions, and in the end, the outcome for the clients. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.
Olivari, Maria Giulia; Cuccì, Gaia; Confalonieri, Emanuela
Using a qualitative method, the purpose of this study was to: (1) obtain information directly from the adolescents on their attitudes and knowledge regarding emergency contraception; and (2) investigate the presence of differences between male and female participants' attitudes and knowledge. This study consisted of 24 single-sex focus groups with 160 adolescents (male = 46.3% (74 of 160); female = 53.7% (86 of 160)) aged 15-19 years conducted among high schools in 3 regions of Italy. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis taking into account gender differences and 2 main themes emerged. The first was labeled "Adolescents' attitudes toward emergency contraception" and it was divided into 3 subthemes: You should be aware; It's a life line; and Everything but a child. The second theme was labeled "Adolescents' knowledge toward emergency contraception" and it was divided into 3 subthemes: False myths; Baseline information; and Just take it. Italian adolescents believed it is important to prevent the risk of unprotected sex by using contraceptive methods and their motivation to use emergency contraception is related to critical attitudes toward the consequences of irresponsible/ineffective contraception. Although adolescents have an awareness of emergency contraception, more comprehensive knowledge is needed. These findings can inform specific interventions aimed at educating adolescents in need of emergency contraception. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Ziqiang [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)
discoveries and the resolution to outstanding and unresolved issues. It should be emphasized that the DOE funding provided the crucial support for the close and meaningful collaborations of the focused research group that go far beyond simply putting the research papers from each group together. Indeed, the majority of the publications involved multiple PIs and collaborations between theory and experiments.
Davidovitch, Nitza; Yavich, Roman
The Ariel University has a unique interdisciplinary program in healthcare management that targets experienced healthcare professionals who wish to earn an academic degree. Only one academic study has been held so far on the integration of graduates of an academic university-level school in healthcare management in the field. In the current study,…
Barlagne, Carla; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Diman, Jean-Louis; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry
In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. The yam production sector is, however, now challenged by the satisfaction of evolving consumers' preferences. Since little is known about consumers' preferences regarding yams' characteristics, product quality, and the drivers of yam purchase, six focus group discussions were conducted (for a total of 31 participants). Among the purchasing criteria, price was considered more important than the others. It was followed by the external damage, the origin, and the size of the tuber. The most frequently cited consumption criteria were the taste, the texture, and color of flesh after cooking. Taste was considered more important than the other criteria. Three consumers' profiles were established reflecting heterogeneity in preferences, especially as concerns the willingness to pay for yam and consumption habits. They were designated as the Hedonistic, the Thrifty and the Flexible. Our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Two main development paths were identified. The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about product attributes such as the cooking mode, the origin, and the mode of production. Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agro-biodiversity and the satisfaction of rapidly evolving consumption habits. The second path is the definition of yam ideotypes that suit consumers' needs. We expect that tailoring the production to consumers' needs will have a positive impact on global food security in the Caribbean region.
Coyne, Karin S; Margolis, Mary Kay; Kennedy-Martin, Tessa; Baker, Timothy M; Klein, Ronald; Paul, Matthew D; Revicki, Dennis A
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects 50-85% of people with diabetes and may result in visual impairment or blindness. This exploratory qualitative research was conducted to evaluate the symptom experience of DR, its impact on daily activities and health-related quality of life (HRQL), and the applicability of two vision-specific questionnaires. Four focus groups (n = 15) were conducted with people with DR to explore their symptom experience and the impact on functioning and HRQL. Adults with type I or II diabetes and mild, moderate or severe non-proliferative DR (NPDR) or proliferative DR (PDR) were recruited. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Participants described a range of symptoms and impact. Difficulty driving, especially at night, and trouble reading were noted with all levels of severity. Participants with PDR and decreased visual acuity have foregone many other important life aspects such as work, reading and sports. For the severely affected, diabetic care activities (e.g. exercising, reading nutritional labels, preparing insulin injections and glucose testing) were difficult to accomplish. Loss of independence, especially mobility and increased fear of accidents, had a profound impact on social activities. For those patients who had not experienced other complications of diabetes, the threat of vision loss was the most devastating. The loss of independence and mobility associated with decreased visual functioning and visual loss were major concerns. Moderate, severe NPDR and PDR associated with visual impairment have a significant impact on HRQL, particularly in the areas of independence, mobility, leisure and self-care activities.
Monitoring and Evaluation for the Focus Cities Program in Asia. IDRC's Focus Cities Research Initiative (FCRI) is supporting research teams in nine cities around the world to promote awareness, policy options and best practices for reducing environmental impacts in poor urban and periurban areas. Jakarta, Indonesia, and ...
Childers, John H. Jr.; Saltmarsh, Robert E.
Describes neurolinguistic programming (NLP) in the context of group counseling. NLP is a model of communication that focuses on verbal and nonverbal patterns of behaviors as well as on the structures and processes of human subjectivity. Five stages of group development are described, and specific NLP techniques appropriate to the various stages…
"Everybody brush!": protocol for a parallel-group randomized controlled trial of a family-focused primary prevention program with distribution of oral hygiene products and education to increase frequency of toothbrushing.
Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Milgrom, Peter; Shirtcliff, R Michael; Huebner, Colleen E; Ludwig, Sharity; Allen, Gary; Scott, JoAnna
Twice daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is the most widely advocated preventive strategy for dental caries (tooth decay) and is recommended by professional dental associations. Not all parents, children, or adolescents follow this recommendation. This protocol describes the methods for the implementation and evaluation of a quality improvement health promotion program. The objective of the study is to show a theory-informed, evidence-based program to improve twice daily toothbrushing and oral health-related quality of life that may reduce dental caries, dental treatment need, and costs. The design is a parallel-group, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Families of Medicaid-insured children and adolescents within a large dental care organization in central Oregon will participate in the trial (n=21,743). Families will be assigned to one of three groups: a test intervention, an active control, or a passive control condition. The intervention aims to address barriers and support for twice-daily toothbrushing. Families in the test condition will receive toothpaste and toothbrushes by mail for all family members every three months. In addition, they will receive education and social support to encourage toothbrushing via postcards, recorded telephone messages, and an optional participant-initiated telephone helpline. Families in the active control condition will receive the kit of supplies by mail, but no additional instructional information or telephone support. Families assigned to the passive control will be on a waiting list. The primary outcomes are restorative dental care received and, only for children younger than 36 months old at baseline, the frequency of twice-daily toothbrushing. Data will be collected through dental claims records and, for children younger than 36 months old at baseline, parent interviews and clinical exams. Enrollment of participants and baseline interviews have been completed. Final results are expected in early summer
“Everybody Brush!”: Protocol for a Parallel-Group Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family-Focused Primary Prevention Program With Distribution of Oral Hygiene Products and Education to Increase Frequency of Toothbrushing
Background Twice daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is the most widely advocated preventive strategy for dental caries (tooth decay) and is recommended by professional dental associations. Not all parents, children, or adolescents follow this recommendation. This protocol describes the methods for the implementation and evaluation of a quality improvement health promotion program. Objective The objective of the study is to show a theory-informed, evidence-based program to improve twice daily toothbrushing and oral health-related quality of life that may reduce dental caries, dental treatment need, and costs. Methods The design is a parallel-group, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Families of Medicaid-insured children and adolescents within a large dental care organization in central Oregon will participate in the trial (n=21,743). Families will be assigned to one of three groups: a test intervention, an active control, or a passive control condition. The intervention aims to address barriers and support for twice-daily toothbrushing. Families in the test condition will receive toothpaste and toothbrushes by mail for all family members every three months. In addition, they will receive education and social support to encourage toothbrushing via postcards, recorded telephone messages, and an optional participant-initiated telephone helpline. Families in the active control condition will receive the kit of supplies by mail, but no additional instructional information or telephone support. Families assigned to the passive control will be on a waiting list. The primary outcomes are restorative dental care received and, only for children younger than 36 months old at baseline, the frequency of twice-daily toothbrushing. Data will be collected through dental claims records and, for children younger than 36 months old at baseline, parent interviews and clinical exams. Results Enrollment of participants and baseline interviews have been completed. Final
The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP) presents the recommended TFA technical program. The recommendation covers a 3-year funding outlook (FY96-FY98), with an emphasis on FY96 and FY97. In addition to defining the recommended program, this document also describes the processes used to develop the program, the implementation strategy for the program, the references used to write this report, data on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank site baselines, details on baseline assumptions and the technical elements, and a glossary.
Caffrey, Robert T.; Udomkesmalee, Gabriel; Hayati, Samad A.
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project is an aggressive mission launching in 2009 to deliver a new generation of rover safely to the surface of Mars and conduct comprehensive in situ investigations using a new generation of instruments. This system will be designed to land with precision and be capable of operating over a large percentage on the surface of Mars. It will have capabilities that will support NASA's scientific goals into the next decade of exphation. The MSL Technology program is developing a wide-range of technologies needed for this Mission and potentially other space missions. The MSL Technology Program reports to both the MSL Project and the Mars Technology Program (MTP). The dual reporting process creates a challenging management situation, but ensures the new technology meets both the specific MSL requirements and the broader Mars Program requirements. MTP is a NASA-wide technology development program managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and is divided into a Focused Program and a Base Program. The Focused Technology Program addresses technologies that are specific and critical to near-term missions, while the Base Technology Program addresses those technologies that are applicable to multiple missions and which can be characterized as longer term, higher risk, and high payoff technologies. The MSL Technology Program is under the Focused Program and is tightly coupled to MSL's mission milestones and deliverables. The technology budget is separate from the flight Project budget, but the technology s requirements and the development process are tightly coordinated with the Project. The Technology Program combines proven management techniques of flight projects with commercial and academic technology management strategies, to create a technology management program that meets the near-term requirements of MSL and the long-term requirements of MTP. This paper examines the initiation of 2002 MSL Technology program. Some of the areas
Full Text Available Markus Krautter,1 Sven Andreesen,2 Nadja Köhl-Hackert,2 Katja Hoffmann,3 Wolfgang Herzog,2 Christoph Nikendei2 1Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, 2Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, 3Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective.Purpose: To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors.Methods: A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80. The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants. The discussions were analyzed using content analysis.Results: The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available.Conclusion: On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance
Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther
Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…
This document describes a program at the California School of Professional Psychology-Los Angeles that provides a three-semester sequence of group therapy courses to counseling students. In the students' final year, they are required to take an advanced clinical course titled Advanced Group Process. The course synthesizes didactic methods for…
Harmsen, Irene A; Mollema, Liesbeth; Ruiter, Robert A C; Paulussen, Theo G W; de Melker, Hester E; Kok, Gerjo
In high income countries, vaccine-preventable diseases have been greatly reduced through routine vaccination programs. Despite this success, many parents question, and a small proportion even refuse vaccination for their children. As no qualitative studies have explored the factors behind these decisions among Dutch parents, we performed a study using online focus groups. In total, eight online focus groups (n = 60) which included Dutch parents with at least one child, aged 0-4 years, for whom they refused all or part of the vaccinations within the National Immunization Program (NIP). A thematic analysis was performed to explore factors that influenced the parents' decisions to refuse vaccination. Refusal of vaccination was found to reflect multiple factors including family lifestyle; perceptions about the child's body and immune system; perceived risks of disease, vaccine efficacy, and side effects; perceived advantages of experiencing the disease; prior negative experience with vaccination; and social environment. The use of online focus groups proved to be an effective qualitative research method providing meaningful data. Information provided by the NIP turned out to be insufficient for this group of parents. More trust in the NIP and deliberate decisions might result from increased parental understanding of lifestyle and disease susceptibility, the impact of vaccinations on the immune system, and the relative risks of diseases and their vaccines. The public health institute should also inform parents that the NIP is recommended but non-mandatory.
Hannay, Jayme; Dudley, Robert; Milan, Stephanie; Leibovitz, Paula K
Latino adolescents, especially girls, experience higher obesity rates and are more likely to be physically unfit than non-Latino white peers. Out-of-school programs to increase physical activity and fitness in older Latino teens are critical, but sustained engagement is challenging. This study combined a community-based participatory research methodology, Photovoice, with focus groups to engage Latina teens and their parents in identifying barriers to physical activity and initiating policy change actions to address them. The study investigates the effectiveness of applying Photovoice as both an evaluation tool and a leadership/advocacy intervention in a community-based obesity prevention program. Focus group data were collected between July 2009 and October 2010 and analyzed between November 2010 and July 2011. Five focus groups were held with adults (n = 41: 95% Latino) and four with teens (n = 36: 81% Latino, 10% non-Hispanic white, 9% African-American). All participants (19 teens, six adults) were Latino. Spanish-speaking staff of a community-based agency, program staff, high school guidance counselors, and a job development agency recruited participants. Teens aged 14-19 years enrolled in New Britain CT, high schools, and their parents were eligible. Data from Photovoice workshops (three with teens, two with parent-teen dyads) were collected and concurrently analyzed between July 2009 and August 2011. Teens criticized school-based physical exercise programs in favor of out-of-school exercise and career advice. Parental restrictions and work, transportation, and safety issues were cited as barriers to afterschool physical activity programs. Photovoice can empower teens and parents to address exercise barriers by promoting advocacy that leads to policy change (e.g., an out-of-school physical education option). Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gittelman, Michael A; Pomerantz, Wendy J
Youth involved in supervised activities and provided with safe play areas during high-risk times will sustain fewer injuries. This qualitative focus group study of community organizations, parents, and youth in a high-risk community demonstrated barriers to participation in and resources available for after-school programs, as well as components of an ideal after-school program. Community organizations believed pooling resources and holding programs in centralized locations, such as schools, would make programs more affordable and overcome transportation barriers. Parent and youth also preferred to hold activities in schools; however, parents were concerned with the cost of programs and times they were offered, while students were more concerned with age appropriate, safe programs that prohibited "bullies" from participating. Specific suggested program contents were similar between parents and youth. Information gathered from the focus groups had significant implications for program and resource development in the targeted community.
Lucksted, A; Dixon, L B; Sembly, J B
The study explored the perceived advantages and disadvantages of tobacco smoking and quitting among clients in psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Deeper understanding of such perceptions may be useful in creating maximally effective cessation and prevention interventions for this population. Five focus groups of six to ten persons were formed with a total of 40 clients from two programs. Participants included smokers and nonsmokers-including former smokers and smokers who explicitly were not interested in quitting smoking. The semistructured, researcher-facilitated discussions covered pros and cons of smoking and not smoking, barriers to and facilitators of abstinence, and other issues. Audiotapes of the group discussions were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively. Participants emphasized their reasons for smoking, reasons for quitting or wanting to quit, views on smoking-related health concerns, perceived social costs and benefits of smoking, and strategies for quitting and maintaining abstinence. Many similarities between the focus groups' views and those of the general population were noted, along with some issues that are specific to having a mental illness or attending a psychosocial rehabilitation program, such as coping with psychiatric symptoms and limited access to information, support, and other coping methods. All of these views influenced participants' motivations and perceived readiness to smoke or to abstain, or to struggle between the two alternatives. Issues and needs that are specific to smokers who use mental health services must be addressed in the development of smoking prevention and cessation interventions in psychosocial rehabilitation and other mental health programs. The importance of messages about smoking that clients receive from program rules, program staff, and other sources is highlighted, as is the possibility that the regulation of affect and stress provided by tobacco use is especially important for people experiencing
Diem, Keith G.
The effort described in this article resulted from requests for clarity and consistency from new and existing Extension/4-H educators as well as from recommendations by university auditors. The primary purpose of the effort was to clarify standards for effective county-based 4-H youth development programs and to help focus the roles of 4-H…
Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.
Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the villa...
Sarris, Jerome; Nishi, Daisuke; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Su, Kuan-Pin; Bannatyne, Amy; Oliver, Georgina; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Chee Hong
Lifestyle-focused health programs are growing in interest throughout Western society, and a range of lifestyle factors are known to enhance both physical and mental health. However, it remains largely unknown as to whether this approach is salient for the Asian context. The major components of integrative lifestyle-focused health programs to enhance mental and physical health are considered to include the evidence-based adoption of physical activity and exercise, dietary modification, general psychoeducation, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness techniques, the reduction of substance use, attention of intersecting environmental factors, and the potential use of motivation and goal-setting techniques. This paper outlines an overview of the evidence underpinning these elements, and discusses potential barriers and challenges, and what logistical considerations may need to be addressed in the implementation of such programs within the context of Asian cultures. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-induced and drug-related deaths have been increasing for the past decade throughout the US. In NYC, drug overdose accounts for nearly 900 deaths per year, a figure that exceeds the number of deaths each year from homicide. Naloxone, a highly effective opiate antagonist, has for decades been used by doctors and paramedics during emergency resuscitation after an opiate overdose. Following the lead of programs in Europe and the US who have successfully distributed take-home naloxone, the Overdose Prevention and Reversal Program at the Lower East Side Harm Reduction Center (LESHRC has started providing a similar resource for opiate users in NYC. Participants in the program receive a prescription for two doses of naloxone, with refills as needed, and comprehensive training to reduce overdose risk, administer naloxone, perform rescue breathing, and call 911. As of September 2005, 204 participants have received naloxone and been trained, and 40 have revived an overdosing friend or family member. While naloxone accessibility stands as a proven life-saving measure, some opiates users at LESHRC have expressed only minimal interest in naloxone use, due to past experiences and common misconceptions. Methods In order to improve the naloxone distribution program two focus groups were conducted in December 2004 with 13 opiate users at LESHRC to examine knowledge about overdose and overdose prevention. The focus groups assessed participants' (i experiences with overdose response, specifically naloxone (ii understanding and perceptions of naloxone, (iii comfort level with naloxone administration and (iv feedback about increasing the visibility and desirability of the naloxone distribution program. Results Analyses suggest that there is both support for and resistance to take-home naloxone, marked by enthusiasm for its potential role in reviving an overdosing individual, numerous misconceptions and negative views of its impact and use
Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh
This resource bulletin focuses on problems in the lives of adolescents that affect students' engagement in schoolwork (drug abuse, teenage pregnancy, the increasing adolescent suicide rate) and considers the school's role with and responsibility for troubled students. It looks specifically at the high school's use of support groups to help such…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to describe the need to protect the rights of human subjects participating in nursing research, and procedures for doing so. The path taken to the task at hand was to approach the topic by discussing the philosophical underpinnings of human subject protection and describing the approach for doing this in all cases where humans are used as research subjects. These underpinnings include specific ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, and the procedures used in the U.S. for protecting the rights of human subjects. Once the process was clarified, the considerations necessary to protect the special groups referred to as ''vulnerable'' are discussed. Given the author’s access to U.S. documents and the fact that U.S. government agencies took early steps to formalize rules and regulations for the protection of human subjects, vulnerable or otherwise, the experience of the United States was selected for presentation. It is recognized that there are now relevant international documents that are exceedingly helpful, and also, that various countries may have their own guidelines for investigators to follow. In such cases researchers can engage in comparative analysis between their own guidance and the processes described here, and decide their path accordingly.
In much of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and West Africa, there is a dearth of research, training and employment opportunities in the social sciences, particularly in the area of research and policy analysis on local conflicts. The Crisis Group has long considered establishing a fellowship program in order to train a ...
Stalmeijer, Renée E; Mcnaughton, Nancy; Van Mook, Walther N K A
Qualitative research methodology has become an established part of the medical education research field. A very popular data-collection technique used in qualitative research is the "focus group". Focus groups in this Guide are defined as "… group discussions organized to explore a specific set of issues … The group is focused in the sense that it involves some kind of collective activity … crucially, focus groups are distinguished from the broader category of group interview by the explicit use of the group interaction as research data" (Kitzinger 1994, p. 103). This Guide has been designed to provide people who are interested in using focus groups with the information and tools to organize, conduct, analyze and publish sound focus group research within a broader understanding of the background and theoretical grounding of the focus group method. The Guide is organized as follows: Firstly, to describe the evolution of the focus group in the social sciences research domain. Secondly, to describe the paradigmatic fit of focus groups within qualitative research approaches in the field of medical education. After defining, the nature of focus groups and when, and when not, to use them, the Guide takes on a more practical approach, taking the reader through the various steps that need to be taken in conducting effective focus group research. Finally, the Guide finishes with practical hints towards writing up a focus group study for publication.
Chae, Sun-Mi; Yeo, Ji-Young; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Ji-Hye; Lim, Jiyoung; Kwon, Insook
This qualitative descriptive study sought to identify perceptions about and status of weight control in adolescents from the perspective of adolescents and their teachers. Focus groups were used with six separate groups, 20 adolescents divided into four groups and 14 teachers divided into two groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic analysis in NVivo 11.0. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies (COREQ) were followed. We extracted three themes and 12 sub-themes with 52 meaningful codes. Both adolescents and teachers stated that perceptions about weight control in adolescents were overly weighted toward management of one's appearance. The adolescents reported an increase in weight gained during adolescence, especially after entering high school, and they noted a lack of participation in physical activities and the presence of unhealthy dietary behaviors. However, adolescents perceived excessive weight gain during adolescence as natural, as long as they studied hard. Their teachers and parents were also permissive about weight gain resulted from study. The participants suggested that a weight control program for adolescents should be conducted in schools and should include every student in order to avoid discrimination. In addition, teacher involvement was emphasized to promote participation of adolescents in a school program. Our findings indicate that adolescents, especially those in a society emphasizing academics, need to practice healthy weight control behaviors. A school-based weight control program involving teachers and peers would be suitable and should be provided to all students regardless of weight classification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Engström, Anna; Abildsnes, Eirik; Mildestvedt, Thomas
The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents' and young adults' motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. We identified four major themes: 1) motivation, 2) body experience and self-image, 3) relationships and sense of belonging, and 4) the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.
Bogart, Kathleen R; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Joffe, Matthew S
This focus group study explored the social interaction experiences and strategies of 12 adults with Moebius Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by facial paralysis. Content analysis revealed five themes of social functioning: social engagement/disengagement; resilience/sensitivity; social support/stigma; being understood/misunderstood; and public awareness/lack of awareness of Moebius Syndrome. Participants used compensatory expressive strategies such as vocal tone, gestures, and humor. The combination of being unable to express oneself with the face, having a facial difference, and having a rare disease is particularly stigmatizing. Increasing public awareness and developing social skills programs for people with facial paralysis could facilitate social functioning.
Donna-Jean P. Brock
Full Text Available Background: Programs that focus on positive parenting have been shown to improve parental attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, and increase parent and child bonding. These programs are typically conducted in a closed group format. However, when individual or community needs are more immediate, programmers sometimes opt for an open group format. To determine the effectiveness of this adaptation to an open group format, the present study compared both groups on parental outcomes. Methods: Both closed and open group formats were offered and implemented between January 2009 and December 2012. Participants for both formats were recruited through similar means and the format placement for each family was determined by the immediacy of the need for an intervention, the time lapse until a new cycle would begin, and scheduling flexibility. Chi-Square analyses were conducted to determine demographic differences between the two groups and gain scores were calculated from the pre- and post-test AAPI-2 scales within a mixed MANOVA to determine group for-mat effectiveness. Results: Though open groups contained higher risk families; parental out-come improvements were significant for both groups. All participants, regardless of group membership, demonstrated the same statistically significant improvements following completion of the program. Conclusion: Findings provide support for adapting group formats when necessary to fit community and individual needs.
... Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection for Office of... sure to add ``1615-NEW, Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups'' in the subject box...: Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable...
Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson
With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…
This chapter discuss the question of how the validity of focus group data can be reframed when approaching focus groups as social experiments in a science and technology approach. By using this frame we first of all comes to perceive the focus group discussion as an artificial situation, while th...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrant children face an increased risk of being overweight. Little is known about how immigrant families perceive school programs that may help prevent obesity, such as walking to school and school breakfast. Methods Six focus groups (n = 53 were conducted with immigrant parents of school-aged children, two each in three languages: Vietnamese, Spanish, and Somali. A facilitator and translator conducted the focus groups using a script and question guide. Written notes and audio transcripts were recorded in each group. Transcripts were coded for themes by two researchers and findings classified according to an ecological model. Results Participants in each ethnic group held positive beliefs about the benefits of walking and eating breakfast. Barriers to walking to school included fear of children's safety due to stranger abductions, distrust of neighbors, and traffic, and feasibility barriers due to distance to schools, parent work constraints, and large families with multiple children. Barriers to school breakfast participation included concerns children would not eat due to lack of appealing/appropriate foods and missing breakfast due to late bus arrival or lack of reminders. Although some parents acknowledged concerns about child and adult obesity overall, obesity concerns did not seem personally relevant. Conclusion Immigrant parents supported the ideals of walking to school and eating breakfast, but identified barriers to participation in school programs across domains of the ecological model, including community, institution, and built environment factors. Schools and communities serving immigrant families may need to address these barriers in order to engage parents and children in walking and breakfast programs.
Azmi Bayram Ilbay
Full Text Available This research was done to analyze the effects of Coping with Burnout Program, developed on the basis of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on the burnout levels of university students. To select the subjects that would participate in the research, Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey was applied on 461 university students from the University of Sakarya. As a result of pre-interviews, 24 students who had experienced student burnout voluntarily participated in a Coping with Burnout Program. The students were randomly appointed to one of the experimental and control groups. At this stage, a six-session Coping with Burnout Program developed by the researcher was applied on the students from the experimental group. No application was performed on the students from the control group. A 2x3 design (experimental/ control groups X pretest/ posttest/ follow up was used in the research. The scores from the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey formed the dependent variable of the research, and the application of Coping with Burnout Program formed the independent variable of the research. The scale used in the research was applied on the groups as pretest two weeks before the sessions started, and as posttest two weeks after the sessions ended, and as follow-up two months after the posttest in order to determine the resistance of the experimental process. In the analysis of the data obtained through these processes, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to determine whether or not there was a significant difference between groups and the survey. The data obtained through the research proved that the Coping with Burnout Program decreased the burnout levels of the students in the experimental group as were determined with the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey, and follow up tests showed that the situation remained the same. It was seen that there was no significant difference between the scores of the participants of the control
Hamilton, Amy; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Sanders, Matthew R
To examine the challenges faced by parents of teenagers with a disability to determine the need for a tailored parenting program for this population. Focus groups were conducted with six parents and nine practitioners with experience supporting parents of teenagers with a disability. An inductive thematic analysis revealed close agreement between parents and practitioners and eight understandable and relevant themes. The results indicated that parents have difficulty planning and facilitating transitions for their adolescent children, managing behavioural problems due to these problems being unique to this developmental period and because some of the parenting strategies that were useful when their children were younger were no longer applicable. High levels of stress and feelings of grief were also described. These results suggest that parents of adolescents with a developmental disability could benefit from a parenting program and that an existing evidence-based parenting program should be modified. Implications for program design for this population are discussed. Parents have difficulty supporting their teenagers' behaviour. Some parenting strategies that were useful for young children are no longer applicable. Parents may benefit from a parenting program tailored for teenagers.
Harris, Helen; Lee, Christina; Yancey, Gaynor
Grief is an experience of both common and unique responses (Hooyman & Kramer, 2006). Grief affects people in various ways including emotionally, cognitively, socially, physically, and spiritually (Corr, 2007; Doka, 2014). Little has been published on the cognitive domain of loss affecting attention, and concentration of bereaved adults. This qualitative study explored these effects among adults in one hospice bereavement program in Central Texas. Five focus groups included facilitated bereavement topical conversations resulting in descriptions of memory, concentration, and attention deficits after loss. These results suggested that participation in bereavement programming may normalize the experience facilitating cognitive task accomplishment. Referrals for bereavement care may be appropriate in order to facilitate equilibrium in individual's lives following a significant death.
Boysen, James C; Salsbury, Stacie A; Derby, Dustin; Lawrence, Dana J
One objective of chiropractic education is to cultivate clinical confidence in novice practitioners. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how participation in a short-term international service learning experience changed perceptions of clinical confidence in senior chiropractic students. Seventeen senior chiropractic students participated in 4 moderated focus group sessions within 4 months after a clinical educational opportunity held in international settings. Participants answered standard questions on how this educational experience may have changed their clinical confidence. Two investigators performed qualitative thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts to identify core concepts and supporting themes. The core concept was transformation from an unsure student to a confident doctor. The service learning experience allowed students to deliver chiropractic treatment to patients in a real-world setting, engage in frequent repetitions of technical skills, perform clinical decision-making and care coordination, and communicate with patients and other health professionals. Students described increased clinical confidence in 9 competency areas organized within 3 domains: (1) chiropractic competencies including observation, palpation, and manipulation; (2) clinical competencies including problem solving, clinic flow, and decision-making; and (3) communication competencies, including patient communication, interprofessional communication, and doctor-patient relationship. Students recommended that future service learning programs include debriefing sessions similar to the experience offered by these focus groups to enhance student learning. Senior chiropractic students who participated in an international service learning program gained confidence and valuable practical experience in integrating their chiropractic, clinical, and communication skills for their future practices.
Bristowe, Katherine; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Hambly, Helen; Angouri, Jo; Yelland, Andrew; Draycott, Timothy J; Fox, Robert
Our purpose was to investigate health care professionals' beliefs about effective teamwork in medical emergencies based on their experiences. We used framework analysis of interprofessional focus groups in four secondary and tertiary maternity units. The participants were randomly selected senior and junior doctors, senior and junior midwives, and health care assistants, in five groups of 5 to 7 participants each. We found that optimal teamwork was perceived to be dependent on good leadership and availability of experienced staff. The participants described a good leader as one who verbally declares being the leader, communicates clear objectives, and allocates critical tasks, including communication with patients or their family, to suitable individual members. We triangulated the results with evidence from simulation to identify convergent findings and issues requiring further research. The findings will inform the development of teaching programs for medical teams who manage emergencies to improve patient safety and experience.
Salmon, Sharon; McLaws, Mary-Louise
It is accepted by hospital clinical governance that every clinician's "duty of care" includes hand hygiene, yet globally, health care workers (HCWs) continue to struggle with compliance. Focus group discussions were conducted to explore HCWs' barriers to hand hygiene in Vietnam. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs from 6 public hospitals across Hanoi, Vietnam. Discussions included participants' experiences with and perceptions concerning hand hygiene. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Expressed frustration with high workload, limited access to hand hygiene solutions, and complicated guidelines that are difficult to interpret in overcrowded settings were considered by participants to be bona fide reasons for noncompliance. No participant acknowledged hand hygiene as a duty of care practice for her or his patients. Justification for noncompliance was the observation that visitors did not perform hand hygiene. HCWs did acknowledge a personal duty of care when hand hygiene was perceived to benefit her or his own health, and then neither workload or environmental challenges influenced compliance. Limited resources in Vietnam are amplified by overcrowded conditions and dual bed occupancy. Yet without a systematic systemic duty of care to patient safety, changes to guidelines and resources might not immediately improve compliance. Thus, introducing routine hand hygiene must start with education programs focusing on duty of care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gill, P; Stewart, K; Treasure, E; Chadwick, B
This paper explores the most common methods of data collection used in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. The paper examines each method in detail, focusing on how they work in practice, when their use is appropriate and what they can offer dentistry. Examples of empirical studies that have used interviews or focus groups are also provided.
Driesel, P; Vogel, H; Gerlich, C; Löffler, S; Lukasczik, M; Wolf, H-D; Schuler, M; Neuderth, S
Psychosocial patient education programs focusing on work-related issues are a core element in the German statutory pension insurance's profile of requirements (POR) regarding inpatient vocationally oriented medical rehabilitation (VOMR). This study aims at analyzing the prevalence of patient education programs focusing on work-related issues in German rehabilitation centers with regard to their content and quality.Data were collected in a national survey on the current state of patient education within medical rehabilitation programs in Germany in 1473 inpatient and outpatient medical rehabilitation centers. Data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively, with free text responses being assigned to categories, drawing upon criteria developed by the German Center of Patient Education and the pension insurance's POR. 283 of the 908 institutions participating in the survey provided information on 454 psychosocial patient education programs focusing on work-related issues. "Unemployment and job training", "work hardening", "stress"/"relaxation" were named most frequently. The criteria derived from the POR regarding group content and from the Center of Patient Education regarding group size and education methods were largely fulfilled. There is a need for existing group programs in VOMR to be further manualized, evaluated and published. More patient education programs focusing on work-related issues should be developed specifically for relevant indications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Biediger-Friedman, Lesli; Crixell, Sylvia H; Silva, Monica; Markides, Brittany R; Smith, Kenneth S
The purpose of this research was to conduct the first stages of a user-centered design of a smartphone app designed to improve health behaviors among participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Texas. Focus groups explored facilitators and barriers to health behaviors, current use of apps, and desired features in a WIC app. Facilitators to improve health behaviors included access to information, support from healthcare practitioners and family, and implementation of strategies. Current app use themes included texting/chatting, accessing information, tracking/locating, planning/scheduling, sharing, and gaming. Frequencies of key themes within and across groups were used to inform app prototype design. Mock-ups of 15 prototype features were developed based on themes of facilitators and currently used app features. Participants agreed that having all features combined into a single WIC app would be convenient and provide trustworthy information from WIC. The enthusiasm of focus group participants for a comprehensive WIC app suggests that this initiative is timely, and that an app has potential to improve health behaviors. Future research should continue the user-centered design process through further evaluation of prototype features, incorporating cultural preferences at every step.
excellence, focus group, health care, honors programs, multidisciplinary care
Villa, Lorenzo; Warholak, Terri L; Hines, Lisa E; Taylor, Ann M; Brown, Mary; Hurwitz, Jason; Brixner, Diana; Malone, Daniel C
Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a helpful approach to improve health outcomes by developing and disseminating evidence-based information to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers about the most effective interventions. To (a) identify the factors necessary to increase the use of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) CER reviews in hospitals and managed care organizations; (b) assess current awareness and implementation of CER materials in these facilities and organizations; and (c) inform development of content for a workshop on CER. Pharmacy and therapeutics (PT) committee members and supportive personnel were recruited to participate in focus groups conducted at national health professional meetings. Prior to the sessions, each participant completed a prefocus group questionnaire evaluating the organization and process of the respondent's PT committee, as well as the respondent's role in the PT committee and awareness of AHRQ CER reports. Each session consisted of a focused discussion about CER and sources of evidence for PT monographs, and each participant completed a ballot to rank topics of importance for inclusion in a CER workshop for health care professionals involved in the PT process. Overarching themes were later identified using qualitative analysis of the transcripts of the focus group sessions. Thirty-nine (68%) pharmacists and 18 (32%) physicians involved in the PT process participated in 1 of 7 focus groups. Almost half of the participants had 6-15 years experience with the PT process. Participants represented health plans, hospitals, and health care systems. Two-thirds indicated they were aware of AHRQ's Effective Health Care Program's CER reviews, yet only 26% reported using the reviews in their organizations. The overarching themes reflected the need for timely and conclusive CER information; the role of the pharmacist as central to evidence synthesis for the PT process; and the need for educational programs
Soares, Luciana Lopes Souza; Deliza, Rosires; Oliveira, Silvana Pedroso
.... The objective of the present study was to obtain knowledge on the opinion, understanding and perception of the Brazilian consumer with respect to vegetables, focusing on organic products, using Focus Group Sessions...
Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence
Focus group interviews are widely used in health research to explore phenomena and are accepted as a legitimate qualitative methodology. They are used to draw out interaction data from discussions among participants; researchers running these groups need to be skilled in interviewing and in managing groups, group dynamics and group discussions. This article follows Doody et al's (2013) article on the theory of focus group research; it addresses the preparation for focus groups relating to the research environment, interview process, duration, participation of group members and the role of the moderator. The article aims to assist researchers to prepare and plan for focus groups and to develop an understanding of them, so information from the groups can be used for academic studies or as part of a research proposal.
Strout, Tania D; DiFazio, Rachel L; Vessey, Judith A
Background Bullying is a critical public health problem and a screening tool for use in healthcare is needed. Focus groups are a common tool for generating qualitative data when developing an instrument and evidence suggests that technology-enhanced focus groups can be effective in simultaneously engaging participants from diverse settings. Aim To examine the use of technology-enhanced focus groups in generating an item pool to develop a youth-bullying screening tool. Discussion The authors explore methodological and ethical issues related to conducting technology-enhanced focus groups, drawing on their experience in developing a youth-bullying measure. They conducted qualitative focus groups with professionals from the front lines of bullying response and intervention. They describe the experience of conducting technology-enhanced focus group sessions, focusing on the methodological and ethical issues that researchers engaging in similar work may encounter. Challenges associated with this methodology include establishing rapport among participants, privacy concerns and limited non-verbal communication. Conclusion The use of technology-enhanced focus groups can be valuable in obtaining rich data from a wide variety of disciplines and contexts. Organising these focus groups was inexpensive and preferred by the study's participants. Implications for practice Researchers should consider using technology-enhanced focus groups to generate data to develop health-related measurement tools.
Full Text Available Annette Burgess,1 George Ramsey-Stewart2 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, 2Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: The social construction of knowledge within medical education is essential for learning. Students’ interactions within groups and associated learning artifacts can meaningfully impact learning. Situated cognition theory poses that knowledge, thinking, and learning are located in experience. In recent years, there has been a reported decline in time spent on anatomy by whole body dissection (AWBD within medical programs. However, teaching by surgeons in AWBD provides unique opportunities for students, promoting a deeper engagement in learning. In this study, we apply situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students’ perceptions of their learning experience within the 2014 iteration of an 8-week elective AWBD course. Methods: At the end of the course, all students (n=24 were invited to attend one of three focus groups. Framework analysis was used to code and categorize data into themes. Results: In total, 20/24 (83% students participated in focus groups. Utilizing situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework, we illustrate students’ learning experiences within the AWBD course. Students highlighted opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning community. Conclusion: Situated cognition theory offers a valuable lens through which to view students’ learning experience in the anatomy dissection course. By doing so, the importance of providing clinical relevance to medical teaching is highlighted. Additionally, the value of having surgeons teach AWBD and the experience they share is illustrated. The team learning course design, with varying
Mary E. Northridge
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Methods Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR, this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents, executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. Results While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24 and numbers of participants (n = 194. Conclusions This study adds to the
Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol
Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and
Bud Angelica Mariana
Full Text Available This paper seeks to underline the main problems faced in implementing and using European Union (EU funds in Romania within the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD during the first programing period 2007-2013. The problems and barriers revealed were identified during a focus-group for the second interim evaluation of SOPHRD, organized by the Management Authority of this program in Nord-Vest region, in November 2014. The focus-group represents a small part of the entire process of evaluating the programme for the development of human resources during its implementation, with the purpose of finding beneficiaries opinions about the efficiency, effectiveness and relevance of interventions financed through SOP HRD. Beliefs, personal recommendations from the participants are presented in order to improve the use of European funds for development of human resources (in particular and the use of structural instruments (in general. These results and solutions can be efficiently used during the next financial period 2014-2020 to create the framework for every priority axis and key areas of intervention, during the implementation of new projects and within the entire process that these funds require in order to successfully use the structural instruments to catch up with developed countries. Moreover, some of the problems identified can be found in other operational programmes and therefore, this research can be useful for every one that wants to use this kind of financing or has a project of this kind in implementation, without taking into account the European funding source. Besides the qualitative approach given by focus-group research method, this paper is going to present a general approach over SOP HRD in Romania during 2007-2013, from a quantitative perspective (number of projects submitted, approved, contracted, payment rate, absorption rate. Moreover solutions linked to knowledge management practices will be proposed
The focus group approach for collecting qualitative data can be usefully applied in social gerontological studies, both in a single setting and cross-culturally. The experiences of the research terms participating in the Comparative Study of Asian Elderly in employing focus groups are described, and their advantages and disadvantages as a general method for gathering basic qualitative data are discussed. While the method has promise, it also should be recognized that conducting focus group research within the context of a comparative study compounds the considerable time, effort, and funds that focus group research for basic social science already requires.
The aim of this paper is to identify the broad epistemological debates which underpin conflicting statements on 'rigour' and 'good practice' in qualitative research; to relate divergences in statements of 'good practice' in focus group design made by the pre-eminent commentators on focus group methodology to these broader epistemological debates; and to stimulate further reflection on the range of possible uses for focus groups in health services research. Considerations of the analysis of focus group data are beyond the scope of this paper. Focus groups are a popular form of qualitative data collection, and may be defined as a particular form of group interview intended to exploit group dynamics. While qualitative research may be broadly characterized as concerned with exploring people's lived experiences and perspectives in context, it is a heterogeneous field incorporating many theoretical traditions. Consequently, qualitative researchers may be informed by a wide range of assumptions about the nature of knowledge (epistemology). These assumptions, whether implicit or explicit, have important consequences for claims about rigour and 'good practice' in data collection. Thus, while there is broad agreement over the general form of focus groups, statements of 'good practice' in terms of its application are varied. A close reading of texts by the two pre-eminent commentators on the practical application of focus groups identifies differences in 'best practice' focus group design related to their respective epistemological assumptions, and differences principally related to sampling techniques, composition of groups, the perceived role of group interaction and the nature of inference. Explicit consideration of the epistemological basis of divergent statements of 'best practice' in focus group design forces health services researchers to balance the demands of theory with the practicalities of conducting focus group research within complex host organisations; and
Sohler, Nancy L; Weiss, Linda; Egan, James E; López, Carolina M; Favaro, Jamie; Cordero, Robert; Cunningham, Chinazo O
To develop effective programs for people who are opioid dependent and to impact the opioid epidemic in New York City, it is crucial to monitor attitudes about opioid addiction treatments among opioid users who have experienced barriers to engagement and retention in addiction treatment. The authors conducted a qualitative study using focus groups. Six focus groups in three needle exchanges in New York City were audio recorded, transcribed, and systematically coded. The authors report on the main themes related to the study objectives. Participants of each needle exchange who were opioid dependent and had some knowledge of both methadone and buprenorphine were eligible. There were four main findings. Participants felt the following: 1) buprenorphine is an appropriate option for those heroin users who are motivated to stop using, 2) they have less control over their addiction treatment with methadone than they would have with buprenorphine, 3) buprenorphine treatment is not accessible to many New York City residents who would benefit from this treatment, and 4) lack of access to buprenorphine treatment is a cause of treatment-related diversion. Both methadone maintenance and buprenorphine treatment opportunities are necessary to address the diverse treatment needs of opioid-dependent people in New York City. However, the current medical model of buprenorphine treatment may be too restrictive for some opioid-dependent people and may be contributing to the use of illicit buprenorphine. New models to deliver buprenorphine treatment may address these problems.
Sheer, Vivian C; Mao, Chang Molly; Chen, Yi-Ru Regina
Adolescence is associated with smoking initiation among men in China. The lack of qualitative studies using Chinese adolescent samples can pose challenges to enacting effective smoking prevention messages that resonate with male Chinese teenagers' thoughts, needs, and wishes. This focus group study was designed to obtain in-depth contextual information on early smoking among male teenagers in China. Twenty focus groups of 7-10 male students from vocational and junior colleges (N = 165) were conducted, approximately half in Shanxi and half in Guangdong. A large number of early smoking activities occurred in homes and schools, and teenagers considered school toilets and dorms safe havens for smoking. Many participants' first cigarettes were offered to them by peers, others first smoked during social interactions, and some started smoking of their own volition. Teenagers were curious about the attributes of cigarette products, smoking techniques, and physical reactions. More participants disclosed negative first smoking experiences than positive experiences. Negative first physical experiences motivated some participants to acquire better smoking techniques. Smoking experimentation was sustained in part by reciprocated cigarette offers. Heavy experimentation occurred before graduation from high school. Conclusions/Importance: The current findings provide an empirical basis for developing intervention strategies that are alternative or complementary to the current conventional health education. These strategies include cognitive response methods to enhance antismoking beliefs, smoke-free social interaction norms, and school-based (e.g., peer education) and home-based (e.g., involving family members) intervention programs.
Webster, Kassi M; Cunningham, Christopher J L
To obtain in-depth community input using qualitative and quantitative methods to guide development and marketing of a bike-share program in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Focus groups and surveys assessed bicycling attitudes, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors of residents, workers, and university students. The authors completed nine focus groups (N = 56): five sessions with downtown workers, three with downtown residents, and one with university students. Health, recreation and transportation benefits of bicycling were commonly identified. Concerns regarding bicycling in traffic are apparent because of lack of facilities and a need for public education on safe motorist and bicyclist behavior. Practical limitations can inhibit bicycling during the day, including shower access and personal hygiene concerns. Public desire for environmental, educational, and enforcement tactics to support safe bicycling was noted. Marketing tactics for bike-share usage should emphasize health, recreational, and transportation benefits. Worksites can reduce barriers related to bicycling and encourage bike-share use. Future studies should assess bike-share impact on perceptions and behavior, as well as the resulting policy and environmental changes.
Bogart, Kathleen R
This focus group study examined the social experiences of 10 adolescents aged 12-17 years with Moebius Syndrome, a rare condition involving congenital facial paralysis. Content analysis revealed five themes: social engagement/disengagement, resilience/sensitivity, social support/stigma, being understood/misunderstood, and public awareness/lack of awareness of Moebius Syndrome. Compared to previous research on adults with Moebius Syndrome, adolescents were more likely to experience bullying and social strain. Like adults, teenagers displayed resilience and communication skills. Greater public awareness is key to reducing the stigma associated with this condition, and social skills programs should be developed to support those who struggle with social functioning. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P. [and others
This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.
Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya
Objectives The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. Setting The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of En...
Full Text Available In this article the authors discuss the usefulness of focus groups for researching sensitive issues using evidence from a study examining the experiences of nurses providing care in the context of the Northern Ireland Troubles. They conducted three group interviews with nurses during which they asked about the issues the nurses face(d in providing nursing care amid enduring social division. Through a discursive analysis of within-group interaction, they demonstrate how participants employ a range of interpretive resources, the effect of which is to prioritize particular knowledge concerning the nature of nursing care. The identification of such patterned activity highlights the ethnographic value of focus groups to reveal social conventions guiding the production of accounts but also suggests that accounts cannot be divorced from the circumstances of their production. Consequently, the authors argue that focus groups should be considered most useful for illuminating locally sanctioned ways of talking about sensitive issues.
Full Text Available Depending on their motivation, individuals prefer different group contexts for social interactions. The present research sought to provide more insight into this relationship. More specifically, we tested how challenge / threat and a promotion / prevention focus predict attraction to groups with high or low power. As such, we examined differential outcomes of threat and prevention focus as well as challenge and promotion focus that have often been regarded as closely related. According to regulatory focus, individuals should prefer groups that they expect to feel right for them to join: Low-power groups should be more attractive in a prevention (than a promotion focus, as these groups suggest security-oriented strategies, which fit a prevention focus. High-power groups should be more attractive in a promotion (rather than a prevention focus, as these groups are associated with promotion strategies fitting a promotion focus (Sassenberg, Jonas, Shah, & Brazy, 2007. In contrast, under threat (vs. challenge, groups that allow individuals to restore their (perceived lack of control should be preferred: Low-power groups should be less attractive under threat (than challenge because they provide low resources which threatened individuals already perceive as insufficient and high-power groups might be more attractive under threat (than under challenge, because their high resources allow individuals to restore control. Two experiments (N = 140 supported these predictions. The attractiveness of a group often depends on the motivation to engage in what fits (i.e., prefer a group that feels right in the light of one’s regulatory focus. However, under threat the striving to restore control (i.e., prefer a group allowing them to change the statuts quo under threat vs. challenge overrides the fit effect, which may in turn guide individuals’ behavior in social interactions.
Zwaanswijk, M.; Dulmen, S. van
Background: Online focus groups (OFGs) are increasingly used as a method of data collection. Although their advantages for research have repeatedly been described, participants’ opinions about OFGs have seldom been studied. We investigated OFG participants’ preference for participation in an OFG or
Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014
The Center for Community College Student Engagement encourages colleges to hold focus groups with part-time and full-time faculty to learn about differences in the faculty and their experience at their college and to complement survey data. Survey responses tell the "what" about faculty's experiences; through conducting focus groups,…
Wood, Marjorie L.
Focus group interviews, described as a qualitative research method with good potential in family medicine, are traced from their origins in market research to their growing role in sociology and medicine. Features of this method are described, including design, conduct, and analysis. Both proven and potential areas for primary care research using focus groups are outlined.
Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different
This paper explores the possibility of expanding the focus group interview into the field of English as a Second Language (ESL), where this research methodology is yet to be thoroughly explored. Specifically, it aims to challenge popular criticisms about the reliability and validity of the focus group as a qualitative research methodology. It does…
This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…
Nestel, Debra; Ivkovic, Amelie; Hill, Robyn A.; Warrens, Anthony N.; Paraskevas, Paraskeva A.; McDonnell, Jacqueline A.; Mudarikwa, Ruvimbo S.; Browne, Chris
Programme evaluation is essential for quality assurance in education. In this paper, we describe our evaluation strategy for the first year of a new medical programme. Although we used multiple methods in the evaluation, the use of the focus group method was core. This paper reports our experiences of focus groups for this purpose. We describe the…
Guest, Greg; Namey, Emily; McKenna, Kevin
Few empirical studies exist to guide researchers in determining the number of focus groups necessary for a research study. The analyses described here provide foundational evidence to help researchers in this regard. We conducted a thematic analysis of 40 focus groups on health-seeking behaviors of African American men in Durham, North Carolina.…
Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi
This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…
Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…
... emotions in response to topics and concepts, and To further explore findings obtained from quantitative... for public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on focus groups as used by... Total annual Hours per Total hours respondents response responses response Focus Group Interviews 1,440...
Methods: Two focus group discussions were conducted amongst private sector doctors in the eThekwini Metro, after obtaining their consent. The focus group sessions were scripted, ... which impacted negatively on adherence. Five doctors mentioned that depressed patients abused alcohol, resulting in nonadherence.
de Vries, J.; den Oudsten, B.L.; Jacobs, P.M.; Roukema, J.A.
Purpose The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the ways in which breast cancer survivors cope with fear of recurrence. Methods Three focus groups were held with breast cancer survivors. Focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative techniques.
Brittany L. Adams-Pope
Full Text Available Interesting and innovative youth development programs are important to further youth education. Programs focused on developing leadership skills in youth, specifically at-risk youth, are important when thinking of the future of our communities. The primary purpose of the study was to determine the impact of an equine facilitated, authentic leadership program on at-risk youth. Youth participated in a three-day equine facilitated learning program based on authentic leadership with focus groups conducted three days before and three days after the program. In this article, we describe the development and methodology of the program and specific implications for practice.
Full Text Available In our article we deal with the problematics of focus groups and their implementation in kinantropological research. The primary target of an analysis of electronic information resources of the Palacky University was to look up research projects built upon the of focus group metodology. The analysis of accessible articles put forward that particularly in the field of kinantropological research, the method is used scarcely. The main objective of our article was to introduce the focus group as a valuable research method and outline the potential applications in kinantropology. On the basis of the summarized information on focus groups research we concluded that the focus groups may represent an effective tool for capturing such phenomenons as the affect of social environment, subcultural aspects, or self efficacy on development of attitudes to lifelong learning in the context of motor activity. The confirmation of the outlined possibilities will be the subject of our further research.
Rodríguez, Charo; Pozzebon, Marlei
Since 2002 the Health Ministry of Québec (Canada) has been implementing a primary care organizational innovation called 'family medicine groups'. This is occurring in a political context in which the reorganization of primary care is considered necessary to improve health care system performance. More specifically, the purpose of this reform has been to overcome systemic deficiencies in terms of accessibility and continuity of care. This paper examines the first years of implementation of the family medicine group program, with a focus on the emergence of the organizational identity of one of the pilot groups located in the urban area of Montreal. An in-depth longitudinal case study was conducted over two and a half years. Face to face individual interviews with key informants from the family medicine group under study were conducted over the research period considered. Data was gathered throuhg observations and documentary analysis. The data was analyzed using temporal bracketing and Fairclough's three-dimensional critical discourse analytical techniques. Three different phases were identified over the period under study. During the first phase, which corresponded to the official start-up of the family medicine group program, new resources and staff were only available at the end of the period, and no changes occurred in medical practices. Power struggles between physicians and nurses characterized the second phase, resulting in a very difficult integration of advanced nurse practitioners into the group. Indeed, the last phase was portrayed by initial collaborative practices associated with a sensegiving process prompted by a new family medicine group director. The creation of a primary care team is a very challenging process that goes beyond the normative policy definitions of who is on the team or what the team has to do. To fulfil expectations of quality improvement through team-based care, health care professionals who are required to work together need
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002 the Health Ministry of Québec (Canada has been implementing a primary care organizational innovation called 'family medicine groups'. This is occurring in a political context in which the reorganization of primary care is considered necessary to improve health care system performance. More specifically, the purpose of this reform has been to overcome systemic deficiencies in terms of accessibility and continuity of care. This paper examines the first years of implementation of the family medicine group program, with a focus on the emergence of the organizational identity of one of the pilot groups located in the urban area of Montreal. Methods An in-depth longitudinal case study was conducted over two and a half years. Face to face individual interviews with key informants from the family medicine group under study were conducted over the research period considered. Data was gathered throuhg observations and documentary analysis. The data was analyzed using temporal bracketing and Fairclough's three-dimensional critical discourse analytical techniques. Results Three different phases were identified over the period under study. During the first phase, which corresponded to the official start-up of the family medicine group program, new resources and staff were only available at the end of the period, and no changes occurred in medical practices. Power struggles between physicians and nurses characterized the second phase, resulting in a very difficult integration of advanced nurse practitioners into the group. Indeed, the last phase was portrayed by initial collaborative practices associated with a sensegiving process prompted by a new family medicine group director. Conclusions The creation of a primary care team is a very challenging process that goes beyond the normative policy definitions of who is on the team or what the team has to do. To fulfil expectations of quality improvement through team-based care
Wdowik, M J; Kendall, P A; Harris, M A
College students with diabetes are at risk for improvised diabetes care due to their age, newly acquired independence, and erratic schedules. The purpose of this study was to employ focus groups and interviews to identity factors that affect the ability of these students to engage in appropriate self-care behaviors. Focus group and interview questions were developed to address variables of the Expanded Health Belief Model. Two focus groups and fifteen interviews were conducted. Barriers to successful diabetes management were time management, stress hypoglycemic reactions, diet management constraints, and inadequate finances. Several psychosocial issues that affected successful management also were identified. These issues were grouped into three categories: (1) inconveniences of diabetes management, (2) motivators to managing diabetes, and (3) social support issues. The findings show the value of formative evaluation that can then be used to design diabetes education programs to meet clients' perceived needs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The teenage years are the years when adolescents seek their identity, and part of this involves experimenting with tobacco. The use of tobacco as such, and norms among their friends, is more important to the adolescents than the norms of parents when it comes to using tobacco or not. The aim was to explore the significance of using snus for adolescents, and attitudes to snus, as well as the reasons why they began using snus and what maintained and facilitated the use of snus. Methods Adolescents who use snus were interviewed in focus groups. The material was analysed using content analysis. Results Four groups of boys and one group of girls were interviewed, a total of 27 students from the upper secondary vocational program. Three themes related to the students’ opinions on and experiences of using snus were found: Circumstances pertaining to snus debut indicate what makes them start using snus. Upholding, which focuses on the problem of becoming addicted and development of identity, and approach, where the adolescents reflect on their snus habits in relation to those around them. A number of factors were described as relevant to behaviour and norm building for the development into becoming a snus user. Attitudes and actions from adults and friends as well as – for the boys – development of an identity as a man and a craftsman influenced behaviour. Conclusions The results showed that development of identity was of major importance when adolescents start using snus. The adolescents were initially unable to interpret the early symptoms of abstinence problems, but subsequently became well aware of being addicted. Once they were stuck in addiction and in the creation of an image and identity, it was difficult to stop using snus. These factors are important when considering interventions of normative changes and tobacco prevention in schools as well as among parents.
Burgess, Annette; Ramsey-Stewart, George
The social construction of knowledge within medical education is essential for learning. Students' interactions within groups and associated learning artifacts can meaningfully impact learning. Situated cognition theory poses that knowledge, thinking, and learning are located in experience. In recent years, there has been a reported decline in time spent on anatomy by whole body dissection (AWBD) within medical programs. However, teaching by surgeons in AWBD provides unique opportunities for students, promoting a deeper engagement in learning. In this study, we apply situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students' perceptions of their learning experience within the 2014 iteration of an 8-week elective AWBD course. At the end of the course, all students (n=24) were invited to attend one of three focus groups. Framework analysis was used to code and categorize data into themes. In total, 20/24 (83%) students participated in focus groups. Utilizing situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework, we illustrate students' learning experiences within the AWBD course. Students highlighted opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning community. Situated cognition theory offers a valuable lens through which to view students' learning experience in the anatomy dissection course. By doing so, the importance of providing clinical relevance to medical teaching is highlighted. Additionally, the value of having surgeons teach AWBD and the experience they share is illustrated. The team learning course design, with varying teaching methods and frequent assessments, prompting student-student and student-teacher interaction, was also beneficial for student learning.
Perrier, Laure; Kealey, M Ryan; Straus, Sharon E
To conduct a series of focus groups with primary care physicians to determine the optimal format of a shortened, focused systematic review. Prototypes for two formats of a shortened systematic review were developed and presented to participants during focus group sessions. Focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians who were in full- or part-time practice. An iterative process was used so that the information learned from the first set of focus groups (Round 1) influenced the material presented to the second set of focus groups (Round 2). The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed. Each of the two rounds of testing included three focus groups. A total of 32 physicians participated (Round 1:16 participants; Round 2:16 participants). Analysis of the transcripts from Round 1 identified three themes including ease of use, clarity, and implementation. Changes were made to the prototypes based on the results so that the revised prototypes could be presented and discussed in the second round of focus groups. After analysis of transcripts from Round 2, four themes were identified, including ease of use, clarity, brevity, and implementation. Revisions were made to the prototypes based on the results. Primary care physicians provided input on the refinement of two prototypes of a shortened systematic review for clinicians. Their feedback guided changes to the format, presentation, and layout of these prototypes in order to increase usability and uptake for end-users. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael
Background: Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data.Objective: To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of exis...
Leak, Tashara M; Benavente, Lisa; Goodell, L Suzanne; Lassiter, Annie; Jones, Lorelei; Bowen, Sarah
To identify ways to effectively use social media to communicate nutrition-related information to low-income populations. The authors conducted 4 focus groups with female Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates who used social media at least twice a week (n = 26 total). Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify key themes. For participants, page content, page maintenance, and networking opportunities with others were important aspects of a nutrition education social media page. Trust emerged as a central theme, because participants expressed a need for reliable information from known, credible sources and safe places to share ideas. Using social media to provide nutrition-related messages may be an effective way to encourage sustained positive behavior changes resulting from educational programming and to engage participants beyond class time. Establishing the trustworthiness of the social media site is essential to its use among low-income participants. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McGregor, Deborah; Keep, Melanie; Brunner, Melissa; Janssen, Anna; Quinn, Deleana; Avery, Jennifer; Togher, Leanne; Shaw, Tim
Well documented demand for an e-health ready workforce is placing increasing pressure on universities to deliver essential e-health education. We aimed to explore stakeholders' perceptions of e-health knowledge and skills anticipated of workforce-ready tertiary graduates from clinical health degree programs. A qualitative research study of a purposively selected sample of 23 key informants with expertise and/or experience in e-health education, practice and/or policy was conducted. Data collection involved focus group interviews that were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent thematic analysis. Three primary themes about e-health education and preparation of health graduates emerged from the analyses: 1) Reinforce fundamental competencies, 2) Acknowledge and adapt existing competencies, and 3) Introduce and provide opportunities for new learning. This study will inform the articulation of a consensus driven set of core competencies for a cross-faculty e-health curriculum that aligns with workforce expectations. There is also potential for vertical integration of findings into workforce development programs.
Coenen, Michaela; Stamm, Tanja A; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos
To compare two different approaches to performing focus groups and individual interviews, an open approach, and an approach based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Patients with rheumatoid arthritis attended focus groups (n = 49) and individual interviews (n = 21). Time, number of concepts, ICF categories identified, and sample size for reaching saturation of data were compared. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, and independent t tests were performed. With an overall time of 183 h, focus groups were more time consuming than individual interviews (t = 9.782; P focus groups and 102 categories in the interviews were identified compared to the 231 and 110 respective categories identified in the ICF-based approach. Saturation of data was reached after performing five focus groups and nine individual interviews in the open approach and five focus groups and 12 individual interviews in the ICF-based approach. The method chosen should depend on the objective of the study, issues related to the health condition, and the study's participants. We recommend performing focus groups if the objective of the study is to comprehensively explore the patient perspective.
Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.
This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…
Agnes Yunie Purwita Sari
Full Text Available Background Improving breastfeeding in sick infants is essential. During the neonatal care, health care staff play an important role in promoting breastfeeding. Therefore, it is important to study in depth how healthcare staff can improve breastfeeding practice in sick neonates. Objective To compare breastfeeding rates in sick infants before and after a focused group discussion (FGD of health care staff on how to improve breastfeeding. Methods This study was an operational study using FGD and in-depth interviews as an intervention. A fish bone diagram was used to assess problems that may prevent mothers from breastfeeding their sick infants. Breastfeeding achievement was compared before and after the FGD. Results Of 257 sick infants, 177 subjects were in the before FGD group and 80 subjects were in the after FGD group. Significantly more after FGD subjects were breastfed during hospitalization than before FGD subjects [97.5% vs. 82.9%, respectively; (x2 =9.43; P=0.002]. Breastfeeding initiation within 0-4 hours of birth was also significantly higher in the after FGD group [10 (12.5% vs. 6 (3.5%, respectively; (x2 = 52.5; P<0.001]. The solutions for breastfeeding problems were: 1 support of hospital management, 2 support of healthcare workers for breastfeeding mothers, 3 support of husbands and families for breastfeeding mothers, 4 financial support, 5 other factors such as level of care and consistent FGD events, and 6 a prospective cohort study. Conclusion The FGD with health care staff significantly increases breastfeeding achievement during infant hospitalization, and accelerated breastfeeding initiation. A fish bone diagram is used to effectively assess the problems with breastfeeding programs for sick babies.
Ramani, Subha; Orlander, Jay D
Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this shift. Yet, essential clinical skills, professionalism, and humanistic patient interactions are best taught at the bedside. Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this decline. This study explored perceptions of teachers and learners on the value of bedside teaching and the humanistic dimensions of bedside interactions that make it imperative to shift clinical teaching back to the bedside. Focus group methodology was used to explore teacher and learner opinions. Four teacher groups consisted of (a) Chief Residents, (b) Residency Program Directors, (c) skilled bedside teachers, and (d) a convenience group of other Department of Medicine faculty at Boston University School of Medicine. Six learner groups consisted 2 each of 3rd-year students, PGY1 medicine residents, and PGY2 medicine residents. Each discussion lasted 60 to 90 minutes. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Teachers and learners shared several opinions on bedside teaching, particularly around humanistic aspects of bedside interactions. The key themes that emerged included (a) patient involvement in discussions, (b) teachers as role models of humanism, (c) preserving learner autonomy, (d) direct observation and feedback of learners at the bedside, (e) interactions with challenging patients, and (e) admitting limitations. Within these themes, participants noted some behaviors best avoided at the bedside. Teachers and learners regard the bedside as a valuable venue in which to learn core values of medicine. They proposed many strategies to preserve these humanistic values and improve bedside teaching. These strategies are essential for true patient-centered care.
Hutting, Nathan; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Engels, Josephine A; Staal, J Bart; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G
Many people suffer from complaints of the arm, neck or shoulder (CANS). CANS causes significant work problems, including absenteeism (sickness absence), presenteeism (decreased work productivity) and, ultimately, job loss. There is a need for intervention programs for people suffering from CANS. Management of symptoms and workload, and improving the workstyle, could be important factors in the strategy to deal with CANS. The objective of this study is to evaluate the experienced problems of employees with CANS, as a first step in an intervention mapping process aimed at adaptation of an existing self-management program to the characteristics of employees suffering from CANS. A qualitative study comprising three focus group meetings with 15 employees suffering from CANS. Based on a question guide, participants were asked about experiences in relation to continuing work despite their complaints. Data were analysed using content analysis with an open-coding system. During selective coding, general themes and patterns were identified and relationships between the codes were examined. Participants suffering from CANS often have to deal with pain, disability, fatigue, misunderstanding and stress at work. Some needs of the participants were identified, i.e. disease-specific information, exercises, muscle relaxation, working with pain, influence of the work and/or social environment, and personal factors (including workstyle). Employees suffering from CANS search for ways to deal with their complaints in daily life and at work. This study reveals several recurring problems and the results endorse the multi-factorial origin of CANS. Participants generally experience problems similar to those of employees with other types of complaints or chronic diseases, e.g. related to their illness, insufficient communication, working together with healthcare professionals, colleagues and management, and workplace adaptations. These topics will be addressed in the adaptation of an
Anthony, Peter J.; Weide, Jeffrey
The purpose of this study was to focus on the relationship between career-development training programs and the motivation of employees. The study used a qualitative method and a phenomenological design using semistructured interviews conducted with a script of open-ended questions. Two main components of the research design were the modified van…
Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Pinheiro, Sandro O.; Anderson, Ruth A.; Porter, Kristie; McConnell, Eleanor; Corazzini, Kirsten; Hancock, Kathryn; Lipscomb, Jeffery; Beales, Julie; Simpson, Kelly M.
Purpose of the Study: The CONNECT intervention is designed to improve staff connections, communication, and use of multiple perspectives for problem solving. This analysis compared staff descriptions of the learning climate, use of social constructivist learning processes, and outcomes in nursing facilities receiving CONNECT with facilities receiving a falls education program alone. Design and Methods: Qualitative evaluation of a randomized controlled trial was done using a focus group design...
Background Focus group studies are increasingly published in health related journals, but we know little about how researchers use this method, particularly how they determine the number of focus groups to conduct. The methodological literature commonly advises researchers to follow principles of data saturation, although practical advise on how to do this is lacking. Our objectives were firstly, to describe the current status of sample size in focus group studies reported in health journals. Secondly, to assess whether and how researchers explain the number of focus groups they carry out. Methods We searched PubMed for studies that had used focus groups and that had been published in open access journals during 2008, and extracted data on the number of focus groups and on any explanation authors gave for this number. We also did a qualitative assessment of the papers with regard to how number of groups was explained and discussed. Results We identified 220 papers published in 117 journals. In these papers insufficient reporting of sample sizes was common. The number of focus groups conducted varied greatly (mean 8.4, median 5, range 1 to 96). Thirty seven (17%) studies attempted to explain the number of groups. Six studies referred to rules of thumb in the literature, three stated that they were unable to organize more groups for practical reasons, while 28 studies stated that they had reached a point of saturation. Among those stating that they had reached a point of saturation, several appeared not to have followed principles from grounded theory where data collection and analysis is an iterative process until saturation is reached. Studies with high numbers of focus groups did not offer explanations for number of groups. Too much data as a study weakness was not an issue discussed in any of the reviewed papers. Conclusions Based on these findings we suggest that journals adopt more stringent requirements for focus group method reporting. The often poor and
Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire
Focus group studies are increasingly published in health related journals, but we know little about how researchers use this method, particularly how they determine the number of focus groups to conduct. The methodological literature commonly advises researchers to follow principles of data saturation, although practical advise on how to do this is lacking. Our objectives were firstly, to describe the current status of sample size in focus group studies reported in health journals. Secondly, to assess whether and how researchers explain the number of focus groups they carry out. We searched PubMed for studies that had used focus groups and that had been published in open access journals during 2008, and extracted data on the number of focus groups and on any explanation authors gave for this number. We also did a qualitative assessment of the papers with regard to how number of groups was explained and discussed. We identified 220 papers published in 117 journals. In these papers insufficient reporting of sample sizes was common. The number of focus groups conducted varied greatly (mean 8.4, median 5, range 1 to 96). Thirty seven (17%) studies attempted to explain the number of groups. Six studies referred to rules of thumb in the literature, three stated that they were unable to organize more groups for practical reasons, while 28 studies stated that they had reached a point of saturation. Among those stating that they had reached a point of saturation, several appeared not to have followed principles from grounded theory where data collection and analysis is an iterative process until saturation is reached. Studies with high numbers of focus groups did not offer explanations for number of groups. Too much data as a study weakness was not an issue discussed in any of the reviewed papers. Based on these findings we suggest that journals adopt more stringent requirements for focus group method reporting. The often poor and inconsistent reporting seen in these
Full Text Available Abstract Background Focus group studies are increasingly published in health related journals, but we know little about how researchers use this method, particularly how they determine the number of focus groups to conduct. The methodological literature commonly advises researchers to follow principles of data saturation, although practical advise on how to do this is lacking. Our objectives were firstly, to describe the current status of sample size in focus group studies reported in health journals. Secondly, to assess whether and how researchers explain the number of focus groups they carry out. Methods We searched PubMed for studies that had used focus groups and that had been published in open access journals during 2008, and extracted data on the number of focus groups and on any explanation authors gave for this number. We also did a qualitative assessment of the papers with regard to how number of groups was explained and discussed. Results We identified 220 papers published in 117 journals. In these papers insufficient reporting of sample sizes was common. The number of focus groups conducted varied greatly (mean 8.4, median 5, range 1 to 96. Thirty seven (17% studies attempted to explain the number of groups. Six studies referred to rules of thumb in the literature, three stated that they were unable to organize more groups for practical reasons, while 28 studies stated that they had reached a point of saturation. Among those stating that they had reached a point of saturation, several appeared not to have followed principles from grounded theory where data collection and analysis is an iterative process until saturation is reached. Studies with high numbers of focus groups did not offer explanations for number of groups. Too much data as a study weakness was not an issue discussed in any of the reviewed papers. Conclusions Based on these findings we suggest that journals adopt more stringent requirements for focus group method
Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael
Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or 'chunks' of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data 'chunks'. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action.
Kite, James; Phongsavan, Philayrath
Background Online focus groups have been increasing in use over the last 2 decades, including in biomedical and health-related research. However, most of this research has made use of text-based services such as email, discussion boards, and chat rooms, which do not replicate the experience of face-to-face focus groups. Web conferencing services have the potential to more closely match the face-to-face focus group experience, including important visual and aural cues. This paper provides critical reflections on using a web conferencing service to conduct online focus groups. Methods As part of a broader study, we conducted both online and face-to-face focus groups with participants. The online groups were conducted in real-time using the web conferencing service, Blackboard Collaborate TM. We used reflective practice to assess how the conduct and content of the groups were similar and how they differed across the two platforms. Results We found that further research using such services is warranted, particularly when working with hard-to-reach or geographically dispersed populations. The level of discussion and the quality of the data obtained was similar to that found in face-to-face groups. However, some issues remain, particularly in relation to managing technical issues experienced by participants and ensuring adequate recording quality to facilitate transcription and analysis. Conclusions Our experience with using web conferencing for online focus groups suggests that they have the potential to offer a realistic and comparable alternative to face-to-face focus groups, especially for geographically dispersed populations such as rural and remote health practitioners. Further testing of these services is warranted but researchers should carefully consider the service they use to minimise the impact of technical difficulties.
Gupta, Ruchi S; Kim, Jennifer S; Barnathan, Julia A; Amsden, Laura B; Tummala, Lakshmi S; Holl, Jane L
.... Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public...
Tuttas, Carol A
Researchers use Internet technology for data collection in qualitative studies. In the literature there are published accounts of synchronous (real-time) and more commonly, asynchronous (not-real-time) focus group data collection methods supported by Internet technology in the form of email correspondence, LISTSERVs, discussion boards, and chat rooms. Real-time audiovisual Web conference technology offers qualitative researchers a promising alternative means to carry out focus groups. In this methodological article I describe how I used Web conference technology to host online focus groups for a qualitative study about job integration experiences of travel nurses geographically dispersed across the United States. I describe lessons learned from the use of this innovative method for qualitative data collection, including a brief overview about the use of dictation software for transcription. This new knowledge is useful to researchers considering Web conference technology to carry out focus group data collection in qualitative research. © The Author(s) 2014.
Tong, Allison; Sainsbury, Peter; Craig, Jonathan
... (indepth interviews and focus groups). Methods We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, Medline, CINAHL, systematic reviews of qualitative studies, author or reviewer guidelines of major medical journals...
Smith, Alan L; Troped, Philip J; McDonough, Meghan H; DeFreese, J D
.... Thirty-three students (20 girls; ages 12-14 years) participated in focus groups about the physical environment and peers within their neighborhoods, and their understanding of how they affect physical activity...
Amanda Brummel, PharmD; Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira, PhD; Sarah M. Westberg, PharmD, BCPS; Heidi Schultz, PharmD
Objective: To determine the patient-perceived value of MTM services and non-financial barriers preventing patients with insurance coverage from receiving MTM services. Design: Focus groups. Setting: Fairview Pharmacy Services, Minneapolis, MN.Participants: Three focus groups, each with five to nine participants, consisting of different participant populations: (i) patients who paid out-of-pocket to receive MTM services; (ii) insurance beneficiaries, under which MTM is a covered benefit and pa...
G Archana; Y Krishna; B Rajashekhar; P G Bhargavi
Aim: To conduct focused group discussion on audiologist and hearing aid users to find out the necessity of auditory training in adults and geriatrics. Materials and Methods: A qualitative focused group discussion was conducted on 30 audiologist and 10 hearing aid users to gather the information on auditory rehabilitation in adults and geriatrics. Eight different questions were proposed for the discussion on aural rehabilitation in these population. Discussion was recorded and analyzed for the...
Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya
The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session ('developing a sense of group belonging') and perceptions of its design and delivery ('creating the conditions for engagement'). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections should be a core feature of a general framework for the design and delivery of group interventions. Published by the
Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Pinheiro, Sandro O; Anderson, Ruth A; Porter, Kristie; McConnell, Eleanor; Corazzini, Kirsten; Hancock, Kathryn; Lipscomb, Jeffery; Beales, Julie; Simpson, Kelly M
The CONNECT intervention is designed to improve staff connections, communication, and use of multiple perspectives for problem solving. This analysis compared staff descriptions of the learning climate, use of social constructivist learning processes, and outcomes in nursing facilities receiving CONNECT with facilities receiving a falls education program alone. Qualitative evaluation of a randomized controlled trial was done using a focus group design. Facilities (n = 8) were randomized to a falls education program alone (control) or CONNECT followed by FALLS (intervention). A total of 77 staff participated in 16 focus groups using a structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using framework analysis, and summaries for each domain were compared between intervention and control facilities. Notable differences in descriptions of the learning climate included greater learner empowerment, appreciation of the role of all disciplines, and seeking diverse viewpoints in the intervention group. Greater use of social constructivist learning processes was evidenced by the intervention group as they described greater identification of communication weaknesses, improvement in communication frequency and quality, and use of sense-making by seeking out multiple perspectives to better understand and act on information. Intervention group participants reported outcomes including more creative fall prevention plans, a more respectful work environment, and improved relationships with coworkers. No substantial difference between groups was identified in safety culture, shared responsibility, and self-reported knowledge about falls. CONNECT appears to enhance the use of social constructivist learning processes among nursing home staff. The impact of CONNECT on clinical outcomes requires further study.
This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.
Kim, Mi Ja; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Ahn, Yang-Heui; Kim, Euisook; Yun, Soon-Nyoung; Lee, Kwang-Ja
The rapidly increasing number of nursing doctoral programs has caused concern about the quality of nursing doctoral education, including in Korea. To describe the perceived quality of Korean nursing doctoral education in faculty, student, curriculum and resources. Focus group. Fourteen Korean nursing doctoral programs that are research focused and include coursework. Four groups of deans, faculty, students and graduates; students completed three semesters of doctoral program; and graduates completed doctoral programs within the most recent 3 years. Focus groups examined the strengths and weaknesses of faculty, students, curriculum, and resources. Faculty strengths were universities' recognition of faculty research/scholarship and the ability of faculty to attract extramural funding. Faculty weaknesses were aging faculty; high faculty workload; insufficient number of faculty; and teaching without expertise in nursing theories. Student strengths were diverse student backgrounds; multidisciplinary dissertation committee members, and opportunities to socialize with peers and graduates/faculty. Students' weaknesses were overproduction of PhDs with low academic quality; a lower number and quality of doctoral applicants; and lack of full-time students. Curriculum strengths were focusing on specific research areas; emphasis on research ethics; and multidisciplinary courses. Curriculum weaknesses were insufficient time for curriculum development; inadequate courses for core research competencies; and a lack of linkage between theory and practice. Resources strengths were inter-institutional courses with credit transfer. Weaknesses were diminished university financial support for graduate students and limited access to school facilities. Variations in participant groups (providers [deans and faculty] vs. receivers [students and graduates]) and geographical location (capital city vs. regional) were noted on all the four components. The quality characteristics of faculty
Williams, Keith N; Ramani, Subha; Fraser, Bruce; Orlander, Jay D
Literature reviews indicate that the proportion of clinical educational time devoted to bedside teaching ranges from 8% to 19%. Previous studies regarding this paucity have not adequately examined the perspectives of learners. The authors explored learners' attitudes toward bedside teaching, perceptions of barriers, and strategies to increase its frequency and effectiveness, as well as whether learners' stages of training influenced their perspectives. Six focus group discussions with fourth-year medical students and first- or second-year internal medicine residents recruited from the Boston University School of Medicine and Residency Program in Internal Medicine were conducted between June 2004 and February 2005. Each 60- to 90-minute discussion was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Learners believed that bedside teaching is valuable for learning essential clinical skills. They believed it is underutilized and described many barriers to its use: lack of respect for the patient; time constraints; learner autonomy; faculty attitude, knowledge, and skill; and overreliance on technology. Learners suggested a variety of strategies to mitigate barriers: orienting and including the patient; addressing time constraints through flexibility, selectivity, and integration with work; providing learners with reassurance, reinforcing their autonomy, and incorporating them into the teaching process; faculty development; and advocating evidence-based physical diagnosis. Students focused on the physical diagnosis aspects of bedside teaching, whereas views of residents reflected their multifaceted roles as learners, teachers, and managers. Bedside teaching is valuable but underutilized. Including the patient, collaborating with learners, faculty development, and promoting a supportive institutional culture can redress several barriers to bedside teaching.
Onya, He; Flisher, Aj
This paper introduces nine steps that are recommended in conducting focus group discussions in rural communities and gives an example of how they can appropriately and fruitfully be employed in adolescent health behavioural research. The paper also reviewed issues related to methods of data collection, data analysis, reliability and validity in qualitative research. Focus group discussions took place in classrooms in three schools in Mankweng, Limpopo Province of South Africa. Three groups (boys only, girls only and mixed) took part in each school. Participants were selected from the pool of standard seven (grade 9) students from the chosen schools. The nine steps that were involved in using focus group discussions as a research method and the Mankweng experience is discussed. These steps include: (1) conducting a social influence analysis; (2) identifying the specific information to collect; (3) designing focus group discussion guide; (4) choosing the participants for the focus group discussion; (5) selecting focus group discussion moderators; (6) training focus group discussion moderators; (7) conducting the focus group discussion; (8) analysing the data collected; (9) formulating study conclusions and policy recommendations. Little adolescent health research in South Africa has been based upon methods that can capture the complexity of the role of significant others in adolescent health and development and the powerlessness of rural communities in dealing with the 'new morbidity' of adolescent risk behaviours. Understanding what sort of power relations, for example, that are involved in being relatively disadvantaged and how the power of such social groups can be increased is common concern of development managers and other individuals and institutions engaged in policy changes and implementation and deserve to be an essential component of child and adolescent health research. Well-collected and well-analysed qualitative data is needed in order to clearly
Khadka, Jyoti; Ryan, Barbara; Margrain, Tom H.; Woodhouse, J. Margaret; Davies, Nathan
The purpose of the study was to identify the educational, social and leisure activities and issues that matter to school children and young people with a visual impairment and to compare their lifestyle with fully sighted counterparts. Thirteen focus groups were conducted and the groups were stratified by age, gender, visual status and school…
Hofman, R.; Empelen, P. van; Vogel, I.; Raat, H.; Ballegooijen, M. van; Korfage, I.J.
Before the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, decisional strategies and factors that could guide HPV vaccination intentions were explored. The authors conducted 4 focus group discussions with 36 parents of children 8-15 years of age. Three groups consisted primarily of Dutch
In this study, the effect of solution-focused brief group counseling upon the perceived social competences of teenagers was investigated. The study group included 24 volunteer students who took lower scores rather than the ones obtained from perceived social competence scale pre-test measurements out of 227 students studying at a high school in…
Ferri, Paola; Laffi, Patrizia; Rovesti, Sergio; Artioli, Giovanna; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Magnani, Daniela
Maintaining the number of new students entering nursing programs and remaining in the nursing occupation largely depends on the ability to recruit and retain young people. The motivational factors that induce young people to choose nursing as a career were investigated through a qualitative research approach. Different focus groups were organised involving 32 students at the end of the first year of Nursing. Then the factors affecting their choice of course and the reasons for satisfaction and frustration connected with the course of study were analyzed. The main motivational factors for choosing Nursing that emerged include the following: having done voluntary work in the care area, attraction to the occupation since childhood/adolescence, failure of other plans, possibility to find work, personal acquaintance of nurses. The reasons for satisfaction with the course include: tutor support, workshop activities, placement experience. The reasons for frustration among the students included the complexity and extent of the study plan, elements that often they had not envisaged or had underestimated upon enrolment. Providing more information on the course of study, the working conditions and characteristics of the nursing occupation, could help young people to make an informed and aware decision, in order to reduce any disappointment and students dropping out of nursing education and attrition in the future. Improving the organisation of the course of study, supporting students' motivation through counselling activities and choosing suitable placement sites, could prevent drop outs.
Thomas, K Jackson; Lancaster, Carol
The purpose of this inquiry was to examine preferences between presentation methods among graduate students enrolled in a research seminar course. Participants consisted of 34 second year students enrolled in the Master of Science degree program in physical therapy in the College of Health Professions at the Medical University of South Carolina. All were required to present a published research article on the general topic of exercise in elderly individuals. However, before the student presentations took place, the instructor presented two different published research papers, both of which were done in sequential time segments during a single class period. For Time Segment 1, the instructor/author used a formal, "lecture," or "platform" type presentation, embellished by power point slides with textual information and graphs. For Time Segment 2, the instructor conducted an informal discussion of the background, methods, and findings of the research paper. After the presentations were completed, students were assigned to focus groups for the purpose of providing verbal and written feedback. Examination of the findings using content analysis revealed a variety of opinions regarding presentation techniques, but showed a general preference for the method employed in Time Segment 1. Among the reasons cited were the structure, the visual aids, and past familiarity and comfort with formal, "lecture" type presentations. Also noted was the predominant view that presenter style was a major factor in judging effectiveness. These findings merit further exploration of presentation styles and teaching methodologies for augmenting teaching effectiveness and enhancing the scholarship of teaching.
Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Hayes, Jennifer J; Ray, Sarah E; Moultrie, Rebecca R
Virtual focus groups-such as online chat and video groups-are increasingly promoted as qualitative research tools. Theoretically, virtual groups offer several advantages, including lower cost, faster recruitment, greater geographic diversity, enrollment of hard-to-reach populations, and reduced participant burden. However, no study has compared virtual and in-person focus groups on these metrics. To rigorously compare virtual and in-person focus groups on cost, recruitment, and participant logistics. We examined 3 focus group modes and instituted experimental controls to ensure a fair comparison. We conducted 6 1-hour focus groups in August 2014 using in-person (n=2), live chat (n=2), and video (n=2) modes with individuals who had type 2 diabetes (n=48 enrolled, n=39 completed). In planning groups, we solicited bids from 6 virtual platform vendors and 4 recruitment firms. We then selected 1 platform or facility per mode and a single recruitment firm across all modes. To minimize bias, the recruitment firm employed different recruiters by mode who were blinded to recruitment efforts for other modes. We tracked enrollment during a 2-week period. A single moderator conducted all groups using the same guide, which addressed the use of technology to communicate with health care providers. We conducted the groups at the same times of day on Monday to Wednesday during a single week. At the end of each group, participants completed a short survey. Virtual focus groups offered minimal cost savings compared with in-person groups (US $2000 per chat group vs US $2576 per in-person group vs US $2,750 per video group). Although virtual groups did not incur travel costs, they often had higher management fees and miscellaneous expenses (eg, participant webcams). Recruitment timing did not differ by mode, but show rates were higher for in-person groups (94% [15/16] in-person vs 81% [13/16] video vs 69% [11/16] chat). Virtual group participants were more geographically diverse (but
Background Chronic insomnia is a major public health problem affecting approximately 10% of adults. Use of meditation and yoga to develop mindful awareness (‘mindfulness training’) may be an effective approach to treat chronic insomnia, with sleep outcomes comparable to nightly use of prescription sedatives, but more durable and with minimal or no side effects. The purpose of this study was to understand mindfulness training as experienced by patients with chronic insomnia, and suggest procedures that may be useful in optimizing sleep benefits. Methods Adults (N = 18) who completed an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program as part of a randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate MBSR as a treatment for chronic insomnia were invited to participate in post-trial focus groups. Two groups were held. Participants (n = 9) described how their sleep routine, thoughts and emotions were affected by MBSR and about utility (or not) of various mindfulness techniques. Groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Results Four themes were identified: the impact of mindfulness on sleep and motivation to adopt a healthy sleep lifestyle; benefits of mindfulness on aspects of life beyond sleep; challenges and successes in adopting mindfulness-based practices; and the importance of group sharing and support. Participants said they were not sleeping more, but sleeping better, waking more refreshed, feeling less distressed about insomnia, and better able to cope when it occurred. Some participants experienced the course as a call to action, and for them, practicing meditation and following sleep hygiene guidelines became priorities. Motivation to sustain behavioral changes was reinforced by feeling physically better and more emotionally stable, and seeing others in the MBSR class improve. The body scan was identified as an effective tool to enable falling asleep faster. Participants described needing to continue
Hubbling, Amber; Reilly-Spong, Maryanne; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Gross, Cynthia R
Chronic insomnia is a major public health problem affecting approximately 10% of adults. Use of meditation and yoga to develop mindful awareness ('mindfulness training') may be an effective approach to treat chronic insomnia, with sleep outcomes comparable to nightly use of prescription sedatives, but more durable and with minimal or no side effects. The purpose of this study was to understand mindfulness training as experienced by patients with chronic insomnia, and suggest procedures that may be useful in optimizing sleep benefits. Adults (N = 18) who completed an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program as part of a randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate MBSR as a treatment for chronic insomnia were invited to participate in post-trial focus groups. Two groups were held. Participants (n = 9) described how their sleep routine, thoughts and emotions were affected by MBSR and about utility (or not) of various mindfulness techniques. Groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Four themes were identified: the impact of mindfulness on sleep and motivation to adopt a healthy sleep lifestyle; benefits of mindfulness on aspects of life beyond sleep; challenges and successes in adopting mindfulness-based practices; and the importance of group sharing and support. Participants said they were not sleeping more, but sleeping better, waking more refreshed, feeling less distressed about insomnia, and better able to cope when it occurred. Some participants experienced the course as a call to action, and for them, practicing meditation and following sleep hygiene guidelines became priorities. Motivation to sustain behavioral changes was reinforced by feeling physically better and more emotionally stable, and seeing others in the MBSR class improve. The body scan was identified as an effective tool to enable falling asleep faster. Participants described needing to continue practicing mindfulness to maintain
Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha
Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.
Popenko, Natalie A; Devcic, Zlatko; Karimi, Koohyar; Wong, Brian J F
Traditional focus groups have been essential to facial aesthetics research. Although they are currently the criterion standard in acquiring facial attractiveness ratings, they retain many shortcomings. This study's objectives were twofold: to determine whether attractiveness scores obtained from a social network site correlate with those from the traditional focus group method; and to evaluate whether this methodology could be a superior tool in evaluating facial attractiveness. Forty facial portraits were rated for attractiveness scores using three different subject recruitment methods: traditional live focus groups (n = 123 raters), Internet-based rating (n = 857 raters), and a novel method using a combination of focus groups and a social network site (i.e., Facebook) (n = 1775 raters). Each facial image was scored on a 10-point Likert scale. Regression analysis compared each approach to the traditional method. The methods varied in terms of data accrual time, rater demographics/ages, researcher's accessibility, necessity for subject incentives, researcher labor, and rater effort/accuracy. A strong correlation (0.922) existed between the online social network-based rating and focus group method. A minimum of 992 raters achieved stabilization of the attractiveness scores using social network-based rating. This study shows significant advantages to using a social network site-based method over both Internet-based rating and traditional focus groups for evaluating facial attractiveness. The main benefits include exponential increase in raters, minimized researcher time/labor, rater scores comparable to those of the focus group method, nonnecessity of rater monetary incentives, and selectable demographics/ages of raters.
Sullivan, Greer; Cheney, Ann; Olson, Mary; Haynes, Tiffany; Bryant, Keneshia; Cottoms, Naomi; Reaves, Christina; Curran, Geoff
A number of approaches have been used to obtain community members' health perspectives. Health services researchers often conduct focus groups while political scientists and community groups may hold forums. To compare and contrast these two approaches, we conducted six focus groups (n = 50) and seven deliberative democracy forums (n = 233) to obtain the perspectives of rural African Americans on mental health problems in their community. Inductive qualitative analysis found three common themes: rural African Americans (1) understood stresses of poverty and racism were directly related to mental health, (2) were concerned about widespread mental illness stigma, and (3) thought community members could not identify mental health problems requiring treatment. Deductive analyses identified only minor differences in content between the two approaches. This single case study suggests that researchers could consider using deliberative democracy forums rather than focus groups with marginalized populations, particularly when seeking to mobilize communities to create community-initiated interventions.
Elizabeth R. Peterson
Full Text Available In this article the authors outline an innovative way of using sticky notes, such as Post-its, within focus groups to help facilitators stimulate discussion, draw out reluctant participants, structure information, and help produce a group outcome that all members feel they own. They outline how sticky notes can be used to generate information, check for understanding, and group and sort ideas.
Full Text Available This article describes the innovative use of sequential focus groups (SFGs with Indigenous adults living with type 2 diabetes. This use of SFGs has not been previously described in the literature. In our project, SFGs were used to explore Indigenous people’s experiences in managing their diabetes. Our research objective has been to elucidate deep understandings of these experiences in order to inform the development of continuing medical education curriculum with the aim of improving approaches to diabetes care for Indigenous people. Working in partnerships with Indigenous health organizations, we recruited four groups comprising participants from diverse Indigenous communities (two urban, two rural in three provinces of Canada. We conducted a series of five focus groups (SFGs with the same participants (6–8 participants at each site for a total of 20 focus groups and 29 participants. Indigenous people living with type 2 diabetes were asked open-ended questions concerning their experiences with diabetes and diabetes care in primary health-care settings. Our findings concerning the use of SFGs for Indigenous health research draw on team member and participants’ reflections captured in facilitator field notes, memos from debriefing sessions, and focus group transcripts. The SFG approach enabled in-depth exploration of the complex, and at times sensitive, issues related to Indigenous people’s views on diabetes and their experiences of diabetes care. The repeated sessions facilitated comfort and camaraderie among participants, which led to insightful sessions filled with personal and emotional stories of living with diabetes, the impacts of colonization, and health-care experiences. Overall, the method fostered a deeper level of engagement, exploration, and reflection than a single-session focus group typically would. We suggest this adaptation of the traditional single-session focus groups would be applicable to a wide variety of research
Heffron, Mary Claire; Reynolds, Diane; Talbot, Bronwyn
This article proposes how group reflective supervision, informed by the theory of reflective functioning, may provide a powerful method for developing reflective capacity of staff serving families, infants, and young children in multidisciplinary settings. An explanation of reflective functioning, related research, and its relevance to relational treatment and preventive intervention are discussed. Other approaches to reflective practice are referenced. We describe the necessary tension and encounters with distressing affect that mark reflective supervision groups using this focus. In addition, we identify areas of heightened difficulty in infant family work and describe how a group supervision process that enables use of self alongside perspectives of others may address these challenges while leading to increased reflective capacity among participants. Finally, we touch on relevant research on group supervision and parameters of size and focus, and highlight facilitation skills needed to create group safety and coherence. Areas for further study are proposed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Ousey, Karen; Parfitt, Grace
Background: There is a continued focus in healthcare that NHS Trusts must make cost savings while\\ud ensuring quality and productivity is not adversely affected. It is essential that health care\\ud professionals have access to pressure reduction/redistributing equipment that is evidence based and\\ud can promote skin integrity via adequate reduction of excessive pressures and/or shearing forces.\\ud This paper presents the results of a focus group exploring perceptions of a new hybrid mattress ...
Greenwood, Melanie; Kendrick, Tina; Davies, Hugh; Gill, Fenella J
This paper compares two qualitative approaches used to thematically analyse data obtained from focus groups conducted with critical care nurses from Australia. Focus groups are an effective mechanism to generate understanding and gain insight into the research participants' world. Traditional verbatim transcription of participants' recorded words necessitates significant investment of time and resources. An alternative approach under reported in the literature is to directly analyse the audio recordings. To identify the effectiveness of the audio recording only approach, the study aimed to independently compare two qualitative methods of data analysis, namely the traditional transcribed method with the audio recording method. The study to revise the specialist critical care competency standards included focus groups conducted in each state in Australia (n=12) facilitated by experienced researchers. Two of the research team analysed transcribed focus group data and two team members were blinded to the transcription process and directly analysed audio recordings from the focus groups. A process of thematic analysis used independently by the two teams was used to identify themes. When the findings were compared, the themes generated using each technique were consistent and there were no different themes or subthemes identified. The two techniques appeared to be comparable. Overarching key themes were consistent with the approach. The direct analysis method appears to have advantages. It is cost effective, trustworthy and possibly a superior alternative when used with focus group data. However, the audio only method requires experienced researchers who understand the context and if combining the two approaches takes time to do. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boydell, Nicola; Fergie, Gillian; McDaid, Lisa; Hilton, Shona
The increasing prominence of the Internet in everyday life has prompted methodological innovations in qualitative research, particularly the adaptation of established methods of data collection for use online. The alternative online context brings with it both opportunities and challenges. To date the literature on online focus groups has focused mainly on the suitability of the method for qualitative data collection, and the development of approaches to facilitation that maximise interaction. By reflecting on our experiences of designing and attempting to recruit participants to online focus groups for two exploratory research projects, we aim to contribute some novel reflections around the less articulated issues of sampling and recruitment for online focus groups. In particular, we highlight potentially problematic issues around offline recruitment for an online method of data collection; the potential of using social media for recruitment; and the uncertainties around offering incentives in online recruitment, issues which have received little attention in the growing literature around online focus groups. More broadly, we recommend continued examination of online social practices and the social media environment to develop appropriate and timely online recruitment strategies and suggest further areas for future research and innovation. PMID:28127272
This study evaluated the impact of a preventive intervention program focused on self-understanding and interpersonal interactions to prevent psychosocial distress among Japanese university students. Two hundred and twenty-two undergraduate students were divided into a treatment group and a control group to complete Time 1 and Time 2 surveys. The…
Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Kandiah, Mirnalini
The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606
Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini
The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity.
Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Dixen, M.
OceanWave3D-OpenFOAM solver, against measurements of focused wave group impacts on a monopile. The focused 2D and 3D wave groups are reproduced and the free surface elevation and the in-line forces are compared to the experimental results. In addition, the pressure distribution on the monopile...... is examined at the time of maximum force and discussed in terms of shape and magnitude. Relative pressure time series are also compared between the simulations and experiments and detailed pressure fields for a 2D and 3D impact are discussed in terms of impact type. In general a good match for free surface...
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn; Traulsen, Janine Morgall
This study explores the lay view of pharmaceutical research and development--specifically pharmacogenomics. Forty-two persons participated in eight focus groups in Iceland. Participants were asked to comment on a future scenario consisting of predictions made by researchers concerning the consequ......This study explores the lay view of pharmaceutical research and development--specifically pharmacogenomics. Forty-two persons participated in eight focus groups in Iceland. Participants were asked to comment on a future scenario consisting of predictions made by researchers concerning...
Nash, Kyle; Baumgartner, Thomas; Knoch, Daria
Group-focused moral foundations (GMFs) - moral values that help protect the group's welfare - sharply divide conservatives from liberals and religiously devout from non-believers. However, there is little evidence about what drives this divide. Moral foundations theory and the model of motivated social cognition both associate group-focused moral foundations with differences in conflict detection and resolution capacity, but in opposing directions. Individual differences in conflict detection and resolution implicate specific neuroanatomical differences. Examining neuroanatomy thus affords an objective and non-biased opportunity to contrast these influential theories. Here, we report that increased adherence to group-focused moral foundations was strongly associated (whole-brain corrected) with reduced gray matter volume in key regions of the conflict detection and resolution system (anterior cingulate cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex). Because reduced gray matter is reliably associated with reduced neural and cognitive capacity, these findings support the idea outlined in the model of motivated social cognition that belief in group-focused moral values is associated with reduced conflict detection and resolution capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mar 17, 2016 ... The Networked Economies program will support research that helps developing countries use digital innovations to create inclusive economic opportunities and advance democracy. More particularly ... IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer ...
Zwaanswijk, Marieke; van Dulmen, Sandra
Online focus groups (OFGs) are increasingly used as a method of data collection. Although their advantages for research have repeatedly been described, participants' opinions about OFGs have seldom been studied. We investigated OFG participants' preference for participation in an OFG or a face-to-face focus group (FTF), as well as their perceptions of the advantages of both methods. We also investigated whether any differences exist between the perceptions of child, adolescent, and adult participants. Participants' opinions were studied by means of a questionnaire completed by 284 persons (aged 8-72 years) after their participation in one of 50 OFGs. The OFGs were conducted between December 2005 and December 2013 as part of 19 separate studies. Chi square tests with p advantages of OFGs and FTFs between children, adolescents and adults. The most important advantage of OFGs as perceived by OFG participants was the possibility to participate at a moment most convenient to them. Adolescents and adults (90.5% and 95.9%) more often reported this as an advantage than children did (30.8%, p advantages of OFGs as a research method. Whereas respondents generally value the convenience of participating at their own time and place, the anonymity of OFGs and the increased ease to discuss personal issues were mentioned less often as advantages by the participants. An aspect that may need more attention when conducting an OFG, is the absence of a fluid discussion, which is, according to our respondents, easier to achieve in an FTF. This underlines the importance of the moderator in enabling a constructive discussion.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper
differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment Methods: Data were collected through 17 focus groups consisting of 111 children...... (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to prioritize the children´s perceived barriers. This was verified...... barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the children´s perceptions of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly for those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have...
Bener, Abdulbari; Honein, Gladys; Carter, Anne O; Da'ar, Zahra; Miller, Campbell; Dunn, Earl V
To explore perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast cancer and its screening among Emirati national women in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. A qualitative study using focus group methods. Primary healthcare centers and a community-based women's association in the United Arab Emirates. 41 women, aged 25-45 years. Four 90-minute focus group discussions exploring perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding breast cancer were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed. Social and cultural themes related to breast cancer and its screening. Focus group methodology worked well in this setting. The women's perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding cancer and screening, together with aspects of the healthcare system and social milieu, appeared to strongly influence the women's preventive practices. Some of these factors had an encouraging effect on the women's practices, and others had a deterring effect. The encouraging factors included feelings of susceptibility, high levels of knowledge in some women, attitudes and beliefs about personal responsibility for health, and a supportive social milieu. Deterring factors included anxiety and fear leading to denial; lack of knowledge about cancer and the screening program; fear, embarrassment, and mistrust of health care; and belief in predestination. Health planners and healthcare providers must capitalize on encouraging factors and minimize deterring factors to optimize breast cancer screening practices among these women. Identifying and accounting for the factors that encourage or deter women in their breast cancer screening practices will help to optimize screening programs.
Niels C.L. Jacobs; Linda Goossens; Francine Dehue; Trijntje Völlink; Lilian Lechner
Because of the negative effects of cyberbullying; and because of its unique characteristics; interventions to stop cyberbullying are needed. For this purpose, more insightful information is needed about cyberbullying victims’ ( i.e., the target group) experiences, perceptions, attitudes and motivations related to (coping with) cyberbullying. Five schools with 66 low-educated Dutch adolescents between 12 and 15 (53% female) participated in 10 focus group interviews. Results show that victims d...
The purpose of this study was to describe health definitions, strategies, attitudes, benefits, barriers, and suggested solutions to weight loss from· the perspective of overweight Iranian women. Of interest also was to get women's feedback on the value of focus group techniques in gathering information from this group. Participants were 18 Iranian women between the ages of 21-49 years old, who lived in the urban area of Tehran, having a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater. C...
Dybowski, Christoph; Harendza, Sigrid
To ensure the highest quality of education, medical schools have to be aware of factors that influence the motivation of teachers to perform their educational tasks. Although several studies have investigated motivations for teaching among community-based practitioners, there is little data available for hospital-based physicians. This study aimed to identify factors influencing hospital-based physicians' motivations to teach. We conducted 3 focus group discussions with 15 clinical teachers from the Medical Faculty at Hamburg University. Using a qualitative inductive approach, we extracted motivation-related factors from the transcripts of the audio-recorded discussions. Three main multifaceted categories influencing the motivation of teachers were identified: the teachers themselves, the students, and the medical faculty as an organization. Participants showed individual sets of values and beliefs about their roles as teachers as well as personal notions of what comprises a "good" medical education. Their personal motives to teach comprised a range of factors from intrinsic, such as the joy of teaching itself, to more extrinsic motives, such as the perception of teaching as an occupational duty. Teachers were also influenced by the perceived values and beliefs of their students, as well as their perceived discipline and motivation. The curriculum organization and aspects of leadership, human resource development, and the evaluation system proved to be relevant factors as well, whereas extrinsic incentives had no reported impact. Individual values, beliefs, and personal motives constitute the mental framework upon which teachers perceive and assess motivational aspects for their teaching. The interaction between these personal dispositions and faculty-specific organizational structures can significantly impair or enhance the motivation of teachers and should therefore be accounted for in program and faculty development.
Francis, Shelley A; Katz, Mira L
Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women. Even though women in developing countries account for approximately 85 % of the cervical cancer cases and deaths, disparities in cervical cancer rates are also documented in developed countries like the United States (U.S.). Recently, formative research conducted in the U.S. and developing countries like South Africa have sought to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and the acceptance of the HPV vaccine. This study compares findings from two independent focus group studies. One study was conducted in a segregated township in Johannesburg, South Africa (n = 24) and the other study was conducted in Ohio Appalachia (n = 19). The following seven themes emerged during the discussions from both studies: HPV and cervical cancer; health decision making; parent-child communication; healthy children; HPV vaccine costs; sexual abuse; and HPV vaccine education. Findings from both studies indicate the importance of the role of mothers and grandmothers in the health care decision-making process for children and a lack of awareness of HPV and its association with cervical cancer. While there was interest in the HPV vaccine, participants voiced concern about the vaccine's cost and side effects. Some participants expressed concern that receipt of the HPV vaccine may initiate adolescent sexual behavior. However, other participants suggested that the HPV vaccine may protect young women who may experience sexual abuse. The importance of developing culturally appropriate educational materials and programs about cervical cancer prevention and the HPV vaccine were expressed by participants in both countries.
Weinger, K; O'Donnell, K A; Ritholz, M D
To increase understanding of adolescent-parent diabetes-related conflicts and supports in the management of type 1 diabetes by means of a focus group research approach. Twenty-four adolescents (10 boys and 14 girls, age 13-15 years; 97% white) participated in three same-sex focus groups at two diabetes summer camps. The focus group leader used a prepared set of open-ended questions to guide the 90-minute sessions. Sessions were tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by a set procedure for qualitative analysis to identify the adolescents' perspectives on parent-adolescent sources of diabetes-related conflict and support. Adolescents reported the following sources of diabetes-related conflict: parental worry and intrusive behaviors; parental lack of understanding and blaming behaviors, and the parents focus on the future vs. the adolescent focus on the present. With regard to diabetes-related support, the teens identified parental understanding of the demands of diabetes and parental provision of reassurance about their child's illness and normative functioning. Adolescents' perceptions of parental worry, lack of understanding, and resulting intrusive and blaming behaviors are major areas of conflict that need to be addressed in the management of type 1 diabetes.
Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte
College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European
Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students’ eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students’ eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products
Deblinger, Esther; Pollio, Elisabeth; Dorsey, Shannon
Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a well-established, evidence-based treatment for children who have experienced trauma, has been increasingly utilized in a group format. Group therapy formats are appealing because they can be highly effective and have the potential to reach larger numbers of clients. Moreover, TF-CBT group delivery may be particularly valuable in reducing the feelings of shame, isolation, and stigma experienced by youth and their caregivers in the aftermath of traumatic experiences. This article reviews the group TF-CBT research, discusses the therapeutic benefits of TF-CBT therapy groups, and provides clinical and logistical guidance for implementing TF-CBT in group format, including a session-by-session protocol. Future directions for research and clinical work in this area are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Beck, Kenneth H.; And Others
Conducted four focus group interviews with parents of high school students. Results indicated low levels of awareness of extent of teenage drinking; low levels of parental control over teenage drinking; feelings of detachment from other parents; considerable receptivity to receiving training in substance abuse issues; and feelings of resistance to…
Li, Rashel; Orthia, Lindy A.
In this paper, we discuss a little-studied means of communicating about or teaching the nature of science (NOS)--through fiction television. We report some results of focus group research which suggest that the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" (2007-present), whose main characters are mostly working scientists, has influenced…
Grow, André; Flache, Andreas; Wittek, Rafael
Status beliefs link social distinctions, such as gender and race, to assumptions about competence and social worth. Recent modeling work in status construction theory suggests that interactions in small, task focused groups can lead to the spontaneous emergence and diffusion of such beliefs in
Herrman, Judith W.; Kelley, Andrea; Haigh, Katherine M.
Teens' own thoughts on fostering safe sexual practice are important perspectives in promoting adolescent sexual health yet are relatively absent in the literature. This focus group study explored teens' perceptions about the supports and challenges that exist as teens strive to engage in healthy sexual practices. Seventy-five teens participated in…
Codjoe, Henry M.; Helms, Marilyn M.
Retaining students is a critical topic in higher education. Methodologies abound to gather attrition data as well as key variables important to retention. Using the theories of total quality management and focus groups, this case study gathers and reports data from current college students. Key results, suggestions for replication, and areas for…
Mishra, Arima; Arora, Monika; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Perry, Cheryl L.
This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were conducted as a formative assessment for Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, multicomponent, school-based trial to prevent and control tobacco use among youth in India. Forty-eight FGDs were conducted with students (N…
Castro-Hernandez, Elena; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Velencoso-Gómez, Alfonso; Silas-Jurado, Antonio; Fernandez Rivas, David; Ramos, Antonio
We report the production of droplet groups with a controlled number of drops in a microfluidic electro-flow-focusing device under the action of an AC electric field. This regime appears for moderate voltages (500–700 V peak-to-peak) and signal frequencies between 25 and 100 Hz, much smaller than the
Daneva, Maia; Ahituv, Niv; Loucoloulos, P.; Cavarero, J.L.
This focus group study presents our first validation of practices for engineering the coordination requirements in cross-organizational Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects. The study evaluates 13 practices addressing a variety of coordination aspects crucial to ERP projects. These practices
Meijler, WJ; Van Heest, F; Otter, R; Sleijfer, DT
Background. The objective of this study was to identify the general practitioner's perception of educational needs in palliative care. Method. A qualitative study with focus groups was performed. Results. General practitioners estimate palliative care as an important and valuable part of primary
Atkinson, Nancy L.; Permuth-Levine, Rachel
Objectives: To explore perceived benefits, barriers, and cues to action of yoga practice among adults. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with persons who had never practiced yoga, practitioners of one year or less, and practitioners for more than one year. The Health Belief Model was the theoretical foundation of inquiry. Results: All…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.
Although focus group discussions (FGDs) represent a popular data collection tool for researchers, they contain an extremely serious flaw: FGD researchers have ultimate power over all decisions made at every stage of the research process--from the conceptualization of the research, to the planning of the research study, to the implementation of the…
Van Hal, Guido; Van Roosbroeck, Sofie; Vriesacker, Bart; Arts, Matheus; Hoeck, Sarah; Fraeyman, Jessica
Objectives: To find out whether there is a potential impact of the appearance of a plain cigarette package on the smoking perceptions and behavioural intentions of Flemish adolescents. Design: We performed a cross-sectional study using the qualitative method of focus group discussions. Setting:
Anastasia Aldelina Lijadi
Full Text Available Conducting discovery-oriented qualitative research about the life experiences of hard-to-reach individuals posed several challenges for recruiting participants and collecting rich textual data. In a study pertaining the experiences of Third Culture Kids (TCKs, we explored the benefits of the social media, such as Facebook as a platform to collect data. TCKs are individuals who define their sense of belonging to the third culture trailing their parents moving across borders during their developmental years. Adult TCKs live in many different countries, and accessing and interviewing respondents could be a difficult and costly endeavor. In this article, the authors share their experience conducting online, asynchronous focus groups using a Facebook platform. We reflect upon the process of setting up a secret Facebook focus group for research purposes, recruiting participants, rapport building between facilitator and participants, monitoring and keeping track of participants’ responses, and the dynamics emerging within an online focus group. We also discuss the novelty, limitations, and benefits of the Facebook focus group as an emerging mode for collecting qualitative data from hard-to-reach participants.
Lamb, Benjamin W; Jalil, Rozh T; Shah, Sujay; Brown, Katrina; Allchorne, Paula; Vincent, Charles; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick
This qualitative, focus-group study explores what patients understand about the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in cancer care. Participants were positive towards MDT working, and by strengthening the role of nurses in MDT decision-making, the representation of patients' interests can be improved.
Bergé, L.; Germaschewski, K.; Grauer, R.
The theory of focusing light pulses in Kerr media with normal group-velocity dispersion in (2+1) and (3+1) dimensions is revisited. It is shown that pulse splitting introduced by this dispersion follows from shock fronts that develop along hyperbolas separating the region of transverse self...
McGee, Bernestine B.; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda S.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Yadrick, Kathleen; Ndirangu, Murugi; Goolsby, Susan; Watkins, Debra; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hyman, Edith; Stigger, Flavelia; Bogle, Margaret L.; Kramer, Tim R.; Strickland, Earline; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly
Objective: To identify perceptions of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) residents regarding factors that influence a change in healthful food consumption behavior to assist in planning sustainable nutrition interventions in the LMD. Design: Nine focus groups were conducted with LMD residents in 9 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. One…
Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann
The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…
Seeholzer, Jamie; Salem, Joseph A., Jr.
This study explores student use of the mobile Web in general and expectations for an academic library's mobile Web site in particular through focus groups with students at Kent State University. Participants expressed more interest in using their mobile Web device to interact with library resources and services than anticipated. Results showed an…
Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…
Powell, Karen; Edelson, Vaughn; O'Leary, James; Christianson, Carol; Henrich, Vincent
The "Does It Run In The Family?" booklets provide educational materials about family health history (FHH) and basic genetics to readers of all levels and are customizable for local communities. Purpose: The booklets were customized and provided to focus groups to evaluate their usefulness in conveying health information at a low reading…
Bang, Henning; Fuglesang, Synne L; Ovesen, Mariann R; Eilertsen, Dag Erik
To explore the relationship between goal clarity, focused communication, learning behavior, and team effectiveness (i.e., task performance, relationship quality, and member satisfaction), self-report and observer data from eight top management groups that processed 56 agenda items during meetings were analyzed. We found that goal clarity and focused communication was positively related to team effectiveness. The effect of goal clarity on team effectiveness was partially mediated by focused communication. Speaking up when a goal was unclear increased focused communication, task performance and relationship quality. Speaking up when the discussion was off track was not related to task performance and member satisfaction, and was negatively related to relationship quality. These findings have implications for how to conduct an effective management meeting.
Martins, Maria Manuela; Fernandes, Carla Sílvia; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase
This paper reports an educational program experience for nurses on caring for the family, at the hospital environment. The objective was to train nurses for the care of the family. The strategies adopted for teaching/learning focused on the Calgary Model of Assessment and Family Intervention, with a group of nurses from a general hospital located in the north of Portugal. In the subjective evaluation of the participants, the pedagogic experience was useful because they could recognize the need for a change on nursing care, and move towards an integrated approach to the family attention.
Quinn, Brenna L; Fantasia, Heidi Collins
Within current priorities for pain research set by the American Society for Pain Management Nursing, there is a paucity of pediatric pain research. Qualitative approaches are helpful when researching topics about which little is known. Focus groups are one method of qualitative data collection and have been successfully implemented with children and parents. The purpose of this paper was to identify ideal conditions for nurse researchers to employ when using focus groups as a data collection method for studies aiming to investigate pain in children. The aims of this paper are to identify focus group conditions (1) facilitating adequate scientific rigor and trustworthiness and (2) eliciting the richest data from participants. A critique of research studies that used focus groups with children, parents/caregivers, or nurses in hospital or community settings was performed to achieve the stated aims. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines directed the process of selecting studies for inclusion in this review. The final sample for critique included four studies. Methods such as transcription processes and approaches to analysis used in the four publications were appraised for scientific rigor and usefulness in pediatric pain research. Researchers investigating priority areas must consider trustworthiness and strategies to eliciting quality data when planning to employ focus groups as a data collection method. Nurses in the clinical setting can use findings of this report to strengthen pain assessment practices as well as evaluate qualitative work for inclusion in evidence-based policies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Genetics and organic chemistry are areas of science that students regard as difficult to learn. Part of this difficulty is derived from the disciplines having representations as part of their discourses. In order to optimally support students’ meaning-making, teachers need to use representations to structure the meaning-making experience in thoughtful ways that consider the variation in students’ prior knowledge. Using a focus group setting, we explored 43 university students’ reasoning on representations in introductory chemistry and genetics courses. Our analysis of eight focus group discussions revealed how students can construct somewhat bewildered relations with disciplinary-specific representations. The students stated that they preferred familiar representations, but without asserting the meaning-making affordances of those representations. Also, the students were highly aware of the affordances of certain representations, but nonetheless chose not to use those representations in their problem solving. We suggest that an effective representation is one that, to some degree, is familiar to the students, but at the same time is challenging and not too closely related to “the usual one”. The focus group discussions led the students to become more aware of their own and others ways of interpreting different representations. Furthermore, feedback from the students’ focus group discussions enhanced the teachers’ awareness of the students’ prior knowledge and limitations in students’ representational literacy. Consequently, we posit that a focus group setting can be used in a university context to promote both student meaning-making and teacher professional development in a fruitful way.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major tank remediation problem with approximately 332 tanks storing over 378,000 ml of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Most of the tanks have significantly exceeded their life spans. Approximately 90 tanks across the DOE complex are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents are potentially explosive. These tanks must be remediated and made safe. How- ever, regulatory drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Therefore, the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) began operation in October 1994. The focus area manages, coordinates, and leverages technology development to provide integrated solutions to remediate problems that will accelerate safe and cost-effective cleanup and closure of DOE`s national tank system. The TFA is responsible for technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), INEL (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: safety, characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, and closure.
Angermeyer, Matthias C; Schulze, Beate; Dietrich, Sandra
Stigmatization of people with mental illness has been investigated in numerous studies. Little research, however, has been done to explore how relatives of people with schizophrenia perceive and experience stigmatization and how they can fight such stigmatization. Aiming to explore stigma from the perspective of relatives of people with schizophrenia, focus group interviews were conducted with 122 members of advocacy groups from different parts of Germany. Focus group sessions were tape- and video-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using an inductive method, generating categories (domains) from the material. The analysis of focus group data shows that, contrary to previous research findings, discrimination and disadvantages encountered by relatives of schizophrenia patients reach far beyond the spheres of direct social interaction and access to social roles. Our study revealed two additional domains in which relatives encounter stigmatization: structural discrimination and public images of mental illness. Furthermore, psychiatry has been identified as one important source of stigma. Relatives also suggested numerous anti-stigma interventions. These can be grouped into five main categories: communication measures, support for the ill and their relatives, changes in mental health care, education and training, and control and supervision. Based on our findings,ways of how relatives of schizophrenia patients and mental health professionals can fight against stigma are discussed.
Peterson, Erin; Harrell, Melissa; Springer, Andrew; Medina, José; Martinez, Lucía; Perry, Cheryl; Estol, Diego
This qualitative research study investigated intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors that shape young adolescent tobacco use behaviors in Uruguay. Focus groups were conducted in the summer of 2012 and fall of 2013 in four secondary schools in Montevideo, Uruguay, including two private schools and two public schools. A total of four focus groups were led in each school, composed of 4-6 students each, 16 focus groups in total. Data analysis utilized NVivo software and included deductive and inductive content analysis. Overwhelmingly, students reported that the onset of smoking occurred in the second year of secondary school. The primary intrapersonal factors that were found to be universal among respondents identified that smoking was a performance in groups, to garner attention from their peers. Students interviewed most often stated that the greatest interpersonal factors for smoking were to look older, as a rite of passage, and for group membership. Environmental factors cited most often indicate that they smoked during unsupervised time, either at night or around the short Uruguayan school day. Focus group interviews revealed that adolescents had easy access to cigarettes for purchase through small family owned grocery stores, even though laws exist preventing the sale of cigarettes to minors. Few differences were cited between strata related to cigarette use in adolescents. The differences that do exist are most apparent across gender, though there were a few observed differences when stratified by public and private school. Findings from this study indicate that key factors across ecological levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental) should be taken into consideration when designing tobacco prevention programs for youth in Uruguay. A multiple-component approach which addresses risk factors at all of these levels, implemented in schools, may be particularly well-suited to this setting.
Washburn, Lisa T.; Traywick, LaVona; Copeland, Lauren; Vincent, Jessica
We present findings from a pilot implementation of the Extension Wellness Ambassador Program, a health-focused master volunteer program, and briefly describe the program approach and purpose. Program participants received 40 hr of training and completed assessments of self-efficacy, physical activity, and functional fitness at baseline and 3-month…
Lang, H. R.; Scarfe, D. R.
This study examines a specific Indian/Metis teacher education program which uses the group as a support system--the Saskatchewan Urban Native Teacher Education Program (SUNTEP) at Regina. SUNTEP is a part of the Elementary Teacher Education Program of the Univesity of Regina. This paper: (1) discusses the support services and systems provided as a…
Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing
Background Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Objectives Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Methods Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Results Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. Conclusions The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Scientific Significance Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs. PMID:22931086
Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y
can attract foreign investment and fuel renewed economic progress in Russia. Russian scientists could also be an important source of support for democratic norms: sociologists of science have long argued that scientists tend to support democracy because it provides them with the freedom in which their research can flourish. At the same time, a more recent study suggests that funding shortages may override the researcher's need for freedom and drive scientists to align themselves with the economic policies espoused by Nationalists and Communists in order to survive. Therefore, much turns on the question: ''What is the state of science in Russia today?'' The good news is that focus group interviews with Russian nuclear physicists conducted in October 2001 suggest that the ''science in crisis'' image is one-sided and misleading. Though scientists still complained about low salaries, lack of respect in society, and other similar issues, the participants in the focus groups also expressed positive sentiments about recent changes in the field of science. To be sure, the financing of science remains at a considerably lower level than during the heyday of Soviet times. Yet, it is now possible to earn a decent living as a scientist because of the greater availability of foreign and domestic grants and contracts. In addition, state funding has stabilized over the past few years. Thus, it is more accurate to say that Russian science is in a state of transition rather than in a state of crisis.
Barnathan Julia A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.
Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Silarova, Barbora; Ward, Alison; Youell, Jane; Muir, Kenneth R; Campbell, Jackie; Warcaba, Joanne
It is estimated that approximately 40% of all cases of cancer are attributable to lifestyle factors. Providing people with personalised information about their future risk of cancer may help promote behaviour change. To explore the views of health professionals on incorporating personalised cancer risk information, based on lifestyle factors, into general practice. Qualitative study using data from six focus groups with a total of 24 general practice health professionals from the NHS Nene Clinical Commissioning Group in England. The focus groups were guided by a schedule covering current provision of lifestyle advice relating to cancer and views on incorporating personalised cancer risk information. Data were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and then analysed using thematic analysis. Providing lifestyle advice was viewed as a core activity within general practice but the influence of lifestyle on cancer risk was rarely discussed. The word 'cancer' was seen as a potentially powerful motivator for lifestyle change but the fact that it could generate health anxiety was also recognised. Most focus group participants felt that a numerical risk estimate was more likely to influence behaviour than generic advice. All felt that general practice should provide this information, but there was a clear need for additional resources for it to be offered widely. Study participants were in support of providing personalised cancer risk information in general practice. The findings highlight a number of potential benefits and challenges that will inform the future development of interventions in general practice to promote behaviour change for cancer prevention. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Peter John Anthony
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to focus on the relationship between career-development training programs and the motivation of employees. The study used a qualitative method and a phenomenological design using semistructured interviews conducted with a script of open-ended questions. Two main components of the research design were the modified van Kaam method for exploration of experiences and the purposive selection of the participants. The 20 participants in the sample were project managers and consultants from south-central Texas, all of whom had experience with governmental projects. Based on interview responses, the findings of this study highlighted a concern from the participants that training programs have a major influence on workplace productivity and morale. Furthermore, the findings suggest the training program’s quality may influence workplace productivity. The authors conclude by pointing out the analysis of the answers showed that not only does workplace productivity decline from the changes in a training program, but employee motivation is altered as well. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i2.214
Choi, Sarah E; Kwon, Ivy; Chang, Emiley; Araiza, Daniel; Thorpe, Carol Lee; Sarkisian, Catherine A
To gain better understanding of (i) beliefs and knowledge about stroke; (ii) attitudes about walking for stroke prevention; and (iii) barriers and facilitators to walking among Korean seniors for the cultural tailoring of a stroke prevention walking programme. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for stroke. Korean immigrant seniors are one of the most sedentary ethnic groups in the United States. An explorative study using focus group data. Twenty-nine Korean immigrant seniors (64-90 years of age) who had been told by a doctor at least once that their blood pressure was elevated participated in 3 focus groups. Each focus group consisted of 8-11 participants. Focus group audiotapes were transcribed and analysed using standard content analysis methods. Participants identified physical and psychological imbalances (e.g. too much work and stress) as the primary causes of stroke. Restoring 'balance' was identified as a powerful means of stroke prevention. A subset of participants expressed that prevention may be beyond human control. Overall, participants acknowledged the importance of walking for stroke prevention, but described barriers such as lack of personal motivation and unsafe environment. Many participants believed that providing opportunities for socialisation while walking and combining walking with health information sessions would facilitate participation in and maintenance of a walking programme. Korean immigrant seniors believe strongly that imbalance is a primary cause of stroke. Restoring balance as a way to prevent stroke is culturally special among Koreans and provides a conceptual base in culturally tailoring our stroke prevention walking intervention for Korean immigrant seniors. A stroke prevention walking programme for Korean immigrant seniors may have greater impact by addressing beliefs about stroke causes and prevention such as physical and psychological imbalances and the importance of maintaining emotional well-being. © 2016 John
Granito, Vincent J.; Hogan, Jeffery B.; Varnum, Lisa K.
In an effort to improve the psychological health of the athlete who has sustained an injury, the Performance Enhancement Group program for injured athletes was created. This paper will offer a model for the Performance Enhancement Group program as a way to: 1) support the athlete, both mentally and physically; 2) deal with the demands of rehabilitation; and 3) facilitate the adjustments the athlete has to make while being out of the competitive arena. The program consists of responsibilities ...
Lennon, S; Ashburn, A
The Bobath concept, usually known as neuro-developmental treatment (NDT) in America, is one of the major approaches used to rehabilitate patients following stroke; however since the last publication of Bobath (1990), the concept has been taught via an oral tradition on postgraduate courses. This study therefore aimed to explore with experienced therapists firstly how the Bobath concept had changed since 1990, and secondly what they considered its main theoretical assumptions to be using a focus group research design. Eight peer-nominated expert physiotherapists agreed to participate in two focus groups organized according to specialist interest in either neurology (group A) or elderly care (group B). Therapists were asked to discuss six topics based on a review of published literature. Data analysis involved several readings of verbatim transcriptions, from which key themes and concepts were developed. All therapists agreed on the following core themes defining Bobath: analysis of normal movement, control of tone and facilitation of movement. Neuroplasticity was described as the primary rationale for treatment with therapists using afferent information to target the damaged central nervous system. In addition group A discussed motor learning, whereas group B discussed patient focused goals and relating treatment to function. This study highlighted changes in theory, terminology, and techniques. Tone remained a major problem in the rehabilitation management of the hemiplegic patient; however much attention was also directed towards the musculoskeletal system. Both facilitation of normal movement components and task specific practice using specific manual guidance were considered critical elements of the Bobath concept. For Bobath therapists, physiotherapy has an important impact on both the performance components of movement and functional outcomes. In view of the small numbers involved in this preliminary study, further studies are now needed to determine if these
Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe
and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...... not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information......Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...
Meththika Vithanage has been awarded the Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Vithanage’s thesis is entitled “Effect of tsunami on coastal aquifers: Field studies and tank experiments.” She was formally presented with the award at the Natural Hazards Focus Group reception during the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting, held 14-18 December in San Francisco, Calif. Vithanage received her B.S. in natural resources from Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka in 2002 and an M.S. in environmental science from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in 2005. In 2009, she attained a Ph.D. in hydrogeology under the supervision of Karsten Jensen and Peter Engesgaard in the Department of Geology and Geography at University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Her research interests include groundwater flow modeling, density-dependent flow and solute transport modeling, and water quality analysis.
Adèle Lafrance Robinson
Full Text Available Emotion-focused therapy (EFT is an evidence-based treatment for depression and trauma and has shown promise for other presentations including anxiety. Minimal research exists investigating the outcomes of emotion-focused therapy in a group setting. The current research presents a mixed-method single-case study of one client’s experiences and outcomes following a nine-week EFT group for depression and anxiety. Weekly measures of session-feelings evaluations were collected. Follow-up measures, including a qualitative interview, were administered one year post-treatment. Pre-, post-, and follow-up measures assessed depression, anxiety, and emotional regulation. Results showed clinically significant improvements in anxiety, depression, and emotional regulation over time. Indirect and direct evidence of client change were detected. Five super-ordinate themes with sub-themes emerged from the qualitative analysis.
James, D C; Rienzo, B A; Frazee, C
Focus group interviews were used to develop a nutrition education video and a teacher's guide for use in Florida high schools. Authors conducted a pilot and four focus group interviews with ninth grade students in five geographically distinct regions of Florida. Most students agreed that a video with scenarios or success stories would work well. Teens expressed interest in 10 topics: eating disorders; consequences of unhealthy eating; preparing quick, healthy meals; what constitutes a balanced diet; nutrition and fitness; weight control; food and the environment; the food guide pyramid; nutrition facts and fallacies; and food labels. Students suggested no more than three or four topics should be covered in the video, and the video cast should consist mainly of teen-agers with different body sizes, who were average, attractive, and from different ethnic backgrounds. Music was recommended only for transitions between scenes, as background, or during the credits.
Jarvinen, Margaretha; Demant, Jakob Johan
This paper analyses ‘techniques of neutralisation’ among young people discussing cannabis in focus group interviews. The paper is based on data from focus group interviews with young Danes followed from when they were 14–15 years old in 2004 until they were 18–19 years old in 2008. In this period......, the participants’ attitudes towards cannabis undergo a radical change from being negative and sceptical into being predominantly positive and accepting; a change we describe as a ‘normalisation’ of cannabis use. Four techniques of neutralisation are identified in this process. First, the participants redefine...... the setting of cannabis use, simultaneously creating a new type of togetherness: relaxed social intoxication. Second, the effects of cannabis use are transformed from being ‘strange’ and ‘unpredictable’ to being ‘controllable’ by the individual user. Third, participants change their classification of cannabis...
Sarah Williams PhD
Full Text Available The Internet is increasingly used as a tool in qualitative research. In particular, asynchronous online focus groups are used when factors such as cost, time, or access to participants can make conducting face-to-face research difficult. In this article we consider key methodological issues involved in using asynchronous online focus groups to explore experiences of health and illness. The written nature of Internet communication, the lack of physical presence, and the asynchronous, longitudinal aspects enable participants who might not normally contribute to research studies to reflect on their personal stories before disclosing them to the researcher. Implications for study design, recruitment strategies, and ethics should be considered when deciding whether to use this method.
Shui, Bin; Lin , Haiyan; Song, Bo; Halverson, Mark A.; Evans, Meredydd; Zhu, Xiaojiao
A focus group meeting is a very effective quality research approach to collect information on a specific project. Through focus group meetings at both Changchun and Ningbo in August 2010, the project team gained a more complete understandings of key stakeholders (such as their education level), their training needs and expectations, key factors influencing their decision making, and incurred implementation difficulties. In addition, the meeting helped the project team (especially PNNL) improve its understanding of the implementation status of building energy codes in other regions (such as small cities and counties neighboring to urban areas, small townships and rural areas distant from urban areas). The collected feedbacks will serve as important input not only for better design of training materials and the development of an on-line training website, but also for development of follow-up projects to promote building energy codes in China.
McBride, Kimberly R
Focus group methods were used to explore heterosexual women's receptive anal sex attitudes and motivations. Behaviors under investigation included penile-anal intercourse (PAI), manual-anal stimulation, oral-anal contact, and the use of sex toys. A total of 33 self-identified heterosexual women ages 18 to 30 recruited from two metropolitan areas in the Midwestern United States participated in one of six focus groups. The findings suggest that women viewed heterosexual anal sex as an emerging norm. Attitudes and motivations were complex and varied by behavior. Dominant themes included curiosity, pain, pleasure, and stigma. Relational factors, including acquiescence, coercion, and consent, were also salient among participants. Factors that influence anal sexual behaviors may not be entirely distinct from those that influence other sexual behaviors; however, factors that influence anal intercourse may be distinct from those that influence nonintercourse anal sex. Improved understanding will allow scientists to better understand the integration of anal sex behaviors into the broader sexual repertoire.
Krischer, Maya; Ponton-Rodriguez, Tamara; Gooran, Ghazal Rostami; Bender, Stephan
Transference Focused Psychotherapy for Borderline-Adolescents in a Day Clinic Treatment Program This paper focuses on the concept of transference focused psychotherapy (TFP) modified for juvenile borderline patients. Adolescents with borderline developmental personality disorder (bpd) have an essential deficit in their personality structure that leads to oscillations in their self-esteem and in a "split" perception of the world. They suffer from a variety of symptoms and severe impairments on their own and their families' quality of life. Their fragmented perception of themselves and others make relationships almost unbearable for them. Relationships are mostly marked by severe anxiety of resentment and rejection. For these patients this causes intolerable trouble at school where every day conflicts take place. Self-mutilation and suicidal thoughts often seem the only way out. By now, there is an agreement that an early specialized assessment and treatment is necessary in order to stop the typical consequences of their self-mutilative and dysfunctional behavior. Still, in contrast to adult age, empirical evidence is missing which proves the effectiveness of treating adolescent borderline patients. In this paper we present a research project on the effectiveness of transference focused psychotherapy with adolescent borderline patients (TFP-A) in a day clinic setting, combining TFP with group skills training as known from dialectic behavior therapy (DBT). Furthermore, we give first results on analyzing the effectiveness of our day clinic treatment program based on TFP-A, focusing on improving core symptoms such as affective problems, aggressive behavior against self and others and interpersonal problems.
Strandmark K, Margaretha; Rahm, GullBritt; Wilde Larsson, Bodil; Nordström, Gun; Rystedt, Ingrid
The aim of the present study was to explore preventive strategies and processes to counteract bullying in workplaces. Data were collected by individual interviews and focus group discussions at one hospital and two nursing home wards for elderly, a total of 29 participants. In the analysis of the interviews we were inspired by constructivist grounded theory. Persistent work with a humanistic value system by supervisor and coworkers, raising awareness about the bullying problem, strong group collaboration, and conflict management, along with an open atmosphere at the workplace, appears to be imperative for accomplishing a policy of zero tolerance for bullying.
Low, W Y; Wong, Y L; Zulkifli, S N; Tan, H M
This qualitative study aimed to examine cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction (ED) utilizing focus group discussion. Six focus groups consisting of 66 men, 45-70-y-old were conducted-two Malay groups (n=18), two Chinese groups (n=25) and two Indian groups (n=23). Participants were purposely recruited from the general public on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analysis software ATLASti. The Malay and Chinese traditional remedies for preventing or treating ED are commonly recognized among all races. Many have a negative perception of someone with ED. Malay and Chinese men tended to blame their wife for their problem and thought that the problem might lead to extra-marital affairs, unlike the Indian men who attributed their condition to fate. Malays would prefer traditional medicine for the problem. The Chinese felt they would be more comfortable with a male doctor whilst this is not so with the Malays or Indians. Almost all prefer the doctor to initiate discussion on sexual issues related to their medical condition. There is a need for doctors to consider cultural perspectives in a multicultural society as a lack of understanding of this often contributes to an inadequate consultation.
Full Text Available Background: New technologies provide opportunities for the delivery of broad, flexible interventions with older adults. Focus groups were conducted to: (1 understand older adults' familiarity with, and barriers to, interacting with new technologies and tablets; and (2 utilize user-engagement in refining an intervention protocol.Methods: Eighteen older adults (65–76 years old; 83.3% female who were novice tablet users participated in discussions about their perceptions of and barriers to interacting with tablets. We conducted three separate focus groups and used a generic qualitative design applying thematic analysis to analyse the data. The focus groups explored attitudes toward tablets and technology in general. We also explored the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using tablets, familiarity with, and barriers to interacting with tablets. In two of the focus groups, participants had previous computing experience (e.g., desktop, while in the other, participants had no previous computing experience. None of the participants had any previous experience with tablet computers.Results: The themes that emerged were related to barriers (i.e., lack of instructions and guidance, lack of knowledge and confidence, health-related barriers, cost; disadvantages and concerns (i.e., too much and too complex technology, feelings of inadequacy, and comparison with younger generations, lack of social interaction and communication, negative features of tablets; advantages (i.e., positive features of tablets, accessing information, willingness to adopt technology; and skepticism about using tablets and technology in general. After brief exposure to tablets, participants emphasized the likelihood of using a tablet in the future.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that most of our participants were eager to adopt new technology and willing to learn using a tablet. However, they voiced apprehension about lack of, or lack of clarity in, instructions and support
Norizah Aripin; Hasrina Mustafa; Adnan Hussein
This paper aims to discuss the trust relationship in virtual teams in Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) status companies. The study used qualitative method that is phenomenology approach through focus group interviews. In-depth interview were also used with semi-structured and openended questions. The interviews involved six staffs at different position in virtual team (two team leaders, and four team members). The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic ana...
Nicholson, Sandra; Hastings, Adrian Michael; McKinley, Robert Kee
Background Despite concerns about recruitment to UK general practice, there has been no concerted educational intervention to address them. Aim To better understand how medical students’ perceptions of their experiences of their undergraduate curriculum may affect choosing general practice as a career. Design and setting Qualitative study comprising focus groups of a total of 58 students from a range of medical schools across the UK. Method A range of UK medical schools students were invited by email to participate in focus groups and return a questionnaire detailing their current career choice to facilitate sampling students with varied career preferences. Students late in their studies were sampled as they were likely to be considering future careers. Focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and anonymised for both school and participant, then thematically analysed. Perceived differences in medical school culture, curriculum philosophy, design, and intent were explored. Results Six focus groups (58 students) were convened. Some student participants’ career aspirations were strongly shaped by family and home, but clinical placements remained important in confirming or refuting these choices. High-quality general practice attachments are a powerful attractor to general practice and, when they reflect authentic clinical practice, promote general practice careers. GP tutors can be powerful, positive role models. Students’ comments revealed conflicting understandings about general practice. Conclusion Attracting rather than coercing students to general practice is likely to be more effective at changing their career choices. Early, high-quality, ongoing and, authentic clinical exposure promotes general practice and combats negative stereotyping. It is recommended that increasing opportunities to help students understand what it means to be a ‘good GP’ and how this can be achieved are created. PMID:27578812
Nicholson, Sandra; Hastings, Adrian Michael; McKinley, Robert Kee
Despite concerns about recruitment to UK general practice, there has been no concerted educational intervention to address them. To better understand how medical students' perceptions of their experiences of their undergraduate curriculum may affect choosing general practice as a career. Qualitative study comprising focus groups of a total of 58 students from a range of medical schools across the UK. A range of UK medical schools students were invited by email to participate in focus groups and return a questionnaire detailing their current career choice to facilitate sampling students with varied career preferences. Students late in their studies were sampled as they were likely to be considering future careers. Focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and anonymised for both school and participant, then thematically analysed. Perceived differences in medical school culture, curriculum philosophy, design, and intent were explored. Six focus groups (58 students) were convened. Some student participants' career aspirations were strongly shaped by family and home, but clinical placements remained important in confirming or refuting these choices. High-quality general practice attachments are a powerful attractor to general practice and, when they reflect authentic clinical practice, promote general practice careers. GP tutors can be powerful, positive role models. Students' comments revealed conflicting understandings about general practice. Attracting rather than coercing students to general practice is likely to be more effective at changing their career choices. Early, high-quality, ongoing and, authentic clinical exposure promotes general practice and combats negative stereotyping. It is recommended that increasing opportunities to help students understand what it means to be a 'good GP' and how this can be achieved are created. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Vaportzis, Eleftheria; Clausen, Maria Giatsi; Gow, Alan J
New technologies provide opportunities for the delivery of broad, flexible interventions with older adults. Focus groups were conducted to: (1) understand older adults' familiarity with, and barriers to, interacting with new technologies and tablets; and (2) utilize user-engagement in refining an intervention protocol. Eighteen older adults (65-76 years old; 83.3% female) who were novice tablet users participated in discussions about their perceptions of and barriers to interacting with tablets. We conducted three separate focus groups and used a generic qualitative design applying thematic analysis to analyse the data. The focus groups explored attitudes toward tablets and technology in general. We also explored the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using tablets, familiarity with, and barriers to interacting with tablets. In two of the focus groups, participants had previous computing experience (e.g., desktop), while in the other, participants had no previous computing experience. None of the participants had any previous experience with tablet computers. The themes that emerged were related to barriers (i.e., lack of instructions and guidance, lack of knowledge and confidence, health-related barriers, cost); disadvantages and concerns (i.e., too much and too complex technology, feelings of inadequacy, and comparison with younger generations, lack of social interaction and communication, negative features of tablets); advantages (i.e., positive features of tablets, accessing information, willingness to adopt technology); and skepticism about using tablets and technology in general. After brief exposure to tablets, participants emphasized the likelihood of using a tablet in the future. Our findings suggest that most of our participants were eager to adopt new technology and willing to learn using a tablet. However, they voiced apprehension about lack of, or lack of clarity in, instructions and support. Understanding older adults' perceptions of technology
Udo, Camilla; Lövgren, M; Lundquist, G; Axelsson, B
The aim of this study was to explore palliative home care physicians' experiences regarding end-of-life breakpoint communication (BPC). This is a qualitative study where focus group interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the participants saw themselves as being responsible for accomplishing BPC, and they were convinced that it should be regarded as a process of communication initiated at an early stage, i.e. proactively. However, BPC w...
DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S.
The focus group social science research method is an efficient and flexible data collection tool with broad applicability across disciplines and contexts. Through group dynamics, this interviewing approach offers strengths in gathering candid, spontaneous comments and detailed firsthand descriptions from stakeholders' perspectives. The method, which can stand alone or be integrated with other research frameworks, has much potential for helping to manage complex issues of global change. For optimal outcomes, however, careful planning and procedures are paramount. This presentation offers guidance in this regard via examples, tips, and lessons learned from a multidisciplinary NOAA-funded project: Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). Focus groups are a key component of the EESLR-NGOM project as they are being used to better understand coastal resource managers' operational and information behaviors and needs regarding sea level rise (SLR), erosion, and hurricane storm surge impact; to learn how to best develop and translate the project's expected scientific results into straightforward, useful, and readily-disseminated products; and to gather outreach recommendations. As part of an EESLR-NGOM project kickoff workshop, 12 coastal resource managers participated voluntarily in a focus group. A summary of findings and illustrative participant quotations will be included in the presentation. The initial focus group was productive in gaining insights into challenges and opportunities associated with a climate change project such as the EESLR-NGOM. It highlighted the importance of considering the interrelationships of natural and built environments and new avenues for resilience and sustainability. The coastal resource managers are not only end-users but also opinion leaders in their local communities who will diffuse this information widely through their networks of other potential end-users. Engaging coastal resource managers in
Paans, Wolter; Robbe, Patricia; Wijkamp, Inge; Wolfensberger, Marca V C
Over the past few years, the complexity of the health care system in which nurses are required to practice has increased considerably, magnifying the need for excellent professionals with a specific set of knowledge, skills and attitudes. However, the characteristics that distinguish an excellent nurse have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to determine nurses' perspectives regarding characteristics associated with an excellent nurse in order to elicit a conceptual profile. A focus group design followed by Delphi panel content validation was utilized. Information regarding nurses' perspectives was derived from six focus group discussions comprising 19 nurses involved in hospital practice and 24 nurses with experience in mental health care. The analysis of the focus group discussions resulted in nine domains whereby content validity was achieved with contributions from a Delphi panel survey with 26 professionals. As determined by the survey, a combination of these specified aspects characterize an excellent nurse: analytical, communicative, cooperative, coordinating, disseminates knowledge, empathic, evidence-driven, innovative and introspective. Determining what establishes an excellent nurse according to experienced nurses is valuable as this information can influence the broadening curriculum for educating future nurses to meet the needs in the professional field, contributing to the quality of care. This conceptual profile can be used as a reference guide for supervisors and professionals to personally improve their clinical practice as well as for education.
Aljuburi, Ghida; Phekoo, Karen J; Okoye, Nv Ogo; Anie, Kofie; Green, Stuart A; Nkohkwo, Asaah; Ojeer, Patrick; Ndive, Comfort; Banarsee, Ricky; Oni, Lola; Majeed, Azeem
To assess sickle cell disease (SCD) patient and carer perspectives on the primary care services related to SCD that they receive from their general practitioner (GP). A focus group discussion was used to elicit the views of patients about the quality of care they receive from their primary health-care providers and what they thought was the role of primary care in SCD management. The focus group discussion was video recorded. The recording was then examined by the project team and recurring themes were identified. A comparison was made with notes made by two scribes also present at the discussion. Sickle Cell Society in Brent, UK. Ten participants with SCD or caring for someone with SCD from Northwest London, UK. Patients' perceptions about the primary care services they received, and a list of key themes and suggestions. Patients and carers often bypassed GPs for acute problems but felt that GPs had an important role to play around repeat prescriptions and general health care. These service users believed SCD is often ignored and deemed unimportant by GPs. Participants wanted the health service to support primary health-care providers to improve their knowledge and understanding of SCD. Key themes and suggestions from this focus group have been used to help develop an educational intervention for general practice services that will be used to improve SCD management in primary care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past years concerns are rising about the use of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM in health care. The calls for an increase in the practice of EBM, seem to be obstructed by many barriers preventing the implementation of evidence-based thinking and acting in general practice. This study aims to explore the barriers of Flemish GPs (General Practitioners to the implementation of EBM in routine clinical work and to identify possible strategies for integrating EBM in daily work. Methods We used a qualitative research strategy to gather and analyse data. We organised focus groups between September 2002 and April 2003. The focus group data were analysed using a combined strategy of 'between-case' analysis and 'grounded theory approach'. Thirty-one general practitioners participated in four focus groups. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants. Results A basic classification model documents the influencing factors and actors on a micro-, meso- as well as macro-level. Patients, colleagues, competences, logistics and time were identified on the micro-level (the GPs' individual practice, commercial and consumer organisations on the meso-level (institutions, organisations and health care policy, media and specific characteristics of evidence on the macro-level (policy level and international scientific community. Existing barriers and possible strategies to overcome these barriers were described. Conclusion In order to implement EBM in routine general practice, an integrated approach on different levels needs to be developed.
Warren, Nancy J.; Amara, Ingrid A.
Describes a group that teaches parenting skills to divorced parents. Presents various elements of the group experience, including a focus on the child's needs and developmental stages, role-playing, and co-parenting issues. Response to the group suggests that parents with greater postdivorce stress benefit the most. (BH)
New Mexico Public Education Department, 2016
The "FOCUS: Essential Elements of Quality, New Mexico's Tiered Quality Rating and Improvement System (TQRIS)," provides early childhood program personnel with the criteria, tools, and resources they need to improve the quality of their program. These quality improvements focus on children's growth, development, and learning--so that each…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.
Neale, Joanne; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John
To explore potential study participants' views on willingness to join clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use to inform and improve future recruitment strategies. Qualitative focus group study (6 groups: oral methadone [2 groups]; buprenorphine tablets [2 groups]; injectable opioid agonist treatment [1 group]; and former opioid agonist treatment [1 group]). Drug and alcohol services and a peer support recovery service (London, United Kingdom). 40 people with experience of opioid agonist treatment for heroin dependence (26 males, 14 females; ages 33-66 years). Data collection was facilitated by a topic guide that explored willingness to enrol in clinical pharmacological trials. Groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcribed data were analysed inductively via Iterative Categorisation. Participants' willingness to join pharmacological trials of medications for opioid dependence was affected by factors relating to study burden, study drug, study design, study population, and study relationships. Participants worried that the trial drug might be worse than, or interfere with, their current treatment. They also misunderstood aspects of trial design despite the researchers' explanations. Recruitment of participants for clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use could be improved if researchers became better at explaining clinical trials to potential participants, dispelling misconceptions about trials, and increasing trust in the research process and research establishment. A checklist of issues to consider when designing pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use is proposed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Bayliss Martha S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this qualitative study was to better understand the impact of psoriasis symptoms using a 3-part process: 1 develop a disease model for psoriasis to identify the most important concepts relevant to psoriasis patients; 2 conduct interviews with dermatologists to identify key areas of clinical concern; and 3 explore psoriasis patients' perceptions of the impact of psoriasis. Methods A disease model was developed from a review of the published literature and later revised based on the findings of clinician interviews and patient focus groups. To confirm the clinical relevance of the concepts identified in the disease model, 5 dermatologists were selected and interviewed one-on-one. They were asked to rate major psoriasis symptoms according to importance and bothersomeness level to patients on separate scales of 1 to 10. Results of clinician interviews were used to develop interview guides for patient focus groups. To identify important domains of psoriasis, 39 patients participated in 5 separate concept elicitation focus groups. Four focus groups included patients with severe psoriasis (n = 31 and one included patients with mild psoriasis (n = 8. Patients were asked to describe their current psoriasis symptoms and to rate them on a scale of 1 to 10, according to importance, severity, and troublesomeness. An average mean rating was calculated for each symptom throughout all focus groups. Results Clinicians most frequently mentioned itch (n = 5, psoriatic arthritis or "joint pains" (n = 4, flaking (n = 4, and pain (n = 3 as primary physical symptoms of psoriasis. Three clinicians gave a rating of 10 for the importance of itch; two clinicians gave ratings of 8 and 7 for importance. The majority of patients rated itch as the most important (31/39, most severe (31/39, and most troublesome (24/39 symptom and noted that itch negatively impacted daily activities (eg, concentration, sleep, ability to attend work or school
De Craemer, Marieke; De Decker, Ellen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Vereecken, Carine; Duvinage, Kristin; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Iotova, Violeta; Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Zych, Kamila; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet
Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents' and teachers' opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children's current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers' physical activity (opinions on preschoolers' physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers' physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Although previous research shows need of change in obesity-related behaviours, the participants in the
Martinez, Priscilla; Cummings, Cory; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Chartier, Karen G
There is a paucity of genetics research examining alcohol use among Latinos. The purpose of this study is to examine Latino perceptions of participation in alcohol studies that collect biological samples, an important precursor to increasing their participation in genetics research. A synthesis of the literature addressing participation of racial/ethnic minorities in alcohol genetics research was undertaken. We developed a framework of themes related to barriers and facilitators for participation, which we then used to analyze two focus groups held with 18 Latino participants. From the literature review, we identified nine themes related to facilitators of and barriers to participation. They are, on continua: curiosity to disinterest; trust to mistrust; understanding to confusion; safety to danger; inclusion to exclusion; sense of connection to disconnection; hope to despair; ease to hassle; and benefit to cost. Another theme emerged from the focus groups: previous experience to no previous experience with health research. Applying the themes from the literature review to Latino perspectives on providing biological samples for alcohol research helps expand their definition and applicability. Consideration of these themes when designing recruitment/retention materials and strategies may encourage Latino participation in alcohol genetics research. An understanding of these themes and their significance for Latinos is offered in the form of "guiding questions" for researchers to consider as we strive for more inclusive research. Focus group participants were Mexican American; future research should further explore perspectives of this heterogeneous demographic group by studying other Latino subgroups. (Am J Addict 2017;26:477-485). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Objectives To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Results Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents’ curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products. PMID:29020756
Kim, Jinyoung; Lee, Sungkyu
To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents' curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products.
Lerbaek, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup; Buus, Niels
Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers provide healthcare services to people with severe and persistent mental illness. These case managers take on generic roles in multidisciplinary teams and provide all-around services in the clients' private homes. This focus group study aimed to gain insight into Danish ACT case managers' professional identity work by examining their discussions of ethical dilemmas and collaboration in their everyday practice. Data were collected during five focus groups at three ACT teams in the North Denmark Region and subjected to discourse analysis emphasizing how identity work was accomplished through talk. The findings indicated that the case managers constructed professional identities by actively positioning themselves and the particular ACT approach in relation to other mental healthcare professionals and clients. They represented themselves as achieving better client-related outcomes by being more assertive and persistent, and as responsible caregivers who provided the help that their clients needed when other services had failed to do so. They depicted their services as being focused on the clients' well-being, and their persistent efforts to establish and sustain interpersonal relationships with clients were an important part of their service. Basic nursing tasks were described as an important part of their everyday work, and even though such tasks were not distinctive for ACT case managers, the representations of their work seemed to give them a sense of worth as professionals and legitimized a unique role in the community mental healthcare services. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Nguyen, Annie L; Brown, Brandon; Taylor, Jeff; Estevez, Marlene; Loftus, Rick
Approximately half of all people living with HIV in the US are age 50 and older. Existing research highlights the health challenges of these individuals, but little work has focused on gathering input about concerns in participating in HIV and aging research. Prior to designing a prospective cohort study on HIV and aging, we elicited feedback from potential participants on general attitudes toward participation in a prospective HIV cohort study, and perspectives on important research topics relevant to older adults living with HIV.Three qualitative focus groups were formed.Three focus groups (5-7 participants each; N = 18) were held with older adults living with HIV. All discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis.Participants emphasized the importance of data confidentiality, shared concerns about study biases arising from sponsored research, and suggested that conflicts of interest should be independently assessed by "representative" boards made of community members. They urged researchers to be mindful of research "burnout," because many people with HIV participate in multiple research studies. A number of priority research areas emerged, including the gap in provision of end-of-life services.Many older adults with HIV are knowledgeable about the research process and offer valuable insights to researchers. Addressing participant concerns can facilitate inclusion and enhance HIV research success.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was a part of a contestable rapid response initiative launched by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and the Ministry of Health in response to the 2009 influenza A pandemic. The aim was to provide health authorities in New Zealand with evidence-based practical information to guide the development and delivery of effective health messages for H1N1 and other health campaigns. This study contributed to the initiative by providing qualitative data about community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behavioural change and the differential impact on vulnerable groups in New Zealand. Methods Qualitative data were collected on community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 Ministry of Health H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behaviour and the differential impact on vulnerable groups. Eight focus groups were held in the winter of 2010 with 80 participants from groups identified by the Ministry of Health as vulnerable to the H1N1 virus, such as people with chronic health conditions, pregnant women, children, Pacific Peoples and Māori. Because this study was part of a rapid response initiative, focus groups were selected as the most efficient means of data collection in the time available. For Māori, focus group discussion (hui is a culturally appropriate methodology. Results Thematic analysis of data identified four major themes: personal and community risk, building community strategies, responsibility and information sources. People wanted messages about specific actions that they could take to protect themselves and their families and to mitigate any consequences. They wanted transparent and factual communication where both good and bad news is conveyed by people who they could trust. Conclusions The responses from all groups endorsed the need for community based risk management including information dissemination. Engaging
Bükki, Johannes; Neuhaus, Petra M; Paal, Piret
Therapeutic options for nursing home residents focus on functional improvement, while inadequate hospital admissions in the dying phase are frequent. The aim of this study was to explore views, attitudes, and concerns among staff and to embark on a process that facilitates end-of-life care on an institutional level. Three focus group interviews were conducted with nursing home staff (nurses, care managers, physicians). The discussants (22) expressed the following issues: workload; ethical conflicts; additional resources; "living palliative care"; deleterious effect of restorative aims; lack of training; fear; knowledge and skills; rituals; lack of attachment, frustration, and abuse; team; discouragement; resilience enhanced by good care; style of communication; avoidance; the "palliative status"; legal concerns and hospital admissions. Nursing home staff expressed willingness to care for the dying. Providing good end of life care may promote professional resilience and personal integrity. Therefore, team issues, fears, and avoidance should be addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Sophie E; Allfrey, Caroline; Jones, Melvyn M; Chana, Jasprit; Abbott, Ciara; Faircloth, Sofia; Higgins, Nicola; Abdullah, Laila
Patients make a crucial contribution to undergraduate medical education. Although a national resource is available for patients participating in research, none is as yet available for education. This study aimed to explore what information patients would like about participation in general practice based undergraduate medical education, and how they would like to obtain this information. Two focus groups were conducted in London-based practices involved in both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Patients both with and without teaching experience were recruited using leaflets, posters, and patient participation groups. An open-ended topic guide explored three areas: perceived barriers that participants anticipated or had experienced; patient roles in medical education; and what help would support participation. Focus groups were audiorecorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Patients suggested ways of professionalising the teaching process. These were: making information available to patients about confidentiality, iterative consent, and normalising teaching in the practice. Patients highlighted the importance of relationships, making information available about their GPs' involvement in teaching, and initiating student-patient interactions. Participants emphasised educational principles to maximise exchange of information, including active participation of students, patient identification of student learner needs, and exchange of feedback. This study will inform development of patient information resources to support their participation in teaching and access to information both before and during general practice based teaching encounters. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Gordon, Katy; Rice, Helen; Allcock, Nick; Bell, Pamela; Dunbar, Martin; Gilbert, Steve; Wallace, Heather
Supported self-management is a recommended intervention for chronic pain. Effective self-management should enable an individual to reduce the impact of pain on their everyday life. Clinical guidelines suggest primary care services have a role to play in supporting self-management of chronic pain. To examine the opinions of primary care healthcare professionals (HCPs) and people with chronic pain and their carers, in order to identify possible barriers to the facilitation and adoption of self-management. A qualitative study using focus groups in locations throughout Scotland. Eighteen focus groups were held with patients and HCPs. Fifty-four patients, nine carers, and 38 HCPs attended the groups. Four categories of barriers were found. 1) Patient-HCP consultation: some patients felt a discussion about self-management came too late or not at all. Communication and building positive relations were sometimes challenging. 2) Patient experience: the emotional impact of pain was difficult and patients often felt unsupported by HCPs. 3) Limited treatment options: some participants felt there was a tendency for overmedicalisation. 4) Organisational constraints: short appointment times, long waiting lists, and a compartmentalised NHS created challenges. This study illustrates some of the barriers faced by HCPs and patients in the facilitation and adoption of self-management of chronic pain. If self-management is to be an important approach to chronic pain, primary care services need to be designed to address the barriers identified. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Skelton, Joseph A; Irby, Megan Bennett; Guzman, M Angelica; Beech, Bettina M
Hispanic boys are one of the most at-risk groups for the development of obesity, yet few effective interventions have been reported. The objective of this study was to assess Hispanic boys' perceptions of health and obesity to inform future, targeted interventions. This is a qualitative and quantitative study of Hispanic boys aged 8 to 12 years in Forsyth County, North Carolina (n = 25). Three focus groups were conducted combined with anthropometrics and measures of body image. Interview guides were developed to elicit children's perceptions of obesity, nutrition, physical activity, and family influences over health behaviors. Focus group comments were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using a multistage inductive approach, and grounded theory was used to analyze responses. The following 6 themes emerged: boys had a limited and superficial understanding of health, nutrition, and activity; perceptions of health were based on muscular appearance, frequency of exercise, and media messages; boys had negative perceptions of overweight children and physical performance; family meals were infrequent and unstructured; boys prefer restaurants with fast food, buffets, and entertainment; and neighborhood safety influences activity participation. Boys did not mention parents as influencers of health and habits. From their findings, the authors have outlined several key areas that will inform clinicians and researchers in the prevention and treatment of obesity in this highly vulnerable population.
Nurse, Jo; Woodcock, Paul; Ormsby, Jim
To increase understanding of how the prison environment influences the mental health of prisoners and prison staff. Qualitative study with focus groups. A local prison in southern England. Prisoners and prison staff. Prisoners reported that long periods of isolation with little mental stimulus contributed to poor mental health and led to intense feelings of anger, frustration, and anxiety. Prisoners said they misused drugs to relieve the long hours of tedium. Most focus groups identified negative relationships between staff and prisoners as an important issue affecting stress levels of staff and prisoners. Staff groups described a "circle of stress," whereby the prison culture, organisation, and staff shortages caused high staff stress levels, resulting in staff sickness, which in turn caused greater stress for remaining staff. Staff shortages also affected prisoners, who would be locked up for longer periods of time, the ensuing frustration would then be released on staff, aggravating the situation still further. Insufficient staff also affected control and monitoring of bullying and reduced the amount of time in which prisoners were able to maintain contact with their families. Greater consideration should be given to understanding the wider environmental and organisational factors that contribute to poor mental health in prisons. This information can be used to inform prison policy makers and managers, and the primary care trusts who are beginning to work in partnership with prisons to improve the mental health of prisoners.
Kalfoglou, A L; Scott, J; Hudson, K
MicroSort, a sperm-sorting technology for sex selection, may eventually be approved by the Food and Drug Administration and marketed to the public. Data on US public attitudes about the morally appropriate uses and regulation of this technology are lacking. We conducted 20 focus groups in April 2003 with participants from five major US cities to identify the values that shape Americans' attitudes about the use and regulation of preconception sex selection (PSS) technology. One hundred and seventy-six individuals between the ages of 18 and 68 were assigned to groups ranging from 6 to 11 participants based on their location, sex, race/ethnicity, religion, age, education and parental status. Qualitative analysis of focus group transcripts was conducted using NVivo 2.0 software to determine beliefs and values that shape participants' opinions about the appropriate use and regulation of PSS. Most participants strongly favor using PSS to avoid X-linked genetic diseases. Although some participants were uncomfortable with the use of PSS for non-medical sex selection, believing it to be 'selfish' and inconsistent with parental love, they did not perceive the potential harms to be significant enough to warrant governmental intrusion into reproductive decisions. PSS should face little public opposition in the US if widely marketed.
Full Text Available Abstract Nurses' perceptions and experiences of communication in the operating theatre: a focus group interview Background Communication programmes are well established in nurse education. The focus of programmes is most often on communicating with patients with less attention paid to inter-professional communication or skills essential for working in specialised settings. Although there are many anecdotal reports of communication within the operating theatre, there are few empirical studies. This paper explores communication behaviours for effective practice in the operating theatre as perceived by nurses and serves as a basis for developing training. Methods A focus group interview was conducted with seven experienced theatre nurses from a large London teaching hospital. The interview explored their perceptions of the key as well as unique features of effective communication skills in the operating theatre. Data was transcribed and thematically analysed until agreement was achieved by the two authors. Results There was largely consensus on the skills deemed necessary for effective practice including listening, clarity of speech and being polite. Significant influences on the nature of communication included conflict in role perception and organisational issues. Nurses were often expected to work outside of their role which either directly or indirectly created barriers for effective communication. Perceptions of a lack of collaborative team effort also influenced communication. Conclusion Although fundamental communication skills were identified for effective practice in the operating theatre, there were significant barriers to their use because of confusion over clarity of roles (especially nurses' roles and the implications for teamwork. Nurses were dissatisfied with several aspects of communication. Future studies should explore the breadth and depth of this dissatisfaction in other operating theatres, its impact on morale and importantly
... MANAGEMENT Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: New Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance... Management (OPM) is announcing changes in premiums for certain Federal ] Employees' Group Life Insurance... bands), and Post-Retirement Basic Insurance. These rates will be effective the first pay period...
McAuley, James W; Patankar, Chetana; Lang, Christopher; Prasad, Mona
Some women with epilepsy stop or decrease their antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy during pregnancy because they fear fetal effects of the therapy. This places the patient and her fetus at risk for potential adverse outcomes due to increased seizure activity. The rationale of this behavior is not completely understood and is underexplored. The aim of this qualitative project was to determine the concerns of pregnant women with epilepsy via small focus groups. Pregnant women with epilepsy were recruited to participate in small group sessions involving direct interviews which were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Ten focus groups were conducted with a total of 21 second or third trimester pregnant women with epilepsy. Twelve women reported changes to their AED regimen during pregnancy, with six having made changes requested by their prescriber and six (29% of all study participants) self-altering their AED regimen. In contrast to the former group, the alterations made by the latter group were either dose-lowering or stopping AEDs altogether. Via content analysis, four pregnancy specific patient-related concerns arose: 1) the safety of drug therapy during pregnancy, 2) potential neonatal complications, 3) labor and delivery issues and 4) neonatal and post-partum management. An unanticipated benefit was the fostering of patient comfort and an opportunity for patient-to-patient collaboration. Our study adds insight into the concerns of pregnant women with epilepsy. By identifying these concerns, we may be able to provide more effective patient education, and we hope to ultimately improve outcomes in women with epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haasl, Beth; Marnocha, Jean
This participant workbook contains goals and activities for children in the Bereavement Support Group Program for Children. The six session program is designed for children between the ages of 6 and 15 who have experienced the death of a loved one or other significant losses. Sections are devoted to death and grief, feelings and self-esteem,…
Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Santacana, Martí; Montoro, María; Rosado, Silvia; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Fullana, Miquel A
In the context of psychological treatment, a sudden gain is a large and enduring improvement in symptom severity that occurs between two single therapy sessions. The influence of sudden gains on long-term outcomes and functional impairment in anxiety disorders is not well understood, and little is known with regard to panic disorder in particular. In addition, previous research on patients with anxiety disorders has produced inconsistent results regarding the relationship between sudden gains and cognitive change. We examined the incidence of sudden gains in a large sample (n = 116) of panic disorder patients undergoing exposure-focused cognitive-behavioral group therapy, and compared panic severity, functional impairment, and cognitive change in patients with and without sudden gains at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. Participants who experienced sudden gains displayed lower levels of panic severity and functional impairment at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up than those who did not experience sudden gains. However, we observed no difference in cognitive changes between groups, either at posttreatment or at follow-up. Our results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of sudden gains on therapeutic outcomes not only extend to long-term and functional outcome measures but are also evident in less cognitive (i.e., exposure-focused) forms of psychological treatment. Sudden gains are common in panic disorder patients undergoing exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Sudden gains during exposure-focused therapy are linked to greater improvement in panic disorder severity and functional impairment. The positive impact of sudden gains on panic disorder severity and functional impairment is maintained in the long term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wong, L P
In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.
Sharon L. Moore
Full Text Available A qualitative intervention was used to explore how older adults living in a long-term care environment (nursing home understand hope and experience being participants in a group in which a hope intervention was carried out. A group project in which each session focused intentionally on a hope strategy was carried out with a convenience sample of 10 women (ages 75–99 who were members of an existing group. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis of the interviews (conducted before the group intervention was carried out and again at the end, field notes, and collaborative conversations regarding emerging themes. Findings from this study suggest that hope is not static and that it can change over time in response to one’s situations and circumstances. Also evident in this study is the potential for using a group process in long-term care to foster hope in an intentional way to make it more visible in the lives of the residents and their environment suggesting that one is “never too old for hope.”
Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth
This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women.
Lerbaek, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup; Buus, Niels
The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers' situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients' personal autonomy. The case managers' reasoning emphasised situational awareness, but there was a risk of supporting paternalistic interventions and denying the clients' right to autonomy.
Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M
New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly...
El Morr, Christo; Maule, Catherine; Ashfaq, Iqra; Ritvo, Paul; Ahmad, Farah
Mental health is a pervasive challenge in the population and especially for university/college students on campuses across North America. Anxiety, stress and depression are on the rise and a scalable, economically sound innovation is essential to address these mental health challenges. The research team has conducted 8 focus groups in April to May 2016 in order to elicit perspectives of students at York University about their online activities and the development of an online mindfulness based Mental Health Virtual Community. This paper explains the main results of the qualitative analysis pertaining to the challenges and benefits of an online mindfulness based Mental Health Virtual Community.
This paper challenges the view that attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) crops in agriculture are "utterly resistant to persuasion", as Scholderer (2005) humorously suggests in a review of the literature. Methodologically, this is achieved by studying opinions as they emerge in situated...... interaction (Myers 2004), in casu in focus groups interviews with both GM-experts and lay persons without specific knowledge on GM-crops. The paper analyses the lay persons' responses to persuasive expert utterances as inventive contributions to the discussion, not just as reactions showing either support...
The Internet and the development of more user-engaging applications have opened a whole new world for researchers as a means of recruitment and data collection source. This paper describes the methodological approach of a research study that explored the experiences of Australian military spouses who packed up their family and home to accompany their spouse on an overseas posting. The study used Facebook as a recruitment tool and then as a data source through the conduct of an asynchronous virtual focus group. This paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of this unique data source as a means of capturing the voices of a hard-to-reach population.
Full Text Available L'uso di internet per condurre focus group può essere una possibile via d'applicazione nella ricerca sociale? Gli autori sono piuttosto concordi nell'affermare che sia presto per una efficace e reale applicabilità di tale tecnica, poiché occorre aspettare che l'accesso a internet diventi più universalmente diffuso e che i supporti tecnici, come la qualità delle immagini e dei collegamenti, possano essere di qualità superiore; allora - soddisfatte queste condizioni - la conduzione on-line può divenire una possibilità effettiva per utilizzare questo tipo di tecniche.
Full Text Available The IT field, by its nature and evolution, requires a special attention to the online communication strategy. If for most IT companies, the marketing strategy is customized according to their product, customers, marketing objectives, budget, marketing team size, etc., there is a common perception of the digital communication strategy. Therefore, this article, which is based on two Focus-group research projects, aims to present the attitudes, experiences and opinions of online marketers related to the digital communication strategy of the IT companies based in Romania.
Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Bos, Arjan E R; Reddy, Priscilla S; van den Borne, Bart
Suicide is a major public health problem for adolescents in South Africa, and also affects those associated with them. Peers become more important during adolescence and can be a significant source of social support. Because peers may be the first to notice psychological problems among each other, the present study's objectives were to assess students' knowledge about suicide, perceived risk factors, signs of poor mental health in adolescents who committed suicide, students' awareness of available mental health care and resources, and beliefs about prevention. This qualitative study used focus group discussions to elicit the thoughts and feelings of high school students who had a peer who committed or attempted suicide. Peers and class mates of suicide attempters and suicide completers were identified with the help of a social worker and school management and were invited to participate. All focus group discussions were audio taped and analyzed. A total of 56 adolescents (13-19 years of age) from Limpopo schools in South Africa participated in six focus group discussions. The data were analyzed by NVivo version 8, using an inductive approach. Participants reported to be affected by the suicide attempt or completed suicide. They felt guilty about their failure to identify and prevent the suicide and displayed little knowledge of warning signs for suicidal behaviour. They identified several risk factors for the suicide of their peers, such as poor relationship issues, teenage pregnancy, punishment, and attention seeking behaviour. Resources for students with mental health problems and survivors of suicide attempts were not perceived to be available at schools and elsewhere. School-based suicide prevention programs based on theory and evidence are necessary. Such interventions should also focus on detection of mental health problems by peers. Counseling services for students with mental health problems and suicide survivors should be available and made known to
Melendez, Rita M; Zepeda, Jorge; Samaniego, Rafael; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Alaniz, Gabriela
The objective of this study was to pilot test and evaluate a HIV prevention program that used a Freirean approach to engage Latino immigrant MSM (men who have sex with men) on issues of sexual orientation, family acceptance, stigma as well as HIV prevention and sexual risk behaviors. Participants were evaluated using a survey before and after participation in the program and compared to a control group. Focus groups where participants discussed their experiences in the program as well as perceptions of the program were held and analyzed. Survey results indicate that after their participation in the program, participants increased their safer sex behaviors, comfort disclosing their sexual orientation and support from friends. HIV prevention needs to incorporate cultural, social and structural factors.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens
Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls' requests for more "hanging-out" facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment.
Gothberg, June E.
The purpose of this study was to examine the equivalence or non-inferiority for comparisons of telephone focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, Internet video-based focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, and Internet video-based focus group venue to telephone focus group venue. Research questions examined the…
Peyman, Nooshin; Oakley, Deborah
Oral contraceptive pills effectiveness is lower in actual use than in clinical trials. The views of a group of married Iranian women were sought as a step toward improving the enhanced use of contraceptive pills. Two focus groups of current pill users (n=13) and two focus groups of women not currently taking the pills (n=14) were held. Leaders trained facilitators; themes were identified from line-by-line analysis of transcripts. The majority of the participants were primary school graduates with a mean age of 34 years. Knowledge about mechanisms of action was low; some women wanted more information. Both users and non-users recognized positive and negative characteristics of contraceptive pills. For non-users, physical and emotional side-effects were the most important; and anecdotal information from their social network was more important. They tended to trust more traditional methods. For users, their own experience and more reality-based understanding of side-effects mitigated concerns about side-effects. They also felt that health clinic staff had a negative attitude toward the pills. A stronger expression of self-efficacy seemed to be associated with more positive attitudes toward oral contraceptive pills. Although Iran has had a government-funded family planning program since 1990, and pills are the single most popular modern contraceptive method, women who take OCPs can provide important information that could increase effective health education about their use.
Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Boyoung; Choi, Eunsuk; Song, Youngshin; Han, Hae-Ra
As one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the United States, Korean American (KA) women experience a heightened cervical cancer burden. The advent of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine offers an unprecedented opportunity to eliminate cervical cancer disparities in KA women. However, the uptake of HPV vaccine among KA adolescents remains suboptimal. Hence, we set out to explore knowledge, perceptions, and decision making about HPV vaccination among KA women. We conducted four focus groups of 26 KA women who participated in a community-based, randomized, controlled trial to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Focus group data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: 1) limited awareness and knowledge of HPV vaccine, 2) perceptions and beliefs about HPV vaccination (acceptance, negative perceptions, ambivalence), 3) patterns of decision making about HPV vaccination (hierarchical, peer influenced, autonomous, and collaborative), and 4) promoting HPV education and information sharing in the Korean community. KA women are generally positive toward HPV vaccination, but lack awareness and knowledge about HPV. Culturally tailored HPV education programs based on KA women's decision-making patterns and effective information sharing by trustworthy sources in comfortable environments are suggested strategies to promote HPV vaccination in the KA community. The findings point to the need for a multilevel approach to addressing linguistic, cultural, and system barriers that the recent immigrant community faces in promoting HPV vaccinations. In the development of targeted interventions for KA women, educational strategies and patterns of decision making need to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Desnoyers, Amanda J; Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Antony, Martin M
Self-focused attention (SFA) and safety behaviors are two variables implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The present study examined SFA and safety behaviors across two therapies for SAD, cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants with symptoms meeting criteria for SAD (N = 137) were randomly assigned to the 12-week-treatment groups (n = 53 for each condition) or a waitlist control (n = 31). Variables were assessed at baseline, midtreatment, posttreatment, and a 3-month follow-up. Both treatment conditions reported significantly lower SFA and safety behaviors compared to control, but did not differ from one another at posttreatment. Mediation analyses supported the following models: (1) safety behaviors mediating the relationship between SFA and social anxiety, and (2) SFA mediating the relationship between safety behaviors and social anxiety. These models were supported for both treatment groups. Both treatments may have the potential to reduce the SFA and safety behaviors that serve to maintain SAD.
Matheson, Catriona; Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter
The modern primary healthcare workforce needs to be resilient. Early research framed professional resilience as avoiding 'burnout'; however, more recent literature has introduced the concept of positive adaptation to professional challenges, which results in individuals thriving in their role. To explore what primary health professionals working in challenging environments consider to be characteristics of resilience and what promotes or challenges professional resilience. A qualitative focus group in north east Scotland. Five focus groups were held with 20 health professionals (six GPs, nine nurses, four pharmacists, and a practice manager) based in rural or deprived city areas in the north east of Scotland. Inductive thematic analysis identified emerging themes. Personal resilience characteristics identified were optimism, flexibility and adaptability, initiative, tolerance, organisational skills, being a team worker, keeping within professional boundaries, assertiveness, humour, and a sense of self-worth. Workplace challenges were workload, information overload, time pressures, poor communication, challenging patients, and environmental factors (rural location). Promoters of professional resilience were strong management support, teamwork, workplace buffers, and social factors such as friends, family, and leisure activities. A model of health professional resilience is proposed that concurs with existing literature but adds the concept of personal traits being synergistic with workplace features and social networks. These facilitate adaptability and enable individual health professionals to cope with adversity that is inevitably part of the everyday experience of those working in challenging healthcare environments. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Full Text Available Sustainable communities are promoted as a desirable policy goal and, in particular, local authorities are encouraged to contribute to climate change mitigation through urban planning. Furthermore, recent research takes a broad perspective on the environmental sustainability of urban areas and considers the environmental impact of all consumption. A focus group study was conducted in Finland for the purpose of examining how increased environmental awareness influences urban land use. The 32 participants of three focus groups were professionals of urban planning and environmental sustainability, at both a municipal and a state level. The main finding was that urban planning is viewed as being unable to support environmental sustainability in the broader sense. In general, the participants did not see a connection between urban structure and sustainable lifestyles and only the influence of planning on housing and daily journeys was recognised. Three main reasons for this were identified. Firstly, environmental sustainability in its broader definition is seen as too complex for urban planners to influence alone. Secondly, the dominance of short-term economic issues in decision-making and the lack of co-operation from other stakeholders to achieve environmental aims demotivate land use planners. Thirdly, the prioritisation of urban density may overrule alternative means of promoting environmental sustainability, such as the encouragement of sustainable suburban or non-urban lifestyles.
Bruner, D W; Boyd, C P
Cancer and cancer therapies impair sexual health in a multitude of ways. The promotion of sexual health is therefore vital for preserving quality of life and is an integral part of total or holistic cancer management. Nursing, to provide holistic care, requires research that is meaningful to patients as well as the profession to develop educational and interventional studies to promote sexual health and coping. To obtain meaningful research data instruments that are reliable, valid, and pertinent to patients' needs are required. Several sexual functioning instruments were reviewed for this study and found to be lacking in either a conceptual foundation or psychometric validation. Without a defined conceptual framework, authors of the instruments must have made certain assumptions regarding what women undergoing cancer therapy experience and what they perceive as important. To check these assumptions before assessing women's sexuality after cancer therapies in a larger study, a pilot study was designed to compare what women experience and perceive as important regarding their sexuality with what is assessed in several currently available research instruments, using the focus group technique. Based on the focus group findings, current sexual functioning questionnaires may be lacking in pertinent areas of concern for women treated for breast or gynecologic malignancies. Better conceptual foundations may help future questionnaire design. Self-regulation theory may provide an acceptable conceptual framework from which to develop a sexual functioning questionnaire.
David, S; DeJong, W; Resnick, N
Massachusetts tobacco control activists participated in focus groups to explore their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding international tobacco control. Initially, each of three focus groups ranked this issue at or near the bottom of important tobacco control issues. Participants ranked ten message concepts for their ability to motivate politically active Americans to contact a government representative about international tobacco issues. The top four message concepts dealt with deliberate marketing of cigarettes to children, dramatic increases in global mortality due to smoking, American hypocrisy in being the world's largest tobacco exporter, and use of overseas profits to finance youth-oriented marketing in the U.S. The rankings revealed little initial concern about U.S. diplomatic pressure to force foreign nations to open up their markets to American tobacco products. Yet during the subsequent discussion this was among the message concepts the generated the most outrage. This suggests that international tobacco control issues would resonate among U.S. opinion leaders once the facts were presented to them through a media advocacy campaign.
Zh V Puzanova
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research conducted in December 2013 at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia with the method of focus groups. The study aimed at identification not only the differences in understanding healthy lifestyles among students and their attitudes to a healthy lifestyle, but also its components, obstacles for the realization and opportunities to overcome them. The focus group research was just another stage of the project aimed at studying health and healthy lifestyles as values and the characteristics of the formation and manifestation of a health-preserving behavior. Despite many opportunities to motivate a health-preserving behavior among students, we still see obstacles for its formation due to both social and cultural characteristics. The study revealed that the value of health at this stage of life is rather declarative: only a small percentage of respondents are fully aware of the necessity of a health-preserving behavior and do really adopt a healthy lifestyle. The basic factors influencing the formation of the healthy lifestyle among the youth are the family, social environment and mass media. The respondents, in particular, confirm the significant impact of their social circle on the commitment to the bad habits as well as to healthy hobbies. The main factors hindering the healthy lifestyles among students include lack of free time, welfare, Internet addiction, lack of sufficient motivation and self-organization.
Maria Helen Iversen
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase knowledge of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. A qualitative approach was used. Through a focus group interview with staff in nursing homes, the aim was to reveal employees’ thoughts, experiences, and attitudes. Findings from the focus group interview show that sexual abuse of older residents is a taboo topic among health professionals. Acts of sexual abuse are difficult to imagine; it is hard to believe that it occurs. The fact that staff are not aware that it could happen, or have a hard time believing that it actually happens, can amplify the residents’ vulnerable position as potential victims of abuse, and it makes it even more challenging to report or uncover such acts. The study highlights the need for education of all health care workers in Norway as well as more research on sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step towards addressing sexual abuse of the aged in a more appropriate way. Further research must aim to reveal more about this taboo area.
Grey, Charlotte N B; Schmieder-Gaite, Tina; Jiang, Shiyu; Nascimento, Christina; Poortinga, Wouter
Cold homes and fuel poverty have been identified as factors in health and social inequalities that could be alleviated through energy efficiency interventions. Research on fuel poverty and the health impacts of affordable warmth initiatives have to date primarily been conducted using quantitative and statistical methods, limiting the way how fuel poverty is understood. This study took a longitudinal focus group approach that allowed exploration of lived experiences of fuel poverty before and after an energy efficiency intervention. Focus group discussions were held with residents from three low-income communities before (n = 28) and after (n = 22) they received energy efficiency measures funded through a government-led scheme. The results show that improving the energy efficiency of homes at risk of fuel poverty has a profound impact on wellbeing and quality of life, financial stress, thermal comfort, social interactions and indoor space use. However, the process of receiving the intervention was experienced by some as stressful. There is a need for better community engagement and communication to improve the benefits delivered by fuel poverty programmes, as well as further qualitative exploration to better understand the wider impacts of fuel poverty and policy-led intervention schemes.
David A Cook
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. METHODS: We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. RESULTS: We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity, integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect, currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. CONCLUSION: The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field.
Cook, David A; Sorensen, Kristi J; Hersh, William; Berger, Richard A; Wilkinson, John M
Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity), integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect), currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field.
Yap, Tracey L; Kennerly, Susan; Corazzini, Kirsten; Porter, Kristie; Toles, Mark; Anderson, Ruth A
The purpose of the manuscript is to describe long-term care (LTC) staff perceptions of a music cueing intervention designed to improve staff integration of pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention guidelines regarding consistent and regular movement of LTC residents a minimum of every two hours. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) model guided staff interviews about their perceptions of the intervention's characteristics, outcomes, and sustainability. This was a qualitative, observational study of staff perceptions of the PrU prevention intervention conducted in Midwestern U.S. LTC facilities (N = 45 staff members). One focus group was held in each of eight intervention facilities using a semi-structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis, and summaries for each category were compared across groups. The a priori codes (observability, trialability, compatibility, relative advantage and complexity) described the innovation characteristics, and the sixth code, sustainability, was identified in the data. Within each code, two themes emerged as a positive or negative response regarding characteristics of the innovation. Moreover, within the sustainability code, a third theme emerged that was labeled "brainstormed ideas", focusing on strategies for improving the innovation. Cueing LTC staff using music offers a sustainable potential to improve PrU prevention practices, to increase resident movement, which can subsequently lead to a reduction in PrUs.
Stephanie T Gumuchian
Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood.To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions.Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis.Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a facing a new reality; (b the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d changing family roles; (e social interactions; and (f navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants' lives.Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease.
Smith, Gigi; Wagner, Janelle; Andrews, Jeanette; Austin, Joan; Mueller, Martina; Carter, Emma; Griesemer, Kimberly
The process of caring for youth with epilepsy (YWEs) has been understudied. Previous research has identified that caregivers of YWEs report increased parenting stress, unanticipated caregiving responsibilities, and negative effects on family life. Using the adapted Caregiving Process Model, perceptions of the caregiving process were explored in four focus groups of caregivers of youth with epilepsy diagnosed at 5 years. Thematic analysis guided the data analysis. The prevalent theme that emerged during the data analysis was navigating the noncontingencies (lack of a perceived relationship between action and outcome, unpredictability). This was supported by the subthemes, namely, blessings and sacrifices, uncertainty today and tomorrow, constant vigilance, and caregiving is more than parenting. The focus groups displayed similarities and differences in caregiving perceptions across the three postdiagnosis time periods, providing support for conceptualization of the caregiving as multifactorial, multidirectional, and fluid process. With this knowledge, epilepsy health-care professionals are encouraged to promote patient and family centeredness, provide information on how to access community resources, and work with caregivers to enhance epilepsy self-management skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tracey L. Yap
Full Text Available The purpose of the manuscript is to describe long-term care (LTC staff perceptions of a music cueing intervention designed to improve staff integration of pressure ulcer (PrU prevention guidelines regarding consistent and regular movement of LTC residents a minimum of every two hours. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI model guided staff interviews about their perceptions of the intervention’s characteristics, outcomes, and sustainability. Methods: This was a qualitative, observational study of staff perceptions of the PrU prevention intervention conducted in Midwestern U.S. LTC facilities (N = 45 staff members. One focus group was held in each of eight intervention facilities using a semi-structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis, and summaries for each category were compared across groups. Results: The a priori codes (observability, trialability, compatibility, relative advantage and complexity described the innovation characteristics, and the sixth code, sustainability, was identified in the data. Within each code, two themes emerged as a positive or negative response regarding characteristics of the innovation. Moreover, within the sustainability code, a third theme emerged that was labeled “brainstormed ideas”, focusing on strategies for improving the innovation. Implications: Cueing LTC staff using music offers a sustainable potential to improve PrU prevention practices, to increase resident movement, which can subsequently lead to a reduction in PrUs.
Johnson, Karin E; Mroz, Tracy M; Abraham, Marie; Figueroa Gray, Marlaine; Minniti, Mary; Nickel, Wendy; Reid, Robert; Sweeney, Jennifer; Frosch, Dominick L; Ness, Debra L; Hsu, Clarissa
Ambulatory practices that actively partner with patients and families in quality improvement (QI) report benefits such as better patient/family interactions with physicians and staff, and patient empowerment. However, creating effective patient/family partnerships for ambulatory care improvement is not yet routine. The objective of this paper is to provide practices with concrete evidence about meaningfully involving patients and families in QI activities. Review of literature published from 2000-2015 and a focus group conducted in 2014 with practice advisors. Thirty articles discussed 26 studies or examples of patient/family partnerships in ambulatory care QI. Patient and family partnership mechanisms included QI committees and advisory councils. Facilitators included process transparency, mechanisms for acting on patient/family input, and compensation. Challenges for practices included uncertainty about how best to involve patients and families in QI. Several studies found that patient/family partnership was a catalyst for improvement and reported that partnerships resulted in process improvements. Focus group results were concordant. This paper describes emergent mechanisms and processes that ambulatory care practices use to partner with patients and families in QI including outcomes, facilitators, and challenges. Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
Grey, Charlotte N. B.; Schmieder-Gaite, Tina; Jiang, Shiyu; Nascimento, Christina
Cold homes and fuel poverty have been identified as factors in health and social inequalities that could be alleviated through energy efficiency interventions. Research on fuel poverty and the health impacts of affordable warmth initiatives have to date primarily been conducted using quantitative and statistical methods, limiting the way how fuel poverty is understood. This study took a longitudinal focus group approach that allowed exploration of lived experiences of fuel poverty before and after an energy efficiency intervention. Focus group discussions were held with residents from three low-income communities before (n = 28) and after (n = 22) they received energy efficiency measures funded through a government-led scheme. The results show that improving the energy efficiency of homes at risk of fuel poverty has a profound impact on wellbeing and quality of life, financial stress, thermal comfort, social interactions and indoor space use. However, the process of receiving the intervention was experienced by some as stressful. There is a need for better community engagement and communication to improve the benefits delivered by fuel poverty programmes, as well as further qualitative exploration to better understand the wider impacts of fuel poverty and policy-led intervention schemes. PMID:28890663
Dowding, Dawn W; Russell, David; Onorato, Nicole; Merrill, Jacqueline A
Elevated hospital readmission rates from home care are an indicator of poor care quality, and rates are particularly high for patients with heart failure. Readmissions may be avoided by optimizing continuity of care. To explore perceptions among home care clinicians of the barriers they face and the information they need to improve care continuity for patients with heart failure. Focus groups were conducted with teams of home care clinicians at a large certified home healthcare agency in the Northeastern United states. In total, there were 61 participants across 6 focus groups. Three overarching themes emerged: continuity of care and communication on care transitions, maintaining continuity of care during a home care episode (with subthemes tracking signs and symptoms and patient teaching), and health information technology (HIT) characteristics to support communication and care continuity. Our study highlights areas of improvement for HIT solutions that could support care delivery for patients with heart failure in a home care setting. Home care agencies planning to introduce technology can use these findings to assess if and how potential systems can support nurses to provide continuity of care across healthcare organizations and home care visits.
Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Botello-Corzo, Diana; Calixto, Omar-Javier; Calderón-Rojas, Rolando; Domínguez, Aura-Maria; Cruz-Tapias, Paola; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladis; Mantilla, Ruben-Dario; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana
Objective. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have become an essential part of the assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to evaluate the agreement and correlation between PROs and the physician's measurements. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study in which 135 patients with RA were clinically evaluated during two different sessions of focus group interviews. Rheumatologist recorded 28 swollen (SJCs) and tender joint counts (TJCs). The patients filled out the PROs instruments (MDHAQ, RADAI, RAPID3, 4, and 5 and self-report articular index (SAI) diagram for pain and joint swelling). DAS28 was calculated (C-reactive protein). An adjusted multiple lineal regression model was done (DAS28 as dependent variable). Results. Highly significant agreements were found between SJC and TJC registered by the physician and patient. There was moderate correlation between DAS28 with patient SJC (r = 0.52), patient TJC (r = 0.55), RADAI (r = 0.56), RAPID3 (r = 0.52), RAPID4 (r = 0.56), RAPID5 (r = 0.66), and VAS-Global (r = 0.51). Likewise, we found moderate to high correlations between CDAI and SDAI with all variable measurements done by the patients. The resulting predictive equation was DAS28(CRP) = 2.02 + 0.037 × RAPID4 + 0.042× patient SJC. Conclusion. PROs applied in focus groups interview are a useful tool for managing patients with RA regardless of gender, educational level, and duration of disease. PMID:23097701
Irving, Michelle J; Tong, Allison; Jan, Stephen; Wong, Germaine; Cass, Alan; Allen, Richard D; Craig, Jonathan C; Chadban, Steven; Rose, John; Howard, Kirsten
Solid organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for those with organ failure, but suitable organs are a limited community resource. Little is known about community preferences for the allocation of those organs. We aimed to determine community preferences for organ allocation and reasons for their choices. Participants were recruited from the community in four states in Australia. In focus groups, they identified and discussed attributes that they believed were important for allocating organs to potential recipients. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Thirteen focus groups with 114 participants were conducted. Four major themes emerged: (i) saving and improving the lives; (ii) lowering the risk of lost opportunities; (iii) fairness and (iv) accountability. While happy to discuss general principles, many were not comfortable making organ allocation decisions and were happy to defer to health professionals; this reticence tended to disappear when discussing the use of their own organs. Participants wanted to save as many lives as possible as well as lower the risk of lost opportunities for those on the waiting list by maximizing the chances of success of every donation. A rational utilitarian ethical model of organ allocation, therefore, appeared to be the dominant framework adopted by the community. Key considerations were compatibility, high chance of peri-operative survival and favouring those with positive lifestyle and self-management choices. Communication between the transplant community and general community about organ allocation could be undertaken to create trust and shared understanding, which may ultimately increase organ donation rates in the future.
van Uden-Kraan, C F; Chinapaw, M J M; Drossaert, C H C; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Buffart, L M
Yoga is a "mind-body" exercise, a combination of physical poses with breathing and meditation, and may have beneficial effects on physical and psychosocial symptoms. We aimed to explore cancer patients' motives for practicing yoga, experiences of practicing yoga, and perceived physical and psychosocial outcomes. Participants (n = 45) following yoga classes for cancer patients were asked to participate in focus group interviews, of whom 29 participated. The focus groups (n = 5) were audio taped with prior consent and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed by two coders and independently coded into key issues and themes. Mean age of the participants was 53.8 (SD 10.8) years, of whom 25 were women, and 18 were diagnosed with breast cancer. Motives for participation in yoga were relaxation, the will to be physically active, the wish to pay more attention to one's body, coping with psychosocial symptoms, contributing to their cancer rehabilitation process, and combing physical and mental processes. Main physical and psychosocial experiences of yoga mentioned by patients were regaining body awareness, raising attention to the inner self, learning how to relax, enjoyment, and finding recognition and understanding. Increased physical fitness and function, mental strength and resilience, increased coping, being more relaxed, and happiness were frequently mentioned experiences of patients. Patients with different types of cancer perceived several benefits on physical and psychosocial outcomes by practicing yoga. Therefore, yoga can be a valuable form of supportive care for cancer patients.
Taveras Elsie M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers or easier (facilitators to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Results Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping
Huwendiek, Sören; Reichert, Friedrich; Bosse, Hans-Martin; de Leng, Bas A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Haag, Martin; Hoffmann, Georg F; Tönshoff, Burkhard
This study aimed to examine what students perceive as the ideal features of virtual patient (VP) design in order to foster learning with a special focus on clinical reasoning. A total of 104 Year 5 medical students worked through at least eight VPs representing four different designs during their paediatric clerkship. The VPs were presented in two modes and differed in terms of the authenticity of the user interface (with or without graphics support), predominant question type (long- versus short-menu questions) and freedom of navigation (relatively free versus predetermined). Each mode was presented in a rich and a poor version with regard to the use of different media and questions and explanations explicitly directed at clinical reasoning. Five groups of between four and nine randomly selected students (n = 27) participated in focus group interviews facilitated by a moderator using a questioning route. The interviews were videotaped, transcribed and analysed. Summary reports were approved by the students. Ten principles of VP design emerged from the analysis. A VP should be relevant, of an appropriate level of difficulty, highly interactive, offer specific feedback, make optimal use of media, help students focus on relevant learning points, offer recapitulation of key learning points, provide an authentic web-based interface and student tasks, and contain questions and explanations tailored to the clinical reasoning process. Students perceived the design principles identified as being conducive to their learning. Many of these principles are supported by the results of other published studies. Future studies should address the effects of these principles using quantitative controlled designs.
Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence
To explore the contribution of clinical nurse specialists in intellectual disability nursing in Ireland. While clinical nurse specialists exist since the 1940s, they have only been a reality in Ireland since 2001. While the role of clinical nurse specialist has developed over the years, it still however is often seen as a complex multifaceted role that causes confusion, frustration and controversy. A exploratory qualitative approach using focus groups with Irish intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists (n = 31). Five focus group interviews were conducted to gather qualitative data to gain insight into the attitudes, perceptions and opinions of the participants. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Burnard's (Vital Notes for Nurses: Research for Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare, 2011, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford) framework. Ethical approval was gained from the researcher's university and access granted by the national council for the professional development of nursing/midwifery in Ireland. The study highlights that intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists contribute to and support care delivery across a range of areas including client-focused and family-centred care, staff support, organisation support, community support and supporting other agencies. Overall, the study shows the importance of intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists and their contribution across a range of services, care environments and the support they offer to clients/families/staff/multidisciplinary team members and outside agencies. Ireland is in a unique position to develop knowledge regarding specialist care for people with intellectual disability that can be shared and adapted by other healthcare professionals in other countries that do not have specialised intellectual disability nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lesnovska, Katarina Pihl; Hollman Frisman, Gunilla; Hjortswang, Henrik; Hjelm, Katarina; Börjeson, Sussanne
The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of health care among persons living with inflammatory bowel disease. The quality of care plays an important role in the life of persons with a chronic disease. To define what persons with inflammatory bowel disease perceive as high-quality care, greater focus must be placed on the individual's own perspective of living with the condition. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted based on focus groups. Five focus groups were conducted with adult persons living with inflammatory bowel disease, 14 men and 12 women aged 19-76 years. The interviews were performed between January-June 2014. The perceptions of health care from the perspective of persons living with inflammatory bowel disease were summarised in two categories: 'professional attitudes of healthcare staff' and 'structure of the healthcare organisation'. Persons with inflammatory bowel disease want to be encountered with respect, experience trust and obtain information at the right time. They also expect shared decision-making, communication and to encounter competent healthcare professionals. Furthermore, the expectations on and perceptions of the structure of the healthcare organisation comprise access to care, accommodation, continuity of care, as well as the pros and cons of specialised care. The findings show the importance of establishing a respectful and trusting relationship, facilitating healthcare staff and persons with inflammatory bowel disease to work as a team in fulfilling individual care needs - but there is room for improvement in terms of quality of care. A person-centred approach, which places the individual and her/his family at the centre, considering them experts on their own health and enabling them to collaborate with healthcare staff, seems important to reach a high-quality healthcare organisation for patients with Inflammatory bowel disease. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.
This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and
Webb, Noreen M.; And Others
Planning and debugging strategies and group processes predicting learning of computer programming were studied in 30 students aged 11 to 14. Students showed little advance planning. Factors associated with learning included high-level planning of program chunks, debugging of single statements, explaining, and verbalizing aloud while typing.…
Fosse, Anette; Ruths, Sabine; Malterud, Kirsti; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase
Doctors often find dialogues about death difficult. In Norway, 45% of deaths take place in nursing homes. Newly qualified medical doctors serve as house officers in nursing homes during internship. Little is known about how nursing homes can become useful sites for learning about end-of-life care. The aim of this study was to explore newly qualified doctors' learning experiences with end-of-life care in nursing homes, especially focusing on dialogues about death. House officers in nursing homes (n = 16) participated in three focus group interviews. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Lave & Wenger's theory about situated learning was used to support interpretations, focusing on how the newly qualified doctors gained knowledge of end-of-life care through participation in the nursing home's community of practice. Newly qualified doctors explained how nursing home staff's attitudes taught them how calmness and acceptance could be more appropriate than heroic action when death was imminent. Shifting focus from disease treatment to symptom relief was demanding, yet participants comprehended situations where death could even be welcomed. Through challenging dialogues dealing with family members' hope and trust, they learnt how to adjust words and decisions according to family and patient's life story. Interdisciplinary role models helped them balance uncertainty and competence in the intermediate position of being in charge while also needing surveillance. There is a considerable potential for training doctors in EOL care in nursing homes, which can be developed and integrated in medical education. This practice based learning arena offers newly qualified doctors close interaction with patients, relatives and nurses, teaching them to perform difficult dialogues, individualize medical decisions and balance their professional role in an interdisciplinary setting.
Zannini, Lucia; Cattaneo, Cesarina; Peduzzi, Paolo; Lopiccoli, Silvia; Auxilia, Francesco
Clinical governance is considered crucial in primary care. Since 2005, clinical pathways have been experimentally implemented at the Local Health Authority of Monza Brianza (ASLMB), Italy, to develop general practitioners' (GPs) care of patients affected by some chronic diseases. The experimentation was aimed at introducing clinical governance in primary care, increasing GPs' involvement in the care of their patients, and improving both patients' and professionals' satisfaction. In the period 2005-2006, 12% of the 763 employed GPs in the ASLMB were involved in the experiment, while this percentage increased to 15-20% in 2007-2008. Twenty-four GPs were purposively sampled, randomly divided into two groups and asked to participate in focus groups (FGs) held in 2008, aimed at evaluating their perception of the experiment. The FGs were audio-recorded, dialogues were typed out and undergone to a thematic analysis, according to the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. FOUR MAJOR THEMES EMERGED: i) clinical pathways can result in GPs working in a more efficient and effective fashion; ii) they can assure higher levels of both patient and professional satisfaction, since they sustain a caring approach and strengthen the GPs' role; iii) nevertheless, clinical pathways increase the bureaucratic workload and problems can arise in relationships among GPs and the LHA; iv) the implementation of clinical pathways can be improved, especially by reducing bureaucracy and by assuring their continuity. Managerial aspects should be considered with care in order to experimentally introduce clinical pathways in general practice, and continuity of the experimentation should be guaranteed to improve GPs' adherence and commitment. the Authors thank Dr. AP. Cantù and Dr D. Cereda who participated in the two focus groups as observers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of doctor-patient communication has a major impact on the quality of medical care. Communication guidelines define best practices for doctor patient communication and are therefore an important tool for improving communication. However, adherence to communication guidelines remains low, despite doctors participating in intensive communication skill training. Implementation research shows that adherence is higher for guidelines in general that are user centred and feasible, which implies that they are consistent with users' opinions, tap into users' existing skills and fit into existing routines. Developers of communication guidelines seem to have been somewhat negligent with regard to user preferences and guideline feasibility. In order to promote the development of user centred and practicable communication guidelines, we elicited user preferences and identified which guideline characteristics facilitate or impede guideline use. Methods Seven focus group interviews were conducted with experienced GPs, communication trainers (GPs and behavioural scientists and communication learners (GP trainees and medical students and three focus group interviews with groups of GP trainees only. All interviews were transcribed and analysed qualitatively. Results The participants identified more impeding guideline characteristics than facilitating ones. The most important impeding characteristic was that guidelines do not easily fit into GPs' day-to-day practice. This is due to rigidity and inefficiency of communication guidelines and erroneous assumptions underpinning guideline development. The most important facilitating characteristic was guideline structure. Guidelines that were structured in distinct phases helped users to remain in control of consultations, which was especially useful in complicated consultations. Conclusion Although communication guidelines are generally considered useful, especially for structuring
Tanielu, Helen; McCool, Judith; Umali, Elaine; Whittaker, Robyn
Samoa, like other Pacific Island countries, faces a persistent challenge to reduce smoking use with relatively limited resources. As a signatory to the WHO FCTC, Samoa is obligated to introduce measures to reduce tobacco use and is currently trialling a text message smoking cessation programme (mCessation) to achieve this outcome. Cigarettes remain relatively cheap and are widely available, but little is known about how smoking is initiated or why and how people quit smoking in the Samoa. Six focus groups with smokers and ex-smokers were conducted in Apia, Samoa. Groups were homogenous according to age, gender and smoking status. Focus groups were conducted in Samoan and transcribed and translated to English for analysis. Smoking is initiated most commonly in late teens and early twenties and most frequently in (non-family) social contexts. Smoking reflects a widely held (mis)perceptions of tangible benefits, including aiding feelings of strength and energy, relief from indigestion and as a means to accelerate the effects of alcohol. Smoking was deeply connected to social life in Samoa among friends and for some, with family members. Drivers to quit originate out of concern regarding health effects, concern for family and the costs of purchasing tobacco. Smoking is well entrenched in Samoan society; efforts to reduce smoking need to be based on implicit understanding of Samoan cultural norms and priorities around family, social networks and culture. Efforts to support quitting are important, alongside other well validated measures to reverse the trajectory of smoking related disease. This study offers an insight into smoking as a behaviour and as cultural practice perceived by smokers and non-smokers in Samoa. A thorough understanding of smoking behaviours and cessation patterns is critical in efforts to reduce smoking especially in resource-limited settings. The results from this study was used to inform the development of a Samoan mHealth smoking cessation
McEwen Scott A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, and numerous studies report that these supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for contamination. Canadians in rural areas test their water intermittently, if at all, and treatment of water from private supplies is not common. Understanding the perceptions of drinking water among residents served by private systems will enable public health professionals to better target education and outreach activities, and to address the needs and concerns of residents in their jurisdictions. The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking water perceptions and self-described behaviours and needs of participants served by private water systems in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada. Methods In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age. Results Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed. Conclusion While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in
Full Text Available Introduction: Rural populations have many barriers to quality health care including lack of access to primary care and specialty care and a greater likelihood to be underinsured or uninsured. They are also less likely to use preventive screening, or to participate in self-care and engage in their health when compared to urban residents. The purpose of this paper was to describe patients’ healthcare experiences in a rural western state focusing on their healthcare expectations and engagement. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using a focus group protocol to elicit rural patients’ healthcare experiences. A purposeful sample of English speaking adult residents from a single county who were willing to discuss their healthcare experiences was included. Patients and community members (21 years and older were recruited through a local hospital as well as via flyers posted throughout the community. Each audio-recorded group took about two hours. A total of 15 focus groups were conducted to obtain sufficient text for theoretical saturation and thematic analysis. Each group had a range of 3-8 participants. A $25 visa gift card and lunch were provided for each participant as an incentive. Results: ‘Encounters with Healthcare Professionals’ and ‘Engagement in Health’ were the two dominant dimensions with two themes each. Themes centered around what characterized the best or worst encounters. Trust and Communication - both were based on time spent with the provider and establishment of rapport with the providers. The best encounters were those with health care providers or pharmacists who had sufficient time, adequately explained a diagnosis and new medications did not dismiss patient concerns, and treated individuals with respect. Typical responses describing the worst encounters included examples of misdiagnosis, dismissing patient’s symptoms, healthcare professionals whose attention was not focused on the patient, pushing too
Martin Carmel M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic disease is a major global challenge. However, chronic illness and its care, when intruding into everyday life, has received less attention in Asia Pacific countries, including Australia, who are in the process of transitioning to chronic disease orientated health systems. Aim The study aims to examine experiences of chronic illness before and after the introduction of Australian Medicare incentives for longer consultations and structured health assessments in general practice. Methods Self-help groups around the conditions of diabetes, epilepsy, asthma and cancer identified key informants to participate in 4 disease specific focus groups. Audio taped transcripts of the focus groups were coded using grounded theory methodology. Key themes and lesser themes identified using a process of saturation until the study questions on needs and experiences of care were addressed. Thematic comparisons were made across the 2002/3 and 1992/3 focus groups. Findings At times of chronic illness, there was need to find and then ensure access to 'the right GP'. The 'right GP or specialist' committed to an in-depth relationship of trust, personal rapport and understanding together with clinical and therapeutic competence. The 'right GP', the main specialist, the community nurse and the pharmacist were key providers, whose success depended on interprofessional communication. The need to trust and rely on care providers was balanced by the need for self-efficacy 'to be in control of disease and treatment' and 'to be your own case manager'. Changes in Medicare appeared to have little penetration into everyday perceptions of chronic illness burden or time and quality of GP care. Inequity of health system support for different disease groupings emerged. Diabetes, asthma and certain cancers, like breast cancer, had greater support, despite common experiences of disease burden, and a need for research and support programs. Conclusion Core
Heinz, Adrienne J.; Disney, Elizabeth R.; Epstein, David H.; Glezen, Louise A.; Clark, Pamela I.; Preston, Kenzie L.
Individuals recovering from addictions frequently cite spirituality as a helpful influence. However, little is known about whether or how spirituality could be incorporated into formal treatment in a manner that is sensitive to individual differences. In the present study, focus groups were conducted with 25 methadone-maintained outpatients (primarily high-school educated, African-American males) to examine beliefs about the role of spirituality in recovery and its appropriateness in formal treatment. Groups also discussed the relationship between spirituality and behavior during active addiction. Thematic analyses suggested that spirituality and religious practices suffered in complex ways during active addiction, but went “hand in hand” with recovery. Nearly all participants agreed that integration of a voluntary spiritual discussion group into formal treatment would be preferable to currently available alternatives. One limitation was that all participants identified as strongly spiritual. Studies of more diverse samples will help guide the development and evaluation of spiritually based interventions in formal treatment settings. PMID:20025443
Saiki, Takuya; Mukohara, Kei; Otani, Takashi; Ban, Nobutaro
Students' perceptions of learner-centered methods for teaching medical interviewing skills have not been fully explored. To explore Japanese students' perceptions of learner-centered methods for teaching medical interviewing skills such as role play with student-created scenarios, peer-assisted video reviews, and student-led small group debriefing. We conducted three focus groups with a total of 15 students who participated in the learner-centered seminars on medical interviewing skills at the Nagoya University School of Medicine. The transcripts were analyzed by two authors independently. Keywords and concepts were identified and a thematic framework was developed. Overall, students valued the experience of writing their own scenarios for role play, but some questioned their realism. Many students commented that peer-assisted video reviews provided them with more objective perspectives on their performance. However, some students expressed concerns about competitiveness during the video reviews. While students appreciated teachers' minimum involvement in the group debriefing, some criticized that teachers did not explain the objectives of the seminar clearly. Many students had difficulties in exchanging constructive feedback. We were able to gain new insights into positive and negative perceptions of students about learner-centered methods for teaching medical interviewing skills at one medical school in Japan.
Tong, Allison; Sainsbury, Peter; Craig, Jonathan
Qualitative research explores complex phenomena encountered by clinicians, health care providers, policy makers and consumers. Although partial checklists are available, no consolidated reporting framework exists for any type of qualitative design. To develop a checklist for explicit and comprehensive reporting of qualitative studies (in depth interviews and focus groups). We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, Medline, CINAHL, systematic reviews of qualitative studies, author or reviewer guidelines of major medical journals and reference lists of relevant publications for existing checklists used to assess qualitative studies. Seventy-six items from 22 checklists were compiled into a comprehensive list. All items were grouped into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. Duplicate items and those that were ambiguous, too broadly defined and impractical to assess were removed. Items most frequently included in the checklists related to sampling method, setting for data collection, method of data collection, respondent validation of findings, method of recording data, description of the derivation of themes and inclusion of supporting quotations. We grouped all items into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. The criteria included in COREQ, a 32-item checklist, can help researchers to report important aspects of the research team, study methods, context of the study, findings, analysis and interpretations.
There are a number of persuasive arguments as to why sexual pleasure should be included in sexual health work with young people, including the suggestion that this would provide young people with accounts of gender and sexuality that are more critical and holistic than those presented in the popular media, pornography and current sex education curricula. This paper considers the possibilities for engaging young men in critical group work about sexual pleasure in research and education contexts, drawing on a mixed-methods study of young people's understandings and experiences of 'good sex'. The paper provides a reflexive account of one focus group conducted with a group of heterosexual young men and two youth educators. It explores some of the challenges to building relationships with young men and creating 'safe spaces' in which to engage in critical sexuality education in socially unequal contexts. In this case study, adult-led discussion elicits rebellious, 'hyper-masculine' performances that close down opportunities for critical or reflective discussion. Although there are some opportunities for critical work that move beyond limited public health or school-based sex education agendas, there is also space for collusion and the reinforcement of oppressive social norms. The paper concludes by imagining possibilities for future research and practice.
Berg Torskenæs, Kristina; Kalfoss, Mary H
The purpose of this study is to describe the Norwegian translation of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Spirituality, Religiousness, and Personal Beliefs module. This is an exploratory study using convenience sampling. Translation has followed the World Health Organization's standardized protocol. Six focus groups were recruited from six geographical regions in southeastern Norway: three groups of health professionals (n = 18) and three groups of patients (n = 15). All facets and items were found to be culturally relevant. The facet awe underwent three literary changes, spiritual strength two, and meaning, inner peace, and faith underwent one change each. The facets spiritual connection, wholeness, and integration and hope and optimism did not undergo any changes. The facets spiritual connection, meaning in life, experiences of awe, and wholeness and integration displayed the strongest discriminatory power. Internal consistency reliability of the overall module tested with Cronbach's alpha was high (α = .93). Translating questionnaires and adapting them in comprehensible forms, while maintaining the meaning of the original items, is a challenge in holistic nursing. Even though certain difficulties in comprehension were revealed, the results of this study indicate that all facets and items on the Spirituality, Religiousness, and Personal Beliefs module were equally important.
Krol, M; Sixma, H; Meerdink, J; Wiersma, H; Rademakers, J
In research on quality of care, the experiences of children and (pre)adolescents are usually assessed by asking their parents. However, these young patients may have preferences of their own, and their experiences do not necessarily concur with those of their parents. Therefore, our research aimed to give young patients an opportunity to speak up for themselves. Focus group meetings and online focus groups were organized for two age groups (8–11 and 12–15 years) of young patients from two Dutch rehabilitation centres, with the use of a tailored interview technique. The feasibility and applicability of both types of focus groups were assessed. For both types of focus groups, recruitment proved a major problem. The focus group meetings with (pre)adolescents proved both feasible and applicable in obtaining information regarding the preferences and experiences towards rehabilitation care. Regarding children's meetings, there were mixed results. The setting suited most of them, but some were more anxious. In general, online focus groups were less successful than expected for both age groups. Possibilities for enhancing the recruitment rate should be considered, as the low participation rates limited generalizability of focus group results. The tailored design proved useful for obtaining relevant input from (pre)adolescents through meetings, but, especially for children, repeated meetings or other locations (e.g. at home) could be considered. This may make participants more at ease. For both age groups, the online focus groups proved far less useful, in terms of participation.
Bourgeois, Marc B.; Winters, Ryan C.; Esters, Irvin E.
Utilizing an experiential component in group work training is a prominent feature in Counselor Education programs. Although numerous models have been proposed, the vast majority offer limited explanations of incorporating the number of hours of group participation and observation recommended by the Professional Standards for the Training of Group…
Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.
We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at
Smith, Alan L; Troped, Philip J; McDonough, Meghan H; DeFreese, J D
There is need for a youth-informed conceptualization of how environmental and social neighborhood contexts influence physical activity. We assessed youths' perceptions of their neighborhood physical and peer environments as affecting physical activity. Thirty-three students (20 girls; ages 12-14 years) participated in focus groups about the physical environment and peers within their neighborhoods, and their understanding of how they affect physical activity. Inductive analysis identified themes of access (e.g., to equipment); aesthetics; physical and social safety; peer proximity and behavior (e.g., bullying); adult support or interference; and adult boundary setting. Participants also identified interconnections among themes, such as traffic shaping parent boundary setting and, in turn, access to physical spaces and peers. Young adolescents view neighborhoods in ways similar to and different from adults. Examining physical and social environments in tandem, while mindful of how adults shape and youth perceive these environments, may enhance understanding of youth physical activity behavior.
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the trust relationship in virtual teams in Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC status companies. The study used qualitative method that is phenomenology approach through focus group interviews. In-depth interview were also used with semi-structured and openended questions. The interviews involved six staffs at different position in virtual team (two team leaders, and four team members. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic analysis. Results showed that dimensions on virtual team trust relationship including interpersonal communication, personality, team members size, face-to-face meeting needs, safety information when discussing face-to-face in public places, and difficulty to recall interaction via video conferencing with other team members.
Koulouglioti, Christina; Cole, Robert; Moskow, Marian
Consistent daily routines have been associated with children's well-being, but children of single parents are less likely to engage in regular family meals or bedtime routines. This study explored routines and the challenges of maintaining routines as experienced by single mothers with a preschool age (3-5) child. Four focus groups (N = 12) were conducted and qualitative content analysis was used. Mothers described routines as an integral part of their parenting role and a reflection of successful parenting but maintaining routines around bedtimes and mealtimes were major concerns. Difficulties managing their child's behavior and their own fatigue were major challenges but mothers described a wide range of helpful strategies as well.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper
differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment Methods: Data were collected through 17 focus groups consisting of 111 children......Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the children´s perceptions of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly for those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have...
Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N; McGeown, Sarah; Niven, Ailsa; Sproule, John; Saunders, David H; Reilly, John J
The purposes of this study were to review the evidence on longitudinal associations between child and adolescent obesity and academic achievement and to provide perceptions of adolescents with obesity and their parents on this topic. Synthesis of 31 studies (from 17 cohorts) suggested that relationships between obesity and academic achievement are not well established, except for adolescent girls' maths attainment, potentially mediated by both weight-related bullying and executive cognitive functions. Focus groups with adolescent girls with obesity confirmed experiences of psychosocial distress at school particularly during Physical Education. Adolescents perceived that obesity was not related to academic achievement directly, but by their attitude to school. Interventions are warranted to promote psychosocial wellbeing and cognitive abilities linked to academic achievement in adolescent girls with obesity. Physical Education should be a positive experience for children and adolescents with obesity.
Gray, Helen; Adam, Joan; Brown, Duncan; McLaughlin, Patricia; Hill, Vicky; Wilson, Lorraine
St Columba's Hospice, Edinburgh, is a busy specialist palliative care unit with 30 inpatient beds. A previous publication reported the first strand of a qualitative exploratory study evaluating the impact of open visiting on patients at the hospice. This paper reports on the second strand, which sought to elicit the views of the hospice staff through focus group interviews. The main themes identified were valuing the family and friends as visitors, involving the family as part of the care team, patient powerlessness over visiting, shared rooms and their impact on visitors and patients, and the staff role as advocates or gatekeepers. Several strategies for developing a flexible and 'patient-controlled' visiting policy were identified, including quiet times without visitors, restriction of visitor numbers in shared rooms, and encouraging breaks from visiting. Since the study was completed, the hospice's visiting policy has been modified to ensure that it is patient-centred and meets the needs of patients and families.
Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K
Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper
Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment Methods: Data were collected through 17 focus groups consisting of 111 children...... by a thematic analysis of data from the open discussions and go-along interviews. Results: The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identifying the same...
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie
New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly...... technical skills. This account of the changes in the drug distribution system in Iceland highlights some of the implications for pharmacists internationally....
Malbasa, Tara; Kodish, Eric; Santacroce, Sheila Judge
This secondary qualitative analysis of extant focus group data was performed to develop an understanding of suboptimal adherence to 6-mercaptopurine therapy in adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six participants, aged 16 to 23 years at the time of data collection, were interviewed about their adherence to oral maintenance chemotherapy during their treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The primary aim of the study was to understand the role of adolescent development in adolescents' perception of adherence to therapy. The secondary aim was to understand how factors other than development, including the features of the disease such as its chronic nature and family involvement, can affect treatment adherence to 6-mercaptopurine. Four broad themes emerged as critical elements in adolescent adherence to oral maintenance therapy: a desire for normalcy, egocentrism, concrete thinking, and parental involvement. Incorporation of these themes into clinical practice with adolescents may help increase adherence and improve clinical outcomes.
Rys, Sam; Deschepper, Reginald; Deliens, Luc; Mortier, Freddy; Bilsen, Johan
Continuous Sedation until Death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, has become a common practice in nursing homes in Flanders (Belgium). Quantitative research has suggested that CSD is not always properly applied. This qualitative study aims to explore and describe the circumstances under which nursing home clinicians consider CSD to be justified. Six focus groups were conducted including 10 physicians, 24 nurses, and 14 care assistants working in either Catholic or non-Catholic nursing homes of varying size. Refractory suffering, limited life expectancy and respecting patient autonomy are considered essential elements in deciding for CSD. However, multiple factors complicate the care of nursing home residents at the end of life, and often hinder clinicians from putting these elements into practice. Nursing home clinicians may benefit from more information and instruction about managing CSD in the complex care situations which typically occur in nursing homes. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bates, Benjamin R
As the role of genetic science in everyday life has grown, policymakers have become concerned about Americans' understandings of this science. Much effort has been devoted to formal schooling, but less attention has been paid to the role of public culture in shaping public understanding of genetics. Research into public cultural messages about genetics has claimed that the public is likely to adopt problematic accounts, but few studies have explored the public's articulation of these messages. This study is based on 25 focus groups convened to explore the lay public's understanding of genetics. The study found that the public processed a greater variety of messages than assumed by previous researchers, including documentaries, non-science-fiction films, and popular television in addition to previous researchers' focus on science fiction and news media. The study also found that the public does not process the messages through the linear, transmission model assumed by previous research. The public processes messages about genetics complexly and critically. On the basis of these findings, the study suggests that researchers should include a greater variety of texts about genetics in their research and attend more fully to audience processing in addition to content analyses of these texts.
Cynthia A. Blum
Full Text Available While preceptors are a vital link in student nurse practice education, ongoing support beyond an initial orientation is often lacking. It has been reported in the literature that preceptors experience stress related to difficulties in handling preceptee situations. They are frustrated by negative experiences centered on preceptor-identified hallmarks of unsafe practice including the inability to demonstrate knowledge and skills; attitude problems; unprofessional behavior; and poor communication skills. Their unrealized expectations for novices threaten their commitment to their preceptor role. As part of a larger study testing the effectiveness of podcasts as an ongoing method of preceptor support, this paper addresses the developmental stage of the podcasts. A team of academic and acute care nurse educators developed scripts for eventual filming of four podcasts focusing on unsafe practice issues, designed to provide continual support through web-based availability. The use of podcast technology is consistent with the learning styles of digital natives and is a demonstrated and valuable educational resource to review, reinforce, and clarify difficult concepts. These podcasts were informed through preceptor focus groups to address situational and environmental realism for student behaviors and preceptor responses.
Full Text Available Background: While some studies directly address the issue of changes in union formation in Russia and Eastern Europe, few have focused on attitudes and norms regarding marriage and cohabitation. In Russia cohabitation has risen sharply in the last decades, but recently its level has stabilized and even decreased slightly. Objective: We intend to highlight gender and educational differences in perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of cohabitation vs. marriage. Methods: We conducted 8 focus groups in Moscow in January 2012 (4 with men, 4 with women, half with higher educated participants and half with lower educated participants. Results: Participants claimed that trust between men and women underlies preferences for marriage or cohabitation. Participants‟ religious beliefs form a 'three stages of union' theory: cohabitation in the beginning, civil marriage later when trust has developed, and finally a church wedding when trust is established. In union formation the participants‟ ideals are the values of responsibility, freedom, fidelity, and trust. The level of trust is highest for proponents of marriage and ideational cohabitors. People without a strong preference for a certain type of union have the lowest level of interpersonal trust. Conclusions: In a society that currently can be considered anomic, interpersonal trust was found to be the most important factor underlying expressed ideals in choice of union type. It takes different forms for adherents of marriage ("trust with closed eyes" and adherents of cohabitation ("trust with open eyes".
Vania Maria de Oliveira Vieira
Full Text Available This article derives partially from a theoretical-methodological research, carried out with the support of Social Representations Theory. It focuses specifically on discussions and reflections on learning assessment in distance education. The data were collected from focus groups, gathered from graduating students of Pedagogy of two poles of an Educational Institution, Cariacica and Colatina poles, in the State of Espírito Santo. The objective was to identify the social representations which the graduating students of Pedagogy in distance education built about the assessment of learning. The data analysis identified three key words: contradictions, rituals and perceptions which were translated into three unities of meaning. These unities are associated with the social representations, built by those students. From their experiences, speeches, pictures and viewpoints, they organized and transformed their representations into feelings which denote that assessment is primordial and necessary for learning in the course; yet at the same time, they met contradictions, between what is taught in theory, and what is experienced in practice, what leads them to fight for a more humane evaluation process.
Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars
Aim This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). Method A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Conclusion Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Amanda Brummel, PharmD
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the patient-perceived value of MTM services and non-financial barriers preventing patients with insurance coverage from receiving MTM services. Design: Focus groups. Setting: Fairview Pharmacy Services, Minneapolis, MN.Participants: Three focus groups, each with five to nine participants, consisting of different participant populations: (i patients who paid out-of-pocket to receive MTM services; (ii insurance beneficiaries, under which MTM is a covered benefit and participants may have received incentives for receiving MTM services; (iii patients with an insurance plan which covers MTM services who were recruited to receive MTM services but declined. Intervention: MTM services. Main Outcome Measure: Patient-perceived value of MTM services and non-financial barriers. Results: Seven themes were identified relating to the patient-perceived value of MTM services: collaboration of the health care team, MTM pharmacist as a supporter/advocate/confidant, MTM pharmacist as a resource for questions and education, accessibility to the MTM pharmacist, financial incentives for participation in MTM services, MTM pharmacy as a specialty field, and the MTM pharmacist as a coordinator. Three themes were identified regarding patient-perceived non-financial barriers to receiving MTM services, including: availability of the MTM pharmacist, patient/physician lack of knowledge of MTM services, patient’s belief that MTM services are not needed. Conclusion: MTM is a service which patients identify as valuable. Patients are able to identify non-financial barriers that may prevent some patients from receiving MTM services. This study provides preliminary evidence of both the value and barriers perceived by patients.
Cohen, Jessica; Cox, Alex; Dickens, William; Maloney, Kathleen; Lam, Felix; Fink, Günther
In Uganda, as in most other malaria-endemic countries, presumptive treatment for malaria based on symptoms without a diagnostic blood test is still very common. While diagnostic testing in public sector facilities is increasing, many people in Uganda who suspect malaria visit private sector outlets to purchase medications. Increasing the availability and uptake of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria in private outlets could help increase diagnostic testing for malaria but raises questions about the patient demand for and valuation of testing that are less critical for public sector introduction. In preparation for a behaviour change campaign to encourage and sustain the demand for RDTs in drug shops, eight focus group discussions with a total of 84 community members were conducted in six districts across Uganda's Eastern Region in November-December 2011. Focus groups explored incentives and barriers to seeking diagnosis for malaria, how people react to test results and why, and what can be done to increase the willingness to pay for RDTs. Overall, participants were very familiar with malaria diagnostic testing and understood its importance, yet when faced with limited financial resources, patients preferred to spend their money on medication and sought testing only when presumptive treatment proved ineffective. While side effects did seem to be a concern, participants did not mention other potential costs of taking unnecessary or ineffective medications, such as money wasted on excess drugs or delays in resolution of symptoms. Very few individuals were familiar with RDTs. In order to boost demand, these results suggest that private sector RDTs will have to be made convenient and affordable and that targeted behaviour change campaigns should strive to increase the perceived value of diagnosis.
Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly
Background This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16th December, 2011 and 12th May, 2012. Results The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Conclusion Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments. PMID:23875045
Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly
This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16(th) December, 2011 and 12(th) May, 2012. The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments.
Allison C. Sylvetsky
Full Text Available Introduction. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, we aimed to investigate youth's understanding of obesity and to investigate gaps between their nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and perceived susceptibility to obesity and its co-morbidities. Methods. A marketing firm contracted by Children's Healthcare of Atlanta facilitated a series of focus group discussions (FGD to test potential concepts and sample ads for the development of an obesity awareness campaign. Data were collected in August and September of 2010 with both overweight and healthy weight 4th-5th grade and 7th-8th grade students. We conducted a secondary analysis of the qualitative FGD transcripts using inductive thematic coding to identify key themes related to youth reports of family eating habits (including food preparation, meal frequency, and eating environment, perceived facilitators and barriers of healthy diet, and knowledge about obesity and its complications. Results. Across focus group discussions, mixed attitudes about healthy eating, low perceived risk of being or becoming obese, and limited knowledge about the health consequences of obesity may contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity among youth in Georgia. Most youth were aware that obesity was a problem; yet most overweight youth felt that their weight was healthy and attributed overweight to genetics or slow metabolism. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that urban youth in Georgia commonly recognize obesity as a problem, but there is less understanding of the link to lifestyle choices or the connection to future morbidities, suggesting a need for education to connect lifestyle behaviors to development of obesity.
Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana
In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.
Ewert, Benjamin; Hodiamont, Farina; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Payne, Sheila; Groot, Marieke; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Menten, Johann; Radbruch, Lukas
Empirical evidence suggests that integrated palliative care (IPC) increases the quality of care for palliative patients and supports professional caregivers. Existing IPC initiatives in Europe vary in their design and are hardly comparable. InSuP-C, a European Union research project, aimed to build a taxonomy of IPC initiatives applicable across diseases, healthcare sectors and systems. The taxonomy of IPC initiatives was developed in cooperation with an international and multidisciplinary focus group of 18 experts. Subsequently, a consensus meeting of 10 experts revised a preliminary taxonomy and adopted the final classification system. Consisting of eight categories, with two to four items each, the taxonomy covers the process and structure of IPC initiatives. If two items in at least one category apply to an initiative, a minimum level of integration is assumed to have been reached. Categories range from the type of initiative (items: pathway, model or guideline) to patients' key contact (items: non-pc specialist, pc specialist, general practitioner). Experts recommended the inclusion of two new categories: level of care (items: primary, secondary or tertiary) indicating at which stage palliative care is integrated and primary focus of intervention describing IPC givers' different roles (items: treating function, advising/consulting or training) in the care process. Empirical studies are required to investigate how the taxonomy is used in practice and whether it covers the reality of patients in need of palliative care. The InSuP-C project will test this taxonomy empirically in selected initiatives using IPC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Westbury, Ian; Korbelik, John
Results from an evaluation study of a new masters' program in social work are described. The paper focuses upon the interaction between program goals that are conceived in terms of (1) the need to train social work students in three methods of social work, and (2) the need to prepare students who could address the problems of disorganized urban…
Waddell, Jennifer; Ukpokodu, Omiunota N.
This article explores a university's Urban Teacher Education Program (UTEP) and its success not just in recruiting, preparing, retaining, and graduating its students, but in likewise leading to employment and retention as teachers in urban schools. It focuses on critical aspects of the program, including recruitment of diverse candidates,…
Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors
Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.
Tijdink, J.K.; Schipper, K.; Bouter, L.M.; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J.; Smulders, Y.M.
Objective: To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Design: Qualitative focus group interview study. Setting: Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Participants: Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD,
Matsuyama, Yasushi; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Kikukawa, Makoto; Stalmeijer, Renee; Murakami, Reiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Okazaki, Hitoaki
Progress testing (PT) is used in Western countries to evaluate students' level of functional knowledge, and to enhance meaning-oriented and self-directed learning. However, the use of PT has not been investigated in East Asia, where reproduction-oriented and teacher-centered learning styles prevail. Here, we explored the applicability of PT by focusing on student perceptions. Twenty-four students from Years 2, 3, and 5 at Jichi Medical University in Japan attended a pilot PT session preceded by a brief introduction of its concept and procedures. Variations in obtained test scores were analyzed by year, and student perceptions of PT were explored using focus groups. Formula scores (mean ± standard deviation) in Years 2, 3, and 5 were 12.63 ± 3.53, 35.88 ± 14.53, and 71.00 ± 18.31, respectively. Qualitative descriptive analysis of focus group data showed that students disfavored testing of medical knowledge without tangible goals, but instead favored repetitive assessment of knowledge that had been learned and was tested on a unit basis in the past in order to achieve deep learning. Further, students of all school years considered that post-test explanatory lectures by teachers were necessary. East Asian students' perceptions indicated that, in addition to their intensive memorization within narrow test domains compartmentalized by end-of-unit tests, the concept of PT was suitable for repetitive memorization, as it helped them to integrate their knowledge and to increase their understanding. Post-test explanatory lectures might lessen their dislike of the intangible goals of PT, but at the expense of delaying the development of self-directed learning. Key issues for the optimization of PT in East Asia may include administration of PT after completed end-of-unit tests and a gradual change in feedback methodology over school years from test-oriented post-test lectures to the provision of literature references only, as a means of enhancing test self
Background Swedish health care authorities use three key criteria to produce national guidelines for local priority setting: severity of the health condition, expected patient benefit, and cost-effectiveness of medical intervention. Priority setting in primary health care (PHC) has significant implications for health costs and outcomes in the health care system. Nevertheless, these guidelines have been implemented to a very limited degree in PHC. The objective of the study was to qualitatively assess how general practitioners (GPs) and nurses perceive the application of the three key priority-setting criteria. Methods Focus groups were held with GPs and nurses at primary health care centres, where the staff had a short period of experience in using the criteria for prioritising in their daily work. Results The staff found the three key priority-setting criteria (severity, patient benefit, and cost-effectiveness) to be valuable for priority setting in PHC. However, when the criteria were applied in PHC, three additional dimensions were identified: 1) viewpoint (medical or patient's), 2) timeframe (now or later), and 3) evidence level (group or individual). Conclusions The three key priority-setting criteria were useful. Considering the three additional dimensions might enhance implementation of national guidelines in PHC and is probably a prerequisite for the criteria to be useful in priority setting for individual patients. PMID:20863364
Refsgaard, Karen; Magnussen, Kristin
It is a challenge to reduce the ever-increasing flow of waste. In Norway the systems for recycling of organic waste, paper, glass, metals, etc. differ between municipalities, both with regard to organizational and to technological structures. Our hypothesis is that people's attitudes and behaviour may differ with different systems of waste management. People's behaviour and attitudes regarding (organic) waste recycling were investigated in two municipalities with differing technical and organisational systems. Data came from interviews with municipal employees, questionnaires, focus groups and multi-criteria mapping. People seem to be better informed and more positive about organic waste recycling in one of the municipalities (MH, which has recycling of organic waste) than in the other (MS, which has no such recycling). The two municipalities had similar sets of important criteria for waste management (price, environmental friendliness, easy solutions, information). Many participants stated that they had learned from the group process, though only a few reported changed preferences. The institutional context seems to be important for people's behaviour and attitudes towards waste management. This implies that people's recycling behaviour does not only depend on technical and organisational aspects, but also on institutions. These are important messages for policy makers. On an individual basis, the different systems in the two municipalities seem to affect people's stated attitudes. These differences diminish when they are in a common setting where process and dialogue stimulate new thoughts and encourage people to act more altruistically.
Levi, Ofir; Wald, Ilan; Svetlitsky, Vlad; Zusmanovitz, Sergei; Parasha, Eli; Shoval-Zuckerman, Yael; Afik, Gal; Haikin, Gal; Fruchter, Eyal
The efficacy of combat-related trauma-focused group therapy (TFGT) was tested using a unique technique that combines principles from prolonged exposure, cognitive processing therapy, and art therapy. Eighty Israeli male veterans exposed to traumatic events participated in the study. They were divided into eight therapeutic groups led by four pairs of trained therapists. Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms and levels of functioning were taken at pretherapy, end of therapy, and 6 months posttherapy. Analyses found that therapy helped in reducing posttraumatic and depressive symptoms at the end of therapy and at 6 months follow-up. It also showed that patients' functioning had significantly improved by the end of therapy and at 6 months follow-up. A significant clinical change in each parameter over time was also observed. In conclusion, the study provides preliminary evidence that combat-related TFGT may be efficacious in reducing psychological suffering and enhancing actual functioning. Follow-up randomized controlled trials to determine treatment efficacy are needed.
Novak, R D; Auvil-Novak, S E
Focus group interviews were performed on 45 intensive care nurses who worked 12-h shifts in a large metropolitan hospital. The purpose of this study was to identify nurses' perceptions of difficulties associated with shiftwork and coping strategies used to combat them. Overall, the findings were not different than those currently discussed in the literature. For example, nurses frequently utilized white noise, telephone answering machines, and light-darkening shades to improve the quality and quantity of day sleep. They also used exercise and increased early shift caffeine consumption to improve night work performance. However, the major incentive for performing night work for these nurses was a high shift differential that equaled approximately 20% of their hourly salary. Most nurses also felt that group educational interventions regarding shiftwork difficulties and coping strategies would be preferred to individual counseling. The most significant finding of this study was the discovery of an extremely high incidence (95%) of automobile-related injuries and near-accidents that occurred while driving to and from the workplace, potentially posing a significant public health risk.
Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative survey was to gain an insight into the ways consumers purchase, transport and storage fresh and frozen food. In particular, this paper considered consumers’ behaviour and the knowledge they have about cold chain. An explorative study was held using focus group interviews (n. 4 as the method for data collection. The sampling group was composed of 24 consumers (4 males and 20 females and the age ranged from 33 to 78. Data revealed that food safety knowledge is at a fairly good level, however consumer practices in certain cases were inappropriate particularly with respect to transport from the store to home, storage and thaw. Consumers were particularly concerned about frozen food that should not be thawed during shopping or transportation. Knowledge about eggs storage seemed to be dodgy as well. Due to the restricted extent of the sample survey the results cannot be generalized to the whole Italian population; still, this method is particularly useful for discovering not only what people think but why they think that way.
Niels C.L. Jacobs
Full Text Available Because of the negative effects of cyberbullying; and because of its unique characteristics; interventions to stop cyberbullying are needed. For this purpose, more insightful information is needed about cyberbullying victims’ (i.e., the target group experiences, perceptions, attitudes and motivations related to (coping with cyberbullying. Five schools with 66 low-educated Dutch adolescents between 12 and 15 (53% female participated in 10 focus group interviews. Results show that victims do not perceive all behaviors as cyberbullying and traditional bullying is generally perceived as worse than cyberbullying. Cyberbullies are perceived as sad, cowards and embarrassing themselves. Victims are perceived as easy targets; they wear strange clothes, act in a provocative manner and have a bad appearance. These perceptions often depend on context, the level of anonymity, being in a fight or not, the person sending the message and his/her behavior. Further, victims reacted to cyberbullying by acting nonchalant, by not actually saying anything and seeking help from others (i.e., parents are not often asked for help because they do not want to bother them; fear of restricted Internet privileges. It can be concluded that asking cyberbullying victims about their experiences in an open manner, and allowing them to discuss these experiences, likely results in new and insightful information compared to using self-reports. In this questioning the perception of adolescents is key to see what is perceived as cyberbullying.
Hannes, Karin; Norré, David; Goedhuys, Jo; Naert, Ignace; Aertgeerts, Bert
In many countries, questions have been raised about the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) in oral health care. The call for an increase in EBP seems to face many obstacles. Only limited empirical studies address these obstacles. We present a qualitative study that explores the obstacles that Flemish (Belgian, Dutch-speaking) dentists experience in the implementation of EBP in routine clinical work. We collected data from discussions in focus groups. Seventy-nine dentists participated. The data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Three major categories of obstacles were identified. These categories relate to obstacles in 1) evidence, 2) partners in health care (medical doctors, patients, and government), and 3) the field of dentistry. Our findings suggest that educators should provide communication skills to aid decision making, address the technical dimensions of dentistry, promote lifelong learning, and close the gap between academics and general practitioners (dentists) in order to create mutual understanding. The obstacles identified are considered useful to support future quantitative research that can be generalized to a broader group.
Oliva, Bernardino; March, Sebastià; Gadea, Cristina; Stolper, Erik; Esteva, Magdalena
The gut feelings of doctors can act as triggers and modulators of the diagnostic process. This study explored the existence, significance, determinants and triggers of gut feelings among Spanish general practitioners. Qualitative study using focus groups. Thematic content analysis. Primary healthcare centres in Majorca (Spain). 20 purposively sampled general practitioners working in Majorca. General practitioners were aware of the existence of gut feelings in their diagnostic reasoning process and recognised 2 kinds of gut feelings: a sense of alarm and a sense of reassurance. A previous physician-patient relationship and the physician's experience had a strong perceived influence on the appearance of gut feelings. The physicians attached great significance to gut feelings, and considered them as a characteristic of the primary care working style and as a tool available in their diagnostic process. The physicians thought that the notion of gut feelings and their relevance can be transmitted to students and trainees. They tended to follow their gut feelings, although they were not sure of their accuracy. Spanish general practitioners in our study recognise the presence and role of gut feelings in their diagnostic reasoning process. Future research should examine the diagnostic accuracy of gut feelings and how to teach about gut feelings in the training of general practitioners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Leung, Kai-Kuen; Wu, En-Chang; Lue, Bee-Horng; Tang, Li-Yu
In Taiwan, to measure the quality of life (QOL) of elderly Chinese, one must rely on instruments developed in other Chinese or Western populations and not specifically for the elderly. The purpose of this study is to understand the components of QOL for elderly Chinese from Taiwan living in residential homes or in their communities. Forty-four elderly men and women divided into six focus groups were interviewed on video tape and the resultant recording was analyzed qualitatively by six independent researchers. The study yielded 15 QOL domains grouped into six dimensions: physical health (physical well-being, impact of illness, medical care), psychological health (mood states, life attitude and retrospection, philosophy of living, self-efficacy), social function (connectedness, exercise and leisure activities, social activities and services), living environment (living environment and arrangements, institutional factors), economic status, and religion and death (religion, death). For elderly Chinese in Taiwan, positive and negative life domains are equally important in the perception of life quality; person-environment interaction is a major consideration in the evaluation of QOL; family ties are an important component of QOL; traditional Chinese beliefs exert a positive influence on perceived QOL; and social functioning and vitality have a different meaning in Chinese compared to Western cultures.
Choi, Mona; Choi, Ran; Bae, Young-Ran; Lee, Sun-Mi
An ICU is known as a data-rich environment, and information technology can improve the quality of care by utilizing stored clinical data and providing decision support effectively and in a timely manner to clinicians. The necessity of clinical decision support systems is emphasized now more than ever because patient safety and nursing-sensitive outcomes in the clinical setting have become a critical issue. The purpose of this study was to explore nursing-sensitive outcomes issues related to patient safety in critical care and to understand the types and contents of clinical decision support systems that nurses desire in a clinical practice setting. Focus group interviews were conducted with 37 nurses who worked in one university hospital system in Korea. Our findings are summarized into threats to patient safety, nursing-sensitive outcomes, and the types and contents of clinical decision support systems, which are categorized into the following groups: (1) reminders, notification, alert, and warning systems; (2) point-of-care guidelines; and (3) references for information/guidelines. Nurses consistently stated that clinical decision support systems can help improve nursing outcomes by applying standardized nursing care. Our study is expected to provide a practical suggestion for developing and designing a new clinical decision support system or for refining an existing one.
Pollard, Christina Mary; Howat, Peter A; Pratt, Iain S; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J; Kerr, Deborah Anne
Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing "junk food" and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a substitution tone for fruit and vegetable
Peek, Sebastiaan Theodorus Michaël; Wouters, Eveline J M; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M
There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults' needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying differences emerged, for example, with regard
Full Text Available Background: The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents’ and young adults’ motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. Methods: In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. Results: We identified four major themes: 1 motivation, 2 body experience and self-image, 3 relationships and sense of belonging, and 4 the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Conclusion: Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.
Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori
With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…
Flayelle, Maèva; Maurage, Pierre; Billieux, Joël
Background and aims Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors underlying this behavior, as reflected by the paucity of available studies, most merely focusing on its potential harmfulness by applying the classic criteria used for other addictive disorders without exploring the uniqueness of binge-watching. This study thus aimed to take the opposite approach as a first step toward a genuine understanding of binge-watching behaviors through a qualitative analysis of the phenomenological characteristics of TV series watching. Methods A focus group of regular TV series viewers (N = 7) was established to explore a wide range of aspects related to TV series watching (e.g., motives, viewing practices, and related behaviors). Results A content analysis identified binge-watching features across three dimensions: TV series watching motivations, TV series watching engagement, and structural characteristics of TV shows. Most participants acknowledged that TV series watching can become addictive, but they all agreed having trouble recognizing themselves as truly being an "addict." Although obvious connections could be established with substance addiction criteria and symptoms, such parallelism appeared to be insufficient, as several distinctive facets emerged (e.g., positive view, transient overinvolvement, context dependency, and low everyday life impact). Discussion and conclusion The research should go beyond the classic biomedical and psychological models of addictive behaviors to account for binge-watching in order to explore its specificities and generate the first steps toward an adequate theoretical rationale for these emerging problematic behaviors.
Merrett, Alexandra; Jones, Daniel; Sein, Kim; Green, Trish; Macleod, Una
A key element of the NHS is universal access to a GP. Recently, UK general practice has been described as being in crisis, with training places unfilled and multiple practices reporting vacancies or facing closure. The recruitment of GPs continues to be a key focus for both the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) and the government. To understand the attitudes of newly qualified doctors towards a career in general practice, to appreciate potential reasons for the crisis in GP recruitment, and to recommend ways to improve recruitment. A qualitative study comprising five focus groups with 74 Foundation Year 1 (FY1) doctors from one Yorkshire deanery. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Foundation Year 1 doctors' thoughts towards a career in general practice were summarised in four themes: quality of life, job satisfaction, uncertainty surrounding the future of general practice, and the lack of respect for GPs among both doctors and the public. Participants felt that general practice could provide a good work-life balance, fair pay, and job stability. Job satisfaction, with the ability to provide care from the cradle to the grave, and to work within a community, was viewed positively. Uncertainties around future training, skill levels, pay, and workload, together with a perceived stigma experienced in medical schools and hospitals, were viewed as a deterrent to a career in general practice. This study has gathered the opinions of doctors at a critical point in their careers, before they choose a future specialty. Findings highlight areas of concern and potential deterrents to a career in general practice, together with recommendations to address these issues. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Tatla, Sandy K; Lohse, Keith R; Shirzad, Navid; Hoens, Alison M; Miller, Kimberly J; Holsti, Liisa; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Van der Loos, HF Machiel
Background Digital technology is becoming an increasingly popular means of delivering meaningful therapy to individuals with neurological impairments. An understanding of clients’ technology use and their perspectives on incorporating technology into rehabilitation can provide researchers and designers with valuable information to inform development of technologies and technology-based rehabilitation programs. Objective This study was designed to establish the current use and perceptions of gaming, social media, and robotics technologies for rehabilitative purposes from the perspective of adults and children with upper limb impairments to identify barriers and enablers to their adoption and use. Methods We conducted three focus groups consisting of pediatric (n=7, mean age 11.0 years) and adult (n=8, mean age 60.8 years) participants with hemiparesis affecting their upper limb. We applied thematic analysis methods to the resulting data. Results We identified three key themes: (1) clients’ use of technology in everyday life and rehabilitation, (2) barriers to use, and (3) enablers to therapy. Participants had limited exposure to technology for therapeutic purposes, but all acknowledged the potential benefits in providing motivation and interest for the performance of repetitive task practice. Adult participants requested efficacious, simple, and easy-to-use technology for rehabilitation with programs that could be individualized for them and expressed that they wanted these programs to provide a motivating means of repeated practice of therapeutic movements. In contrast, pediatric participants emphasized a desire for technology for rehabilitation that offered opportunities for social interaction and interactive games involving their whole body and not only their affected limb. Perceived safety and privacy were concerns for both groups. Conclusions Our findings highlight that all participants were open to the integration of technology into rehabilitation. Adult
Lam, Melanie Y; Tatla, Sandy K; Lohse, Keith R; Shirzad, Navid; Hoens, Alison M; Miller, Kimberly J; Holsti, Liisa; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Van der Loos, H F Machiel
Digital technology is becoming an increasingly popular means of delivering meaningful therapy to individuals with neurological impairments. An understanding of clients' technology use and their perspectives on incorporating technology into rehabilitation can provide researchers and designers with valuable information to inform development of technologies and technology-based rehabilitation programs. This study was designed to establish the current use and perceptions of gaming, social media, and robotics technologies for rehabilitative purposes from the perspective of adults and children with upper limb impairments to identify barriers and enablers to their adoption and use. We conducted three focus groups consisting of pediatric (n=7, mean age 11.0 years) and adult (n=8, mean age 60.8 years) participants with hemiparesis affecting their upper limb. We applied thematic analysis methods to the resulting data. We identified three key themes: (1) clients' use of technology in everyday life and rehabilitation, (2) barriers to use, and (3) enablers to therapy. Participants had limited exposure to technology for therapeutic purposes, but all acknowledged the potential benefits in providing motivation and interest for the performance of repetitive task practice. Adult participants requested efficacious, simple, and easy-to-use technology for rehabilitation with programs that could be individualized for them and expressed that they wanted these programs to provide a motivating means of repeated practice of therapeutic movements. In contrast, pediatric participants emphasized a desire for technology for rehabilitation that offered opportunities for social interaction and interactive games involving their whole body and not only their affected limb. Perceived safety and privacy were concerns for both groups. Our findings highlight that all participants were open to the integration of technology into rehabilitation. Adult participants were more pragmatically motivated by
Armstrong, Melissa J; Mullins, C Daniel; Gronseth, Gary S; Gagliardi, Anna R
Patient and consumer engagement in clinical practice guideline development is internationally advocated, but limited research explores mechanisms for successful engagement. To investigate the perspectives of potential patient/consumer guideline representatives on topics pertaining to engagement including guideline development group composition and barriers to and facilitators of engagement. Participants were guideline-naïve volunteers for programs designed to link community members to academic research with diverse ages, gender, race, and degrees of experience interacting with health care professionals. Three focus groups and one key informant interview were conducted and analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Participants recommended small, diverse guideline development groups engaging multiple patient/consumer stakeholders with no prior relationships with each other or professional panel members. No consensus was achieved on the ideal balance of patient/consumer and professional stakeholders. Pre-meeting reading/training and an identified contact person were described as keys to successful early engagement; skilled facilitators, understandable speech and language, and established mechanisms for soliciting patient opinions were suggested to enhance engagement at meetings. Most suggestions for effective patient/consumer engagement in guidelines require forethought and planning but little additional expense, making these strategies easily accessible to guideline developers desiring to achieve more meaningful patient and consumer engagement.
Mullins, C. Daniel; Gronseth, Gary S.; Gagliardi, Anna R.
Background Patient and consumer engagement in clinical practice guideline development is internationally advocated, but limited research explores mechanisms for successful engagement. Objective To investigate the perspectives of potential patient/consumer guideline representatives on topics pertaining to engagement including guideline development group composition and barriers to and facilitators of engagement. Setting and participants Participants were guideline-naïve volunteers for programs designed to link community members to academic research with diverse ages, gender, race, and degrees of experience interacting with health care professionals. Methods Three focus groups and one key informant interview were conducted and analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Results Participants recommended small, diverse guideline development groups engaging multiple patient/consumer stakeholders with no prior relationships with each other or professional panel members. No consensus was achieved on the ideal balance of patient/consumer and professional stakeholders. Pre-meeting reading/training and an identified contact person were described as keys to successful early engagement; skilled facilitators, understandable speech and language, and established mechanisms for soliciting patient opinions were suggested to enhance engagement at meetings. Conclusions Most suggestions for effective patient/consumer engagement in guidelines require forethought and planning but little additional expense, making these strategies easily accessible to guideline developers desiring to achieve more meaningful patient and consumer engagement. PMID:28319201
Demain, Sara; Burridge, Jane; Ellis-Hill, Caroline; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Yardley, Lucy; Tedesco-Triccas, Lisa; Swain, Ian
Assistive Technologies, defined as "electrical or mechanical devices designed to help people recover movement" have demonstrated clinical benefits in upper-limb stroke rehabilitation. Stroke services are becoming community-based and more reliant on self-management approaches. Assistive technologies could become important tools within self-management, however, in practice, few people currently use assistive technologies. This study investigated patients', family caregivers and health professionals' experiences and perceptions of stroke upper-limb rehabilitation and assistive technology use and identified the barriers and facilitators to their use in supporting stroke self-management. A three-day exhibition of assistive technologies was attended by 204 patients, family caregivers/friends and health professionals. Four focus groups were conducted with people purposively sampled from exhibition attendees. They included i) people with stroke who had used assistive technologies (n = 5), ii) people with stroke who had not used assistive technologies (n = 6), iii) family caregivers (n = 5) and iv) health professionals (n = 6). The audio-taped focus groups were facilitated by a moderator and observer. All participants were asked to discuss experiences, strengths, weaknesses, barriers and facilitators to using assistive technologies. Following transcription, data were analysed using thematic analysis. All respondents thought assistive technologies had the potential to support self-management but that this opportunity was currently unrealised. All respondents considered assistive technologies could provide a home-based solution to the need for high intensity upper-limb rehabilitation. All stakeholders also reported significant barriers to assistive technology use, related to i) device design ii) access to assistive technology information and iii) access to assistive technology provision. The lack of and need for a coordinated system for assistive technology
Lora, Karina R; Cheney, Marshall; Branscum, Paul
Overweight and obesity prevention interventions rarely take into account the unique role of fathers in promoting healthy home environments. To use qualitative methodology to examine the views of Hispanic mothers of children aged 2 to 5 years regarding fathers' roles in promoting healthy behaviors at home. Nine focus groups were conducted in Spanish with Hispanic mothers of preschool-aged children (N=55) from October to December 2015. Hispanic mothers were recruited from churches, community agencies, and preschools located in five Zip codes in the southwest part of Oklahoma City, OK. Questions examined the views of Hispanic mothers regarding fathers' roles in promoting healthy behaviors at home. Focus groups were audiorecorded, transcribed in Spanish, translated into English, and coded and analyzed for themes by two coders using NVivo version 10 software. Four themes were identified: fathers' disagreement with mothers about food preferences and preparation, fathers' support for child's healthy eating, fathers' support for child's physical activity, and fathers' lack of support for a healthy home food environment. Fathers' traditional expectations about the type of foods and portion sizes adults should eat conflicted with mothers' meal preparations. Mothers reported that, although they favored eating low-calorie meals, the meals fathers preferred eating were high-calorie meals (eg, quesadillas). In general, fathers supported healthy eating and physical activity behaviors for their children. Supportive behaviors for children included preparing healthy meals, using healthier cooking methods, grocery shopping with their children for healthy foods, and asking the child to participate in household chores and/or play sports. Fathers' unsupportive behaviors included bringing high-calorie foods, such as pizza, and sugary drinks into the home, using sweets and savory foods for emotion regulation, and displaying an indulgent parental feeding style. Mothers' views of fathers
Fors Uno G
Full Text Available Abstract Background The learners' perspectives on Virtual Patient Simulation systems (VPS are quintessential to their successful development and implementation. Focus group interviews were conducted in order to explore the opinions of medical students on the educational use of a VPS, the Web-based Simulation of Patients application (Web-SP. Methods Two focus group interviews-each with 8 undergraduate students who had used Web-SP cases for learning and/or assessment as part of their Internal Medicine curriculum in 2007-were performed at the Faculty of Medicine of Universidad el Bosque (Bogota, in January 2008. The interviews were conducted in Spanish, transcribed by the main researcher and translated into English. The resulting transcripts were independently coded by two authors, who also performed the content analysis. Each coder analyzed the data separately, arriving to categories and themes, whose final form was reached after a consensus discussion. Results Eighteen categories were identified and clustered into five main themes: learning, teaching, assessment, authenticity and implementation. In agreement with the literature, clinical reasoning development is envisaged by students to be the main scope of VPS use; transferable skills, retention enhancement and the importance of making mistakes are other categories circumscribed to this theme. VPS should enjoy a broad use across clinical specialties and support learning of topics not seen during clinical rotations; they are thought to have a regulatory effect at individual level, helping the students to plan their learning. The participants believe that assessment with VPS should be relevant for their future clinical practice; it is deemed to be qualitatively different from regular exams and to increase student motivation. The VPS design and content, the localization of the socio-cultural context, the realism of the cases, as well as the presence and quality of feedback are intrinsic features
Botezatu, Mihaela; Hult, Håkan; Fors, Uno G
The learners' perspectives on Virtual Patient Simulation systems (VPS) are quintessential to their successful development and implementation. Focus group interviews were conducted in order to explore the opinions of medical students on the educational use of a VPS, the Web-based Simulation of Patients application (Web-SP). Two focus group interviews-each with 8 undergraduate students who had used Web-SP cases for learning and/or assessment as part of their Internal Medicine curriculum in 2007-were performed at the Faculty of Medicine of Universidad el Bosque (Bogota), in January 2008. The interviews were conducted in Spanish, transcribed by the main researcher and translated into English. The resulting transcripts were independently coded by two authors, who also performed the content analysis. Each coder analyzed the data separately, arriving to categories and themes, whose final form was reached after a consensus discussion. Eighteen categories were identified and clustered into five main themes: learning, teaching, assessment, authenticity and implementation. In agreement with the literature, clinical reasoning development is envisaged by students to be the main scope of VPS use; transferable skills, retention enhancement and the importance of making mistakes are other categories circumscribed to this theme. VPS should enjoy a broad use across clinical specialties and support learning of topics not seen during clinical rotations; they are thought to have a regulatory effect at individual level, helping the students to plan their learning. The participants believe that assessment with VPS should be relevant for their future clinical practice; it is deemed to be qualitatively different from regular exams and to increase student motivation. The VPS design and content, the localization of the socio-cultural context, the realism of the cases, as well as the presence and quality of feedback are intrinsic features contributing to VPS authenticity. Five main themes were
Lancee, Jaap; Beun, Robbert Jan; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
Background Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment as a solid base for improving those adherence rates by applying adherence-enhancing strategies. Methods Adherence to technology-mediated sleep products was studied in three ways. First, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate adherence rates in technology-mediated insomnia therapy. Several databases were queried for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. After inclusion and exclusion steps, data from 18 studies were retrieved and aggregated to find an average adherence rate. Next, 15 semistructured interviews about sleep-support technologies were conducted to investigate perceived adherence. Lastly, several scenarios were written about the usage of a virtual sleep coach that could support adherence rates. The scenarios were discussed in six different focus groups consisting of potential users (n=15), sleep experts (n=7), and coaches (n=9). Results From the meta-analysis, average treatment adherence appeared to be approximately 52% (95% CI 43%-61%) for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. This means that, on average, half of the treatment exercises were not executed, suggesting there is a substantial need for adherence and room for improvement in this area. However, the users in the interviews believed they adhered quite well to their sleep products. Users mentioned relying on personal commitment (ie, willpower) for therapy adherence. Participants of the focus groups reconfirmed their belief in the effectiveness of personal commitment, which they regarded as more effective than adherence-enhancing strategies. Conclusions Although adherence rates for insomnia interventions indicate extensive room for improvement, users might not consider adherence to
In much of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and West Africa, there is a dearth of research, training and employment opportunities in the social sciences, particularly in the area of research and policy analysis on local conflicts. The Crisis Group has long considered establishing a fellowship program in order to train a ...
Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14-17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as 'fun' and having 'great flavourings'. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube 'vaping tricks', prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Dixon, Helen; Murphy, Michael; Scully, Maree; Rose, Mischa; Cotter, Trish
This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams - Weight, Activity, or Nutrition - where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages - (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by 'what' and 'how' ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by 'why' ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. Clinical governance is considered crucial in primary care. Since 2005, clinical pathways have been experimentally implemented at the Local Health Authority of Monza Brianza (ASLMB, Italy, to develop general practitioners’ (GPs care of patients affected by some chronic diseases. The experimentation was aimed at introducing clinical governance in primary care, increasing GPs’ involvement in the care of their patients, and improving both patients’ and professionals’ satisfaction. In the period 2005-2006, 12% of the 763 employed GPs in the ASLMB were involved in the experiment, while this percentage increased to 15-20% in 2007-2008. Design and Methods. Twenty-four GPs were purposively sampled, randomly divided into two groups and asked to participate in focus groups (FGs held in 2008, aimed at evaluating their perception of the experiment. The FGs were audio-recorded, dialogues were typed out and undergone to a thematic analysis, according to the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. Results. Four major themes emerged: i clinical pathways can result in GPs working in a more efficient and effective fashion; ii they can assure higher levels of both patient and professional satisfaction, since they sustain a caring approach and strengthen the GPs’ role; iii nevertheless, clinical pathways increase the bureaucratic workload and problems can arise in relationships among GPs and the LHA; iv the implementation of clinical pathways can be improved, especially by reducing bureaucracy and by assuring their continuity. Conclusions. Managerial aspects should be considered with care in order to experimentally introduce clinical pathways in general practice, and continuity of the experimentation should be guaranteed to improve GPs’ adherence and commitment.
Bohman, Doris M; Ericsson, Terese; Borglin, Gunilla
Nowadays, nursing research is seen as an integral part of professional nursing although implementing knowledge derived from nursing research into the practice setting is still problematic. Current research, conducted mainly with a descriptive quantitative design, highlights the struggle experienced by Registered Nurses (RNs) to use and implement research findings in clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this naturalistic inquiry was to explore nurses' perception of nursing research and its implementation in a clinical context. A qualitative approach was chosen, and four focus group discussions were conducted. The groups comprised a total of 16 RNs (three men and 13 women) working in a secondary care setting. The transcribed texts were analysed, inspired by Burnard's description of content analysis. The texts were interpreted as representing three predominant themes: scholastic, individual and contextual influences highlighted as influential components impacting on the RNs' views on research and its implementation as well as on their readiness to accept and support it. However, the most influential aspect permeating our themes was their educational background--the type of qualification they held. In general, the RNs with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing viewed research and the implementation of knowledge in practice more favourably than those RNs with a diploma. Our findings, although based on a small qualitative study, are congruent with others, indicating that further research is warranted concerning the impact of education on RNs' views of nursing research and its implementation. Hence, it might well be that the RNs' educational point of departure needs to be stressed more than what so far have been anticipated. In the meanwhile, it is possible that a number of strategies could be tested to promote a more favourable view in these issues and where the nursing education has the possibility to influence this endeavour. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of
Lazear, Katherine J; Pires, Sheila A; Isaacs, Mareasa R; Chaulk, Patrick; Huang, Larke
This article describes the experiences with depression of women with young children living in ethnically and culturally diverse, low-income communities. A qualitative ethnographic design using a focus group process was implemented in 15 communities. Despite great diversity in ethnic and cultural backgrounds, these women of color reported similar experiences with depression and described: a range of social risk factors, including domestic violence, isolation, language barriers, and difficulties with schools and other public systems; lack of access to high quality, culturally competent health and mental health services; reliance primarily on informal systems of care--relatives, friends, peers--in dealing with their depression, although many also reported good relationships with primary care practitioners. They identified: the specialty mental health sector as one to which they seldom turned for assistance, citing stigma, lack of insurance coverage, cultural beliefs, and attitudes of providers as barriers; a number of strategies for outreach and engagement with mental health providers; qualitative measures of maternal depression among women with young children; and, strategies for reaching and engaging culturally diverse mothers.
Dritsakis, Giorgos; van Besouw, Rachel M; O' Meara, Aoife
To study the aspects of the quality of life (QoL) on which music has an impact in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. Thirty adult CI users aged between 18 and 81 years old with a wide range of patient characteristics and musical backgrounds participated in the study. Six focus group discussions about music in everyday life were conducted and data were analysed using template analysis based on the QoL model of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life BREF questionnaire. A theoretical framework of the impact of music on the QoL was developed. Music was reported to contribute to many aspects of physical, psychological, and social well-being in adult CI users. These positive effects of music on QoL were similar to what has been reported in the literature for normal-hearing adults. However, difficulties in music perception and enjoyment were found to have a negative impact on CI users' QoL, especially by causing unpleasant feelings and limited participation in music-related or routine daily activities. These findings suggest that an improvement in music experiences of CI users may lead to improvements in QoL and therefore support the need for music rehabilitation. However, the relative importance of music overall and of specific aspects of music for each individual should be measured for an accurate assessment of the impact of music on the QoL of CI users.
Valentin Gischig has been awarded the AGU Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Gischig's thesis is entitled “Kinematics and failure mechanisms of the Randa rock slope instability (Switzerland).” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Gischig received his M.Sc. in geophysics and glaciology at Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, in Switzerland, in 2007. In 2011 he attained a Ph.D. in engineering geology/rock mechanics/landslide analysis under the supervision of Simon Loew, Jeffrey R. Moore, Florian Amann, and Keith F. Evans at ETH Zürich. Gischig is currently conducting postdoctoral research at ETH Zürich. His research interests include landslides, induced seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems, and coupled processes in rock mechanics.
Ferreiro-Losada, M T; Díaz-Sanisidro, E; Martínez-Romero, M D; Rial-Boubeta, A; Varela-Mallou, J; Clavería-Fontán, A
Delivery care giving is undergoing excessive interventionism today, not supported by scientific evidence, neglecting organisational aspects and individualisation. This study analyses the perception of mothers during their delivery, postpartum and breastfeeding periods in the Galician Health Service, in order to inform and help to improve this service. A total of 14 focus group meetings were held (one in each Galician public hospital), consisting of women who, in 2008, delivered by vaginal delivery or those who were not scheduled for a caesarean section. The process of birth analysis can identify a sequence of important elements both positive and negative, for mothers, and may lead to suggestions for improvement. Their experiences and opinions, especially in aspects such as participation in decision-making, mechanisation of labour and lactation, may help to conduct an assessment of the maternity ward operating. When investigating expectations and demands from users, information from perceived quality is received, and also mothers' experience is shared. Mothers call for humanity, empathy, information and participation. Facing the implementation of these elements, the key processes for working harder are the dilation stage and hospital staying. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Dixon, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Meagher-Lundberg, Patricia; Widdowson, Deborah
Energy expenditure studies have shown that playing Active Video Games (AVGs) is positively associated with increases in heart rate and oxygen consumption. It is proposed that playing AVGs may be a useful means of addressing inactivity and obesity in children. This study explored children's and parents' perceptions of AVGs and the likely facilitators and barriers to sustained use of AVGs. Data were gathered using focus group interviews: seven with children, four with adults. Both children and parents reported that AVGs offered a way to increase activity and improve fitness. Barriers to sustained engagement, according to parents, were the cost of AVGs and lack of space in the home to play the games. According to children, the likelihood of long-term engagement with AVGs depended on game content and child age, with AVGs being seen as more appropriate for younger children than teenagers. It would appear that there is potential for AVGs to reduce inactivity in young people. However, barriers to widespread, sustainable adoption would need to be addressed if this potential is to be realized.
Malek PhD, Lenka; Umberger PhD, Wendy J; Makrides PhD, Maria; Collins PhD, Carmel T; Zhou PhD, Shao Jia
to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. South Australia, Australia. 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant orachieve peace of mind knowing that nutrient requirements were 'definitely' being met. Other common factors motivating supplement use were the beliefs that supplementation: benefits maternal and fetal health; corrects known nutritional deficiencies; and is a more efficient method of obtaining required nutrients relative to food. Advice received from healthcare providers and marketing of supplements also motivated supplementation, while forgetting to take supplements was the most common barrier to use. Cost was only a barrier when considering whether or not to continue supplementation post-birth. women believe that supplements are an easier and more reliable source of nutrients than food intake alone, and rely on dietary supplementation as an insurance policy during pregnancy. Further studies are needed in larger and more representative samples to validate these findings and to test the effectiveness of information and intervention strategies targeting appropriate supplement use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skjutar, Asa; Schult, Marie-Louise; Christensson, Kyllike; Müllersdorf, Maria
This study explores occupational therapists' (OT) perceptions of indicators for occupational therapy interventions among patients with chronic pain. An exploratory design was applied to six focus groups of OTs (n = 25) for data collection. Analysis was performed using content analysis through identification of meaning units, codes, categories and themes. Limitations of occupational performance was a major theme that included participant restrictions caused by physical, emotional and environmental barriers. Five subthemes of need were identified: 1) pain behaviour that prevented engagement in activities; 2) lack of knowledge about pain mechanisms and strategies to deal with pain; 3) occupational imbalance in work, leisure and home; 4) emotional stress and depression due to pain; and 5) physical or environmental strain resulting in limitations in occupational performance. Because of the variety and the diverse trends of approaches towards interventions for patients with chronic pain that exist in different cultures and settings, this study should be replicated in other contexts to increase the transferability of the findings. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Foley, M; Thorley, K; Von Hout, M-C
Sickness certification causes problems for general practitioners (GPs). Difficulty with the assessment of capacity to work, conflict with patients and other non-medical factors have been shown to influence GPs' decision-making. Inadequate leadership and management of certification issues add to GPs' difficulties. To explore problems associated with sickness certification, as part of a larger mixed method research project exploring GPs' experiences and perceptions of sickness certification in Ireland. A qualitative study in an urban region of Ireland. A focus group of four male and four female GPs explored problems encountered by GPs in certifying sickness absence. Thematic data analysis was used. Three major themes emerged: perception of the sickness certification system, organization of health care and cultural factors in sickness absence behaviour. Employment structures in public and private sectors and lack of communication with other health care providers and employers were identified as complicating sickness certification. GPs encounter a complexity of issues in sick certification and are dissatisfied with their role in certifying sickness absence. Our results open the debate for policy change and development in Ireland.
Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Anna; Meong, Anna; Seo, Minjeong
The generic competency domains of advanced nursing practice have been reported on in numerous countries, but rather few studies have examined competencies specific to pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs). We identified the core clinical competencies of PNPs in South Korea and related these identified competencies to the five patterns of knowing in nursing. Focus group interviews were conducted with five PNP students and four PNPs using two thematic questions, one on clinical competencies required for PNPs and the other on competencies specific to Korean PNPs. A purposive sampling method was used to choose nurses with varying work experience and age from different hospital units. The inclusion criterion for PNP students was having at least two years of clinical experience and that for PNPs was having at least two years of clinical experience as a PNP in pediatric units in tertiary hospitals. The verbatim transcriptions of these interviews were analysed by two researchers using inductive content analysis. Six clinical competency domains were identified including advanced pediatric-specific knowledge and clinical skills, education and counseling, utilization and engagement in research, professional identity development, clinical and professional leadership, and holistic care. Some competencies identified were related to empirical and ethical knowledge that could be taught in nursing, whereas others were based on esthetic and personal knowledge, which can be mastered through professional experience. To provide holistic care for children and families, PNPs must acquire all necessary patterns of knowing through continuing education and individual reflection on personal practice.
Krumm, Silvia; Kilian, Reinhold; Becker, Thomas
There is an increasing awareness of gender-related issues in psychiatry. However, empirical findings on attitudes of psychiatric staff towards patient gender are limited. Gender-related issues are particularly relevant in the debate about mixed versus segregated sex wards, yet while the appropriateness of mixed-sex wards is questioned in Great Britain this is not the case in Germany. To investigate attitudes of psychiatric staff towards both patient gender and mixed versus segregated sex wards, we conducted a case study using focus groups with members of professional teams. We evaluated the transition process from two single-sex wards to two mixed-sex wards in a 330-bed psychiatric hospital in a rural area in south Germany. Staff described female patients as more externally oriented, motivating of others, demanding, and even sexually aggressive. Male patients, on the other hand, were described as more quiet, modest, or lazy. Furthermore, participants described the mixing process as a positive development whereas they did not see a need for gender-separated wards in order to protect vulnerable female patients. Some gender descriptions by professionals are "reversed" in comparison with gender stereotypes supposed to be present in wider society. The perception of crossed gender norms may affect staff attitudes towards the vulnerability of female patients in psychiatric settings and the provision of single-sex wards in in-patient psychiatric care. Practical implications are discussed against the background of a high rate of female patients with sexual abuse histories.
Scheffels, Janne; Sæbø, Gunnar
In Norway, packaging is one of the few remaining ways for tobacco companies to promote their products. Plain packaging of tobacco products could be a means to limit this promotion. Eleven focus group interviews with daily, occasional, and former smokers and nonsmokers (N = 69) aged 16-50 were undertaken to explore perceptions of different cigarette brands, the role of package design in communicating brand images, and how participants perceived cigarette packages when important design elements such as colors, symbols, logos, and branded fonts were removed. Distinct images of brands and user identities associated with these were narrated. Elements of the package design such as colors, images, and fonts were described as configuring brand images. Compared with current, completely branded cigarette packages, packages that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavorably and as detracting from the images that packages otherwise communicate. The findings indicate that packaging is vital to consumer identification with and differentiation between cigarette brands and that a policy of plain packaging could be useful in reducing the impact of packaging in promotion of tobacco products.
Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Jones, Denise R.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.
Trajectory-based operations (TBO) is a key concept in the Next Generation Air Transportation System transformation of the National Airspace System (NAS) that will increase the predictability and stability of traffic flows, support a common operational picture through the use of digital data sharing, facilitate more effective collaborative decision making between airspace users and air navigation service providers, and enable increased levels of integrated automation across the NAS. NASA has been developing trajectory-based systems to improve the efficiency of the NAS during specific phases of flight and is now also exploring Advanced 4-Dimensional Trajectory (4DT) operational concepts that will integrate these technologies and incorporate new technology where needed to create both automation and procedures to support gate-to-gate TBO. A TBO Prototype simulation toolkit has been developed that demonstrates initial functionality of an Advanced 4DT TBO concept. Pilot and controller subject matter experts (SMEs) were brought to the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at NASA Langley Research Center for discussions on an Advanced 4DT operational concept and were provided an interactive demonstration of the TBO Prototype using four example scenarios. The SMEs provided feedback on potential operational, technological, and procedural opportunities and concerns. This paper describes an Advanced 4DT operational concept, the TBO Prototype, the demonstration scenarios and methods used, and the feedback obtained from the pilot and controller SMEs in this focus group activity.
Ostroff, Jamie S.; Bari, Sehrish; D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Khera, Mitali; Acharya, Sudha; Gany, Francesca
Smokeless tobacco use is prevalent among South Asian immigrants, particularly in the forms of gutka and tambaku paan. In this paper, we examined (a) gutka and tambaku paan initiation and use patterns among South Asian immigrants, and (b) perceptions related to quitting and tobacco control. Six focus groups were conducted with 39 South Asian adult gutka/tambaku paan users, in three different South Asian languages (Gujarati, Bengali, and Urdu). Participants reported easy availability of gutka and tambaku paan in neighborhood stores, and noted several factors that promoted initiation (including social networks, perceived benefits, and curiosity). Due to awareness of low social acceptance of gutka and tambaku paan in the US, some participants discussed changing patterns of use following immigration. Finally, participants proposed roles of various agencies (e.g., doctors’/dentists’ role, government-led initiatives) for tobacco control in South Asian immigrant communities. This research provides implications for improving tobacco control efforts in the United States, particularly for South Asian immigrants. PMID:23579964
Sánchez-García, María Remedios; Moreno-Rodríguez, Marina; Hueso-Montoro, César; Campos-Calderón, Concepción; Varella-Safont, Ana; Montoya-Juárez, Rafael
To identify the facilitators and barriers experienced by professional related to end of life care in nursing homes. Descriptive qualitative research with phenomenological orientation, through content analysis. Nursing Homes at Primary Care District in Granada (Spain). Fifteen clinical professionals with, at least 6 months of experience in nursing homes, without specific background in palliative care. Three focus groups were undertaken with professionals of different disciplines and nursing homes. Interviews were recorded and transcribed literally. An open and axial coding was performed to identify relevant categories. Professionals identified difficulties in the communication with families related to relatives' feelings of guilt, difficulty in understanding the deterioration of their relative, and addressing too late the issue of death. Regarding decision making, professionals recognized that they do not encourage participation of patients. Advance directives are valued as a necessary tool, but they do not contemplate implementing them systematically. Other difficulties that professionals highlighted are lack of coordination with other professionals, related to misunderstanding of patients' needs, as well as lack of training, and lack of material and human resources. Facilitators include relationships with primary care teams. It is necessary to improve communication among nursing homes professionals, families, patients and other health workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Simons, Monique; de Vet, Emely; Hoornstra, Sjoukje; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; Chinapaw, Mai
Active games require whole-body movement and may be an innovative tool to substitute sedentary pastime with more active time and may therefore contribute to adolescents' health. To inform strategies aimed at reducing sedentary behavior by replacing non-active with active gaming, perceptions and context of active and non-active gaming are explored. Six focus groups were conducted with adolescents 12-16 years old representing a range of education levels. A semistructured question route was used containing questions about perceptions and the context of gaming. The adolescents had positive attitudes toward active gaming, especially the social interactive aspect, which was greatly appreciated. A substantial number of adolescents enjoyed non-active games more than active ones, mainly because of better game controls and more diversity in non-active games. Active games were primarily played when there was a social gathering. Few game-related rules and restrictions at home were reported. Given the positive attitudes of adolescents and the limited restrictions for gaming at home, active videogames may potentially be used in a home setting as a tool to reduce sedentary behavior. However, to make active games as appealing as non-active games, attention should be paid to the quality, diversity, and sustainability of active games, as these aspects are currently inferior to those of traditional non-active games.
McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Bowman, Carolyn; Fenton, Nancy; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David
To examine use, knowledge, and perceptions of caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) among youth. Qualitative research using focus group discussions (n = 4). Two Canadian cities (Toronto and Montreal). Youth aged 12-18 years (n = 41). Perceived definitions of CEDs, reasons for use, knowledge of health effects, use with alcohol, marketing perceptions, and use and understanding of cautionary statements on packaging. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth identified CEDs as products that provide energy and contain caffeine and sugar. Compared with mainstream CED brands and energy shots, youth were less likely to perceive Gatorade, Coca-Cola, and a Starbucks beverage as energy drinks, despite some ambiguity. The majority of participants believed that CEDs, including mixed with alcohol, were not necessarily harmful in moderation and that marketing was targeted toward older youth and young adults. Awareness of cautionary statements on CEDs was low; cautionary statements were perceived as difficult to find and read owing to the design and small font. Findings suggest a need to increase public education regarding the potential risks of CED consumption, including enhancements to the mandated cautionary statements, with greater attention to the impact of CED marketing on youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vandrevala, Tushna; Hampson, Sarah E; Daly, Tom; Arber, Sara; Thomas, Hilary
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be used by default on patients suffering a cardiac arrest in hospital in the UK unless there is an order that specifies otherwise in the patient's notes. Guidelines recommend that the decision involves competent and willing patients or, in the case of incapacitation, their families. In practice, patient autonomy is often compromised. Ideally, discussion of preferences for end-of-life care should take place prior to hospitalisation. The majority of research on this topic has been conducted on hospitalised patients, so little is known about the views of older, but healthy, people about resuscitation decision-making. The present study was designed to address this gap. A series of eight focus groups involving a total of 48 participants over the age of 65 was conducted to explore people's views about the factors guiding resuscitation decision-making. A qualitative analysis, which emphasised the dilemmatic nature of resuscitation decision-making, identified two broad thematic dilemmas that subsumed six specific themes which contribute to resolving the dilemmas: quality of life (medical condition, mental versus physical incapacity, age and ageing, and burden), and the involvement of others (doctors and families) versus loss of autonomy. The dilemma underlying quality of life is that an acceptable quality of life after CPR cannot be assured. The dilemma underlying the involvement of others is that individual autonomy may be lost. The themes and subthemes provide the basis for guiding these difficult discussions in advance of serious illness.
Kamps Willem A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines in paediatric oncology encourage health care providers to share relevant information with young patients and parents to enable their active participation in decision making. It is not clear to what extent this mirrors patients' and parents' preferences. This study investigated communication preferences of childhood cancer patients, parents, and survivors of childhood cancer. Methods Communication preferences were examined by means of online focus groups. Seven patients (aged 8–17, 11 parents, and 18 survivors (aged 8–17 at diagnosis participated. Recruitment took place by consecutive inclusion in two Dutch university oncological wards. Questions concerned preferences regarding interpersonal relationships, information exchange and participation in decision making. Results Participants expressed detailed and multi-faceted views regarding their needs and preferences in communication in paediatric oncology. They agreed on the importance of several interpersonal and informational aspects of communication, such as honesty, support, and the need to be fully informed. Participants generally preferred a collaborative role in medical decision making. Differences in views were found regarding the desirability of the patient's presence during consultations. Patients differed in their satisfaction with their parents' role as managers of the communication. Conclusion Young patients' preferences mainly concur with current guidelines of providing them with medical information and enabling their participation in medical decision making. Still, some variation in preferences was found, which faces health care providers with the task of balancing between the sometimes conflicting preferences of young cancer patients and their parents.
Udo, C; Lövgren, M; Lundquist, G; Axelsson, B
The aim of this study was to explore palliative home care physicians' experiences regarding end-of-life breakpoint communication (BPC). This is a qualitative study where focus group interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the participants saw themselves as being responsible for accomplishing BPC, and they were convinced that it should be regarded as a process of communication initiated at an early stage, i.e. proactively. However, BPC was often conducted as a reaction to the patient's sudden deterioration or sometimes not at all. The barriers to achieving proactive BPC included physicians' uncertainty regarding the timing of BPC, primarily due to difficulties in prognostication in terms of time of death, and uncertainty as t