Sample records for program flat rock

  1. What Do Kinematic Models Imply About the Constitutive Properties of Rocks Deformed in Flat-Ramp-Flat Folds? (United States)

    Cruz, L.; Nevitt, J. M.; Seixas, G.; Hilley, G. E.


    Kinematic theories of flat-ramp-flat folds relate fault angles to stratal dips in a way that allows prediction of structural geometries in areas of economic or scientific interest. However, these geometric descriptions imply constitutive properties of rocks that might be discordant with field and laboratory measurements. In this study, we compare deformation resulting from kinematic and mechanical models of flat-ramp-flat folds with identical geometries to determine the conditions over which kinematic models may be reasonably applied to folded rocks. Results show that most mechanical models do not conform to the geometries predicted by the kinematic models, and only low basal friction (μ ≤ 0.1) and shallow ramps (ramp angle ≤10°) produce geometries consistent with kinematic predictions. This implies that the kinematic models might be appropriate for a narrow set of geometric and basal fault friction parameters.

  2. Soil physical and chemical properties associated with flat rock and riparian forest communities (United States)

    David O. Mitchem; James E. Johnson; Laura S. Gellerstedt


    Flat Rock forest communities are unique ecosystems found adjacent to some large rivers in the Central and Southern Appalachian Mountains. Characterized by thin, alluvial soils overlying flat, resistant sandstone, these areas are maintained by severe flooding and have unique associated plant systems. With the advent of dams to control flooding in the 20th century, many...

  3. Hydrogeology of rocks penetrated by test well JF-3, Jackass Flats, Nye County, Nevada

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    Plume, R.W.; La Camera, R.J.


    The U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Geological Survey are monitoring water levels in southern Nevada and adjacent parts of California in response to concern about the potential effects of pumping ground water to support the Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Program. Well JF-3 was drilled in the western part of Jackass Flats for monitoring water levels, for determining the likelihood of a hydraulic connection between well JF-3 and production wells J-12 and J-13, and for measuring the hydraulic properties of the Topopah Spring Tuff. The borehole for JF-3 penetrated about 480 feet of alluvium and 818 feet of underlying volcanic rock. The well was finished at a depth of 1,138 feet below land surface near the base of the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the principal volcanic-rock aquifer in the area. The Topopah Spring Tuff at well JF-3 extends from depths of 580 feet to 1,140 feet and consists of about 10 feet of partly to moderately welded ash-flow tuff; 10 feet of vitrophyre; 440 feet of devitrified, moderately to densely welded ash-flow tuff; 80 feet of densely welded ash-flow tuff; 10 feet of vitric, nonwelded to partly welded ash-flow tuff; and 10 feet of ashfall tuff. Fractures and lithophysae are most common in the devitrified tuff, especially between depths of 600 feet and 1,040 feet. Much of the water produced in well JF-3 probably comes from the sequence of these devitrified tuffs that is below the water table. The transmissivity of the aquifer is an estimated 140,000-160,000 feet squared per day and hydraulic conductivity is 330-370 feet per day. These values exceed estimates made at well J-13 by two orders of magnitude. Such large differences may be accounted for by differences in the development of fractures and lithophysae in the Topopah Spring Tuff at the two wells.

  4. Characteristics of Fault Zones in Volcanic Rocks Near Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

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    Donald Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II


    During 2005 and 2006, the USGS conducted geological studies of fault zones at surface outcrops at the Nevada Test Site. The objectives of these studies were to characterize fault geometry, identify the presence of fault splays, and understand the width and internal architecture of fault zones. Geologic investigations were conducted at surface exposures in upland areas adjacent to Yucca Flat, a basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site; these data serve as control points for the interpretation of the subsurface data collected at Yucca Flat by other USGS scientists. Fault zones in volcanic rocks near Yucca Flat differ in character and width as a result of differences in the degree of welding and alteration of the protolith, and amount of fault offset. Fault-related damage zones tend to scale with fault offset; damage zones associated with large-offset faults (>100 m) are many tens of meters wide, whereas damage zones associated with smaller-offset faults are generally a only a meter or two wide. Zeolitically-altered tuff develops moderate-sized damage zones whereas vitric nonwelded, bedded and airfall tuff have very minor damage zones, often consisting of the fault zone itself as a deformation band, with minor fault effect to the surrounding rock mass. These differences in fault geometry and fault zone architecture in surface analog sites can serve as a guide toward interpretation of high-resolution subsurface geophysical results from Yucca Flat.

  5. Preliminary model of the pre-Tertiary basement rocks beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on analysis of gravity and magnetic data (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Sweetkind, D.; Langenheim, V.E.


    The Environmental Restoration Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, was developed to investigate the possible consequences to the environment of 40 years of nuclear testing on the Nevada Test Site. The majority of the tests were detonated underground, introducing contaminants into the ground-water system (Laczniak and others, 1996). An understanding of the ground-water flow paths is necessary to evaluate the extent of ground-water contamination. This report provides information specific to Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site. Critical to understanding the ground-water flow beneath Yucca Flat is an understanding of the subsurface geology, particularly the structure and distribution of the pre-Tertiary rocks, which comprise both the major regional aquifer and aquitard sequences (Winograd and Thordarson, 1975; Laczniak and others, 1996). Because the pre-Tertiary rocks are not exposed at the surface of Yucca Flat their distribution must be determined through well logs and less direct geophysical methods such as potential field studies. In previous studies (Phelps and others, 1999; Phelps and Mckee, 1999) developed a model of the basement surface of the Paleozoic rocks beneath Yucca Flat and a series of normal faults that create topographic relief on the basement surface. In this study the basement rocks and structure of Yucca Flat are examined in more detail using the basement gravity anomaly derived from the isostatic gravity inversion model of Phelps and others (1999) and high-resolution magnetic data, as part of an effort to gain a better understanding of the Paleozoic rocks beneath Yucca Flat in support of groundwater modeling.

  6. Review and reconnaissance of the hydrogeology of Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the vicinity of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

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    Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.


    Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Frenchman Flat, which has been identified in the FFACO as a Corrective Action Unit (CAU). Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a CAU-specific hydrologic flow and transport model that will be used to predict contaminant boundaries. Hydrogeologic maps and cross sections are currently being prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted in Frenchman Flat. During this effort, it has been found that older Tertiary-age sediments might be hydrogeologically important in the Frenchman Flat model area. Although the character and extent of these units are poorly known, there is reason to believe that in some parts of Frenchman Flat they may lie between the regional Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the younger Tertiary saturated alluvium and volcanic units in which several underground nuclear tests were conducted. It was not possible to quickly determine their extent, or ascertain whether or not these units might act as confining units or aquifers. The work described in this report was done to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeology of these rocks.

  7. Development of an AutoFlat program for the acquisition of effective flat images in the automated observation system

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    Joh-Na Yoon


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an observation program for obtaining effective flat images that are necessary for photometric observation. The development of the program was achieved by improving the existing method for obtaining twilight flat images. The existing method for obtaining twilight flat images acquires flat images by observing the sky light after sunset or light before sunrise. The decision of when to observe flat images at each night is solely dependent on the judgment of an observer, and thus the obtained flat images for particular nights may not be clean. Especially, in the case of the observatories where an automated observation system is in operation, there is a difficulty that an observer should pay attention during sunrise and sunset in order to obtain flat images. In this study, a computer program is developed to improve this inconvenience and to efficiently perform photometric observation in the observatories where an automated observation system is applied. This program can obtain flat images by calculating the time for obtaining flat images automatically and the exposure time using a numerically calculated function. When obtaining twilight flat images at dusk and at dawn, the developed program performs automated observation and provides effective flat images by acquiring appropriate exposure time considering the sunrise and sunset times that vary depending on the day of observation. The code for performing this task was added to Obs Tool II (Yoon et al. 2006, which is the automated observation system of the Chungbuk National University Observatory, and the usefulness of the developed program was examined by performing an actual automated observation. If this program is applied to other observatories where automated observation is in operation, it is expected that stable and highquality flat images could be obtained, which can be used for the pre-processing of photometric observation data.

  8. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

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    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.


    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Rock garden programming - Programming in the physical world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C


    Full Text Available and the music industry. Users from these backgrounds intuitively know what the effect will be when using tangibles marked with these symbols. Horn et al. (Fig. 1, right) combine text and shapes to convey the meaning of the tangible [9]. Fig. 1... be mowed in the lawn, similar to those found at sporting grounds. Fig. 2. The diagrammatic representation of the Rock Garden Programming Environment. Fig. 3. Arrow carved from soft rock with attached magnets (not visible). IV. EVALUATION Our aim...

  10. An analysis of fracture trace patterns in areas of flat-lying sedimentary rocks for the detection of buried geologic structure. [Kansas and Texas (United States)

    Podwysocki, M. H.


    Two study areas in a cratonic platform underlain by flat-lying sedimentary rocks were analyzed to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between fracture trace patterns and their frequency distributions and subsurface structural closures which might contain petroleum. Fracture trace lengths and frequency (number of fracture traces per unit area) were analyzed by trend surface analysis and length frequency distributions also were compared to a standard Gaussian distribution. Composite rose diagrams of fracture traces were analyzed using a multivariate analysis method which grouped or clustered the rose diagrams and their respective areas on the basis of the behavior of the rays of the rose diagram. Analysis indicates that the lengths of fracture traces are log-normally distributed according to the mapping technique used. Fracture trace frequency appeared higher on the flanks of active structures and lower around passive reef structures. Fracture trace log-mean lengths were shorter over several types of structures, perhaps due to increased fracturing and subsequent erosion. Analysis of rose diagrams using a multivariate technique indicated lithology as the primary control for the lower grouping levels. Groupings at higher levels indicated that areas overlying active structures may be isolated from their neighbors by this technique while passive structures showed no differences which could be isolated.


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    Joe M. Aldrich


    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  12. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Ecological Monitoring Program 1995 annual report

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    The Ecological Monitoring Program (ECMP) was established at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) in September 1992. At that time, EcMP staff developed a Program Plan that was peer-reviewed by scientists from western universities before submittal to DOE RFFO in January 1993. The intent of the program is to measure several quantitative variables at different ecological scales in order to characterize the Rocky Flats ecosystem. This information is necessary to document ecological conditions at the Site in impacted and nonimpacted areas to determine if Site practices have had ecological impacts, either positive or negative. This information can be used by managers interested in future use scenarios and CERCLA activities. Others interested in impact analysis may also find the information useful. In addition, these measurements are entered into a database which will serve as a long-term information repository that will document long-term trends and potential future changes to the Site, both natural and anthropogenic.

  13. Federal hot dry rock geothermal energy development program: an overview

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    Nunz, G.J.


    The formulation and evolution of the Federal Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are traced. Program motivation is derived from the enormous potential of the resource. Accomplishments to date, including the establishment and evaluation of the 5-MW/sub t/ Phase 1 reservoir at Fenton Hill, NM and various instrument and equipment developments, are discussed. Future plans presented include (1) establishment of a 20- to 50-MW/sub t/ Phase 2 reservoir at Fenton Hill that will be used to demonstrate longevity and, eventually, electric power production and (2) the selection of a second site at which a direct thermal application will be demonstrated.

  14. Forceful emplacement of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek composite pluton into a structural basin in eastern California; internal structure and wall rock deformation (United States)

    Morgan, Sven; Law, Richard; de Saint Blanquat, Michel


    Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility parameters have been analyzed at 311 locations in the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) pluton of eastern California. The large amount of data has allowed for the AMS parameters to be contoured using techniques that both reveal map-scale trends and emphasize small-scale differences. The contour maps suggest that magnetic susceptibility is dominantly controlled by composition of the magma but may also be affected by emplacement-related strain as the magma chamber inflated and forced the wall rocks outward. Pluton construction involved two major pulses of different composition magmas that were emplaced sequentially but with overlapping periods of crystallization. The magmas initially intruded as sill-like bodies into a structural basin. The magnetic foliation of the pluton cuts across internal magmatic contacts on the map scale and is parallel to local contacts between the pluton and surrounding metasedimentary wall rocks. The magnetic fabric is similar in orientation and symmetry to intense flattening strains recorded in the aureole rocks. The metasedimentary wall rocks have been shortened between 60 and 70% and this strain magnitude is approximately equal on the west, south, and east margins of the pluton. Strain in the wall rocks is dominantly flattening and concentrated into a narrow (1 km wide) inner aureole. Mapping of bedding/cleavage intersection lineations south of the pluton indicates that the magma made room for itself by translating the wall rocks outward and rotating the already inward dipping wall rocks of the structural basin to sub-vertical. Stretching of the inner aureole around an expanding magma chamber was responsible for the intense shortening. Limited data on the Marble Canyon pluton to the south of the EJB pluton indicates a very similar emplacement process.

  15. The Place of Rock and Mineral Identification in Geoscience Programs (United States)

    Nicholls, J.


    Geoscience programs traditionally required a significant amount of class and laboratory time for students to learn to identify Earth materials: minerals, rocks, soils, and fossils. Two decades ago, courses devoted to the mineral sciences, mineralogy and petrology, constituted approximately 20% of a geoscience program. Today, they make up between 5% and 10% of the courses in such a program. Two decades ago students spent their laboratory time learning to identify Earth materials. Today, they do the same thing, even though the time set aside for students to achieve proficiency is limited. A typical learning objective for a geoscience program reads: Identify common Earth materials and interpret their composition, origin and uses. The three underlined words convey the essence of the objective: We ask students to identify and interpret common Earth materials, which begs the questions: Do the common Earth materials provide adequate information for interpreting the composition, origin, and use of Earth materials? Do modern curricula contain enough laboratory time for students to learn to identify Earth materials? Do all geoscientists need to be able to identify Earth materials? The assemblage kyanite plus sillimanite is crucial for interpreting metamorphic history yet they are not common minerals. The IUGS classification contains 179 rock names yet we expect students to identify only a handful of them. The upper mantle is dominated by peridotite yet do geophysicists need to be able to identify peridotite in order to study the upper mantle? All geoscientists should be able to interpret Earth materials, at least at some level, and deduce the information Earth materials provide about Earth history and processes. Only a subset of geoscientists needs to learn how to identify them. Identification skills can be learned in upper level courses designed for those who will become mineral scientists. Many of the interpretations derived from Earth materials can be learned in the lower

  16. Evaluation of the Health Rocks! Program: The Association of Youth Engagement with Program Outcomes

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    Yan Xia


    Full Text Available This evaluation research examined the relationship between program process and program outcome, specifically, youth engagement in the national 4-H Council Health Rocks! program and their program outcomes.  Based on program evaluation surveys completed after the program by participants, youths’ engagement in the program was associated with their gains in knowledge and skills about substance use, and personal assets related to avoiding risks.  When youth participants find a program interesting, are actively engaged in the program, and find the program staff friendly, they benefit more from the program.  Findings underscore the importance of engaging curriculum and friendly staff to the success of extension or afterschool youth programs. The evaluation method may offer an example of balancing rigor of evaluation design and feasibility of implementing an evaluation.

  17. Hot dry rock energy: Hot dry rock geothermal development program. Progress report. Fiscal year 1993

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    Salazar, J.; Brown, M. [eds.


    Extended flow testing at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test facility concluded in Fiscal Year 1993 with the completion of Phase 2 of the long-term flow test (LTFT) program. As is reported in detail in this report, the second phase of the LTFT, although only 55 days in duration, confirmed in every way the encouraging test results of the 112-day Phase I LTFT carried out in Fiscal Year 1992. Interim flow testing was conducted early in FY 1993 during the period between the two LTFT segments. In addition, two brief tests involving operation of the reservoir on a cyclic schedule were run at the end of the Phase 2 LTFT. These interim and cyclic tests provided an opportunity to conduct evaluations and field demonstrations of several reservoir engineering concepts that can now be applied to significantly increase the productivity of HDR systems. The Fenton Hill HDR test facility was shut down and brought into standby status during the last part of FY 1993. Unfortunately, the world`s largest, deepest, and most productive HDR reservoir has gone essentially unused since that time.

  18. Research Program at Maxey Flats and Consideration of Other Shallow Land Burial Sites

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    The Maxey Flats research program is a multidisciplinary, multilaboratory program with the objectives to define the radiochemical and chemical composition of leachates in the burial trenches, define the areal distribution of radionuclides on the site and the factors responsible for this distribution, define the concentrations of radionuclides in vegetation both on and offsite and the uptake of radionuclides by representative agricultural crops, define the atmospheric pathways for radionuclide transport and the mechanisms involved, determine the subsurface migration rates of radionuclides and the chemical, physical, biological, and hydrogeological factors which affect this migration. and evaluate the engineering practices which influence the seepage of surface waters into the burial trenches. The program was initiated in 1979 and a research meeting was held at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Headquarters on July 16, 1980, to report the research findings of each of the participating laboratories and universities. Important observations from the research are included in the Summary and the results reported for each of the research efforts are summarized in the individual reports that are combined to form this document.

  19. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous shoshonitic rocks in the northern Wuyi Mountains, South China: A result of the roll-back of a flat-slab? (United States)

    Li, Wu-Xian; Li, Xian-Hua; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Yang, Dong-Sheng


    Potassic magmatism is commonly linked to post-/late-orogenic environments, such as foundering or convection thinning of continental lithosphere. Their petrogenesis is crucial for constraining the chemical and physical properties of the remnant sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Here we report new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages, whole rock geochemical results and Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotope data from four potassic plutons (the Da'an, Yingcheng, Zixi and Honggong plutons) in the northern Wuyi Mountains, South China. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analyses indicate that these potassic rocks formed at 139-126 Ma. They are characterized by high SiO2 (56-73%) and K2O (3.8-6.7%), with a K2O/Na2O ratio of 2.18-2.04, plotting within the field of high-SiO2 shoshonites. Their ISr and εNd(t) values vary from 0.7077 to 0.7162 and - 5.66 to - 10.52, respectively. The initial zircon εHf(t) values range from 2.3 to - 13.1, corresponding to TDM modal ages between 707 and 1330 Ma. These geochemical and isotope characteristics indicate that these shoshonites derived from a subduction-modified ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle, and then underwent significantly fractional crystallization of K-feldspar, plagioclase, and accessory minerals, such as apatite and Fe-Ti oxides during magma ascent. We interpret that asthenospheric mantle upwelling (caused by eastward roll-back of a flat-slab?) triggered partial melting of the metasomatized lithospheric mantle to result in the Early Cretaceous shoshonitic magmatism in the northern Wuyi Mountains. An integration of our new results with compiled data from the interior of the South China Block reveals that the arc-like geochemical signature is confined to the Wuyi Mountains region, but becomes little or even invisible toward inland in South China. This implies that the far-field effects of the early Mesozoic subduction only reached the Wuyi Mountains, ca. 500 km away from the trench, consistent with flat or shallow subduction models.

  20. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

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    Gleeson, L.


    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  1. Progress of the US hot-dry-rock program (United States)

    Smith, M. C.


    The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) which concentrates on the use of hydraulic fracturing to create flow passages and heat transfer surface between two wells drilled into hot crystalline rock of low initial permeability was studied. A recirculating pressurized water loop was used to extract heat at rates up to 5MW(t) from a system of this type in granitic rock at a depth of 2600 m. Two wells for a larger, deeper, hotter system were drilled at the same location. They will be connected by a set of hydraulic fractures, and the resulting heat extraction loop is expected to yield the engineering experience and performance data which are required to demonstrate the commercial usefulness of such systems. The HDR resource base of the United States is evaluated and local areas that appear especially promising either for future heat extraction experiments or for eventual commercial development are investigated.

  2. Instrumentation program for rock mechanics and spent fuel tests at the Nevada Test Site

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    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.H.; Simonson, R.


    This report contains a discussion of an instrumentation and rock mechanics program recommended for consideration as part of the overall Lawrence Livermore nuclear waste storage program at NTS. It includes a discussion of (1) rationale for the heater tests, spent fuel facility evaluation, heated room tests, (2) recommended instrumentation types together with estimated delivery schedules, (3) recommended instrumentation layouts, (4) other proposed rock mechanics tests both laboratory and in situ, and (5) data acquisition and reduction requirements.

  3. Rock Slope Design Criteria (United States)


    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  4. Improving Healthy Living Youth Development Program Outreach in Extension: Lessons Learned from the 4-H Health Rocks! Program (United States)

    Kumaran, Muthusami; Fogarty, Kate; Fung, Whitney M.; Terminello, Amanda


    This article discusses a qualitative evaluation of the Florida 4-H Health Rocks! program aimed at youth alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use prevention. A questionnaire was distributed to Extension professionals across Florida to gain insight into the strengths and barriers they faced with programming. Programmatic strengths included targeting a…

  5. Music in a Flat World: Thomas L. Friedman's Ideas and Your Program (United States)

    Beckmann-Collier, Aimee


    In his bestseller "The World is Flat," Pulitzer-winning author Thomas L. Friedman discusses the concept of globalization and its "flattening" effect on the world. Globalization is a hugely controversial and complex issue, and the effects of globalization and the new needs of a global society may be especially important to music educators. By…

  6. Structure and content of competitive programs for trained athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll

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    Viacheslav Mulyk


    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the structure of competitive programs of qualified "B" class athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll. Material & Methods: pedagogical, sociological and methods of mathematical statistics were used. In the experimental part of the study, specialists of various categories and qualifications participated, an analysis of the video materials of the competitions of qualified athletes performing in the "B" class. Results: the content and the structure of the competitive compositions of qualified athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll have been studied, the components of the competitive program indicators are compiled. Conclusion: main structural components characterizing the competitive program of qualified athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll are highlighted. Their components, number and time of execution are determined. It is established that a variety of acrobatic elements, competitive moves, dance figures, design tools and the consistency of the construction of the entire competitive composition with high quality of performance characterizes the winning couple.

  7. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries (United States)

    Allen, J. S.


    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Hydro Monitoring Program. Report for 2009

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    Wass, Eva; Nyberg, Goeran (GEOSIGMA, Uppsala (Sweden))


    The Aespoe island is situated close to the nuclear power plant of Simpevarp in southeastern Sweden. As part of the pre-investigations preceding excavation of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, registrations of the groundwater levels and electrical conductivity in packed-off borehole sections and levels in open boreholes started in 1987. The investigations are still ongoing and are planned to continue for a long period of time. As the tunnel excavation went on from the autumn 1990 and onwards, new boreholes were drilled in the tunnel and instrumented to enable groundwater pressure monitoring in packed-off sections. In addition, other hydro-related measurements such as water flow in the tunnel, electrical conductivity of tunnel water and inflow and outflow of water through tunnel pipes have been performed. This report is a summary of the monitoring during 2009. In order to allow for comparison with factors that may influence the groundwater level/pressure and flow, meteorological data are also presented in the report. From the end of 1991, the disturbance from the tunnel is the dominating factor influencing groundwater levels in the area. In one chapter, activities that may have an influence on the ground water situation are listed and briefly discussed

  9. Revised plans for Hot Dry Rock geothermal program

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    Murphy, Hugh D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This letter is our response to your February 13 letter directing us to respond to Headquarters' request for new HDR program plans. This request was initiated by John E. Mock, CE-342, HQ. Our response is organized as three attachments.

  10. Analysis of competition program "Аcrobatics" of skilled athletes in acrobatic rock and roll

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    Batieieva N.P.


    Full Text Available Reviewed and analyzed the results of the strongest performances of dancing couples in acrobatic rock and roll category "M-class", the competition rules of the World rock 'n' roll confederation. A comparative analysis on the requirements to perform acrobatic competition program "Acrobatics". Selected a number of acrobatic elements that make up the structure of competitive acrobatic programs. Found that a number of sports pairs allow technical errors (involuntary distortion performance techniques acrobatic element when performing acrobatic elements. Proposed grading scale acrobatic elements of the program, using methodical and special terms "related" sports. The recommendations to judges, coaches on the cost of each acrobatic element in assessing and compiling competitive program.

  11. Modelling of the Elasticity Modulus for Rock Using Genetic Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Atici


    Full Text Available In rock engineering projects, statically determined parameters are more reflective of actual load conditions than dynamic parameters. This study reports a new and efficient approach to the formulation of the static modulus of elasticity Es applying gene expression programming (GEP with nondestructive testing (NDT methods. The results obtained using GEP are compared with the results of multivariable linear regression analysis (MRA, univariate nonlinear regression analysis (URA, and the dynamic elasticity modulus (Ed. The GEP model was found to produce the most accurate calculation of Es. The proposed approach is a simple, nondestructive, and practical way to determine Es for anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks.

  12. 76 FR 20715 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range (United States)


    ... Program (SRP) and the University of Alaska-Fairbanks' PFRR may be found on the internet at http://sites... understanding the interactions between the sun and Earth as well as the origin and evolution of the solar system...

  13. The influence of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot on the biomechanics characteristics of foot of children of pre-school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychuk I.O.


    Full Text Available In the article is defined linear and angular biomechanics descriptions of children's foot of senior preschool age. It is analysed the dynamics and increase of the explored indexes during realization of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot in the teaching process. In experiment took part teachers and instructors of physical culture; control and experimental group consist of 20 children at the age of 5-6 years old. Efficiency of the offered program of prophylaxis of flat foot is proved.

  14. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.


    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  15. Programming the shape-shifting of flat soft matter : from self-rolling/self-twisting materials to self-folding origami

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janbaz, S.; Hedayati, R.; Zadpoor, A.A.


    Nature uses various activation mechanisms to program complex transformations in the shape and functionality of living organisms. Inspired by such natural events, we aimed to develop initially flat (i.e. two-dimensional) programmable materials that, when triggered by a stimulus such as temperature,

  16. Fractured rock modeling in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program: a review of requirements and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. John, C.; Krug, A.; Key, S.; Monsees, J.


    Generalized computer codes capable of forming the basis for numerical models of fractured rock masses are being used within the NWTS program. Little additional development of these codes is considered justifiable, except in the area of representation of discrete fractures. On the other hand, model preparation requires definition of medium-specific constitutive descriptions and site characteristics and is therefore legitimately conducted by each of the media-oriented projects within the National Waste Terminal Storage program. However, it is essential that a uniform approach to the role of numerical modeling be adopted, including agreement upon the contribution of modeling to the design and licensing process and the need for, and means of, model qualification for particular purposes. This report discusses the role of numerical modeling, reviews the capabilities of several computer codes that are being used to support design or performance assessment, and proposes a framework for future numerical modeling activities within the NWTS program.

  17. The 4-H Health Rocks! Program in Florida: Outcomes on Youth Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusami Kumaran


    Full Text Available Youth tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse is a serious concern in the State of Florida, as well as across the nation. 4-H Health Rocks! is a positive youth development prevention program that utilizes experiential learning methods and youth-adult partnerships. The program and supporting curriculum were designed to foster personal and social skills to better equip adolescents to overcome pressures to participate in substance use. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Health Rocks! in Florida and program evaluation including its impact on participants’ drug knowledge, drug beliefs and attitudes, and drug resistance skills. Program evaluation indicates that 4-H Health Rocks! resulted in statistically significant improvement in each of these categories for hundreds of youth reached in 2009-2012. The importance of program components in preventing and influencing adolescent substance abuse are discussed.

  18. Faculty Activity to Reach Consensus and Develop the SF-ROCKS Outreach Program (United States)

    Grove, K.; White, L.


    The Geosciences Department at San Francisco State University has prided itself on the excellent relationships among its faculty and students and on its proven ability to train students for careers in industry and academia. Yet, like many Geoscience departments, it recognized a need to generate higher enrollments in the undergraduate majors programs and to increase collaborations among departmental disciplines (in our case, geology, meteorology, and oceanography). To address these concerns, the department created a new outreach program that involves a majority of the faculty and that aims to increase the number of students (particularly those from underrepresented groups) who pursue a career in Geosciences at SFSU and who appreciate the role of the geosciences in their daily lives. The outreach idea was generated at a retreat of departmental faculty in January 2001. The department chair (Grove) used a classroom teaching technique to have faculty brainstorm ideas about increasing student enrollments and to reach consensus about actions to be taken. The faculty was divided into 4 groups of 3 members. Each group member spent 10 minutes brainstorming ideas and writing each idea on a post-it note. Group members then convened for 15 minutes to cluster their post-it note ideas into affinity groups. Each group subsequently had 10-15 minutes to present their ideas to the larger group, who then proceeded to decide on action items. From this activity came a clear consensus about the need for more outreach activities, and the faculty decided to submit a request for funding to a newly created NSF Geosciences program (OEDG---Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences). Our proposal was successful and we received a 5-year grant to fund SF-ROCKS (Reaching out to Communities and Kids with Science in San Francisco), a program now in its second year and directed by the current department chair (White). The multi-layered program involves faculty and students from SFSU and

  19. Five Years of the RoBOT "Rocks Beneath Our Toes" High School Outreach Program (United States)

    Baxter, E. F.


    The "Rocks Beneath Our Toes" or RoBOT Program began in 2006 as part of an NSF CAREER award through the Geochemistry and Petrology Program. The educational outreach program engages Boston area high school students in a hands on study of rocks and minerals collected in their communities. The goal is to provide high school students a unique window into modern scientific methods of geochemistry and mineralogy and create a higher level of interest and awareness of geoscience amongst Massachusetts secondary school students who are less often exposed to earth science coursework. Beginning with a joint field trip to sampling sites identified by participants, high school students work with Boston University undergraduates enrolled in Mineralogy to analyze their samples in thin section. During the field trip, each BU undergraduate is paired with a high school student. The assignment of student pairings (started in year 2) dramatically increased student interactions and enjoyment. The program culminates with a visit by the high school group to tour BU's lab facilities and work with the undergraduates using the petrographic microscopes to explore their rock. At this visit, BU undergraduates present their semester's work in one-on-one powerpoint presentations from which discussion and microscope work follow. Thus far, >50 high school students, >40 undergraduates, and 7 high school educators were involved in the program. This included participants from three different suburban Boston area high schools and with students enrolled in the BU "Upward Bound" program: an existing program designed to enhance educational opportunities for Boston inner city high school students. Participant reviews indicate great success in achieving the program's goals. Notably, both BU undergraduates and high school students rated the opportunities for interaction with eachother among the best aspects of RoBOT. On a scale of 1 to 10, BU undergraduates rated the following four categories highest

  20. Implementation of a program of quality assurance of image in an imaging system of flat panel portal; Puesta en marcha de un programa de garantia de calidad de imagen en un sistema de imagen portal de panel plano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Barrado, A.; Sanchez Jimenez, E.; Benitez, J. A.; Sanchez-Reyes, A.


    (IGRT) image-guided radiation therapy is the one in which images are used to locate the area of treatment. Modern irradiation systems are equipped with different modalities for obtaining images, such as flat panel systems, systems conebeam, tomoimagen, etc. This paper describes the start-up and the experience of a quality assurance program based on a flat panel portal Imaging System. (Author)

  1. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report (United States)


    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  2. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Annual report, fiscal year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Nunz, G.J.; Ponder, G.M. (eds.)


    Emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Program was on development of methods to produce the hydraulic fractures required to connect the deep, inclined wells of the Phase II system at Fenton Hill. Environmental surveillance, instrument development, laboratory and modeling studies, and other supporting activities were continued. After two unsuccessful attempts to fracture hydraulically through inflatable packers, formation breakdown was produced in an uncased section near the bottom of well EE-2 by pumping water through a cemented-in steel liner. Breakdon occurred at a wellhead pressure of 33.1 MPa and a total of 8539 m/sup 3/ of water was injected. Mapping of source locations of microseismic events indicated opening of an extensive set of planar features dipping about 40/sup 0/W, striking about N20/sup 0/W, and apparently passing beneath the bottom of well EE-3. An attempt was then made to fracture at a higher level where the relative positions of the two wells increased the probability that an inclined fracture would connect them. Repeated failures of drill pipe, tubing, couplings, and packers terminated most pumping experiments prematurely. Important advances were made in thermal protection of downhole instruments, real-time mapping source locations of microseismic signals, modeling of heat and mass transport, and the mechanics of hydraulic fracturing.

  3. Transforming a Traditional Personnel Preparation Program in Orientation and Mobility into an Online Program at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (United States)

    Jacobson, William H.


    The University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) has offered a personnel preparation program in orientation and mobility (O&M) since 1975. Since that time, nearly 400 individuals from the United States and numerous foreign countries have either received degrees or have become eligible for national U.S. certification in O&M. However, it…

  4. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Rock Deformation - Formal Schedule and Speaker/Poster Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelemen, Peter [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)


    The Gordon Research Conference on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at Proctor Academy Andover, New Hampshire, August 19-24, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 124 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Of the 124 attendees, 66 voluntarily responded to a general inquiry regarding ethnicity which appears on our registration forms. Of the 66 respondents, 8% were Minorities – 2% Hispanic, 6% Asian and 0% African American. Approximately 27% of the participants at the 2012 meeting were women. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, "free time" was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field. Feedback processes are vitally important in controlling the rates and mechanisms of rock deformation. Positive feedbacks lead to accelerating rates, and commonly to spatial focusing. Localization and acceleration of creep is often associated with stress and/or strain rate dependent grain size reduction, frictional heating, or viscous shear heating. The presence of melt may help to localize and accelerate deformation, and in turn deformation may help to localize melt transport. Volume changes during retrograde metamorphic reactions may, under some circumstances, lead

  5. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program: Annual operating plan, fiscal year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, P.R.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.


    With completion of the repairs of EE-2 wellbore in FY88, the major effort in FY89 will be directed toward the remaining preparations for the Long-Term Flow Test (LTFT) now scheduled to begin in September 1990. Procurement of components and equipment and installation of the surface system will continue through this and the next fiscal year to be ready for the LTFT in September 1990. Reservoir experiments will consist of pressurization and flow tests to establish further characteristics of the Phase II reservoir, particularly operating water losses. Laboratory studies will continue work on fracture healing and complete adsorption tests for chemically-reactive tracer work. Cleaning and relining of the EE-I pond to meet New Mexico State requirements, started in FY88, will be completed. Reanalysis of seismic data and automation of seismic data techniques will continue. Monitoring for environmental information, routine operations, security, health and safety training, and reporting activities will continue. The program's objectives are: (1) To develop HDR drilling, hardware and instrumentation technology for energy extraction and conduct a successful energy extraction field experiment of the Phase II reservoir. (2) To verify that the environmental consequences of HDR development are acceptable. (3) To improve HDR technology to the point where electricity could be produced commercially from a substantial number of known hot dry rock resource sites in a cost range of 5 to 8 cents/kWh. (4) To evaluate the performance of the Fenton Hill Phase II reservoir by 1992. That performance consists of system operating characteristics, including thermal drawdown, energy output, reservoir impedance, and water consumption.

  6. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J


    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  7. Phase Modulator Programming to Get Flat Pulses with Desired Length and Power from the CTF3 Pulse Compressors

    CERN Document Server

    Shaker, Seyd Hamed; Skowronski, Piotr; Syratchev, Igor; Tecker, Frank


    The pulse compressor is located after the klystron to increase the power peak by storing the energy at the beginning and releasing it near the end of klystron output pulse. In the CTF3 pulse compressors a doubling of the peak power is achieved according to our needs and the machine parameters. The magnitude of peak power, pulse length and flatness can be controlled by using a phase modulator for the input signal of klystrons. A C++ code is written to simulate the pulse compressor behaviour according to the klystron output pulse power. By manually changing the related parameters in the code for the best match, the quality factor and the filling time of pulse compressor cavities can be determined. This code also calculates and sends the suitable phase to the phase modulator according to the klystron output pulse power and the desired pulse length and peak power

  8. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky


    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  9. Airbag roll marks & displaced rocks and soil (United States)


    Looking southwest from the lander, soil disturbances indicating the spacecraft rolled through the landing site are visible. Arriving from the east, the lander, still encased in its protective airbags, rolled up a slight rise and then rolled back down to its final position. The inset at left shows displaced rocks near the rock 'Flat Top.' Dark patches of disturbed soil indicate where the rocks had originally rested Both insets show rocks that were pushed into the soil from the weight of the lander, visible from the areas of raised rims of dark, disturbed soil around several rocks. The south summit of Twin Peaks is in the background, while a lander petal, deflated airbag, and rear rover deployment ramp are in the foreground.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. A sensitivity analysis of central flat-plate photovoltaic systems and implications for national photovoltaics program planning (United States)

    Crosetti, M. R.


    The sensitivity of the National Photovoltaic Research Program goals to changes in individual photovoltaic system parameters is explored. Using the relationship between lifetime cost and system performance parameters, tests were made to see how overall photovoltaic system energy costs are affected by changes in the goals set for module cost and efficiency, system component costs and efficiencies, operation and maintenance costs, and indirect costs. The results are presented in tables and figures for easy reference.

  11. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, G.M.; Duffield, R.B.; Smith, M.C.; Wilson, M.G. (comps.)


    The Fenton Hill Project is still the principal center for developing methods, equipment, and instrumentation for creating and utilizing HDR geothermal reservoirs. The search for a second site for a similar experimental system in a different geological environment has been intensified, as have the identification and characterization of other HDR areas that may prove suitable for either experimental or commercial development. The Phase I fracture system was enlarged during FY79. Drilling of the injection well of the Phase II system began at Fenton Hill in April 1979. Environmental monitoring of the Fenton Hill area continued through FY79. The environmental studies indicate that the hot dry rock operations have caused no significant environmental impact. Other supporting activities included rock physics, rock mechanics, fracture mapping, and instrumentation development. Two closely related activities - evaluation of the potential HDR energy resource of the US and the selection of a site for development of a second experimental heat-extraction system generally similar to that at Fenton Hill - have resulted in the collection of geology, hydrology, and heat-flow data on some level of field activity in 30 states. The resource-evaluation activity included reconnaissance field studies and a listing and preliminary characterization of US geothermal areas in which HDR energy extraction methods may be applicable. The selection of Site 2 has taken into account such legal, institutional, and economic factors as land ownership and use, proximity to possible users, permitting and licensing requirements and procedures, environmental issues, areal extent of the geothermal area, and visibility to and apparent interest by potential industrial developers.

  12. Permanent Seismically Induced Displacement of Rock-Founded Structures Computed by the Newmark Program (United States)


    26/1980 SAGO South - Surface 300 534_h4ss_295a.dat 5.5 14 0.0615 -0.09 4.96 -9.26 1.500 -1.698 31.735 40.546 3.683 1.745 4.619 1.276 Rock WUS H2...295 XX-SS-09 Hollister-04 1/26/1980 SAGO South - Surface 301 535_h4ss_0upa.dat 5.5 14 0.0305 -0.053 3.27 -3.38 0.529 -0.388 42.260 25.143 1.477 1.764...1.692 0.026 Rock WUS V UP XX-SS-09 Hollister-04 1/26/1980 SAGO South - Surface 94 302 536_pgpk_0nsa.dat 5.0 176 0.1499 -0.157 8.04 -8.03 0.541 -0.496

  13. Fractal analysis of fractures applied to Soultz-sous-Forets hot dry rock geothermal program (United States)

    Ledésert, Béatrice; Dubois, Jacques; Genter, Albert; Meunier, Alain


    A fractal analysis has been performed on a fracture set observed on granite cores in order to determine preferential paths for fluids injected during Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermic experiments. This analysis was based on the sorting of fractures on criteria such as their direction according to the present stress field, their dip, their hydrothermal filling thickness (vein width) which is linked to the intensity of alteration and thus to the physico-chemical properties of the surrounding rock. The results show a global increase of the fractal dimension (D) with depth which may be related to the lithostatic pressure gradient. Analysis of the total fracture set has showed zones in which fractures are clustered (low D values) while others are characterized by regularly spaced fractures (higher D values). Fractures parallel to the maximum horizontal stress, narrow veins, and fractures with a dip greater than 40° represent 35% to 79% of the total fracture set. Their fractal dimensions are similar to those of the total fracture set. Large veins linked with high porosity zones show a cluster pattern all along the drilling. In the context of HDR geothermics, one should seek highly fractured zones especially if the fractures they contain are clustered and if they have developed wide alteration zones linked to a high porosity. These conditions may optimize the HDR heat exchanger possibilities.

  14. History of Uranium-233(sup233U)Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant. In support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moment, R.L.; Gibbs, F.E.; Freiboth, C.J.


    This report documents the processing of Uranium-233 at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site). The information may be used to meet Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)and for determining potential Uranium-233 content in applicable residue waste streams.

  15. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Semiannual report, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.C.; Nunz, G.J.; Cremer, G.M.; Smith, M.C.


    The potential of energy extracted from hot dry rock (HDR) was investigated as a commercailly feasible alternate energy source. Run Segments 3 and 4 were completed in the prototype reservoir of the Phase I energy-extraction system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. Results of these tests yielded significant data on the existing system and this information will be applicable to future HDR systems. Plans and operations initiating a Phase II system are underway at the Fenton Hill site. This system, a deeper, hotter commercial-size reservoir, is intended to demonstrate the longevity and economics of an HDR system. Major activity occurred in evaluation of the national resource potential and in characterizing possible future HDR geothermal sites. Work has begun in the institutional and industrial support area to assess the economics and promote commercial interest in HDR systems as an alternate energy source.

  16. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Annual report, fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, G.M. (comp.)


    Investigation and flow testing of the enlarged Phase I heat-extraction system at Fenton Hill continued throughout FY80. Temperature drawdown observed at that time indicated an effective fracture of approximately 40,000 to 60,000 m/sup 2/. In May 1980, hot dry rock (HDR) technology was used to produce electricity in an interface demonstration experiment at Fenton Hill. A 60-kVA binary-cycle electrical generator was installed in the Phase I surface system and heat from about 3 kg/s of geothermal fluid at 132/sup 0/C was used to boil Freon R-114, whose vapor drove a turboalternator. A Phase II system was designed and is now being constructed at Fenton Hill that should approach commercial requirements. Borehole EE-2, the injection well, was completed on May 12, 1980. It was drilled to a vertical depth of about 4500 m, where the rock temperature is approximately 320/sup 0/C. The production well, EE-3 had been drilled to a depth of 3044 m and drilling was continuing. Environmental monitoring of Fenton Hill site continued. Development of equipment, instruments, and materials for technical support at Fenton Hill continued during FY80. Several kinds of models were also developed to understand the behavior of the Phase I system and to develop a predictive capability for future systems. Data from extensive resource investigations were collected, analyzed, and assembled into a geothermal gradient map of the US, and studies were completed on five specific areas as possible locations for HDR Experimental Site 2.

  17. DIPANALYST: A computer program for quantitative kinematic analysis of rock slope failures (United States)

    Admassu, Yonathan; Shakoor, Abdul


    Kinematic analysis is used to analyze the potential for the various modes of structurally controlled rock slope failures (plane, wedge, and toppling failures) due to the presence of unfavorably oriented discontinuities. Traditionally kinematic analysis is performed after plotting discontinuity orientations, slope angle, slope azimuth and representative friction angle value on a stereonet. Due to large number of discontinuities, only representative orientation values (dip/dip direction) for identified cluster sets are considered. This stereonet-based analysis is qualitative in nature and requires the presence of tight data clusters for which a reasonable representative orientation value can be assigned. However, there are cases when a tight circular clustering of discontinuity orientations does not exist, making stereonet-based analysis unreliable. Also, variability of discontinuity data in cluster sets is not easy to consider using the stereonet-based method. To overcome these problems, an application software, DIPANALYST, has been developed by the first author to perform quantitative kinematic analysis based on not just representative discontinuity values, but all discontinuities and their possible intersections. The software calculates ratios of discontinuities or their possible intersections that can potentially cause failures (plane, wedge or toppling) to the total number of discontinuities or their possible intersections. The calculated ratios are known as failure indices, and the method is termed as the quantitative approach for kinematic analysis. DIPANALYST is also capable of performing the traditional stereonet-based method.

  18. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program. Annual report, fiscal year 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Nunz, G.J.; Wilson, M.G. (comps.)


    Emphasis was on hydraulic-fracturing experiments at depths around 3.5 km (11,473 ft) in the two inclined wells of the Phase II system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico; on improved facilities and techniques for mapping the source locations of acoustic signals generated by the fracturing events; on mathematical modeling of the fracture systems produced in these and earlier experiments; and on development of a family of slimline high-temperature downhole instruments that can be used within or through relatively small-diameter pressure tubing. Hydraulic fracturing at a vertical depth of approximately 3500 m (11,500 ft) in well EE-2, the deeper well, produced fractures that, in acoustic maps, appear to occupy a large, roughly ellipsoidal volume whose major axis is directed to the north of the other well, EE-3. Hydraulic fracturing from EE-3 at a similar depth produced another set of fractures that appear to be approximately parallel to and centered about 180 m (600 ft) east of the earlier set. Subsequent fluid injections reduced the distance between the two sets, but no hydraulic connection between them was established. Modeling the silica concentrations of fluid circulated through the earlier Phase I system indicates that this type of permeation also contributes significantly to heat extraction during system operation. The precision and accuracy of locating the sources of acoustic signals detected during hydraulic-fracturing operations have been increased by improvements in equipment, drilling of another deep hole for geophone emplacement, and additional station calibrations. Analysis of the signals has also been improved and broadened. Development of slimline downhole instruments has included a detonator tool, a geophone package, and final design of a high-temperature borehole acoustic televiewer. A crosswell acoustic transceiver has also been developed for investigating rock type and structure between wellbores. 32 refs., 35 figs.

  19. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio


    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  20. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)


    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  1. Teaching Marine Geoscience at Sea: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's School of Rock Explores Cascadia Subduction Zone - Cores, Logs, and ACORKs (United States)

    Reagan, M.; Collins, J.; Ludwig, K. A.; Slough, S.; Delaney, M. L.; Hovan, S. A.; Expedition 328 Scientists


    For twelve days this past September, seventeen formal and informal educators from the US, UK, and France joined six instructors and a small science party on the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)’s Cascadia ACORK Expedition. The educators were part of the annual “School of Rock (SOR)” education program. SOR is coordinated by the U.S. Implementing Organization (USIO) of IODP and is designed to engage participants in seagoing Earth systems research and education workshops onboard the JOIDES Resolution and on shore at the Gulf Coast Core Repository in Texas. The scientific objective of the Cascadia ACORK expedition was to install a new permanent hydrologic observatory at ODP Site 889 to provide long-term monitoring of the pressure at the frontal part of the Cascadia accretionary prism. This year’s SOR workshop focused on how cores, logs, and ACORKs shed light on the hydrology and geology of the Cascadia subduction zone in the Northeast Pacific. In addition to observing the deployment of the ACORK, the SOR participants conducted daily hands-on analyses of archived sediment and hard-rock cores with scientists and technicians who specialize in IODP research using the lab facilities on the ship. Throughout the expedition, participants engaged in different activities and lessons designed to explore the deep biosphere, methane hydrates, paleoceanography, sedimentology, biostratigraphy, seafloor spreading, and drilling technology. The workshop also provided participants with “C3” time; time to communicate their experience using the successful website and other tools, make connections to their prior knowledge and expertise, and to be creative in developing and planning new education and outreach activities based on their new knowledge and research. As part of participating in the expedition, participants committed to further developing and testing their education and outreach products after

  2. Flat-port connectors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed


    Disclosed are various embodiments for connectors used with electronic devices, such as input and/or output ports to connect peripheral equipment or accessories. More specifically, various flat-port are provided that can be used in place of standard connectors including, but not limited to, audio jacks and Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports. The flat-port connectors are an alternate connection design to replace the traditional receptacle port (female-port), making the device more sealed creation more dust and water resistant. It is unique in the way of using the outer surfaces of the device for the electrical connection between the ports. Flat-port design can allow the manufacture of extremely thin devices by eliminating the side ports slots that take a lot of space and contribute to the increase thickness of the device. The flat-port receptacle improves the overall appearance of the device and makes it more resistant to dust and water.

  3. Individual energy savings for individual flats in blocks of flats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Rose, Jørgen


    is distributed on the individual flats. Today, most blocks of flats have individual heat meters to save energy and to ensure a fair distribution of the cost. If all flats have the same indoor temperature, the distribution is correct. In practice, the inhabitants of the different flats maintain different indoor......It is well known that similar flats in a block do not have the same energy demand. Part of the explanation for this is the location of the flat in the building, e.g. on the top floor, at the house end or in the middle of the building. It is possible to take this into account when the heating bill...... temperatures. The result is that heat flows between individual flats. This decreases the energy consumption in the flat where the owner maintains a lower temperature. The neighbouring flats will have higher energy consumption. Calculations were performed for Danish blocks of flats from 1920, 1940, 1960...

  4. Solution for Flat Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şt. Vasiliu


    Full Text Available Roofs are constructive subassemblies that are located at the top of buildings, which toghether with perimetral walls and some elements of the infrastructure belongs to the subsystem elements that close the building. An important share in the roofing is represented by the flat roofs. Flat roofs must meet the requirements of resistance to mechanical action, thermal insulation, acoustic and waterproof, fire resistance, durability and aesthetics. To meet these requirements is necessary an analysis of the component layers and materials properties that determine the durability of structural assembly.

  5. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells. Flat-Plate Solar Array Project of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program: 10 years of progress (United States)

    Christensen, Elmer


    The objectives were to develop the flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) array technologies required for large-scale terrestrial use late in the 1980s and in the 1990s; advance crystalline silicon PV technologies; develop the technologies required to convert thin-film PV research results into viable module and array technology; and to stimulate transfer of knowledge of advanced PV materials, solar cells, modules, and arrays to the PV community. Progress reached on attaining these goals, along with future recommendations are discussed.

  6. Piecewise flat gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314007067


    We examine the continuum limit of the piecewise flat locally finite gravity model introduced by ’t Hooft. In the linear weak field limit, we find the energy–momentum tensor and metric perturbation of an arbitrary configuration of defects. The energy–momentum turns out to be restricted to satisfy

  7. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R


    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  8. Art Rocks with Rock Art! (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne


    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  9. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  10. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.


    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction.

  11. A Brief History With Lessons Learned From The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Program At Fenton Hill, New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Kelkar, S.; Woldegabriel, G. W.; Rehfeldt, K. R.


    Important lessons were learned that continue to be relevant today from the world’s first successful demonstration of a Hot Dry Rock (HDR) system for extracting underground geothermal energy conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. This experiment, conducted in hot, low-permeability, low-water context, crystalline basement rock was fundamentally different from the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) development currently underway at several sites in the U.S. and world. The HDR concept was developed in 1970’s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Two HDR reservoirs with two wells each were created and tested at the Fenton Hill site. In spite of its proximity to the Valles caldera and the Rio Grande rift, geological information and heat-flow data were used successfully to select the Fenton Hill experimental site within a block of intact crystalline basement rocks. Deep crystalline basement rocks marginal to active fault/recent volcanic centers were good candidates for HDR systems: these rocks had high heat content, and low matrix permeability leading to low water losses. Reconnaissance surveys indicated significant potential HDR geothermal resources through out the USA. Drilling and completion operations in hot crystalline rocks were challenging requiring further R&D. Hydraulic stimulation activities were carried out successfully in deep, hot crystalline rocks. Logging tools and instruments were developed that could operate successfully in the ~250oC environment. Development of techniques and tools for microseismic data monitoring, analysis, and interpretation was found to be enormously valuable. It was found that the systematic process that should be followed in developing HDR reservoirs is to drill and stimulate the first well, use the microseismic data to locate the target zone, and then complete the additional wells. The largest fraction of the flow impedance was found to be near the production well. Combined interpretation of the pressure testing, microseismic

  12. Reducing Rock Climbing Risks. (United States)

    Attarian, Aram


    Provides checklists that can be used as risk-management tools to evaluate rock-climbing programs: developing goals, policies, and procedures; inspecting the climbing environment; maintaining and inspecting equipment; protecting participants; and managing staff (hiring, training, retraining, and evaluating) and campers (experience level, needs, and…

  13. Asymptotically flat multiblack lenses (United States)

    Tomizawa, Shinya; Okuda, Taika


    We present an asymptotically flat and stationary multiblack lens solution with biaxisymmetry of U (1 )×U (1 ) as a supersymmetric solution in the five-dimensional minimal ungauged supergravity. We show that the spatial cross section of each degenerate Killing horizon admits different lens space topologies of L (n ,1 )=S3/Zn as well as a sphere S3. Moreover, we show that, in contrast to the higher-dimensional Majumdar-Papapetrou multiblack hole and multi-Breckenridge-Myers-Peet-Vafa (BMPV) black hole spacetime, the metric is smooth on each horizon even if the horizon topology is spherical.

  14. Chemical weathering of flat continents (United States)

    Maffre, Pierre; Goddéris, Yves; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Carretier, Sébastien; Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Donnadieu, Yannick; Labat, David; Vigier, Nathalie


    Mountain uplift is often cited as the main trigger of the end Cenozoic glacial state. Conversely, the absence of major uplift is invoked to explain the early Eocene warmth. This hypothesis relies on the fact that mountain uplift increases the supply of "fresh" silicate rocks through enhanced physical erosion, and boosts CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. Atmospheric CO2 —and therefore climate— then adjust to compensate for the changes in weatherability and keep the geological carbon cycle balanced (Walker's feedback). Yet, orography also strongly influences the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Consequently, building mountains does not only change the weathering regime in the restricted area of the orogen, but also modifies the worldwide distribution of the weathering flux. We conduct a numerical experiment in which we simulate the climate of the present day world, with all mountain ranges being removed. Up-to-date weathering and erosion laws (West, 2012; Carretier et al., 2014) are then used to quantify the global weathering for a "flat world". Specifically, the parameters of the weathering law are first carefully calculated such that the present day distribution of the weathering fluxes matches the riverine geochemical data. When removing mountains, we predict a warmer and wetter climate, especially in geographic spots located in the equatorial band. The calculated response of the global weathering flux ranges from an increase by 50% to a decrease by 70% (relative to the present day with mountains). These contrasted responses are pending on the parameterisation of the weathering model, that makes it more sensitive to reaction rate (kinetically-limited mode) or to rock supply by erosion (supply-limited mode). The most likely parameterisation —based on data-model comparison— predicts a decrease of CO2 consumption by weathering by 40% when mountains are removed. These results show that (1) the behaviour of the weathering engine depends on the

  15. Upper Mississippi River System - Environmental Management Program Definite Project Report (R-4) with Integrated Environmental Assessment. Andalusia Refuge Rehabilitation and Enhancement. Pool 16, Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island County, Illinois. Technical Appendices (United States)



  16. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter


    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  17. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops (United States)


    Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops Derek R. Olson The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 30 State...In terms of target detection and classification, scattering from exposed rock on the seafloor, (i.e., individual rocks and rock outcrops) presents...levels, and other statistical measures of acoustic scattering from rocks and rock outcrops is therefore critical. Unfortunately (and curiously

  18. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (United States)

    Asch, Theodore H.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Burton, Bethany L.; Wallin, Erin L.


    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  19. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  20. Igneous Rocks (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Încalţărău


    Full Text Available Globalization became more and more prominent during the last decades. There is no way to argue that globalization led to more interconnected economies, facilitating the communication and the collaboration around the world. But where is this going? Doesglobalization mean uniformity or diversity? As the world begins to resemble more, the people are trying to distinguish between them more, which can exacerbate nationalistic feeling. Friedman argues that globalization made the world smaller and flatter, allowing all countries to take chance of the available opportunities equally. But is this really true? Although politic and cultural factors can stand in front of a really flat world, what is the key for Chinese and Indian success and which are theirs perspectives?

  2. Effect of competition program "Acrobatics" category "B-Class" at the level of technical preparedness of athletes in acrobatic rock and roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Kyzim


    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the level of technique of execution of acrobatic competition program «Acrobatics» elements a category «В-class» in acrobatic rock-and-roll. Material and Methods: the followings methods of research were used: theoretical analysis and generalization of information of the special scientific-methodical literature; photography, videosurvey, computer analysis, pedagogical supervision. The competition programs are analysed from 1 to a 6 place on World Cup of 2014 and 2015. Results: on the basis of evaluation scale of implementation of acrobatic directory of WRRC (version 2 entries, the evaluation results of technique of implementation of acrobatic competition program «Acrobatic» elements are got separately every sporting pair of skilled sportsmen of category of «В-сlass» of the World Cup final in Krakov 2014 (6 pair and World Cup final in Krakov 2015 (6 pair. Certainly dynamics of evaluation results of technique of execution of acrobatic competition program «Acrobatic» elements separately every sporting pair of skilled sportsmen of category of «В-сlass» in the World Cup final in Krakov 2015. Conclusions: including of acrobatic elements of enhanceable complication and combinations from two acrobatic elements and two rotations allowed substantially to promote the level of technical preparedness of participants of the World Cup final 2015 years

  3. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program — Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.


    NASA’s Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program has Lucite disks containing Apollo lunar samples and meteorite samples that are available for trained educators to borrow for use in classrooms, museums, science center, and libraries.

  4. White Rock (United States)


    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  5. Biological consequences of the coaster brook trout restoration stocking program in Lake Superior tributaries with Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (United States)

    Leonard, Jill B.K.; Stott, Wendylee; Loope, Delora M.; Kusnierz, Paul C.; Sreenivasan, Ashwin


    The coaster Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is a Lake Superior ecotype representing intraspecific variation that has been impacted by habitat loss and overfishing. Hatchery strains of Brook Trout derived from populations in Lake Superior were stocked into streams within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, as part of an effort to rehabilitate adfluvial coaster Brook Trout. Wild and hatchery Brook Trout from three streams (Mosquito River, Hurricane River, and Sevenmile Creek) were examined for movement behavior, size, physiology, and reproductive success. Behavior and size of the stocked fish were similar to those of wild fish, and less than 15% of the stocked, tagged Brook Trout emigrated from the river into which they were stocked. There was little evidence of successful reproduction by stocked Brook Trout. Similar to the results of other studies, our findings suggest that the stocking of nonlocal Brook Trout strains where a local population already exists results in limited natural reproduction and should be avoided, particularly if the mechanisms governing the ecotype of interest are poorly understood.

  6. Exact piecewise flat gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314007067


    We generalize our previous linear result (van de Meent 2011 Class. Quantum Grav 28 075005) in obtaining gravitational waves from our piecewise flat model for gravity in 3+1 dimensions to exact piecewise flat configurations describing exact planar gravitational waves. We show explicitly how to

  7. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calabi–Yau threefold; torsion; cocompact lattice; unitary representation. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 81T30, 14D21, 53C07. 1. Stable bundles and unitary flat connections. 1.1 Admitting flat connections. Let X be a compact connected complex manifold of complex dimension δ. Let ω be the. (1, 1)-form on X ...

  8. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42... Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud flats are broad flat areas along the sea coast and in coastal rivers to the head of tidal influence and in inland lakes, ponds, and riverine systems. When mud flats...

  9. Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: first observation of rocks in motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Norris

    Full Text Available The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, "windowpane" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice.

  10. Assessing the Impacts of the First Five Years of School of Rock On-Board and On-Shore Professional Development Program for Educators: Lessons for Other Teacher Professional Development Programs (United States)

    Collins, J.; Peart, L. W.; Cooper, S. K.; St John, K. K.; Leckie, R. M.; Hovan, S. A.; Firth, J. V.


    School of Rock (SoR) is an immersive professional development program run by the Deep Earth Academy (DEA) of the Consortium for Ocean Leadership. The program offers formal and informal educators an opportunity to utilize the laboratories, cores, smear slides, and other data on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel and Texas A&M Gulf Coast Repository to investigate Earth science topics aligned with the IODP science goals. Participants acquire content and skills through inquiry explorations facilitated by scientist instructors and lab technicians, and are exposed to the culture of onshore and offshore science by interacting with experts from a range of scientific and non-scientific disciplines. Since 2005, the School of Rock program has hosted over 60 participants from 33 states and four countries. Several of the SoR programs had on-board experiences, while others were held on-shore at the IODP's Gulf Coast Repository. The participant demographics varied in each cohort as did some of science content focus and pedagogical approach. To assess the impact of the SoR experience on participants and their classrooms, and inform DEA about how to proceed with future SoR programs, past participants recently completed two online surveys. Data were analyzed in the context of three guiding questions: What important qualities have been consistent across the years?, What are some key differences between the SoR programs?, What are the key differences between shore-based and onboard experiences?. Additionally, participants documented the number of activities they developed, workshops given, and other efforts that share their SoR experience with their respective audiences. The survey results and ensuing discussions with a focus group of program participants representing each of the cohorts suggest to our surprise, that participants in on-shore experiences were similarly satisfied and enthusiastic about their learning experience as those that participated in shipboard SoRs, even

  11. Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly) (United States)

    ... often during the day (infant car seats, carriers, strollers, swings, and bouncy seats) also adds to this ... a flat surface (such as in car seats, strollers, swings, bouncy seats, and play yards). For instance, ...

  12. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.


    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  13. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  14. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia


    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  15. Analysis of Hydraulic Responses from the ER-6-1 Multiple-Well Aquifer Test, Yucca Flat FY 2004 Testing Program, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Ruskauff


    This report documents the interpretation and analysis of the hydraulic data collected for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 Multiple-Well Aquifer Test-Tracer Test (MWAT-TT) conducted at the ER-6-1 Well Cluster in Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The MWAT-TT was performed to investigate CAU-scale groundwater flow and transport processes related to the transport of radionuclides from sources on the NTS through the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) Hydrostratigraphic Unit (HSU). The ER-6-1 MWAT-TT was planned and executed by contractor participants for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project of the Environmental Restoration (ER) program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Participants included Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), the Environmental Engineering Services Contractor; Bechtel Nevada (BN); the Desert Research Institute (DRI); Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas-Harry Reid Center. The SNJV team consists of the S.M. Stoller Corporation, Navarro Research and Engineering, Battelle Memorial Institute, INTERA Inc., and Weston Solutions, Inc. The MWAT-TT was implemented according to the ''Underground Test Area Project, ER-6-1 Multi-Well Aquifer Test - Tracer Test Plan'' (SNJV, 2004a) issued in April 2004. The objective of the aquifer test was to determine flow processes and local hydraulic properties for the LCA through long-term constant-rate pumping at the well cluster. This objective was to be achieved in conjunction with detailed sampling of the composite tracer breakthrough at the pumping well, as well as with depth-specific sampling and logging at multiple wells, to provide information for the depth-discrete analysis of formation hydraulic properties, particularly with regard to fracture properties.

  16. Flat structure cooled detector assembly (United States)

    Reeb, Nathalie; Coutures, Bernard; Gerin, Nicolas; Reale, S.; Guille, B.


    Long wavelength IR detectors need to be cooled at cryogenic temperature to achieve high performances. This specific need makes it difficult to integrate the detector because of high cost of dewar and cooling device designed to fulfill severe vibration conditions. A new era for IR detection could begin with flat structures allowing intrinsic vibration resistance for detectors to be plugged on electronics board. Sofradir has carried out a study about feasibility of detector dewar assembly including a flat Joule-Thomson cooler with porous heat exchanger in cooperation with Air Liquide. The aim of this paper is to put forward the interest of such a product. The very good results achieved demonstrate a promising future for such flat structure detector assembly.

  17. Fluctuations along supersymmetric flat directions during Inflation


    Enqvist, Kari; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos


    We consider a set of scalar fields, consisting of a single flat direction and one or several non-flat directions. We take our cue from the MSSM, considering separately D-flat and F-flat directions, but our results apply to any supersymmetric scenario containing flat directions. We study the field fluctuations during pure de Sitter Inflation, following the evolution of the infrared modes by numerically solving the appropriate Langevin equations. We demonstrate that for the Standard Model U(1),...

  18. The Fallacies of Flatness: Thomas Friedman's "The World Is Flat" (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Roberts, Jay


    Thomas Friedman's best-selling "The World is Flat" has exerted much influence in the west by providing both an accessible analysis of globalization and its economic and social effects, and a powerful cultural metaphor for globalization. In this review, we more closely examine Friedman's notion of the social contract, the moral center of his…

  19. Flat H Frangible Joint Evolution (United States)

    Diegelman, Thomas E.; Hinkel, Todd J.; Benjamin, Andrew; Rochon, Brian V.; Brown, Christopher W.


    Space vehicle staging and separation events require pyrotechnic devices. They are single-use mechanisms that cannot be tested, nor can failure-tolerant performance be demonstrated in actual flight articles prior to flight use. This necessitates the implementation of a robust design and test approach coupled with a fully redundant, failure-tolerant explosive mechanism to ensure that the system functions even in the event of a single failure. Historically, NASA has followed the single failure-tolerant (SFT) design philosophy for all human-rated spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle Program. Following the end of this program, aerospace companies proposed building the next generation human-rated vehicles with off-the-shelf, non-redundant, zero-failure-tolerant (ZFT) separation systems. Currently, spacecraft and launch vehicle providers for both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs (CCPs) plan to deviate from the heritage safety approach and NASA's SFT human rating requirements. Both programs' partners have base-lined ZFT frangible joints for vehicle staging and fairing separation. These joints are commercially available from pyrotechnic vendors. Non-human-rated missions have flown them numerous times. The joints are relatively easy to integrate structurally within the spacecraft. In addition, the separation event is debris free, and the resultant pyro shock is lower than that of other design solutions. It is, however, a serious deficiency to lack failure tolerance. When used for critical applications on human-rated vehicles, a single failure could potentially lead to loss of crew (LOC) or loss of mission (LOM)). The Engineering and Safety & Mission Assurance directorates within the NASA Johnson Space Center took action to address this safety issue by initiating a project to develop a fully redundant, SFT frangible joint design, known as the Flat H. Critical to the ability to retrofit on launch vehicles being developed, the SFT mechanisms must fit within the same

  20. Boundaries of flat compact surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter


    type. The number of $3$-singular points (points of zero curvature or if not then of zero torsion) on the boundary of a flat immersed compact surface is greater than or equal to twice the absolute value of the Euler characteristic of the surface. A set of necessary and, in a weakened sense, sufficient...

  1. Rock Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum. (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Rock Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) chemistry (introducing the topics of matter, elements, compounds, and chemical bonding); (2) characteristics (presenting hands-on activities with rocks and minerals); (3) minerals (emphasizing the aesthetic and economic…

  2. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen


    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  3. The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It! (United States)

    Klinger, Art


    Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…

  4. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.


    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  5. Entanglement entropy in flat holography (United States)

    Jiang, Hongliang; Song, Wei; Wen, Qiang


    BMS symmetry, which is the asymptotic symmetry at null infinity of flat spacetime, is an important input for flat holography. In this paper, we give a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy in three dimensional Einstein gravity and Topologically Massive Gravity. The geometric picture for the entanglement entropy is the length of a spacelike geodesic which is connected to the interval at null infinity by two null geodesics. The spacelike geodesic is the fixed points of replica symmetry, and the null geodesics are along the modular flow. Our strategy is to first reformulate the Rindler method for calculating entanglement entropy in a general setup, and apply it for BMS invariant field theories, and finally extend the calculation to the bulk.

  6. Possible Problems: Inverted, Flat, or Pierced Nipples (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Possible Problems: Inverted, Flat, or Pierced Nipples Page Content Article ... a lesser extent flat nipples, can create a problem during breastfeeding by making it more difficult for ...

  7. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.


    distributions. Our experiments and model are consistent with the available data on natural recharge flow paths in deep unsaturated fracture rocks at Yucca Mountain. Funding of this study was provided by the Geosciences Research Program, Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Muddy Seafloors and Tidal Flats (United States)


    and - Examine the processes leading to channel migration. Additional goals in FY08 relating to sandy coasts include analysis of waves, currents, and...shown in Figure 3. The seafloor was covered with a 30-cm thick layer of yogurt -like mud (density about 1.6 g/l [G. Kineke and S. Bentley]) that caused...project. Our observations on the macrotidal flat are part of a larger effort to investigate and model physical, geological, and morphological processes

  9. Representability of Hom implies flatness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... A basic result of Grothendieck ([EGA], III 7.7.9) says that if F is flat over then hom ( E , F ) is representable for all E . We prove the converse of the above, in fact, we show that if is a relatively ample line bundle on over such that the functor hom ( L − n , F ) is representable for infinitely many positive integers , then F ...

  10. A Note on Gorenstein Flat Dimension


    Bennis, D.


    Unlike the Gorenstein projective and injective dimensions, the majority of results on the Gorenstein flat dimension have been established only over Noetherian (or coherent) rings. Naturally, one would like to generalize these results to any associative ring. In this direction, we show that the Gorenstein flat dimension is a refinement of the classical flat dimension over any ring; and we investigate the relations between the Gorenstein projective dimension and the Gorenstein flat dimension.

  11. Flat colon polyps: what should radiologists know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignjatovic, A. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Burling, D., E-mail: [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Ilangovan, R.; Clark, S.K.; Taylor, S.A.; East, J.E.; Saunders, B.P. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom)


    With the recent publication of international computed tomography (CT) colonography standards, which aim to improve quality of examinations, this review informs radiologists about the significance of flat polyps (adenomas and hyperplastic polyps) in colorectal cancer pathways. We describe flat polyp classification systems and propose how flat polyps should be reported to ensure patient management strategies are based on polyp morphology as well as size. Indeed, consistency when describing flat polyps is of increasing importance given the strengthening links between CT colonography and endoscopy.

  12. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow! (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue


    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  13. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report.

  14. Application of zai and rock bunds in the northwest region of Burkina Faso : Study of its impact on household level by using a stochastic linear programming model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatman, A; Sawadogo, H; Schweigman, C; Ouedraogo, A

    Agricultural production in the northwest region of Burkina Faso is seriously endangered by soil erosion and an overall decline in Soil fertility. In the past 15 years various anti-erosion methods have been adopted in this region with quite some success. The widespread promotion lion of rock bunds is

  15. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail:


    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  16. Rock slope design guide. (United States)


    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  17. The Rock Cycle (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan


    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  18. Robotic Rock Classification (United States)

    Hebert, Martial


    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  19. My Pet Rock (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie


    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  20. The effect of lithology on valley width, terrace distribution, and coarse sediment provenance in a tectonically stable catchment with flat-lying stratigraphy (United States)

    Amanda Keen-Zebert,; Hudson, Mark R.; Stephanie L. Shepherd,; Evan A. Thaler,


    How rock resistance or erodibility affects fluvial landforms and processes is an outstanding question in geomorphology that has recently garnered attention owing to the recognition that the erosion rates of bedrock channels largely set the pace of landscape evolution. In this work, we evaluate valley width, terrace distribution, and sediment provenance in terms of reach scale variation in lithology in the study reach and discuss the implications for landscape evolution in a catchment with relatively flat2

  1. Chiral flat bands: Existence, engineering, and stability (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ajith; Andreanov, Alexei; Flach, Sergej


    We study flat bands in bipartite tight-binding networks with discrete translational invariance. Chiral flat bands with chiral symmetry eigenenergy E =0 and host compact localized eigenstates for finite range hopping. For a bipartite network with a majority sublattice chiral flat bands emerge. We present a simple generating principle of chiral flat-band networks and as a showcase add to the previously observed cases a number of new potentially realizable chiral flat bands in various lattice dimensions. Chiral symmetry respecting network perturbations—including disorder and synthetic magnetic fields—preserve both the flat band and the modified compact localized states. Chiral flat bands are spectrally protected by gaps and pseudogaps in the presence of disorder due to Griffiths effects.

  2. Flat lens for seismic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Brule, Stephane; Guenneau, Sebastien


    A prerequisite for achieving seismic invisibility is to demonstrate the ability of civil engineers to control seismic waves with artificially structured soils. We carry out large-scale field tests with a structured soil made of a grid consisting of cylindrical and vertical holes in the ground and a low frequency artificial source (< 10 Hz). This allows the identification of a distribution of energy inside the grid, which can be interpreted as the consequence of an effective negative refraction index. Such a flat lens reminiscent of what Veselago and Pendry envisioned for light opens avenues in seismic metamaterials to counteract the most devastating components of seismic signals.

  3. The furnace in the basement: Part 1, The early days of the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Program, 1970--1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.


    This report presents the descriptions of the background information and formation of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Geothermal Energy Group. It discusses the organizational, financial, political, public-relations,geologic, hydrologic, physical, and mechanical problems encountered by the group during the period 1970--1973. It reports the failures as well as the successes of this essential first stage in the development of hot dry rock geothermal energy systems.

  4. Polyurethane adhesives in flat roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogárová Markéta


    Full Text Available It is necessary to stabilize individual layers of flat roofs, mainly because of wind suction. Apart from anchoring and surcharge, these layers can be secured by bonding. At present gluing is an indispensable and widely used stabilization method. On our market we can found many types of adhesives, most widely used are based on polyurethane. This paper focuses on problematic about stabilization thermal insulation from expanded polystyrene to vapor barrier from bitumen. One of the main issues is to calculate the exact amount of adhesive, which is required to guarantee the resistance against wind suction. In this problematic we can not find help neither in technical data sheets provided by the manufactures. Some of these data sheets contain at least information about amount of adhesive depending on location in roof plane and building height, but they do not specify the strength of such connection. It was therefore resorted to select several representatives polyurethane adhesives and their subsequent testing on specimens simulating the flat roof segment. The paper described the test methodology and results for two types of polyurethane adhesives.

  5. Non-Hermiticity Induced Flat Band


    Ramezani, Hamidreza


    We demonstrate the emergence of an entire flat band embedded in dispersive bands at the exceptional point of a PT symmetric photonic lattice. For this to occur, the gain and loss parameter effectively alters the size of the partial flat band windows and band gap of the photonic lattice simultaneously. The mode associated with the entire flat band is robust against changes in the system size and survives even at the edge of the lattice. Our proposal offers a route for controllable localization...

  6. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  7. Flat affect and social functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Evensen, Julie; Røsberg, Jan Ivar


    Background: Affective flattening has been described as enduring, but long term follow-up studies of first episode psychosis patients are lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to follow the symptom development of flat affect (FA), over a 10 year follow-up period, with focus on prevalence...... as having never-present, improving, deteriorating, fluctuating or enduring FA. The groups were compared on baseline variables, variables at 10 year follow-up, and social functioning throughout the follow-up period. Results: Twenty nine percent never displayed FA, 66% had improving, deteriorating...... or fluctuating FA, while 5% of patients had enduring FA. Premorbid social function predicted enduring FA. The patients with enduring, fluctuating and deteriorating FA did poorer on all outcome variables, including remission and recovery rates. The enduring FA group did significantly poorer in social functioning...

  8. Flat bunches in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, E; Baudrenghien, P; Mastoridis, T; Muller, J E; Papotti, G; Salvant, B; Timko, H; Bhat, C; Burov, A


    A high harmonic RF system which could serve multiple purposes was proposed for the LHC. Possible applications of the second harmonic RF system include beam stabilisation in the longitudinal plane in absence of wide-band longitudinal feedback and reduction of bunch peak line density. Apart from other useful features flat bunches are expected to produce less beam-induced heating below 1 GHz, the frequency region critical for some LHC equipment. The latter however can also be achieved by de-populating the bunch center. This was demonstrated during the dedicated machine development session in the LHC using RF phase modulation. In this paper the results of tests with single bunches and nominal LHC beams are presented and possible use of this technique in LHC operation is discussed.

  9. The Usability of Rock-Like Materials for Numerical Studies on Rocks (United States)

    Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal


    The approaches of synthetic rock material and mass are widely used by many researchers for understanding the failure behavior of different rocks. In order to model the failure behavior of rock material, researchers take advantageous of different techniques and software. But, the majority of all these instruments are based on distinct element method (DEM). For modeling the failure behavior of rocks, and so to create a fundamental synthetic rock material model, it is required to perform related laboratory experiments for providing strength parameters. In modelling studies, model calibration processes are performed by using parameters of intact rocks such as porosity, grain size, modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio. In some cases, it can be difficult or even impossible to acquire representative rock samples for laboratory experiments from heavily jointed rock masses and vuggy rocks. Considering this limitation, in this study, it was aimed to investigate the applicability of rock-like material (e.g. concrete) to understand and model the failure behavior of rock materials having complex inherent structures. For this purpose, concrete samples having a mixture of %65 cement dust and %35 water were utilized. Accordingly, intact concrete samples representing rocks were prepared in laboratory conditions and their physical properties such as porosity, pore size and density etc. were determined. In addition, to acquire the mechanical parameters of concrete samples, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests were also performed by simultaneously measuring strain during testing. The measured physical and mechanical properties of these extracted concrete samples were used to create synthetic material and then uniaxial compressive tests were modeled and performed by using two dimensional discontinuum program known as Particle Flow Code (PFC2D). After modeling studies in PFC2D, approximately similar failure mechanism and testing results were achieved from both experimental and

  10. The flat topology and its duality aspects


    Tarizadeh, Abolfazl


    In this article, a new and natural topology on the prime spectrum is established which behaves completely as the dual of the Zariski topology. It is called the flat topology. The basic and also some sophisticated properties of the flat topology are proved. Specially, various algebraic characterizations for the noetherianness of the flat topology are given. Using the flat topology, then some facts on the structure of the prime ideals of a ring come to light which are not in the access of the Z...

  11. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  12. Investigation of rock fragmentation during rockfalls and rock avalanches via 3-D discrete element analyses (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Crosta, Giovanni Battista; Utili, Stefano; De Blasio, Fabio Vittorio


    This paper investigates the characteristics of dynamic rock fragmentation and its influence on the postfailure fragment trajectory. A series of numerical simulations by discrete element method (DEM) were performed for a simple rock block and slope geometry, where a particle agglomerate of prismatic shape is released along a sliding plane and subsequently collides onto a flat horizontal plane at a sharp kink point. The rock block is modeled as an assembly of bonded spherical particles with fragmentation arising from bond breakages. Bond strength and stiffness were calibrated against available experimental data. We analyzed how dynamic fragmentation occurs at impact, together with the generated fragment size distributions and consequently their runout for different slope topographies. It emerges that after impact, the vertical momentum of the granular system decreases sharply to nil, while the horizontal momentum increases suddenly and then decreases. The sudden boost of horizontal momentum can effectively facilitate the transport of fragments along the bottom floor. The rock fragmentation intensity is associated with the input energy and increases quickly with the slope angle. Gentle slopes normally lead to long spreading distance and large fragments, while steep slopes lead to high momentum boosts and impact forces, with efficient rock fragmentation and fine deposits. The fragment size decreases, while the fracture stress and fragment number both increase with the impact loading strain rate, supporting the experimental observations. The fragment size distributions can be well fitted by the Weibull's distribution function.

  13. Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 28 May 2013; revised 12 November 2013 ... The known examples of harmonic manifolds include flat ... periodic functions. Finally, using the characteristic property of an almost periodic function we prove that M is Ricci flat. In view of this, it is natural to ask: Can one affirm that harmonic manifolds with mini-.

  14. An Automated Processing Algorithm for Flat Areas Resulting from DEM Filling and Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei Liu


    Full Text Available Correction of digital elevation models (DEMs for flat areas is a critical process for hydrological analyses and modeling, such as the determination of flow directions and accumulations, and the delineation of drainage networks and sub-basins. In this study, a new algorithm is proposed for flat correction/removal. It uses the puddle delineation (PD program to identify depressions (including their centers and overflow/spilling thresholds, compute topographic characteristics, and further fill the depressions. Three different levels of elevation increments are used for flat correction. The first and second level of increments create flows toward the thresholds and centers of the filled depressions or flats, while the third level of small random increments is introduced to cope with multiple threshold conditions. A set of artificial surfaces and two real-world landscapes were selected to test the new algorithm. The results showed that the proposed method was not limited by the shapes, the number of thresholds, and the surrounding topographic conditions of flat areas. Compared with the traditional methods, the new algorithm simplified the flat correction procedure and reduced the final elevation increments by 5.71–33.33%. This can be used to effectively remove/correct topographic flats and create flat-free DEMs.

  15. Probabilistic Rock Slope Engineering. (United States)


    distances or may reflect errors or uncertainties in sample collection and evaluation. 58. Typical variograms for fracture set properties are illustrated... uncertainties in their measurement and estimation imply the probabilistic nature of parameters re- quired for rock slope engineering. Therefore, statistical...strengths of geologic discontinuities and also by the local stress field. Natural variabilities in these rock mass properties and uncertainties in their

  16. Rock Cycle Roulette. (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney


    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  17. External Peer Review Team Report Underground Testing Area Subproject for Frenchman Flat, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Marutzky


    Evaluating local-scale variations in hydraulic conductivity on the calculated contaminant boundaries. • Evaluating the effects of non-steady-state flow conditions on calculated contaminant boundaries, including the effects of long-term declines in water levels, climatic change, and disruption of groundwater system by potential earthquake faulting along either of the two major controlling fault zones in the flow system (the Cane Spring and Rock Valley faults). • Considering the use of less-complex modeling approaches. • Evaluating the large change in water levels in the vicinity of the Frenchman Flat playa and developing a conceptual model to explain these water-level changes. • Developing a long-term groundwater level monitoring program for Frenchman Flat with regular monitoring of water levels at key monitoring wells. Despite these reservations, the peer review team strongly believes that the UGTA subproject should proceed to the next stage.

  18. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.


    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  19. Sensor emplacement testing at Poker Flat, Alaska (United States)

    Reusch, A.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Anderson, K. E.; Azevedo, S.; Carothers, L.; Love, M.; Miller, P. E.; Parker, T.; Pfeifer, M.; Slad, G.; Thomas, D.; Aderhold, K.


    PASSCAL provides equipment and support for temporary seismic projects. Speed and efficiency of deployments are essential. A revised emplacement technique of putting broadband sensors directly into soil (aka direct burial) is being tested. The first phase (fall 2011 to spring 2013) comparing data quality and sensor stability between the direct burial and the traditional 1 m deep temporary PASSCAL-style vault in a wet and noisy site near San Antonio, NM is complete. Results suggest there is little or no difference in sensor performance in the relatively high-noise environment of this initial test. The second phase was started in November 2012 with the goal of making the same comparison, but at Poker Flat, Alaska, in a low-noise, high-signal, cold and wet environment, alongside a Transportable Array (TA) deployment to be used as a performance control. This location is in an accessible and secure area with very low site noise. In addition to benefiting future worldwide PASSCAL deployments, the Poker Flat experiment serves a secondary purpose of testing modifications necessary to successfully deploy and recover broadband stations in a cold environment with the limited logistics anticipated for remote Flexible Array (FA) and PASSCAL Program deployments in Alaska. Developing emplacement techniques that maintain high data quality and data return while minimizing logistics is critical to enable principle investigators to effectively and efficiently co-locate within the future TA Alaska footprint. Three Nanometrics sensors were installed in November 2012 in power-augered holes 76 cm in depth: a Trillium Compact Posthole (PH) and two Trillium 120PH units (one standard PH and one enhanced PHQ). The installations took less than 8 hours in -30°C conditions with 4 hours of usable daylight. The Compact PH and the 120PHQ are delivering data in realtime, while the 120PH is testing standalone power and data collection systems. Preliminary results compare favorably to each other as

  20. Rock-fall Hazard In The Yosemite Valley, California (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent slope movements in Yosemite Na- tional Park, California. In historical time (1851-2001), more than 400 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the preliminary results of an attempt to assess rockfall hazard in the Yosemite Valley using STONE, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock-fall trajectories starting from a digital terrain model (DTM), the location of rock-fall release points (source areas), and maps of the dynamic rolling coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tan- gential energy restitution. For each DTM cell the software also calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock-fall velocity and the maxi- mum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DTM with a ground resolution of 10 x 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from USGS 1:24,000-scale maps. Rock-fall release points were identified as DTM cells having a slope steeper than 60 degrees, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the nor- mal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to cali- brate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of the model. The model results are also compared with a geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazard based on potential energy referred to as a "shadow angle" approach, recently completed for the Yosemite Valley.

  1. Microbenthic distribution of Proterozoic tidal flats: environmental and taphonomic considerations (United States)

    Kah, L. C.; Knoll, A. H.


    Silicified carbonates of the late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic Society Cliffs Formation, Baffin Island, contain distinctive microfabrics and microbenthic assemblages whose paleo-environmental distribution within the formation parallels the distribution of these elements through Proterozoic time. In the Society Cliffs Formation, restricted carbonates--including microdigitate stromatolites, laminated tufa, and tufted microbial mats--consist predominantly of synsedimentary cements; these facies and the cyanobacterial fossils they contain are common in Paleoproterozoic successions but rare in Neoproterozoic and younger rocks. Less restricted tidal-flat facies in the formation are composed of laminated microbialites dominated by micritic carbonate lithified early, yet demonstrably after compaction; these strata contain cyanobacteria that are characteristic in Neoproterozoic rocks. Within the formation, the facies-dependent distribution of microbial populations reflects both the style and timing of carbonate deposition because of the strong substrate specificity of benthic cyanobacteria. A reasonable conclusion is that secular changes in microbenthic assemblages through Proterozoic time reflect a decrease in the overall representation of rapidly lithified carbonate substrates in younger peritidal environments, as well as concomitant changes in the taphonomic window of silicification through which early life is observed.

  2. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops (United States)


    quantities correspond to values of 0.86 and 18 respectively. SCATTERING FROM ROCKS 3 Figure 2. ( color online) Rough interface results from a glacially abraded...surface in (a) the low-resolution mode, and (b) the high-resolution mode. The glaciers flowed in the negative y direction. The color bar height reference to the surface mean, and the brightness, or black/ white information communicates the surface slope. The dashed box in (a

  3. Operational principle, testing, and applications of the AWID-flat jack for absolute stress determinations using voltage measurements (United States)

    Kessels, W.


    Stress measurements can be performed with the, measuring principle for a flat jack discussed in this paper without any material parameters of the flat jack being of influence. This means that no calibration measurements are required by this flat jack for absolute measurements and there is no dependence on temperature. It is called “Absolut Widerstands Druckmesskissen” or short AWID-Flat Jack. Basis of evaluation is a change in the electrical resistivity of the flat jack, which is caused by two metal sheets separating from each other when inflated with hydraulic oil as soon as the external pressure is reached. Besides theoretical considerations concerning the mode of operation of the flat jack, this paper presents laboratory measurements performed in an autoclave as well as in a tube filled with salt grit under a uniaxial press. Changes of stress can be measured if the flat jack is cemented into a borehole under initial stress. The absolute stress of the bedrock can be measured after a certain time of adjustment in rock capable of creep (salt, clay, etc.). The advantages of the AWID measuring system are confirmed by in situ-measurements in a salt pillar loadable with variable pressure. In a temperature experiment at the Asse salt mine (Federal Republic of Germany) where the salt was heated up to 200°C, the advantages of the AWID measurement system were confirmed.

  4. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  5. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A


    ... of eclogite evolution and genesis. The authors present a thorough treatment of the stability relations and geochemistry of these rocks, their intimate association with continental plate collision zones and suture zones...

  6. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-


    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  7. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin


    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  8. Rock and Soil Rheology (United States)

    Cristescu, Nicolae; Ene, Horia I.

    The first part of the volume contains theoretical considerations of the physical properties of soils and rocks. Articles on the mechanical and kinematical behavior of rocks as well as mathematical models are the base for the understanding of the physical properties of natural systems. In the second part articles deal with experiments and applications regarding creep deformation of clay, underground cavities, tunnels and deformation of sand and lamistrine sediments.

  9. High performance flat plate solar collector (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.


    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  10. Stability of FORS2 Sky Flats (United States)

    Boffin, Henri M. J.; Dobrzycka, D.; Hummel, C.; Moehler, S.; Smoker, J.; Anderson, J.; Dias, B.


    "The FORS2 calibration plan previously had a validity for imaging sky flatfields of four days. This placed some stress on the observers, especially during periods of bad weather. We therefore decided to analyse a series of flats to check if it was possible to extend this validity range, and if yes, to what level. The analysis allowed us to change the FORS2 calibration plan, increasing the validity of sky flats from four to 14 days."

  11. Metallogeny of Mesoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in Idaho and Montana - Studies by the Mineral Resources Program, U.S. Geological Survey, 2004-2007 (United States)

    O'Neill, J. Michael


    Preface By J.Michael O'Neill The major emphasis of this project was to extend and refine the known Mesoproterozoic geologic and metallogenic framework of the region along and adjacent to the Idaho-Montana boundary north of the Snake River Plain. The Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in this part of east-central Idaho host important Cu-Co-Au stratabound mineral resources as well as younger, epigenetic hydrothermal, sulfide base-metal mineral deposits. Two tasks of this study were to more accurately understand and portray the character and origin of cobalt-copper-gold deposits that compose the Idaho cobalt belt and specifically to analyze ore mineralogy and metallogenesis within the Blackbird mining district in the central part of the belt. Inasmuch as the cobalt belt is confined to the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group strata of east-central Idaho, geologic investigations were also undertaken to determine the relationship between strata of the Lemhi Group and the more extensive, noncobalt-bearing, Belt-Purcell Supergroup strata to the north and northwest. Abrupt lateral differences in the character and thickness of stratigraphic units in the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Basin may indicate differential sedimentation in contemporaneous fault-bounded subbasins. It is suggested that northeast-trending basement faults of the Great Falls tectonic zone controlled development of the subbasins. O'Neill and others (chapter A, this volume) document a second major basement fault in this area, the newly recognized northwest-striking Great Divide megashear, a zone 1-2 km wide of left-lateral strike-slip faults active during Mesoproterozoic sedimentation and bounding the Cu-Co belt on the northwest. The megashear is a crustal-scale tectonic feature that separates Lemhi Group strata from roughly coeval Belt-Purcell strata to the north and northwest in Montana and northern Idaho. The results of numerous geologic investigations of the Cu- and Co-bearing Mesoproterozoic rocks of east

  12. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  13. Inherited weaknesses control deformation in the flat slab region of Central Argentina (United States)

    Stevens, A.; Carrapa, B.; Larrovere, M.; Aciar, R. H.


    The Sierras Pampeanas region of west-central Argentina has long been considered a geologic type-area for flat-slab induced thick-skinned deformation. Frictional coupling between the horizontal subducting plate and South American lithosphere from ~12 Ma to the present provides an obvious causal mechanism for the basement block uplifts that characterize this region. New low temperature thermochronometry data show basement rocks from the central Sierras Pampeanas (~ longitude 66 ̊ W) including Sierras Cadena de Paiman, Velasco and Mazan retain a cooling history of Paleozoic - Mesozoic tectonics events. Results from this study indicate that less than 2 km of basement has been exhumed since at least the Mesozoic. These trends recorded by both apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite helium (AHe) thermochronometry suggest that recent Mio-Pliocene thick-skinned deformation associated with flat-slab subduction follow inherited zones of weakness from Paleozoic terrane sutures and shear zones and Mesozoic rifting. If a Cenozoic foreland basin exisited in this region, its thickness was minimal and was controlled by paleotopography. Pre-Cenozoic cooling ages in these ranges that now reach as high as 4 km imply significant exhumation of basement rocks before the advent of flat slab subduction in the mid-late Miocene. It also suggests that thick-skinned deformation associated with flat slab subduction may at least be facilitated by inherited crustal-scale weaknesses. At the most, pre-existing zones of weakness may be required in regions of thick-skinned deformation. Although flat-slab subduction plays an important role in the exhumation of the Sierras Pampeanas, it is likely not the sole mechanism responsible for thick-skinned deformation in this region. This insight sheds light on the interpretation of modern and ancient regions of thick-skinned deformation in Cordilleran systems.

  14. Fabrication of Flat Plate Solar Geyser with Flat Grooved Heat Exchanger Having Special Exit System


    Malik, Muhammad Suleman; Malik, Muhammad Arsalan; Shah, Haseeb Ali; Khan Afridi, Adnan Anwar; Asif, Muhammad


    International audience; The main objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of novel flat plate solar geyser with integrated heat exchanger and open loop passive system.The heat exchanger acts both as collector for solar radiations and as a heat exchanger its self for cold water beneath it. Contrary to the conventional flat plate solar collectors, water is in direct contact with the collector or flat grooved heat exchanger. A safety control box is installed to minimize hydraulic pres...

  15. Field Verification Program (Aquatic Disposal). Use of Bioenergetics to Investigate the Impact of Dredged Material on Benthic Species: A Laboratory Study with Polychaetes and Black Rock Harbor Material. (United States)


    Vol 179. McKinney, C.L., Jr. 1982. "Interrelationships Between Energy Metabolism, Growth Dynamics, and Reproduction During the Life Cycle of Mysidopsis...ANIMAL’S LIFE STAGE: JUVENILE SIZE: 1.40 +/- 0.33 MG DRY WI CONTROLS: 100 PERCENT REF FOOD: PRAWN FLA.E SUSPENSION ANIMAL SOURCE: SOUTH REFERENCE, LONG...dredged material. Evaluations were to be based on technology existing within the two agencies or developed during the six-year life of the program. 3. The

  16. Layered Rocks in Ritchey (United States)


    14 May 2004 This March 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light- and dark-toned layered rock outcrops on the floor of Ritchey Crater, located near 28.9oS, 50.8oW. Some or all of these rocks may be sedimentary in origin. Erosion has left a couple of buttes standing on a more erosion-resistant plain. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  17. Magnetized and Flat Beam Experiment at FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Fermilab; Hyun, J. [Sokendai, Tsukuba; Mihalcea, D. [NIU, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Sen, T. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, C. [Fermilab


    A photocathode, immersed in solenoidal magnetic field, can produce canonical-angular-momentum (CAM) dominated or “magnetized” electron beams. Such beams have an application in electron cooling of hadron beams and can also be uncoupled to yield asymmetric-emittance (“flat”) beams. In the present paper we explore the possibilities of the flat beam generation at Fermilab’s Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. We present optimization of the beam flatness and four-dimensional transverse emittance and investigate the mapping and its limitations of the produced eigen-emittances to conventional emittances using a skew-quadrupole channel. Possible application of flat beams at the FAST facility are also discussed.

  18. Fault Rock Variation as a Function of Host Rock Lithology (United States)

    Fagereng, A.; Diener, J.


    Fault rocks contain an integrated record of the slip history of a fault, and thereby reflect the deformation processes associated with fault slip. Within the Aus Granulite Terrane, Namibia, a number of Jurassic to Cretaceous age strike-slip faults cross-cut Precambrian high grade metamorphic rocks. These strike-slip faults were active at subgreenschist conditions and occur in a variety of host rock lithologies. Where the host rock contains significant amounts of hydrous minerals, representing granulites that have undergone retrogressive metamorphism, the fault rock is dominated by hydrothermal breccias. In anhydrous, foliated rocks interlayered with minor layers containing hydrous phyllosilicates, the fault rock is a cataclasite partially cemented by jasper and quartz. Where the host rock is an isotropic granitic rock the fault rock is predominantly a fine grained black fault rock. Cataclasites and breccias show evidence for multiple deformation events, whereas the fine grained black fault rocks appear to only record a single slip increment. The strike-slip faults observed all formed in the same general orientation and at a similar time, and it is unlikely that regional stress, strain rate, pressure and temperature varied between the different faults. We therefore conclude that the type of fault rock here depended on the host rock lithology, and that lithology alone accounts for why some faults developed a hydrothermal breccia, some cataclasite, and some a fine grained black fault rock. Consequently, based on the assumption that fault rocks reflect specific slip styles, lithology was also the main control on different fault slip styles in this area at the time of strike-slip fault activity. Whereas fine grained black fault rock is inferred to represent high stress events, hydrothermal breccia is rather related to events involving fluid pressure in excess of the least stress. Jasper-bearing cataclasites may represent faults that experienced dynamic weakening as seen

  19. Fractal Analysis of Rock Joint Profiles (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš


    Surface reliefs of rock joints are analyzed in geotechnics when shear strength of rocky slopes is estimated. The rock joint profiles actually are self-affine fractal curves and computations of their fractal dimensions require special methods. Many papers devoted to the fractal properties of these profiles were published in the past but only a few of those papers employed a convenient computational method that would have guaranteed a sound value of that dimension. As a consequence, anomalously low dimensions were presented. This contribution deals with two computational modifications that lead to sound fractal dimensions of the self-affine rock joint profiles. These are the modified box-counting method and the modified yard-stick method sometimes called the compass method. Both these methods are frequently applied to self-similar fractal curves but the self-affine profile curves due to their self-affine nature require modified computational procedures implemented in computer programs.

  20. 75 FR 65453 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Flat Products From Brazil: Notice of... (United States)


    ...-rolled dual phase steel, phase-hardened, primarily with a ferritic-martensitic microstructure, contains 0... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Flat Products From Brazil... duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon quality steel flat products (hot-rolled steel) from...

  1. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.


    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  2. Rock support design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandewalle, M. [N.V. Bekaert (Belgium)


    Steel fibre imparts to concrete and shotcrete a high degree of ductibility which not only allow the linings to absorb rock movement but also increases its bearing capacity by a redistribution of the loads. The article discusses the variety of uses of shotcrete for support of underground excavations, mainly for support of permanent mine openings such as ramps, haulages, shaft stations and crusher chambers.

  3. The River Rock School. (United States)

    Gereaux, Teresa Thomas


    In the early 1920s, the small Appalachian community of Damascus, Virginia, used private subscriptions and volunteer labor to build a 15-classroom school made of rocks from a nearby river and chestnut wood from nearby forests. The school building's history, uses for various community activities, and current condition are described. (SV)

  4. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.


    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the

  5. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease. (United States)

    Bereki, Debra


    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  6. From the inside out: Eagle Rock School Producing a New Generation of CES Teachers (United States)

    Condon, Dan


    In this article, the author gives an overview of Eagle Rock School's Teaching Fellowship Program which he founded in collaboration with Public Allies, Inc. and under the auspices of Eagle Rock's Professional Development Center. Eagle Rock's Teaching Fellowship has two perspectives: (1) local; and (2) global. Locally, Fellows contribute skills,…

  7. Improving the durability of flat roof constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard


    as there is no easy method of drying it. To be able to dry the insulation, and thereby regain the functional requirements of the roofing system, two new solutions for insulating flat roofs with existing materials are proposed for high density mineral wool and expanded polystyrene. Monitoring equipment are part...

  8. Vortices in theories with flat directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Davis, AC; Pickles, M; Urrestilla, J


    In theories with flat directions containing vortices, such as supersymmetric QED, there is a vacuum selection effect in the allowed asymptotic configurations. We explain the role played by gauge fields in this effect and give a simple criterion for determining what vacua will be chosen, namely,

  9. Superconducting transitions in flat-band systems (United States)

    Iglovikov, V. I.; Hébert, F.; Grémaud, B.; Batrouni, G. G.; Scalettar, R. T.


    The physics of strongly correlated quantum particles within a flat band was originally explored as a route to itinerant ferromagnetism and, indeed, a celebrated theorem by Lieb rigorously establishes that the ground state of the repulsive Hubbard model on a bipartite lattice with an unequal number of sites in each sublattice must have nonzero spin S at half filling. Recently, there has been interest in Lieb geometries due to the possibility of topological insulator, nematic, and Bose-Einstein condensed (BEC) phases. In this paper, we extend the understanding of the attractive Hubbard model on the Lieb lattice by using determinant quantum Monte Carlo to study real space charge and pair correlation functions not addressed by the Lieb theorems. Specifically, our results show unusual charge and charge transfer signatures within the flat band, and a reduction in pairing order at ρ =2/3 and ρ =4/3, the points at which the flat band is first occupied and then completely filled. We compare our results to the case of flat bands in the Kagome lattice and demonstrate that the behavior observed in the two cases is rather different.

  10. Promoting Employability in a "Flat" World (United States)

    Parker, Polly


    T. L. Friedman (2005) described a "flat" world platform where competition and collaboration take place in real time among people all over the planet. Implications exist for people to assume responsibility for managing their own careers and ensuring their own security in a global economy. This article addresses those challenges from both the…

  11. Design scenarios for flat panel photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.


    Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel

  12. Do intertidal flats ever reach equilibrium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, D.C.; van Prooijen, B.C.; Wang, Z.B.; de Vriend, H.J.


    Various studies have identified a strong relation between the hydrodynamic forces and the equilibrium profile for intertidal flats. A thorough understanding of the interplay between the hydrodynamic forces and the morphology, however, concerns more than the equilibrium state alone. We study the


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Haematological characteristics of Anadara senilis was investigated. A total of two hundred and forty (240) were sampled from Andoni flats during low tide. They were immediately transferred to the laboratory, where they were sorted and grouped into four different sizes. Group one comprised of (mean length ...

  14. Fabrication of Flat Plate Solar Geyser with Flat Grooved Heat Exchanger Having Special Exit System


    Muhammad Suleman Malik; Muhammad Arsalan Malik; Haseeb Ali Shah; Adnan Anwar khan afridi; Muhammad Asif


    The main objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of novel flat plate solar geyser with integrated heat exchanger and open loop passive system.The heat exchanger acts both as collector for solar radiations and as a heat exchanger its self for cold water beneath it. Contrary to the conventional flat plate solar collectors, water is in direct contact with the collector or flat grooved heat exchanger. A safety control box is installed to minimize hydraulic pressure of cold water rese...

  15. Rock melting technology and geothermal drilling (United States)

    Rowley, J. C.


    National awareness of the potential future shortages in energy resources has heightened interest in exploration and utilization of a variety of geothermal energy (GTE) reservoirs. The status of conventional drilling of GTE wells is reviewed briefly and problem areas which lead to higher drilling costs are identified and R and D directions toward solution are suggested. In the immediate future, an expanded program of drilling in GTE formations can benefit from improvements in drilling equipment and technology normally associated with oil or gas wells. Over a longer time period, the new rock-melting drill bits being developed as a part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Subterrene Program offer new solutions to a number of problems which frequently hamper GTE drilling, including the most basic problem - high temperature. Two of the most favorable characteristics of rock-melting penetrators are their ability to operate effectively in hot rock and produce glass linings around the hole as an integral part of the drilling process. The technical advantages to be gained by use of rock-melting penetrators are discussed in relation to the basic needs for GTE wells.

  16. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'


    Shepherd, Becky


    Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly,...

  17. Comprehensive Mutation Analysis in Colorectal Flat Adenomas (United States)

    Voorham, Quirinus J. M.; Carvalho, Beatriz; Spiertz, Angela J.; Claes, Bart; Mongera, Sandra; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Grabsch, Heike; Kliment, Martin; Rembacken, Bjorn; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Quirke, Philip; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Lambrechts, Diether; van Engeland, Manon; Meijer, Gerrit A.


    Background Flat adenomas are a subgroup of colorectal adenomas that have been associated with a distinct biology and a more aggressive clinical behavior compared to their polypoid counterparts. In the present study, we aimed to compare the mutation spectrum of 14 cancer genes, between these two phenotypes. Methods A consecutive series of 106 flat and 93 polypoid adenomas was analyzed retrospectively for frequently occurring mutations in “hot spot” regions of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and NRAS, as well as selected mutations in CTNNB1 (β-catenin), EGFR, FBXW7 (CDC4), PTEN, STK11, MAP2K4, SMAD4, PIK3R1 and PDGFRA using a high-throughput genotyping technique. Additionally, APC was analyzed using direct sequencing. Results APC mutations were more frequent in polypoid adenomas compared to flat adenomas (48.5% versus 30.3%, respectively, p = 0.02). Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, FBXW7 and CTNNB1 showed similar frequencies in both phenotypes. Between the different subtypes of flat adenomas (0-IIa, LST-F and LST-G) no differences were observed for any of the investigated genes. Conclusion The lower APC mutation rate in flat adenomas compared to polypoid adenomas suggests that disruption of the Wnt-pathway may occur via different mechanisms in these two phenotypes. Furthermore, in contrast to previous observations our results in this large well-defined sample set indicate that there is no significant association between the different morphological phenotypes and mutations in key genes of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. PMID:22848674

  18. Completion Report for Model Evaluation Well ER-11-2: Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Underground Test Area and Boreholes Programs and Operations


    Model Evaluation Well ER-11-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of Nevada Environmental Management Operations at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). The well was drilled in August 2012 as part of a model evaluation program in the Frenchman Flat area of Nye County, Nevada. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, chemical, and radionuclide data that can be used to test and build confidence in the applicability of the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit flow and transport models for their intended purpose. In particular, this well was designed to provide data to evaluate the uncertainty in model forecasts of contaminant migration from the upgradient underground nuclear test PIN STRIPE, conducted in borehole U-11b in 1966. Well ER-11-2 will provide information that can be used to refine the Phase II Frenchman Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model if necessary, as well as to support future groundwater flow and transport modeling. The main 31.1-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 399.6 meters (m). A completion casing string was not set in Well ER-11-2. However, a piezometer string was installed in the 31.1-cm open hole. The piezometer is composed of 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing hung on 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. The piezometer string was landed at 394.5 m, for monitoring the lower tuff confining unit. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other test-related radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 42.7 m of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium and 356.9 m of Tertiary volcanic rock. The water-level measured in the piezometer string on September 25, 2012, was 353.8 m below ground surface. No

  19. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue


    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  20. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W


    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  1. Limados : Rock peruano


    García Morete, Ramiro


    Incentivado por la corriente nuevaolera que llegaba de México, fue señalado por especialistas como pionero del punk. Aunque el plan, era tocar con lo que hubiera. Un recodo ínfimo de un período breve pero sorprendentemente poderoso, los 60 en un país que hizo del rock una expresión propia de su cultura. Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicación Social

  2. Rocky Flats Neutron Detector Testing at Valduc, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S S; Dulik, G M


    Recent program requirements of the US Department of Energy/NNSA have led to a need for a criticality accident alarm system to be installed at a newly activated facility. The Criticality Safety Group of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was able to recover and store for possible future use approximately 200 neutron criticality detectors and 20 master alarm panels from the former Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado when the plant was closed. The Criticality Safety Group participated in a facility analysis and evaluation, the engineering design and review process, as well as the refurbishment, testing, and recalibration of the Rocky Flats criticality alarm system equipment to be used in the new facility. In order to demonstrate the functionality and survivability of the neutron detectors to the effects of an actual criticality accident, neutron detector testing was performed at the French CEA Valduc SILENE reactor from October 7 to October 19, 2010. The neutron detectors were exposed to three criticality events or pulses generated by the SILENE reactor. The first excursion was performed with a bare or unshielded reactor, and the second excursion was made with a lead shielded/reflected reactor, and the third excursion with a polyethylene reflected core. These tests of the Rocky Flats neutron detectors were performed as a part of the 2010 Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Measurements at the SILENE Reactor. The principal investigators for this series of experiments were Thomas M. Miller and John C. Wagner of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Nicolas Authier and Nathalie Baclet of CEA Valduc. Several other organizations were also represented, including the Y-12 National Security Complex, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, CEA Saclay, and Babcock International Group.

  3. Improved H mode with flat central q profile on EAST (United States)

    Liu, Haiqing; Yang, Yao; Gao, Xiang; Zeng, Long; Qian, Jinping; Gong, Xianzu; Wan, Baonian; Ding, Weixing; Brower, David Lyn; EAST Team


    High betaN ( 1.8) plasma with good confinement (H98y2 1.1) on EAST tokamak has been reported recently. These ELMy H-mode plasmas with Bt = 1.6T, Ip = 400 kA and q95 4.5 were heated by lower hybrid wave and neutral beam injection. The internal transport barrier (ITB) and edge transport barrier (ETB) are both observed with m/n =1/1 fishbone, which were identified to clamp central q at values close to unity. Implying an improved H-mode with flat central q profile and absence of sawteeth, like other devices. Accurate q profile, key profile for developing scenarios aim at high performance H mode, were derived by Polarimeter-interferometer (POINT) measurement as constraint. Base on the optimized current profile, better confinement (H98y2 1.4) with an electron ITB was obtained also with flat central q profile and absence of sawteeth at high betaP ( 2) regime with Bt = 2.5T, Ip = 400 kA. Both high betaN regime and high betaP regime H mode, are characterized by a stationary flat central q profile q0 >=1, but typically close to 1, absence of sawteeth, H98(y,2) >1 and simultaneously, with ITB. This work is supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China with Contract No. 2014GB106002 and partly supported by the US D.O.E. contract DESC0010469.

  4. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.


    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  5. Necessity of the Ridge for the Flat Slab Subduction: Insights from the Peruvian Flat Slab (United States)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Long, M. D.; Zandt, G.; Tavera, H.


    Flattening of the subducting plate has been linked to the formation of various geological features, including basement-cored uplifts, the cessation of arc volcanism, ignimbrite flare-ups, and the formation of high plateaus and ore deposits [Humphreys et al., 2003; Gutscher et al., 2000; Rosenbaum et al., 2005]. However, the mechanism responsible for the slab flattening is still poorly understood. Here we focus on the Peruvian flat slab, where the Nazca plate starts to bend at ~80 km depth and travels horizontally for several hundred kilometers, at which point steep subduction resumes. Based on a 1500 km long volcanic gap and intermediate depth seismicity patterns, the Peruvian flat slab appears to have the greatest along-strike extent and, therefore, has been suggested as a modern analogue to the putative flat slab during the Laramide orogeny in the western United States (~80-55 Ma). Combining 3D shear wave velocity structure and Rayleigh wave phase anisotropy between ~10° and 18° S, we find that the subducting Nazca plate is not uniformly flat along the entire region, but fails to the north of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Our results show that, in combination with trench retreat, rapid overriding plate motion, and/or presence of a thick cratonic root, the subduction of buoyant overthickened oceanic crust, such as the Nazca Ridge, is necessary for the formation and sustainability of flat slabs. This finding has important implications for the formation of flat slabs both past and present.

  6. Economic and environmental effects of a flat rate for Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Peerlings, J.H.M.


    The objective of this research is to give insights into the production, income and environmental effects of the introduction of a flat rate for Dutch agriculture that is lower than the present average direct income payment. For this purpose, a detailed agri-environmental programming model for Dutch

  7. Accuracy of Surface Plate Measurements - General Purpose Software for Flatness Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.; Heuvelman, C.J.


    Flatness departures of surface plates are generally obtained from straightness measurements of lines on the surface. A computer program has been developed for on-line measurement and evaluation, based on the simultaneous coupling of measurements in all grid points. Statistical methods are used to

  8. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  9. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén, E-mail:; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Campus de Montegancedo, Madrid (Spain)


    The so-called CCS{sup 4}FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  10. Standard specification for silvered flat glass mirror

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for silvered flat glass mirrors of rectangular shape supplied as cut sizes, stock sheets or as lehr ends and to which no further processing (such as edgework or other fabrication) has been done. 1.2 This specification covers the quality requirements of silvered annealed monolithic clear and tinted flat glass mirrors up to 6 mm (¼ in.) thick. The mirrors are intended to be used indoors for mirror glazing, for components of decorative accessories or for similar uses. 1.3 This specification does not address safety glazing materials nor requirements for mirror applications. Consult model building codes and other applicable standards for safety glazing applications. 1.4 Mirrors covered in this specification are not intended for use in environments where high humidity or airborne corrosion promoters, or both, are consistently present (such as swimming pool areas, ocean-going vessels, chemical laboratories and other corrosive environments). 1.5 The dimensional val...

  11. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module (United States)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi


    The so-called CCS4FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  12. Flat roof integration. CPT solar (AET IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, D.; Pola, I.; Bernasconi, A.; Bura, E.; Cereghetti, N.; Realini, A.; Pasinelli, P.; Rioggi, S.


    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a 15.4 kWp solar power installation in Trevano, Switzerland, that features flexible amorphous silicon triple-junction modules, mounted nearly horizontally and directly laminated to flexible polyolefin membranes that form the covering of a flat roof. The main objective of this study was to verify in which order of magnitude the better thermal behaviour of amorphous silicon cells can compensate for losses due to the quasi-horizontal roof integration (lower irradiation and higher reflection), and thus be competitive in the flat roof construction and refurbishment markets. The modules used and their characteristics are described. Performance, temperature levels and energy-production are reviewed for the panels of the installation. The performance of the inverter used is also reviewed. Data on temperatures and production are presented in graphical form and optical losses are examined.

  13. Closed Axisymmetric Shells as Flat Jacks (United States)

    Yudin, S. A.; Sigaeva, T. V.

    Buildings during exploitation can be subjected to the external loadings leading to various kinds of heterogeneous strains or tilts. There is engineering technologies of uplift and flattening of multistory buildings by means of steel shells of the closed volume which are named as flat jacks (FJs) [1]. FJ represents two circular close plates which at the outer contour are joined to torus shell. The oil could be introduced into volume by hydraulic station creating a high pressure. As a result the plates diverge and through inserts from thick plywood create powerful force. The construction and working conditions of flat lifting jacks generates a set of problems of the mathematical modeling which are interesting to study. One of the directions is the geometry optimization. In the paper, we analyze variants of the axisymmetric shells modeling FJs. Stress states of shells with different shapes are compared at the initial loading stage.

  14. An Investigation on Load Bearing Capacities of Cement and Resin Grouted Rock Bolts Installed in Weak Rocks (United States)

    Kalyoncu Erguler, Guzide; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal


    Rock bolts have been considered one of indispensable support method to improve load bearing capacity of many underground engineering projects, and thus, various types of them have been developed until now for different purposes. Although mechanically anchored rock bolts can be successfully installed to prevent structurally controlled instabilities in hard rocks, in comparison with cement and resin grouted rock bolts, these types of anchors are not so effective in weak rocks characterized by relatively low mechanical properties. In order to investigate the applicability and to measure relative performance of cement and resin grouted rock bolts into weak and heavily jointed rock mass, a research program mainly consisting of pull-out tests was performed in a metal mine in Turkey. The rock materials excavated in this underground mining were described as basalt, tuff, ore dominated volcanic rocks and dacite. To achieve more representative results for rock materials found in this mining and openings excavated in varied dimensions, the pull-out tests were conducted on rock bolts used in many different locations where more convergences were measured and deformation dependent instability was expected to cause greater engineering problems. It is well known that the capacity of rock bolts depends on the length, diameter and density of the bolt pattern, and so considering the thickness of plastic zone in the studied openings, the length and diameter of rock bolts were taken as 2.4 m. and 25 mm., respectively. The spacing between rows changed between 70 and 180 cm. In this study, totally twenty five pull-out tests were performed to have a general understanding about axial load bearing capacity and support reaction curves of cement and resin grouted rock bolts. When pull load-displacement curves belongs to cement and resin grouted rock bolts were compared with each other, it was determined that cement grouted rock bolts carry more load ranging between 115.6 kN and 127.5 kN with

  15. Stratification on the Skagit Bay Tidal Flats (United States)


    shore Skagit Bay a Camano Island -1 0 1 -2-1012 0.5 -0.5 1 -1 C ro ss -s ho re (k m ) Alongshore (km) 0 b 1 0 -1 Bed level (m ) 18 2.2 Modeled...shadowed by Camano Island, which forms the southern border of the tidal flats (Fig. 2-3c). Saline water has propagated onshore and a roughly

  16. Dermatoscopy of flat pigmented facial lesions. (United States)

    Tschandl, P; Rosendahl, C; Kittler, H


    The diagnosis of flat pigmented lesions on the face is challenging because of the morphologic overlap of biologically different lesions and the unknown significance of dermatoscopic patterns. To better characterize dermatoscopic patterns of various types of flat pigmented facial lesions and to analyse their significance by calculating their relative risks and diagnostic values. We prospectively analysed dermatoscopic images of 240 flat pigmented facial skin lesions collected consecutively from 195 patients (41.5% females, mean age: 61 ± 14 years) between 2007 and March 2012 in a primary skin cancer practice situated in Queensland, Australia. Histopathologically 114 (47.5%) lesions were malignant (24 lentigo maligna, 21 basal cell carcinomas and 69 pigmented actinic keratoses). Compared with all other patterns the positive predictive value for lentigo maligna was highest for a pattern of circles (31.3%, 95% CI: 11.1-58.6%). A pattern of clods was associated with basal cell carcinoma. If grey structures were present the relative risk for malignancy was 2.2 (95%CI: 1.4-3.4). The best clues to differentiate pigmented actinic keratosis from other lesions were the presence of scale (positive predictive value: 72.2%, specificity: 94.2%), white circles (positive predictive value: 68.8%, specificity: 94.2%) and a sharply demarcated border (positive predictive value: 44.2%, specificity: 86.0%). In flat lesions a pattern of circles bears the highest risk for facial melanoma but other patterns do not exclude it. Scale, white circles and a sharply demarcated border are clues to pigmented actinic keratoses. The presence of grey colour is a clue to malignancy regardless of pattern. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Hammering Yucca Flat, Part Two: Shear-Wave Velocity (United States)

    Finlay, T. S.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Tang, D. G.; James, S. R.; Haney, M. M.; Hampshire, J. B., II


    In preparation for the next phase of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), we conducted an active-source seismic survey of Yucca Flat, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. Results from this survey will be used to inform the geologic models associated with the SPE project. For this study, we used a novel 13,000 kilogram weight-drop seismic source to interrogate an 18-km North-South transect of Yucca Flat. Source points were spaced every 200 meters and were recorded by 350 to 380 3-component 2-Hz geophones with variable spacings of 10, 20, and 100 meters. We utilized the Refraction-Microtremor (ReMi) technique to create multiple 1D dispersion curves, which were then inverted for shear-wave velocity profiles using the Dix inversion method (Tsai and Haney, 2015). Each of these 1D velocity models was subsequently stitched together to create a 2D profile over the survey area. The dispersion results indicate a general decrease in surface-wave phase velocity to the south. This result is supported by slower shear-wave velocity sediments and increasing basin depth towards the survey's southern extent. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Miniaturized LEDs for flat-panel displays (United States)

    Radauscher, Erich J.; Meitl, Matthew; Prevatte, Carl; Bonafede, Salvatore; Rotzoll, Robert; Gomez, David; Moore, Tanya; Raymond, Brook; Cok, Ronald; Fecioru, Alin; Trindade, António Jose; Fisher, Brent; Goodwin, Scott; Hines, Paul; Melnik, George; Barnhill, Sam; Bower, Christopher A.


    Inorganic light emitting diodes (LEDs) serve as bright pixel-level emitters in displays, from indoor/outdoor video walls with pixel sizes ranging from one to thirty millimeters to micro displays with more than one thousand pixels per inch. Pixel sizes that fall between those ranges, roughly 50 to 500 microns, are some of the most commercially significant ones, including flat panel displays used in smart phones, tablets, and televisions. Flat panel displays that use inorganic LEDs as pixel level emitters (μILED displays) can offer levels of brightness, transparency, and functionality that are difficult to achieve with other flat panel technologies. Cost-effective production of μILED displays requires techniques for precisely arranging sparse arrays of extremely miniaturized devices on a panel substrate, such as transfer printing with an elastomer stamp. Here we present lab-scale demonstrations of transfer printed μILED displays and the processes used to make them. Demonstrations include passive matrix μILED displays that use conventional off-the shelf drive ASICs and active matrix μILED displays that use miniaturized pixel-level control circuits from CMOS wafers. We present a discussion of key considerations in the design and fabrication of highly miniaturized emitters for μILED displays.

  19. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection (United States)


    ...-size mail except saturation and high-density Periodicals and Standard Mail flats, as a basic... the continued allowance of flats entry to DDUs for basic carrier route flats (Periodicals, Standard... DDUs from the deflection standards. This exemption includes Periodicals publications that are entered...

  20. From stones to rocks (United States)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond


    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  1. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O' Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.


    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  2. Rock dumping secures twin pipelines across Michigan straits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairston, D.E. (Willbros Butler Engineers Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)); Seng, J.E.; Jaskowiec, L.J. (Great Lakes Gas Transmission Co., Detroit, MI (United States))


    Great Lakes Gas Transmission Co., Detroit, in 1993 successfully stabilized its two 24-in. natural-gas pipelines crossing the Straits of Mackinac in northern Michigan. Placing approximately 152,000 tons of limestone rock around and under the lines supported and stabilized them and prevented further erosion of the lake bottom under them. The paper describes the discovery of the erosion problem in 1992, the surveys done to plan repair, concrete repair, and the rock placement program.

  3. Splines and polynomial tools for flatness-based constrained motion planning (United States)

    Suryawan, Fajar; De Doná, José; Seron, María


    This article addresses the problem of trajectory planning for flat systems with constraints. Flat systems have the useful property that the input and the state can be completely characterised by the so-called flat output. We propose a spline parametrisation for the flat output, the performance output, the states and the inputs. Using this parametrisation the problem of constrained trajectory planning can be cast into a simple quadratic programming problem. An important result is that the B-spline parametrisation used gives exact results for constrained linear continuous-time system. The result is exact in the sense that the constrained signal can be made arbitrarily close to the boundary without having intersampling issues (as one would have in sampled-data systems). Simulation examples are presented, involving the generation of rest-to-rest trajectories. In addition, an experimental result of the method is also presented, where two methods to generate trajectories for a magnetic-levitation (maglev) system in the presence of constraints are compared and each method's performance is discussed. The first method uses the nonlinear model of the plant, which turns out to belong to the class of flat systems. The second method uses a linearised version of the plant model around an operating point. In every case, a continuous-time description is used. The experimental results on a real maglev system reported here show that, in most scenarios, the nonlinear and linearised models produce almost similar, indistinguishable trajectories.

  4. Rock Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lum


    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  5. A smart rock (United States)

    Pressel, Phil


    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  6. Dynamics of DNA Chains on Flat and Patterned Surfaces (United States)

    Li, Bingquan; Xiaohua, Fang; Seo, Young-Soo; Samuilov, Vladimir; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan


    The electrophoresis of DNA chains on flat silicon and patterned surfaces was studied by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Solutions of lambda DNA of 48,502 bp and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) of 3 6 Mb were deposited on different surfaces. The surfaces were chemically modified to be hydrophilic or SAM-covered and the patterns were produced over length scales from nano to micro size in the form of gratings or square arrays. The interaction with the surface and mobility of DNA chains depended on the surface chemistry, topography and ion concentration of buffer. The motion of individual chains in the electric field was analyzed both in terms of the dimensions and orientation of the pattern structure. Supported by NSF-MRSEC program (DMR-9632525)

  7. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd


    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  8. How flat is our Universe really?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okouma, P.M., E-mail: [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); Fantaye, Y. [Astrophysics Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, SISSA, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315, Oslo (Norway); Bassett, B.A. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa)


    Distance measurement provides no constraints on curvature independent of assumptions about the dark energy, raising the question, how flat is our Universe if we make no such assumptions? Allowing for general evolution of the dark energy equation of state with 20 free parameters that are allowed to cross the phantom divide, w(z)=−1, we show that while it is indeed possible to match the first peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background with non-flat models and arbitrary Hubble constant, H{sub 0}, the full WMAP7 and supernova data alone imply −0.12<Ω{sub k}<0.01 (2σ). If we add an H{sub 0} prior, this tightens significantly to Ω{sub k}=0.002±0.009. These constitute the most conservative and model-independent constraints on curvature available today, and illustrate that the curvature-dynamics degeneracy is broken by current data, with a key role played by the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect rather than the distance to the surface of last scattering. If one imposes a quintessence prior on the dark energy (−1⩽w(z)⩽1) then just the WMAP7 and supernova data alone force the Universe to near flatness: Ω{sub k}=0.013±0.012. Finally, allowing for curvature, we find that all datasets are consistent with a Harrison–Zel'dovich spectral index, n{sub s}=1, at 2σ, illustrating the interplay between early and late Universe constraints.

  9. Atomically flat single terminated oxide substrate surfaces (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Yang, Chan-Ho; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Jeong, Yoon H.


    Scientific interest in atomically controlled layer-by-layer fabrication of transition metal oxide thin films and heterostructures has increased intensely in recent decades for basic physics reasons as well as for technological applications. This trend has to do, in part, with the coming post-Moore era, and functional oxide electronics could be regarded as a viable alternative for the current semiconductor electronics. Furthermore, the interface of transition metal oxides is exposing many new emergent phenomena and is increasingly becoming a playground for testing new ideas in condensed matter physics. To achieve high quality epitaxial thin films and heterostructures of transition metal oxides with atomically controlled interfaces, one critical requirement is the use of atomically flat single terminated oxide substrates since the atomic arrangements and the reaction chemistry of the topmost surface layer of substrates determine the growth and consequent properties of the overlying films. Achieving the atomically flat and chemically single terminated surface state of commercially available substrates, however, requires judicious efforts because the surface of as-received substrates is of chemically mixed nature and also often polar. In this review, we summarize the surface treatment procedures to accomplish atomically flat surfaces with single terminating layer for various metal oxide substrates. We particularly focus on the substrates with lattice constant ranging from 4.00 Å to 3.70 Å, as the lattice constant of most perovskite materials falls into this range. For materials outside the range, one can utilize the substrates to induce compressive or tensile strain on the films and explore new states not available in bulk. The substrates covered in this review, which have been chosen with commercial availability and, most importantly, experimental practicality as a criterion, are KTaO3, REScO3 (RE = Rare-earth elements), SrTiO3, La0.18Sr0.82Al0.59Ta0.41O3 (LSAT), Nd

  10. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging (United States)

    Angele, W.


    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  11. Asymptotically flat spacetimes with BMS3 symmetry (United States)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Fiorucci, Adrien


    We construct the phase space of 3-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes that forms the bulk metric representation of the BMS group consisting of both supertranslations and superrotations. The asymptotic symmetry group is a unique copy of the BMS group at both null infinities and spatial infinity. The BMS phase space obeys a notion of holographic causality and can be parametrized by boundary null fields. This automatically leads to the antipodal identification of bulk fields between past and future null infinity in the absence of a global conical defect.

  12. Flat-lamp technology for LCDs (United States)

    Hicks, Richmond F.; Halstead, Wesley H.


    The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is rapidly becoming the technology of choice for high brightness, sunlight readable displays. One of the major drawbacks to this technology is the need for a high luminosity backlight. Fluorescent tubes, one of the most efficient methods of converting electrical energy into light, poorly fit the mechanical and optical requirements of LCD's. Many attempts have been made to address these issues by developing a light source that better meets the optical and mechanical requirements of LCD's. The Wafer LIght is a flat lamp developed specifically to meet the peculiar requirements of avionic displays, and has demonstrated significantly improved efficiency, uniformity, and thermal characteristics.

  13. Geotechnical risk analysis by flat dilatometer (DMT) (United States)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola


    In the last decades we have assisted at a massive migration from laboratory testing to in situ testing, to the point that, today, in situ testing is often the major part of a geotechnical investigation. The State of the Art indicates that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT), are fast and convenient in situ tests for routine site investigation. In most cases the DMT estimated parameters, in particular the undrained shear strength su and the constrained modulus M, are used with the common design methods of Geotechnical Engineering for evaluating bearing capacity, settlements etc. The paper focuses on the prediction of settlements of shallow foundations, that is probably the No. 1 application of the DMT, especially in sands, where undisturbed samples cannot be retrieved, and on the risk associated with their design. A compilation of documented case histories that compare DMT-predicted vs observed settlements, was collected by Monaco et al. (2006), indicating that, in general, the constrained modulus M can be considered a reasonable "operative modulus" (relevant to foundations in "working conditions") for settlement predictions based on the traditional linear elastic approach. Indeed, the use of a site investigation method, such as DMT, that improve the accuracy of design parameters, reduces risk, and the design can then center on the site's true soil variability without parasitic test variability. In this respect, Failmezger et al. (1999, 2015) suggested to introduce Beta probability distribution, that provides a realistic and useful description of variability for geotechnical design problems. The paper estimates Beta probability distribution in research sites where DMT tests and observed settlements are available. References Failmezger, R.A., Rom, D., Ziegler, S.R. (1999). "SPT? A better approach of characterizing residual soils using other in-situ tests", Behavioral Characterics of Residual Soils, B

  14. A novel heuristic for optimization aggregate production problem: Evidence from flat panel display in Malaysia (United States)

    Al-Kuhali, K.; Hussain M., I.; Zain Z., M.; Mullenix, P.


    Aim: This paper contribute to the flat panel display industry it terms of aggregate production planning. Methodology: For the minimization cost of total production of LCD manufacturing, a linear programming was applied. The decision variables are general production costs, additional cost incurred for overtime production, additional cost incurred for subcontracting, inventory carrying cost, backorder costs and adjustments for changes incurred within labour levels. Model has been developed considering a manufacturer having several product types, which the maximum types are N, along a total time period of T. Results: Industrial case study based on Malaysia is presented to test and to validate the developed linear programming model for aggregate production planning. Conclusion: The model development is fit under stable environment conditions. Overall it can be recommended to adapt the proven linear programming model to production planning of Malaysian flat panel display industry.

  15. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso


    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  16. Early Cretaceous bimodal volcanic rocks in the southern Lhasa terrane, south Tibet: Age, petrogenesis and tectonic implications (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Lin; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Zhang, Li-Yun; Yue, Ya-Hui


    Limited geochronological and geochemical data from Early Cretaceous igneous rocks of the Gangdese Belt have resulted in a dispute regarding the subduction history of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. To approach this issue, we performed detailed in-situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic, whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks exposed in the Liqiongda area, southern Lhasa terrane. These volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline series, dominated by basalts, basaltic andesites, and subordinate rhyolites, with a bimodal suite. The LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating results of the basaltic andesites and rhyolites indicate that these volcanic rocks erupted during the Early Cretaceous (137-130 Ma). The basaltic rocks are high-alumina (average > 17 wt.%), enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs), showing subduction-related characteristics. They display highly positive zircon εHf(t) values (+ 10.0 to + 16.3) and whole-rock εNd(t) values (+ 5.38 to + 7.47). The silicic suite is characterized by low Al2O3 (oceanic lithosphere was flat-lying beneath the Lhasa terrane during the Early Cretaceous.

  17. Fixed points and FLRW cosmologies: Flat case (United States)

    Awad, Adel


    We use a phase space approach to study possible consequences of fixed points in a single fluid flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) models with pressure p(H), where H is the Hubble parameter. One of these consequences is that a fluid with a differentiable pressure, i.e., a finite adiabatic speed of sound, reaches a fixed point in an infinite time and has no finite-time singularities of types I, II, and III described by Nojiri, Odintsov, and Tsujikawa [Phys. Rev. D 71, 063004 (2005)]. It is impossible for such a fluid to cross the phantom divide in a finite time. We show that a divergent dp/dH, or the speed of sound, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for phantom crossing. We use pressure properties, such as asymptotic behavior and fixed points, to qualitatively describe the entire behavior of a solution in flat FLRW models. We discuss FLRW models with bulk viscosity η˜ρr, in particular, solutions for r=1 and r=1/4 cases, which can be expressed in terms of the Lambert-W function. The last solution behaves as either a nonsingular phantom fluid or a unified dark fluid. Using causality and stability constraints, we show that the universe must end as a de Sitter space. Relaxing the stability constraint leads to a de Sitter universe, an empty universe, or a turnaround solution that reaches a maximum size and then recollapses.

  18. Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric flat directions

    CERN Document Server

    Riva, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Giudice, Gian

    In this work we analyze various implications of the presence of large field vacum expectation values (VEVs) along supersymmetric flat direct ions during the early universe. First, we discuss supersymmetric leptogenesis and the grav itino bound. Supersym- metric thermal leptogenesis with a hierarchical right-han ded neutrino mass spectrum normally requires the mass of the lightest right-handed neu trino to be heavier than about 10 9 GeV. This is in conflict with the upper bound on the reheating t empera- ture which is found by imposing that the gravitinos generate d during the reheating stage after inflation do not jeopardize successful nucleosy nthesis. We show that a solution to this tension is actually already incorporated i n the framework, because of the presence of flat directions in the supersymmetric scalar potential. Massive right- handed neutrinos are efficiently produced non-thermally and the observed baryon asymmetry can be explained even for a reheating temperature respecting the grav- itino bound...

  19. The Rock Climbing Teaching Guide. (United States)

    Kudlas, John

    The product of 10 years of rock climbing instruction, this guide provides material from which an instructor can teach basic climbing concepts and safety skills as well as conduct a safe, enjoyable rock climbing class in a high school setting. It is designed for an instructor with limited experience in climbing; however, the need for teacher…

  20. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle (United States)

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan


    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  1. Bakhtin's Dialogics and Rock Lyrics. (United States)

    Knight, Jeff Parker

    Rock music is ideological both implicitly (in its intrinsic valuing of change, and resistance to authority, for instance), and explicitly (in political records from activist artists such as John Lennon and U2). The texts of the rock genre offer rhetorical experiences. A dialogic conception may help scholars to account for and describe the…

  2. Trophic relationships in tidal flat areas: To what extent are tidal flats dependent on imported food? (United States)

    Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild M.

    In four intertidal areas of 'Königshafen' (island of Sylt, FRG), biomass and production of macrozoobenthos were measured monthly in 1980 and 1984. The areas were characterized by different macrofauna assemblages ( Nereis-Corophium belt, seagrass bed, Arenicola flat and mussel bed). Biomass and production of macrofauna were partitioned with regard to food preference of single species as well as to the food availability within their habitat. In the Nereis-Corophium belt, seagrass bed and the Arenicola flat, most of the secondary production of the macrofauna was formed by grazing animals. Secondary production of mussel beds was nearly 10 times higher than in the other three assemblages. The suspension feeder assemblage depended on planktonic food imported from outside the bay. Considering the secondary production of the total tidal flat area, suspension feeders dominated the other trophic groups, indicating a key position of this group relative to the other macrofaunal assemblages. Mussel beds regulate the seston input to other communities situated further landward. Because of this dominance of the suspension feeder group, the energy and material flow of the total tidal flat is strongly dependent on the seston input from the coastal waters of the North Sea or from other parts of the Wadden Sea.

  3. Damp Flat Artist's Books:Retrospective of Damp Flat Artist's Books


    Batey, Jacqueline


    As part of the Phoenix Gallery's Press & Release artists' books exhibition, I will be showing everything in the Damp Flat Books catalogue. All 22 artists' book titles, along with 14 issues of my art-zine Future Fantasteek! and a selection of sketchbooks.

  4. Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation (United States)

    Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla


    Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.

  5. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.


    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  6. Surface-Wave Tomography of Yucca Flat, Nevada (United States)

    Toney, L. D.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Preston, L. A.; Hoots, C. R.


    In 2015, Sandia National Laboratories conducted an active-source seismic survey of Yucca Flat, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. The Yucca Flat basin hosted over 900 nuclear tests between 1951 and 1992. Data from this survey will help characterize seismic propagation effects of the area, informing models for the next phase of the Source Physics Experiments. The survey source was a 13,000-kg weight-drop at 91 locations along a 19-km N-S transect and 56 locations along an 11-km E-W transect. Over 350 three-component 2-Hz geophones were variably spaced at 10, 20, and 100 m along each line. We employed roll-along survey geometry to ensure 10-m receiver spacing within 2 km of the source. Phase velocity surface-wave analysis via the refraction-microtremor (ReMi) method was previously performed on this data in order to obtain an S-wave velocity model of the subsurface. However, the results of this approach were significantly impacted in areas where ray paths were proximate to underground nuclear tests, resulting in a spatially incomplete model. We have processed the same data utilizing group velocities and the multiple filter technique (MFT), with the hope that the propagation of wave groups is less impacted by the disrupted media surrounding former tests. We created a set of 30 Gaussian band-pass filters with scaled relative passbands and central frequencies ranging from 1 to 50 Hz. We picked fundamental Rayleigh wave arrivals from the filtered data; these picks were then inverted for 2D S-wave velocity along the transects. The new S-wave velocity model will be integrated with previous P-wave tomographic results to yield a more complete model of the subsurface structure of Yucca Flat. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of waste transport in selected rocks: 1977 annual report of LBL Contract No. 45901AK. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program: collection and generation of transport data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.; Benson, L.V.; Lucas, J.; Mathur, A.K.; Tsao, L.


    During fiscal year 1977, the following subtasks were performed. (1) Thermodynamic data were tabulated for those aqueous complexes and solid phases of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium likely to form in the environment. (2) Eh-pH diagrams were computed and drafted for plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium at 25/sup 0/C and one atmosphere. (3) The literature on distribution coefficients of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium was reviewed. (4) Preliminary considerations were determined for an experimental method of measuring radionuclide transport in water-saturated rocks. (5) The transport mechanisms of radionuclides in water-saturated rocks were reviewed. (6) A computer simulation was attempted of mass transfer involving actinides in water-saturated rocks. Progress in these tasks is reported. Subtasks 1, 2, 3, and 4 are complete. The progress made in subtask 5 is represented by an initial theoretical survey to define the conditions needed to characterize the transport of radionuclides in rocks. Subtask 6 has begun but is not complete.

  8. Characterizing a Mississippian Carbonate Reservoir for CO2-EOR and Carbon Geosequestration: Applicability of Existing Rock Physics Models and Implications to Feasibility of a Time Lapse Monitoring Program in the Wellington Oil Field, Sumner County, Kansas. (United States)

    Lueck, A. J.; Raef, A. E.


    This study will focus on characterizing subsurface rock formations of the Wellington Field, in Sumner County, Kansas, for both geosequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the saline Arbuckle formation and enhanced oil recovery of a depleting Mississippian oil reservoir. Multi-scale data including lithofacies core samples, X-ray diffraction, digital rock physics scans, scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, well log data including sonic and dipole sonic, and surface 3D seismic reflection data will be integrated to establish and/or validate a new or existing rock physics model that best represents our reservoir rock types and characteristics. We will acquire compressional wave velocity and shear wave velocity data from Mississippian and Arbuckle cores by running ultrasonic tests using an Ult 100 Ultrasonic System and a 12 ton hydraulic jack located in the geophysics lab in Thompson Hall at Kansas State University. The elastic constants Young's Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Shear (Rigidity) Modulus and Poisson's Ratio will be extracted from these velocity data. Ultrasonic velocities will also be compared to sonic and dipole sonic log data from the Wellington 1-32 well. These data will be integrated to validate a lithofacies classification statistical model, which will be and partially has been applied to the largely unknown saline Arbuckle formation, with hopes for a connection, perhaps via Poisson's ratio, allowing a time-lapse seismic feasibility assessment and potentially developing a transformation of compressional wave sonic velocities to shear wave sonic for all wells, where compressional wave sonic is available. We will also be testing our rock physics model by predicting effects of changing effective (brine + CO2 +hydrocarbon) fluid composition on seismic properties and the implications on feasibility of seismic monitoring. Lessons learned from characterizing the Mississippian are essential to understanding the potential of utilizing similar workflows for the

  9. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

  10. Compositions of Spherules and Rock Surfaces at Meridiani (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Jolliff, B. L.; Clark, B. C.; Gellert, R.


    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) have proven extremely valuable for analyzing rocks and soils on the surface of Mars. The precision of their compositional measurements has been shown to be phenomenal through analyses of the compositionally very uniform Meridiani soils. Through combined use of the rock abrasion tool (RAT) and the analytical instruments on the in-situ deployment device (IDD), analyses of the interiors of fine-grained and texturally uniform rocks with surfaces ground flat have been made under conditions that are nearly ideal for this mode of analysis. The APXS has also been used frequently to analyze materials whose characteristics, surface morphologies, and sample-detector geometries are less than ideal, but the analyses of which are nonetheless very useful for understanding the makeup of the target materials. Such targets include undisturbed rocks with irregular and sometimes coated surfaces and mixed targets such as soils that include fine-grained components as well as coarse grains and pieces of rocks. Such target materials include the well known hematite-rich concretions, referred to as blueberries because of their multispectral color, size, and mode of occurrence. In addition to non-ideal target geometry, such mixed materials also present a heterogeneous target in terms of density. These irregularities violate the assumptions commonly associated with analyses done in the laboratory to achieve the highest possible accuracy. Here we acknowledge the irregularities and we examine the inferences drawn from specific chemical trends obtained on imperfect targets in light of one of the potential pitfalls of natural materials on the surface of Mars, namely thin dust coatings.

  11. Upper limb injuries associated with rock climbing.


    Bannister, P; Foster, P


    Four cases of upper limb injuries secondary to rock-climbing or training for rock climbing are presented. All four cases had diagnosis and treatment delayed because of unawareness of the range of injuries seen in high grade rock climbing.

  12. Development of Partial Tubular Flat Knitting Fabric Composite Preform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei Qing


    Full Text Available After building some structures of partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform, the influencing factor on tubular section was analyzed and the fabric was knitted selectively. The partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform were Knitted by changing different yarn, row number and two-sided partial tubular flat knitting fabric. Multilayer sheet would be got after hot pressing and it has big market prospects and good application value.

  13. Flat connection, conformal field theory and quantum group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Mitsuhiro.


    General framework of linear first order differential equation for four-point conformal block is studied by using flat connection. Integrability and SL{sub 2} invariance restrict possible form of flat connection. Under a special ansatz classical Yang-Baxter equation appears as an integrability condition and the WZW model turns to be unique conformal field theory in that case. Monodromy property of conformal block can be easily determined by the flat connection. 11 refs.

  14. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  15. Shotgun cartridge rock breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzzi, Peter L. (Eagan, NM); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN)


    A rock breaker uses shotgun cartridges or other firearm ammunition as the explosive charge at the bottom of a drilled borehole. The breaker includes a heavy steel rod or bar, a gun with a firing chamber for the ammunition which screws onto the rod, a long firing pin running through a central passage in the rod, and a firing trigger mechanism at the external end of the bar which strikes the firing pin to fire the cartridge within the borehole. A tubular sleeve surround the main body of the rod and includes slits the end to allow it to expand. The rod has a conical taper at the internal end against which the end of the sleeve expands when the sleeve is forced along the rod toward the taper by a nut threaded onto the external end of the rod. As the sleeve end expands, it pushes against the borehole and holds the explosive gasses within, and also prevents the breaker from flying out of the borehole. The trigger mechanism includes a hammer with a slot and a hole for accepting a drawbar or drawpin which, when pulled by a long cord, allows the cartridge to be fired from a remote location.

  16. Flat-field postobjective polygon scanner. (United States)

    Walters, C T


    A general two-dimensional ray-trace analysis is presented for the motion of a geometric focal point over a flat surface provided by a postobjective rotating polygon laser beam scanner. The exact defocus equation is derived for any value of the neutral scan position deflection angle and the polygon rotation angle. The scan nonlinearity is derived for the special case of a zero neutral scan deflection angle. Geometric parameters were found that reduce the peak-to-peak defocus by more than an order of magnitude from that found in previous design approaches. Conditions were also found that reduce scan nonlinearity to less than 2 × 10(-4). Practical limitations, such as large polygons and beam obscurations, encountered in the implementation of postobjective scanning are discussed.

  17. Traversable asymptotically flat wormholes in Rastall gravity (United States)

    Moradpour, H.; Sadeghnezhad, N.; Hendi, S. H.


    There are some gravitational theories in which the ordinary energy-momentum conservation law is not valid in the curved spacetime. Rastall gravity is one of the known theories in this regard which includes a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter fields. Equipped with the basis of such theory, we study the properties of traversable wormholes with flat asymptotes. We investigate the possibility of exact solutions by a source with the baryonic matter state parameter. Our survey indicates that Rastall theory has considerable effects on the wormhole characteristics. In addition, we study various case studies and show that the weak energy condition may be met for some solutions. We also give a discussion regarding to traversability of such wormhole geometry with phantom sources.

  18. A quantum kinematics for asymptotically flat spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Campiglia, Miguel


    We construct a quantum kinematics for asymptotically flat spacetimes based on the Koslowski-Sahlmann (KS) representation. The KS representation is a generalization of the representation underlying Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) which supports, in addition to the usual LQG operators, the action of `background exponential operators' which are connection dependent operators labelled by `background' $su(2)$ electric fields. KS states have, in addition to the LQG state label corresponding to 1 dimensional excitations of the triad, a label corresponding to a `background' electric field which describes 3 dimensional excitations of the triad. Asymptotic behaviour in quantum theory is controlled through asymptotic conditions on the background electric fields which label the {\\em states} and the background electric fields which label the {\\em operators}. Asymptotic conditions on the triad are imposed as conditions on the background electric field state label while confining the LQG spin net graph labels to compact sets. We...

  19. Piecewise flat embeddings for hyperspectral image analysis (United States)

    Hayes, Tyler L.; Meinhold, Renee T.; Hamilton, John F.; Cahill, Nathan D.


    Graph-based dimensionality reduction techniques such as Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE), Local Linear Embedding (LLE), Isometric Feature Mapping (ISOMAP), and Kernel Principal Components Analysis (KPCA) have been used in a variety of hyperspectral image analysis applications for generating smooth data embeddings. Recently, Piecewise Flat Embeddings (PFE) were introduced in the computer vision community as a technique for generating piecewise constant embeddings that make data clustering / image segmentation a straightforward process. In this paper, we show how PFE arises by modifying LE, yielding a constrained ℓ1-minimization problem that can be solved iteratively. Using publicly available data, we carry out experiments to illustrate the implications of applying PFE to pixel-based hyperspectral image clustering and classification.

  20. Normal pressure tests on unstiffened flat plates (United States)

    Head, Richard M; Sechler, Ernest J


    Flat sheet panels of aluminum alloy (all 17S-T except for two specimens of 24S-T) were tested under normal pressures with clamped edge supports in the structures laboratory of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The thicknesses used ranged from 0.010 to 0.080 inch; the panel sizes ranged from 10 by 10 inches to 10 by 40 inches; and the pressure range was from 0 to 60-pounds-per-square-inch gage. Deflection patterns were measured and maximum tensile strains in the center of the panel were determined by electric strain gages. The experimental data are presented by pressure-strain, pressure-maximum-deflection, and pressure-deflection curves. The results of these tests have been compared with the corresponding strains and deflections as calculated by the simple membrane theory and by large deflection theories.

  1. Knitting Force Measurement on Flat Knitting Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fouda


    Full Text Available Knittability can be defined as the ability of yarns to run on knitting machines without problems. Knittability can be achieved when less stress is applied on the knitting machine parts by the knitting yarns. This paper presents a novel measuring system for the knitting force needed to perform knitting yarns on flat knitting machine based on data acquisition system (DAS. The proposed system is used to measure the knitting force at different machine settings and different properties of the knitting yarns to determine the optimal production conditions. For this reason, three types of knitted fabric structures (single jersey, Rib 1 × 1, and full cardigan with three different loop lengths and five different twists of ply yarn were produced. The obtained results showed the optimal yarn ply twist factor (αe which gave minimum knitting force (less stress on needles or knitting yarns at different loop lengths for each structure.

  2. Nanocrystalline copper films are never flat (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaopu; Han, Jian; Plombon, John J.; Sutton, Adrian P.; Srolovitz, David J.; Boland, John J.


    We used scanning tunneling microscopy to study low-angle grain boundaries at the surface of nearly planar copper nanocrystalline (111) films. The presence of grain boundaries and their emergence at the film surface create valleys composed of dissociated edge dislocations and ridges where partial dislocations have recombined. Geometric analysis and simulations indicated that valleys and ridges were created by an out-of-plane grain rotation driven by reduction of grain boundary energy. These results suggest that in general, it is impossible to form flat two-dimensional nanocrystalline films of copper and other metals exhibiting small stacking fault energies and/or large elastic anisotropy, which induce a large anisotropy in the dislocation-line energy.

  3. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys. (United States)

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D


    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing.

  4. 3D flat holography: entropy and logarithmic corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Basu, Rudranil [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India)


    We compute the leading corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the Flat Space Cosmological (FSC) solutions in 3D flat spacetimes, which are the flat analogues of the BTZ black holes in AdS{sub 3}. The analysis is done by a computation of density of states in the dual 2D Galilean Conformal Field Theory and the answer obtained by this matches with the limiting value of the expected result for the BTZ inner horizon entropy as well as what is expected for a generic thermodynamic system. Along the way, we also develop other aspects of holography of 3D flat spacetimes.

  5. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Fenelon


    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of

  6. Dynamic rock fragmentation: thresholds for long runout rock avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Bowman


    Full Text Available The dynamic fragmentation of rock within rock avalanches is examined using the fragmentation concepts introduced by Grady and co-workers. The analyses use typical material values for weak chalk and limestone in order to determine theoretical strain rate thresholds for dynamic fragmentation and resulting fragment sizes. These are found to compare favourably with data obtained from field observations of long runout rock avalanches and chalk cliff collapses in spite of the simplicity of the approach used. The results provide insight as to the energy requirements to develop long runout behaviour and hence may help to explain the observed similarities between large rock avalanches and much smaller scale chalk cliff collapses as seen in Europe.

  7. Zonal disintegration of rocks around underground workings. Part II. Rock fracture simulated in equivalent materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, E.I.; Fisenko, G.L.; Kurlenya, M.V.; Oparin, V.N.; Reva, V.N.; Glushikhin, F.P.; Rozenbaum, M.A.; Tropp, E.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.S.


    For a detailed testing of the effects discovered in situ, analysis of the patterns and origination conditions of fractured rock zones inside the bed around workings, and ways explosions affect the surrounding rocks, a program and a method of study on models of equivalent materials have been developed. The method of simulation on two- and three-dimensional models involved building in a solid or fissured medium a tunnel of a circular or arched cross section. The tests were done for elongate adit-type workings. At the first stage, three models were tested with different working support systems: anchor supports, concrete-spray supports and no supports. Zone formation is shown and described. Tests were continued on two groups of three-dimensional models to bring the model closer to in situ conditions. The presence of gaping cracks and heavily fractured zones deep in the interior of the bed with a quasicylindrical symmetry indicates that the common views concerning the stressed-strained state of rocks around underground workings are at variance with the actual patterns of deformation and destruction of rocks near the workings in deep horizons.

  8. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.


    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  9. Flat Feet and a Diagnosis of Plantar Fasciitis in a Marine Corps Recruit. (United States)

    Lurati, Ann R


    A 22-year-old man sought care at an orthopedic clinic for acute plantar fasciitis. He reported that he had begun an intensive exercise program to prepare himself for Marine Corps Officer Candidate School. Pes Planus, or flat feet, was noted on physical examination. This article reviews the diagnoses of pes planus and plantar fasciitis as well as current intervention strategies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Classifications, sedimentary features and facies associations of tidal flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Daidu


    Full Text Available Significant progress has been achieved in the research of tide-dominated environments in the past two decades. These studies highlight both the importance and diversity of tidal flats in modern coastal environments. Based on their developing settings, tidal flats are subdivided into nine types, which are in turn grouped into sheltered or exposed spectrums according to the magnitude of exposure to waves. The ternary coastal classification model is revised with an embedded triangle to highlight non-open coast tidal flats as major second-order morphological elements to the first-order coastal environments including deltas, estuaries and lagoons. A new continuous spectrum of open coast depositional settings is proposed from muddy tidal flats of tide dominance with wave influence, through sandy tidal flats of mixed energy (tide-dominated, and tidal beaches of mixed energy (wave-dominated, to beaches of wave-dominance with tide influence. It is worth noting that no open coast setting is absolutely exempt from wave or tide influence. Three diagnostic criteria for the intertidal-flat deposits are proposed. Upon an upward-fining succession, (1 regular changes vertically from flaser bedding, through wavy bedding and to lenticular bedding are diagnostic of most of intertidal flats; (2 cyclical tidal rhythmites point to sheltered intertidal flats typically at the inner part of macrotidal estuaries; (3 rhythmic alternations of storm and tidal deposition are diagnostic of exposed intertidal flats, especially the open coast types. Intertidal-flat deposits are generally topped by saltmarsh deposits, but underlain by different subtidal successions, like thick subtidal channel-fills, sand-bar complexes (sheltered coastal settings, and upwards coarsening successions of subtidal flats or thick subtidal sand ridge/bar complexes (exposed coastal environments.

  11. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D


    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  12. Defending dreamer’s rock


    Beck, Günter U.


    Defending dreamer’s rock : Geschichte, Geschichtsbewusstsein und Geschichtskultur im Native drama der USA und Kanadas. - Trier : WVT Wiss. Verl. Trier, 2007. - 445 S. - (CDE - Studies ; 14). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2006

  13. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    constituents of beach rock found along Goa coast is dealt with in detail. While discussing the various views on its origin, it is emphasized that the process of cementation is chiefly controlled by ground water evaporation, inorganic precipitation and optimum...

  14. The Chronology of Rock Art

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such phases are tentatively ascribed to different archaeological cultures on the basis of the contextual availability, stylistic similarities and so on. Ethnographic analogies are also attempted in the dating of rock art .

  15. Briefing package for the Yucca Flat pre-emptive review, including overview, UZ model, SZ volcanics model and summary and conclusions sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keating, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Much progress has been made in the last several years in modeling radionuclide transport from tests conducted both in the unsaturated zone and saturated volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat, Nevada. The presentations to the DOE NNSA pre-emptive review panel contained herein document the progress to date, and discuss preliminary conclusions regarding the present and future extents of contamination resulting from past nuclear tests. The presentations also discuss possible strategies for addressing uncertainty in the model results.

  16. Physiology of difficult rock climbing. (United States)

    Watts, Phillip B


    The purpose of this review is to explore existing research on the physiological aspects of difficult rock climbing. Findings will be categorized into the areas of an athlete profile and an activity model. An objective here is to describe high-level climbing performance; thus the focus will primarily be on studies that involve performances at the 5.11/6c (YDS/French) level of difficulty or higher. Studies have found climbers to be small in stature with low body mass and low body fat. Although absolute strength values are not unusual, strength to body mass ratio is high in accomplished climbers. There is evidence that muscular endurance and high upper body power are important. Climbers do not typically possess extremely high aerobic power, typically averaging between 52-55 for maximum oxygen uptake. Performance time for a typical ascent ranges from 2 to 7 min and oxygen uptake (VO2) averages around 20-25 over this period. Peaks of over 30 for VO2 have been reported. VO2 tends to plateau during sustained climbing yet remains elevated into the post-climb recovery period. Blood lactate accumulates during ascent and remains elevated for over 20 min post-climbing. Handgrip endurance decreases to a greater degree than handgrip strength with severe climbing. On the basis of this review, it appears that a specific training program for high-level climbing would include components for developing high, though not elite-level, aerobic power; specific muscular strength and endurance; ATP-PC and anaerobic glycolysis system power and capacity; and some minimum range of motion for leg and arm movements.

  17. Emakumeak Punk-Rock taldeetan


    Altuna Etxeberria, Maialen


    Ikerketa honen helburua emakumeek punk-rock taldeetan izan duten parte hartzea aztertzea da. Lanaren abiapuntua galdera bat izan da: zergatik daude hain emakume gutxi punk-rock musika eremuko taldeetan parte hartzen eta are gutxiago instrumentuak jotzen? Genero sistemak parte hartze urri horretan izan duen eragina aztertzeko lehenik eta behin musika herrikoia eta generoaren inguruan egindako lanetara hurbilpena egin da. Bestalde, punk-rockak izan duen ibilbidea aztertu da. Behin gaia kok...

  18. A preliminary investigation of the structure of southern Yucca Flat, Massachusetts Mountain, and CP basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on geophysical modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Phelps; Leigh Justet; Barry C. Moring, and Carter W. Roberts


    New gravity and magnetic data collected in the vicinity of Massachusetts Mountain and CP basin (Nevada Test Site, NV) provides a more complex view of the structural relationships present in the vicinity of CP basin than previous geologic models, helps define the position and extent of structures in southern Yucca Flat and CP basin, and better constrains the configuration of the basement structure separating CP basin and Frenchman Flat. The density and gravity modeling indicates that CP basin is a shallow, oval-shaped basin which trends north-northeast and contains ~800 m of basin-filling rocks and sediment at its deepest point in the northeast. CP basin is separated from the deeper Frenchman Flat basin by a subsurface ridge that may represent a Tertiary erosion surface at the top of the Paleozoic strata. The magnetic modeling indicates that the Cane Spring fault appears to merge with faults in northwest Massachusetts Mountain, rather than cut through to Yucca Flat basin and that the basin is downed-dropped relative to Massachusetts Mountain. The magnetic modeling indicates volcanic units within Yucca Flat basin are down-dropped on the west and supports the interpretations of Phelps and KcKee (1999). The magnetic data indicate that the only faults that appear to be through-going from Yucca Flat into either Frenchman Flat or CP basin are the faults that bound the CP hogback. In general, the north-trending faults present along the length of Yucca Flat bend, merge, and disappear before reaching CP hogback and Massachusetts Mountain or French Peak.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of The Structure of Southern Yucca Flat, Massachusetts Mountain, and CP Basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Based on Geophysical Modeling (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Justet, Leigh; Moring, Barry C.; Roberts, Carter W.


    New gravity and magnetic data collected in the vicinity of Massachusetts Mountain and CP basin (Nevada Test Site, NV) provides a more complex view of the structural relationships present in the vicinity of CP basin than previous geologic models, helps define the position and extent of structures in southern Yucca Flat and CP basin, and better constrains the configuration of the basement structure separating CP basin and Frenchman Flat. The density and gravity modeling indicates that CP basin is a shallow, oval-shaped basin which trends north-northeast and contains ~800 m of basin-filling rocks and sediment at its deepest point in the northeast. CP basin is separated from the deeper Frenchman Flat basin by a subsurface ridge that may represent a Tertiary erosion surface at the top of the Paleozoic strata. The magnetic modeling indicates that the Cane Spring fault appears to merge with faults in northwest Massachusetts Mountain, rather than cut through to Yucca Flat basin and that the basin is downed-dropped relative to Massachusetts Mountain. The magnetic modeling indicates volcanic units within Yucca Flat basin are down-dropped on the west and supports the interpretations of Phelps and KcKee (1999). The magnetic data indicate that the only faults that appear to be through-going from Yucca Flat into either Frenchman Flat or CP basin are the faults that bound the CP hogback. In general, the north-trending faults present along the length of Yucca Flat bend, merge, and disappear before reaching CP hogback and Massachusetts Mountain or French Peak.

  20. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.


    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  1. Pitfalls of Transparency: Lessons Learned from the Milford Flats Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Hartwell; D. Shafer; J. Tappen; G. McCurdy; B. Hurley; D. Farmer


    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) consists of a network of 29 radiation and weather monitoring stations located over a 160,000-km2 area of southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and southeastern California. The program provides stakeholders with a hands-on role in the monitoring for airborne radioactivity that could result from ongoing or past activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CEMP’s mission includes provisions for the transparency of the monitoring data as well as public accessibility to these data. This is accomplished through direct stakeholder participation, public outreach, and near real-time uploads of monitoring data to a publicly accessible web site located at In early July 2007, a lightning strike ignited a wildfire just outside the city of Milford in southeastern Utah. This fire, named the Milford Flats Fire, grew rapidly and eventually became the largest wildfire in recorded history in the state, burning approximately 567 square miles. At about the same time, the pressurized ion chamber (PIC) located at the CEMP station in Milford began reporting average exposure rates that ranged from four to seven times normal for the area. Initially, it was believed that elevated readings could be a result of gamma-emitting radon progeny released by the fire and transported in smoke plumes. The U.S. Department of Energy issued a press release offering this as a possible first explanation, and the release received a great amount of attention, particularly in the state of Utah, where concerns were expressed that the fire could be causing re-suspension of radionuclides associated with fallout from past nuclear testing at the NTS. Subsequent analyses of particulate air filter samples obtained from the Milford station, as well as an examination of the data reported by the PIC, the timing of the incident, and diagnostic testing on the PIC, showed that the abnormal gamma readings were a result of instrument malfunction. WM

  2. Evaluation of Flat Surface Temperature Probes (United States)

    Beges, G.; Rudman, M.; Drnovsek, J.


    The objective of this paper is elaboration of elements related to metrological analysis in the field of surface temperature measurement. Surface temperature measurements are applicable in many fields. As examples, safety testing of electrical appliances and a pharmaceutical production line represent case studies for surface temperature measurements. In both cases correctness of the result of the surface temperature has an influence on final product safety and quality and thus conformity with specifications. This paper deals with the differences of flat surface temperature probes in measuring the surface temperature. For the purpose of safety testing of electrical appliances, surface temperature measurements are very important for safety of the user. General requirements are presented in European standards, which support requirements in European directives, e.g., European Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and pharmaceutical requirements, which are introduced in official state legislation. This paper introduces a comparison of temperature measurements of an attached thermocouple on the measured surface and measurement with flat surface temperature probes. As a heat generator, a so called temperature artifact is used. It consists of an aluminum plate with an incorporated electrical heating element with very good temperature stability in the central part. The probes and thermocouple were applied with different forces to the surface in horizontal and vertical positions. The reference temperature was measured by a J-type fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple. Two probes were homemade according to requirements in the European standard EN 60335-2-9/A12, one with a fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple and one with 0.5mm of thermocouple wire diameter. Additional commercially available probes were compared. Differences between probes due to thermal conditions caused by application of the probe were found. Therefore, it can happen that measurements are performed with improper equipment or

  3. On the Picard group of a compact flat projective variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelacakis, NJ


    In this note, we describe the Picard group of the class of compact, smooth, flat, projective varieties. In view of Charlap's work and Johnson's characterization, we construct line bundles over such manifolds as the holonomy-invariant elements of the Neron-Severi group of a projective flat torus

  4. Flat Files - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ... Data file File name: jsnp_flat_files File URL: Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Flat Files - JSNP | LSDB Archive ...

  5. Remote sensing for mapping wetland floods in Kafue Flats, Zambia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring huge and dynamic floodplains such as the Kafue Flats in Zambia is critical to its sustainable use. This requires among other things accurate, past and current geo-referenced flood maps. The aim of this study was, therefore, to use remotely sensed data to generate flood maps for Kafue Flats. Flood maps were ...

  6. WFC3 Low-Frequency Flat Field Corrections (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer


    Multiple dithered observations of the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) have been used to measure inflight corrections to the WFC3 UVIS and IR ground flat fields for a subset of key filters. To obtain an adequate characterization of the flat field over the detector field of view (FOV), 9 pointings were obtained for each filter using a 3x3 box dither pattern with steps of approximately 25% of the FOV. By measuring relative changes in the brightness of a star over different portions of the detector, low-frequency spatial variations in the detector response (L-flats) have been used to correct the flat fields obtained during ground testing. The broad wavelength range covered by these observations allow an interpolation of the L-flat correction for the remaining wide, medium and narrow-band filters, assuming a simple linear dependence with pivot wavelength. Initial results indicate that the required L-flat corrections are ±1.5% (standard deviation) in the IR and ±1.0% in the UVIS, and that the photometric response for a given star after applying the L-flat correction is now stable to better than 1% for any position in the field of view. Followup observations of the same field at multiple orientations will be used to verify the accuracy of the L-flat solutions and to quantify any temporal changes in the detector response while in orbit.

  7. New face-centered photonic square lattices with flat bands

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min


    We report two new classes of face-centered photonic square lattices with flat bands which we call the Lieb-I and the Lieb-II lattices. There are 5 and 7 sites in the corresponding unit cells of the simplest Lieb-I and Lieb-II lattices, respectively. The number of flat bands $m$ in the new Lieb lattices is related to the number of sites $N$ in the unit cell by $m=(N-1)/2$. Physical properties of the lattices with even and odd number of flat bands are different. We also consider localization of light in such Lieb lattices. If the input beam excites the flat-band mode, it will not diffract during propagation, owing to the strong localization in the flat-band mode. For the Lieb-II lattice, we also find that the beam will oscillate and still not diffract during propagation, because of the intrinsic oscillating properties of certain flat-band modes. The period of oscillation is determined by the energy difference between the two flat bands. This study provides a new platform for the investigation of flat-band modes...

  8. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens


    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches

  9. Temporal bed level variations in the Yangtze tidal flats (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, H.; Van Prooijen, B.C.


    The Yangtze River is one of the largest rivers in the world and the longest one in Asia. Its estuary forms an important entrance for shipping, but is also a key ecological system. Especially the inter-tidal flats are valuable habitats. The health and integrity of the estuarine tidal flat are however

  10. The Psycholinguistics of Literacy in a Flat World (United States)

    Horning, Alice S.


    If Friedman is right that the world is "flat," we need to understand the linguistic implications of that claim. In this increasingly flat world, classical critical literacy is both urgently needed and poorly understood from a linguistic perspective. Three claims based on research on reading can improve both the understanding of the common…

  11. Generation of shape-invariant flat-top laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ait-Ameur, K


    Full Text Available A great number of laser applications need in place of the usual Gaussian beam a flat-top intensity profile in the focal plane of a focusing lens. In general the transformation of the laser beam from the Gaussian to the flat-top shape is made by a...

  12. Seasonal Variation in Interstitial Fluid Quality of the Andoni Flats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal Variation in Interstitial Fluid Quality of the Andoni Flats, Niger Delta, Nigeria. EJ Ansa, FD Sikoki, A Francis, ME Allison. Abstract. Physicochemical characteristics of the interstitial fluid of the sediment of the intertidal and subtidal zones of the Andoni flats were studied. The results for the interstitial fluid showed low ...

  13. Our world was rocked. (United States)

    Hironaka, L Kari; Trozzi, Maria; Augustyn, Marilyn


    Nicole is a beautiful 14-month wide-eyed girl who presents for routine health care maintenance in your office. Since her 9 month visit, her weight has fallen from the 25th percentile to significantly less than the 5th percentile. Her height has dropped from the 10th percentile to slightly less than the 5th percentile, while her head circumference has remained at about the 25th percentile. Her language, motor, cognitive, and social development are normal. She is 2 months late for this visit as her family has recently had significant family loss because of the earthquake in Haiti. When you take a feeding history, she seems to eat age-appropriate foods--macaroni, chicken pieces--but her mother notes that she tends to be restless and fidgety while eating and will no longer sit still in her mother's lap while she feeds her. Her stools tend to be frequent, with particles of food seen. Urine is normal. There are no symptoms of respiratory or neurological disease, and her review of systems is otherwise negative. She has been a healthy child and this is the first time they have fallen behind in routine health care maintenance visits. Her medical history is entirely unremarkable. She was born at term, weighing 3.5 kg, without any perinatal complications. The family has lived in the United States for the last 10 years. Mother recalls that there were other children in her family who were deemed small as young children but who caught up later in childhood. Mother describes a history of increased sadness and worry in the last 2 months. They receive phone calls from family in Haiti several times per week and she admits to being upset during and after these calls. When asked how the event has impacted her family, she states, "It has rocked our entire world but Nicole is just a baby who won't eat!" Parents are married, and there is no history of abuse or violence in the household. Her physical examination is essentially normal. Her anterior fontanelle is still open, roughly 2 cm

  14. Completion Report for the Well ER-6-2 Site Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat - Climax Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management


    Well ER-6-2 and its satellite hole, Well ER-6-2 No.1, were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Well ER-6-2 was drilled in two stages in 1993 and 1994; the satellite hole, Well ER-6-2 No.1 was drilled nearby in 1993 but was abandoned. The wells were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit Number 97, in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. The wells are located in Yucca Flat, within Area 6 of the Nevada Test Site. The wells provided information regarding the radiological and hydrogeological environment in a potentially down-gradient position from tests conducted in northern and central Yucca Flat. Construction of Well ER-6-2 began with a 1.2-meter-diameter surface conductor hole, which was drilled and cased off to a depth of 30.8 meters below the surface. A 50.8-centimeter diameter surface hole was then rotary drilled to the depth of 578.5 meters and cased off to the depth of 530.4 meters. The hole diameter was then reduced to 27.0 centimeters, and the borehole was advanced to a temporary depth of 611.4 meters. The borehole was conventionally cored to a total depth of 1,045 meters with a diameter of 14.0 centimeters. Borehole sloughing required cementing and re-drilling of several zones. The open-hole completion accesses the lower carbonate aquifer, the CP thrust fault, and the upper clastic confining unit. A fluid level depth of 543.2 meters was most recently measured in the open borehole in September 2007. No radionuclides were encountered during drilling. The satellite hole Well ER-6-2 No.1 was drilled approximately 15.2 meters north of Well ER-6-2 on the same drill pad. This was planned to be used as an observation well during future hydrologic testing at Well ER-6-2; however, the satellite hole was abandoned at

  15. Technical safety appraisal: Buildings 776/777 Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, H C


    Buildings 776/777 at the Rocky Flats Plant are major components of the production complex at the plant site. They have been in operation since 1957. The operations taking place in the buildings are nuclear weapons production support, processing of weapons assemblies returned from Pantex, waste processing, research and development in support of production, special projects, and those generated by support groups, such as maintenance. The appraisal team identified nine deficiencies that it believed required prompt attention. DOE management for EH, the program office (Defense Programs), and the field office analyzed the information provided by the appraisal team and instituted compensatory measures for closer monitoring of contractor activities by knowledgeable DOE staff and staff from other sites. Concurrently, the contractor was requested to address both short-term and long-term remedial measures to correct the identified issues as well as the underlying problems. The contractor has provided his action plan, which is included. This plan was under evaluation by EH and the DOE program office at the time this report was prepared. In addressing the major areas of concern identified above, a well as the specific deficiencies identified by the appraisal team, the contractor and the field office are cautioned to search for the root causes for the problems and to direct corrective actions to those root causes rather than solely to the symptoms to assure the sustainability of the improvements being made. The results of prior TSAs led DOE to conclude that previous corrective actions were not sufficient in that a large number of the individual findings are recurrent. Pending completion of remedial actions over the next few months, enhanced DOE oversight of the contractor is warranted.

  16. Spatio-temporal measurements and analysis of snow depth in a rock face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wirz


    Full Text Available Snow in rock faces plays a key role in the alpine environment for permafrost distribution, snow water storage or runoff in spring. However, a detailed assessment of snow depths in steep rock walls has never been attempted. To understand snow distribution in rock faces a high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, including a digital camera, was used to obtain interpolated snow depth (HS data with a grid resolution of one metre. The mean HS, the snow covered area and their evolution in the rock face were compared to a neighbouring smoother catchment and a flat field station at similar elevation. Further we analyzed the patterns of HS distribution in the rock face after different weather periods and investigated the main factors contributing to those distributions.

    In a first step we could show that with TLS reliable information on surface data of a steep rocky surface can be obtained. In comparison to the flatter sites in the vicinity, mean HS in the rock face was lower during the entire winter, but trends of snow depth changes were similar. We observed repeating accumulation and ablation patterns in the rock face, while maximum snow depth loss always occurred at those places with maximum snow depth gain. Further analysis of the main factors contributing to the snow depth distribution in the rock face revealed terrain-wind-interaction processes to be dominant. Processes related to slope angle seem to play a role, but no simple relationship between slope angle and snow depth was found.

    Further analyses should involve measurements in rock faces with other characteristics and higher temporal resolutions to be able to distinguish individual processes better. Additionally, the relation of spatial and temporal distribution of snow depth to terrain – wind interactions should be tested.

  17. Flat holography and Carrollian fluids arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Ciambelli, Luca; Petkou, Anastasios C.; Petropoulos, P. Marios; Siampos, Konstantinos

    We show that a holographic description of four-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes is reached smoothly from the zero-cosmological-constant limit of anti-de Sitter holography. To this end, we use the derivative expansion of fluid/gravity correspondence. From the boundary perspective, the vanishing of the bulk cosmological constant appears as the zero velocity of light limit. This sets how Carrollian geometry emerges in flat holography. The new boundary data are a two-dimensional spatial surface, identified with the null infinity of the bulk Ricci-flat spacetime, accompanied with an absolute time and equipped with a Carrollian structure, plus the dynamical observables of a conformal Carrollian fluid. These are the energy, the viscous stress tensors and the heat currents, whereas the Carrollian geometry is gathered by a two-dimensional spatial metric, a frame connection and a scale factor. The reconstruction of Ricci-flat spacetimes from Carrollian boundary data is conducted with a flat derivative expansi...

  18. Hydrocarbons in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Alto Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Afonso C.R. [Fundacao Univ. do Amazonas, Manaus (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias; Kerkis, Alexei; Hidalgo, Renata L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geologia Sedimentar; Riccomini, Claudio; Fairchild, Thomas R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    Full text of publication follows: A singular occurrence of hydrocarbons (bitumen) was found in Neo proterozoic carbonate rocks of the Araras Formation (Alto Paraguay basin) in the Terconi quarry (Mirassol d'Oeste, Mato Grosso, Brazil). The bitumen occurs in a transgressive carbonate succession overlying Varanger tillites, that consists of two facies associations: (1) lagoon complex, with pink parallel-laminated dolomicrites and fenestral stromatolitic biostromite, and (2) tidal-flat complex, represented by terrigenous gray micrites and pseudosparites, with parallel lamination, asymmetric ripple marks, tepee breccia, planar stromatolites and evaporites. When fresh, the bitumen is compact and vitreous, filling fractures, stylolites and dissolution cavities, generally associated with calcite cement and euhedral dolomite crystals. Microscopic examination shows the bitumen filling pores of primary (fenestral) and secondary (moldic and intragranular) origins. As the first record of hydrocarbon in Neoproterozoic rocks of the Paraguay Belt, this occurrence opens a new perspective for the evaluation of oil potential in Precambrian rocks of Central Brazil. (author)

  19. On-Going Research at Slippery Rock University. (United States)

    Chase, Craig


    Summarizes eight research studies in the field of outdoor/environmental education being completed at Slippery Rock University in 1985. Topics include isolation among National Park Service rangers, school participation in recycling programs, the use of trees to modify microclimates in West African urban centers, and evaluation of environmental…

  20. Microminiature thermionic vacuum flat panel display prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadwick, L.P.; Baker, B.; Chen, C.C.; Petersen, R.; Johnson, S.; Hwu, R.J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    The authors report on the fabrication and electrical characteristics of low work microminiature thermionic vacuum (MTV) diodes for use in flat panel display applications. In this work advances in the technology and performance of a novel thermionic analog to field emission vacuum microelectronic emitters that will be referred to by the descriptive name microminiature thermionic vacuum (MTV) emitters will be presented. The salient feature of MTV emitter technology is the use of an air-bridge (suspended) filament that greatly reduces the thermal load and stress on the system. MTV devices can be fabricated using conventional semiconductor and micromachining processing techniques on any thermally stable, vacuum compatible substrate for which a high temperature stable insulating layer can be grown or deposited on. In addition, the small (micron to sub-micron) distances between the cathode and anode allow the possibility of intrinsic operation to high frequencies comparable to that of field emitters since these devices will not suffer from solid-state electron transport effects that limit the upper frequency of operation for all semiconductor devices.

  1. Design of flat pneumatic artificial muscles (United States)

    Wirekoh, Jackson; Park, Yong-Lae


    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) have gained wide use in the field of robotics due to their ability to generate linear forces and motions with a simple mechanism, while remaining lightweight and compact. However, PAMs are limited by their traditional cylindrical form factors, which must increase radially to improve contraction force generation. Additionally, this form factor results in overly complicated fabrication processes when embedded fibers and sensor elements are required to provide efficient actuation and control of the PAMs while minimizing the bulkiness of the overall robotic system. In order to overcome these limitations, a flat two-dimensional PAM capable of being fabricated using a simple layered manufacturing process was created. Furthermore, a theoretical model was developed using Von Karman’s formulation for large deformations and the energy methods. Experimental characterizations of two different types of PAMs, a single-cell unit and a multi-cell unit, were performed to measure the maximum contraction lengths and forces at input pressures ranging from 0 to 150 kPa. Experimental data were then used to verify the fidelity of the theoretical model.

  2. Explosive electron emission from flat Ge crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porshyn, Vitali; Mingels, Stephan; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, Dirk; Mueller, Guenter [University of Wuppertal (Germany)


    During the search for photo-induced field emission from flat semiconductors, which might provide high brightness electron beams, we have found with our new ultra-high vacuum measurement system explosive electron emission (EEE) from n-doped Ge crystals resulting in high current pulses of ∝100 A and ∝4 ns duration. This effect reproducibly appears in a narrow photon energy range of 3.2-3.6 eV with a quantum efficiency of up to 20%. Moreover, the EEE current does not depend on the surface field but on the extraction voltage (500-3000 V). EEE is a well known plasma-induced effect for locally heated metals resulting in a crater-like destruction of the surface. For Ge, however, it appears at a factor of 20 lower power density (0.3 MW/cm{sup 2}) of the pulsed laser, and each current pulse forms a new crater of ∝10 μm size. The measured EEE spectra show a similar FWHM (< 1 eV) as photo emitted electrons. Potential applications, e.g. in microwave tubes or gyrotrons, will be discussed.

  3. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua


    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  4. Tactical cockpits: flat panel design imperatives (United States)

    Adam, Eugene C.


    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70's and 80's will finally come of age in the 90's just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpit used Multifunction Displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  5. Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dan [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife


    The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife area was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife area staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in areas where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the

  6. Flat Panel Imaging of Thermal Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, K.


    An initial investigation for the use of an amorphous silicon flat panel as an imaging detector for thermal neutrons is described. A dpiX Model SS2200 imaging panel was used with a Li-6 enriched, LiF-ZnS(Ag) scintillator screen for a thermal neutron imaging investigation using the Breazeale Nuclear Reactor and the neutron radiography facility at Penn State University''s Radiation Science and Engineering Center. Good quality thermal neutron images were obtained at exposures in the range of 106 to 107n/cm2, values that compare favorably with those normally required for a medium-speed film result. Spatial resolution observed was in the order of 2 line pairs/mm, a value consistent with the resolution limitation of the imaging screen. The neutron images showed excellent quality, as determined with radiographs of the modified Type A gage test piece, often used to evaluate thermal neutron radioscopic images. Fourteen consecutive holes in the ''A'' gage test piece were observed, an excellent result as compared to typical neutron radioscopic systems.

  7. The GAMS4 flat crystal facility (United States)

    Kessler, E. G.; Dewey, M. S.; Deslattes, R. D.; Henins, A.; Börner, H. G.; Jentschel, M.; Lehmann, H.


    A high-resolution flat-crystal gamma-ray facility, GAMS4, has been constructed at the high-flux reactor at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, France. The facility is located at the exit of a through-tube equipped to place sources in a neutron flux of ≈5.5×10 14 n cm -2 s-1. Considerable care has been exercised to provide a precision gamma-ray metrology station including vibration isolation, temperature control, environmental monitoring, background suppression, and remote and automatic spectrometer control. The diffraction angles are controlled and measured interferometrically and absolute angle calibration is established with a relative uncertainty of ≈3×10 -7. The crystals are nearly perfect specimens of Si and Ge whose lattice spacings are measured in meters and have a relative uncertainty of ≈5×10 -8. The resolution obtained with this facility closely approaches dynamical diffraction predictions. Examples of measurements performed using this facility include (1) absolute wavelengths standards and neutron binding energies, (2) lifetimes of nuclear exited states, (3) determination of interatomic potentials, and (4) crystal structure factors. GAMS4 is a scheduled ILL instrument with beamtime being awarded through the ILL proposal process.

  8. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons to...

  9. The Effectiveness Of Rental Housing Finance For Low-Income Households In Sombo Rental Flats Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Nur Ramadhani


    Full Text Available Fullfilment for the needs of housing is a priority that cannot be suspended especially in urban areas of developing country whose population continues to increase because of the rapid urbanization. Indonesia as the developing country still has a fairly high backlog approximately at 7.6 millions unit house in 2014 most of them are low income people. The Government has several plan in striving for the scarcity of housing. One of them is the development of rental flats which have goals for the social housing fulfillment for low income people and increase their housing affordability by lowering the rental rates. The intention is to assist the low income people save their money to buy their own homes. But in facts there are several constraints related to this rental flats finance such as late payment by the residents uncontroled right transfer and the tariff adjusted to the ability of the inhabitants can not cover the cost of the physical building management and maintanance. This study aims to evaluate Sombo rental flat finance for for low income people in which the data are collected through in depth interview observation and documentation. The results of several qualitatively descriptive analysis show that the effectiveness of rental flat financing in the aspect of the purpose and goal to facilitating low income community needs of housing is quiet accomplished. Beside that the organization is also well structured and have the efficient human resources. But Sombo rental flats effectivenes is relatively low in the aspect of profit ability rental financing program and in the enforcement of rules and regulation. The main problem is in the arrears of residents rental payment and the deficiency for maintanance cost so it has to depend on the city government subsidies. The rental finance constraint are caused by several factors which are historic factors residents factors and the vision and commitment of the city government to facilitate housing for low

  10. 75 FR 1495 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... (United States)


    ... Foreign Trade and Policy Handbook of Procedures, advance licenses are issued with actual user conditions... Foreign Trade Policy Handbook. This program details the following privileges to exporters, depending on... Commerce International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India...

  11. Influence of tectonic disturbances on the parameters of excavation support with rock anchor (United States)

    Dyomin, V. F.; Yavorsky, V. V.; Demina, T. V.; Baidikova, N. V.; Protsenko, A. V.


    The mechanism of deformation, movement and rockfalls in structurally disturbed nonuniform rock mass using analytical modeling operation for assessment of the strain-stress state (SSS) of the rock mass around mining has been investigated. The SSS research of the rock masses by means of the ANSYS program of the excavation in the “Saransk” mine of coal mining JSC “ArselorMittal Temirtau” in the Karaganda coal basin has been conducted. The parameters of the exploitation of the anchor support on the mines for fixing the rock bolts in the workings to ensure the safety of mining operations in the areas of geological disturbances have been determined.

  12. 76 FR 16588 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats (United States)


    ... 111 and 121 Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... to combine Standard Mail flats and Periodicals flats within the same bundle, when placed on pallets, and to combine bundles of Standard Mail flats and bundles of Periodicals flats on the same pallet. The...

  13. 76 FR 10757 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats (United States)


    ... 111 and 121 Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... Standard Mail flats and Periodicals flats within the same bundle, when placed on pallets, and to combine bundles of Standard Mail flats and bundles of Periodicals flats on the same pallet. The Postal Service is...

  14. 76 FR 37655 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats (United States)


    ... 111 and 121 Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Standard Mail flats and Periodicals flats within the same bundle, when placed on pallets, and to combine bundles of Standard Mail flats and bundles of Periodicals flats on the same pallet. The Postal Service is...

  15. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Blake P.


    This report provides the results of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) conducted November 14 to 18 and November 28 to December 9, 1988. This appraisal covered the effectiveness and improvements in the RFP safety program across the site, evaluating progress to date against standards of accepted practice. The appraisal included coverage of the timeliness and effectiveness of actions taken in response to the recommendations/concerns in three previous Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) of RFP Bldg. 707 conducted in July 1986, Bldgs. 771/774 conducted in October/November 1986, and Bldgs. 776/777 conducted in January/February 1988. Results of this appraisal are given in Section IV for each of 14 technical safety areas at RFP. These results include a discussion, conclusions and any new safety concerns for each technical safety area. Appendix A contains a description of the system for categorizing concerns, and the concerns are tabulated in Appendix B. Appendix C reports on the evaluation of the contractor's actions and the current status of each of the 230 recommendations and concerns contained in the three previous TSA reports.

  16. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrášik Martin


    Full Text Available Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite.

  17. Evaluation of Interaction Between Flat Car and Container at Dynamic Coupling of Flat Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitchenko Andrew


    Full Text Available Innovative materials and structures are analyzed in this paper. To calculate the strength of the collision of flat wagons for the transport of large containers, there is no clear methodology for determining effort interaction between the container and the platform. At high longitudinal acceleration of the container, it is set in motion, and the consideration of this problem in a static setting impossible. The relevance of this work is to develop a methodology that is based on the equations of motion and considers dynamic interaction between container and platform.

  18. Flat norm decomposition of integral currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Currents represent generalized surfaces studied in geometric measure theory. They range from relatively tame integral currents representing oriented compact manifolds with boundary and integer multiplicities, to arbitrary elements of the dual space of differential forms. The flat norm provides a natural distance in the space of currents, and works by decomposing a $d$-dimensional current into $d$- and (the boundary of $(d+1$-dimensional pieces in an optimal way.Given an integral current, can we expect its at norm decomposition to be integral as well? This is not known in general, except in the case of $d$-currents that are boundaries of $(d+1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$ (following results from a corresponding problem on the $L^1$ total variation ($L^1$TV of functionals. On the other hand, for a discretized at norm on a finite simplicial complex, the analogous statement holds even when the inputs are not boundaries. This simplicial version relies on the total unimodularity of the boundary matrix of the simplicial complex; a result distinct from the $L^1$TV approach.We develop an analysis framework that extends the result in the simplicial setting to one for $d$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$, provided a suitable triangulation result holds. In $\\mathbb{R}^2$, we use a triangulation result of Shewchuk (bounding both the size and location of small angles, and apply the framework to show that the discrete result implies the continuous result for $1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ .

  19. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens (United States)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.


    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a/λ  =  0.280 and a/λ  =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25λ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  20. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Usamentiaga


    Full Text Available Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain.

  1. Investigation of Shear Stud Performance in Flat Plate Using Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Viswanathan


    Full Text Available Three types of shear stud arrangement, respectively featuring an orthogonal, a radial and a critical perimeter pattern, were evaluated numerically. A numerical investigation was conducted using the finite element software ABAQUS to evaluate their ability to resist punching shear in a flat plate. The finite element analysis here is an application of the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures using three-dimensional solid finite elements. The nonlinear characteristics of concrete were achieved by employing the concrete damaged plasticity model in the finite element program. Transverse shear stress was evaluated using finite element analysis in terms of shear stress distribution for flat plate with and without shear stud reinforcement. The model predicted that shear studs placed along the critical perimeter are more effective compared to orthogonal and radial patterns.

  2. The marriage of RCRA and CERCLA at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, D.C.; Brooks, L.M.


    A key goal of the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) signed in July of 1996 was to provide a seamless marriage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (and other media specific programs) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the implementing agencies of each. This paper examines the two years since the signing of RFCA and identifies the successes, failures, and stresses of the marriage. RFCA has provided an excellent vehicle for regulatory and substantive progress at the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats facility. The key for a fully successful marriage is to build on the accomplishments to date and to continually improve the internal and external systems and relationships. To date, the parties can be proud of both the substantial accomplishment of substantive environmental work and the regulatory systems that have enabled the work.

  3. Low Frequency Flats for Imaging Cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Kossakowski, Diana; Avila, Roberto J.; Borncamp, David; Grogin, Norman A.


    We created a revamped Low Frequency Flat (L-Flat) algorithm for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and all of its imaging cameras. The current program that makes these calibration files does not compile on modern computer systems and it requires translation to Python. We took the opportunity to explore various methods that reduce the scatter of photometric observations using chi-squared optimizers along with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). We created simulations to validate the algorithms and then worked with the UV photometry of the globular cluster NGC6681 to update the calibration files for the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Solar Blind Channel (SBC). The new software was made for general usage and therefore can be applied to any of the current imaging cameras on HST.

  4. Air Quality Scoping Study for Sarcobatus Flat, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David


    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  5. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend


    In order to achieve durability of flat roofs with external insulation, it is necessary to secure proper drainage of the roof, i.e. to avoid water leaking into the insulation. The design of the tapered insulation of the roof is quite difficult as requirements with respect to both drainage and insu...... for design of flat roofs and a pc-program that can be used for calculating the total heat loss coefficient of externally insulated roofs with insulation in tapered layers, taking into account thermal bridges in the roof construction....

  6. Polygon/Cracked Sedimentary Rock (United States)


    4 December 2004 Exposures of sedimentary rock are quite common on the surface of Mars. Less common, but found in many craters in the regions north and northwest of the giant basin, Hellas, are sedimentary rocks with distinct polygonal cracks in them. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the floor of an unnamed crater near 21.0oS, 311.9oW. Such cracks might have formed by desiccation as an ancient lake dried up, or they might be related to ground ice freeze/thaw cycles or some other stresses placed on the original sediment or the rock after it became lithified. The 300 meter scale bar is about 328 yards long. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  7. The permeability of heterogeneous rocks (United States)

    Selvadurai, Patrick


    Darcy's original concept of permeability is largely associated with estimation of the hydraulic conductivity characteristics of isotropic and homogeneous porous media where the fluid flow characteristics can be estimated by appeal to a single scalar measure. Naturally occurring geomaterials are heterogeneous and the estimation of the effective permeability characteristics of such geomaterials presents a challenge not only in terms of the experimental procedures that should be used to ensure flow through the porous medium but also in the correct use of the theoretical concepts needed to accurately interpret the data. Relatively widely referred to rocks such as Indiana Limestone can exhibit spatial heterogeneity in the permeability characteristics even though the visual appearance can suggest the absence of such spatial and directional attributes (Selvadurai and Selvadurai, 2010). Argillaceous rocks such as the Cobourg Limestone found in southern Ontario, Canada can display hydraulic heterogeneity that is attributed to the presence of dolomitic and calcite nodular regions separated by calcite rock partings that contain an argillaceous component (Figure 1). Also, these rocks have extremely low permeability that requires the use of transient hydraulic pulse tests for the estimation of permeability. The performance of such pulse tests will be influenced by the bulk compressibility and bulk porosity of the porous skeleton consisting of the identifiable phases and their spatial distributions. The concepts of effective compressibilities and porosities therefore needs to be introduced if convenient procedures are to be developed for the accurate interpretation of even bench scale experiments (Selvadurai and Gɫowacki, 2017). The paper will describe both experimental and theoretical approaches for interpreting the effective Darcy permeability of the heterogeneous rocks using both experimental and computational approaches. In particular, the applicability of the "Geometric

  8. A New Triangular Flat Shell Element With Drilling Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars


    A new flat triangular shell element has been developed based on a newly developed triangular plate bending element by the author and a new triangular membrane element with drilling degrees of freedom. The advantage of the drilling degree of freedom is that no special precautions have to be made...... in connecting with assembly of elements. Due to the drilling rotations all nodal degrees of freedom have stiffness, and therefore no artificial suppression of degrees of freedom are needed for flat or almost flat parts of the shell structure....

  9. Compact flat band states in optically induced flatland photonic lattices (United States)

    Travkin, Evgenij; Diebel, Falko; Denz, Cornelia


    We realize low-dimensional tight-binding lattices that host flat bands in their dispersion relation and demonstrate the existence of optical compact flat band states. The lattices are resembled by arrays of optical waveguides fabricated by the state-of-the-art spatio-temporal Bessel beam multiplexing optical induction in photorefractive media. We work out the decisive details of the transition from the discrete theory to the real optical system ensuring that the experimental lattices stand up to numerical scrutiny exhibiting well-approximated band structures. Our highly flexible system is a promising candidate for further experimental investigation of theoretically studied disorder effects in flat band lattices.

  10. Flow heterogeneity in reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, A.; Simon, R.


    A study by Chevron Oil Field Research Co. shows that microscopic flow heterogeneity values are essential for interpreting laboratory displacement data and properly evaluating field displacement projects. Chevron discusses microscopic flow heterogeneity in reservoir rocks: a measuring method, results of some measurements, and several applications to reservoir engineering problems. Heterogeneity is expressed in terms of both breakthrough recovery and the Dykstra-Parsons permeability variation. Microscopic flow heterogeneity in a reservoir rock is related to pore size, pore shape, and location of the different pore sizes that determine flow paths of various permeabilities. This flow heterogeneity affects secondary recovery displacement efficiency, residual oil and water saturations, and capillary pressure measurements.

  11. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš


    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  12. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S


    Full Text Available can be used to extract intensity edges of relevance in terms of orientation and position. Conventional polynomial fitting is used to extract the underlying rock shape as a final segmentation. Preliminary results on a small laboratory data set using...

  13. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  14. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

  15. Terrain analysis of the racetrack basin and the sliding rocks of Death Valley (United States)

    Messina, P.; Stoffer, P.


    The Racetrack Playa's unusual surface features known as sliding rocks have been the subject of an ongoing debate and several mapping projects for half a century, although the causative mechanism remains unresolved. Clasts ranging in volume from large pebbles to medium boulders have, unwitnessed, maneuvered around the nearly flat dry lake over considerable distances. The controversy has persisted partly because eyewitness accounts of the phenomenon continue to be lacking, and the earlier mapping missions were limited in method and geographic range. In July 1996, we generated the first complete map of all observed sliding rock trails by submeter differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) mapping technology. The resulting map shows 162 sliding rocks and associated trails to an accuracy of approximately 30 cm. Although anemometer data are not available in the Racetrack wilderness, wind is clearly a catalyst for sliding rock activity; an inferred wind rose was constructed from DGPS trail segment data. When the entire trail network is examined in plan, some patterns emerge, although other (perhaps expected relations) remain elusive: terrain analysis of the surrounding topography demonstrates that the length and morphology of trails are more closely related to where rocks rested at the onset of motion than to any physical attribute of the rocks themselves. Follow-up surveys in May 1998, May 1999, August 1999, and November 1999 revealed little modification of the July, 1996 sliding rock configuration. Only four rocks were repositioned during the El Nino winter of 1997-1998, suggesting that activity may not be restricted to winter storms. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1998 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2001 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1997 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  20. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  1. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  2. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2000 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  3. Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Simon P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vixie, Kevin R [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Clawson, Keth [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Asaki, Thomas J [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Price, Brandon [WALLA WALLA UNIV.


    In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

  4. Certification, self-calibration, and uncertainty in testing optical flats (United States)

    Evans, Chris J.


    Many different approaches may be taken in the certification of reference flats used for acceptance testing of optical quality surfaces. Measurement services offered by national measurement institutes cover a limited size range and the uncertainties associated with the transfer of a calibration must be considered when data from any testing service is used in quality assurance. In-situ self-calibration using a full area variant of the 3-flat test enables the lowest possible uncertainty. The first part of this paper shows the options for external calibration and certification as a function of flat size, and orientation. Next the conditions that must be met to achieve traceability, according to the requirements of ISO 17025, will be discussed. Finally hardware and procedures will be described, and data presented, showing traceable measurement of a 450 mm aperture flat with nm level uncertainties.

  5. Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat / Robert Layton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Layton, Robert


    Uuest heliplaadist "Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat, Op. 15... Stavanger Symphony Orchestra / Grant Llewellyn. Chatsworth CD FCM 1002; Symphony No. 2 - selected comparisons: Gothenburg SO, Järvi (11/87)(BIS) CD 347

  6. Quaternary geology of Fish Springs flat, Juab county, Utah (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish Springs Flat is a sediment-filled valley between two tilted mountain blocks, the Thomas Range and the Fish Springs Range, in the Basin and Range physiographic...

  7. Universal phase diagrams with superconducting domes for electronic flat bands (United States)

    Löthman, Tomas; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.


    Condensed matter systems with flat bands close to the Fermi level generally exhibit, due to their very large density of states, extraordinarily high critical ordering temperatures of symmetry-breaking orders, such as superconductivity and magnetism. Here we show that the critical temperatures follow one of two universal curves with doping away from a flat band depending on the ordering channel, which completely dictates both the general order competition and the phase diagram. Notably, we find that orders in the particle-particle channel (superconducting orders) survive decisively farther than orders in the particle-hole channel (magnetic or charge orders) because the channels have fundamentally different polarizabilities. Thus, even if a magnetic or charge order initially dominates, superconducting domes are still likely to exist on the flanks of flat bands. We apply these general results to both the topological surface flat bands of rhombohedral ABC-stacked graphite and to the Van Hove singularity of graphene.

  8. New flat-type fluorescent lamp for military LCD backlight (United States)

    Jiang, Jack C.


    A new flat type fluorescent lamp has been developed specifically to meet the demanding requirements of military LCD displays, and has demonstrated significantly improved packaging, efficiency, and uniformity, in comparison with conventional fluorescent tube as backlight source.

  9. Unitarity in three-dimensional flat space higher spin theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumiller, D.; Riegler, M.; Rosseel, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology,Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)


    We investigate generic flat-space higher spin theories in three dimensions and find a no-go result, given certain assumptions that we spell out. Namely, it is only possible to have at most two out of the following three properties: unitarity, flat space, non-trivial higher spin states. Interestingly, unitarity provides an (algebra-dependent) upper bound on the central charge, like c=42 for the Galilean W{sub 4}{sup (2−1−1)} algebra. We extend this no-go result to rule out unitary “multi-graviton” theories in flat space. We also provide an example circumventing the no-go result: Vasiliev-type flat space higher spin theory based on hs(1) can be unitary and simultaneously allow for non-trivial higher-spin states in the dual field theory.

  10. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  11. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1983 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  12. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1985 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  13. Summary of Comprehensive Conservation Plan : Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document offers a summary of Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge's 2005 Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan. In addition to offering a brief discussion of...

  14. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge Fishery. Management Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge Fishery Management Plan (Fishery Plan) provides comprehensive management direction to insure that fish species and habitats...

  15. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1989 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  16. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1984 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Plant Communities of Rough Rock. (United States)

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  20. Stress wave propagation in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, D.E


    Earth penetration, design and hardening of structures to explosive or earthquake-induced ground shock effects, rapid excavation, and in situ preparation of coal, shale, or geothermal deposits are representative problems in which accurate constitutive descriptions of the geological medium are required to provide meaningful predictions. The rock or rock masses involved undergo complex, finite amplitude deformation during the process of transient dynamic loading, and quasi-static experimental compression techniques are normally used to provide much of the necessary data base. Strain rates typically range between 10/sup 1//s and 10/sup 5//s in the problems of interest, however, and further studies are required to determine the importance of rate dependence in the mechanical constitutive behavior of rock. Material response at the higher strain rates can be investigated with impact generated stress waves where controlled strain rates between about 10/sup 4//s to 10/sup 7//s can be achieved. Experimental methods have been developed to conduct and analyze impact-induced shock wave, ramp wave, and tensile fracture studies. Experimental results on some select crustal silicate and carbonate rocks show that strain rate dependence and the processes of phase transformation, compressive yielding, and fracture are important features in the dynamic constitutive response.

  1. Metamorphic Rocks in West Irian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegen, van der G.


    Low-grade metamorphics of West Irian occur to the east of Geelvink Bay associated with two narrow belts of basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks which represent ophiolitic suites of an eugeosynclinical development beginning in Early Mesozoic time. In both of these belts there are indications of

  2. Rock Music and Music Videos. (United States)

    Hendren; Strasburger


    Sex, violence, sexual violence, drugs, suicide, satanic worship, and racism are common themes in modern rock lyrics. The authors examine their effect on adolescent development and identity, concluding with a discussion of the roles of parents and health care professionals in addressing the problem.

  3. Los abuelos de nuestro rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Celnik


    Full Text Available Los Yetis. Una bomba atómica a go go. La historia de los abuelos de nuestro rock. Diego Londoño; Pulso & Letra Editores, Instituto para el Desarrollo de Antioquia, Instituto de Cultura y Patrimonio de Antioquia, 2014, 98 págs., fotografías.

  4. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев


    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  5. Compressibility of granulated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinebaugh, R.E.


    Crushed rock salt will be used extensively at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as a material for backfilling underground openings. This document addresses one of the characteristics of crushed salt which must be known to assess the consequences of its usage, namely, compressibility.

  6. Stability of generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetimes (United States)

    Amirabi, Z.


    Some important spacetimes are conformally flat; examples are the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, the Einstein-de Sitter spacetime, and the Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson and Mannheim metrics. In this paper we construct generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetime supported by a perfect fluid with a linear equation of state, i.e., p=ω σ . It is shown that, for the physical domain of ω , i.e., 0Mannheim spacetime as the outer region is also investigated.

  7. Detailed Modeling of Flat Plate Solar Collector with Vacuum Glazing


    Viacheslav Shemelin; Tomas Matuska


    A theoretical analysis of flat plate solar collectors with a vacuum glazing is presented. Different configurations of the collector have been investigated by a detailed theoretical model based on a combined external and internal energy balance of the absorber. Performance characteristics for vacuum flat plate collector alternatives have been derived. Subsequently, annual energy gains have been evaluated for a selected variant and compared with state-of-the-art vacuum tube collectors. The resu...

  8. Trajectory tracking for robot manipulators using differential flatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Veslin Diaz


    Full Text Available  This paper proposes applying differential flatness to robot manipulator trajectory tracking. The trajectories for each generalised coordinate are proposed as a function and the corresponding input must be found to guarantee tracking. It is shown that the position in the generalised coordinates and their derivatives are flat inputs which, together with a PD controller, could determine (with some restrictions manipulator movement having minimal deviation throughout its trajectory in both plane movements and in space. 

  9. Assessment of flatness of assumed planar surfaces for ultrasound investigation of elastic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Alejandro González; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Wilhjelm, Jens E.


    Assessment of flatness of assumed planar surfaces for ultrasound investigation of elastic surfaces......Assessment of flatness of assumed planar surfaces for ultrasound investigation of elastic surfaces...

  10. Investigation of block foundations resting on soil–rock and rock–rock media under coupled vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Darshyamkar


    Full Text Available In the present study, the dynamic response of block foundations of different equivalent radius to mass (Ro/m ratios under coupled vibrations is investigated for various homogeneous and layered systems. The frequency-dependent stiffness and damping of foundation resting on homogeneous soils and rocks are determined using the half-space theory. The dynamic response characteristics of foundation resting on the layered system considering rock–rock combination are evaluated using finite element program with transmitting boundaries. Frequencies versus amplitude responses of block foundation are obtained for both translational and rotational motion. A new methodology is proposed for determination of dynamic response of block foundations resting on soil–rock and weathered rock–rock system in the form of equations and graphs. The variations of dimensionless natural frequency and dimensionless resonant amplitude with shear wave velocity ratio are investigated for different thicknesses of top soil/weathered rock layer. The dynamic behaviors of block foundations are also analyzed for different rock–rock systems by considering sandstone, shale and limestone underlain by basalt. The variations of stiffness, damping and amplitudes of block foundations with frequency are shown in this study for various rock–rock combinations. In the analysis, two resonant peaks are observed at two different frequencies for both translational and rotational motion. It is observed that the dimensionless resonant amplitudes decrease and natural frequencies increase with increase in shear wave velocity ratio. Finally, the parametric study is performed for block foundations with dimensions of 4 m × 3 m × 2 m and 8 m × 5 m × 2 m by using generalized graphs. The variations of natural frequency and peak displacement amplitude are also studied for different top layer thicknesses and eccentric moments.

  11. Wheat-based traditional flat breads of India. (United States)

    Parimala, K R; Sudha, M L


    Wheat forms the basic ingredient for various bakery and traditional products. Wheat-based flat breads are one of the traditional products prepared in different parts of the world. Different regions of the world have inherited different preparation methods since time immemorial, which has led to the existence of traditional flat breads'. Being traditional, only a few have been extensively studied scientifically. India, being the second largest producer of wheat, has a great saga of traditional flat breads with different tastes and texture. This review is a compiled information related to the research studies carried out on some of the wheat-based traditional flat breads of India namely chapati, puri, tandoori roti, parantha (whole-wheat flour based) and parotta, naan, bhatura, kulcha (refined wheat flour based) which indicates the magnitude of attention they have drawn among the food scientists. The review delves upon the developments and improvements brought about in the storage stability and realization of large-scale production of few of these flat breads which has helped considerably to cater to the growing demand in the domestic as well as international markets. The review also indicates the possibility and the tremendous scope available for technological developments for traditional flat breads.

  12. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Wieczorek


    Full Text Available Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  13. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Stock, Gregory M.; Reichenbach, P.; Snyder, J.B.; Borchers, J.W.; Godt, J.W.


    Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m 3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana


    Full Text Available In the two last decades the flat tax systems have spread all around the globe from East and Central Europe to Asia and Central America. Many specialists consider this phenomenon a real fiscal revolution, but others see it as a mistake as long as the new systems are just a feint of the true flat tax designed by the famous Stanford University professors Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka. In this context this paper tries to determine which of the existing flat tax systems resemble the true flat tax model by comparing and contrasting their main characteristics with the features of the model proposed by Hall and Rabushka. The research also underlines the common features and the differences between the existing models. The idea of this kind of study is not really new, others have done it but the comparison was limited to one country. For example Emil Kalchev from New Bulgarian University has asses the Bulgarian income system, by comparing it with the flat tax and concluding that taxation in Bulgaria is not simple, neutral and non-distortive. Our research is based on several case studies and on compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative methods. The study starts form the fiscal design drawn by the two American professors in the book The Flat Tax. Four main characteristics of the flat tax system were chosen in order to build the comparison: fiscal design, simplicity, avoidance of double taxation and uniformity of the tax rates. The jurisdictions chosen for the case study are countries all around the globe with fiscal systems which are considered flat tax systems. The results obtained show that the fiscal design of Hong Kong is the only flat tax model which is built following an economic logic and not a legal sense, being in the same time a simple and transparent system. Others countries as Slovakia, Albania, Macedonia in Central and Eastern Europe fulfill the requirement regarding the uniformity of taxation. Other jurisdictions avoid the double

  15. The Role of Subducting Ridges in the Formation of Flat Slabs: Insights from the Peruvian Flat Slab (United States)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, Sanja; Wagner, Lara; Kumar, Abhash; Beck, Susan; Long, Maureen; Zandt, George; Eakin, Caroline M.


    Flattening of the subducting plate is often used to explain various geological features removed far from the subducting margins, including basement-cored uplifts, the cessation of arc volcanism, ignimbrite flare-ups, and the formation of high plateaus and ore deposits [Humphreys et al., 2003; Gutscher et al., 2000; Rosenbaum et al., 2005, Kay and Mpodozis, 2001]. Today, flat slab subduction is observed in central Chile and Peru, representing the modern analogues to the immense paleo-flat slab that subducted beneath the North American continent during the Laramide orogeny (80-55 Ma) [English et al., 2003]. However, how flat slabs form and what controls their inboard and along-strike extent is still poorly understood. To better understand modern and paleo-flat slabs, we focus on the Peruvian flat slab, where the Nazca plate starts to bend at ~90 km depth and travels horizontally for several hundred kilometers beneath the South American plate. Earlier studies propose a correlation between the flat slab and the subducting Nazca Ridge that has been migrating to the south over the past 11 ~Ma [Hampel et al., 2004, Gutscher et al., 2003]. Combining 3D shear wave velocity structure and Rayleigh wave phase anisotropy between ~10° and 18° S, we find that the flat slab has the greatest inboard extent along the track of the subducting Nazca Ridge. North of the ridge track, where the flat slab was initially formed, the flat slab starts to sag, tear and re-initiate steep slab subduction, allowing inflow of warm asthenosphere. Based on our new constraints on the geometry of the subducted plate, we find that the subduction of buoyant oceanic features with overthickened oceanic crust plays a vital role in the formation of flat slabs. We further develop a model of temporal evolution of the Peruvian flab slab that forms as a result of the combined effects of the subducting ridge, trench retreat, and suction forces. Once the buoyant ridge subducts to ~90 km depth, it will fail to

  16. Geochemical studies of rocks, water, and gases at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Bowen, R.E.; Bowman, H.R.; Strisower, B.


    Mr. Hood, a composite andesitic volcano, located near Portland, Oregon, is one of several large eruptive centers which dominate the Cascade Mountains of the western United States. As part of a program of geologic, geophysical and geochemical studies to examine Mt. Hood's geothermal resource potential, samples of warm-and cold-spring water, water from a geothermal test well in Old Maid Flat, fumarolic gases, and rocks were collected and analyzed for major chemical constituents and trace elements. The only warm-spring area on Mt. Hood is Swim Springs, located on the south flank. Orifices at Swim were sampled repeatedly with little overall change noted in water chemistry between summer and winter. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data and mixing calculations based on analyses of Swim Springs and numerous cold springs, indicate that a large component of the warm water at Swim is from near-surface runoff. Chemical geothermometry suggests that temperatures at depth in the Swim Springs system are within the range 104 to 170/sup 0/C; the temperature of unmixed hot water may exceed 200/sup 0/C. Higher-than-background chloride contents and specific conductances of cold springs on the south flank of the mountain suggest that there is a small component of thermal water in these sources. A geothermal model of Mt. Hood is proposed wherein snow- and glacier-melt water near the summit comes in close promimity to the hot central neck of the mountain, manifested by the summit-crater fumaroles.Iridium was detected in warm and cold spring waters and in a sample of altered andesite.

  17. Progress in hot dry rock technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.; Brown, D.W.; House, L.; Robinson, B.R.; Ponden, R.


    The hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy program at Los Alamos is directed toward demonstrating the viability of HDR as a practical energy source. Recently, reservoir characterization experiments have been carried out to evaluate water loss and reservoir inflation under pressurized conditions over a long time period. In addition, advances have been made in reservoir engineering, seismic modeling, and tracer development. Preparations are being made to conduct a long term flow test (LTFT) to evaluate the thermal power potential of the existing Phase 2 reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The reservoir is located 12,000 ft below the surface and has an estimated capacity of about a million gallons. The LTFT is scheduled to start in 1991 and will run for 1--2 years. This paper summarizes recent developments in all of the above areas. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Volumetric measurement of rock movement using photogrammetry. (United States)

    Benton, Donovan J; Iverson, Stephen R; Martin, Lewis A; Johnson, Jeffrey C; Raffaldi, Michael J


    NIOSH ground control safety research program at Spokane, Washington, is exploring applications of photogrammetry to rock mass and support monitoring. This paper describes two ways photogrammetric techniques are being used. First, photogrammetric data of laboratory testing is being used to correlate energy input and support deformation. This information can be used to infer remaining support toughness after ground deformation events. This technique is also demonstrated in a field application. Second, field photogrammetric data is compared to crackmeter data from a deep underground mine. Accuracies were found to average 8 mm, but have produced results within 0.2 mm of true displacement, as measured by crackmeters. Application of these techniques consists of monitoring overall fault activity by monitoring multiple points around the crackmeter. A case study is provided in which a crackmeter is clearly shown to have provided insufficient information regarding overall fault ground deformation. Photogrammetry is proving to be a useful ground monitoring tool due to its unobtrusiveness and ease of use.

  19. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko


    regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active......, these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...

  20. Rock glaciers, Central Andes, Argentina, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Primary rock glaciers are fed by avalanche chutes. At the El Salto rock glacier, surveys have been undertaken in order to determine the creep rate. Between 1981 and...

  1. Water transportation ability of flat-lying slabs in the mantle transition zone and implications for craton destruction (United States)

    Wang, Zhensheng; Kusky, Timothy M.; Capitanio, Fabio A.


    Water transported by deep subduction to the mantle transition zone (MTZ) that is eventually released and migrates upwards is invoked as a likely cause for hydroweakening and cratonic lithosphere destruction. The destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) during the Mesozoic has been proposed to be related to hydroweakening. However, the source of water related to large-scale craton destruction in the NCC is poorly constrained. Some suggest that the water was mainly released from a flat-lying (or stagnating) slab in the MTZ, whereas others posit that most water was released from a previously existing strongly hydrous MTZ then perturbed by the stagnating subduction in the MTZ layer. In this study, we use numerical modeling to evaluate the water carrying ability of flat-lying slabs in the MTZ with different slab ages and water contents to simulate its maximum value and discuss its potential role on large-scale hydroweakening and craton destruction. Our results reveal that a single flat-lying slab in the MTZ cannot provide enough water for large-scale cratonic lithosphere hydroweakening and thinning. Water estimates invoked for craton destruction as experienced by the NCC can only be the result of long-term piling of multiple slabs in the MTZ or penetrating deeper into the lower mantle.

  2. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan


    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  3. Upper limb injuries associated with rock climbing. (United States)

    Bannister, P; Foster, P


    Four cases of upper limb injuries secondary to rock-climbing or training for rock climbing are presented. All four cases had diagnosis and treatment delayed because of unawareness of the range of injuries seen in high grade rock climbing. PMID:3730754

  4. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu


    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  5. Local structuring factors of invertebrate communities in ephemeral freshwater rock pools and the influence of more permanent water bodies in the region (United States)

    Jocque, M.; Graham, T.; Brendonck, L.


    We used three isolated clusters of small ephemeral rock pools on a sandstone flat in Utah to test the importance of local structuring processes on aquatic invertebrate communities. In the three clusters we characterized all ephemeral rock pools (total: 27) for their morphometry, and monitored their water quality, hydrology and community assemblage during a full hydrocycle. In each cluster we also sampled a set of more permanent interconnected freshwater systems positioned in a wash, draining the water from each cluster of rock pools. This design allowed additional testing for the potential role of more permanent water bodies in the region as source populations for the active dispersers and the effect on the community structure in the rock pools. Species richness and community composition in the rock pools correlated with level of permanence and the ammonia concentration. The length of the rock pool inundation cycle shaped community structure, most probably by inhibiting colonization by some taxa (e.g. tadpoles and insect larvae) through developmental constraints. The gradient in ammonia concentrations probably reflects differences in primary production. The more permanent water bodies in each wash differed both environmentally and in community composition from the connected set of rock pools. A limited set of active dispersers was observed in the rock pools. Our findings indicate that aquatic invertebrate communities in the ephemeral rock pools are mainly structured through habitat permanence, possibly linked with biotic interactions and primary production. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Imaging of rock climbing injuries. (United States)

    Martinoli, Carlo; Bianchi, Stefano; Cotten, Anne


    Competition climbing has grown increasingly in popularity, and many people are being drawn to this sport with a parallel increase in the occurrence of sport-related injuries. One of the most common and unique lesions occurring in the rock climbing population is the closed rupture of the flexor pulley system of the fingers. This lesion is strictly related to some climbing techniques in which the entire body weight is placed on fingerholds, which causes bowstringing of the flexor tendons with subsequent loss of strength across the full range of motion of the finger. This article summarizes the current literature regarding the application of imaging modalities in the diagnosis of rock climbing injuries with a specific focus on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Biomechanics of the sporting activity and resultant pathophysiologic and clinical considerations concerning flexor pulley system injuries are also discussed.

  7. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Selected Rocks. (United States)


    phase, pure substances exemplified by many metals , elemental materials, and certain man-made and natural compounds for which thermophysical properties...for Dresser basalt. Specific Heat. Heat content studies of Krawza and Lindroth [351 indicate a distinct phase transition near 848 K, near a-# quartz...0.08 Chlorite (secondary) 0.05 Chalcopyrite 0.02 Texture. The rock is medium-grained and has a hypidiomorphic granular texture. Average grain diameter

  9. 20020113: Rock (1), panel (1)




    Rock Art photograph, Panel 1, glyph [cam element='coordinate' qualifier='longitude']W 70deg34'55.9"[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='latitude']S 32deg49'49.0"[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='altitude']924[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='bearing']125[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='inclination']0[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='cartesian'](1.950,1.640,2.190)[/cam

  10. Martian rocks, minerals, and mantles


    Albee, Arden


    The variable nature of Mars was first observed almost 400 years ago and modern observations began almost 40 years ago, culminating with the flotilla of spacecraft now at or heading for Mars. We now know that the atmosphere, which produced the visible variation of Mars, has also covered it with a mantle that makes difficult any detailed investigation of the rocks and minerals of Mars.

  11. Water-quality data from lakes in the Yukon Flats, Alaska, 2010-2011 (United States)

    Halm, Douglas R.; Griffith, Brad


    Over a two-year period (2010–2011), in-place measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected from 122 lakes in the Yukon Flats, Alaska, during a U.S. Geological Survey lake biological diversity inventory. The U.S. Geological Survey National Research Program performed the chemical analyses on the retrieved water-quality samples. Results from the analyses of water samples for dissolved carbon gases and carbon isotopes, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes, dissolved organic carbon, and major cations and anions, along with supporting site data, are presented in this report.

  12. The impact of mechanical properties of rock to the collision of rock piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Macuh


    Full Text Available The paper presents the analytical solution of the rock piece motion considering influences of geometrical and mechanical characteristics of rock mass on the arbitrary slope. The main objective of the paper is to determine the motion of the rock piece considering possibility of rock piece failure due to collision. Brief description of the analytical solution of the rock piece motion on a steep slope is given. The laboratory tests were performed to determine uniaxial compressive strength and elastic properties of the considered rock mass. Further, velocities that cause rock piece failure were determined. These maximum velocities indirectly belong to certain mass of rock piece and can be lower than velocities calculated in rock-fall analysis for certain slope geometry. Consequently, the energy magnitude is limited, because at certain velocity and mass of rock piece bigger pieces crash at collision.

  13. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  14. Dynamics of intertidal flats in the Loire estuary (United States)

    Kervella, Stephane; Sottolichio, Aldo; Bertier, Christine


    Tidal flats form at the edges of many tidal estuaries, and are found in broad climatic regions. Their evolution plays a fundamental role in maintaining the morphodynamic equilibrium of an estuary. The Loire estuary is one of the largest macrotidal systems of the french atlantic coast. Since 200 years, its geometry has been drastically modified through channeling, deepening, embanking, infilling of secondary channels, etc. These works altered many intertidal areas. In the recent years, efforts for the rectification of the morphology have been made in order to restore the ecology of the estuary. In this context, it is crucial to better understand the dynamics of intertidal flats, still poorly understood in this estuary. The aim of this work is to analyse a series of original observations conducted for the first time in two intertidal flats of the central Lore estuary between 2008 and 2010. The tidal flats are situated in the northern bank, at 12 and 17 km upstream from the mouth respectively. Six Altus altimeters were deployed at two cross shore transects, measuring continuously and at a high-frequency bed altimetry and water level, providing information on tide and waves. At the semi-diurnal tidal scale, the surficial sediment of intertidal flats is permanently mobilized. Altimetry variations are low, and their amplitude varies as a function of tides and river flow. At the scale of several months, the sedimentation is controlled by the position of the turbidity maximum (and therefore by the river flow) and also by the tidal amplitude. During low river flow periods, altimetry variations are only due to tidal cycles. During decaying tides, suspended sediment settle mainly on the lower part of the tidal flats, forming fluid mud layers of several cm thick, which can consolidate rapidly; under rising tides, the increasing of tidal currents promotes erosion. During periods of high river flow, the turbidity maximum shifts to the lower estuary. The higher suspended sediment

  15. Relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia. (United States)

    Ponce de León Samper, M C; Herrera Ortiz, G; Castellanos Mendoza, C


    To evaluate the possible relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia in children between six and 15 years of age. Cross-sectional study including 65 patients that had undergone surgery due to residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation and compared against 75 healthy patients. Flexible flat foot prevalence was measured in each group, with the results showing that 61% of the group with residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation had this condition, vs. 12% in the healthy group. The statistical analysis shows that the chances of suffering from flexible flat foot, are five times greater in the hip dysplasia or hip dislocation group, than in the healthy group. There is no evidence in the literature showing a relationship between these two conditions, even though they have a common etiology. This study shows a potential measurable relation between this two conditions. Patients with hip dysplasia or dislocation may have a higher chance of presenting flexible flat foot during late childhood, adolescence and adulthood, a fact that suggests a relationship between these two pathologies. Also, patients who seek assistance for the first time because of a flexible flat foot condition without having been evaluated during the first year of life for hip dysplasia, would be better off if evaluated for residual hip dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats (United States)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens


    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches over the vast sediment flats during low tide. However, the abundance and function of the diatom film is not homogenously distributed. Recently, we have realized the importance of bivalve reefs for structuring intertidal ecosystems; by creating structures on the intertidal flats they provide habitat, reduce hydrodynamic stress and modify the surrounding sediment conditions, which promote the abundance of associated organisms. Accordingly, field studies show that high chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment co-vary with the presence of mussel beds. Here we present conclusive evidence by a manipulative experiment that mussels increase the local biomass of benthic microalgae; and relate this to increasing biomass of microalgae as well as productivity of the biofilm across a nearby mussel bed. Our results show that the ecosystem engineering properties of mussel beds transform them into hot spots for primary production on tidal flats, highlighting the importance of biological control of sedimentary systems.

  17. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for Geomaterials (United States)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.


    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. Digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts with complex internal geometries. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that these technologies can bring to geosciences and present early experiences with coupled multiscale experimental and numerical analysis using 3D printed fractured rock specimens. In particular, we discuss the processes of selection and printing of transparent fractured specimens based on 3D reconstruction of micro-fractured rock to study fluid flow characterization and manipulation. Micro-particle image velocimetry is used to directly visualize 3D single and multiphase flow velocity in 3D fracture networks. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  18. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank


    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  19. 76 FR 16534 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats (United States)


    ... 111 and 121 Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION... a new option for mailers to combine mailings of Standard Mail flats and Periodicals flats within the... Periodicals flats on the same pallet. The Postal Service also withdraws the Code of Federal Regulations...

  20. Eastern hot dry rock target prospect: a case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, C.E.; Maxwell, J.C.; Johnson, W.J.


    The Eastern Hot Dry Rock Target Prospect is located in a corridor between Smith Island, Maryland on Chesapeake Bay and the southern tip of Assateague Island, Virginia on the Atlantic Ocean. The prospect was selected for investigation based on anomalously high heat flow values and thermal gradients previously determined. The exploration program was aimed at locating the most favorable location within the site area for the targeting of a deep test borehole for HDR heat extraction. The program consisted of an aeromagnetic survey, gravity/magnetic analysis, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) survey, Vibroseis seismic reflection profiling, drilling and logging of four 300-meter borings, and the reopening and logging of an abandoned oil exploration hole. The preliminary results of this nearly completed study indicate that the area has potential for the extraction of heat using the Hot Dry Rock concept.

  1. Rock Magnetism: Successes and Mysteries (United States)

    Dunlop, D. J.


    Louis Néel once proposed making ships "invisible" (i.e., magnetically undetectable) by giving them a permanent or remanent magnetism that would cancel the signal induced by the Earth's magnetic field. Like much of rock magnetism, this borders on the magical. Rocks possess a magnetic memory that verges on the phenomenal. An adequate magnetic lifetime for your credit card is until its expiry date and one must avoid exposure to magnetic fields and heat. But a rock's magnetic memory is forever, and the recipe for that durability includes, for igneous and metamorphic rocks, exposure to ancient fields while hot - near the Curie temperature in fact. The thermal remanent magnetism (TRM) thus produced is largely immune to later field changes at lower temperatures although luckily a fraction - a partial TRM overprint - does record later heating events, e.g., burial during major orogenies. When we lift the veil and look closely, on a microscale or nanoscale, it is perplexing to understand why paleomagnetism works so well when rocks seemingly contain so few of Néel's ideal recorders: single-domain grains with tightly coupled atomic spins. In larger grains with multiple domains, the walls between neighbouring domains move readily, like dislocations in crystals, enlarging some domains at the expense of others. This mutability makes any magnetic memory of multi-domain grains suspect. But around the threshold between single-domain and multi-domain structures - a specific grain size that varies widely from one magnetic mineral to another - there are recent predictions and observations of novel structures, including linked magnetic moments of nearby grains and interfacial moments of exsolved phases, that could go some way towards explaining why single-domain-like behaviour is so widespread. Many magnetic properties show an almost continuous variation with grain size, quite unlike the expected discontinuity at the single-domain threshold. Among these is initial susceptibility which

  2. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.


    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  3. Weyl-Euler-Lagrange Equations of Motion on Flat Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Kasap


    Full Text Available This paper deals with Weyl-Euler-Lagrange equations of motion on flat manifold. It is well known that a Riemannian manifold is said to be flat if its curvature is everywhere zero. Furthermore, a flat manifold is one Euclidean space in terms of distances. Weyl introduced a metric with a conformal transformation for unified theory in 1918. Classical mechanics is one of the major subfields of mechanics. Also, one way of solving problems in classical mechanics occurs with the help of the Euler-Lagrange equations. In this study, partial differential equations have been obtained for movement of objects in space and solutions of these equations have been generated by using the symbolic Algebra software. Additionally, the improvements, obtained in this study, will be presented.

  4. A- to B-Type Olivine Fabric Transitions Associated with Hydration, Dehydration and Shear Above the Farallon Flat Slab (United States)

    Behr, W. M.; Smith, D.


    We investigate mantle rocks associated with hydration, dehydration and shear above the Farallon flat-slab at its contact with the base of North America. The rocks we focus on are ultramafic inclusions hosted within serpentinized ultramafic microbreccia diatremes of the Navajo Volcanic Field (New Mexico) that erupted to the surface at the waning stages of the Laramide orogeny. A large number of petrological and geochronological studies have pinpointed the origin of these rocks to the hydrated mantle wedge above the Farallon slab as well as tectonically eroded and entrained fragments of the plate interface. We combine petrological observations and EBSD measurements of olivine grainsize and LPO to examine the effects of hydration on olivine fabric development in different parts of the supra-subduction zone mantle. The rocks examined include weakly deformed to strongly foliated tectonites we interpret to represent partially hydrated fragments of the upper plate mantle; and mylonites and ultramylonites we interpret to represent deformed fragments of the plate interface. The rocks deformed at temperatures ranging from 500-900°C based on thermometry, and olivine compositions in some record heating just before incorporation in the diatreme mix. We observe the following: Tectonites exhibit A-type bulk olivine LPOs, but show transitions to B-type LPO in local, fine-grained, dynamically recrystallized regions associated with hydrous minerals. Mylonites and ultramylonites with stable chlorite and/or antigorite and recrystallized grainsizes of less than 10μm show strong B-type olivine LPOs. A single mylonite with recrystallized grainsizes of ~35μm shows evidence for prograde metamorphism and dehydration through the chlorite breakdown reaction at temperatures above ~770°C. It contains no hydrous minerals and shows a strong A-type olivine LPO. Together these rocks demonstrate a strong correlation between hydration under high stress conditions, and B-type olivine LPO

  5. Movement Features Which Describe the Flat Bench Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Henryk


    Full Text Available Introduction. In sport technique studies, motion features can be useful as they have a certain defined measure [1]. In this work, we examined the following three features: the structure of the movement (all the characteristics of the movement, the fluency of the movement, and the rhythm of the movement. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of the selected movement features in the evaluation of the flat bench press. The protocol of the study included a flat bench press with free weights and a “touch-and-go” technique. Material and methods. The study involved twenty healthy men; however, only two were selected for analysis. The first subject was a 25-year-old powerlifter (body mass = 95 kg; body height = 182 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 145 kg. The second one was a 25-year-old bodybuilder (body mass = 77 kg; body height = 175 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 100 kg. The subjects performed consecutive sets of a single repetition of flat bench pressing with an increasing load (70, 80, 90, and 100% 1-RM, with the anticipated maximum weight, until the completion of one repetition maximum. Multidimensional movement analysis was made with the measuring system Smart-E (BTS, Italy, which consisted of six infrared cameras (120 Hz and a wireless module to measure muscle bioelectric activity (Pocket EMG. Results. It was demonstrated that the internal structure of the bench press performed by the bodybuilder and the powerlifter was different. As the time-history of barbell kinematics (the acceleration-time curve showed, with increased loading of the barbell, the rhythm of the flat bench press changed, and the fluidity of the movement worsened.

  6. Development of Surfaces Optically Suitable for Flat Solar Panels (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.


    Three areas of research in the development of flat solar panels are described. (1) A reflectometer which can separately evaluate the spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces was developed. The reflectometer has a phase locked detection system. (2) A coating composed of strongly bound copper oxide that is formed by an etching process performed on an aluminum alloy with high copper content was also developed. Because of this one step fabrication process, fabrication costs are expected to be small. (3) A literature search was conducted and conclusions on the required optical properties of flat plate solar collectors are presented.

  7. Feedforward Tracking Control of Flat Recurrent Fuzzy Systems (United States)

    Gering, Stefan; Adamy, Jürgen


    Flatness based feedforward control has proven to be a feasible solution for the problem of tracking control, which may be applied to a broad class of nonlinear systems. If a flat output of the system is known, the control is often based on a feedforward controller generating a nominal input in combination with a linear controller stabilizing the linearized error dynamics around the trajectory. We show in this paper that the very same idea may be incorporated for tracking control of MIMO recurrent fuzzy systems. Their dynamics is given by means of linguistic differential equations but may be converted into a hybrid system representation, which then serves as the basis for controller synthesis.

  8. Vacuum energy in asymptotically flat 2+1 gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Miskovic


    Full Text Available We compute the vacuum energy of three-dimensional asymptotically flat space based on a Chern–Simons formulation for the Poincaré group. The equivalent action is nothing but the Einstein–Hilbert term in the bulk plus half of the Gibbons–Hawking term at the boundary. The derivation is based on the evaluation of the Noether charges in the vacuum. We obtain that the vacuum energy of this space has the same value as the one of the asymptotically flat limit of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  9. Vacuum energy in asymptotically flat 2 + 1 gravity (United States)

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo; Roy, Debraj


    We compute the vacuum energy of three-dimensional asymptotically flat space based on a Chern-Simons formulation for the Poincaré group. The equivalent action is nothing but the Einstein-Hilbert term in the bulk plus half of the Gibbons-Hawking term at the boundary. The derivation is based on the evaluation of the Noether charges in the vacuum. We obtain that the vacuum energy of this space has the same value as the one of the asymptotically flat limit of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  10. Quantum Lift of Non-BPS Flat Directions

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Marrani, A; Shcherbakov, A


    We study N=2, d=4 attractor equations for the quantum corrected two-moduli prepotential $\\mathcal{F}=st^2+i\\lambda$, with $\\lambda$ real, which is the only correction which preserves the axion shift symmetry and modifies the geometry. In the classical case the black hole effective potential is known to have a flat direction. We found that in the presence of D0-D6 branes the black hole potential exhibits a flat direction in the quantum case as well. It corresponds to non-BPS $Z\

  11. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. [Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC, Golden, CO (United States)], Doyle, D. [USDOE Rocky Flats Office, Golden, CO (United States)], Featherman, W.D. [Project Performance Corp., Sterline, VA (United States)


    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  12. "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber was a very special one for the ISR beam intersection I-4, inside the Split-Field Magnet. Technical descriptions are given with pictures 7802042 and 7712182. There were several generations of this chamber. This picture was taken during the last year of ISR operation. See also 7510230X, 7511123X, 7802039, 7802041. A flat-fish type vacuum chamber was also used at I-8, inside the Open Axial Field Magnet (OAFM, experiment 807 on large transverse momentum collision products), see 7901358.

  13. Vacuum energy in asymptotically flat 2 + 1 gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskovic, Olivera, E-mail: [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Olea, Rodrigo, E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Sazié 2212, Piso 7, Santiago (Chile); Roy, Debraj, E-mail: [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)


    We compute the vacuum energy of three-dimensional asymptotically flat space based on a Chern–Simons formulation for the Poincaré group. The equivalent action is nothing but the Einstein–Hilbert term in the bulk plus half of the Gibbons–Hawking term at the boundary. The derivation is based on the evaluation of the Noether charges in the vacuum. We obtain that the vacuum energy of this space has the same value as the one of the asymptotically flat limit of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  14. MD2013: Tune shift along the batch at flat top

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Buffat, Xavier; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    A series of tests were performed that led to a measurement of the tune shift along a 96 bunch batch with 25ns spacing at flat top. The measurements demonstrated the ability of the transverse damper (ADT) to excite single bunches with minimal pulse leakage to neighbouring bunches (with 25ns bunch spacing). The processes were tested and refined with tests at injection and end of fill (EOF) before carrying out the excitation at flat top before a physics fill. The tune shift along the batch was shown to be less than ≈4x10-4 for both beams, both planes.

  15. A flat triangular shell element with Loof nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Noe; Damkilde, Lars


    In the formulation of flat shell elements it is difficult to achieve inter-element compatibility between membrane and transverse displacements for non-coplanar elements. Many elements lack proper nodal degrees of freedom to model intersections making the assembly of elements troublesome. A flat...... triangular shell element is established by a combination of a new plate bending element DKTL and the well-known linear membrane strain element LST, and for this element the above-mentioned deficiences are avoided. The plate bending element DKTL is based on Discrete Kirchhoff Theory and Loof nodes. The nodal...

  16. Flat knitting of a light emitting textile with optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen


    in the practice of weft knitting. This paper is about the experimental product development of a light radiating textile lamp in which optical fibres are used as the only illumination source. The lampshade is produced on an electronic flat knitting machine with special equipment suitable for the feeding of yarn...... of knitting production equipment and experimental work on a flat knitting machine at The Swedish School of Textiles, Boras, Sweden. Results show that the diamond shaped structure can be knitted in one piece with transparent monofilament yarns. Furthermore it also shows that difficulties occur when knitting...

  17. Stability of generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirabi, Z. [Eastern Mediterranean Univ., Gazimagusa (Turkey). Dept. of Physics


    Some important spacetimes are conformally flat; examples are the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, the Einstein-de Sitter spacetime, and the Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson and Mannheim metrics. In this paper we construct generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetime supported by a perfect fluid with a linear equation of state, i.e., p = ωσ. It is shown that, for the physical domain of ω, i.e., 0 < ω ≤ 1, such thin shells are not dynamically stable. The stability of the timelike thin shells with the Mannheim spacetime as the outer region is also investigated. (orig.)

  18. The Institute for Rock Magnetism Facility Database (United States)

    Jackson, M. J.; Sølheid, P.; Bowles, J. A.; Moskowitz, B. M.; Feinberg, J. M.


    The Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) is one of 19 National Multi-User Facilities supported by the Instruments and Facilities program of NSF for geoscience research that requires complex, expensive and advanced instrumentation. Visiting and in-house researchers at the IRM have access to sensitive laboratory instruments for magnetometry, magnetic microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy, for carrying out a wide variety of experiments under a range of applied field and temperature conditions. Results are used to gain insight into a very diverse assortment of natural materials and phenomena including biomagnetism, environmental magnetism, petrofabrics, nanophase materials, shocked materials, and paleomagnetism of terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials. A comprehensive laboratory database has been in operation since 2004, storing detailed experimental data and metadata for more than 250 facility users, with measurements on over 50,000 specimens, including over one million remanence measurements and 45,000 hysteresis loops. Custom software tools provide consistent and reliable handling of basic data processing (e.g., mass normalization and unit conversion), as well as more advanced interactive analysis (e.g., deconvolution of u-channel paleomagnetic data; filtering and statistical tests for high-field nonlinearity in calculating hysteresis loop parameters; thermal fluctuation tomography using T-dependent switching-field distributions from backfield remanence measurements or hysteresis loops). Users are also able to access their data and the custom software tools remotely once they leave the IRM for their home institutions. A key advantage of an integrated database/software system for a facility like the IRM is that it provides a rapid and automatic means of combining different kinds of data measured on different instruments. An important design consideration in the development of the facility database has been structural compatibility with the community-wide Mag

  19. The Polar Rock Repository: Rescuing Polar Collections for New Research (United States)

    Grunow, A.


    /spectral imaging of Transantarctic Mountains rocks. Rescuing these collections from universities that no longer want to store the rocks or from researchers who no longer need the samples has resulted in many new publications, new proposals and enormous cost and environmental savings to the U.S. Antarctic science program.

  20. Environmentally associated spatial changes of a macrozoobenthic community in the Saemangeum tidal flat, Korea (United States)

    Ryu, Jongseong; Khim, Jong Seong; Choi, Jin-Woo; Shin, Hyun Chool; An, Soonmo; Park, Jinsoon; Kang, Daeseok; Lee, Chang-Hee; Koh, Chul-Hwan


    , implying that faunal assemblages are closely associated with certain combinations of abiotic factors. The identification of such reliable associations may facilitate the development of statistical models to predict faunal distributions based on environmental variables at both local and regional scales. The entire study area was embanked in 2006 (one year after this study), and an integrated plan was set into force to develop claimed land into industrial, residential and agricultural districts, which also included a partial restoration program of the tidal flats located near to the study area.

  1. Multiscale imaging of carbonate rocks and upscaling for digital rock physics (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Lee, J. H.; Dewers, T. A.; Kitanidis, P. K.


    Nano-porous geomaterials such as shales and carbonate rocks are important for subsurface emerging problems such as unconventional gas and oil resources, enhanced oil recovery, and geologic storage of CO2. In this work, integrated multiscale imaging of carbonate rocks from nanometer to centimeter scales was applied to characterize 3D pore structures using laser scanning confocal microscopy, dual focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), and micro computed tomography (micro-CT). With imaging techniques advanced for nano-pore characterization, it is critical to define representative sampling of FIB-SEM images and apply it to the thin-section or larger scale. Several texture characterization techniques are applied for segmentation clusters represented by a couple of 3D FIB-SEM image stacks per each cluster. With primary pore textures honored, 3D digital pore networks are reconstructed using several stochastic approaches. In particular, one of 3D FIB-SEM image stacks was used to generate stochastic ensemble members using an image quilting technique based on the multipoint statistics. For efficient stochastic realizations of nano-porous carbonate rock we then applied a dimension reduction method to reduce the dimension of the stochastic members. Lattice Boltzmann simulations and several analyses of characteristics of pore structures are used to obtain permeability and multipoint statistics at several different scales. Upscaling of permeability to the Darcy scale (e.g., the thin-section scale) with image dataset will be discussed with emphasis on understanding microfracture-matrix interaction, representative volume for FIB-SEM sampling, and multiphase flow and reactive transport. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Numerical investigation of the influence of rock shape on rockfall trajectory (United States)

    Glover, J.; Schweizer, A.; Christen, M.; Gerber, W.; Leine, R.; Bartelt, P.


    It is the purpose of this contribution to investigate how rock shape, size, falling orientation, and slope angle determine the dynamics, dispersion, and run out distance of rockfalls. We perform a series of numerical tests using a numerical software program (RAMMS rockfall) which explicitly accounts for rock shape. Simulations are performed on both idealised slopes as well as full scale examples in natural terrain. We simulate polyhedral rigid bodies varying the ratio of their principle moments of inertia, in addition to natural rock blocks captured with a laser scanner and a perfect sphere. We do this in order to ascertain the influence of the rock shape on rockfall trajectories. Rock shape is an often cited, while little documented, parameter instrumental in the runout behaviour of rockfalls. It is not the intention of this work to investigate the underlying friction parameters. These simulations are important because we do not attempt to account for the influence of rock shape by probabilistically varying terrain topography or friction parameters. We document bounce heights, rotational kinetic energy, dispersion angle and runout distances as a function of initial conditions (position, orientation, translational and angular velocity) and geometry. The simulations permit a better inclusion of detailed rock mass information such as block release kinematics, and illustrate the importance of integrating true rock shape in rockfall trajectory modelling for both hazard mapping and the design of mitigation measures.

  3. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  4. Punk rock as popular theatre


    Double, Oliver


    Punk rock performance consciously draws on popular theatre forms like music hall and\\ud stand-up comedy, as exemplified by the occasion when Max Wall appeared with Ian Dury\\ud at the Hammersmith Odeon. Oliver Double traces the historical and stylistic connections\\ud between punk, music hall and stand-up, and argues that punk shows can be considered a\\ud form of popular theatre in their own right. He examines a wide range of punk bands and\\ud performers- including Sex Pistols, Iggy Pop, Devo, ...

  5. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    Brian Cox; John Barrowman; Eddie Izzard


    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  6. Hydraulic characterization of overpressured tuffs in central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada (United States)

    Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Galloway, Devin L.


    A sequence of buried, bedded, air-fall tuffs has been used extensively as a host medium for underground nuclear tests detonated in the central part of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Water levels within these bedded tuffs have been elevated hundreds of meters in areas where underground nuclear tests were detonated below the water table. Changes in the ground-water levels within these tuffs and changes in the rate and distribution of land-surface subsidence above these tuffs indicate that pore-fluid pressures have been slowly depressurizing since the cessation of nuclear testing in 1992. Declines in ground-water levels concurrent with regional land subsidence are explained by poroelastic deformation accompanying ground-water flow as fluids pressurized by underground nuclear detonations drain from the host tuffs into the overlying water table and underlying regional carbonate aquifer. A hydraulic conductivity of about 3 x 10-6 m/d and a specific storage of 9 x 10-6 m-1 are estimated using ground-water flow models. Cross-sectional and three-dimensional ground-water flow models were calibrated to measured water levels and to land-subsidence rates measured using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar. Model results are consistent and indicate that about 2 million m3 of ground water flowed from the tuffs to the carbonate rock as a result of pressurization caused by underground nuclear testing. The annual rate of inflow into the carbonate rock averaged about 0.008 m/yr between 1962 and 2005, and declined from 0.005 m/yr in 2005 to 0.0005 m/yr by 2300.

  7. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting? (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.


    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  8. Investigation of high-temperature, igneous-related hydraulic fracturing as a reservoir control in the Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat oil fields, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.


    Research in progress to evaluate natural, igenous-related hydrothermal fracturing as a reservoir control in two eastern Nevada oil fields has revealed evidence of a far more comprehensive role for moderate- to high-temperature hydrothermal systems in Basin-and-Range oil-reservoir evolution. Fluid-inclusion and petrographic studies have shown that (now) oil-bearing dolomite breccias of the Blackburn field (Pine Valley, Eureka County) were formed when overpressured, magmatically-heated, high-temperature (>350{degrees}C) hydrothermal brines explosively ruptured their host rocks; similar studies of texturally identical breccias of the Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat field (Railroad Valley, Nye County) so far do not support such an explosive origin. At Grant Canyon, however, hydrothermal, breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary oil, aqueous/oil, and aqueous fluid inclusions (homogenization temperature = 120{degrees}C) which document a direct geothermal connection for oil migration and entrapment. Moreover, at both Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, the oil reservoirs are top- and side-sealed by hydrothermally altered Tertiary ignimbrites and epiclastic rocks. Contemporary geothermal activity is also apparent at grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, where subsurface water temperatures reach 171{degrees}C, and at Blackburn, above which a petroleum-providing hot spring issues at a temperature of 90{degrees}C. We suggest that in the Basin and Range province, hydrothermal systems may have: (1) matured oil from otherwise submature source rocks; (2) transported oil to ultimate entrapment sites by convection in moderate-to high-temperature fluids; and (3) sealed reservoir traps through hydrothermal alteration of overlying Tertiary caprocks. 69 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The Applicability of Geoelectrical Methods in Pre-Investigation for Construction in Rock


    Danielsen, Berit Ensted


    Construction in rock is associated with risks because knowledge of the geology and ground conditions is limited. Unforeseen rock conditions involve a large risk to the project and can in the end entail delays and extra costs. To minimize the risks, an optimized pre-investigation program has to be conducted where essential information is gathered in order to make the best decisions throughout the construction project. In this Ph.D. thesis the main focus has been on the applicability of geo...

  10. Relaxing the parity conditions of asymptotically flat gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compère, G.; Dehouck, F.


    Four-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes at spatial infinity are defined from first principles without imposing parity conditions or restrictions on the Weyl tensor. The Einstein-Hilbert action is shown to be a correct variational principle when it is supplemented by an anomalous counterterm

  11. Tribology of flat contacts and its application in deep drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.


    The difference between steel and aluminium in sheet metal forming operations, and the influence of roughness in these operations, have been studied by making deep draw and friction experiments. The friction tests have been carried out with flat contacts to simulate the conditions in the blankholder.

  12. The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, the scale invariance of the synchrotron jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars has been studied using a sample of combined sources from FKM04 and from SDSS DR3 catalogue. Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the ...

  13. The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the scale invariance of the synchrotron jet of Flat. Spectrum Radio Quasars has been studied using a sample of combined sources from FKM04 and from SDSS DR3 catalogue. Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the fundamental ...

  14. Detecting areal changes in tidal flats after sea dike construction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main objective of this study was to estimate changes in the area of tidal flats that occurred after sea dike construction on the western coast of South Korea using Landsat-TM images. Applying the ISODATA ... Department of Biosystems Engineering, Auburn University, 200 Tom E. Corley Building, Auburn, AL36849, USA.

  15. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of the mud-flat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 27, 2012 ... Genetic structure and evolutionary demography of the mud-flat crabs (Helice tientsinensis and H. latimera) were investigated ... revealed significant genetic structure in the 10 populations of H. tientsinensis and H. latimera. For all populations, the ..... Yellow Sea depression (Chen, 1991). A large land bridge,.

  16. A sparse flat extension theorem for moment matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Laurent (Monique); B. Mourrain


    htmlabstractIn this note we prove a generalization of the flat extension theorem of Curto and Fialkow [4] for truncated moment matrices. It applies to moment matrices indexed by an arbitrary set of monomials and its border, assuming that this set is connected to 1. When formulated in a basis-free

  17. A generalized flat extension theorem for moment matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Laurent (Monique); B. Mourrain


    htmlabstractIn this note we prove a generalization of the flat extension theorem of Curto and Fialkow [4] for truncated moment matrices. It applies to moment matrices indexed by an arbitrary set of monomials and its border, assuming that this set is connected to 1. When formulated in a basis-free

  18. optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    results were validate and comparisons developed to analyze the various optimization parameters for performance characteristics of the two pistons. Keywords: optimized intake stroke, CFD analysis, flat and dome head pistons, internal combustion engine, CAD modelling. NOMENCLATURE. = density. ⃑⃑ = uniform velocity.

  19. Estimation of the mean normal measure from flat sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus


    measure of Z, if k>2 or k=2 and an additional mild assumption holds. The mean normal measures of finitely many flat sections are not sufficient for this purpose. On the other hand, a discrete mean normal measure can be verified by mean normal measures of intersections with almost all m-tuples of planes...

  20. EMG analysis and modelling of flat bench press using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of particular muscle groups during the Flat Bench Press (FBP) with different external loads. Additionally, the authors attempted to determine whether regression models or Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can predict FBP results more precisely and whether they can ...

  1. Intuitionistic fuzzy approach in enhancing image of flat EEG (United States)

    Zenian, Suzelawati; Ahmad, Tahir; Idris, Amidora


    Image enhancement is a process to improve the quality of an image which mainly due to presence of noise. It is an initial step in medical imaging. Fuzzy approach has been used widely in the area of image processing. However, in this paper, image enhancement of Flat EEG (fEEG) during epileptic seizures using intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) is presented and compared.

  2. Engineering flat electronic bands in quasiperiodic and fractal loop geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandy, Atanu, E-mail:; Chakrabarti, Arunava, E-mail:


    Exact construction of one electron eigenstates with flat, non-dispersive bands, and localized over clusters of various sizes is reported for a class of quasi-one-dimensional looped networks. Quasiperiodic Fibonacci and Berker fractal geometries are embedded in the arms of the loop threaded by a uniform magnetic flux. We work out an analytical scheme to unravel the localized single particle states pinned at various atomic sites or over clusters of them. The magnetic field is varied to control, in a subtle way, the extent of localization and the location of the flat band states in energy space. In addition to this we show that an appropriate tuning of the field can lead to a re-entrant behavior of the effective mass of the electron in a band, with a periodic flip in its sign. - Highlights: • Exact construction of eigenstates with flat and dispersive bands is reported. • Competition between translational order and growth of aperiodicity is discussed. • The effect of magnetic field on the location of flat band states is shown. • Flux tunable re-entrant behavior of the effective mass of electron is studied.

  3. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu


    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  4. Cryogenic flat-panel gas-gap heat switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Keijzer, R.; Buitelaar, P.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.


    A compact additive manufactured flat-panel gas-gap heat switch operating at cryogenic temperature is reported in this paper. A guarded-hot-plate apparatus has been developed to measure the thermal conductance of the heat switch with the heat sink temperature in the range of 100–180 K. The apparatus

  5. Flat Plate Reduction in a Water Tunnel Using Riblets (United States)


    Cononue onreee dnaessey end defyy blod numbr) FIEL / 9 GROUP SUB.GROUP Drag reduction /inTurbulent boundary layer // Streamwie microgroove surface...and its leading edge were separately constructed from type 302 stainless steel. The flat plate is 19.0mm thick and -.0.58m wide. with an Overall

  6. Certification and verification for calmac flat plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document contains information used in the certification and verification of the Calmac Flat Plate Collector. Contained are such items as test procedures and results, information on materials used, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manuals, and other information pertaining to the verification and certification.

  7. Target aligned heliostat field layout for non-flat terrrain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Buck, R


    Full Text Available The layout for a solar tower test facility for CSIR, Pretoria, is described. The solar tower system is designed for 400kWth receiver outlet power. The heliostat field layout takes into account both the real (non-flat) topography of the terrain...

  8. Graph compositions and flats of cycle matroids | Mphako-Banda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We give an alternative method for counting the number of graph compositions of any graph G. In particular we show that counting the number of graph compositions of a graph G is equivalent to counting the number of flats of its cycle matroid. Then we give one condition for non isomorphic graphs to have the same number ...

  9. Simulation of Wind Farms in Flat & Complex terrain using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prospathopoulos, John; Cabezon, D.; Politis, E.S.


    Use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods to predict the power production from wind entire wind farms in flat and complex terrain is presented in this paper. Two full 3D Navier–Stokes solvers for incompressible flow are employed that incorporate the k–ε and k–ω turbulence models respectively...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian McAllister

    Key words: Tennis; Flat serve; Biomechanics; Kinematic analysis. INTRODUCTION. The tennis serve is one of the most difficult of all techniques even though apparently its control and progression is fully manageable by the player. It is difficult to learn the most correct technique in view of the fact that the upper and lower ...

  11. Upper extremity kinematics of flat serve in tennis | Bingul | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... wrist angular velocity were found. The ground reaction forces transmitted through the legs and trunk allowed for greater angular velocity of the elbow, which in turn provided a favourable advantage by affecting the wrist speed and ultimately, the ball speed. Key words: Tennis; Flat serve; Biomechanics; Kinematic analysis.

  12. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of the mud-flat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic structure and evolutionary demography of the mud-flat crabs (Helice tientsinensis and H. latimera) were investigated using sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Samples of 213 individuals were collected from nine localities over most of the species' range along the coast of China seas ...

  13. Asymptotics and Numerics for Laminar Flow over Finite Flat Plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, D.; Kuerten, J.G.M.; Kaper, Hans G.; Garbey, Mare; Pieper, Gail W.


    A compilation of theoretical results from the literature on the finite flat-plate flow at zero incidence is presented. This includes the Blasius solution, the Triple Deck at the trailing edge, asymptotics in the wake, and properties near the edges of the plate. In addition, new formulas for skin

  14. Precast alternative for flat slab bridges : final report. (United States)


    The cast-in-place (CIP) concrete slab bridge and the hollow core flat slab bridge are two very common bridge types utilized by the : South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT). The CIP bridge is durable but has a long construction time while...

  15. Piecewise flat gravity in 3+1 dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.


    We study a model for gravity in 3+1 dimensions, inspired in general relativity in 2+1 dimensions. In contrast regular general relativity in 3+1 dimensions, the model postulates that space in absence of matter is flat. The requirement that the Einstein equation still holds for the complete spacetime,

  16. Evaluating rehabilitation efforts following the Milford Flat Fire—Data (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The focus of the study, associated with these data, is a 540-km2 area at the low-elevation northern end of the 1460-km2 Milford Flat Fire in west-central Utah, and...

  17. Fire-induced reradiation underneath photovoltaic arrays on flat roofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens Steemann; Merci, Bart; Jomaas, Grunde


    The impact of the reflection of fire-induced heat from a gas burner was studied experimentally to gain knowledge on the interaction between photovoltaic (PV) panels and a fire on flat roofs. The heat flux was measured in a total of eight points at the same level as the top of the gas burner. The ...

  18. Intertidal deposits: river mouths, tidal flats, and coastal lagoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, D.; Boer, de P.L.; Cadee, G.C.; Dijkema, K.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Phillippart, C.


    Intertidal Deposits: River Mouths, Tidal Flats, and Coastal Lagoons combines the authors personal and professional experience with the mass of available literature to present a cohesive overview of intertidal deposits and the widely diverse conditions of their formation worldwide. This includes the

  19. Weathering of a flat-plate solar collector (United States)


    Report contains performance evaluation of flat-plate liquid solar collector after 14-months of natural weathering. Collector efficiency was calculated and plotted as function of inlet liquid temperature. Measurements were made of ambient temperature, inlet and outlet temperatures, differential temperature and pressure, liquid flow rate, insolation, and windspeed.

  20. Holographic reconstruction and renormalization in asymptotically Ricci-flat spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldeira Costa, R.N.


    In this work we elaborate on an extension of the AdS/CFT framework to a sub-class of gravitational theories with vanishing cosmological constant. By building on earlier ideas, we construct a correspondence between Ricci-flat spacetimes admitting asymptotically hyperbolic hypersurfaces and a family

  1. Correlation between the Flux Density and Polarization for Flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, using the preliminary database of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) at the radio frequencies, we calculated the weighted polarization at 8 GHz and investigated the correlation between the polarization and the flux density for 92 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). We found ...

  2. Multinational Bargaining Approaches in the Western European Flat Glass Industry (United States)

    Northrup, Herbert R.; Rowan, Richard L.


    A study examined efforts by the International Federation of Chemical and General Workers' Unions to coordinate multinational union action in the Western European flat glass industry with the conclusion that national unions can be expected to be better equipped than international unions to handle collective bargaining across national boundaries.…

  3. Wind loads on solar energy systems, mounted on flat roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van; Blackmore, P.


    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads on solar energy systems, which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  4. Survivability Enhanced Run-Flat Variable Footprint Tires (United States)


    pressure sensors or alarm indicators  Explosion of a hoop tire is an impossible event  Cost-effective (in compare to run-flat solutions...International Limited, “Runflat-Runflat Tyre Systems.” Accessed 15 July 2010. [2

  5. Dynamic Modeling of Natural Convection Solar Energy Flat Plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analytical solutions to the dynamic model of an air-heating flat plate solar energy thermal collector were validated by direct measurement from a physical model constructed for that purpose, of the temperatures of the cover and absorber plates, the inlet and outlet fluids, and the ambient air from morning to evening for ...

  6. Multiversos: Rock'n'Astronomy (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.; Arias, A.; García, N.


    Imagine that you can use your fingers only for typing target coordinates at thetelescope, reduce images and spectra with IRAF, or write papers for Astronomy &Astrophysics, but you would never be able to play an electric guitar.Imagine that you love music, work in front of the computer always withheadphones, and dream of playing with your favourite rock band in a tumultuousconcert.Imagine that you are an astronomer who, after a "cosmic fluke", share stagewith the band which themes you have always hummed since you were a teenager.Imagine that you were born for rock, played a main role in the best Spanishalbum of the 90s (Omega, with Enrique Morente), and your songs arerutinary played by Radio 3, but you would never be able to detect an exoplanetor a galaxy at a high redshift.Imagine that you love Astronomy, try to see the Moon craters and Andromeda withyour small telescope through the light pollution of your city, and explain yourdaughter that Pluto is not a planet any longer. Imagine that you are a musician who, after a "cosmic fluke", give a talk justafter a Nobel laureate that discovered the cosmic microwave backgroundradiation.Such "cosmic flukes" sometimes happen. If you were not at the dinner of the SEA meeting and do not believe us, visit or open the proceedings DVD andlisten "El ordenador simula el nacimiento de las estrella...".

  7. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses


    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed.

  8. Dynamic Topography during Flat Subduction: Subsidence or Uplift? (United States)

    Davila, F. M.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.


    Since the first studies on dynamic topography and basin evolution, low-dipping subduction has been related to intracontinental, long-wavelength and high-amplitude subsidence, whereas retreating to normal subduction systems to uplift. This was proposed to explain the Cretaceous-early Cenozoic topographic evolution of the western US. However, modern flat-slab and slab-retreating segments of South America do not record such a subsidence and uplift patterns. For example, the flat slab of Peru at ˜10°SL, related to the subduction of the Nazca Ridge, underlies an elevated promontory known as the Fitzcarrald Arch. The Argentine flat-slab at ˜31°SL associated to the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge underlies a high-elevated intermontane system known as the Pampean broken foreland. Both upwarping features are younger than 7 Ma and contemporaneous with the arrival of flat subduction to these segments. In order to shed light into this controversy, we calculate dynamic topography along the Andean flat-slab segments using the Hager and O'Connell (1981) instantaneous flow formulation, an accurate reconstruction of the slab geometry along the central Andes and a density contrast between the flat slabs and the country mantle close to zero (△δ≈0) in order to simulate a buoyant oceanic lithosphere. We demonstrate that dynamic subsidence develops only at the leading edge of flat subduction, where the slabs plunge >30°, whereas the flatter slabs reproduce minor or no dynamic topography signals. These results agree with geological and geophysical proxies. Along the Argentine Plains, the account for a accumulated relief of ˜200 m, which might be considered as an "observed dynamic subsidence" signal (given that no tectonic activity has been recorded in this region since the Cretaceous to explain this surface topography). This gives a ˜0.03 mm/yr dynamic subsidence rate that are curiously similar to the exhumations estimated by low-temperature thermochronology along the

  9. Rock breakage mechanisms with a PDC cutter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Some aspects of chip generation by a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutter moving through a rock can be understood by examining the shapes of the chips and the fracture patterns in the remaining rock. Data from laboratory experiments have led to general conclusions about the uniformity of chip generation mechanisms in different kinds of rock and about crack nucleation position relative to the cutter tip. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Is Flat fielding Safe for Precision CCD Astronomy? (United States)

    Baumer, Michael; Davis, Christopher P.; Roodman, Aaron


    The ambitious goals of precision cosmology with wide-field optical surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) demand precision CCD astronomy as their foundation. This in turn requires an understanding of previously uncharacterized sources of systematic error in CCD sensors, many of which manifest themselves as static effective variations in pixel area. Such variation renders a critical assumption behind the traditional procedure of flat fielding—that a sensor’s pixels comprise a uniform grid—invalid. In this work, we present a method to infer a curl-free model of a sensor’s underlying pixel grid from flat-field images, incorporating the superposition of all electrostatic sensor effects—both known and unknown—present in flat-field data. We use these pixel grid models to estimate the overall impact of sensor systematics on photometry, astrometry, and PSF shape measurements in a representative sensor from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) and a prototype LSST sensor. Applying the method to DECam data recovers known significant sensor effects for which corrections are currently being developed within DES. For an LSST prototype CCD with pixel-response non-uniformity (PRNU) of 0.4%, we find the impact of “improper” flat fielding on these observables is negligible in nominal .7″ seeing conditions. These errors scale linearly with the PRNU, so for future LSST production sensors, which may have larger PRNU, our method provides a way to assess whether pixel-level calibration beyond flat fielding will be required.

  11. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M.


    Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active conformation by the direct binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–loaded Rho. In recent years, a number of ROCK isoform-specific binding partners have been found to modulate the kinase activity through direct interactions with the catalytic domain or via altered cellular localization of the kinases. Thus, these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer. PMID:23204112

  12. Estética del rock


    Rey, Sebastián


    El objetivo del presente artículo es el de analizar la estética del Rock en términos de la experiencia que ofrece este género musical. En primer lugar se construirá una relación entre el Nacimiento de la tragedia de Nietzsche y el surgimiento del Rock, bajo la premisa de que el origen del Rock es eminentemente dionisíaco; luego se mostrará una forma de la experiencia en la vida cotidiana de quien escucha Rock, en donde se da cuenta de la necesidad de expresar los sentimientos de placer y disp...

  13. The role of major forest fires on rock physical decay in a Mediterranean environment (United States)

    Shtober-Zisu, Nurit; Tessler, Naama; Tsatskin, Alexander; Greenbaum, Noam


    Massive destruction of carbonate rocks occurred on the slopes of Mt. Carmel (Israel), during a severe forest fire in 2010. The bedrock surfaces exhibited extensive exfoliation into flakes and spalls covering up to 80%-100% of the exposed rocks; detached boulders were totally fractured or disintegrated. The fire affected six carbonate units—various types of chalk, limestone, and dolomite. The burned flakes show a consistent tendency towards flatness, in all lithologies, as 85%-95% of the flakes were detached in the form of blades, plates, and slabs. The extent of the physical disruption depends on rock composition: the most severe response was found in the chalk formations which are covered by calcrete (Nari crusts). These rocks reacted by extreme exfoliation, at an average depth of 7.7 to 9.6 cm and a maximum depth of 20 cm. Scorched and blackened faces under the upper layer of spalls provide strong evidence that chalk breakdown took place at an early stage of the fire. The extreme response of the chalks can be explained by the laminar structure of the Nari, which served as planes of weakness for the rock destruction. Three years after the fire, the rocks continue to exfoliate and break down internally. As the harder surface of the Nari was removed, the more brittle underlying chalk is exposed to erosion. These flakes seem to play an important role in reforming the soil after the fire, especially by increasing the coarse particles percentage. These, in spite of the absence of vegetation cover, improve soil infiltration and percolation rates and cause long-term changes to the hydrological regime. It is difficult to estimate the frequency of high-intensity fires in the Carmel region over the past 2-3 million years, as well as the extension and density of the vegetation. It is even harder to assess the frequency of fires (and the destruction) of a single rock outcrop. Our findings show that rock outcrop may lose even 20 cm of its thickness in a single fire. This

  14. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for the Geosciences (United States)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.


    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. For example, digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts, to the point where parts might be cheaper to print than to make by traditional means in a plant and ship. Some key benefits of additive manufacturing include short lead times, complex shapes, parts on demand, zero required inventory and less material waste. Even subtractive processing, such as milling and etching, may be economized by additive manufacturing. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that the marriage of these technologies can bring to geosciences, including examples from our current research initiatives in developing constitutive laws for transport and geomechanics via digital rock physics. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of

  15. Geomechaical Behavior of Shale Rocks Under High Pressure and Temperature (United States)

    Villamor Lora, R.; Ghazanfari, E.


    The mechanical properties of shale are demanding parameters for a number of engineering and geomechanical purposes. Borehole stability modeling, geophysics, shale oil and shale gas reservoirs, and underground storage of CO2 in shale formations are some of these potential applications to name a few. The growing interest in these reservoirs, as a source for hydrocarbons production, has resulted in an increasing demand for fundamental rock property data. These rocks are known to be non-linear materials. There are many factors, including induced cracks and their orientation, partial saturation, material heterogeneity and anisotropy, plasticity, strain rate, and temperature that may have an impact on the geomechanical behaviour of these shales.Experimental results and theoretical considerations have shown that the elastic moduli are not single-value, well-defined parameters for a given rock. Finding suitable values for these parameters is of vital importance in many geomechanical applications. In this study, shale heterogeneity and its geomechanical properties are explored through an extensive laboratory experimental program. A series of hydrostatic and triaxial tests were performed in order to evaluate the elasticity, viscoplasticity, yielding and failure response of Marcellus shale samples as a function of pressure and temperature. Additional characterization includes mineralogy, porosity, and permeability measurements. The shale samples were taken from a Marcellus outcrop at State Game Lands 252, located in Lycoming and Union counties, Allenwood, Pennsylvania. Laboratory experiments have shown that creep behaviour is highly sensitive to temperature. Furthermore, the non-linear nature of these rocks reveals interesting behaviour of the elastic moduli highly dependent on stress history of the rock. Results from cyclic triaxial tests point out the different behaviour between 1st-loading and unloading-reloading cycles. Experimental results of these Marcellus shales are

  16. Prediction of rock brittleness using nondestructive methods for hard rock tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie B. Kaunda


    Full Text Available The material and elastic properties of rocks are utilized for predicting and evaluating hard rock brittleness using artificial neural networks (ANN. Herein hard rock brittleness is defined using Yagiz' method. A predictive model is developed using a comprehensive database compiled from 30 years' worth of rock tests at the Earth Mechanics Institute (EMI, Colorado School of Mines. The model is sensitive to density, elastic properties, and P- and S-wave velocities. The results show that the model is a better predictor of rock brittleness than conventional destructive strength-test based models and multiple regression techniques. While the findings have direct implications on intact rock, the methodology can be extrapolated to rock mass problems in both tunneling and underground mining where rock brittleness is an important control.

  17. Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M. [and others


    The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site.

  18. Rock fill in a KBS-3 repository. Rock material for filling of shafts and ramps in a KBS-3V repository in the closure phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland (Geodevelopment International AB/SWECO AB, Lund (Sweden))


    The content of large blocks in blasted rock makes it impossible to fill and compact the material effectively unless those larger than about 500 mm are removed. Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) muck gives flat chips, that are usually not longer than a couple of decimeters, and serves better as backfill. The granulometrical composition of both types can be more suitable for effective compaction by crushing, which is hence a preferable process. Use of unsorted, unprocessed blasted rock can only be accepted if the density and physical properties, like self-compaction, are not important. Crushing of blasted rock and TBM muck for backfilling can be made in one or two steps depending on the required gradation. Placement of rock fill is best made by use of tractors with blades that push the material forwards over already placed and compacted material. The dry density of well graded rock fill effectively compacted by very heavy vibratory rollers can be as high as 2,400 kg/m3. For road compaction by ordinary vibratory rollers common dry density values are in the interval 2,050 to 2,200 kg m3. Blasted rock dumped and moved on site by tractors can get an average dry density of 1,600-1,800 kg/m3 without compaction. Crushed, blasted rock and TBM muck placed by tractors in horizontal layers and compacted by 5-10 t vibrating rollers in the lower part of the rooms, and moved by tractors to form inclined layers compacted by vibrating plates in the upper part, would get a dry density of 1,900-2,000 kg/m3. Flushing water over the rock fill in conjunction with the compaction work gives more effective densification than dry compaction. Based on recorded settlement of Norwegian rock fill dams constructed with water flushing it is estimated that the self-compaction of a 5 m high backfill of crushed rock or TBM muck causes a settlement of the top of the backfill of about 8 mm while a 200 m high shaft fill would undergo compression by more than half a meter. Repeated, strong earthquakes may

  19. An investigation of rock fall and pore water pressure using LIDAR in Highway 63 rock cuts. (United States)


    The purpose of this research work is compare LIDAR scanning measurements of rock fall with the natural changes in groundwater level to determining the effect of water pressures (levels) on rock fall. To collect the information of rock cut volume chan...

  20. Computational Models of Rock Failure (United States)

    May, Dave A.; Spiegelman, Marc


    Practitioners in computational geodynamics, as per many other branches of applied science, typically do not analyse the underlying PDE's being solved in order to establish the existence or uniqueness of solutions. Rather, such proofs are left to the mathematicians, and all too frequently these results lag far behind (in time) the applied research being conducted, are often unintelligible to the non-specialist, are buried in journals applied scientists simply do not read, or simply have not been proven. As practitioners, we are by definition pragmatic. Thus, rather than first analysing our PDE's, we first attempt to find approximate solutions by throwing all our computational methods and machinery at the given problem and hoping for the best. Typically this approach leads to a satisfactory outcome. Usually it is only if the numerical solutions "look odd" that we start delving deeper into the math. In this presentation I summarise our findings in relation to using pressure dependent (Drucker-Prager type) flow laws in a simplified model of continental extension in which the material is assumed to be an incompressible, highly viscous fluid. Such assumptions represent the current mainstream adopted in computational studies of mantle and lithosphere deformation within our community. In short, we conclude that for the parameter range of cohesion and friction angle relevant to studying rocks, the incompressibility constraint combined with a Drucker-Prager flow law can result in problems which have no solution. This is proven by a 1D analytic model and convincingly demonstrated by 2D numerical simulations. To date, we do not have a robust "fix" for this fundamental problem. The intent of this submission is to highlight the importance of simple analytic models, highlight some of the dangers / risks of interpreting numerical solutions without understanding the properties of the PDE we solved, and lastly to stimulate discussions to develop an improved computational model of

  1. Toe rock stability for rubble mound breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, S.; Ebbens, R.; Nammuni-Krohn, J.; Verhagen, H.J.


    Present design tools, as found in the Rock Manual or Coastal Engineering Manual, for the determination of toe rock size for rubble mound breakwaters are based on test data with a large spread: data is relatively dispersed around the centre and descriptive equations have limited applicability ranges.

  2. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior. (United States)

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance,"…

  3. Hot-dry-rock feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The hot-dry-rock project tasks are covered as follows: hot-dry-rock reservoir; generation facilities; water resources; transmission requirements; environmental issues; government and community institutional factors; leasing, ownership and management of facilities; regulations, permits, and laws; and financial considerations. (MHR)

  4. Enhancement effects of flat-mirror reflection on plasma radiation. (United States)

    Chen, Jin-zhong; Bai, Jin-ning; Song, Guang-ju; Sun, Jiang; Deng, Ze-chao; Wang, Ying-long


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy quality can be improved by using a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulse to excite soil samples. To investigate how flat-mirror reflection affects the radiation characteristics of laser-induced plasma, emission spectra of sample elements were recorded using a grating spectrometer and photoelectric detection system. Placing a planar mirror vertically on the sample surface (10 mm mirror to plasma-center axis distance) for flat-mirror reflection increased spectral line intensities of Mg, Al, Fe, and Ba by 93.06%, 159.63%, 93.43%, and 94.61%, respectively. Signal-to-noise ratio increased by 17.56%, 40.21%, 31.29%, and 30%. The radiation enhancement mechanism was clarified using measured plasma parameters.

  5. Railway Wheel Flat Detection Based on Improved Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Li


    Full Text Available This study explores the capacity of the improved empirical mode decomposition (EMD in railway wheel flat detection. Aiming at the mode mixing problem of EMD, an EMD energy conservation theory and an intrinsic mode function (IMF superposition theory are presented and derived, respectively. Based on the above two theories, an improved EMD method is further proposed. The advantage of the improved EMD is evaluated by a simulated vibration signal. Then this method is applied to study the axle box vibration response caused by wheel flats, considering the influence of both track irregularity and vehicle running speed on diagnosis results. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a test rig experiment. Research results demonstrate that the improved EMD can inhibit mode mixing phenomenon and extract the wheel fault characteristic effectively.

  6. Acoustic insulation of recent flat buildings in Pamplona, Spain (United States)

    Arana, Miguel A.; San Martin, Ricardo; Vela, Antonio; San Martin, Maria L.


    The Municipal Government of Pamplona and the Housing Department of the Government of Navarra (Spain) decided to evaluate acoustic insulation of new flat buildings in Pamplona. Such study was ordered to the Acoustic Laboratory of the Public University of Navarra. During the last year, measurements relating to acoustic insulation were carried out in most of the new blocks of flats made in Pamplona. The results obtained show that acoustic insulation is insufficient in most buildings both for airborne sound reduction and for impact sound. The figures required by Spanish legislation do not fulfil in more than 80 percent of the cases. On the other hand, a great correlation between sound reduction figures obtained from index of ISO 140-4 and from R (in dBA) of the Spanish norm for in situ measurements was carried out. A new Spanish legislation will be approved shortly.

  7. Detailed Modeling of Flat Plate Solar Collector with Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Shemelin


    Full Text Available A theoretical analysis of flat plate solar collectors with a vacuum glazing is presented. Different configurations of the collector have been investigated by a detailed theoretical model based on a combined external and internal energy balance of the absorber. Performance characteristics for vacuum flat plate collector alternatives have been derived. Subsequently, annual energy gains have been evaluated for a selected variant and compared with state-of-the-art vacuum tube collectors. The results of modeling indicate that, in the case of using advanced vacuum glazing with optimized low-emissivity coating (emissivity 0.20, solar transmittance 0.85, it is possible to achieve efficiency parameters similar to or even better than vacuum tube collectors. The design presented in this paper can be considered promising for the extension of the applicability range of FPC and could be used in applications, which require low-to-medium temperature level.

  8. Invariant classification of second-order conformally flat superintegrable systems (United States)

    Capel, J. J.; Kress, J. M.


    In this paper we continue the work of Kalnins et al in classifying all second-order conformally-superintegrable (Laplace-type) systems over conformally flat spaces, using tools from algebraic geometry and classical invariant theory. The results obtained show, through Stäckel equivalence, that the list of known nondegenerate superintegrable systems over three-dimensional conformally flat spaces is complete. In particular, a seven-dimensional manifold is determined such that each point corresponds to a conformal class of superintegrable systems. This manifold is foliated by the nonlinear action of the conformal group in three dimensions. Two systems lie in the same conformal class if and only if they lie in the same leaf of the foliation. This foliation is explicitly described using algebraic varieties formed from representations of the conformal group. The proof of these results rely heavily on Gröbner basis calculations using the computer algebra software packages Maple and Singular.

  9. Flat Chern Band in a Two-Dimensional Organometallic Framework (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Mei, Jia-Wei; Wu, Yong-Shi; Liu, Feng


    By combining exotic band dispersion with nontrivial band topology, an interesting type of band structure, namely, the flat Chern band, has recently been proposed to spawn high-temperature fractional quantum Hall states. Despite the proposal of several theoretical lattice models, however, it remains doubtful whether such a “romance of flatland” could exist in a real material. Here, we present a first-principles design of a two-dimensional indium-phenylene organometallic framework that realizes a nearly flat Chern band right around the Fermi level by combining lattice geometry, spin-orbit coupling, and ferromagnetism. An effective four-band model is constructed to reproduce the first-principles results. Our design, in addition, provides a general strategy to synthesize topologically nontrivial materials by virtue of organic chemistry and nanotechnology.

  10. Binary neutron stars: Equilibrium models beyond spatial conformal flatness. (United States)

    Uryū, Kōji; Limousin, François; Friedman, John L; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Shibata, Masaru


    Equilibria of binary neutron stars in close circular orbits are computed numerically in a waveless formulation: the full Einstein-relativistic-Euler system is solved on an initial hypersurface to obtain an asymptotically flat form of the 4-metric and an extrinsic curvature whose time derivative vanishes in a comoving frame. Two independent numerical codes are developed, and solution sequences that model inspiraling binary neutron stars during the final several orbits are successfully computed. The binding energy of the system near its final orbit deviates from earlier results of third post-Newtonian and of spatially conformally flat calculations. The new solutions may serve as initial data for merger simulations and as members of quasiequilibrium sequences to generate gravitational-wave templates, and may improve estimates of the gravitational-wave cutoff frequency set by the last inspiral orbit.

  11. Facility overview for commercial application of selected Rocky Flats facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this Facility Overview is to support the Rocky Flats Local Impacts Initiative`s Request for Interest, to solicit interest from commercial corporations for utilizing buildings 865 and 883, and the equipment contained within each building, for a commercial venture. In the following sections, this document describes the Rocky Flats Site, the buildings available for lease, the equipment within these buildings, the site services available to a tenant, the human resources available to support operations in buildings 865 and 883, and the environmental condition of the buildings and property. In addition, a brief description is provided of the work performed to date to explore the potential products that might be manufactured in Buildings 865 and 883, and the markets for these products.

  12. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai


    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  13. Waterbird - Expanded Scoter and Scaup Survey: Boreal Alaska and Old Crow Flats, Canada products (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products resulting from the Yukon Flats NWR project "Waterbird - Expanded Scoter and Scaup Survey: Boreal Alaska and Old Crow Flats, Canada" (PRIMR survey...

  14. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza

    There are many examples of rock surfaces, rock art and stone structures whose ages are of great importance to the understanding of various phenomena in geology, climatology and archaeology. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is a well-established chronological tool that has successfully...... determined the depositional age of a wide variety of fine-grained sediments, from several years to several hundred thousands of years. However, there is no routine OSL dating method applicable to larger clasts such as cobbles, boulders and other rock surfaces. Here the application of quartz OSL to the dating...... of rock surfaces is successfully tested by application to two different quartz-rich rock types (sandstone and quartzite). Together with the measurement of infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals as a function of depth into the surface of different granites it is clear that both OSL and IRSL can...

  15. Thermally induced rock breakdown on asteroid Itokawa (United States)

    Kitazato, Kohei; Hirata, Naru; Demura, Hirohide; Inasawa, Tomoki; Abe, Masanao; Yamamoto, Yukio; Miura, Akira; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro


    On airless bodies of the inner solar system, changes in surface temperature due to insolation yield thermal cracking of rocks. This has been considered as a leading cause of rock breakdown, crater degradation and regolith production. However, it is poorly understood what thermal conditions are actually required to cause damage in rocks. Here we present a new evidence of thermally induced rock breakdown found on asteroid Itokawa. We analyzed the visible and near-infrared spectra of Shirakami and Muses-C regio, both of which are located within the concave part of Itokawa, and found that less space weathered debris generated from Shirakami are deposited on Muses-C regio. In addition, we performed thermophysical analysis to calculate the thermal conditions of Itokawa surface, which indicates that the rock breakdown on Shirakami would be caused by rapid temperature changes related to shadowing.

  16. Rg Wave Scattering from Collapse Craters in Yucca Flat, NV (United States)

    Bonner, J. L.; Pitarka, A.


    Short-period, fundamental mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) have been used as indicators of shallow source depth and are often preferred waveform features for estimating yield and moment tensor for underground explosions recorded at local distances. However, in regions with significant topography and/or complex tectonic structure, Rg can be rapidly attenuated or scattered such that the phase may not be observed within a few kilometers of the source, thus limiting its seismological applications. A unique dataset was collected in Yucca Flat, Nevada that allows additional insight into the effect of surface topography on Rg. The source was a large weight drop (the Seismic Hammer™), which is an efficient surface wave generator. Stations were placed at similar distance ranges ( 0.5 km) in an azimuthal array centered on the hammer source. The source-to-station paths included deep alluvium with and without topography, the topography being the result of collapse craters associated with historic nuclear tests in Yucca Flat. The craters dimensions were as much 1/3 of the entire propagation paths, which were as deep as 30 m. For flat paths, we often observe large amplitude Rg waves in the 3-15 Hz frequency band that are slightly dispersed. Contrarily, paths that cross collapse craters exhibit reduced Rg amplitudes or, in one case, essentially no observed fundamental mode surface waves. We have used SW4, an elastic wave propagation code, and a 3D velocity model for Yucca Flat, with and without topography, to simulate wave propagation. The synthetic and recorded ground motion was analyzed to better understand the effects of topographic scattering. We anticipate that the results of these simulations will help improve the configuration of the seismic stations network designed for Phase II of the Source Physics Experiment.

  17. Fracture Propagation in Multi-Piece Fun Flats (United States)


    linear and can be time- dependent (Molten fluids being a Non Newtonian type of material such as cake batter, ketchup, custard, toothpaste, etc...liquid state recreating the moment the powder was mixed with boiling water). Run Flat Material: In this hypothetical situation we assume that counteract this we will have to implement creative measures to make sure we can meet our testing specification while not going over budget and

  18. Square shaped flat-top beam in refractive beam shapers (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei


    Lossless transformation of round Gaussian to square shaped flat-top collimated beam is important in building highpower solid state laser systems to improve optical pumping or amplification. There are industrial micromachining applications like scribing, display repair, which performance is improved when a square shaped spot with uniform intensity is created. Proved beam shaping solutions to these techniques are refractive field mapping beam shapers having some important features: flatness of output phase front, small output divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, operation with TEM00 and multimode lasers. Usual approach to design refractive beam shapers implies that input and output beams have round cross-section, therefore the only way to create a square shaped output beam is using a square mask, which leads to essential losses. When an input laser beam is linearly polarized it is suggested to generate square shaped flat-top output by applying beam shaper lenses from birefringent materials or by using additional birefringent components. Due to birefringence there is introduced phase retardation in beam parts and is realized a square shaped interference pattern at the beam shaper output. Realization of this approach requires small phase retardation, therefore weak birefringence effect is enough and birefringent optical components, operating in convergent or divergent beams, can be made from refractive materials, which crystal optical axis is parallel to optical axis of entire beam shaper optical system. There will be considered design features of beam shapers creating square shaped flat-top beams. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  19. Properties of vitrified rocky flats TRUW with different waste loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Miley, D.V.; Erickson, A.W.; Farnsworth, R.N.; Larsen, E.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Leach rates, phase structures, and mechanical properties of simulated Rocky Flats Plant 1st and 2nd slate sludge vitrified in an arc melter are described as a function of waste to soil fraction and method of devitrification to produce the glass-ceramic waste form. Volatile, hazardous, and transuranic (TRU) surrogate metals were added to assess dissolution effects. Zirconia and titania were also added to confirm their ability as transuranic-surrogate getters.

  20. No open or flat bouncing cosmologies in Einstein gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Maulik [Department of Physics and Beyond: Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science,Arizona State University,Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)


    We show that, to first approximation, strings cannot propagate in bouncing open or flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes. Specifically, the Virasoro constraint translates to the Ricci convergence condition in spacetime at leading order in the alpha-prime expansion. Thus one must go beyond minimally-coupled classical Einstein gravity in order to find bounce solutions that could be consistent with string theory. We map out some remaining possibilities for finding string-compatible cosmological bounces.

  1. The BTZ black hole as a Lorentz-flat geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Eduardo, E-mail: [Departamento de Matemática y Física Aplicadas, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio, E-mail: [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)


    It is shown that 2+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes are Lorentz-flat. This means, in particular, that any simply-connected patch of the BTZ black hole solution can be endowed with a Lorentz connection that is locally pure gauge. The result can be naturally extended to a wider class of black hole geometries and point particles in three-dimensional spacetime.

  2. The Self-Drying Concept for Flat Roofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Vagn; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy; Rode, Carsten


    Moisture in flat roof systems with an insulation layer has been a long-standing issue for the roof industry. It is now realised, that it is unrealistic and too costly to try to completely keep moisture from entering a roof assembly during its service life. The approach, therefore, should be to keep...... cold- and warm deck roof systems in climate zones where a vapor retarder is needed, if the traditional water proof vapor retarder is substituted by a water permeable vapor retarder....

  3. Anderson localisation in tight-binding models with flat bands


    Chalker, J. T.; Pickles, T. S.; Shukla, Pragya


    We consider the effect of weak disorder on eigenstates in a special class of tight-binding models. Models in this class have short-range hopping on periodic lattices; their defining feature is that the clean systems have some energy bands that are dispersionless throughout the Brillouin zone. We show that states derived from these flat bands are generically critical in the presence of weak disorder, being neither Anderson localised nor spatially extended. Further, we establish a mapping betwe...

  4. Preliminary design of large reflectors with flat facets (United States)

    Agrawal, P. K.; Anderson, M. S.; Card, M. F.


    A concept for approximating curved antenna surfaces using flat facets is discussed. A preliminary design technique for determining the size of the reflector surface facets necessary to meet antenna surface accuracy requirements is presented. A proposed large microwave radiometer satellite (MRS) is selected as an application, and the far-field electromagnetic response of a faceted reflector surface is compared with that from a spherical reflector surface.

  5. Diffractive flat panel solar concentrators of a novel design. (United States)

    de Jong, Ties M; de Boer, Dick K G; Bastiaansen, Cees W M


    A novel design for a flat panel solar concentrator is presented which is based on a light guide with a grating applied on top that diffracts light into total internal reflection. By combining geometrical and diffractive optics the geometrical concentration ratio is optimized according to the principles of nonimaging optics, while the thickness of the device is minimized due to the use of total internal reflection.

  6. Optimization of flat steel frame and foundation posts system


    I.N. Serpik; A.V. Alekseytsev


    The development of effective design solutions for many construction projects requires taking into account the bearing capacity and the cost of manufacturing the superstructure and the foundation as a single system. We suggested an algorithm of complex optimal design of a steel flat frame for the building frame, and foundation posts under its columns on the natural foundation. It is proposed to minimize the cost of materials of basic variable parts of the structure. The search is carried ou...

  7. Plasma technology and its use in flat panel digital radiography. (United States)

    Zur, Albert


    Plasma DR technology is used to produce a cost effective flat panel x-ray detector that acquires digital x-ray images with excellent diagnostic quality. The detector is radiation hard and permanently zero defect, with a full virtual pixel matrix that has no dead lines, pixels, or dead pixel clusters. The technology also allows the full potential of large area amorphous Selenium imaging to finally be realized (see Figure 4).

  8. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.


    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

  9. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer


    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  10. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S.Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer


    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  11. The Influence of Technological Conditions of the Process of Cogging in Flat Dies on the Quality of Two-Phase Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyja Н.


    Full Text Available To create a rational technology of cogging process and to determinate the optimal values of the angles of tilt and single reduction the stress-strain state (SSS of the blank during cogging in the flat dies was analyzed. By using the finite element method and program MSC.SuperForge quantitative data are obtained and the basic patterns of distribution of SSS, the temperature during the simulation of tilting in flat dies with different angles of tilting and the amount of reduction were established. Sustainable experimental-industrial technology of forging of two-phase titanium alloys was developed and tested.

  12. Map of mixed prairie grassland vegetation, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S J.V.; Webber, P J; Komarkova, V; Weber, W A


    A color vegetation map at the scale of 1:12,000 of the area surrounding the Rocky Flats, Rockwell International Plant near Boulder, Colorado, provides a permanent record of baseline data which can be used to monitor changes in both vegetation and environment and thus to contribute to future land management and land-use policies. Sixteen mapping units based on species composition were identified, and characterized by two 10-m/sup 2/ vegetation stands each. These were grouped into prairie, pasture, and valley side on the basis of their species composition. Both the mapping units and these major groups were later confirmed by agglomerative clustering analysis of the 32 vegetation stands on the basis of species composition. A modified Bray and Curtis ordination was used to determine the environmental factor complexes controlling the distribution of vegetation at Rocky flats. Recommendations are made for future policies of environmental management and predictions of the response to environmental change of the present vegetation at the Rocky Flats site.

  13. Quantum localized states in photonic flat-band lattices (United States)

    Rojas-Rojas, S.; Morales-Inostroza, L.; Vicencio, R. A.; Delgado, A.


    The localization of light in flat-band lattices has been recently proposed and experimentally demonstrated in several configurations, assuming a classical description of light. Here we study the problem of light localization in the quantum regime. We focus on quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional lattices which exhibit a perfect flat band inside their linear spectrum. Localized quantum states are constructed as eigenstates of the interaction Hamiltonian with a vanishing eigenvalue and a well defined total photon number. These are superpositions of Fock states with probability amplitudes given by positive as well as negative square roots of multinomial coefficients. The classical picture can be recovered by considering Poissonian superpositions of localized quantum states with different total photon number. We also study the separability properties of flat-band quantum states and apply them to the transmission of information via multicore fibers, where these states allow for the total passive suppression of photon crosstalk and exhibit robustness against photon losses. At the end, we propose an on-chip setup for the experimental preparation of localized quantum states of light for any number of photons.

  14. Point focusing with flat and wedged crossed multilayer Laue lenses. (United States)

    Kubec, Adam; Melzer, Kathleen; Gluch, Jürgen; Niese, Sven; Braun, Stefan; Patommel, Jens; Burghammer, Manfred; Leson, Andreas


    Point focusing measurements using pairs of directly bonded crossed multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) are reported. Several flat and wedged MLLs have been fabricated out of a single deposition and assembled to realise point focusing devices. The wedged lenses have been manufactured by adding a stress layer onto flat lenses. Subsequent bending of the structure changes the relative orientation of the layer interfaces towards the stress-wedged geometry. The characterization at ESRF beamline ID13 at a photon energy of 10.5 keV demonstrated a nearly diffraction-limited focusing to a clean spot of 43 nm × 44 nm without significant side lobes with two wedged crossed MLLs using an illuminated aperture of approximately 17 µm × 17 µm to eliminate aberrations originating from layer placement errors in the full 52.7 µm × 52.7 µm aperture. These MLLs have an average individual diffraction efficiency of 44.5%. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy measurements with convenient working distances were performed to demonstrate that the lenses are suitable for user experiments. Also discussed are the diffraction and focusing properties of crossed flat lenses made from the same deposition, which have been used as a reference. Here a focal spot size of 28 nm × 33 nm was achieved and significant side lobes were noticed at an illuminated aperture of approximately 23 µm × 23 µm.

  15. The Atomic Views of Flat Supply Chains in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar Chattopadhyay


    Full Text Available China's domestic supply chain networks are getting flat and unbalanced despite its spectacular growth and rise to the enviable position in the global supply chain arena in recent times. The aftermath of continued investment explosion, especially in the coastal areas of the mainland, calls for an interwoven relationship of Chinese companies with the rest of the global supply chains. However, with new information and communication technologies, the real-time problems arising from this flattened supply chains are much more complex, multifaceted and multidimensional. China needs to re-think and re-focus on better alignment to the western values and cultures while managing its global business activities. This paper discusses four recently developed enterprise models in the light of several case studies conducted recently in Australia, China and India to characterise these new flat supply chains: People-Centric, Molecular Organization, Globally Dispersed and Disaggregated Value Chain. These, apparently different but inherently similar models have a vibrant architecture and system behaviour in their core and propose an alternative approach to address challenges of unbalanced domestic flat supply chains in China and helps the Chinese manufacturers to explore an approach to embrace Western values and cultures by enlarging their sphere of influence.

  16. Flat-walled multilayered anechoic linings: Optimization and application (United States)

    Xu, Jingfeng; Buchholz, Jörg M.; Fricke, Fergus R.


    The concept of flat-walled multilayered absorbent linings for anechoic rooms was proposed three decades ago. Flat-walled linings have the advantage of being less complicated and, hence, less costly to manufacture and install than the individual units such as wedges. However, there are difficulties in optimizing the design of such absorbent linings. In the present work, the design of a flat-walled multilayered anechoic lining that targeted a 250 Hz cut-off frequency and a 300 mm maximum lining thickness was first optimized using an evolutionary algorithm. Sixteen of the most commonly used commercial fibrous building insulation materials available in Australia were investigated and fourteen design options (i.e., material combinations) were found by the evolutionary algorithm. These options were then evaluated in accordance with their costs and measured acoustic absorption performances. Finally, the completed anechoic room, where the optimized design was applied, was qualified and the results showed that a large percentage (75%-85%) of the distance between the sound source and the room boundaries, on the traverses made, were anechoic.

  17. Kinetics of crimp and slope grip in rock climbing. (United States)

    Schweizer, Andreas; Hudek, Robert


    The aim was to investigate differences of the kinetics of the crimp and the slope grip used in rock climbing. Nine cadaver fingers were prepared and fixated with the proximal phalanx in a frame. The superficial (FDS) and deep (FDP) flexor tendons were loaded selectively and together with 40 N in the crimp grip (PIP joint flexed 90°/DIP joint hyperextended) and the slope grip position (<25° flexed/50° flexed respectively). Five different grip sizes were tested and the flexion force which was generated to the grip was measured. In the crimp grip the FDP generated more flexion force in small sized holds whereas the FDS generated more force in the larger holds. During the slope grip the FDP was more effective than the FDS. While both tendons were loaded, the flexion force was always greater during crimp grip compared with the slope grip. The FDP seems to be most important for very small holds using the crimp grip but also during slope grip holds whereas the FDS is more important for larger flat holds.

  18. 3D Multiscale Integrated Modeling Approach of Complex Rock Mass Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Li


    Full Text Available Based on abundant geological data of different regions and different scales in hydraulic engineering, a new approach of 3D engineering-scale and statistical-scale integrated modeling was put forward, considering the complex relationships among geological structures and discontinuities and hydraulic structures. For engineering-scale geological structures, the 3D rock mass model of the study region was built by the exact match modeling method and the reliability analysis technique. For statistical-scale jointed rock mass, the random network simulation modeling method was realized, including Baecher structure plane model, Monte Carlo simulation, and dynamic check of random discontinuities, and the corresponding software program was developed. Finally, the refined model was reconstructed integrating with the engineering-scale model of rock structures, the statistical-scale model of discontinuities network, and the hydraulic structures model. It has been applied to the practical hydraulic project and offers the model basis for the analysis of hydraulic rock mass structures.

  19. The physiology of rock climbing. (United States)

    Giles, Luisa V; Rhodes, Edward C; Taunton, Jack E


    In general, elite climbers have been characterised as small in stature, with low percentage body fat and body mass. Currently, there are mixed conclusions surrounding body mass and composition, potentially because of variable subject ability, method of assessment and calculation. Muscular strength and endurance in rock climbers have been primarily measured on the forearm, hand and fingers via dynamometry. When absolute hand strength was assessed, there was little difference between climbers and the general population. When expressed in relation to body mass, elite-level climbers scored significantly higher, highlighting the potential importance of low body mass. Rock climbing is characterised by repeated bouts of isometric contractions. Hand grip endurance has been measured by both repeated isometric contractions and sustained contractions, at a percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. Exercise times to fatigue during repeated isometric contractions have been found to be significantly better in climbers when compared with sedentary individuals. However, during sustained contractions until exhaustion, climbers did not differ from the normal population, emphasising the importance of the ability to perform repeated isometric forearm contractions without fatigue becoming detrimental to performance. A decrease in handgrip strength and endurance has been related to an increase in blood lactate, with lactate levels increasing with the angle of climbing. Active recovery has been shown to provide a better rate of recovery and allows the body to return to its pre-exercised state quicker. It could be suggested that an increased ability to tolerate and remove lactic acid during climbing may be beneficial. Because of increased demand placed upon the upper body during climbing of increased difficulty, possessing greater strength and endurance in the arms and shoulders could be advantageous. Flexibility has not been identified as a necessary determinant of climbing success

  20. 75 FR 51286 - Certain Flat Panel Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Flat Panel Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... importation of certain flat panel digital televisions and components thereof by reason of infringement of... certain flat panel digital televisions and components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 22-25 of...