WorldWideScience

Sample records for program feed process

  1. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Altuğ, Gülşen

    2003-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  2. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  3. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  4. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  5. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12

    OpenAIRE

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international age...

  6. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  7. A Mandrel Feeding Strategy in Conical Ring Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for radial conical ring rolling with a closed die structure on the top and bottom of driven roll, simplified as RCRRCDS, was established. The plastic penetration and biting-in conditions in RCRRCDS process were determined. A mandrel feeding strategy for RCRRCDS process was proposed. The mandrel feed rate and its reasonable value range were deduced. The coupled thermal-mechanical FE model of RCRRCDS process was established. The reasonable value range of the mandrel feed rate was verified by using numerical simulation method. The results indicate that the reasonable value range of the mandrel feed rate is feasible, the proposed mandrel feeding strategy can realize a steady RCRRCDS process, and the forming quality of conical ring rolled by using the proposed feeding strategy is better than that of conical ring rolled by using a constant mandrel feed rate.

  8. Responsive feeding: implications for policy and program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L; Pelto, Gretel H

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation.

  9. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  10. Computer program for machine design of Cassegrain feed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, P. D.

    1968-01-01

    Program designs the feed system geometry and the subreflector surface, with the main reflector configuration and frequency of operation as input data. Although the feedhorn is not designed, its required gain, beamwidth, and approximate radiation pattern are specified.

  11. Schooling feeding versus scholarship program : which one is key to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Schooling feeding versus scholarship program : which one is key to help children learn reading, writing and simple calculation skills?; final draft report. Pheakdey Em; Pheakdey Pheap. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10625/54705. Date: 2013-10 ...

  12. Feeding Programs for Broiler Breeders in the Start Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tremarin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fast-growing Brazilian aviculture requires studies to improve zootechnical performance indexes for broiler breeders. The purpose of this study was to assess different feeding programs for broiler breeders on performance and development of digestive organs. A total of 48,000, 1d-old, Cobb 500 broiler breeders were divided into two sheds with 24,000 birds each. The experiment was randomized in block design, considering each shed a block, with 4 treatments and 6 replications per treatment with 2,000 birds in each. Treatments consisted of: Shed 1 T1 = starter feed; T2 = T1 + probiotics; Shed 2 T3 = pre-starter feed; T4 = T3 + probiotics. The productive performance characteristics (bird weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion, the development of digestive organs (gizzard, proventriculus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and small bowel as well as the small bowel length were assessed weekly for all experimental groups, in samples of 10 birds per treatment. The best feed conversion and weight gain were observed with pre-starter feed in the first 7 days of age, with or without probiotic. Small bowel, gizzard and proventriculus development at 28 days was better for birds on pre-starter feed compared to those on starter feed alone. It is possible to conclude that broiler breeders on pre-starter feed during the first 7 days of age are likely to show better physical and productive performances in the adult phase.

  13. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Prospects of Applying Feed Processing Technologies Based on Industrial Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Petrus Ginting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potency of plantation sectors (palm oil, sugar cane and cacao as alternative feed resources for ruminants has been acknowledged since 20 – 25 years ago. However, the level of utilization of these feeds in small ruminant production system has been very low and sporadic. The typical chemical and physical characteristics of most of those feedstuffs required some steps of processing in order to improve their nutritional quality and to ease their handling. Small ruminants, like sheep and goats have relatively higher metabolic energy requirement per kg BW and anatomically have lower gut capacity to process lignocelluose materials compared to large ruminants. It is, therefore, these animals nutritionally face more constraints in handling lignocellulose and bulky materials mostly found in industrial by products or crop-residues from plantations. Physical processes (chopping, phyiscal separation, hydrothermal, chemical processes (ammoniation, hydrolyses and oxidative treatments and bio-conversions (fermentation, ensiling have been recommended as alternative technologies in maximizing the utilization of those feedstuffs for small ruminant animals. The principal mechanisms of those treatments are: (i breaking the linkages between structural carbohydrate and lignin so that it could be easily digested by the animal enzyme systems and (ii preserving the material from being spoilage due to its high moisture content or for feed stocking purposes. Priorities for choosing the most effective processing technology for implementation or adoption is depent largely on the scale of feed production. Ammoniation, chopping, physical separation, ensiling or bio-conversion are several technologies mostly recommended for small scale operation in situ. These alternative technologies should be able to be adopted by small-holders living around the plantation area. The commercial or large scale feed production could be implemented by the plantation industry by giving high

  15. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  16. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  17. Evaluation of programs to improve complementary feeding in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frongillo, Edward A

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of complementary feeding programs is needed to enhance knowledge on what works, to document responsible use of resources, and for advocacy. Evaluation is done during program conceptualization and design, implementation, and determination of effectiveness. This paper explains the role of evaluation in the advancement of complementary feeding programs, presenting concepts and methods and illustrating them through examples. Planning and investments for evaluations should occur from the beginning of the project life cycle. Essential to evaluation is articulation of a program theory on how change would occur and what program actions are required for change. Analysis of program impact pathways makes explicit the dynamic connections in the program theory and accounts for contextual factors that could influence program effectiveness. Evaluating implementation functioning is done through addressing questions about needs, coverage, provision, and utilization using information obtained from process evaluation, operations research, and monitoring. Evaluating effectiveness is done through assessing impact, efficiency, coverage, process, and causality. Plausibility designs ask whether the program seemed to have an effect above and beyond external influences, often using a nonrandomized control group and baseline and end line measures. Probability designs ask whether there was an effect using a randomized control group. Evaluations may not be able to use randomization, particularly for programs implemented at a large scale. Plausibility designs, innovative designs, or innovative combinations of designs sometimes are best able to provide useful information. Further work is needed to develop practical designs for evaluation of large-scale country programs on complementary feeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Infant feeding practices in the Peruvian Amazon: implications for programs to improve feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenyth Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize feeding practices in a community in the Peruvian Amazon and to consider how this information could be used to strengthen programs and policies designed to improve nutrition and reduce child malnutrition in vulnerable communities METHODS: Data from three structured questionnaires were combined to produce a comprehensive depiction of feeding in a sample of 246 infants from birth through 8 months of life in the community of Santa Clara de Nanay near Iquitos, Peru. Breastfeeding initiation practices, exclusive breastfeeding in the first 180 days of life, the introduction of solids, and complementary feeding practices from 6-8 months, were described and related to maternal, infant, and household characteristics, including food insecurity RESULTS: The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 19 days. However, over the first 180 days of life, children were exclusively breastfed on 46.1% of days. Overall, 68.3% of infants received some semi-solid or solid food between 0-6 months and all had received semi-solids by the end of 8 months of age. The proportion of infants consuming a minimally acceptable (frequent and diverse complementary diet was 2.9%, 7.9%, and 16.1% at 6, 7, and 8 months respectively CONCLUSIONS: Although breastfeeding is nearly universal, promotion programs are needed in Santa Clara to 1 delay the introduction of plain water, other non-breast milk liquids, and semi-solid foods; 2 extend the period of exclusive breastfeeding; and 3 increase food diversity and the frequency of feeding during the period of complementary feeding. These results can be used to guide programs and policies to improve nutrition and reduce child malnutrition.

  19. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  20. Effect of binder processing on feed quality | Suleiman | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of binder processing on the quality of feed, viz; pelletabilty, hardness, friability and water stability. Four different starch sources were investigated; yam starch, corn starch, rice starch and cassava starch. Each starch was formulated into two diets employing two processing ...

  1. Technological foundations of processing tomato pomace in feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yegorov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Search for new types of alternative raw material for the efficient development of poultry industry and problem of waste disposal of canning industry made it necessary to develop a method of processing tomato pomace in feed additives. Materials and methods. Sampling, preparation and testing were carried out by general and specific organ oleptic and physical-technological methods of assessment and analysis of the properties of raw materials and finished products. Results. Incorporation of tomato pomace in the feed additive reduces the cost of raw materials and expenses associated with moistening of the mixture before extrusion and incorporation of chalk feed will solve the problem of calcium imbalance of laying hens. It was found that extrusion process has improved the physical properties of feed additive and showed the possibility of its use as a feed component: moisture content decreased by 34.5 %, the angle of repose increased by 11.4 %, flowability decreased by 39.7 % and bulk density decreased by 32.3 %. Conclusions. The resulting feed additive will solve the problem of diversification of raw materials, waste, calcium imbalance of laying hens and reduce expenses on compound animal feedstuff production.

  2. EFFECT OF MELTER-FEED-MAKEUP ON VITRIFICATION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; SCHWEIGER MJ; HUMRICKHOUSE CJ; MOODY JA; TATE RM; TEGROTENHUIS NE; ARRIGONI BM; RODRIGUEZ CP

    2009-09-10

    Increasing the rate of glass processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will allow shortening the life cycle of waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. While the WTP melters have approached the limit of increasing the rate of melting by enhancing the heat transfer rate from molten glass to the cold cap, a substantial improvement can still be achieved by accelerating the feed-to-glass conversion kinetics. This study investigates how the feed-to-glass conversion process responds to the feed makeup. By identifying the means of control of primary foam formation and silica grain dissolution, it provides data needed for a meaningful and economical design of large-scale experiments aimed at achieving faster melting.

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  4. Effects of feeding processed baobab ( Adansonia digitata ) seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding graded levels of processed baobab seed meal (Decorticated Un-defatted Roasted Baobab Seed meal, DURBSM) on one hundred and seventy six (176) Arbor Acre broiler chicks. They were fed at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inclusion level for 30 days. The data ...

  5. School feeding programs' role in forming eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervato-Mancuso, Ana Maria; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Araki, Erica Lie; Bógus, Claudia Maria

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify teaching managers' perceptions regarding the relationship of school feeding and the promotion of healthy eating habits among students. METHODS A descriptive study with a qualitative approach was developed in the city of Guarulhos (Southeast Brazil). Key informants from municipal public schools were interviewed. Public schools were selected (n=13) and classified as to the level of social exclusion, size and economic activity of the region where the school was located. Pedagogic coordinators and school principals were individually interviewed with semi-structured questions. RESULTS From school principals and pedagogical coordinators' perceptions, three categories were identified: Food in the school context; School feeding program's role and the Concept of food and nutrition security, which indicate that they considered meals as part of school routine in order to attain physiological needs of energy and nutrients. Their answers also indicated that they did not consider school meals as a pedagogical action related to their specific responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The relationship between the school feeding and the formation of eating habits is not a topic usually discussed between the different professionals involved with health and education. The implementation of health promoting policies will only be possible after a debate about how schools and their pedagogical team adopt the program guidelines and how the professionals decode these strategies in daily activities.

  6. School feeding programs' role in forming eating habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Cervato-Mancuso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To identify teaching managers' perceptions regarding the relationship of school feeding and the promotion of healthy eating habits among students. METHODS A descriptive study with a qualitative approach was developed in the city of Guarulhos (Southeast Brazil. Key informants from municipal public schools were interviewed. Public schools were selected (n=13 and classified as to the level of social exclusion, size and economic activity of the region where the school was located. Pedagogic coordinators and school principals were individually interviewed with semi-structured questions. RESULTS From school principals and pedagogical coordinators' perceptions, three categories were identified: Food in the school context; School feeding program's role and the Concept of food and nutrition security, which indicate that they considered meals as part of school routine in order to attain physiological needs of energy and nutrients. Their answers also indicated that they did not consider school meals as a pedagogical action related to their specific responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The relationship between the school feeding and the formation of eating habits is not a topic usually discussed between the different professionals involved with health and education. The implementation of health promoting policies will only be possible after a debate about how schools and their pedagogical team adopt the program guidelines and how the professionals decode these strategies in daily activities.

  7. Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake stability in rabbit males reduce sperm abnormalities and improve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L

    2016-08-01

    Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake (DFI) stability in rabbit males could be useful to ensure successful coverage of their nutritional requirements and for continued production of quality semen. To evaluate two feeding systems designed to reduce DFI variability, 115 rabbit males at age 1.2 years were randomly assigned to three different treatments for 294 days: CS, animals fed ad libitum with a control diet (127-g starch and 281-g total soluble fiber [hemicellulose + soluble fiber] kg(-1) dry matter); SF, males fed ad libitum with diet enriched in soluble fiber (86-g starch and 330-g total soluble fiber kg(-1) dry matter); and R, animals fed with CS diet but daily restricted to maintenance requirements. Feed intake, body weight, body condition, and variability of DFI were controlled every 42 days, and individual semen volume and sperm motility, concentration, acrosome status, and abnormalities every 15 days. In six commercial farms, the number of females inseminated, pregnant and kindling, as well as the number of kits born alive, was registered for 15,893 inseminations with pooled semen from each treatment. DFI was significantly lower for R males than for the other treatments (on average, -12 ± 4 g/day; P rabbit males may be useful to fit their needs and provide a constant daily supply of nutrients, with some sperm morphologic characteristics being improved, as well as the fertility of their pooled semen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary Assessment of the Hanford Tank Waste Feed Acceptance and Product Qualification Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C. C.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, D. T.; Peeler, David K.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Reboul, S. H.; Stone, M. E.; Peterson, Reid A.; Chun, Jaehun; Fort, James A.; Vienna, John D.; Wells, Beric E.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing Hanford Tank waste feed acceptance and product qualification. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the planned waste feed acceptance and qualification testing for Hanford tank wastes. Science and technology gaps were identified for work associated with 1) feed criteria development with emphasis on identifying the feed properties and the process requirements, 2) the Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process qualification program, and 3) the WTP HLW glass product qualification program. Opportunities for streamlining the accetpance and qualification programs were also considered in the gap assessment. Technical approaches to address the science and technology gaps and/or implement the opportunities were identified. These approaches will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate and long-term benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with tank waste removal and preparation, transfers from the tank farm to the WTP, processing within the WTP Pretreatment Facility, and in producing qualified HLW glass products. Additionally, implementation of the identified opportunities provides the potential for long-term cost savings given the anticipated

  9. Impact of Process Optimization and Quality Improvement Measures on Neonatal Feeding Outcomes at an All-Referral Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Dail, James; Malkar, Manish B; McClead, Richard; Kelleher, Kelly; Nelin, Leif

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that the implementation of a feeding quality improvement (QI) program among premature neonates accelerates feeding milestones, safely lowering hospital length of stay (LOS) compared with the baseline period. Baseline data were collected for 15 months (N = 92) prior to initiating the program, which involved development and implementation of a standardized feeding strategy in eligible premature neonates. Process optimization, implementation of feeding strategy, monitoring compliance, multidisciplinary feeding rounds, and continuous education strategies were employed. The main outcomes included the ability and duration to reach enteral feeds-120 (mL/kg/d), oral feeds-120 (mL/kg/d), and ad lib oral feeding. Balancing measures included growth velocities, comorbidities, and LOS. Comparing baseline versus feeding program (N = 92) groups, respectively, the feeding program improved the number of infants receiving trophic feeds (34% vs 80%, P Process optimization and the implementation of a standardized feeding strategy minimize practice variability, accelerating the attainment of enteral and oral feeding milestones and decreasing LOS without increasing adverse morbidities. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Simulation assessment of continuous simulating moving bed chromatography process with partial feed and new strategy with partial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial Feed simulating moving bed (SMB has proved to be more efficient in binary separation performance (purity, recovery, productivity because of its two additional degrees of freedom, namely feed length and feed time, as compared to classical SMB process. The binary separation of dextran T6 and fructose with linear isotherm is modeled with Aspen Chromatography simulator in a four zone SMB with one column per zone for both normal-feed and Partial Feed. Increase in number of feed length and feed time in the cycle plays a very important role in the separation performance with Partial Feed. In addition, the effect of mode of operation (early or late introduction of increase in number of feed length in the cycle on product purity and recovery is also investigated. Furthermore, the binary separation system is designed with the safety margin method and the optimum operating parameters for simulation are calculated with triangle theory. Finally, a new strategy with Partial Feed is developed, showing improved separation performance relative to the basic four-zone SMB with regard to extract stream purity and recovery. The results of the proposed study can served as a useful summary of Partial Feed operation.

  11. Bio-processing of agro-byproducts to animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, C M; Brar, S K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Godbout, S; Valéro, J R

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural and food-industry residues constitute a major proportion (almost 30%) of worldwide agricultural production. These wastes mainly comprise lignocellulosic materials, fruit and vegetable wastes, sugar-industry wastes as well as animal and fisheries refuse and byproducts. Agro-residues are rich in many bioactive and nutraceutical compounds, such as polyphenolics, carotenoids and dietary fiber among others. Agro residues are a major valuable biomass and present potential solutions to problems of animal nutrition and the worldwide supply of protein and calories, if appropriate technologies can be used for their valorization by nutrient enrichment. Technologies available for protein enrichment of these wastes include solid substrate fermentation, ensiling, and high solid or slurry processes. Technologies to be developed for the reprocessing of these wastes need to take account of the peculiarities of individual wastes and the environment in which they are generated, reprocessed, and used. In particular, such technologies need to deliver products that are safe, not just for animal feed use, but also from the perspective of human feeding. This review focuses on the major current applications of solid-state fermentation in relation to the feed sector.

  12. Fermented liquid feed - Feed processing has a big impact on microbial degradation of free lysine during fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of feed processing on the microbial degradation of free lysine during fermentation of liquid feed, a study at laboratory scale was carried out. Based on a standard Danish grower diet with extra free amino acids added, two treatments were prepared: treatment 1......) pelleted (83 °C) diet; treatment 2) mash, non-heated diet. The feed was mixed with water (1:2.75, w/w) and incubated at  25 °C. The number of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in liquid feed prepared with the mash than with the pelleted feed immediately after feed and water were added to the mixture but after...

  13. An alternative process to treat boiler feed water for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Adel; Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H; Banerjee, Daliya

    2012-09-01

    A bench-scale process to treat boiler feed water for reuse in steam generation was developed. Industrial water samples from a steam-assisted gravity drainage plant in northern Alberta, Canada, were obtained and samples characterized. The technology, which consists of coagulation-settling to remove oil/grease and particulates followed by an advanced oxidative treatment, led to clean water samples with negligible organic carbon. Coagulation followed by settling removed most particulates and some insoluble organics. The advanced oxidative treatment removed any remaining color in the samples, decreased the organic content to near-zero, and provided water ready for reuse.

  14. STREAM: A First Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    to derive a programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich agile software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to achieve two things: to help novice...... programmers learn faster and better while at the same time laying the foundation for a more thorough treatment of more advanced aspects of software engineering. In this article, two examples demonstrate the application of STREAM. The STREAM process has been taught in the introductory programming courses...... at our universities for the past three years and the results are very encouraging. We report on a small, preliminary study evaluating the learning outcome of teaching STREAM. The study indicates a positive effect on the development of students’ process competences....

  15. Micosoft Excel Sensitivity Analysis for Linear and Stochastic Program Feed Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensitivity analysis is a part of mathematical programming solutions and is used in making nutritional and economic decisions for a given feed formulation problem. The terms, shadow price and reduced cost, are familiar linear program (LP) terms to feed formulators. Because of the nonlinear nature of...

  16. Analysis and testing of propellant feed system priming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. Y.; Baker, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical and the experimental results pertaining to the priming process of the propellant feed system with initial line pressures starting from 0 psia and greater. The analytical methods employ the method of characteristics to solve for the one-dimensional liquid transients in the liquid-full segments and the lumped inertia technique to model the dynamics of the partially filled segments or the two-phase segments. The advantages of these methods are (1) fluid compressibility and piping flexibility are accounted for in the solution; and (2) the characteristics method can be used in the solution of a complex system. The analytical results were compared with test results. Excellent correlation was obtained between predictions and test results verifying the essential aspects of the analytical modeling techniques and providing the foundation for analyzing a complicated network system.

  17. The effect of feed made from fish processing waste silage on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feed made from fish processing waste silage on the growth of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) ... Four different experimental groups were formed; feed without silage (control) and pellets with 25, 50 and 100% silage. Fish were fed ... Key words: Fish meal, fish silage, growth, feed efficiency, rainbow trout.

  18. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  19. [Effects of an Individual Breast-feeding Promotion Program for Married Immigrant Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Kyoung; Moon, So Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of an individual breast-feeding promotion program to address breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice for married immigrant women. A non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used (experimental group=16, control group=17). The intervention consisted of 3 phases: (1) Within 2 hours of delivery - individual breast-feeding training through video/verbal/practical training education and demonstration (2) After 1~2 days - group training using video, model doll, and breast models (3) After 7 days - family visit, counseling, retraining and reinforcement training. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests with the SPSS program. Married immigrant women who participated in the individual breast-feeding program scored high in knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice compared to the control group. The results indicate that the individual breast-feeding program is very effective in increasing breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practicing breast feeding for married immigrant women. So, nurses are encouraged to aggressively utilize individual breast-feeding programs to help married immigrant women, who are exposed to vulnerability due to various situations.

  20. FEEDING GUIDELINES FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS (START HEALTHY PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Butte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The dietary guidelines for americans contains recommendations on diets and healthy lifestyles but it does not deal with specificities of the diet and feeding breast and small infants (to 2 years. However, parents and carecgivers need practical recommendations on feeding infants and toddlers that are necessary to ensure a normal growth and to create the basis for forming healthy food habits, which apart from other benefits might help prevent the development of obesity and other diseases in both childhood and adulthood. The feeding guidelines for infants and toddlers is aimed at providing parents and carecgivers with practical information on feeding breast and small infants. It is intendced for adding and broadening recommendations worked out by other expert groups and organizations. The article provides a substantiation of the guidelines. The methodology, results and a complete reference list used to work out the recommendations are presented in another document.Key words: infants, nutrition.

  1. Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

  2. FEEDING GUIDELINES FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS (START HEALTHY PROGRAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Butte; Kathleen Cobb; Joanna Dwyer; Laura Graney; William Heird; Caryl Richard

    2007-01-01

    The dietary guidelines for americans contains recommendations on diets and healthy lifestyles but it does not deal with specificities of the diet and feeding breast and small infants (to 2 years). However, parents and carecgivers need practical recommendations on feeding infants and toddlers that are necessary to ensure a normal growth and to create the basis for forming healthy food habits, which apart from other benefits might help prevent the development of obesity and other diseases in bo...

  3. Proximate analyses - Utilization of Marine Process Waste for Aquaculture Feeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Limited amounts of forage fish are available as an ingredient in feeds for the expanding aquaculture industry. Work is being conducted on a variety of underutilized...

  4. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed... Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food to provide for the...) in part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21...

  5. How to engage across sectors: lessons from agriculture and nutrition in the Brazilian School Feeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Hawkes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To provide insights for nutrition and public health practitioners on how to engage with other sectors to achieve public health goals. Specifically, this study provides lessons from the example of integrating family farming and a nutrition into a legal framework in Brazil on how to successfully shift other sectors toward nutrition goals. METHODS The study analyzed policy processes that led to a Brazilian law linking family farming with the National School Feeding Program. Main actors involved with the development of the law were interviewed and their narratives were analyzed using a well-established theoretical framework. RESULTS The study provides five key lessons for promoting intersectorality. First, nutrition and health practitioners can afford to embrace bold ideas when working with other sectors. Second, they should engage with more powerful sectors (or subsectors and position nutrition goals as providing solutions that meet the interests of these sector. Third is the need to focus on a common goal – which may not be explicitly nutrition-related – as the focus of the intersectoral action. Fourth, philosophical, political, and governance spaces are needed to bring together different sectors. Fifth, evidence on the success of the intersectoral approach increases the acceptance of the process. CONCLUSIONS This study on policy processes shows how a convergence of factors enabled a link between family farming and school feeding in Brazil. It highlights that there are strategies to engage other sectors toward nutrition goals which provides benefits for all sectors involved.

  6. Diet design for a multicenter controlled feeding trial: the DELTA program. Delta Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, B H; Stewart, P; Wang, C H; Champagne, C; Windhauser, M; Ershow, A; Karmally, W; Phillips, K; Stewart, K; Van Heel, N; Farhat-Wood, A; Kris-Etherton, P M

    1998-07-01

    To describe the process and results of diet standardization, diet validation, and monitoring of diet composition, which were key components of protocol 1 of Dietary Effects on Lipoproteins and Thrombogenic Activity (DELTA-1), the initial protocol in a program of multicenter human feeding studies designed to evaluate the effects of amount and type of fat on lipoproteins and hemostasis parameters in various demographic groups. DELTA-1 was based on a randomized, blinded, crossover experimental design. Three diets were fed for 8 weeks to 103 healthy men and women aged 22 to 67 years at 4 field centers. Diet A, an average American diet, was designed to provide 37% of energy from fat, 16% of energy from saturated fatty acids (SFAs); diet B (step 1 diet) was designed to provide 30% of energy from fat, 9% of energy from SFA; and diet C (low SFA diet) was designed to provide 26% of energy from fat, 5% of energy from SFA. Key features of diet standardization included central procurement of fat-containing foods, inclusion of standard ingredients, precision weighing of foods--especially sources of fat and cholesterol--and use of standardized written procedures. For menu validation, a set of 12 menus for each diet was prepared in duplicate and chemically assayed. For monitoring of diet composition during the study, an 8-day diet cycle (6 weekday and 2 weekend menus) was sampled by every field center twice during each of 3 feeding periods. Means (+/- standard error) were calculated and compared with target nutrient specifications. DELTA-1 was able to provide a standardized diet that met nutrient specifications across 4 field centers over 24 weeks of participant feeding spanning a total of 8 months. Prestudy chemical validation of menus and continuous sampling and assay of diets throughout the study are essential to standardize experimental diets and to ensure that nutrient target goals are met and maintained throughout a controlled multicenter feeding study.

  7. A feeding education program to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Dévieux, Jessy G; Théodore, Harry; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Antillus, Lynda; Cadot, Ionie; Pape, Jean William; Malow, Robert M

    2009-03-01

    In Haiti, as in most of the developing world, vertical transmission of HIV from infected mother to infant through postpartum breastfeeding remains a significant mode of transmission. As part of their prevention of mother-to-child transmission program, the Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) Centers developed a feeding education program in which over 83% of the HIV-positive pregnant women who were eligible to participate, enrolled. Bivariate and adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to compare feeding choices of the 290 women who participated in the feeding education program to 58 who did not. Of those who participated, 91.7% chose to use replacement formulas for their newborns, while 75.9% of those who did not participate chose replacement feeding. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, analyses revealed that the no education group was less likely to adopt replacement feeding and more likely to use mixed feeding (OR=0.31, p=0.004; and OR=2.74, p=0.05, respectively). This suggests that a targeted and culturally appropriate education program can be effective in encouraging replacement feeding, even in those countries where breastfeeding is the norm.

  8. Waste Receiving and Processing, Module 2A, feed specification: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, O.L.; Sheriff, M.L.

    1994-11-14

    Detailed descriptions of the various mixed low-level waste feed streams that will be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 2A (WRAP 2A) are provided. Feed stream descriptions are based on available reports, the solid waste information tracking system database, and the 1993 solid waste forecast data. Available chemical and physical attributes, radionuclide data, waste codes, and packaging information are shown for 15 feed streams. The information sources and methodology for obtaining projections for WRAP 2A expected feed stream volumes also are described.

  9. Are school feeding programs in low-income settings sustainable? Insights on the costs of school feeding compared with investments in primary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Daryanani, Roshan

    2013-09-01

    School feeding programs are ubiquitous. Benchmarking expenditures for school feeding is an important component of program accountability and sustainability. To analyze the costs of school feeding and the cost relative to education expenditure and other measures of economic growth. Data on the costs of school feeding were collected from multiple sources, including United Nations databases, gray literature, and published reviews. Relationships between costs of school feeding, costs of education, and GDP per capita were analyzed through standard linear regression. Data on costs of school feeding were obtained for 74 countries, including 12 high-income, 40 middle-income, and 22 in low-income countries. School feeding programs were found to cost US$173 per child per year, ranging from US$54 in low-income countries to US$693 in high-income countries. In high-income countries, school feeding costs per capita were on average equivalent to 11% of the per capita investments in primary education, compared with 19% in middle-income countries and 68% in low-income countries. In middle- and low-income countries, school feeding programs covered on average 18% and 13% of the children enrolled in primary school, respectively. The total budget for school feeding in low-income countries was found to be on average 11% of the estimated total primary school education budget, compared to 4% in middle-income countries. School feeding investments are targeted in low- and middle-income settings, reaching only a portion of primary schoolchildren, with total costs only a fraction of the overall investment in education. As countries get richer, school feeding costs become a much smaller proportion of education costs. The findings of this study provide an updated framework for benchmarking school feeding programs.

  10. Development of the high-level waste high-temperature melter feed preparation flowsheet for vitrification process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-02-17

    High-level waste (HLW) feed preparation flowsheet development was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to evaluate alternative flowsheets for preparing melter feed for high-temperature melter (HTM) vitrification testing. Three flowsheets were proposed that might lead to increased processing capacity relative to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and that were flexible enough to use with other HLW melter technologies. This document describes the decision path that led to the selection of flowsheets to be tested in the FY 1994 small-scale HTM tests. Feed preparation flowsheet development for the HLW HTM was based on the feed preparation flowsheet that was developed for the HWVP. This approach allowed the HLW program to build upon the extensive feed preparation flowsheet database developed under the HWVP Project. Primary adjustments to the HWVP flowsheet were to the acid adjustment and glass component additions. Developmental background regarding the individual features of the HLW feed preparation flowsheets is provided. Applicability of the HWVP flowsheet features to the new HLW vitrification mission is discussed. The proposed flowsheets were tested at the laboratory-scale at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Based on the results of this testing and previously established criteria, a reductant-based flowsheet using glycolic acid and a nitric acid-based flowsheet were selected for the FY 1994 small-scale HTM testing.

  11. A dynamic programming model for optimising feeding and slaughter decisions regarding fattening pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Costs of purchasing new piglets and of feeding them until slaughter are the main variable expenditures in pig fattening. They both depend on slaughter intensity, the nature of feeding patterns and the technological constraints of pig fattening, such as genotype. Therefore, it is of interest to examine the effect of production technology and changes in input and output prices on feeding and slaughter decisions. This study examines the problem by using a dynamic programming model that links genetic characteristics of a pig to feeding decisions and the timing of slaughter and takes into account how these jointly affect the quality-adjusted value of a carcass. The state of nature and the genotype of a pig are known in the analysis. The results suggest that producer can benefit from improvements in the pig’s genotype. Animals of improved genotype can reach optimal slaughter maturity quicker and produce leaner meat than animals of poor genotype. In order to fully utilise the benefits of animal breeding, the producer must adjust feeding and slaughter patterns on the basis of genotype. The results also suggest that the producer can benefit from flexible feeding technology. Typically, such a technology provides incentives to feed piglets with protein-rich feed. When the pig approaches slaughter maturity, the share of protein-rich feed in the diet gradually decreases and the amount of energy-rich feed increases. Generally, the optimal slaughter weight is within the weight range that pays the highest price per kilogram of pig meat. The optimal feeding pattern and the optimal timing of slaughter depend on price ratios. Particularly, an increase in the price of pig meat provides incentives to increase the growth rates up to the pig’s biological maximum by increasing the amount of energy in the feed. Price changes and changes in slaughter premium can also have large income effects.;

  12. Molecular pathways associated with the nutritional programming of plant-based diet acceptance in rainbow trout following an early feeding exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Mukundh N; Panserat, Stephane; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Quillet, Edwige; Montfort, Jerome; Le Cam, Aurelie; Medale, Francoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam J; Geurden, Inge

    2016-06-13

    The achievement of sustainable feeding practices in aquaculture by reducing the reliance on wild-captured fish, via replacement of fish-based feed with plant-based feed, is impeded by the poor growth response seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. Our recent strategy to nutritionally program rainbow trout by early short-term exposure to a plant-based (V) diet versus a control fish-based (M) diet at the first-feeding fry stage when the trout fry start to consume exogenous feed, resulted in remarkable improvements in feed intake, growth and feed utilization when the same fish were challenged with the diet V (V-challenge) at the juvenile stage, several months following initial exposure. We employed microarray expression analysis at the first-feeding and juvenile stages to deduce the mechanisms associated with the nutritional programming of plant-based feed acceptance in trout. Transcriptomic analysis was performed on rainbow trout whole fry after 3 weeks exposure to either diet V or diet M at the first feeding stage (3-week), and in the whole brain and liver of juvenile trout after a 25 day V-challenge, using a rainbow trout custom oligonucleotide microarray. Overall, 1787 (3-week + Brain) and 924 (3-week + Liver) mRNA probes were affected by the early-feeding exposure. Gene ontology and pathway analysis of the corresponding genes revealed that nutritional programming affects pathways of sensory perception, synaptic transmission, cognitive processes and neuroendocrine peptides in the brain; whereas in the liver, pathways mediating intermediary metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism, proteolysis, and cytoskeletal regulation of cell cycle are affected. These results suggest that the nutritionally programmed enhanced acceptance of a plant-based feed in rainbow trout is driven by probable acquisition of flavour and feed preferences, and reduced sensitivity to changes in hepatic metabolic and stress pathways. This study outlines the molecular mechanisms

  13. A Mixed Integer Programming Poultry Feed Ration Optimisation Problem Using the Bat Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Chagwiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a feed ration problem is presented as a mixed integer programming problem. An attempt to find the optimal quantities of Moringa oleifera inclusion into the poultry feed ration was done and the problem was solved using the Bat algorithm and the Cplex solver. The study used findings of previous research to investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera inclusion in poultry feed ration. The results show that the farmer is likely to gain US$0.89 more if Moringa oleifera is included in the feed ration. Results also show superiority of the Bat algorithm in terms of execution time and number of iterations required to find the optimum solution as compared with the results obtained by the Cplex solver. Results revealed that there is a significant economic benefit of Moringa oleifera inclusion into the poultry feed ration.

  14. Do In-School Feeding Programs Have an Impact on Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrogue, Cecilia; Orlicki, Maria Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    As Argentina presents problems of malnutrition, the federal in-school feeding program has become a key policy because it provides an important nutritional intervention during a relevant growth period. This paper estimates the effect of the program on academic performance--measured by standardized test scores--with a difference in difference model,…

  15. Background and elements of the linkage between the Brazilian school feeding program and family farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Flavia; Mora, Claudia Andrea Rodriguez; Bogus, Claudia Maria; Villar, Betzabeth Slater

    2017-12-18

    Since 2009, legislation of the National School Feeding Program of Brazil (PNAE) institutionalizes its linkage with family farming as it establishes the requirement that at least 30% out of the total financial resources allocated by the federal government to the states and municipalities for school feeding must be used in the purchase of products directly from this sector. This study analyzes the process of drafting this legislation, focusing on the elements related to the procurement from family farming, through a historical contextualization, and it also presents a graphical representation with the main elements of this linkage: its objectives, target population, actions implemented and expected results. Actors involved with the drafting of the legislation were interviewed. The analyses show that the procurement from family farming is a far-reaching initiative in terms of the concept, execution and results. It has also showed that a strong articulation between the actors and institutions of the different sectors involved is critical to its success. The education, agriculture, planning, procurement and civil society sectors should work articulately at national, state and local level. The results of this study demonstrate that initiatives like this, of institutional procurement from family farming, which are currently being implemented in several countries, constitute as an important strategy of food and nutrition security, for the fulfillment of the human right to adequate food and the promotion of long-term sustainable development.

  16. Government information systems to monitor complementary feeding programs for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferds, Maria Elena D

    2017-10-01

    Accelerating progress to improve complementary feeding of young children is a global priority. Strengthening monitoring through government information systems may increase the quality and implementation of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) programs. Monitoring is necessary for the effective implementation of programs as it allows program managers to assess program performance, identify problems, and take corrective action. Program descriptions and conceptual models explain how program inputs and activities should lead to outputs and outcomes, and ultimately public health impact; thus, they are critical tools when designing effective IYCF programs and monitoring systems as these descriptions and conceptual models form the basis for the program and are key for developing the monitoring system, indicators, and tools. Despite their importance, many programs do not have these documented, nor monitoring plans, limiting their ability to design effective programs and monitoring systems. Once in place, it is important to periodically review the monitoring system to confirm it still appropriately meets stakeholder needs and the data are being used to inform decision-making, and to make program adjustments as the monitoring focus, resources, or capacity may change during the program lifecycle. Including priority indicators of IYCF practices and counseling indicators in the government information systems may strengthen IYCF programs when the indicators are contextualized to the government IYCF program, capacity, and setting, and the indicators are used for decision-making and program improvement. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Effect of feeding methods on the astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma in fed-batch process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilo Gomes Moriel; Miriam Blumel Chociai; Iara Maria Pereira Machado; José Domingos Fontana; Tania Maria Bordin Bonfim

    2005-01-01

    The effect of feeding methods on the production of astaxanthin by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma ATCC 24202 was studied, using continuous and pulsed fed-batch processes and low cost materials as substrates...

  18. 3.1.1.2 Feed Processing and Handling DL2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Wend, Christopher F.

    2006-09-30

    This milestone report is the deliverable for our Feed Processing and Handling project. It includes results of wet biomass feedstock analysis, slurry pumping information, fungal processing to produce a lignin-rich biorefinery residue and two subcontracted efforts to quantify the amount of wet biomass feedstocks currently available within the corn processing and paper processing industries.

  19. A hierarchical Markov decision process modeling feeding and marketing decisions of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourmoayed, Reza; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is the most important cost in the production of growing pigs and has a direct impact on the marketing decisions, growth and the final quality of the meat. In this paper, we address the sequential decision problem of when to change the feed-mix within a finisher pig pen and when to pick pigs...... for marketing. We formulate a hierarchical Markov decision process with three levels representing the decision process. The model considers decisions related to feeding and marketing and finds the optimal decision given the current state of the pen. The state of the system is based on information from on...

  20. Feed-forward transcriptional programming by nuclear receptors: regulatory principles and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Sarah K; Gerber, Anthony N

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are widely targeted to treat a range of human diseases. Feed-forward loops are an ancient mechanism through which single cell organisms organize transcriptional programming and modulate gene expression dynamics, but they have not been systematically studied as a regulatory paradigm for NR-mediated transcriptional responses. Here, we provide an overview of the basic properties of feed-forward loops as predicted by mathematical models and validated experimentally in single cell organisms. We review existing evidence implicating feed-forward loops as important in controlling clinically relevant transcriptional responses to estrogens, progestins, and glucocorticoids, among other NR ligands. We propose that feed-forward transcriptional circuits are a major mechanism through which NRs integrate signals, exert temporal control over gene regulation, and compartmentalize client transcriptomes into discrete subunits. Implications for the design and function of novel selective NR ligands are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  2. Sensory Processing as a Predictor of Feeding/Eating Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerilyn Smith

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD frequently have feeding and eating difficulties as well as unusual responses to sensory stimuli. This can lead to significantly compromised occupational performance. Method: A secondary data analysis study design was used to investigate sensory processing characteristics as predictors of feeding and eating disturbances. Study subjects were children aged 2 to 14 years (N = 171 with ASD. The Short Sensory Profile (SSP was used to determine the child’s sensory processing abilities. Correlational and multiple regression methods were employed to analyze the relationship between sensory processing and feeding and eating behaviors. Results: Results suggest that six out of eight of the sensory domains from the SSP were predictive of eating behaviors. Discussion: This study provides evidence to inform practice regarding the association of sensory processing and eating behaviors and supports the need for assessing sensory processing in children with ASD.

  3. The role of feed-forward and feedback processes for closed-loop prosthesis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Ian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely believed that both feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms are required for successful object manipulation. Open-loop upper-limb prosthesis wearers receive no tactile feedback, which may be the cause of their limited dexterity and compromised grip force control. In this paper we ask whether observed prosthesis control impairments are due to lack of feedback or due to inadequate feed-forward control. Methods Healthy subjects were fitted with a closed-loop robotic hand and instructed to grasp and lift objects of different weights as we recorded trajectories and force profiles. We conducted three experiments under different feed-forward and feed-back configurations to elucidate the role of tactile feedback (i in ideal conditions, (ii under sensory deprivation, and (iii under feed-forward uncertainty. Results (i We found that subjects formed economical grasps in ideal conditions. (ii To our surprise, this ability was preserved even when visual and tactile feedback were removed. (iii When we introduced uncertainty into the hand controller performance degraded significantly in the absence of either visual or tactile feedback. Greatest performance was achieved when both sources of feedback were present. Conclusions We have introduced a novel method to understand the cognitive processes underlying grasping and lifting. We have shown quantitatively that tactile feedback can significantly improve performance in the presence of feed-forward uncertainty. However, our results indicate that feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms serve complementary roles, suggesting that to improve on the state-of-the-art in prosthetic hands we must develop prostheses that empower users to correct for the inevitable uncertainty in their feed-forward control.

  4. Nutrient Potency of Rice Straw Processed with Amofer as Cattle Feed Stuff in East Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Mayulu; Suhardi Suhardi

    2015-01-01

    Forage demand can be supplied from rice straw which processed with certain feed technology innovation. Some advantages can be derived under this technology i.e. increasing nutrient content, optimizing the utilization, improving the efficiency and reducing production cost by minimizing feed cost. Ammoniation fermentation (amofer) as an applied technology could give solution over the limitation of rice straw availability. The objective of this research was to determine the potency of rice straw...

  5. Diesel production from lignocellulosic feed: the bioCRACK process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treusch, K; Ritzberger, J; Schwaiger, N; Pucher, P; Siebenhofer, M

    2017-11-01

    The bioCRACK process is a promising technology for the production of second generation biofuels. During this process, biomass is pyrolized in vacuum gas oil and converted into gaseous, liquid and solid products. In cooperation with the Graz University of Technology, the liquid phase pyrolysis process was investigated by BDI - BioEnergy International AG at an industrial pilot plant, fully integrated in the OMV refinery in Vienna/Schwechat. The influence of various biogenous feedstocks and the influence of the temperature on the product distribution in the temperature range of 350°C to 390°C was studied. It was shown that the temperature has a major impact on the product formation. With rising temperature, the fraction of liquid products, namely liquid CHO-products, reaction water and hydrocarbons, increases and the fraction of biochar decreases. At 390°C, 39.8 wt% of biogenous carbon was transferred into a crude hydrocarbon fractions. The type of lignocellulosic feedstock has a minor impact on the process. The biomass liquefaction concept of the bioCRACK process was in pilot scale compatible with oil refinery processes.

  6. A review of control strategies for manipulating the feed rate in fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of industrial fermentation processes are operated in fed-batch mode. In this case, the rate of feed addition to the system is a focus for optimising the process operation, as it directly impacts metabolic activity, as well as directly affecting the volume dynamics in the system....... This review covers a range of strategies which have been employed to use the feed rate as a manipulated variable in a control strategy. The feed rate is chosen as the focus for this review, as it is seen that this variable may be used towards many different objectives depending on the process of interest......, the characteristics of the strain, or the product being produced, which leads to different drivers for process optimisation. This review summarises the methods, as well as focusing on the different objectives for the controllers, and the choice of measured variables involved in the strategy. The discussion includes...

  7. Simultaneous Sensor and Process Fault Diagnostics for Propellant Feed System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J.; Kwan, C.; Figueroa, F.; Xu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to extract fault features from sensor faults and process faults by using advanced fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithms. A tank system that has some common characteristics to a NASA testbed at Stennis Space Center was used to verify our proposed algorithms. First, a generic tank system was modeled. Second, a mathematical model suitable for FDI has been derived for the tank system. Third, a new and general FDI procedure has been designed to distinguish process faults and sensor faults. Extensive simulations clearly demonstrated the advantages of the new design.

  8. Processing ruminal ingesta to release bacteria attached to feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resultate van latere eksperimente wat in die ana6robe kabinet gedoen is, het getoon dat swak ana6robiose verant- woordelik was vir ten minste sommige van die nadelige uitwerking van die 'Ultra-Turrax' en die 'Stomacher'. Keywords: Ruminal bacteria, ciliate protozoa, processing ruminal ingesta, viable counts.

  9. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean meal as alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and toasting on open fire at 100oC after sundrying. The processed beans were milled to pass through a four mm mesh and used for diet formulation. Six experimental diets were formulated each at brooding and rearing phase, with diet 1 as control, while soybean meal in the control diets were replaced with the horse eye ...

  10. Processing ruminal ingesta to release bacteria attached to feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a stream of anaerobic gas and counts were made using the roll tube technique. Later, processing was done in ... ana6robe gas gedoen en tellings is in rolbuise gedoen. Later is die behandelings in 'n ana6robe kabinet ... samples of ruminal ingesta were obtained by mixing the con- tents of the rumen and reticulum in situ by ...

  11. Waste Feed Delivery Purex Process Connector Design Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRACKENBURY, P.J.

    2000-04-11

    The pressure retaining capability of the PUREX process connector is documented. A context is provided for the connector's current use within existing Projects. Previous testing and structural analyses campaigns are outlined. The deficient condition of the current inventory of connectors and assembly wrenches is highlighted. A brief history of the connector is provided. A bibliography of pertinent references is included.

  12. The Performance and Incidence of Ascites in Broiler Chickens in Response to Feed Restriction and Meal Feeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Dastar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction (FR and meal feeding (MF on performance, carcass characteristics and related parameters to ascites in Ross 308 male broiler chickens. Five dietary treatments were 1 the control (ad libo. feeding, 2 feed restriction from 7 to 14 days (FR14, 3 feed restriction from 7 to 21 days (FR21, 4 meal feeding from 7 to 14 days (MF14 and 5 meal feeding from 7 to 21days (MF21. All birds were fed adlibitum for the first week post hatch and after 21 days of age. Four replicate of 12 birds were allocated to each treatment. The results indicated FR and MF21 groups had significantly (p

  13. Engineered maize as a source of astaxanthin: processing and application as fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, Jürgen; Nogueira, Marilise; Farré, Gemma; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Fleck, Gunther; Focken, Ulfert; Fraser, Paul D; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    Astaxanthin from a transgenic maize line was evaluated as feed supplement source conferring effective pigmentation of rainbow trout flesh. An extraction procedure using ethanol together with the addition of vegetal oil was established. This resulted in an oily astaxanthin preparation which was not sufficiently concentrated for direct application to the feed. Therefore, a concentration process involving multiple phase partitioning steps was implemented to remove 90 % of the oil. The resulting astaxanthin raw material contained non-esterified astaxanthin with 12 % 4-keto zeaxanthin and 2 % zeaxanthin as additional carotenoids. Isomeric analysis confirmed the exclusive presence of the 3S, 3'S astaxanthin enantiomer. The geometrical isomers were 89 % all-E, 8 % 13-Z and 3 % 9-Z. The incorporation of the oily astaxanthin preparation into trout feed was performed to deliver 7 mg/kg astaxanthin in the final feed formulation for the first 3.5 weeks and 72 mg/kg for the final 3.5 weeks of the feeding trial. The resulting pigmentation of the trout fillets was determined by hue values with a colour meter and further confirmed by astaxanthin quantification. Pigmentation properties of the maize-produced natural astaxanthin incorporated to 3.5 µg/g dw in the trout fillet resembles that of chemically synthesized astaxanthin. By comparing the relative carotenoid compositions in feed, flesh and feces, a preferential uptake of zeaxanthin and 4-keto zeaxanthin over astaxanthin was observed.

  14. FEATURES OF APPLE POMACE PROCESSING IN THE PRODUCTION OF FEED FOR HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. YEGOROV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the overall situation of horse breeding in Ukraine and dynamics of the problem of reducing herd of horses. Also considered distribution of population of horses on farms of different ownership structure and the production of feed for farm animals, including horses.Have been analyzed apple production in Ukraine, which shows the trend growth. Processing apples is to obtain basic products and obtaining by-products.The possibility of using apple pomace as a component of animal feed. In the laboratory investigation of physical properties, chemical composition and microbiological parameters of fresh apple pomace. Apple pomace rich in nitrogen free extract and essential amino acids, vitamins and mineral elements. Apple pomace is not stable in storage and perishable, so the dynamics of microflora and shelf life of fresh apple pomace.The choice of barley for the production of feed additives. Presented phased scheme of the feed additive by extruding a mixture of crushed barley and crushed apple pomace. Based on experimental studies proved the ratio components extruded feed additive (EFA. To determine the optimum ratio of the components of feed additive the influence of introduction of apple pomace on the efficiency of extrusion on quality and energy-power parameters such as the coefficient of expansion of the extrudate and specific power consumption. The influence of extrusion to change the physical properties EFA. In addition, investigated changing the chemical composition EFA In samples of feed additive was determined degree of swelling that characterizes the efficiency of nutrient absorption animals.Investigated influence of extrusion the change quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora in grain barley and fresh apple pomace feed additive before and after extrusion. Also investigated the dynamics of the microflora EQW within 6 months of storage in uncontrolled conditions.

  15. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  16. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  17. The persistence of Salmonella following desiccation under feed processing environmental conditions: a subject of relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habimana, O; Nesse, L L; Møretrø, T; Berg, K; Heir, E; Vestby, L K; Langsrud, S

    2014-11-01

    Although Salmonella persistence has been predominantly linked to biofilm formation, the physiological state of Salmonella should also be considered as a possible pathway for persistence and survival in the feed industry. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the extent of viability of Salmonella cells through long-term desiccation periods under conditions typically found in feed processing environments, and whether these same cells could resuscitate and cause salmonellosis in vivo. We showed that upon desiccation, Salmonella Agona, a representative feed industry isolate and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, a laboratory strain, were induced into a nonculturable state at 35 and 85% relative humidity conditions, at defined temperatures of 30 and 12°C, respectively. Although the reduction in culturable cells was more than 6 log10 , metabolic activity was found in more than 1% of the population. Desiccation-induced nonculturable Salm. Typhimurium could not be revived and were nonvirulent in a mouse model following infection through oral gavage. These results suggest that the specific conditions for reviving nonculturable Salmonella after long periods of desiccation are yet to be fully identified. The need for mapping key factors involved in the persistence of Salmonella would help better detect it and improve feed safety measures. While Salmonella has been shown to persist for years in feed processing environments, it is still unknown how temperature and humidity affect the persistence of Salmonella cells over time in terms of their metabolic states and cultivability. Here, we show that long-term exposure to feed processing environmental conditions induces Salmonella into a nonculturable state even though about 1% of the population remains metabolically active. This has significant implications when monitoring Salmonella from the environment which could yield false-negative results using conventional pre-enrichment detection methods. © 2014 The Society

  18. Enhancing the growth performance of replacement female breeder goats through modification of feeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. A. Ghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at a smallholder goat farm located in Labu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of proper feeding program on growth performances of replacement breeder goats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy female boer cross goats at the age of 4 months old with average initial live body weight (BW of 20.05±0.5 kg were used for on-farm feeding trial to evaluate the growth performance as preparation for breeding purposes. The experimental goats were divided into two groups of 15 animals each labeled as control and treatment groups, which were kept under intensive farming system. Goats in control group were fed with normal routine feeding protocol practiced by the farmer, while goats in the treatment group were fed with new feed formulation. Throughout the experimental period, on-farm monitoring and data collection were carried out. Initial BW and body condition score (BCS were recorded before the start of the experiment while final BW and BCS were gained after 7 months of the experimental period. Average daily gain (ADG was calculated after the experiment end. Data on BW, ADG, and BCS were recorded from both groups for every 2 weeks and reported monthly. The feed intake for the control group was 2.8 kg/animal/day which practiced by the farmer and 3.2 kg/animal/day as new feed formulation for the treatment group. Results: After 7 months of the experimental period, final BW shows an improvement in treatment group (39.1±1.53 kg compared with control group (32.3±1.23 kg. The ADG in treatment group also gives promising result when comparing with control group. Goats in treatment group significantly attained better ADG than control group which were 126.7 g/day and 83.3 g/day, respectively. For the BCS, goats in the treatment group had shown an improvement where 86.67% (13 out of 15 of the group had BCS =3 (1-5 scoring scale and only 66.67% (10 out of 15 of the control group had

  19. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  20. A Review Of Nutritional Guidelines And Menu Compositions For School Feeding Programs In 12 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzky eAliyar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study objectives: To analyze the nutritional guidelines and menu compositions of school meal provision in various different countries.Background: School feeding is the provision of food on-site or to take home, which aims to increase school enrolment, attendance and retention, and exist as a social safety net for households with very low income. Home-grown school feeding (HGSF, additionally, aims to stimulate local economies by providing a source of income for local smallholder farmers. Methods: Literature searches using the Ovid MEDLINE databases, gathered information from in-country stakeholders, and accessed the programme websites of various countries. Nutrient composition of these menus was calculated from nutritional guidelines and menu compositions using a nutrition linear programming tool (NUTVAL.Country comparisons: School feeding aims differ between countries of each income group. The implementation, delivery of service and nutritional content of foods also differ considerably between countries and income groups. In high-income countries, guidelines and standards have been recommended in an attempt to combat rising levels of overweight and obesity, and to model healthier lifestyle habits. In low-income countries there is a gap in terms of guidance on nutrition standards and menu composition.Conclusions: Provision of evidence-based guidance on nutrition standards to middle and low income countries who have recently established or are planning to establish school feeding has the potential to greatly enhance and improve the quality of service and improve the life of millions of children worldwide.

  1. Control tools to detect processed animal proteins in feed and in animal by-products: specificity and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodgate SL.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper reviews the current situation with regard to a total feed ban on the use of processed animal proteins in feed for meat producing animals within the EU. The scientific aspects surrounding the development of control tools are discussed. In particular, focus is given to methods for marking those materials prohibited in animal feeds and for the determination of species specificity in those proteins that are potentially allowed in animal feeds. The overall objective is that the advancements in science are utilized to achieve a partial relaxation of the total feed ban in the near future.

  2. A volunteer feeding assistance program can improve dietary intakes of elderly patients--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Karen; Williams, Peter; Bracks, Julie; Zhang, Qingsheng; Pond, Leanne; Smoothy, Rebecca; Tapsell, Linda; Batterham, Marijka; Vari, Linda

    2008-09-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in elderly hospitalized patients and has been associated with longer lengths of stay (LOS), higher rates of complications and increased hospital costs. Feeding assistance has traditionally been the role of nurses, however with an ageing population and an ever-increasing workload there may not be sufficient time to ensure the nutritional care of all patients. A program in which trained volunteers assist, socialize and feed nutritionally vulnerable patients at lunch on weekdays has been initiated in a major suburban hospital in Sydney. The pilot study reported here aimed to evaluate the lunchtime assistance program in terms of dietary intakes by comparing data from weekdays (with volunteers) and that from weekends (no volunteers). Nine patients (mean age+/-S.D.: 89+/-4.6 years) participated in the study. Observations and weighed plate waste were recorded for each patient at lunch on two weekdays and the following two weekend days. When volunteers were present, the average protein intake increased by 10.1g at lunch (pnurses, socialized more with patients, encouraged them to eat more often and spent more time feeding them. Trialing volunteer assistance in a larger study would be useful.

  3. Comparison of Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing of Swine Feed and the Use of Selected Feed Additives on Inactivation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela P Trudeau

    Full Text Available Infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV causes diarrhea, vomiting, and high mortality in suckling pigs. Contaminated feed has been suggested as a vehicle of transmission for PEDV. The objective of this study was to compare thermal and electron beam processing, and the inclusion of feed additives on the inactivation of PEDV in feed. Feed samples were spiked with PEDV and then heated to 120-145°C for up to 30 min or irradiated at 0-50 kGy. Another set of feed samples spiked with PEDV and mixed with Ultracid P (Nutriad, Activate DA (Novus International, KEM-GEST (Kemin Agrifood, Acid Booster (Agri-Nutrition, sugar or salt was incubated at room temperature (~25°C for up to 21 days. At the end of incubation, the virus titers were determined by inoculation of Vero-81 cells and the virus inactivation kinetics were modeled using the Weibull distribution model. The Weibull kinetic parameter delta represented the time or eBeam dose required to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. For thermal processing, delta values ranged from 16.52 min at 120°C to 1.30 min at 145°C. For eBeam processing, a target dose of 50 kGy reduced PEDV concentration by 3 log. All additives tested were effective in reducing the survival of PEDV when compared with the control sample (delta = 17.23 days. Activate DA (0.81 and KEM-GEST (3.28 produced the fastest inactivation. In conclusion, heating swine feed at temperatures over 130°C or eBeam processing of feed with a dose over 50 kGy are effective processing steps to reduce PEDV survival. Additionally, the inclusion of selected additives can decrease PEDV survivability.

  4. Maintaining a Twitter Feed to Advance an Internal Medicine Residency Program's Educational Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergl, Paul A; Narang, Akhil; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-07-10

    Residency programs face many challenges in educating learners. The millennial generation's learning preferences also force us to reconsider how to reach physicians in training. Social media is emerging as a viable tool for advancing curricula in graduate medical education. The authors sought to understand how social media enhances a residency program's educational mission. While chief residents in the 2013-2014 academic year, two of the authors (PB, AN) maintained a Twitter feed for their academic internal medicine residency program. Participants included the chief residents and categorical internal medicine house staff. At the year's end, the authors surveyed residents about uses and attitudes toward this initiative. Residents generally found the chief residents' tweets informative, and most residents (42/61, 69%) agreed that Twitter enhanced their overall education in residency. Data from this single-site intervention corroborate that Twitter can strengthen a residency program's educational mission. The program's robust following on Twitter outside of the home program also suggests a need for wider adoption of social media in graduate medical education. Improved use of data analytics and dissemination of these practices to other programs would lend additional insight into social media's role in improving residents' educational experiences.

  5. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  6. Process-based models of feeding and prey selection in larval fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiksen, O.; MacKenzie, Brian

    2002-01-01

    believed to be important to prey selectivity and environmental regulation of feeding in fish. We include the sensitivity of prey to the hydrodynamic signal generated by approaching larval fish and a simple model of the potential loss of prey due to turbulence whereby prey is lost if it leaves......Feeding success is essential to larval fish survival. We present detailed mechanistic models of the foraging processes (prey encounter, approach, pursuit, and capture) in larval fish, where all parameters have explicit physical or biological meaning. The model is a unification of the processes...... jig dry wt l(-1). The spatio-temporal fluctuation of turbulence (tidal cycle) and light (sun height) over the bank generates complex structure in the patterns of food intake of larval fish, with different patterns emerging for small and large larvae....

  7. Adsorption process to recover hydrogen from feed gas mixtures having low hydrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Novosat, Paul Anthony

    2010-04-13

    A process for selectively separating hydrogen from at least one more strongly adsorbable component in a plurality of adsorption beds to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas from a low hydrogen concentration feed with a high recovery rate. Each of the plurality of adsorption beds subjected to a repetitive cycle. The process comprises an adsorption step for producing the hydrogen-rich product from a feed gas mixture comprising 5% to 50% hydrogen, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas withdrawal steps, a provide purge step resulting in a first pressure decrease, a blowdown step resulting in a second pressure decrease, a purge step, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas introduction steps, and a repressurization step. The second pressure decrease is at least 2 times greater than the first pressure decrease.

  8. School feeding programs in developing countries: impacts on children's health and educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis H; McDonnell, Elaine; Probart, Claudia

    2011-02-01

    School feeding programs (SFPs) are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and transfer income to families. The present review explores the impact of SFPs on nutritional, health, and educational outcomes of school-aged children in developing countries. Peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews published in the past 20 years were identified and screened for inclusion. Analysis of the articles revealed relatively consistent positive effects of school feeding in its different modalities on energy intake, micronutrient status, school enrollment, and attendance of the children participating in SFPs compared to non-participants. However, the positive impact of school feeding on growth, cognition, and academic achievement of school-aged children receiving SFPs compared to non-school-fed children was less conclusive. This review identifies research gaps and challenges that need to be addressed in the design and implementation of SFPs and calls for theory-based impact evaluations to strengthen the scientific evidence behind designing, funding, and implementing SFPs. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  9. Fetal and neonatal programming of postnatal growth and feed efficiency in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Ju; Wang, Binggen; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic regulation of protein expression and functions include chromatin remodeling; DNA methylation (occurring at the 5´-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides); and histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination). Like maternal malnutrition, undernutrition during the neonatal period also reduces growth performance and feed efficiency (weight gain:feed intake; also known as weight-gain efficiency) in postweaning pigs by 5-10%, thereby increasing the days necessary to reach the market body-weight. Supplementing functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) and vitamins (e.g., folate) play a key role in activating the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and regulating the provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients are beneficial for the dietary treatment of metabolic disorders in offspring with intrauterine growth restriction or neonatal malnutrition. The mechanism-based strategies hold great promise for the improvement of the efficiency of pork production and the sustainability of the global swine industry.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz; Marcelo Wladimir Alonzo; Manuel Delgado Pertíñez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1) grazing based systems (Los Lagos region); and 2) housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR) diets (Los...

  11. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  12. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  13. Process-aware web programming with Jolie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, F.

    2016-01-01

    We extend the Jolie programming language to capture the native modelling of process-aware web information systems, i.e., web information systems based upon the execution of business processes. Our main contribution is to offer a unifying approach for the programming of distributed architectures...... on the web, which can capture web servers, stateful process execution, and the composition of services via mediation. We discuss applications of this approach through a series of examples that cover, e.g., static content serving, multiparty sessions, and the evolution of web systems. Finally, we present...... a performance evaluation that includes a comparison of Jolie-based web systems to other frameworks and a measurement of its scalability. © 2016 Elsevier B.V....

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 1, Base program activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstrate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process development, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, and development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this objective, novel analytical methods were evaluated for application to direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL teamed with 24 research groups in the program. Well-defined and characterized samples of coal liquefaction process-derived materials were provided to each group. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  15. Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Darwent, Kirsty; Craig, Leone C A

    2013-05-16

    Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of

  16. Model of Transient Process Where Three-Phase Transducer Feeds Induction Motor Equivalent as a Variable Active-Inductive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach in the analysis of a transient state in a system where the feeding source is a transducer-IGBT inverter and load is introduced through the induction motor with its R-L parameters. Induction motors with different parameters of powers and power factors are tested. MATLAB simulation of the three-phase inverter that feeds the induction machine has replaced the missing lab equipment with which mathematical model of this system was verified. According to the selected parameters of the inverter and induction machine and through the simulation in the MATLAB program, the results are obtained in the form of diagrams that verify the model of a transient state of the induction machine operation when it operates as a motor which is presented as a variable R-L load. The transient process of the system three-phase bridge inverter whose active-inductive load is the induction machine in the conditions of the change of the load parameters is analyzed. The model of the transient process in the system formed by the inverter in PWM (Pulse Width Modulation converter and induction machine is developed in the time domain and phase coordinates.

  17. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products.

  18. A non-permselective membrane reactor for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, H.J.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1990-01-01

    A novel type of membrane reactor with separated feeding of the reactants is presented for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of premixed reactants. The reactants are fed in the reactor to the different sides of a porous membrane which is impregnated with a

  19. Low-level blast raises intracranial pressure and impairs cognitive function in rats: prophylaxis with processed cereal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säljö, Annette; Bolouri, Hayde; Mayorga, Maria; Svensson, Berndt; Hamberger, Anders

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that even low levels of blast cause brain injury, but little is known about their thresholds and mechanisms. Exposure of rats to 10-60 kPa blasts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) in a dose-dependent manner and impair cognitive function. We have evaluated a prophylactic measure against these brain injuries in a rat animal model, consisting of feeding them processed cereal. This type of feed is known to ameliorate disturbances in secretion of body fluids and to have anti-inflammatory effects. In humans, intake of processed cereals is effective against intestinal diarrhea and also reduces the symptoms of Ménière's disease. Rats were given either standard laboratory feed or processed cereal feed for 2 weeks before exposure to blast in a shock tube. The ICP was monitored at different time points up to 1 week after exposure to a 60-kPa blast, and for up to 24 h after exposure to a 30-kPa blast. Maximal ICP elevation was reached at 10 h in both groups. In the group of rats on standard feed exposed to 60 kPa, an ICP increase of 145% was noted at 10 h, and the corresponding increase in the rats fed processed cereal feed was only 50%. In rats exposed to a 30-kPa blast, those fed standard feed and processed cereal feed demonstrated increases of ICP of 80% and 40%, respectively. Cognitive function as measured by the Morris water maze was assessed in other groups of rats at 2 days after exposure to 10- or 30-kPa blasts. Their performance was significantly impaired at both exposure levels in rats on standard feed, but no functional impairment was seen in rats fed processed cereal feed.

  20. Processing images with programming language Halide

    OpenAIRE

    DUKIČ, ROK

    2017-01-01

    The thesis contains a presentation of a recently created programming language Halide and its comparison to an already established image processing library OpenCV. We compare the execution times of the implementations with the same functionality and their length (in terms of number of lines). The implementations consist of morphological operations and template matching. Operations are implemented in four versions. The first version is made in C++ and only uses OpenCV’s objects. The second ...

  1. School Feeding Analysis in the context of a Food and Nutrition Program - doi:10.5020/18061230.2006.p164

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of standards related to school feeding makes it a complex topic and difficult to lead with. This research aimed at reflecting on the essential aspects of the subject, in a bibliographical revision of global proposal that was based on what the term “program” represents. The School Feeding Program means a combination of projects addressed to bring meals to keep students nourished, independent of their condition. This concept implies that all School Feeding Program should consist of three stages: design, carrying out and evaluation. The design includes important controversial aspects, related to school feeding, such as: the program objectives, their relationship with starvation, malnutrition and school failure; and the distinction of treating this matter from the perspective of breeding right. There are significant differences among experiences in running School Feeding Programs in developed and in developing countries, as well as within the last ones. The evaluation stage usually is not well designed or it is not considered. This stage is really important and it is addressed to determine if the outcomes are corresponding to planned objectives. In order to complete a useful evaluation stage, the use of proper indicators is a main point. Finally, a whole analysis of the Program is carried out in order to obtain unquestionable results. The School Feeding Program is discussed as a Public Policy, into the context of Food Security and the other complementary activities included in it. The proposed view considers school feeding as a right that must be satisfied in the implementation of organized projects.

  2. Effect of feeding processed sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L moench crushed residue based complete ration on growth performance and feeding behavior of murrah buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramana Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study is to know the effect of feeding processed sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L moench crushed residue (SSCR based complete ration on growth, feeding behavior and cost of gain in Murrah buffalo calves in order to compare the feeding value of SSCR with sorghum straw (SS and also find out the efficient way of utilization of SSCR in the diets of growing buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: Experimental complete rations were formulated with SSCR and concentrate in 50:50 ratio and processed in to SSCR chopped and concentrate (SSCRC, mash (SSCRM and expander extruder pellets (SSCRP. The control ration was SS based complete feed processed in to mash (SSM. 24 Murrah buffalo calves (Average 137 kg body weight and aged 1 year 2 months were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design and the experimental rations were offered to 4 groups randomly for a period of 150 days. A 7 day digestion trial was conducted at the end of 150 day growth trial to find out the nutrient digestibility of experimental rations. Eating and ruminating activities were noted every 5 minutes, and each activity was assumed to persist for the entire 5 minutes. Sorting behavior in the calves was observed physically at the time of feeding. The cost of the rations was calculated on the basis of processing cost and the prevailing market prices of the feed ingredients. Results: The DM intake (g/d, digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein and nitrogen free extract and nitrogen (N balance were higher (P<0.05 in buffalo calves fed SSCRP ration but, comparable among SSCRC, SSCRM and SSM rations. Higher (P<0.01 average daily gain (g, lower feed conversion ratio (FCR was observed in calves fed SSCRP ration, while comparable among SSCRC, SSCRM and SSM rations. Eating, rumination and total chewing time (minutes/d,minutes/kg DMI and minutes/kg NDFI and number of chews for eating, rumination

  3. Comparative assessment of the food purchase program and the national school feeding program's impact in Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Leandro Gomes de; Batalha, Mário Otávio; Pettan, Kleber Batista

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Food Purchase Program (PAA) and the National School Feeding Program (PNAE) are the main trading programs of Brazil that promote a connection between the family farm and institutional markets. The case study portrayed in this article aimed to evaluate and compare the socioeconomic impacts generated by the PAA and PNAE among Ubá's family farmers in Minas Gerais. To do this, two tipes of questionnaires were applied to managers and farmers who participate in the programs and obtaine...

  4. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume contains appendixes on pump design, cavitation damage, performance testing, hydraulics, two-phase flow in pumps, flow stability, and rotor dynamics.

  5. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  6. A Feeding Strategy in Inner L-Shape Ring Hot Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the inner L-shape ring polling process with a closed die structure (ILRRCDS on the top and bottom of the driven roll stable, at first, this paper established the mathematical model for ILRRCDS. Then, the plastic penetration and biting-in conditions for ILRRCDS were deduced based on plain ring rolling theory. Moreover, a feeding strategy that can realize a constant growth of the ring’s outer radius was proposed and the reasonable value ranges of the feed rate of the mandrel were determined. The numerical simulation model for ILRRCDS is established based on ABAQUS software. Finally, the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ and temperature distributions of rolled ring were obtained. The results indicated that the proposed feeding strategy can realize a stable ILRRCDS. At the end of ILRRCDS, the PEEQ at the inner radius surface of the ring is maximum, the PEEQ at the outer radius surface of the ring takes the second place, and the PEEQ at the middle part of ring is minimum. With the increase of rolling time, the higher temperature zone of the rolled ring gradually moves from the center part of the ring to the “inner corner zone” of the ring.

  7. Performing in-feed type centerless grinding process on a surface grinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Wu, Y.; Sato, T.; Lin, W.

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study, a new centerless grinding method using surface grinder was proposed. In this method, centerless grinding operations are performed by installing a compact centerless grinding unit, consisting mainly of an ultrasonic elliptic-vibration shoe, a blade and their respective holders, on the worktable of a surface grinder. During grinding, the cylindrical workpiece is held on the ultrasonic shoe and the blade, and its rotational motion is controlled by the elliptic motion of the shoe end-face. An actual unit had been produced and its performance in tangential-feed type centerless grinding using a surface grinder had been confirmed in the previous workd. In this paper, the performance of the grinding unit in in-feed centerless grinding operation was confirmed, and the effects of the main process parameter, i.e., eccentric angle, on the workpiece roundness was investigated experimentally. The obtained results showed that: (1) the centerless grinding unit performed well in in-feed type centerless grinding; (2) the eccentric angle affects roundness significantly, and its optimal angle is 6°; (3) the workpiece roundness can be further improved by varying the eccentric angle during grinding, and the final roundness reached 0.65 μm after grinding as the eccentric angle varied from 9° to 6° and to 3°.

  8. New benchmarks for costs and cost-efficiency of school-based feeding programs in food-insecure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Cavallero, Andrea; Minervini, Licia; Mirabile, Mariana; Molinas, Luca; de la Mothe, Marc Regnault

    2011-12-01

    School feeding is a popular intervention that has been used to support the education, health and nutrition of school children. Although the benefits of school feeding are well documented, the evidence on the costs of such programs is remarkably thin. Address the need for systematic estimates of the cost of different school feeding modalities, and of the determinants of the considerable cost variation among countries. WFP project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected for 78 projects in 62 countries through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The standardized yearly average school feeding cost per child, not including school-level costs, was US$48. The yearly costs per child were lowest at US$23 for biscuit programs reaching school-going children and highest at US$75 for take-home rations programs reaching families of schoolgoing children. The average cost of programs combining on-site meals with extra take-home rations for children from vulnerable households was US$61. Commodity costs were on average 58% of total costs and were highest for biscuit and take-home rations programs (71% and 68%, respectively). Fortified biscuits provided the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery, whereas take-home rations were more cost-efficient in terms of food quantities delivered. Both costs and effects should be considered carefully when designing school feeding interventions. The average costs of school feeding estimated here are higher than those found in earlier studies but fall within the range of costs previously reported. Because this analysis does not include school-level costs, these

  9. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing.

  10. [Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in children assisted by interdisciplinary program on breast feeding promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascoza, Karina Camilo; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Costa Júnior, Aderson Luiz; Moraes, Antônio Bento Alves de

    2011-10-01

    To identify variables potentially related with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in children assisted by interdisciplinary program on breast feeding promotion. Data were collected by a longitudinal study with 111 mothers who breastfeed their children until six months of age. Univariate analyses were used to assess factors associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment, and also multiple regression analyses. The mothers were divided in two groups: 57 mothers breastfeed, exclusively, their children until six months of age and 54 mothers introduced other kinds of food before this age. The following variables were found to be factors associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: pacifier use (OR 4,65; IC95% 1,66-12,99), social and economic high level (OR 11,46; IC95% 3,09-42,37) and mother's work (OR 2,44; IC95% 0,91-5,62). Pacifier use, social and economic high level and mother's work are associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment.

  11. Decline in lung function related to exposure and selection processes among workers in the grain processing and animal feed industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, W.; Heederik, D.; Houba, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To follow up workers in the grain processing and animal feed industry five years after an initial survey, and to monitor exposures to organic dust and endotoxin and changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function. METHODS: Outcome measures in the present survey were decline in lung function over five years, rapid annual decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) above 90 ml.s-1, and loss to follow up. RESULTS: Among 140 workers included in the longitudinal analysis, annual decline in FEV1 and maximal mid- expiratory flow (MMEF) were significantly related to occupational exposure to dust and endotoxin in the grain processing and animal feed industry. Assuming a cumulative exposure over a working life of 40 years with an exposure of 5 mg.m-3, the estimated effect on the FEV1 would be a decline of 157 ml.s-1 (95% CI 13 to 300)--that is, about 4% of the group mean FEV1 and 473 ml.s-1 (95% CI 127 to 800) of the MMEF (about 12%). Workers with a dust exposure > 4 mg.m-3 or endotoxin concentrations > 20 ng.m-3 at the 1986-8 survey had significantly higher risk of rapid decline in FEV1 (odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% CI 1.02 to 10.3). The relations between occupational exposure and decline in lung function in this study occurred, despite the selection through the healthy worker effect that occurred as well. Increasing working years was related to decreasing annual decline in FEV1 and fewer people with rapid decline in FEV1 (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0 to 0.61 for over 20 v animal feed industry). The presence of respiratory symptoms at baseline was a strong predictor of subsequent loss to follow up. Baseline lung function was not found to be predictive of subsequent loss to follow up. However, among workers lost to follow up the number of working years was more strongly negatively related to baseline lung function than among the workers who were studied longitudinally. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of the healthy worker effect implies that an exposure

  12. Non-governmental organization facilitation of a community-based nutrition and health program: Effect on program exposure and associated infant feeding practices in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veena; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Dreyfuss, Michele L; Kiran, Usha; Chaudhery, Deepika N; Srivastava, Vinod K; Ahuja, Ramesh C; Baqui, Abdullah H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Santosham, Mathuram; West, Keith P

    2017-01-01

    Integrated nutrition and health programs seek to reduce undernutrition by educating child caregivers about infant feeding and care. Data on the quality of program implementation and consequent effects on infant feeding practices are limited. This study evaluated the effectiveness of enhancing a nutrition and health program on breastfeeding and complementary-feeding practices in rural India. Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, one of the implementing districts of a Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) nutrition and health program was randomly selected for enhanced services and compared with a district receiving the Government of India's standard nutrition and health package alone. A cohort of 942 mother-child dyads was longitudinally followed from birth to 18 months. In both districts, the evaluation focused on responses to services delivered by community-based nutrition and health care providers [anganwadi workers (AWWs) and auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs)]. The CARE enhanced program district showed an improvement in program coverage indicators (e.g., contacts, advice) through outreach visits by both AWWs (28.8-59.8% vs. 0.7-12.4%; all phealth care provider (OR: 2.04-3.08, p = health intervention package improved program exposure and associated breastfeeding but not complementary-feeding practices, compared to standard government package. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00198835.

  13. Peptidomic Approach to Developing ELISAs for the Determination of Bovine and Porcine Processed Animal Proteins in Feed for Farmed Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Anne-Catherine; Charlier, Caroline; Deckers, Elise; Marbaix, Hélène; Raes, Martine; Mauro, Sergio; Delahaut, Philippe; Gillard, Nathalie

    2016-11-30

    The European Commission (EC) wants to reintroduce nonruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) safely into the feed chain. This would involve replacing the current ban in feed with a species-to-species ban which, in the case of nonruminants, would only prohibit feeding them with proteins from the same species. To enforce such a provision, there is an urgent need for species-specific methods for detecting PAPs from several species in animal feed and in PAPs from other species. Currently, optical microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction are the officially accepted methods, but they have limitations, and alternative methods are needed. We have developed immunoassays using antibodies raised against targets which are not influenced by high temperature and pressure. These targets were identified in a previous study based on an experimental approach. One optimized competitive ELISA detects bovine PAPs at 2% in plant-derived feed. The detection capability demonstrated on blind samples shows a good correlation with mass spectrometry results.

  14. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-10-23

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H. Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes. PMID:26497462

  16. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Real time monitoring of powder blend bulk density for coupled feed-forward/feed-back control of a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Román-Ospino, Andrés D; Romañach, Rodolfo J; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2015-11-10

    The pharmaceutical industry is strictly regulated, where precise and accurate control of the end product quality is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the drug products. For such control, the process and raw materials variability ideally need to be fed-forward in real time into an automatic control system so that a proactive action can be taken before it can affect the end product quality. Variations in raw material properties (e.g., particle size), feeder hopper level, amount of lubrication, milling and blending action, applied shear in different processing stages can affect the blend density significantly and thereby tablet weight, hardness and dissolution. Therefore, real time monitoring of powder bulk density variability and its incorporation into the automatic control system so that its effect can be mitigated proactively and efficiently is highly desired. However, real time monitoring of powder bulk density is still a challenging task because of different level of complexities. In this work, powder bulk density which has a significant effect on the critical quality attributes (CQA's) has been monitored in real time in a pilot-plant facility, using a NIR sensor. The sensitivity of the powder bulk density on critical process parameters (CPP's) and CQA's has been analyzed and thereby feed-forward controller has been designed. The measured signal can be used for feed-forward control so that the corrective actions on the density variations can be taken before they can influence the product quality. The coupled feed-forward/feed-back control system demonstrates improved control performance and improvements in the final product quality in the presence of process and raw material variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Baseline evaluation of nutritional status and government feeding programs in Chiclayo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rainer; Lechtig, Aarón; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Because of the rapid growth of the urban population in Peru, food and nutrition insecurity will occur increasingly in this population. For appropriate policy setting and programming, the food and nutrition situation of the urban poor requires better understanding. To gain information about the nature, magnitude, severity, and causes of the nutritional problems of the population in low-income areas of the city of Chiclayo, Peru. A cross-sectional nutrition survey was conducted in 1,604 households, covering children under 5 years of age and their parents. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, overweight. and anemia in children were 15.4%, 1.3%, 4.6%, and 65.7%, respectively; one third of adults were overweight, and one tenth were obese; 2.1% of the mothers were underweight; and 34.3% of mothers and 12.2% of fathers had anemia. Governmental feeding programs did not address these problems adequately. Interventions must have adequate targeting; address appropriate responses at the household, community, and national levels; and reduce stunting, obesity, and iron-deficiency anemia.

  19. Safety, feasibility, and tolerance of early oral feeding after colorectal resection outside an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Luca; Nespoli, Luca; Torselli, Laura; Panelli, Mariarita; Nespoli, Angelo

    2011-06-01

    It is generally believed that resumption of feeding after colorectal resection is indicated only after recovery of bowel function. This study was designed to verify safety, feasibility, and tolerance of early oral postoperative feeding (EOF) outside an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program. One hundred patient candidates to elective colorectal resection were prospectively enrolled in an EOF program. Feeding was started on postoperative day (POD) 1 with oral nutritional supplement (ONS). On POD 2, patients had normal food plus ONS to reach 1,000-1,200 kcal/day with progressive increase until 1,800-2,000 kcal/day. Results were compared with historical controls (n = 100) in whom oral feeding was allowed only after full bowel function recovery. The ERAS program was not applied in both groups. The EOF group had a better recovery of short half-life protein synthesis compared with the control group (P days (range, 1-6 days) in the EOF group versus 5 days (range, 2-8 days) in the control group (P = 0.001). The feeding protocol was completed in 89 patients within POD 5. Tolerance to resumption of feeding was similar in the two groups. The overall rate of postoperative complication was 22% in the EOF group vs. 27% in the control group (P = 0.51). The median length of hospitalization was 9 days (range, 6-25 days) in the EOF group vs. 12 days (range, 6-31 days) in controls (P = 0.01). EOF after colorectal operations is feasible and safe outside an ERAS program.

  20. Influence of processing on the feeding value of oats for feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, R A

    1993-09-01

    Ninety-six crossbred steers (312 kg) were used in a 118-d feedlot growth performance trial to determine the relative effects of degree of steam processing on the feeding value of oats in a 90% concentrate finishing diet. Treatments were 1) steam-flaked corn (SFC, density = .28 kg/L); 2) dry-rolled oats (DRO, density = .36 kg/L); 3) steam-rolled oats, coarse flake (SRO-C, density = .33 kg/L); and 4) steam-rolled oats, thin flake (SRO-T density = .17 kg/L). Feed intake was similar (P > .10) across oats treatments. However, ADG was lower (13.2%, P oats treatments. Diet NEm and NEg were higher (20.0 and 26.5%, respectively; P oats treatments. Dressing percentage was 2.5% lower (P oats diets than in those fed the SFC diet. Four Holstein steers (232 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Ruminal digestibility of OM, starch, and ADF were similar (P > .10) for oats treatments, averaging 58.2, 93.5, and 9.6%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Picky Eating Habits or Sensory Processing Issues? Exploring Feeding Difficulties in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stacy D.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Rains, Kari W.

    2010-01-01

    For infants and toddlers demonstrating feeding problems, it is critical to find the basis for the problems to create more pleasurable mealtimes for the child, his or her family members, and caregivers. Feeding difficulties can affect general health, developmental gains, and emotional well-being. Understanding the cause of feeding problems and…

  2. Nutrient Potency of Rice Straw Processed with Amofer as Cattle Feed Stuff in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage demand can be supplied from rice straw which processed with certain feed technology innovation. Some advantages can be derived under this technology i.e. increasing nutrient content, optimizing the utilization, improving the efficiency and reducing production cost by minimizing feed cost. Ammoniation fermentation (amofer as an applied technology could give solution over the limitation of rice straw availability. The objective of this research was to determine the potency of rice straw processed with amofer (amofer-rice straw as raw material to formulate complete feed. The experiment was carried out with randomized block design with three treatments and six replications. Amofer treatment was carried out by adding urea 3% from the total material and then placed into plastic jar +12 liter and then incubated under an-aerobic process for 18 days. Fermentation material i.e. biology starter by 1% of total material was added at the ninth day. Dry Matter (DM content resulted from each treatments was 87,28%, 85,96% and 84,61% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Crude Protein (CP content was T1=24,48%, T2=21,04%; and T3=24,46%, Crude Fiber (CF content was T1=31,30%; T2=31,30%; and T3=31,39%. Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN for version 1 was  T1=57,29; T2=56,19; and T3=56,89 and version 2 was T1=53,11%; T2=52,28%; and T3=51,10%. The average value of Non Nitrogen Free Extract (NNFE was T1=23,49%; T2=28,08%; and T3=26,57%. The utilization of amofer as applicable technology is considered as the most appropriate method to increase the quality of rice straw by significantly increase nutrient content in term of crude protein (CP and reduce crude fiber (CF content. This increasing quality can be seen from the result of proximate analysis, NNFE and TDN content

  3. Enhance students’ motivation to learn programming by using direct visual feed-back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; Reng, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The technical subjects chosen are within programming. Using image-processing algorithms as means to provide direct visual feedback for learning basic C/C++. The pedagogical approach is within a PBL framework and is based on dialogue and collaborative learning. At the same time the intention was t...... to a satisfactory level seen from the study board’s point of view....

  4. Optimization on cooperative feed strategy for radial–axial ring rolling process of Inco718 alloy by RSM and FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xinglin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During radial–axial ring rolling process, cooperative strategy of the radial–axial feed is critical for dimensional accuracy and thermo mechanical parameters distribution of the formed ring. In order to improve the comprehensive quality of the ring parts, response surface method (RSM is employed for the first time to optimize the cooperative feed strategy for radial–axial ring rolling process by combining it with an improved and verified 3D coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model. The feed trajectory is put forward to describe cooperative relationship of the radial–axial feed and three variables are designed based on the feed trajectory. In order to achieve multi-objective optimization, four responses including thermo mechanical parameters distribution and rolling force are proposed. Based on the FEM results, RSM is used to establish a response model to depict the function relationship between the objective response and design variables. Through this approximate model, effects of different variables on ring rolling process are analyzed connectedly and optimal feed strategy is obtained by resorting to the optimal chart specific to a constraint condition.

  5. Board-invited review: Sensitivity and responses of functional groups to feed processing methods on a molecular basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Peiqiang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In complex feed structures, there exist main chemical functional groups which are associated with nutrient utilization and availability and functionality. Each functional group has unique molecular structure therefore produce unique molecular vibration spectral profile. Feed processing has been used to improve nutrient utilization for many years. However, to date, there was little study on processing-induced changes of feed intrinsic structure and functional groups on a molecular basis within intact tissue. This is because limited research technique is available to study inherent structure on a molecular basis. Recently bioanalytical techniques: such as Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy as well as Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform molecular spectroscopy have been developed. These techniques enable to detect molecular structure change within intact tissues. These techniques can prevent destruction or alteration of the intrinsic protein structures during processing for analysis. However, these techniques have not been used in animal feed and nutrition research. The objective of this review was show that with the advanced technique, sensitivity and responses of functional groups to feed processing on a molecular basis could be detected in my research team. These functional groups are highly associated with nutrient utilization in animals.

  6. Impact of particle size, thermal processing, fat inclusion, and moisture addition on starch gelatinization of broiler feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Muramatsu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of feed particle size, thermal processing different levels of fat inclusion and of moisture addition on the amount of gelatinized starch in a corn-soybean broiler diet. The different processing factors were combined in a 2 x 4 x 4 x 2 factorial arrangement in a three randomized block design consisting of three production series: two particle sizes (coarse: 1041 microns and medium: 743 microns, four fat inclusion levels at the mixer (15, 25, 35, and 45 g/kg of feed, four moisture addition levels in the conditioner (0, 7, 14, and 21g/kg of feed, and two thermal processing treatments (conditioning-pelleting or conditioning-expanding-pelleting which resulted in 64 different processed feeds. For the determination of the amount of gelatinized starch one feed sample was collected per treatment in each of three production series, totaling three replicates/treatment. Data were transformed using a variation of Box-Cox transformation in order to fit normal distribution (p>0.05. Adding moisture up to 21g/kg of feed in the conditioner linearly increased the amount of gelatinized starch (p<0.05. The conditioner-expander-pelleting treatment of the diets (at 110°C increased (p<0.05 the degree of starch gelatinization from 32.0 to 35.3 % compared with the conditioner-pelleting treatment (at 80-82°C. The gelatinized starch content increased from 30.2 to 37.2% in the feed (p<0.05 as the particle size increased from medium to coarse. Fat inclusion had a quadratic effect (p<0.05 on starch gelatinization. The degree of starch gelatinization was significantly reduced with fat inclusion levels higher than 35 g/kg of diet. The factors evaluated in this study resulted in interactions and significant effects on degree of starch gelatinization.

  7. Mixing process in the preparation of feed pellets at technological conditions rational parametres choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Shentsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing of ingredients – the most important process step in the manufacture of fodder pellets. The technology involves using molasses (warmed to 30–40 °C as a binder. In its composition is administered a mixture of salts of trace elements (copper sulfate, zinc sulfate, cobalt carbonate, potassium iodide, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, sodium selenite, vitamins, salt, magnesium oxide, feed limestone, mono calcium phosphate and lime. Research on the development of feed pellets were carried out in laboratory conditions using experimental equipment. Mixer-reactor created the conditions for heating and temperature control of mass be mixed due to the occurring chemical reaction between water contained in the molasses, and the presence of oxides of calcium and magnesium. The choice of rational parameters of the mixing process upon receipt of fodder pellets allows to provide the high quality product with minimal energy costs. The ranges of the input information factors selected with the aid of a central rotatable uniforms-planning allowed with 56 experiments in a third-multiple replication to obtain the regression equation adequately describing the mixing process. The main factors were: the content of molasses, %; the content of calcium oxide, %; frequency of rotation of the stirrer, rpm; the content of salt in the recipe, %; the temperature of blending, °C. Output factors – productivity, kg/h; energy consumption, kWh; homogeneity of mixing, %. In the result of experiments impact factors and mathematical model of the process that allows to define output parameters within chosen ranges of variation of input factors are obtained. Greatest influence – the content of molasses in the product, the lowest – content of salt in the recipe. Efficiency of mixing hard distributed components pertaining to the most important biologically active substances was evaluated. Content (% of entered of vitamins and minerals in the pellets did not differ

  8. A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry wastes manure as a feed ingredient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Jalil, M.H. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco). Biology Dept.; Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Faid, M. [Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Elyachioui, M. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2001-07-01

    Poultry wastes manure was diluted by adding the same amount of water 50-50 (w/v). They were then mixed with 10% molasses. The mixture was inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidolactici, and incubated at 30{sup o}C for 10 days. Changes in nutritional quality and biochemical properties (pH, total nitrogen, total volatile nitrogen, non protein nitrogen, carbohydrates and ash) were determined for the raw and the transformed product. In parallel, microbiological analyses, including standard plant count, enterobacteria and enterococci, were performed. Results indicated that the product obtained from the wastes fermentation showed low counts of enterobacteria and enterococci. Chemical determinations showed a net decrease of the pH to around 4.0 and the growth curve of the lactic acid bacteria showed the success of the acidification process. The total nitrogen was conserved in the product and the total volatile nitrogen was totally eliminated. The product was used for substituting some protein sources in a conventional formula used in laying feeding of three lots. Two formulae containing, respectively, 20% and 40% of the product was compared to the control (0%). The food consumption and laying performances were monitored for 30 days. The nutritional test indicted that the incorporation of the poultry manure silage of up to 40% gave laying performances similar to those obtained with the conventional formula. These results show that it is possible to transform poultry manure by controlled fermentation and that the product has an added value as a feed ingredient. (Author)

  9. Understanding the Concept of Food Sovereignty Using the Ghana School Feeding Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.; Frempong, G.; Essegbey, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article deepens the understanding of the emerging food sovereignty concept using a case study of a home-grown school feeding programme that promotes local food demand - supply linkages. A school feeding programme in four selected districts in Ghana is analysed with respect to community

  10. Effect of feeding methods on the astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma in fed-batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gomes Moriel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding methods on the production of astaxanthin by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma ATCC 24202 was studied, using continuous and pulsed fed-batch processes and low cost materials as substrates (sugar cane juice and urea. In continuous fed-batch processes, a cellular astaxanthin concentration of 383.73 µg/g biomass was obtained. But in pulsed fed-batch processes a reduction in the cellular astaxanthin concentration (303.34 µg/g biomass was observed. Thus the continuous fed-batch processes could be an alternative to industrial production of astaxanthin, allowing an increase in the biomass productivity without losses on astaxanthin production by the yeast.O efeito da alimentação na produção de astaxantina pela levedura Phaffia rhodozyma ATCC 24202 foi estudado, utilizando processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua e intermitente, e matérias-primas de baixo custo como substratos (caldo de cana de açúcar e uréia. Em processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua, uma concentração celular de astaxantina de 383,73 µg/g biomassa foi obtida. Entretanto, em processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação intermitente, uma redução na concentração celular de astaxantina (303,34 µg/g biomassa foi observada. Desta forma, processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua poderiam ser uma alternativa na produção industrial de astaxantina, permitindo um aumento na produtividade de biomassa sem perdas na produção de astaxantina pela levedura.

  11. Adaptation of New Colombian Food-based Complementary Feeding Recommendations Using Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharrey, Marion; Olaya, Gilma A; Fewtrell, Mary; Ferguson, Elaine

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to use linear programming (LP) analyses to adapt New Complementary Feeding Guidelines (NCFg) designed for infants aged 6 to 12 months living in poor socioeconomic circumstances in Bogota to ensure dietary adequacy for young children aged 12 to 23 months. A secondary data analysis was performed using dietary and anthropometric data collected from 12-month-old infants (n = 72) participating in a randomized controlled trial. LP analyses were performed to identify nutrients whose requirements were difficult to achieve using local foods as consumed; and to test and compare the NCFg and alternative food-based recommendations (FBRs) on the basis of dietary adequacy, for 11 micronutrients, at the population level. Thiamine recommended nutrient intakes for these young children could not be achieved given local foods as consumed. NCFg focusing only on meat, fruits, vegetables, and breast milk ensured dietary adequacy at the population level for only 4 micronutrients, increasing to 8 of 11 modelled micronutrients when the FBRs promoted legumes, dairy, vitamin A-rich vegetables, and chicken giblets. None of the FBRs tested ensured population-level dietary adequacy for thiamine, niacin, and iron unless a fortified infant food was recommended. The present study demonstrated the value of using LP to adapt NCFg for a different age group than the one for which they were designed. Our analyses suggest that to ensure dietary adequacy for 12- to 23-month olds these adaptations should include legumes, dairy products, vitamin A-rich vegetables, organ meat, and a fortified food.

  12. On the Use of Pre-reduced Feed in the Blast Furnace Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jorge L.

    In the iron and steel industry, the partial replacement of coke with natural gas as a fuel for blast furnace ironmaking provides opportunities to blast furnace operators, in a context where natural gas is relatively cheap, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and production costs. Direct injection of natural gas through the blast furnace tuyeres is limited by thermal constraints, seen by changes in the temperature of the top gas and the raceway adiabatic flame temperature parameter. Metallic iron has been used as burden material in the blast furnace process as a means to lower coke rate and increase productivity. The main "direct reduction processes" produce metallic iron by gaseous reduction using natural gas as feedstock. It is possible to partially circumvent the limitations of tuyere injection by pre-reducing part of the iron ore burden through one of these processes. This work focuses on the advantages and limitations of introducing direct reduced iron (DRI) of varying levels of metallization into the blast furnace to increase the use of natural gas in ironmaking. Process modeling has been used to evaluate this; parameters for the models and process constraints are analyzed through laboratory testing of the properties of reduced blast furnace feed materials. Experiments were performed to obtain kinetics for the gaseous reduction of iron ores and for the water-gas shift reaction at the relevant temperatures for the shaft furnace process. The re-oxidation kinetics of DRI in the upper shaft of the blast furnace by water vapor, and the strength of partially reduced iron ore pellets, were also analyzed. Results from the shaft furnace model show that there is no clear benefit to producing DRI of low metallization in this process, because of the existence of a chemical reserve zone, where the gases are at equilibrium with the solid iron oxide. Blast furnace modeling shows that metallic iron in the burden produces some thermal constraints in the blast furnace, and

  13. A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction approach for estimating processed animal proteins in feed: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cesarina Abete

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifting of the ban on the use of processed animal proteins (PAPs from non-ruminants in non-ruminant feed is in the wind, avoiding intraspecies recycling. Discrimination of species will be performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR, which is at a moment a merely qualitative method. Nevertheless, quantification of PAPs in feed is needed. The aim of this study was to approach the quantitative determination of PAPs in feed through Real Time (RT-PCR technique; three different protocols picked up from the literature were tested. Three different kind of matrices were examined: pure animal meals (bovine, chicken and pork; one feed sample certified by the European reference laboratory on animal proteins (EURL AP in feed spiked with 0.1% bovine meal; and genomic DNAs from bovine, chicken and pork muscles. The limit of detection (LOD of the three protocols was set up. All the results obtained from the three protocols considered failed in the quantification process, most likely due to the uncertain copy numbers of the analytical targets chosen. This preliminary study will allow us to address further investigations, with the purpose of developing a RT-PCR quantitative method.

  14. A MIXED-INTEGER PROGRAMMING ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF A FLORIDA-BASED CATTLE FEEDING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Spreen, Thomas H.; Moseley, Anne E.; Pheasant, Jim W.

    1986-01-01

    Florida is typical of many southeastern states in that it exports feeder cattle and imports carcass and boxed beef. The objective of this paper is to estimate the cost of retaining feeder cattle in Florida, feeding these cattle to slaughter weights, slaughtering them, and distributing the meat to retail outlets. A mixed integer programming model is developed. The optimal number and location of feedlots and slaughter plants are determined. The results indicate that at production levels exceedi...

  15. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, S.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kim, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of feed composition on the performance of the high-level vitrification process. It is assumed in this study that the tank wastes are retrieved and blended by tank farms, producing 12 different blends from the single-shell tank farms, two blends of double-shell tank waste, and a separately defined all-tank blend. This blending scenario was chosen only for evaluating the impact of composition on the volume of high- level waste glass produced. Special glass compositions were formulated for each waste blend based on glass property models and the properties of similar glasses. These glasses were formulated to meet the applicable viscosity, electrical conductivity, and liquidus temperature constraints for the identified candidate melters. Candidate melters in this study include the low-temperature stirred melter, which operates at 1050{degrees}C; the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid-fed ceramic melter, which operates at 1150{degrees}C; and the high-temperature, joule-heated melter and the cold-crucible melter, which operate over a temperature range of 1150{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. In the most conservative case, it is estimated that 61,000 MT of glass will be produced if the Site`s high-level wastes are retrieved by tank farms and processed in the reference joule-heated melter. If an all-tank blend was processed under the same conditions, the reference melter would produce 21,250 MT of glass. If cross-tank blending were used, it is anticipated that $2.0 billion could be saved in repository disposal costs (based on an average disposal cost of $217,000 per canister) by blending the S, SX, B, and T Tank Farm wastes with other wastes prior to vitrification. General blending among all the tank farms is expected to produce great potential benefit.

  16. Application of Formalised Developmental Feedback for Feed-Forward to Foster Student Ownership of the Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Valerie J.; McIlroy, David

    2014-01-01

    There has been considerable criticism of assessment methods because of inconsistencies across modules and a focus on the measurement of learning rather than assessment for learning. The aim of the current study was to formalise the process of assessment feedback to feed-forward, and assess the impact on student learning. A cohort of undergraduate…

  17. Noise processing by microRNA-mediated circuits: The Incoherent Feed-Forward Loop, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Grigolon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression is usually mitigated in higher eukaryotes by post-transcriptional regulation channels that stabilise the output layer, most notably protein levels. The discovery of small non-coding RNAs (miRNAs in specific motifs of the genetic regulatory network has led to identifying noise buffering as the possible key function they exert in regulation. Recent in vitro and in silico studies have corroborated this hypothesis. It is however also known that miRNA-mediated noise reduction is hampered by transcriptional bursting in simple topologies. Here, using stochastic simulations validated by analytical calculations based on van Kampen's expansion, we revisit the noise-buffering capacity of the miRNA-mediated Incoherent Feed Forward Loop (IFFL, a small module that is widespread in the gene regulatory networks of higher eukaryotes, in order to account for the effects of intermittency in the transcriptional activity of the modulator gene. We show that bursting considerably alters the circuit's ability to control static protein noise. By comparing with other regulatory architectures, we find that direct transcriptional regulation significantly outperforms the IFFL in a broad range of kinetic parameters. This suggests that, under pulsatile inputs, static noise reduction may be less important than dynamical aspects of noise and information processing in characterising the performance of regulatory elements.

  18. Emotional Feeding and Emotional Eating: Reciprocal Processes and the Influence of Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Barker, Edward D; Llewellyn, Clare; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-04-25

    Emotional eating, that is, eating more in response to negative mood, is often seen in children. But the origins of emotional eating remain unclear. In a representative community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds followed up at ages 6, 8, and 10 years (analysis sample: n = 801), one potential developmental pathway was examined: a reciprocal relation between parental emotional feeding and child emotional eating. The results revealed that higher levels of emotional feeding predicted higher levels of emotional eating and vice versa, adjusting for body mass index and initial levels of feeding and eating. Higher levels of temperamental negative affectivity (at age 4) increased the risk for future emotional eating and feeding. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. A Genetic Algorithm for Feeding Trajectory Optimisation of Fed-batch Fermentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a genetic algorithm is proposed with the purpose of the feeding trajectory optimization during a fed-batch fermentation of E. coli. The feed rate profiles are evaluated based on a number of objective functions. Optimization results obtained for different feeding trajectories demonstrate that the genetic algorithm works well and shows good computational performance. Developed optimal feed profiles meet the defined criteria. The ration of the substrate concentration and the difference between actual cell concentration and theoretical maximum cell concentration is defined as the most appropriate objective function. In this case the final cell concentration of 43 g·l-1 and final product concentration of 125 g·l-1 are achieved and there is not significant excess of substrate.

  20. Mass Spectrometry-based Immunoassay for the Quantification of Banned Ruminant Processed Animal Proteins in Vegetal Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhilber, Andreas E; Schmidt, Felix F; Naboulsi, Wael; Planatscher, Hannes; Niedzwiecka, Alicia; Zagon, Jutta; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso; Joos, Thomas O; Poetz, Oliver

    2018-02-22

    The ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed for farmed animals introduced in 2001 was one of the main EU measures to control the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis. Currently, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are the official methods for the detection of illegal PAPs in feed. However, the progressive release of the feed ban, recently with the legalization of non-ruminant PAPs for the use in aquaculture, requires the development of alternative methods to determine the species origin and the source (legal or not). Additionally, discussions about the need for quantitative tests came up, particularly if the zero-tolerance-concept is replaced by introducing PAP thresholds. To address this issue, we developed and partially validated a multiplex mass spectrometry-based immunoassay to quantify ruminant specific peptides in vegetal cattle feed. The workflow comprises a new sample preparation procedure based on a tryptic digestion of PAPs in suspension, a subsequent immunoaffinity enrichment of the released peptides and a LC-MS/MS based analysis for peptide quantification using isotope labelled standard peptides. For the very first time, a mass spectrometry-based method is capable of detecting and quantifying illegal PAPs in animal feed over a concentration range of four orders of magnitude with a detection limit in the range of 0.1 % to 1 % (w/w).

  1. Behavioral analyses of sugar processing in choice, feeding, and learning in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipanski, Angela; Yarali, Ayse; Niewalda, Thomas; Gerber, Bertram

    2008-07-01

    Gustatory stimuli have at least 2 kinds of function: They can support immediate, reflexive responses (such as substrate choice and feeding) and they can drive internal reinforcement. We provide behavioral analyses of these functions with respect to sweet taste in larval Drosophila. The idea is to use the dose-effect characteristics as behavioral "fingerprints" to dissociate reflexive and reinforcing functions. For glucose and trehalose, we uncover relatively weak preference. In contrast, for fructose and sucrose, preference responses are strong and the effects on feeding pronounced. Specifically, larvae are attracted to, and feeding is stimulated most strongly for, intermediate concentrations of either sugar: Using very high concentrations (4 M) results in weakened preference and suppression of feeding. In contrast to such an optimum function regarding choice and feeding, an asymptotic dose-effect function is found for reinforcement learning: Learning scores reach asymptote at 2 M and remain stable for a 4-M concentration. A similar parametric discrepancy between the reflexive (choice and feeding) and reinforcing function is also seen for sodium chloride (Niewalda T, Singhal S, Fiala A, Saumweber T, Wegener S, Gerber B, in preparation). We discuss whether these discrepancies are based either on inhibition from high-osmolarity sensors upon specifically the reflexive pathways or whether different sensory pathways, with different effective dose-response characteristics, may have preferential access to drive either reflex responses or modulatory neurons mediating internal reinforcement, respectively.

  2. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    administration and management of all MTFs, including budgetary matters, information technology, administrative policy and procedure, military medical...2013;7(12). 7. Kitchen LW, Vaughn DW, Skillman DR. Role of US military research programs in the development of US Food and Drug Administration ...that would optimally support military medical professionals who oversee and conduct DHP medical research. In response, the DHB assigned the Public

  3. Compiling nested loop programs to process networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turjan, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    New heterogeneous multiprocessor platforms are emerging that are typically composed of loosely coupled components that exchange data using programmable interconnections. The components can be CPUs or DSPs, specialized IP cores, reconfigurable units, or memories. To program such platform, we use the

  4. An Interactive Graphics Program for Investigating Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Billy K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of an interactive computer graphics program for use in teaching digital signal processing. The program allows students to interactively configure digital systems on a monitor display and observe their system's performance by means of digital plots on the system's outputs. A sample program run is included. (JN)

  5. From Safety Critical Java Programs to Timed Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2015-01-01

    The idea of analysing real programs by process algebraic methods probably goes back to the Occam language using the CSP process algebra [43]. In [16,24] Degano et al. followed in that tradition by analysing Mobile Agent Programs written in the Higher Order Functional, Concurrent and Distributed...

  6. Derivation of sequential, real-time, process-control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Budhiraja, Navin

    1991-01-01

    The use of weakest-precondition predicate transformers in the derivation of sequential, process-control software is discussed. Only one extension to Dijkstra's calculus for deriving ordinary sequential programs was found to be necessary: function-valued auxiliary variables. These auxiliary variables are needed for reasoning about states of a physical process that exists during program transitions.

  7. Rain: A New Concurrent Process-Oriented Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the design of a new concurrent process-oriented programming language, Rain. The language borrows heavily from occam-p and C++ to create a new language based on process-oriented programming, marrying channel-based communication, a clear division between statement and expression, and elements of functional programming. An expressive yet simple type system, coupled with templates, underpins the language. Modern features such as Unicode support and 64-bit integers are included ...

  8. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component.

  9. Effects of early neonatal development and delayed feeding immediately post-hatch on the hepatic lipogenic program in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark P; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, Monika; Rosebrough, Robert W; McMurtry, John P; Angel, Roselina

    2010-12-01

    The embryo to neonate transition is a critical period of development that has significant impact on broiler production. During this time important genetic programs governing metabolism and growth are established. The goal of this work was to study the effects of early post-hatch (PH) development and the time of initiation of feeding on activation of the genetic program regulating hepatic lipogenesis. A comparison of liver total RNA samples at hatch and 7 days PH was performed using oligonucleotide-based (Affymetrix GeneChip®) chicken genome microarrays. During the first week PH there was significant up-regulation of key lipogenic genes including: ATP citrate lyase (ACL), malic enzyme (ME), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACCα), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and thyroid hormone responsive spot 14α (Spot 14α) among others. These findings were confirmed using gene-specific RT-PCR assays. In a follow-up study, we investigated the effects of withholding feed for the first 48 h PH (delayed feeding, DF) on lipogenic gene expression through 8 days PH. Body weight gain was significantly depressed by DF. Plasma levels of the major metabolic hormones that regulate lipogenic gene expression (insulin, glucagon and T(3)) changed significantly during PH development, but were largely unaffected by DF. Plasma glucose was significantly lower in the DF group at 24h PH but recovered thereafter. In general, DF inhibited the up-regulation of lipogenic genes until feeding was initiated. Delayed up-regulation was also observed for the lipogenic transcription factor genes, SREBP-1, SREBP-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), but not for carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREB) or liver X receptor (LXR). Our results offer additional insight into the transcriptional programming of hepatic lipogenesis in response to the transition from high fat (yolk) to high

  10. Integrated modeling and analysis of ball screw feed system and milling process with consideration of multi-excitation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Tao; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Wanhua

    2018-01-01

    The present researches about feed drive system and milling process are almost independent with each other, and ignore the interaction between the two parts, especially the influence of nonideal motion of feed drive system on milling process. An integrated modeling method of ball screw feed system and milling process with multi-excitation effect is proposed in this paper. In the integrated model, firstly an analytical model of motor harmonic torque with consideration of asymmetrical drive circuit and asymmetrical permanent magnet is given. Then, the numerical simulation procedure of cutter/workpiece engagement during milling process with displacement fluctuation induced by harmonic torque is put forward, which is followed by the solving flow for the proposed integrated model. Based on the integrated model, a new kind of quality defect shown as contour low frequency oscillation on machined surface is studied by experiments and simulations. The results demonstrate that the forming mechanism of the contour oscillation can be ascribed to the multi-excitation effect with motor harmonic torque and milling force. Moreover, the influence of different milling conditions on the contour oscillation characteristics, particularly on surface roughness, are further discussed. The results indicate that it is necessary to explain the cause of the new kind of quality defect with a view of system integration.

  11. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, K.D. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Harness, J.L. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuhn, W.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Science and Technology (formerly the Office of Technology Development), as part of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites and wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety, and the environment and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with federal, state, and local regulations by the year 2019. The Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) is charged with developing and implementing new technologies that are safer, faster, more effective, and less expensive than current methods. To focus resources and address opportunities, EM-50 has targeted four major remediation and waste management problem areas within the DOE complex for action based on risk, prevalence, or need for technology development to meet environmental requirements and regulations. Other areas may be added or current areas further partitioned to ensure that research technology development programs remain focused on EM`s most pressing remediation and waste management needs. These major problem areas, called Focus Areas are: high-level waste tank remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; subsurface contaminants; and facility transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition.

  12. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees feeding program performance in Kenya and Tanzania: a retrospective analysis of routine Health Information System data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Doocy, Shannon; Haskew, Christopher; Wilkinson, Caroline; Oman, Allison; Spiegel, Paul

    2012-06-01

    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Health Information System is a primary source of routine nutrition program data and provides a comprehensive assessment of UNHCR selective feeding programs in more than 90 refugee camps in 18 countries worldwide. To evaluate the coverage and effectiveness of UNHCR supplementary and therapeutic feeding programs for malnourished children under 5 years of age in Kenya and Tanzania refugee camps. Analysis of Kenya and Tanzania refugee camp population, growth monitoring and nutrition program data from the UNHCR Health Information System. UNHCR-supported implementing partners in Kenya and Tanzania admitted nearly 45,000 malnourished refugee children in selective feeding programs between January 2006 and May 2009. Average recovery rates of 77.1% and 84.6% in the therapeutic and supplementary programs, respectively, mortality rates of less than 1%, and average readmission below 5% suggest that feeding programs had a beneficial effect on enrolled children. Increasing admission and enrollment in supplementary feeding programs was successful in preventing cases of severe malnutrition in some camps. Further attention to these camps would be likely to yield sizeable benefits in terms of absolute reductions in malnutrition prevalence and mortality rates.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

    2014-05-12

    A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD

  14. Combination of chemical analyses and animal feeding trials as reliable procedures to assess the safety of heat processed soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Brasil, Isabel Cristiane F; Oliveira, José Tadeu A; Campello, Cláudio C; Maia, Fernanda Maria M; Campello, Maria Verônica M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele U

    2009-06-10

    This study assessed whether chemical analyses are sufficient to guarantee the safety of heat processing of soybeans (SB) for human/animal consumption. The effects of extrusion and dry-toasting were analyzed upon seed composition and performance of broiler chicks. None of these induced appreciable changes in protein content and amino acid composition. Conversely, toasting reduced all antinutritional proteins by over 85%. Despite that, the animals fed on toasted SB demonstrated a low performance (feed efficiency 57.8 g/100 g). Extrusion gave place to higher contents of antinutrients, particularly of trypsin inhibitors (27.53 g/kg flour), but animal performance was significantly (p toasting represents the treatment of choice. However, considering the results of the feeding trials, extrusion appears to be the safest method. In conclusion, in order to evaluate the reliability of any processing method intended to improve nutritional value, the combination of chemical and animal studies is necessary.

  15. A novice's process of object-oriented programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2006-01-01

    a programming problem. Two examples are used to demonstrate the application of process and techniques.The process is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it, we hope to achieve two things......: to help novice programmers learn faster and better while at the same time laying the foundation for a more thorough treatment of the aspects of software engineering....

  16. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  17. NMRFx Processor: a cross-platform NMR data processing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Michael; Fetler, Bayard [One Moon Scientific, Inc. (United States); Marchant, Jan [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Johnson, Bruce A., E-mail: bruce.johnson@asrc.cuny.edu [One Moon Scientific, Inc. (United States)

    2016-08-15

    NMRFx Processor is a new program for the processing of NMR data. Written in the Java programming language, NMRFx Processor is a cross-platform application and runs on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows operating systems. The application can be run in both a graphical user interface (GUI) mode and from the command line. Processing scripts are written in the Python programming language and executed so that the low-level Java commands are automatically run in parallel on computers with multiple cores or CPUs. Processing scripts can be generated automatically from the parameters of NMR experiments or interactively constructed in the GUI. A wide variety of processing operations are provided, including methods for processing of non-uniformly sampled datasets using iterative soft thresholding. The interactive GUI also enables the use of the program as an educational tool for teaching basic and advanced techniques in NMR data analysis.

  18. NMRFx Processor: a cross-platform NMR data processing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Michael; Fetler, Bayard; Marchant, Jan; Johnson, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    NMRFx Processor is a new program for the processing of NMR data. Written in the Java programming language, NMRFx Processor is a cross-platform application and runs on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows operating systems. The application can be run in both a graphical user interface (GUI) mode and from the command line. Processing scripts are written in the Python programming language and executed so that the low-level Java commands are automatically run in parallel on computers with multiple cores or CPUs. Processing scripts can be generated automatically from the parameters of NMR experiments or interactively constructed in the GUI. A wide variety of processing operations are provided, including methods for processing of non-uniformly sampled datasets using iterative soft thresholding. The interactive GUI also enables the use of the program as an educational tool for teaching basic and advanced techniques in NMR data analysis.

  19. Developing PCR Primers Using a New Computer Program for Detection of Multiple Animal-Derived Materials in Feed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shinoda, Naoki; Kusama, Toyoko; Yoshida, Tomotaro; Sugiura, Tatsuki; Kadowaki, Koh-Ichi; Onodera, Takashi; Sugiura, Katsuaki

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the risk of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent being recycled to cattle through animal feed, in October 2001 Japan introduced a feed ban prohibiting the use of animal proteins in feed...

  20. A theory-informed, process-oriented Resident Scholarship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Darby, John B; Hair, Amy B; Rose, Karen M; Ward, Mark A; Turner, Teri L; Balmer, Dorene F

    2016-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to provide curricula for residents to engage in scholarly activities but does not specify particular guidelines for instruction. We propose a Resident Scholarship Program that is framed by the self-determination theory (SDT) and emphasize the process of scholarly activity versus a scholarly product. The authors report on their longitudinal Resident Scholarship Program, which aimed to support psychological needs central to SDT: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. By addressing those needs in program aims and program components, the program may foster residents' intrinsic motivation to learn and to engage in scholarly activity. To this end, residents' engagement in scholarly processes, and changes in perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness were assessed. Residents engaged in a range of scholarly projects and expressed positive regard for the program. Compared to before residency, residents felt more confident in the process of scholarly activity, as determined by changes in increased perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Scholarly products were accomplished in return for a focus on scholarly process. Based on our experience, and in line with the SDT, supporting residents' autonomy, competence, and relatedness through a process-oriented scholarship program may foster the curiosity, inquisitiveness, and internal motivation to learn that drives scholarly activity and ultimately the production of scholarly products.

  1. Static Mapping of Functional Programs: An Example in Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack B. Dennis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex signal-processing problems are naturally described by compositions of program modules that process streams of data. In this article we discuss how such compositions may be analyzed and mapped onto multiprocessor computers to effectively exploit the massive parallelism of these applications. The methods are illustrated with an example of signal processing for an optical surveillance problem. Program transformation and analysis are used to construct a program description tree that represents the given computation as an acyclic interconnection of stream-processing modules. Each module may be mapped to a set of threads run on a group of processing elements of a target multiprocessor. Performance is considered for two forms of multiprocessor architecture, one based on conventional DSP technology and the other on a multithreaded-processing element design.

  2. Quality characteristics of chicken burger processed from broiler chicken fed on different types of vegetable oils and feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engy Fayz Zaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding broiler chicken on different vegetable oils with commercial multi- enzyme feed additives on the quality characteristics of chicken burger. A total of 216 one-day-old chicks of (Hubbard strain were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments as (2×3 factorial designs where two sources of dietary oil contained soybean oil and palm oil with three levels of commercial multi-enzyme feed additives. Treatments were: soybean oil only (T1, soybean oil+ ZAD (T2, soybean oil+ AmPhi-BACT (T3, palm oil only (T4 , palm oil + ZAD (T5 and palm oil + AmPhi- BACT (T6. Results showed that chicken burger of T1 group had the higher pH value (6.22; slight difference was found in pH value of T3 group (6.18. No significant difference was found in burger of T5 and T6 group. Burger processed from T1 group had the higher T.B.A value (0.115 followed by burger of T5 (0.076; while the lowest T.B.A value found in burger of T2 group (0.031. No significant differences were found in shrinkage measurements. Burger processed from T6 group had the higher score of sensory attributes and overall acceptability, while the differences between the other burger groups were not significant.

  3. Image processing and enhancement provided by commercial dental software programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lehmann, T M; Troeltsch, E; Spitzer, K

    2002-01-01

    To identify and analyse methods/algorithms for image processing provided by various commercial software programs used in direct digital dental imaging and to map them onto a standardized nomenclature...

  4. Image Processing Algorithms in the Secondary School Programming Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerják, István

    2017-01-01

    Learning computer programming for students of the age of 14-18 is difficult and requires endurance and engagement. Being familiar with the syntax of a computer language and writing programs in it are challenges for youngsters, not to mention that understanding algorithms is also a big challenge. To help students in the learning process, teachers…

  5. A Nutrition Education Program in Rural Bangladesh Was Associated with Improved Feeding Practices but Not with Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Aatekah; Schwartz, Benjamin; Kleinbaum, David G; Suchdev, Parminder S; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Das, Sumon K; Rahman, Shahed; Stein, Aryeh D

    2017-05-01

    Background: Childhood undernutrition is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Evaluating child nutrition programs is a priority. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate a community-based nutrition education program (implemented from 2011 to 2013) aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and growth in rural Bangladesh. Methods: A cohort-based evaluation was conducted that included 2400 women (1200 from Karimganj, the intervention subdistrict, and 1200 from Katiadi, the control subdistrict) enrolled at 28-31 wk gestation in 3 waves between January and October 2011. Follow-up occurred at 3, 9, 16, and 24 mo of offspring age. The main outcomes were exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), measured at 3 mo, timing of complementary feeding (CF) initiation and minimum acceptable diet (MAD), measured at 9 mo, and child growth [assessed via length-for-age z score (LAZ) and weight-for-length z score], measured at all follow-ups. The main exposures were subdistrict of residence and wave of enrollment. For IYCF practices as outcome, logistic regressions were used. Generalized estimating equations were used for child growth as outcome. Results: EBF rates at 3 mo remained unchanged between waves 1 and 3 in Karimganj (55.6% compared with 57.3%), but the proportion of infants receiving timely CF initiation and MAD at 9 mo increased significantly (CF: 27.1-54.7%; MAD: 8.4-35.3%). Mean LAZ at 24 mo remained unchanged between waves 1 and 3 in Karimganj (-2.18 compared with -1.98). Conclusions: The program was successful in improving the quality of infant diet at 9 mo and timely CF initiation, but not EBF at 3 mo or LAZ. These findings support the case for implementing simple messages in all programs aimed at improving infant diet, especially in settings in which supplementing overall household diet may not be feasible. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Engineering Economic Analysis for Feed Gas Cooler (Cold box: a Case of a Gas Processing Complex in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Zulkipli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examine the economic feasibility of a proposal to replace an existing Feed Gas Cooler (Cold Box with a new unit in a gas processing complex in Malaysia. Economic justification is essential to make the decision on the feasibility of this undertaking because of the high capital investment. The mathematical model presented in the paper includes net present worth, payback period, rate of return, investment balance analysis, and sensitivity analysis. Critical analyses on four factors of the estimates were done to assess their influence on the overall economic justification of the proposal. The results indicate an acceptable return on investment. However, the proposal is susceptible to the variation in demand of the Feed Gas Load.

  7. Production of a Highly Protease-Resistant Fungal α-Galactosidase in Transgenic Maize Seeds for Simplified Feed Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxia; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhou, Xiaojin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xiaolu; Chen, Rumei; Meng, Qingchang; Yuan, Jianhua; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Raffinose-family oligosaccharide (RFO) in soybeans is one of the major anti-nutritional factors for poultry and livestocks. α-Galactosidase is commonly supplemented into the animal feed to hydrolyze α-1,6-galactosidic bonds on the RFOs. To simplify the feed processing, a protease-resistant α-galactosidase encoding gene from Gibberella sp. strain F75, aga-F75, was modified by codon optimization and heterologously expressed in the embryos of transgentic maize driven by the embryo-specific promoter ZM-leg1A. The progenies were produced by backcrossing with the commercial inbred variety Zheng58. PCR, southern blot and western blot analysis confirmed the stable integration and tissue specific expression of the modified gene, aga-F75m, in seeds over four generations. The expression level of Aga-F75M reached up to 10,000 units per kilogram of maize seeds. In comparison with its counterpart produced in Pichia pastoris strain GS115, maize seed-derived Aga-F75M showed a lower temperature optimum (50 °C) and lower stability over alkaline pH range, but better thermal stability at 60 °C to 70 °C and resistance to feed pelleting inactivation (80 °C). This is the first report of producing α-galactosidase in transgenic plant. The study offers an effective and economic approach for direct utilization of α-galactosidase-producing maize without any purification or supplementation procedures in the feed processing.

  8. Production of a Highly Protease-Resistant Fungal α-Galactosidase in Transgenic Maize Seeds for Simplified Feed Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Yang

    Full Text Available Raffinose-family oligosaccharide (RFO in soybeans is one of the major anti-nutritional factors for poultry and livestocks. α-Galactosidase is commonly supplemented into the animal feed to hydrolyze α-1,6-galactosidic bonds on the RFOs. To simplify the feed processing, a protease-resistant α-galactosidase encoding gene from Gibberella sp. strain F75, aga-F75, was modified by codon optimization and heterologously expressed in the embryos of transgentic maize driven by the embryo-specific promoter ZM-leg1A. The progenies were produced by backcrossing with the commercial inbred variety Zheng58. PCR, southern blot and western blot analysis confirmed the stable integration and tissue specific expression of the modified gene, aga-F75m, in seeds over four generations. The expression level of Aga-F75M reached up to 10,000 units per kilogram of maize seeds. In comparison with its counterpart produced in Pichia pastoris strain GS115, maize seed-derived Aga-F75M showed a lower temperature optimum (50 °C and lower stability over alkaline pH range, but better thermal stability at 60 °C to 70 °C and resistance to feed pelleting inactivation (80 °C. This is the first report of producing α-galactosidase in transgenic plant. The study offers an effective and economic approach for direct utilization of α-galactosidase-producing maize without any purification or supplementation procedures in the feed processing.

  9. ERDA programs and objectives: energy conservation in food processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towne, E A [ed.

    1977-07-01

    A workshop on energy conservation in the agriculture processing industry sponsored by ERDA in March 1976 resulted in 87 conservation research recommendations to ERDA. These recommendations and their incorporation into ongoing and planned ERDA research and development programs are discussed. Information is included on using food processing wastes, energy conservation in hot processes and waste heat recovery, ERDA responses to specific workshop recommendations on the processing of chemical fertilizers, dairy products, fruits, meats, vegetables, grain, and textiles.

  10. Modeling of feed-forward control using the partial least squares regression method in the tablet compression process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Otsuka, Makoto

    2017-05-30

    In the pharmaceutical industry, the implementation of continuous manufacturing has been widely promoted in lieu of the traditional batch manufacturing approach. More specially, in recent years, the innovative concept of feed-forward control has been introduced in relation to process analytical technology. In the present study, we successfully developed a feed-forward control model for the tablet compression process by integrating data obtained from near-infrared (NIR) spectra and the physical properties of granules. In the pharmaceutical industry, batch manufacturing routinely allows for the preparation of granules with the desired properties through the manual control of process parameters. On the other hand, continuous manufacturing demands the automatic determination of these process parameters. Here, we proposed the development of a control model using the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. The most significant feature of this method is the use of dataset integrating both the NIR spectra and the physical properties of the granules. Using our model, we determined that the properties of products, such as tablet weight and thickness, need to be included as independent variables in the PLSR analysis in order to predict unknown process parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of broiler feed medications on Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Victoriya V; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny L; Byrd, J Allen; Bailey, Richard H; Wills, Robert W

    2013-09-01

    This pilot analysis was conducted with data from 52 conventional grow-out broiler flocks in a prospective field observational study in the southeastern United States during 2003-2006. Each flock was sampled for Salmonella 1 wk before the end of grow-out, upon arrival at the processing plant, and during processing (prior to and immediately after carcass chilling). The broiler litter was sampled on the day of bird harvest. The grow-out feeding programs, including the medications delivered in feed, were surveyed with questionnaires completed by the broiler managers and feedmill managers. Each detail of the feeding program was tested for statistical association with the frequency of Salmonella in the flock at each sampling point, after accounting for variation in Salmonella frequency between the farms, broiler complexes, and companies. Significant associations were found between Salmonella frequency in the broiler flock pre- and postharvest and the inclusion of feeds containing individual coccidiostats and other antimicrobial growth promoters, days on feed, and total consumption of feeds containing these products, as well as with practices such as a mash feed and a nonmedicated withdrawal feed. The analysis provided testable hypotheses for how broiler feed medications impact the frequency of Salmonella in the flocks.

  12. The School Lunch Lobby: A Charmed Federal Food Program that No Longer Just Feeds the Hungry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Consistent with the intent of the original school-lunch program, created by Congress in 1946 to provide "nutritious agricultural commodities" to children, the major purpose of today's school-lunch program is to ensure that children, especially those from poor and low-income families, have nutritious food at school. Even as contentious and partisan…

  13. The effect of feed made from fish processing waste silage on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... A large number of studies have been carried out in recent years on alternative ingredients that can be used .... 14.22. Feed flour. 11.46. 11.46. 11.46. 11.46. Corn gluten. 4.46. 4.46. 4.46. 4.46. Sunflower seed meal. 3.00. 3.00. 3.00. 3.00. Wheat gluten. 1.00. 1.00. 1.00. 1.00. Vitamin premix. 0.40. 0.40. 0.40.

  14. Evaluation of pre-PCR processing approaches for enumeration of Salmonella enterica in naturally contaminated animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, J; Andersson, G; Vigre, H; Norling, B; Häggblom, P; Hoorfar, J; Rådström, P; Löfström, C

    2014-01-01

    Three pre-PCR processing strategies for the detection and/or quantification of Salmonella in naturally contaminated soya bean meal were evaluated. Methods included: (i) flotation-qPCR [enumeration of intact Salmonella cells prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR)], (ii) MPN-PCR (modified most probable number method combined with qPCR) and (iii) qualitative culture enrichment PCR. The limit of quantification was 1·8 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) (flotation-qPCR) and 0·02 MPN g(-1) (MPN-PCR). Fifteen naturally contaminated Salmonella positive soya bean meal samples from one lot were analysed in parallel with the three methods, using 2·5, 50 and 25 g of feed, respectively, resulting in detection of Salmonella in 6, 15 and 9 bags. Enumeration resulted in 1·8 × 10(2) -7·8 × 10(3) CFU g(-1) (flotation-qPCR) and 0·024 to >5·2 MPN g(-1) (MPN-PCR). Except for differences in methodology, results obtained with the three techniques could be due to the presence of nonculturable Salmonella and/or a heterogeneous distribution of Salmonella in the material. The evaluated methods provide different possibilities to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in feed, together with the numbers of culturable, as well as nonculturable cells, and can be applied to generate data to allow more accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment for Salmonella in the feed chain. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Chemical and biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feed suitable for production of high-quality meat from farm animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburina, M. I.; Ivankin, A. N.; Stanovova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    The process of chemical biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feeds for effective pig rearing was studied. Protein components of feeds were obtained as a result of hydrolysis in the presence of lactic acid of the animal collagen from secondary raw materials, which comprised subcutaneous collagen (cuticle), skin and veined mass with tendons from cattle. For comparison, a method is described for preparing protein components of feeds by cultivating Lactobacillus plantarum. Analysis of the kinetic data of the conversion of a high-molecular collagen protein to an aminolyte polypeptide mixture showed the advantage of microbiological synthesis in obtaining a protein for feeds. Feed formulations have been developed to include the components obtained, and which result in high quality pork suitable for the production of quality meat products.

  16. Process evaluation of the Regional Biomass Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.R.; Brown, M.A.; Perlack, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Regional Biomass Energy Program (RBEP) in 1983 to increase the production and use of biomass energy resources. Through the creation of five regional program (the Great Lakes, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, Southeast, and West), the RBEP focuses on regionally specific needs and opportunities. In 1992, Oak Ridge National (ORNL) conducted a process evaluation of the RBEP Program designed to document and explain the development of the goals and strategies of the five regional programs; describe the economic and market context surrounding commercialization of bioenergy systems; assess the criteria used to select projects; describe experiences with cost sharing; identify program accomplishments in the transfer of information and technology; and offer recommendations for program improvement.

  17. PROGRAM COMPLEX FOR MODELING OF THE DETAILS HARDENING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kundas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented the program complex ThermoSim, consisting of preprocessor, processor and postprocessor and intended for modeling (analysis of thermalphysic processes and characteristics of details of instrument-making and machine-building, diagnostics and optimization of technological processes of heat treatment and details constructions without using the destructive control methods.

  18. Feasibility of diode-array instruments to carry near-infrared spectroscopy from laboratory to feed process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ahumada, Elvira; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio

    2008-05-14

    Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of the chemical and ingredient composition of intact compound feeds. Two rather different instruments were compared (diode array vs grating monochromator). The grating monochromator was used in a static mode in the laboratory, whereas the diode-array instrumentbetter adapted to online analysiswas placed on a conveyor belt to simulate measurements at a feed mill plant. Modified partial least squares (MPLS) equations were developed using the same set of samples analyzed in the two instruments. Sample set 1 ( N = 398) was used to predict crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF), while sample set 2 ( N = 393) was used for the prediction of one macroingredient (sunflower meal, SFM) and one microingredient (mineral-vitamin premix, MVP). The standard error of cross-validation (SECV) and the coefficient of determination (R2) values for CF were better using the monochromator instrument. However, results obtained for CP, SFM, and MVP using the samples analyzed in the diode-array instrument showed similar or even greater accuracy than those obtained using samples analyzed in the grating monochromator. The excellent predictive ability [R2> 0.95; RPD (ratio of standard deviation to SECV) > 3] obtained for CP, CF, and SFM opens the way for the online use of NIRS diode-array instruments for surveillance and monitoring in the manufacture, processing, and marketing of compound feeds. R2, RPD, and SECV values for MVP showed similar performance for both instruments. Although RPD values did not reach the minimum recommended for quantitative analysis, results are encouraging for an ingredient present in feed compounds in such very low amounts.

  19. Influence of apple pomace inclusion on the process of animal feed pelleting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovarić, Marijana D; Vukmirović, Đuro; Pezo, Lato; Čolović, Radmilo; Jovanović, Rade; Spasevski, Nedeljka; Tolimir, Nataša

    2017-08-01

    Apple pomace (AP) is the main by-product of apple juice production. Large amounts of this material disposed into landfills can cause serious environmental problems. One of the solutions is to utilise AP as animal feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of dried AP inclusion into model mixtures made from conventional feedstuffs on pellet quality and pellet press performance. Three model mixtures, with different ratios of maize, sunflower meal and AP, were pelleted. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied when designing the experiment. The simultaneous and interactive effects of apple pomace share (APS) in the mixtures, die thickness (DT) of the pellet press and initial moisture content of the mixtures (M), on pellet quality and production parameters were investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and standard score (SS) analysis were applied for comprehensive analysis of the experimental data. The increase in APS led to an improvement of pellet quality parameters: pellet durability index (PDI), hardness (H) and proportion of fines in pellets. The increase in DT and M resulted in pellet quality improvement. The increase in DT and APS resulted in higher energy consumption of the pellet press. APS was the most influential variable for PDI and H calculation, while APS and DT were the most influential variables in the calculation of pellet press energy consumption. PCA showed that the first two principal components could be considered sufficient for data representation. In conclusion, addition of dried AP to feed model mixtures significantly improved the quality of the pellets.

  20. Educational intervention to modify bottle-feeding behaviors among formula-feeding mothers in the WIC program: impact on infant formula intake and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine F; Cohen, Roberta J; Heinig, M Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2008-01-01

    Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth measured before (at 1 to 2 months) and after (4 to 5 months) the intervention. Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Sacramento, California. 836 caregivers of young infants were screened; 214 were eligible, and 104 agreed to participate. Intervention subjects received education promoting awareness of satiety cues and discouraging bottles containing more than 6 ounces before 4 months of age; intervention and control groups received education regarding introduction and feeding of solid food after 4 months of age. Formula intake (mL/24 hours) and weight gain (g/week). Differences between groups evaluated using 2-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Sixty-one subjects completed baseline records, 44 attended class, and 38 completed the study. Despite a positive response to the educational intervention, there was no change in bottle-feeding behaviors (formula intake at 4 to 5 months was more than 1100 mL/day in both groups). Infant growth in the intervention group was greater than in the control group (P intervention improved knowledge of the key messages, but further research is needed to understand barriers to modifying bottle-feeding behaviors.

  1. Construction of quality-assured infant feeding process of care data repositories: definition and design (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcí A-de-León-Chocano, Ricardo; Sáez, Carlos; Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Garcí A-de-León-González, Ricardo; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of two regarding the construction of data quality (DQ) assured repositories for the reuse of information on infant feeding from birth until two years old. This first paper justifies the need for such repositories and describes the design of a process to construct them from Electronic Health Records (EHR). As a result, Part 1 proposes a computational process to obtain quality-assured datasets represented by a canonical structure extracted from raw data from multiple EHR. For this, 13 steps were defined to ensure the harmonization, standardization, completion, de-duplication, and consistency of the dataset content. Moreover, the quality of the input and output data for each of these steps is controlled according to eight DQ dimensions: predictive value, correctness, duplication, consistency, completeness, contextualization, temporal-stability and spatial-stability. The second paper of the series will describe the application of this computational process to construct the first quality-assured repository for the reuse of information on infant feeding in the perinatal period aimed at the monitoring of clinical activities and research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic programming and serial processing for time series classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Cid, Eva; Sharman, Ken; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I

    2014-01-01

    This work describes an approach devised by the authors for time series classification. In our approach genetic programming is used in combination with a serial processing of data, where the last output is the result of the classification. The use of genetic programming for classification, although still a field where more research in needed, is not new. However, the application of genetic programming to classification tasks is normally done by considering the input data as a feature vector. That is, to the best of our knowledge, there are not examples in the genetic programming literature of approaches where the time series data are processed serially and the last output is considered as the classification result. The serial processing approach presented here fills a gap in the existing literature. This approach was tested in three different problems. Two of them are real world problems whose data were gathered for online or conference competitions. As there are published results of these two problems this gives us the chance to compare the performance of our approach against top performing methods. The serial processing of data in combination with genetic programming obtained competitive results in both competitions, showing its potential for solving time series classification problems. The main advantage of our serial processing approach is that it can easily handle very large datasets.

  3. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Vitolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. METHODS: Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS, Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC were randomized into intervention (n = 9 and control (n = 11 groups. The health professionals (n = 200 at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. RESULTS: 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38, second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53, and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56 was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03. The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80, chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83, petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98 and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85 in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  4. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Rauber, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS), Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC) were randomized into intervention (n = 9) and control (n = 11) groups. The health professionals (n = 200) at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38), second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53), and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03). The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80), chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83), petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98) and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85) in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  5. Processing sequence annotation data using the Lua programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yutaka; Arita, Masanori; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The data processing language in a graphical software tool that manages sequence annotation data from genome databases should provide flexible functions for the tasks in molecular biology research. Among currently available languages we adopted the Lua programming language. It fulfills our requirements to perform computational tasks for sequence map layouts, i.e. the handling of data containers, symbolic reference to data, and a simple programming syntax. Upon importing a foreign file, the original data are first decomposed in the Lua language while maintaining the original data schema. The converted data are parsed by the Lua interpreter and the contents are stored in our data warehouse. Then, portions of annotations are selected and arranged into our catalog format to be depicted on the sequence map. Our sequence visualization program was successfully implemented, embedding the Lua language for processing of annotation data and layout script. The program is available at http://staff.aist.go.jp/yutaka.ueno/guppy/.

  6. A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry feathers as a feed ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, A; Coello, N

    2005-10-01

    A strain of Kocuria rosea with keratinolytic capacity was cultured aerobically on submerged feathers to obtain a fermented feather meal (FFM). This FFM enriched with cells of K. rosea mainly contains crude protein (71%). The pepsin digestibility of the fermented product (88%) was similar to the value of the commercial feather meal and more than 70% greater that untreated feathers. The bacterial biomass improved the content of amino acids lysine (3.46%), histidine (0.94%) and methionine (0.69%). Additionally, the amino acid availability tested by in vivo assay was greater than commercial feather meal. The microbial cells also supplied carotenoid pigments to FFM (68 ppm). These results suggest that feather meal enriched with K. rosea may be useful in animal feeding as protein and pigment source.

  7. School feeding program has resulted in improved dietary diversity, nutritional status and class attendance of school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebe, Mastewal; Gebremedhin, Samson; Henry, Carol J; Regassa, Nigatu

    2018-01-23

    School Feeding Program (SFP) is a targeted safety net program designed to provide educational and health benefits to vulnerable children. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effect of the intervention on the nutritional status and school attendance of children. The study is aimed at examining the effects of SFP on dietary diversity, nutritional status and class attendance of school children in Boricha district, Southern Ethiopia. The study was conducted based on a representative data collected from 290 students drawn from the district. A school-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on school children aged 10-14 years. Data were collected using structured pretested questionnaire. The effects of SFP on dietary diversity score (DDS), class attendance rate, body-mass-index for age (BAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) Z-scores were assessed using multivariable linear regression model. The finding showed significantly higher mean (±SD) of DDS in SFP beneficiaries (5.8 ± 1.1) than the non-beneficiaries (3.5 ± 0.7) (P nutritional status, and class attendance of school children, we strongly recommend scaling up the program to other food insecure areas.

  8. School meals defined from the perspective of students catered for under the National School Feeding Program, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Janaína Braga de; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares de; Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Based on socio-anthropological studies into food and in connection with guidance from the Public Policy on Food and Nutrition Security in Brazil, this paper sought to objectively analyze students' views of the school meals given to them as part of the National School Feeding Program (PNAE). The data was produced through ethnographic exercises that were developed where the above Program (hereafter Program) had been implemented in a semi-arid municipality in the state of Bahia. The exercises also involved the production of written material and the use of focus groups with teenagers in primary school education. Of particular note in this study was the time and space the students had for their break/recreation period which brought to light the relationship between the body and food. Based on the responses given we were able to identify different understandings and meanings associated with the food served in these institutions. The study helped to shed some light on the relational aspects between habitual eating at "home-on the road-and-in school" with the right to have school meals. We were also able to obtain a broader understanding of the eating habits of teenagers that are catered for as part of the PNAE.

  9. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  10. Comparative assessment of the food purchase program and the national school feeding program's impact in Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Gomes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Food Purchase Program (PAA and the National School Feeding Program (PNAE are the main trading programs of Brazil that promote a connection between the family farm and institutional markets. The case study portrayed in this article aimed to evaluate and compare the socioeconomic impacts generated by the PAA and PNAE among Ubá's family farmers in Minas Gerais. To do this, two tipes of questionnaires were applied to managers and farmers who participate in the programs and obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods and non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney. Results showed that the two policies present positive socioeconomic benefits to family farmers, although the PNAE's producers income be higher and the food prices traded in PAA are superior. On the other side, having participated in the PAA and PNAE does not provide extra income arising from entry into new markets, which in theory could be the result of improving the quality of production,and does not promote the reduction in the use of fertilizers and pesticides.

  11. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  12. Processing a programming handbook for visual designers and artists

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2014-01-01

    The visual arts are rapidly changing as media moves into the web, mobile devices, and architecture. When designers and artists learn the basics of writing software, they develop a new form of literacy that enables them to create new media for the present, and to imagine future media that are beyond the capacities of current software tools. This book introduces this new literacy by teaching computer programming within the context of the visual arts. It offers a comprehensive reference and text for Processing (www.processing.org), an open-source programming language that can be used by students, artists, designers, architects, researchers, and anyone who wants to program images, animation, and interactivity. Written by Processing's cofounders, the book offers a definitive reference for students and professionals. Tutorial chapters make up the bulk of the book; advanced professional projects from such domains as animation, performance, and installation are discussed in interviews with their creators. This secon...

  13. ANIMAL NUTRITION. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNITS, ANIMAL NUTRITION, FEED CHARACTERISTICS, VITAMINS, MINERALS. FINAL REPORT NUMBER 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE ANIMAL NUTRITION PRACTICES WERE IDENTIFIED BY EXAMINATION OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. UTILIZING THIS INFORMATION, THE AUTHOR INVOLVED 16 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL USE OF A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS. INSTRUCTIONAL RESULTS WERE NOT AVAILABLE AT THE…

  14. A new programming metaphor for image processing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O. M.; Piskunov, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    Most image processing systems, besides an Application Program Interface (API) which lets users write their own image processing programs, also feature a higher level of programmability. Traditionally, this is a command or macro language, which can be used to build large procedures (scripts) out of simple programs or commands. This approach, a legacy of the teletypewriter has serious drawbacks. A command language is clumsy when (and if! it attempts to utilize the capabilities of a multitasking or multiprocessor environment, it is but adequate for real-time data acquisition and processing, it has a fairly steep learning curve, and the user interface is very inefficient,. especially when compared to a graphical user interface (GUI) that systems running under Xll or Windows should otherwise be able to provide. ll these difficulties stem from one basic problem: a command language is not a natural metaphor for an image processing procedure. A more natural metaphor - an image processing factory is described in detail. A factory is a set of programs (applications) that execute separate operations on images, connected by pipes that carry data (images and parameters) between them. The programs function concurrently, processing images as they arrive along pipes, and querying the user for whatever other input they need. From the user's point of view, programming (constructing) factories is a lot like playing with LEGO blocks - much more intuitive than writing scripts. Focus is on some of the difficulties of implementing factory support, most notably the design of an appropriate API. It also shows that factories retain all the functionality of a command language (including loops and conditional branches), while suffering from none of the drawbacks outlined above. Other benefits of factory programming include self-tuning factories and the process of encapsulation, which lets a factory take the shape of a standard application both from the system and the user's point of view, and

  15. Comparative Study between Programming Systems for Incremental Sheet Forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayedfar Majid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF is a method developed to form a desired surface feature on sheet metals in batch production series. Due to a lack of dedicated programming system to execute, control and monitor the whole ISF, researchers tried to utilize programming systems designed for chip making process to suits for ISF. In this work, experiments were conducted to find suitability and quality of ISF parts produced by using manual CNC part programming. Therefore, ISF was carried out on stainless steel sheets using Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machines. Prior to running the experiments, a ball-point shaped tool made of bronze alloy was fabricated due to its superior ability to reduce the amount of friction and improve the surface quality of the stainless steel sheet metal. The experiments also employed the method of forming in negative direction with a blank mould and the tool which helped to shape the desired part quickly. The programming was generated using the MasterCAM software for the CNC milling machine and edited before transferring to the machine. However, the programming for the machine was written manually to show the differences of output date between software programming and manual programming. From the results, best method of programming was found and minimum amount of contact area between tool and sheet metal achieved.

  16. Outbreak of mass sociogenic illness in a school feeding program in northwest Bangladesh, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak. METHODS: We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations. RESULTS: Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30 were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%, heartburn (90%, and bitter taste (57%. All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a "devil's deed" that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this

  17. Outbreak of mass sociogenic illness in a school feeding program in northwest Bangladesh, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farhana; Kundu, Subodh Kumar; Islam, Md Saiful; Hasan, S M Murshid; Khatun, Asma; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Alamgir, A S M; Islam, M Sirajul; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak. We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations. Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30) were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%), heartburn (90%), and bitter taste (57%). All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a "devil's deed" that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning. Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this outbreak. Sharing investigation results and reassuring students

  18. Compensatory Feeding Following a Predator Removal Program : Detection and Mechanisms, 1982-1996 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, James H.

    2002-02-28

    Predator removal is one of the oldest management tools in existence, with evidence that ancient Greeks used a bounty reward for wolves over 3,000 years ago (Anonymous 1964). Efforts to control predators on fish have been documented in scientific journals for at least 60 years (Eschmeyer 1937; Lagler 1939; Foerster and Ricker 1941; Smith and Swingle 1941; Jeppson and Platts 1959), and has likely been attempted for much longer. Complete eradication of a target species from a body of water has rarely been the objective of predator removal programs, which instead have attempted to eliminate predators from specific areas, to reduce the density or standing stock of predators, or to kill the largest individuals in the population (Meronek et al. 1996). In evaluating management programs that remove only part of a predator population, the compensatory response(s) of the remaining predators must be considered. Some potential compensatory responses by remaining individuals include increased reproductive output, increased growth rate, or increased consumption of certain prey species (Jude et al. 1987). If compensation by predators that remain in the system following a removal effort occurs, it may reduce the effectiveness of the predator control program. Northern pike-minnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis (formerly called northern squawfish) consume juvenile salmon in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Northern pikeminnow have been estimated to consume about 11% of all juvenile salmon that migrate through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River (Rieman et al. 1991). Modeling studies suggested that removal of 20% of the northern pikeminnow population in John Day Reservoir would result in a 50% decrease in predation-related mortality of juvenile salmon migrating through this reach (Beamesderfer et al. 1991). Since the early 1940's, other programs have been implemented to remove northern pikeminnow, with hopes of

  19. Soybean in different forms of processing in the feeding of crossbred cows on brachiaria grass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Raimundi Andrade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate intake and digestibility of nutrients, as well as milk production and composition of the milk from F1 Holstein × Gyr cows kept on pasture, supplemented with sugarcane and concentrate (28% CP. Five cows with 150±14 lactation days and average milk production of 7.1±2.1 kg/day were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The treatments were: soybean meal-based concentrate; soy bean-based concentrate; ground soybean-based concentrate; roasted soybean-based concentrate; and ground, roasted soybean-based concentrate. Dry matter (DM, organic matter, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients intakes were not affected by the diet, but ether extract intake was higher for the animals fed soy bean-based diets than those fed soybean meal. The digestibility of DM, NDF and CP did not differ. The corrected milk yield differed between treatments; animals on the treatment with soy bean-based concentrate had the lowest production in relation to the others, which did not differ from each other. There was no difference between treatments for milk composition. Thus, soybean meal can be replaced by ground soy beans or roasted soy beans (ground or whole in diets for low-yield cows reared on Brachiaria decumbens pastures with no harm to milkproduction or composition. Therefore, the use of these alternative raw materials is recommended whenever their inclusion represents lower feeding costs.

  20. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  1. Physical Activity and Nutrition Program for Seniors (PANS): process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Linda; Jancey, Jonine M; Howat, Peter; Lee, Andy H; Shilton, Trevor

    2013-07-01

    The Physical Activity and Nutrition Program for Seniors (PANS) program aimed to increase levels of physical activity and improve the diet of insufficiently active community-based seniors aged 60 to 70 years using a range of strategies. Comprehensive process evaluation was used to determine the suitability and appropriateness of the resources and effectiveness of the strategies. Process evaluation data (qualitative and quantitative) were collected on the program strategies and resources throughout, and at the conclusion of the intervention period. The program strategies/resources were found to be relevant to the population, assisting participants to increase their level of physical activity and improve their diet. Participants reported that the program resources were suitable for their age-group (84%), encouraged them to think about physical activity (78%), and nutrition (70%). Participants reported that they used the pedometer (91%) and recorded daily steps (78%). Moreover, the provision of group guides facilitated individuals to set and achieve personal goals. The PANS strategies and resources were appropriate, which supported the seniors in identifying, establishing, and achieving their physical activity and nutrition goals. Minor refinements of the program were recommended based on the findings.

  2. Performance comparison of differential evolution techniques on optimization of feeding profile for an industrial scale baker's yeast fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüzgeç, Uğur

    2010-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is one of the novel evolutionary optimization methods used for solving the problems that consist of nondifferentiable, nonlinear and multi-objective functions. In this presented work, the classical DE technique and its various versions, such as opposition based on differential evolution (ODE), adaptive differential evolution (ADE), adaptive opposition based on differential evolution (AODE) which is an advanced version of ODE, are presented to determine the optimal feeding flow profile of an industrial scale fed-batch baker's yeast fermentation process. The main objective in any fed-batch fermentation process optimization is both to maximize the amount of the biomass at the end of the process and to minimize the ethanol formation during the process. Four different cases regarding the initial condition of the fermentation process were considered so as to evaluate the performances of proposed algorithms. Besides, two strategies of mutation and crossover operators, which are the most popular in DE's applications, were utilized for performance comparison tests. The influence of initial seed value, initial condition of the process, and both of the mutation and crossover strategies have been investigated for all the different classic, opposition-based, self-adaptive and adaptive opposition-based mechanisms. To demonstrate the performance comparison of the of DE's techniques, the experimental data collected from the fermentor with volume of 100 m(3) are presented with the optimization results obtained by using all the interested DE techniques for the same initial conditions. 2009 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of diastatic power and processing index on the feed value of barley grain for finishing feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, G O; Swift, M L; McAllister, T A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value of barley grain differing in diastatic power (DP; high vs. low; a malt trait) and processing index (PI; 75 vs. 85). One hundred sixty Angus × Hereford crossbred yearling steers (467 ± 38 kg; 144 intact and 16 rumen cannulated) were used in a complete randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment. Steers were assigned to 16 pens, 8 of which were equipped with the GrowSafe system to measure individual feed intake. Cannulated steers (2 per pen) were randomly assigned to the 8 GrowSafe pens. Diets consisted of high- or low-DP barley grain (80.0% of diet DM) processed to an index of either 75 or 85% (PI-75 and PI-85, respectively). Ruminal pH in cannulated steers was measured over four 5-d periods using indwelling electrodes. Fecal samples were collected every 28 d from the rectum of each steer to assess digestibility using AIA as a marker. No differences ( > 0.10) in rumen pH were observed among cattle as measured by the indwelling pH meters. However, lower ( barley in rumen samples collected just prior to feeding and measured in the laboratory. Intake of DM and OM were not affected ( ≥ 0.24) by DP but were lower ( barley tended to exhibit higher ( = 0.09) total tract DM digestibility than high-DP barley. Steers fed PI-75 barley also had higher ( = 0.06) G:F and NEg. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and starch was higher ( barley than for PI-85 barley. Low-DP barley increased ( barley, with a lower PI tending to increase ( = 0.06) rib eye area. Compared with steers fed high-DP diets, steers fed low-DP diets had more ( = 0.01) total (41.7 vs. 19.4%) and severe liver abscesses (22.2 vs. 9.7%). Results suggest that although low-DP barley increased liver abscesses, differences in DP did not alter digestion or growth performance but low-DP barley did improve dressing percentage. Barley with different DP responded similarly to processing, with more intensive processing (PI-75) of barley improving starch digestion

  4. 77 FR 36983 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...-0021] Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and... approved information collection National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program. OMB...

  5. A Food Transfer Program without a Formal Education Component Modifies Complementary Feeding Practices in Poor Rural Mexican Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; González de Cosío, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate complementary feeding partially explains micronutrient deficiencies in the first 2 y of life. To prevent malnutrition, the Mexican government implemented the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which transferred either food baskets containing micronutrient-fortified milk and animal food products or cash to beneficiary families along with educational sessions. This study evaluated the impact of PAL on 2 indicators of complementary feeding: minimum dietary diversity and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods in children aged 6-23 mo. A secondary analysis of the original PAL evaluation design was conducted through a randomized community trial implemented with 3 intervention groups (food basket with education, food basket without education, and cash transfer with education) and a control. The impact of PAL after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in 2 cross-sectional groups of children aged 6-23 mo at baseline and at follow-up in a panel of 145 communities by using difference-in-difference models. Only children who lived in households and communities that were similar between treatment groups at baseline were included in the analysis. These children were identified by using a propensity score. Of the 3 intervention groups, when compared with the control, only the food basket without education group component increased the consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods by 31.2 percentage points (PP) (P food baskets that include fortified complementary foods may be more effective than cash transfers. The fact that the 2 food basket groups differed in the observed impact does not allow for more convincing conclusions to be made about the education component of the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01304888. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Feed Forward Programming of Car Drivers’ Eye Movement Behavior. A System Theoretical Approach. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    have been due either to inhibition of peripheral information input, its storage, or that of central processing capacity. This sug- gestion might also...questionable, therefore, whether a subje-ctive report of the negative influence of windshieldwipers can be attributed to the driver’s persona - lity or to

  7. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ..., and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry... regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in the Federal Register of May 10, 2013... document amending the regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in the Federal...

  8. A Retrospective Chart Review of Dietary Diversity and Feeding Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder before and after Admission to a Day-Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Morton, Jane F.; Miles, Aida G.

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional status and mealtime performance among a group of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were examined before and after admission to an intensive feeding day-treatment program. Treatment involved escape extinction, reinforcement, and stimulus fading procedures. Outcomes focused on dietary diversity and mealtime performance,…

  9. HLW Feed Delivery AZ101 Batch Transfer to the Private Contractor Transfer and Mixing Process Improvements [Initial Release at Rev 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    2000-02-28

    The primary purpose of this business case is to provide Operations and Maintenance with a detailed transfer process review for the first High Level Waste (HLW) feed delivery to the Privatization Contractor (PC), AZ-101 batch transfer to PC. The Team was chartered to identify improvements that could be implemented in the field. A significant penalty can be invoked for not providing the quality, quantity, or timely delivery of HLW feed to the PC.

  10. [Situation of the municipalities of São Paulo state in relation to the purchase of products directly from family farms for the National School Feeding Program (PNAE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Betzabeth Slater; Schwartzman, Flavia; Januario, Bruna Lourenço; Ramos, Jamile Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    In 2009, Law 11,947 was passed, which provides for the care of school meals and consolidates the linkage of family farming with the National School Feeding Program (PNAE), by stipulating that at least 30% of the total financial resources granted by the Federal Government to the states and municipalities should be used for the acquisition of food directly from family farmers and rural entrepreneurs family or their organizations. To characterize the situation of the municipalities of São Paulo state in relation to the acquisition of products directly from family farmers after approval of Law 11,947. The diagnosis was carried out in the months of June to August 2011 by institutions linked to the Intersectoral School Feeding State Commission (CEIA). For the survey, a questionnaire was used and telephone interviews were conducted with representatives of the 645 municipal districts. It was possible to obtain the following information for a total of 613 municipalities: 47% (288) had already made local purchases at least once in all its stages. Of the 325 municipalities that do not conducted the process at all stages, 57% had not published a public call; 37% published but had not signed the purchase contract; 2% published a call, signed the contract but had not received the products; and 4% published at least one call, received the products but had not yet paid the farmers. The results show that approximately 50% of the municipalities evaluated are in a positive situation in relation to the local procurement for PNAE. However, the number of municipalities that did not publish the public call or not signed the contract is still important and deserves attention of the sectors involved.

  11. Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods Program. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDuffie, H.F.; Smith, D.H.; Owen, P.T.

    1979-03-01

    This selected bibliography with abstracts was compiled to provide information support to the Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods (PDPM) Program sponsored by DOE and administered by the Argonne National Laboratory. Objectives of the PDPM Program are to evaluate nonaqueous methods of reprocessing spent fuel as a route to the development of proliferation-resistant and diversion-resistant methods for widespread use in the nuclear industry. Emphasis was placed on the literature indexed in the ERDA--DOE Energy Data Base (EDB). The bibliography includes indexes to authors, subject descriptors, EDB subject categories, and titles.

  12. Corrosion Testing of Monofrax K-3 Refractory in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Alternate Reductant Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-06

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) uses a combination of reductants and oxidants while converting high level waste (HLW) to a borosilicate waste form. A reducing flowsheet is maintained to retain radionuclides in their reduced oxidation states which promotes their incorporation into borosilicate glass. For the last 20 years of processing, the DWPF has used formic acid as the main reductant and nitric acid as the main oxidant. During reaction in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), formate and formic acid release measurably significant H2 gas which requires monitoring of certain vessel’s vapor spaces. A switch to a nitric acid-glycolic acid (NG) flowsheet from the nitric-formic (NF) flowsheet is desired as the NG flowsheet releases considerably less H2 gas upon decomposition. This would greatly simplify DWPF processing from a safety standpoint as close monitoring of the H2 gas concentration could become less critical. In terms of the waste glass melter vapor space flammability, the switch from the NF flowsheet to the NG flowsheet showed a reduction of H2 gas production from the vitrification process as well. Due to the positive impact of the switch to glycolic acid determined on the flammability issues, evaluation of the other impacts of glycolic acid on the facility must be examined.

  13. [Hygienic characteristics of working conditions and health status of workers in animal feed-processing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, V F; Vasil'eva, O S; Taranova, V M; Mikhaĭlova, N A

    1990-01-01

    Studies of mixed folder processing labour conditions revealed a set of unfavourable occupational factors, including poor microclimate, high level dust discharge and bacterial contamination in the air. The major health disorders among the workers engaged therein include upper respiratory and bronchopulmonary, locomotor system and perypheral NS and skin diseases.

  14. Effect of feeding processed Cassia tora seed based diets on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four dietary treatments were formulated such that diets 1, 2, 3, and 4 contained 0, 5, 10 and 15% Cassia tora seeds, respectively. Forty-eight mixed breeds weaner rabbits with an ... Cassia tora seeds were processed using dry heat at temperatures of 800C for 20 minutes. The roasted Cassia tora seeds were milled and ...

  15. An image-processing program for automated counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D.J.; Anderson, W.H.; Anthony, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    An image-processing program developed by the National Institute of Health, IMAGE, was modified in a cooperative project between remote sensing specialists at the Ohio State University Center for Mapping and scientists at the Alaska Science Center to facilitate estimating numbers of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) in flocks at Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The modified program, DUCK HUNT, runs on Apple computers. Modifications provide users with a pull down menu that optimizes image quality; identifies objects of interest (e.g., brant) by spectral, morphometric, and spatial parameters defined interactively by users; counts and labels objects of interest; and produces summary tables. Images from digitized photography, videography, and high- resolution digital photography have been used with this program to count various species of waterfowl.

  16. Evaluation of two feeding programs on productive traits and foot injuries in commercial turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Santos-Ricalde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción : Varios factores afectan la ganacia de peso y el rendimiento de canal en las aves. Entre estos, los programas de alimentación, el se xo y las enfermedades son los má s relevamtes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de dos programas de alimentación, uno alto en proteína (AP y otro bajo en proteína (BP, en pavos de ambos sexos, sobre el peso vivo, rendimiento en canal y lesiones en patas. Méto do : El program a de alimentacion alto en proteí na (AP consistio en diet as con mayor contenido de proteí na que las utilizadas en el programa de alime n ta ció n bajo en proteína (BP, sin embargo, el nivel de energía metabolizable en las dietas fue simil ar en a mbos programas. Se evaluó la gancia diaria de peso, rendimiento de canal y lesiones en patas. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con 128 repeticiones por tratamiento. El analisis estadístico incluyó los efe ctos del programa de alimentación, sexo y la interacció n. Resultados : Los pavos del programa AP fueron más pesados (P1.5 cm de diá metro fueron más frecuentes (P<0.06 en los pavos alimentados con el programa AP (28.3% vs . BP (18.1% y en los machos (31.9% vs . hembras (14.9%; P<0.05. Adicional mente, conforme los pavos incrementaron de edad las lesiones grado 2 en patas fueron más frecuentes (34.9, 37.8 y 60.2% a las 15, 19 y 23 semanas de edad, respectivamente. Conclusión : Los resultados indican que los pavos criados con un programa AP fueron más pesados, mientras que los pavos machos fueron más pesados y rindieron más en canal que las hembras. La frecuencia y severidad de las lesiones en las patas de las aves fueron mayores en los pavos machos y de mayor edad.

  17. Efficient polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation by a new continuous feeding mode in three-stage mixed microbial culture (MMC) PHA production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Huang, Long; Wen, Qinxue; Guo, Zirui

    2015-09-10

    A new continuous feeding mode was developed to optimize the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulation step in the three-stage PHAs production process by mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) using mixed volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as substrate. The continuous feeding assays under low biomass loading rate (BLR) (in the range of 3.5-5.5Cmol VFA/Cmol X/d) can be directly fed with feedstock with pH from 5.0 to 10.0 without any pH regulation. The maximum intracellular PHA content of 70.4% and system PHA yield (YPHA/S(sys)) of 0.81Cmol PHA/Cmol VFA were achieved under the continuous feeding mode at BLR of 3.86Cmol VFA/Cmol X/d when directly fed with substrate at pH 5. These values were higher than those under the pulse wise feeding mode with the same substrate and active biomass concentration. The results indicated that a self-balanced pH state was formed in the continuous feeding system. Further studies on the reaction pH and kinetics of the MMCs in the continuous feeding reactor were conducted to understand the pH variation mechanism and accumulation process. The optimal BLR to get high PHA content and YPHA/S(sys) was 3.5-5.5Cmol VFA/Cmol X/d. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of feed rate and recycle rate variable on leaching process of Na2Zro3 with HCl in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palupi, Bekti; Supranto, Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi; Setyadji, Moch.

    2017-05-01

    This time, the natural resources of zircon sand is processed into several zirconium products which is utilized for various industries, such as ceramics, glass industry, metal industry and nuclear industry. The process of zircon sand into zirconium products through several stages, one of them is leaching process of Na2ZrO3 with HCl. In this research, several variations of recycle-rate/feed-rate had been done to determine the effect on leaching process. The leaching was processed at temperature of 90°C, ratio of Na2ZrO3:HCl = 1g:30mL, and 142 rotary per minute of stirring speed for 30 minutes with variation of recycle-rate/feed-rate such as 0.478, 0.299, 0.218, 0.171 and 0.141. The diameter size of Na2ZrO3 powder that used are 0.088 to 0.149 mm. This process was carried out in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) series with recycle. Based on this research, the greater of the recycle-rate/feed-rate variable, the obtained Zr recovery decreased. The correlation between recycle-rate/feed-rate and Zr recovery is shown by the equation y = -146.91x + 103.51, where y is the Zr recovery and x is the recycle-rate/feed-rate. The highest Zr recovery was 90.52% obtained at recycle-rate/feed-rate 0.141. The mathematical modeling involving the probability model P(r) = 2β2r2 exp(-βr2) can be applied to this leaching process with Sum of Squared Errors (SSE) values in the range of 6×10-7 - 7×10-6.

  19. 78 FR 56811 - National Organic Program-Sunset Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...This document describes the sunset review and renewal process for substances on the National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances (National List), a subpart of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic regulations. The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA) requires that the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB), a 15-member federal advisory committee, review all substances and that the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) renew these substances, within 5 years of their addition to or renewal on the National List. This action of NOSB review and USDA renewal is commonly referred to as the ``Sunset Process.'' This document informs stakeholders about the process that the NOSB will use to complete their responsibility to review substances under OFPA's sunset provision. This document also informs stakeholders about the process that the Secretary and the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) National Organic Program (NOP) will use to complete the USDA's responsibilities under OFPA's sunset provision.

  20. The probabilistic model of the process mixing of animal feed ingredients into a continuous mixer-reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Lytkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the polydisperse medium mixing process reflects its stochastic features in the form of uneven distribution of phase elements on the time of their presence in apparatus, particle size, ripple retention of the apparatus, random distribution of the material and thermal phase flows of the working volume, heterogeneity of the medium physical- and chemical properties, complicated by chemical reaction. For the mathematical description of the mixing process of animal feed ingredients in the presence of chemical reaction the system of differential equations of Academician V.V. Kafarov was used. Proposed by him hypothesis based on the theory of Markov’s processes stating that "any multicomponent mixture can be considered as the result of an iterative process of mixing the two components to achieve the desired uniformity of all the ingredients in the mixture" allows us to consider a process of mixing binary composition in a paddle mixer in the form of differential equations of two ingredients concentration numerous changes until it becomes a homogenous mixture. It was found out that the mixing process of the two-component mixture is determined in a paddle mixer with a constant mixing speed and a limit (equilibrium dispersion of the ingredients in the mixture i.e. with its uniformity. Adjustment of the model parameters was carried out according to the results of experimental studies on mixing the crushed wheat with metallomagnetic impurity, which was a key (indicator component. According to the best values of the constant of the continuous mixing speed and the equilibrium disperse values of the ingredients contents, the mathematical model parameters identification was carried out. The results obtained are used to develop a new generation mixer design.

  1. Liquefaction of Lignocellulose in Fluid Catalytic Cracker Feed: A Process Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shushil; Lange, Jean-Paul; Van Rossum, Guus; Kersten, Sascha R A

    2015-12-07

    We report a process concept for lignocellulose liquefaction in a refinery stream that will be coprocessed with the resulting biocrude and that, therefore, does not require the recovery and recycling of the liquefaction solvent. Light cycle oil and vacuum gas oil were found to be the two most promising solvents. Both refinery streams could provide a liquid yield of 58 C % (64 % energy yield). A techno-economic assessment indicates that the biocrude could be produced at an energy-equivalent crude oil price of 51-64 $ per barrel at a wood cost of 85 $ per dry ton. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. [Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López D'Sola, Patrizia; Sandia, María Gabriela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Hernández Serrano, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well

  3. The Voltan application programming environment for fail-silent processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D.; Low, C.; Shrivastava, S. K.

    1998-06-01

    The Voltan software library for building distributed applications provides the support for (i) a process pair to act as a single Voltan self-checking `fail-silent' process; and (ii) connection management for Voltan process communication. A Voltan fail-silent process is written by the application developer as a single threaded program. The Voltan system replicates this program transparently. The active replication of applications engenders problems when dealing with non-deterministic calculations. This paper outlines the mechanisms deployed by Voltan to deal with non-determinism. The current implementation can achieve a level of performance that is suitable for many real-time applications. The work described in this paper provides a way of solving the challenging problem of constructing fault-tolerant distributed computing systems capable of tolerating Byzantine failures, using general-purpose, low-cost components. The present practice is to employ hardware-based approaches to construct a `fail-silent' node using a self-checking processor pair working in lock-step. However, this approach is very costly in terms of the engineering effort required, and further, as processor speeds increase, keeping a pair in lock-step execution may prove difficult.

  4. Machine Learning for Characterization of Insect Vector Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis S Willett

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Insects that feed by ingesting plant and animal fluids cause devastating damage to humans, livestock, and agriculture worldwide, primarily by transmitting pathogens of plants and animals. The feeding processes required for successful pathogen transmission by sucking insects can be recorded by monitoring voltage changes across an insect-food source feeding circuit. The output from such monitoring has traditionally been examined manually, a slow and onerous process. We taught a computer program to automatically classify previously described insect feeding patterns involved in transmission of the pathogen causing citrus greening disease. We also show how such analysis contributes to discovery of previously unrecognized feeding states and can be used to characterize plant resistance mechanisms. This advance greatly reduces the time and effort required to analyze insect feeding, and should facilitate developing, screening, and testing of novel intervention strategies to disrupt pathogen transmission affecting agriculture, livestock and human health.

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out about local events, news, programs, and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all ...

  6. Generative design visualize, program, and create with processing

    CERN Document Server

    Bohnacker, Hartmut; Laub, Julia; Lazzeroni, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    Generative design is a revolutionary new method of creating artwork, models, and animations from sets of rules, or algorithms. By using accessible programming languages such as Processing, artists and designers are producing extravagant, crystalline structures that can form the basis of anything from patterned textiles and typography to lighting, scientific diagrams, sculptures, films, and even fantastical buildings. Opening with a gallery of thirty-five illustrated case studies, Generative Design takes users through specific, practical instructions on how to create their own visual experiments by combining simple-to-use programming codes with basic design principles. A detailed handbook of advanced strategies provides visual artists with all the tools to achieve proficiency. Both a how-to manual and a showcase for recent work in this exciting new field, Generative Design is the definitive study and reference book that designers have been waiting for.

  7. Clinical trial on the effects of a free-access acidified milk replacer feeding program on the health and growth of dairy replacement heifers and veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, C G; Leslie, K E; Millman, S T; Bielmann, V; Anderson, N G; Sargeant, J M; DeVries, T J

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of free-access acidified milk replacer feeding on the pre- and postweaning health of dairy and veal calves. Individually housed calves were systematically assigned at birth to 1 of 2 feeding programs: free-access feeding (ad libitum) of acidified milk replacer (ACD, n=249) or traditional restricted feeding (3L fed twice daily) of milk replacer (RES, n=249). Calves were fed milk replacer containing 24% crude protein and 18% fat. Acidified milk replacer was prepared to a target pH between 4.0 and 4.5 using formic acid. Calves were weaned off milk replacer at approximately 6wk of age. Weaning occurred over 5d, and during this weaning period, ACD calves had access to milk replacer for 12h/d and RES calves were offered only one feeding of milk replacer (3 L) daily. Calves were monitored daily for signs of disease. Fecal consistency scores were assigned each week from birth until weaning. A subset of calves was systematically selected for fecal sampling at 3 time points between 7 and 27d of age. Fecal samples were analyzed for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F5, Cryptosporidium parvum, rotavirus, and coronavirus. Hip width, hip height, body length, heart girth, and body weight were measured at birth and weaning. Postweaning body weight measurements were collected from the heifers at approximately 8mo of age. Postweaning body weight and carcass grading information was collected from the veal calves at slaughter once a live weight between 300 and 350kg had been achieved. The odds of ACD calves being treated for a preweaning disease event tended to be lower than that of the RES calves (1.2 vs. 5.2%, respectively). Preweaning mortality, postweaning disease treatment, and postweaning mortality did not differ between feeding treatments. The ACD feeding treatment supported greater preweaning average daily gain (0.59 vs. 0.43kg/d) and structural growth than RES feeding. Postweaning average daily gain and carcass

  8. Mathematics for seismic data processing with basic microcomputer programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camina, A.R.; Janacek, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The new, refined techniques for exploration of oil and gas and the growth of computer uses have led to a far wider application of mathematics, and the interpretation of seismic data in particular. The authors explain in detail the mathematical principles required for signal processing and clarify for the reader what are sometimes very complex concepts. The book starts at precalculus level and progresses through to advanced theories and principles. A collection of BASIC microcomputer programs is included to give the reader a practical feel for the mathematics and their applications to these techniques.

  9. Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE Complex. The ESP funds several multi-year tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R and D) leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE-EM. Treating essentially all DOE defense wastes requires separation methods that concentrate the contaminants and/or purify waste streams for release to the environment or for downgrading to a waste form less difficult and expensive to dispose of. Initially, ESP R and D efforts focused on treatment of high-level waste (HLW) from underground storage tanks (USTs) because of the potential for large reductions in disposal costs and hazards. As further separations needs emerge and as waste management and environmental restoration priorities change, the program has evolved to encompass the breadth of waste management and environmental remediation problems.

  10. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  11. Fish Processed Production Planning Using Integer Stochastic Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, Mawengkang, Herman

    2011-06-01

    Fish and its processed products are the most affordable source of animal protein in the diet of most people in Indonesia. The goal in production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the trade-off between economic objectives such as production cost and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model. The results which show the amount of each fish processed product and the number of workforce needed in each horizon planning are presented.

  12. 76 FR 67200 - Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens: Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process... the National Toxicology Program (DNTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  13. Impact of type of child growth intervention program on caregivers' child feeding knowledge and practices: a comparative study in Ga West Municipality, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbozo, Faith; Colecraft, Esi; Ellahi, Basma

    2016-07-01

    Community-based growth promotion (CBGP) delivered by community volunteers aims at enhancing the traditional growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) program delivered by community health nurses through the promotion of optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF) leading to improved child growth. This study compared IYCF knowledge and practices among caregiver-child pairs (0-24 months) receiving child welfare services from CBGP (n = 124) and GMP (n = 108) programs. Semistructured questionnaires were used to interview caregivers on IYCF knowledge/practices and validated food frequency questionnaire used to record infants' food intakes. Group differences were determined using Chi-square and independent samples t-tests (P children under 5 years owned by caregiver (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.405; 95% CI: 1.13-78.53, P = 0.038), her educational level (AOR: 0.112; 95% CI: 0.02-0.90, P = 0.040), and IYCF knowledge (AOR: 0.140; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79, P = 0.026) significantly predicted optimum child feeding. Nutrition education on optimum complementary feeding and birth spacing strategies should intensify.

  14. Seismic Record Processing Program (SRP), Version 1.03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabalis, D.L.; Cokkinides, G.J.; Rizos, D.C. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Coll. of Engineering

    1992-04-01

    The Seismic Record Processing Program (SRP) is an interactive computer code developed for the calculation of artificial earthquake records that comply with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard Review Plan. The basic objective of SRP is the calculation of artificial seismic time histories that correspond to Design Response Spectra specified in the US Atomic Energy Commission Regulatory Guide 1.60 and/or the Power Spectral Density (PSD) requirements of the NRC Standard Review Plan. However, SRP is a general computer code and can accommodate any arbitrarily specified Target Response Spectra (TRS) or PSD requirements. In addition, among its other futures, SRP performs quadratic baseline correction and calculates correlations factors for a set of up to three earthquake records. This manual is prepared in two parts. The first part describes the methodologies and criteria used while the second is a user`s manual. In section 1 of the first part, the techniques used for the adjustment of a given earthquake record to a required TRS family of curves for a set of specified damping ratios are presented. Similarly, in section 2 of the first part, the PSD of an earthquake record is compared to a target PSD and adjusted accordingly. Sections 3 and 4 of the first part deal with the subjects of baseline correction and correlation of earthquake records, respectively. The second part is the user`s manual. The user`s manual contains a list of the computer hardware requirements, instructions for the program installation, a description of the user generated input files, and a description of all the program menus and commands.

  15. Feed extrusion process description Descrição do processo de extrusão do alimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen J. Rokey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The following work discusses the main features of feed extrusion process explaining the expected effects on the final product according to the raw material used as starch, protein, fat and fiber. The selection of processing equipments as feeder, preconditioner and extruder is discussed considering the involved costs and the probability of future expansion. Dryers are also essential in the extrusion process as it reduces the level of moisture in an extrusion cooked product. High moisture levels increase the water activity which favors the bacterial and mold growth so an overview of different kinds of dryers is considered. Guidelines for an economic prediction are shown to determine the potential for profit considering the input of raw material cost, energy cost and capital equipment cost as related to the extrusion module.Este trabalho aborda as principais características do processo de extrusão de alimentos, explicando os efeitos esperados no produto final, em função do tipo de componente utilizado na receita, como amido, proteínas, gorduras e fibras. O dimensionamento dos equipamentos da linha de extrusão, como silo, pré-condicionador e extrusor, é tratado considerando-se os custos envolvidos e a possibilidade de expansões futuras. Secadores também são essenciais no processo de extrusão, pois reduzem o nível de umidade do produto final. Altos níveis de umidade aumentam a atividade de água, favorecendo a proliferação de bactérias e mofo, portanto, uma visão geral de diferentes tipos de secadores é considerada. Orientações para uma previsão econômica são apresentadas para se determinar o potencial de lucro, considerando-se os custos com a matéria-prima, a energia utilizada no processo de fabricação e os equipamentos relacionados ao módulo de extrusão.

  16. Extraction process of palm kernel cake as a source of mannan for feed additive on poultry diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Yusraini, E.

    2017-05-01

    Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) is a by-product of palm kernel oil extraction and found in large quantity in Indonesia. The inclusion of PKC on poultry diet are limited due to some nutritional problems such as anti-nutritional properties (mannan). On the other hand, mannan containing polysaccharides play in various biological functions particularly in enhancing the immune response and to control pathogen in poultry. The research objective to find out the extraction process of PKC and conducted at animal nutrition and Feed Science Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara. Various extraction methode were used in this experiment, including fraction analysis used 7 number sieves, and followed by water and acetic acid extraction. The result indicated that PKC had different particle size according to sieve size and dominated by particle size 850 um. The analysis of sugar content indicated that each particle size had different characteristic on treatment by hot water extraction. The particle size 180—850 um had higher sugar content than coarse PKC (2000—3000 um). The total sugar content were recovered vary between 0.9—3,2% from PKC were extracted. Treatment grinding method followed by hot water extraction (100—120 °C, 1 h) increased total sugar content than previous treatments and reach 8% from PKC were extracted. Utilisation acetic acid decreased the total amount of total sugar from PKC were extracted. It is concluded that treatment by hot temperature (110—120 °C) for 1 h show highest yield to extract sugar from PKC.

  17. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  18. 76 FR 59863 - Application and Approval Process for New Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... its level of program offerings (e.g., adding graduate degree programs when it previously offered only baccalaureate degree programs) must apply to the Secretary for approval of that expanded scope. Under 34 CFR 668..., or sufficiently represents, the likely earnings of its program graduates and the likely demand for...

  19. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  20. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  1. Evaluation of pre-PCR processing approaches for enumeration of Salmonella enterica in naturally contaminated animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelin, Jenny; Andersson, Gunnar; Vigre, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    methods, using 2·5, 50 and 25 g of feed, respectively, resulting in detection of Salmonella in 6, 15 and 9 bags. Enumeration resulted in 1·8 × 102–7·8 × 103 CFU g−1 (flotation‐qPCR) and 0·024 to >5·2 MPN g−1 (MPN‐PCR). Except for differences in methodology, results obtained with the three techniques could...... be due to the presence of nonculturable Salmonella and/or a heterogeneous distribution of Salmonella in the material. The evaluated methods provide different possibilities to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in feed, together with the numbers of culturable, as well as nonculturable cells, and can...... be applied to generate data to allow more accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment for Salmonella in the feed chain....

  2. Identifying cost-minimizing strategies for guaranteeing target dairy income over feed cost via use of the Livestock Gross Margin dairy insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvekar, M; Cabrera, V E; Gould, B W

    2010-07-01

    Milk and feed price volatility are the major source of dairy farm risk. Since August 2008 a new federally reinsured insurance program has been available to many US dairy farmers to help minimize the negative effects of adverse price movements. This insurance program is referred to as Livestock Gross Margin Insurance for Dairy Cattle. Given the flexibility in contract design, the dairy farmer has to make 3 critical decisions when purchasing this insurance: 1) the percentage of monthly milk production to be covered, 3) declared feed equivalents used to produce this milk, and 3) the level of gross margin not covered by insurance (i.e., deductible). The objective of this analysis was to provide an optimal strategy of how a dairy farmer could incorporate this insurance program to help manage the variability in net farm income. In this analysis we assumed that a risk-neutral dairy farmer wants to design an insurance contract such that a target guaranteed income over feed cost is obtained at least cost. We undertook this analysis for a representative Wisconsin dairy farm (herd size: 120 cows) producing 8,873 kg (19,545 lb) of milk/cow per year. Wisconsin statistical data indicates that dairy farms of similar size must require an income over feed cost of at least $110/Mg ($5/cwt) of milk to be profitable during the coverage period. Therefore, using data for the July 2009 insurance contract to insure $110/Mg of milk, the least cost contract was found to have a premium of $1.22/Mg ($0.055/cwt) of milk produced insuring approximately 52% of the production with variable monthly production covered during the period of September 2009 to June 2010. This premium represented 1.10% of the desired IOFC. We compared the above optimal strategy with an alternative nonoptimal strategy, defined as a contract insuring the same proportion of milk as the optimal (52%) but with a constant amount insured across all contract months. The premium was found to be almost twice the level obtained

  3. Menu design and selection for multicenter controlled feeding studies: process used in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial. DASH Collaborative Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J F; Windhauser, M M; Hoben, K P; Evans, M A; McGee, B B; Steele, P D

    1999-08-01

    Outpatient feeding studies are being used increasingly more often than inpatient studies because they are less expensive to conduct and less disruptive to participants' daily lives. Frequently, however, they are more difficult to implement. Studies involving multiple feeding centers add an additional layer of cooperation, coordination, and standardization to the already complex task of developing and delivering research diets. This was true for the 4-year Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial, one of the first multicenter outpatient controlled feeding studies. This 4-center, randomized clinical trial was designed to compare the effects of 3 dietary patterns on blood pressure. After a year of development, 3 sets of 7-day cycle menus that met the study nutrient criteria and that were appropriate for varying food production routines and staffing patterns at the 4 clinical centers were adopted. The major development tasks were: defining methodologies to guide menu design and food production; selecting a nutrient database and calculating nutrient content of menus; evaluating and selecting the menus; and adjusting the menus for final use. The purpose of this article is to describe the steps and considerations in the design and selection of menus for the DASH trial, a process applicable to all well-controlled feeding studies.

  4. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of genomic information in dairy cattle breeding programs has opend up the possibility to select for novel traits, especially for traits that are traditionally difficult to record in a progeny testing scheme. Feed intake and efficiency is such a difficult to measure trait. In Fe...

  5. Thinking processes used by high-performing students in a computer programming task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie Havenga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer programmers must be able to understand programming source code and write programs that execute complex tasks to solve real-world problems. This article is a trans- disciplinary study at the intersection of computer programming, education and psychology. It outlines the role of mental processes in the process of programming and indicates how successful thinking processes can support computer science students in writing correct and well-defined programs. A mixed methods approach was used to better understand the thinking activities and programming processes of participating students. Data collection involved both computer programs and students’ reflective thinking processes recorded in their journals. This enabled analysis of psychological dimensions of participants’ thinking processes and their problem-solving activities as they considered a programming problem. Findings indicate that the cognitive, reflective and psychological processes used by high-performing programmers contributed to their success in solving a complex programming problem. Based on the thinking processes of high performers, we propose a model of integrated thinking processes, which can support computer programming students. Keywords: Computer programming, education, mixed methods research, thinking processes.  Disciplines: Computer programming, education, psychology

  6. SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF ADDITIONAL FOOD INTRODUCTION, STATED IN THE NATIONAL PROGRAM OF THE INFANTS FEEDING OPTIMIZATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Skvortsova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of the study of clinical and biochemical blood markers of iron metabolism in infants. This study represents a part of the research, aimed to scientific confirmation of the statements associated with additional food introduction and stated in the «National program of the infants feeding optimization in the Russian Federation». In controlled conditions the children were divided into 2 main groups: feeding with breast milk and with artificial milk formulas. Each group was divided into sub-groups according to the age of the additional food introduction: 4, 5 or 6 months. The received data suggest that the iron content was appropriate in both groups at the age of 4 months before the additional food introduction; there was a gradual decrease of several values after that, especially marked in children feeding with breast milk and later introduction of additional food. The comparative analysis showed that at the age of 9 months the lowest values were in breast-fed children with additional food introduction at the age of 6 months. This can be associated not only with late additional food introduction, but also with difficulties occurring when beginning it at this age and leading to insufficient supply with certain nutrients, including iron. The detailed analysis of diets for children of different sub-groups will be discussed in the next article.

  7. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program: Develop and test sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed during FY 1995 under the task {open_quotes}Develop and Test Sorbents,{close_quotes} the purpose of which is to develop high-capacity, selective solid extractants to recover cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. This work is being done for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP), operated by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management`s Office of Technology Development. The task is under the direction of staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with key participation from industrial and university staff at 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota; IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Forks, Utah; AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois, and Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 3M and IBC are responsible for ligand and membrane technology development; AlliedSignal and Texas A&M are developing sodium titanate powders; and PNL is testing the materials developed by the industry/university team members. Major accomplishments for FY 1995 are summarized in this report.

  8. The potential effectiveness of the nutrition improvement program on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsma, Kate; Nkuoh, Godlove; Nshom, Emmanuel

    2016-11-15

    Despite the recent international focus on maternal and child nutrition, little attention is paid to nutrition capacity development. Although infant feeding counselling by health workers increases caregivers' knowledge, and improves breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and children's linear growth, most of the counselling in sub-Saharan Africa is primarily conducted by nurses or volunteers, and little is done to develop capacity for nutrition at the professional, organizational, or systemic levels. The Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) has integrated a cadre of nutrition counselors into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs, infant welfare clinics, and antenatal clinics to improve infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF). The study objective was to evaluate the effects of NIP's infant feeding counselors on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), complementary feeding (CF), and children's linear growth. A cross-sectional evaluation design was used. Using systematic random sampling, caregivers were recruited from NIP sites (n = 359) and non-NIP sites (n = 415) from Infant Welfare Clinics (IWCs) in the Northwest (NWR) and Southwest Regions (SWR) of Cameroon between October 2014 and April 2015. Differences in EBF and CF practices and children's linear growth between NIP and non-NIP sites were determined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression. After adjusting for differences in religion, occupation, and number of months planning to breastfeed, children were almost seven times (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.9; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.30, 21.09; β = 1.94) more likely to be exclusively breastfed at NIP sites compared to non-NIP sites. After adjusting for differences in occupation, religion, number of months planning to breastfeed, rural environment, economic status, attending other Infant Welfare Clinics, and non-biological caregiver, children were five times more likely to be stunted at

  9. Reengineering the Navy Program Objectives Memorandum (POM) Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simcik, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This thesis examines the Navy Planning, Programming and Budgeting System (PPBS) to determine if reengineering principles can be applied to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of resource allocation...

  10. A Program Evaluation Process to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellante, Donna; Donne, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    The process of program evaluation was utilized to evaluate the education program, provide information to make decisions on its ability to comply with mandates from the state education department, and develop or improve the program to meet the goals of the new initiative to meet the needs of English language learners. The program evaluation process…

  11. Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri, Carlos J.; Corripio, Armando B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two computer programs for use in process design courses: an easy-to-use equipment cost estimation program based on latest cost correlations available and an economic evaluation program which calculates two profitability indices. Comparisons between programed and hand-calculated results are included. (JM)

  12. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  13. Systems biology analysis merging phenotype, metabolomic and genomic data identifies Non-SMC Condensin I Complex, Subunit G (NCAPG and cellular maintenance processes as major contributors to genetic variability in bovine feed efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Widmann

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency is a paramount factor for livestock economy. Previous studies had indicated a substantial heritability of several feed efficiency traits. In our study, we investigated the genetic background of residual feed intake, a commonly used parameter of feed efficiency, in a cattle resource population generated from crossing dairy and beef cattle. Starting from a whole genome association analysis, we subsequently performed combined phenotype-metabolome-genome analysis taking a systems biology approach by inferring gene networks based on partial correlation and information theory approaches. Our data about biological processes enriched with genes from the feed efficiency network suggest that genetic variation in feed efficiency is driven by genetic modulation of basic processes relevant to general cellular functions. When looking at the predicted upstream regulators from the feed efficiency network, the Tumor Protein P53 (TP53 and Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 (TGFB1 genes stood out regarding significance of overlap and number of target molecules in the data set. These results further support the hypothesis that TP53 is a major upstream regulator for genetic variation of feed efficiency. Furthermore, our data revealed a significant effect of both, the Non-SMC Condensin I Complex, Subunit G (NCAPG I442M (rs109570900 and the Growth /differentiation factor 8 (GDF8 Q204X (rs110344317 loci, on residual feed intake and feed conversion. For both loci, the growth promoting allele at the onset of puberty was associated with a negative, but favorable effect on residual feed intake. The elevated energy demand for increased growth triggered by the NCAPG 442M allele is obviously not fully compensated for by an increased efficiency in converting feed into body tissue. As a consequence, the individuals carrying the NCAPG 442M allele had an additional demand for energy uptake that is reflected by the association of the allele with increased daily

  14. Systems biology analysis merging phenotype, metabolomic and genomic data identifies Non-SMC Condensin I Complex, Subunit G (NCAPG) and cellular maintenance processes as major contributors to genetic variability in bovine feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Philipp; Reverter, Antonio; Weikard, Rosemarie; Suhre, Karsten; Hammon, Harald M; Albrecht, Elke; Kuehn, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Feed efficiency is a paramount factor for livestock economy. Previous studies had indicated a substantial heritability of several feed efficiency traits. In our study, we investigated the genetic background of residual feed intake, a commonly used parameter of feed efficiency, in a cattle resource population generated from crossing dairy and beef cattle. Starting from a whole genome association analysis, we subsequently performed combined phenotype-metabolome-genome analysis taking a systems biology approach by inferring gene networks based on partial correlation and information theory approaches. Our data about biological processes enriched with genes from the feed efficiency network suggest that genetic variation in feed efficiency is driven by genetic modulation of basic processes relevant to general cellular functions. When looking at the predicted upstream regulators from the feed efficiency network, the Tumor Protein P53 (TP53) and Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 (TGFB1) genes stood out regarding significance of overlap and number of target molecules in the data set. These results further support the hypothesis that TP53 is a major upstream regulator for genetic variation of feed efficiency. Furthermore, our data revealed a significant effect of both, the Non-SMC Condensin I Complex, Subunit G (NCAPG) I442M (rs109570900) and the Growth /differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) Q204X (rs110344317) loci, on residual feed intake and feed conversion. For both loci, the growth promoting allele at the onset of puberty was associated with a negative, but favorable effect on residual feed intake. The elevated energy demand for increased growth triggered by the NCAPG 442M allele is obviously not fully compensated for by an increased efficiency in converting feed into body tissue. As a consequence, the individuals carrying the NCAPG 442M allele had an additional demand for energy uptake that is reflected by the association of the allele with increased daily energy intake as

  15. 76 FR 71037 - Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens: Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens... Toxicology Program (DNTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); National Institutes... (see ADDRESSES). Dated: November 8, 2011. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology...

  16. The course of oxidative processes in the hepatopancreas of age-2 carp after supplementing the feeds with thistle (Siliybum marianum seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Korylyak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of thistle seeds introduced into the basic diet of carp, the functional state of antioxidant protection (AOP and the formation of lipid peroxidation products (LPP in fish hepatopancreas. Methodology. The study has been carried out at the Lviv Research Station of the Institute of Fisheries in duplicate. The first replication was done in 2013, the second one in 2014 at industrial conditions of ponds with similar areas and with the same source of water supply. The object of the study were age-2 Lubin scaled carp. The experiment consisted of four variants and lasted 60 days. The control group of carp received a complete combined feed without additives during the entire growing season, while the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received feeds supplemented with 1, 5 and 10% of milled thistle. Thistle was introduced into the feed composition by granulation method. At the end of the experiment, tissue samples of the experimental groups of fish were taken for biochemical analysis. We used 10% tissue homogenates of carp hepatopancreas. We investigated the concentration of diene conjugates using a method based on the reaction of optical density of lipid heptanizopropanol extract. The determination of TBA-active products was carried out spectrophotometrically based on the color reaction with tiobarbitur acid. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was studied by determining the percentage inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction reaction in the presence of fenazynmetasulfate. The activity of catalase was analyzed based on the concentration of H2O2. The determination of protein content was performed by Bradford method. The processing of experimental results was performed by variational statistics. Statistically significant difference was assessed using a Student t-test. Findings. As a result of experimental studies in industrial conditions in duplicate, we detected AOP activation and reduction in LPO process intensity in

  17. Effect of programmed diurnal temperature cycles on plasma thyroxine level, body temperature, and feed intake of holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, I. M.; Johnson, H. D.; Hahn, G. L.

    1983-03-01

    Holstein cows exposed to simulated summer diurnal ambient temperature cycles of Phoenix, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia and diurnal modifications of these climates displayed daily cycles fluctuations in plasma thyroxine (T4) and rectal temperatures (Tre). There were daily diurnal changes in T4 and Tre under all simulated climate conditions. Maximal values generally occurred in the evening hours and minimum values in the morning. Although the diurnal rhythm was influenced by the various simulated climates (diurnal modifications) a diurnal rhythm was very evident even under constant conditions at thermoneutral (Tnc) and at cyclic thermoneutral conditions (TN). The major significance of the study is that the initiation of night cooling of the animals at a time when their Tre was highest was most beneficial to maintenance of a TN plasma T4 level. There was a highly significant negative relationship of average T4 and average Tre. There was also a significant negative relationship of feed consumption and average temperature-humidity index (THI). These data suggest that night cooling may be a most effective method to alleviate thermoregulatory limitations of a hot climate on optimal animal performance. Decreasing the night time air temperature (Ta) or THI or increasing the diurnal range allows the cows to more easily dissipate excess body heat accumulated during the day and minimize the thermal inhibition on feed intake, and alterations in plasma T4 and Tre.

  18. 78 FR 4478 - Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program: Application Process for Contract Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program: Application Process for Contract Awards AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice of Application Process for Federal Employees... the Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program (FEDVIP). This process is being changed to...

  19. Always Feed the Clowns and Other Tips for Building Better Partnerships between School Librarians and Providers of Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Jason Edwards travels to schools and libraries across the nation performing educational enrichment programs, such as his Monster Hunt Library Skills-Building Adventure Program, for librarians and students. In this article, he shares tips that he has gleaned that may help librarian/programmer partnerships function more smoothly. Three of the…

  20. Experimental workflow for developing a feed forward strategy to control biomass growth and exploit maximum specific methane productivity of Methanothermobacter marburgensis in a biological methane production process (BMPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krajete

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interests for new biofuel generations allowing conversion of gaseous substrate(s to gaseous product(s arose for power to gas and waste to value applications. An example is biological methane production process (BMPP with Methanothermobacter marburgensis. The latter, can convert carbon dioxide (CO2 and hydrogen (H2, having different origins and purities, to methane (CH4, water and biomass. However, these gas converting bioprocesses are tendentiously gas limited processes and the specific methane productivity per biomass amount (qCH4 tends to be low. Therefore, this contribution proposes a workflow for the development of a feed forward strategy to control biomass, growth (rx and qCH4 in a continuous gas limited BMPP. The proposed workflow starts with a design of experiment (DoE to optimize media composition and search for a liquid based limitation to control selectively growth. From the DoE it came out that controlling biomass growth was possible independently of the dilution and gassing rate applied while not affecting methane evolution rates (MERs. This was done by shifting the process from a natural gas limited state to a controlled liquid limited growth. The latter allowed exploiting the maximum biocatalytic activity for methane formation of Methanothermobacter marburgensis. An increase of qCH4 from 42 to 129 mmolCH4 g−1 h−1 was achieved by applying a liquid limitation compare with the reference state. Finally, a verification experiment was done to verify the feeding strategy transferability to a different process configuration. This evidenced the ratio of the fed KH2PO4 to rx (R(FKH2PO4/rx has an appropriate parameter for scaling feeds in a continuous gas limited BMPP. In the verification experiment CH4 was produced in a single bioreactor step at a methane evolution rate (MER of   132 mmolCH4*L−1*h−1 at a CH4 purity of 93 [Vol.%].

  1. [A SAS marco program for batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis for great database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rendong; Xiong, Jie; Peng, Yangqin; Peng, Xiaoning; Zeng, Xiaomin

    2015-02-01

    To realize batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis for great database by SAS marco program. We wrote a SAS macro program, which can filter, integrate, and export P values to Excel by SAS9.2. The program was used for screening survival correlated RNA molecules of ovarian cancer. A SAS marco program could finish the batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis, the selection and export of the results. The SAS macro program has potential applications in reducing the workload of statistical analysis and providing a basis for batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis.

  2. Processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes to improve nutritional value of dried distillers grain with solubles for animal feed: an in vitro digestion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sonja; Pustjens, Annemieke M; Kabel, Mirjam A; Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Hendriks, Wouter H; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2013-09-18

    Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48-78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments.

  3. Global Biology Research Program: Biogeochemical Processes in Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D. S. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The results of a workshop examining potential NASA contributions to research on wetland processes as they relate to global biogeochemical cycles are summarized. A wetlands data base utilizing remotely sensed inventories, studies of wetland/atmosphere exchange processes, and the extrapolation of local measurements to global biogeochemical cycling processes were identified as possible areas for NASA support.

  4. Collaborative study on the effect of grinding on the detection of bones from processed animal proteins in feed by light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veys, Pascal; Planchon, Viviane; Colbert, Ruairi; Cruz, Clara; Frick, Geneviève; Ioannou, Ioannis; Marchis, Daniela; Nordkvist, Erik; Paradies-Severin, Inge; Pohto, Arja; Weiss, Roland; Baeten, Vincent; Berben, Gilbert

    2017-08-01

    Bone fragments are essential structures for the detection of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed by light microscopy for official controls according to Annex VI of European Union Regulation EC/152/2009. The preparation of samples submitted for analysis requires a grinding step to make them suitable for microscopic slide preparation and observation. However, there are no technical guidelines set down for this step despite the fact that it can lead to an increase in bone numbers due to fragmentation. This was demonstrated by an in-house study carried out by the Irish National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for animal protein detection. The present collaborative study investigated the possible effects of three different grinding conditions on the final result for a feed adulterated with 0.05 and 0.01% (w/w) of PAP. The microscopic analysis either combined or not with an Alizarin Red staining was carried out by 10 different laboratories. The results demonstrated that although a large variation in the numbers of bone fragments was noted, five of the six different grinding/staining combinations applied at two levels of PAP adulteration did not significantly (at p = 0.05) differ from one another. The only exception occurred when grinding the feed containing 0.05% of PAP with a rotor mill equipped with a 0.5-mm sieve and combined with a staining which resulted in a greater number of bone fragments by forced fragmentation. Overall, the impact of the grinding/staining combinations on the final results was shown to be negligible when considering the regulatory limit of detection (LOD) requirement for the method and the current rules of implementation of the light microscopic method. From a total of 180 analyses carried out on the feed matrix containing 0.05% of PAP no false-negative result was observed, and at a level of 0.01% PAP only 10 false-negative results occurred.

  5. Improving the Diet for the Rearing of Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead: Blood Source and Collection - Processing - Feeding Procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel J De Beer

    Full Text Available One of the challenges to maintain tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae colonies is the sustainable supply of high quality blood meals. The effect of using anticoagulants during collection of the blood, the addition of phagostimulants to the blood meals as well as using mixtures of bovine and porcine blood in different proportions for feeding on colony productivity was assessed. Defibrinated bovine blood was found to be suitable to maintain both the Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead colonies. Blood collected with the anticoagulants sodium citrate, citric sodium combination, citrate phosphate dextrose adenine and citric acid did not affect colony performance of both species. Defibrinated bovine and porcine blood in a 1:1 ratio or the feeding of either bovine or porcine blood on alternating days improved pupae production of G. austeni and can be used to enhance colony growth. Bovine blood is appropriate to maintain G. brevipalpis colonies, however, feeding either bovine or porcine blood on alternating days did improve productivity. Adding the phagostimulants inosine tri-phosphate, cytosine mono-phosphate and guanosine mono-phosphate to the blood at a concentration of 10-4 M improved pupae production of the G. brevipalpis colony. The addition of adenosine tri-phosphate and inosine tri-phosphate improved the performance of the G. austeni colony. Decisions on the most suitable rearing diet and feeding protocols will not only depend on the biological requirements of the species but also on the continuous supply of a suitable blood source that can be collected and processed in a cost-effective way.

  6. Nutritional status and feeding-tube placement in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozec, Alexandre; Benezery, Karen; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Ettaiche, Marc; Vandersteen, Clair; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Riss, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun-Lévi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Leysalle, Axel; Saada, Esma; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Hebert, Christophe; Falewee, Marie-Noelle; Demard, François; Santini, José; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional status and determine its impact on clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy (ICT)-based larynx preservation program without prophylactic feeding-tube placement. All patients with locally advanced (T3/4, N0-3, M0) hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, technically suitable for total pharyngolaryngectomy, treated by docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF)-ICT for larynx preservation at our institution between 2004 and 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Patients' nutritional status was closely monitored. Enteral nutrition was used if and when a patient was unable to sustain per-oral nutrition and hydration. The impact of nutritional status on clinical outcomes was investigated in univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 53 patients (42 men and 11 women, mean age = 58.6 ± 8.2 years) were included in this study. Six (11.3 %) patients had lost more than 10 % of their usual body weight before therapy. Compared with patients' usual weight, the mean maximum patient weight loss during therapeutic management was 8.7 ± 4.5 kg. Enteral nutrition was required in 17 patients (32 %). We found no influence of the tested nutritional status-related factors on response to ICT, toxicity of ICT, overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival, and on post-therapeutic swallowing outcome. Maximum weight loss was significantly associated with a higher risk of enteral tube feeding during therapy (p = 0.03) and of complications (grade ≥3, p = 0.006) during RT. Without prophylactic feeding-tube placement, approximately one-third of the patients required enteral nutrition. There was no significant impact of nutritional status on oncologic or functional outcomes.

  7. SNP Polymorphism Survey of the Parental Lines of ISRA Sorghum Breeding Program as Part of the Feed the Future

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Polymorphism of SNP Markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) was assessed on 24 parental lines of the ISRA sorghum breeding program . About 1300 SNP have been used...

  8. Statistical coordinates of the LEADER Program implementation process in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára - Dalma POLGÁR (DESZKE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The LEADER program, the fourth priority direction for financing through European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development – EAFRD, consists in implementing local development strategies for improving administrative governance in rural areas. This paper presents the management of rural development by the National Network for Rural Development and the status of implementation of the LEADER program in Romania, until December 2014. The funded projects of rural development meet the requirements of local communities identified by the operational structures of type LAG - Local Action Group, through appropriate measures, specific to each county.

  9. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  10. Nutritional status, feeding practices and state of other related indicators at onset of a multi-model community nutrition intervention program in Mpigi District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Tushemerirwe, Florence Basiimwa; Kajjura, Richard; Nabunya, Victoria; Naitala, Ronald Andrew; Namanda, Cissie

    2016-12-01

    In Uganda, malnutrition level has persistently remained high among the under-fives and this has led NGOs like World Vision, Uganda into finding innovative ways for intervention. This paper presents an assessment of nutrition status and values of related indicators at onset of a community intervention program in four sub-counties of Mpigi district in Central Uganda. This was a cross-sectional study to provide baseline information for a nutrition intervention. The study units were index children aged 6-59 months from 818 households. Face to face interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaires. Values of key indicators were computed and compared between designated control and intervention areas. Stunting level was 32% while wasting was 3% and underweight at 10%. Most of the index children (78%) started breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. Nearly a third of the households visited had a kitchen garden and this did not differ by intervention status. Like at regional level, nutrition status and feeding practices in the study area were poor. The values of these indicators did not significantly change by designated intervention status. Much effort was needed to realize a difference in nutrition and feeding practices in designated intervention areas.

  11. Use of GIS technologies to facilitate the transportation project programming process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Transportation project programming in a transportation agency is a process of matching : potential projects with available funds to accomplish the agencys mission and goals of a : given period of time. Result of this process is normally a transpor...

  12. Effectiveness in improving knowledge, practices, and intakes of "key problem nutrients" of a complementary feeding intervention developed by using linear programming: experience in Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmida, Umi; Kolopaking, Risatianti; Santika, Otte; Sriani, Sriani; Umar, Jahja; Htet, Min Kyaw; Ferguson, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    Complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) with the use of locally available foods can be developed by using linear programming (LP). Although its potential has been shown for planning phases of food-based interventions, the effectiveness in the community setting has not been tested to our knowledge. We aimed to assess effectiveness of promoting optimized CFRs for improving maternal knowledge, feeding practices, and child intakes of key problem nutrients (calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc). A community-intervention trial with a quasi-experimental design was conducted in East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia, on children aged 9-16 mo at baseline. A CFR group (n = 240) was compared with a non-CFR group (n = 215). The CFRs, which were developed using LP, were promoted in an intervention that included monthly cooking sessions and weekly home visits. The mother's nutrition knowledge and her child's feeding practices and the child's nutrient intakes were measured before and after the 6-mo intervention by using a structured interview, 24-h recall, and 1-wk food-frequency questionnaire. The CFR intervention improved mothers' knowledge and children's feeding practices and improved children's intakes of calcium, iron, and zinc. At the end line, median (IQR) nutrient densities were significantly higher in the CFR group than in the non-CFR group for iron [i.e., 0.6 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.8 mg/100 kcal) compared with 0.5 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.7 mg/100 kcal)] and niacin [i.e., 0.8 mg/100 kcal (0.5-1.0 mg/100 kcal) compared with 0.6 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.8 mg/100 kcal)]. However, median nutrient densities for calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc in the CFR group (23, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.5 mg/100 kcal, respectively) were still below desired densities (63, 1.0, 0.9, and 0.6 mg/100 kcal, respectively). The CFRs significantly increased intakes of calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc, but nutrient densities were still below desired nutrient densities. When the adoption of optimized CFRs is

  13. Geothermal policy development program: expediting the local geothermal permitting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    For a number of years, concerns have been raised about the length of time and the complexity involved in obtaining required permits in order to develop the geothermal resource at the Geysers. Perhaps the most important factor is jurisdiction. At the Geysers, all three levels of government - local, state, and federal - exercise significant authority over various aspects of geothermal development. In addition, several agencies within each governmental level play an active role in the permitting process. The present study is concerned primarily with the local permitting process, and the ways in which this process could be expedited. This report begins by looking at the local role in the overall permitting process, and then reviews the findings and conclusions that have been reached in other studies of the problem. This is followed by a case study evaluation of recent permitting experience in the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties, and the report concludes by outlining several approaches to expediting the local permitting process.

  14. Hierarchical programming language for modal multi-rate real-time stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Modal multi-rate stream processing applications with real-time constraints which are executed on multi-core embedded systems often cannot be conveniently specified using current programming languages. An important issue is that sequential programming languages do not allow for convenient programming

  15. The extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend Program: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Campbell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how we can prevent childhood obesity in scalable and sustainable ways is imperative. Early RCT interventions focused on the first two years of life have shown promise however, differences in Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups diminish once the interventions cease. Innovative and cost-effective strategies seeking to continue to support parents to engender appropriate energy balance behaviours in young children need to be explored. Methods/Design The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend Program builds on the early outcomes of the Melbourne InFANT Program. This cluster randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an extended (33 versus 15 month and enhanced (use of web-based materials, and Facebook® engagement, version of the original Melbourne InFANT Program intervention in a new cohort. Outcomes at 36 months of age will be compared against the control group. Discussion This trial will provide important information regarding capacity and opportunities to maximize early childhood intervention effectiveness over the first three years of life. This study continues to build the evidence base regarding the design of cost-effective, scalable interventions to promote protective energy balance behaviors in early childhood, and in turn, promote improved child weight and health across the life course. Trial registration ACTRN12611000386932 . Registered 13 April 2011.

  16. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Khadijeh; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Habibi, Mohsen Ibrahim; Heidari, Homa; Dorosti-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Pourshahriari, Mahsima; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. METHODS: This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. RESULTS: The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05). Psychological tests’ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05) at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran. PMID:22091261

  17. EvoBuild: A Quickstart Toolkit for Programming Agent-Based Models of Evolutionary Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Aditi; Wilensky, Uri

    2017-10-01

    Extensive research has shown that one of the benefits of programming to learn about scientific phenomena is that it facilitates learning about mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. However, using programming activities in classrooms is associated with costs such as requiring additional time to learn to program or students needing prior experience with programming. This paper presents a class of programming environments that we call quickstart: Environments with a negligible threshold for entry into programming and a modest ceiling. We posit that such environments can provide benefits of programming for learning without incurring associated costs for novice programmers. To make this claim, we present a design-based research study conducted to compare programming models of evolutionary processes with a quickstart toolkit with exploring pre-built models of the same processes. The study was conducted in six seventh grade science classes in two schools. Students in the programming condition used EvoBuild, a quickstart toolkit for programming agent-based models of evolutionary processes, to build their NetLogo models. Students in the exploration condition used pre-built NetLogo models. We demonstrate that although students came from a range of academic backgrounds without prior programming experience, and all students spent the same number of class periods on the activities including the time students took to learn programming in this environment, EvoBuild students showed greater learning about evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss the implications of this work for design research on programming environments in K-12 science education.

  18. Application of graftech method for pro-gramming of discrete technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigiel, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains description of a new programming method of PLC controllers, presently a fundamental tool in discrete process auto-mation. A PLC user, applying standard languages for programming of sequence processes, is forced to rely on intuitive methods as well as his own experience. For this reason, the authors attempted to work out a method, which would allow for simple execution of the program-ming process with no limits regarding number of steps and input and output signals. The result of these studies is a method named Graftech by its authors. The method consists in determination of a functional program in LD language, basing on process algorithm written with SFC network. The rules concerning determination of the functional program are also described. Application of Graftech method is illustrated with an example of automatic ejector of casting molds.

  19. A data collection and processing procedure for evaluating a research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe Rensi; H. Dean Claxton

    1972-01-01

    A set of computer programs compiled for the information processing requirements of a model for evaluating research proposals are described. The programs serve to assemble and store information, periodically update it, and convert it to a form usable for decision-making. Guides for collecting and coding data are explained. The data-processing options available and...

  20. Data Processing: The Need for Programs in Business Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, James

    1980-01-01

    There is a demand in industry for both computer science graduates and business information systems graduates. Educators need to start this training at the secondary level with an introduction to all phases of data processing for any interested student. (CT)

  1. Assessing Program Coverage of Two Approaches to Distributing a Complementary Feeding Supplement to Infants and Young Children in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant J Aaron

    Full Text Available The work reported here assesses the coverage achieved by two sales-based approaches to distributing a complementary food supplement (KOKO Plus™ to infants and young children in Ghana. Delivery Model 1 was conducted in the Northern Region of Ghana and used a mixture of health extension workers (delivering behavior change communications and demand creation activities at primary healthcare centers and in the community and petty traders recruited from among beneficiaries of a local microfinance initiative (responsible for the sale of the complementary food supplement at market stalls and house to house. Delivery Model 2 was conducted in the Eastern Region of Ghana and used a market-based approach, with the product being sold through micro-retail routes (i.e., small shops and roadside stalls in three districts supported by behavior change communications and demand creation activities led by a local social marketing company. Both delivery models were implemented sub-nationally as 1-year pilot programs, with the aim of informing the design of a scaled-up program. A series of cross-sectional coverage surveys was implemented in each program area. Results from these surveys show that Delivery Model 1 was successful in achieving and sustaining high (i.e., 86% effective coverage (i.e., the child had been given the product at least once in the previous 7 days during implementation. Effective coverage fell to 62% within 3 months of the behavior change communications and demand creation activities stopping. Delivery Model 2 was successful in raising awareness of the product (i.e., 90% message coverage, but effective coverage was low (i.e., 9.4%. Future programming efforts should use the health extension / microfinance / petty trader approach in rural settings and consider adapting this approach for use in urban and peri-urban settings. Ongoing behavior change communications and demand creation activities is likely to be essential to the continued success of

  2. Mass cultivation of microalgae on animal wastewater: a sequential two-stage cultivation process for energy crop and omega-3-rich animal feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Li, Yecong; Min, Min; Mohr, Michael; Du, Zhenyi; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2012-09-01

    In this study, 97 microalgal strains purchased from algae bank and 50 microalgal strains isolated from local waters in Minnesota were screened for their adaptability growing on a 20-fold diluted digested swine manure wastewater (DSMW). A pool of candidate strains well adapted to the DSMW was established through a high-throughput screening process. Two top-performing facultative heterotrophic strains with high growth rate (0.536 day(-1) for UMN 271 and 0.433 day(-1) for UMN 231) and one strain with high omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid (EPA, 3.75 % of total fatty acids for UMN 231) were selected. Subsequently, a sequential two-stage mixo-photoautotrophic culture strategy was developed for biofuel and animal feed production as well as simultaneous swine wastewater treatment using above two strains. The maximal biomass concentration and lipid content at the first and second stages reached 2.03 g/L and 23.0 %, and 0.83 g/L and 19.0 % for UMN 271 and UMN 231, respectively. The maximal nutrient removals for total phosphorus and ammonia after second-stage cultivation were 100 and 89.46 %, respectively. The experiments showed that this sequential two-stage cultivation process has great potential for economically viable and environmentally friendly production of both renewable biofuel and high-value animal feed and at the same time for animal wastewater treatment.

  3. Storage and processing of mineral deposits using Access, Delphi and Topol programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomaznik, I. (HGF VSB-TU Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic))

    1999-01-01

    The program system has been developed to store and process data. The Rockware system can be used for graphic outputs and some special operations and calculations. This system allows graphic outputs based on text files which contain graphic instructions. A modern database program Microsoft Access 97 is used for data storage, whereas the Borland compiler Delphi 3 serves as the programming medium, and the Topol program of the Help Service Mapping Company is used for graphic outputs. 3 figs.

  4. Storage and processing of mineral deposits using Access, Delphi and Topol programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomaznik, I. [HGF VSB-TU Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    1999-11-01

    The program system has been developed to store and process data. The Rockware system can be used for graphic outputs and some special operations and calculations. This system allows graphic outputs based on text files which contain graphic instructions. A modern database program Microsoft Access 97 is used for data storage, whereas the Borland compiler Delphi 3 serves as the programming medium, and the Topol program of the Help Service Mapping Company is used for graphic outputs. 3 figs.

  5. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  6. Feed-Forward Neural Network Soft-Sensor Modeling of Flotation Process Based on Particle Swarm Optimization and Gravitational Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Sheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For predicting the key technology indicators (concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate of flotation process, a feed-forward neural network (FNN based soft-sensor model optimized by the hybrid algorithm combining particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm and gravitational search algorithm (GSA is proposed. Although GSA has better optimization capability, it has slow convergence velocity and is easy to fall into local optimum. So in this paper, the velocity vector and position vector of GSA are adjusted by PSO algorithm in order to improve its convergence speed and prediction accuracy. Finally, the proposed hybrid algorithm is adopted to optimize the parameters of FNN soft-sensor model. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization and prediction accuracy for the concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate to meet the online soft-sensor requirements of the real-time control in the flotation process.

  7. Open source clinical portals: a model for healthcare information systems to support care processes and feed clinical research. An Italian case of design, development, reuse, and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Paolo; Baj, Emanuele; Restifo, Nicola; Origgi, Gianni; Bragagia, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Open source is a still unexploited chance for healthcare organizations and technology providers to answer to a growing demand for innovation and to join economical benefits with a new way of managing hospital information systems. This chapter will present the case of the web enterprise clinical portal developed in Italy by Niguarda Hospital in Milan with the support of Fondazione Politecnico di Milano, to enable a paperless environment for clinical and administrative activities in the ward. This represents also one rare case of open source technology and reuse in the healthcare sector, as the system's porting is now taking place at Besta Neurological Institute in Milan. This institute is customizing the portal to feed researchers with structured clinical data collected in its portal's patient records, so that they can be analyzed, e.g., through business intelligence tools. Both organizational and clinical advantages are investigated, from process monitoring, to semantic data structuring, to recognition of common patterns in care processes.

  8. Processing of toxicological studies results in the statistical program R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoseeva Elena Vasilyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented article is devoted to the analysis of the experimental values and the applicability of the toxicological studies results in the statistical environment R. This freely distributed program has great functional potential and well-designed algorithm, these make it "...the undisputed leader among the freely distributed systems for statistical analysis..." As the data, the experimental results to assess the toxicity of a highly- mineralized sample in the industrial production wastes were used. We evaluated two test-functions: the change in the population increase of cells and the fluorescence level of laboratory culture of the marine diatom algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The detailed algorithm of the analysis, namely: data initialization, evaluation of selective parameters of descriptive statistics, toxicity assessment, single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey and Dunnett multiple comparison tests, evaluation of correlation between the observed variable (Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients are presented in the article. The complete list of scripts in the program R allows to reproduce a similar analysis.

  9. Strategies for retargeting of existing sequential programs for parallel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    There are relative advantages and disadvantages of small-grain and large-grain parallelism. It is well established that, for MIMD machines, small-grain parallelism is not recommended because of associated excessive interprocessor communication overhead. On the other hand, the large-grain approach does not provide an adequate degree of parallelism and may not provide necessary speedup. The author adopted an optimal-grain approach such that the parallelism obtained at small-grain level is retained while minimizing the communication overhead. The idea is to employ a systematic approach in partitioning an existing program into a set of large grains such that the best performance in terms of total execution time is achieved by evaluating the tradeoff between parallelism and communication cost. To do this effectively, a model is introduced that can accurately represent the possible communication between various computational units of a program, and can measure possible computational overlap between interacting computational units. The tradeoff between parallelism and communication cost leads to an improved performance.

  10. Definition of key parameters for constructing an online reference micrographs collection of processed animal particles in feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinchon Crespo, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Reference Laboratory for the detection of animal proteins in feedingstuffs (EURL-AP has developed an online micrographs collection supporting its network activities within the European Union for the detection of prohibited animal by-products in feed. So far, the only official method for detecting these by-products is light microscopy, which is highly dependent on the skills of a microscopist because it relies on particle recognition. In order to help the microscopist network to achieve high proficiency levels, it was necessary to create an online reference tool based on micrographs and accessible via an Intranet platform. Members of the National Reference Laboratories for animal proteins in feedingstuffs (NRL-AP and the International Association for Feedingstuff Analysis – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy (IAG have access to this micrographs collection. This paper describes how the online collection was created and what conditions had to be taken into account in creating such a tool. It also describes how information are periodically updated and managed within the context of the large amount of information included in each micrograph. The need for a robust back-office system as the foundation for all the research activities in this project is also covered, and the evaluation of the use of the online collection is discussed.

  11. Scale-up fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch to produce ruminant feed by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, M.R.; Mutaat, H.H.; Deres, R.M. (Unit Tenaga Nuklear, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)); Kume, Tamikazu

    1992-01-01

    Scale-up fermentation and irradiation conditions of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm were examined to produce a large amount of fermented products for animal feeds. The EFB substrates pasteurized by irradiation were inoculated with Coprinus cinereus. After 1 month incubation, the crude fiber contents decreased to 20 - 38% and crude protein contents increased to 9 - 13% in small scale fermentation using conical flask (6 - 20 g EFB). In the case of fermentation using polypropylene bags with 400 g EFB, crude fiber and protein contents were 32 - 34% and 11 - 14%, respectively. A larger plastic container packed with 1.5 kg EFB fiber of 10cm thickness was used for mushroom cultivation. After harvest of mushroom (yields were about 250 g per container), the quality of residual substrates improved further as reflected by its crude fiber content of only 16 - 20%, crude protein content of 6 - 8%. These results show that a large volume of products are available under the good aeration by increasing the number of plastic bags or containers. For the irradiation of a lot of fermentation substrates, the advantage of [sup 60]Co gamma-ray and electron beam irradiator was also discussed. (author).

  12. Complete nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater via partial nitrification by appropriately alternating anoxic/aerobic conditions in a continuous plug-flow step feed process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shijian; Peng, Yongzhen; Qiu, Shuang; Zhu, Ao; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-05-15

    This study assessed the technical feasibility of removing nitrogen from municipal wastewater by partial nitrification (nitritation) in a continuous plug-flow step feed process. Nitrite in the effluent accumulated to over 81.5  ± 9.2% but disappeared with the transition of process operation from anoxic/oxic mode to the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic mode. Batch tests showed obvious ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) stimulation (advanced ammonia oxidation rate) and nitrite (NOB) oxidizing bacteria inhibition (reduced nitrite oxidation rate) under transient anoxic conditions. Two main factors contributed to nitritation in this continuous plug-flow process: One was the alternating anoxic and oxic operational condition; the step feed strategy guaranteed timely denitrification in anoxic zones, allowing a reduction in energy supply (nitrite) to NOB. Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that NOB population gradually decreased to 1.0  ± 0.1% of the total bacterial population (dominant Nitrospira spp., 1.55 × 10(9) copies/L) while AOB increased approximately two-fold (7.4  ± 0.9%, 1.25 × 10(10) copies/L) during the above anoxic to anaerobic transition. Most importantly, without addition of external carbon sources, the above wastewater treatment process reached 86.0  ± 4.2% of total nitrogen (TN) removal with only 7.23 ± 2.31 mg/L of TN in the effluent, which met the discharge requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Outpatient therapeutic feeding program outcomes and determinants in treatment of severe acute malnutrition in tigray, northern ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henock Gebremedhin Yebyo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outpatient Therapeutic feeding Program (OTP brings the services for management of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM closer to the community by making services available at decentralized treatment points within the primary health care settings, through the use of ready-to-use therapeutic foods, community outreach and mobilization. Little is known about the program outcomes. This study revealed the levels of program outcome indictors and determinant factors to recovery rate. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 628 children who had been managed for SAM under OTP from April/2008 to January/2012. The children were selected using systematic random sampling from 12 health posts and 4 health centers. The study relied on information of demographic characteristics, anthropometries, Plumpy'Nut, medical problems and routine medications intakes. The results were estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log-rank test and Cox-regression. RESULTS: The recovery, defaulter, mortality and weight gain rates were 61.78%, 13.85%, 3.02% and 5.23 gm/kg/day, respectively. Routine medications were administered partially and children with medical problems were managed inappropriately under the program. As a child consumed one more sachet of Plumpy'Nut, the recovery rate from SAM increased by 4% (HR = 1.04, 95%-CI = 1.03, 1.05, P<0.001. The adjusted hazard ratios to recovery of children with diarrhea, appetite loss with Plumpy'Nut and failure to gain weight were 2.20 (HR = 2.20, 95%-CI = 1.31, 3.41, P = 0.001, 4.49 (HR = 1.74, 95%-CI = 1.07, 2.83, P = 0.046 and 3.88 (HR = 1.95, 95%-CI = 1.17, 3.23, P<0.001, respectively. Children who took amoxicillin and de-worming had 95% (HR = 1.95, 95%-CI = 1.17, 3.23 and 74% (HR = 1.74, 95%-CI = 1.07, 2.83 more probability to recover from SAM as compared to those who didn't take them. CONCLUSIONS: The OTP was partially successful. Management of

  14. Programming in the Large based on the Business Process Modeling Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Emig, Christian; Momm, Christof; Weisser, Jochen; Abeck, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    A software application is related to the processes it supports. Today, UML diagrams esp. use case diagrams and activity diagrams are often used to model the relevant aspects of the processes within the analysis phase. In the design phase the models are manually mapped to the business layer of the software application. In the context of Service-oriented Architectures (SOA) Programming in the Large takes a different approach: Business processes are described in a programming language, i.e. a pr...

  15. Breast-feeding Coparenting Framework: A New Framework to Improve Breast-feeding Duration and Exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass-Dick, Jennifer; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    Targeting mothers and fathers in breast-feeding promotion programs is recommended as research has found that father's support positively impacts breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Breast-feeding coparenting refers to the manner in which parents work together to achieve their breast-feeding goals. The Breast-feeding Coparenting Framework was developed on the basis of diverse coparenting models and research related to father's involvement with breast-feeding. This framework consists of 5 components: joint breast-feeding goal setting, shared breast-feeding responsibility, proactive breast-feeding support, father's/partner's parental-child interactions, and productive communication and problem solving. This framework may be of value to policy makers and program providers working to improve breast-feeding outcomes.

  16. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-04-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system-based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM).Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators.Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys (n = ∼500 children aged 6-23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24-59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%).Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P social franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623.

  17. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  18. Deriving transcriptional programs and functional processes from gene expression databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey T

    2012-04-15

    A system-wide approach to revealing the underlying molecular state of a cell is a long-standing biological challenge. Developed over the last decade, gene expression profiles possess the characteristics of such an assay. They have the capacity to reveal both underlying molecular events as well as broader phenotypes such as clinical outcomes. To interpret these profiles, many gene sets have been developed that characterize biological processes. However, the full potential of these gene sets has not yet been achieved. Since the advent of gene expression databases, many have posited that they can reveal properties of activities that are not evident from individual datasets, analogous to how the expression of a single gene generally cannot reveal the activation of a biological process. To address this issue, we have developed a high-throughput method to mine gene expression databases for the regulation of gene sets. Given a set of genes, we scored it against each gene expression dataset by looking for enrichment of co-regulated genes relative to an empirical null distribution. After validating the method, we applied it to address two biological problems. First, we deciphered the E2F transcriptional network. We confirmed that true transcriptional targets exhibit a distinct regulatory profile across a database. Second, we leveraged the patterns of regulation across a database of gene sets to produce an automatically generated catalog of biological processes. These demonstrations revealed the power of a global analysis of the data contained within gene expression databases, and the potential for using them to address biological questions.

  19. Automatic construction of image inspection algorithm by using image processing network programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuichiro; Aoki, Kimiya

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a method for automatic programming of inspection image processing. In the industrial field, automatic program generators or expert systems are expected to shorten a period required for developing a new appearance inspection system. So-called "image processing expert system" have been studied for over the nearly 30 years. We are convinced of the need to adopt a new idea. Recently, a novel type of evolutionary algorithms, called genetic network programming (GNP), has been proposed. In this study, we use GNP as a method to create an inspection image processing logic. GNP develops many directed graph structures, and shows excellent ability of formulating complex problems. We have converted this network program model to Image Processing Network Programming (IPNP). IPNP selects an appropriate image processing command based on some characteristics of input image data and processing log, and generates a visual inspection software with series of image processing commands. It is verified from experiments that the proposed method is able to create some inspection image processing programs. In the basic experiment with 200 test images, the success rate of detection of target region was 93.5%.

  20. METHODS OF TEACHING STUDENTS FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS ON ARRAYS PROCESSING IN THE DELPHI VISUAL PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii M. Bazurin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Delphi visual programming environment provides ample opportunities for visual mapping arrays. There are a number of Delphi screen form components, which help you to visualize the array on the form. Processing arrays programs in Delphi environment have their differences from the same programs in Pascal. The article describes these differences. Also, the features of student learning methods for solving problems of array processing using Delphi visual components are highlighted. It has been exposed sequence and logic of the teaching material on arrays processing using TStringGrid and TMemo components.

  1. 78 FR 66885 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest... determination process. These comments will be used by the Board, coordinating with the Secretaries of the... to improve the rural determination process. DATES: Comments: The comment period for the document...

  2. 75 FR 57233 - 340B Drug Pricing Program Administrative Dispute Resolution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Chapter I 340B Drug Pricing Program Administrative Dispute Resolution Process... regulations to establish and implement an administrative dispute resolution process for the 340B Drug Pricing... should be marked ``Comments on Administrative Dispute Resolution Process'' and sent to Ms. Dorcas Ann...

  3. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  4. Automating Academic Literature Searches With RSS Feeds and Google Reader™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuque, Erick M

    2011-01-01

    Behavior analytic practitioners have an ethical obligation to stay abreast of the most recent research developments in their areas of expertise. Although conducting frequent and comprehensive literature searches is one way to meet this mandate, doing so can be a time intensive process. One way to reduce the effort involved in this process is setting up automated literature and news searches using RSS feeds via programs like Google Reader™. This paper outlines the steps necessary for setting up a Google Reader™ account and creating customized RSS feeds based on searches of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed database and the World Wide Web. PMID:22532905

  5. The effect of feed composition on anaerobic co-digestion of animal-processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, D; Martín-Marroquín, J M; Corona, F

    2017-06-17

    Four streams and their mixtures have been considered for anaerobic co-digestion, all of them generated during pig carcasses processing or in related industrial activities: meat flour (MF), process water (PW), pig manure (PM) and glycerin (GL). Biochemical methane potential assays were conducted at 37 °C to evaluate the effects of the substrate mix ratio on methane generation and process behavior. The results show that the co-digestion of these products favors the anaerobic fermentation process when limiting the amount of meat flour in the mixture to co-digest, which should not exceed 10%. The ratio of other tested substrates is less critical, because different mixtures reach similar values of methane generation. The presence in the mixture of process water contributes to a quick start of the digester, something very interesting when operating an industrial reactor. The analysis of the fraction digested reveals that the four analyzed streams can be, a priori, suitable for agronomic valorization once digested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. CRBLASTER: a fast parallel-processing program for cosmic ray rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.

    2008-08-01

    Many astronomical image-analysis programs are based on algorithms that can be described as being embarrassingly parallel, where the analysis of one subimage generally does not affect the analysis of another subimage. Yet few parallel-processing astrophysical image-analysis programs exist that can easily take full advantage of todays fast multi-core servers costing a few thousands of dollars. A major reason for the shortage of state-of-the-art parallel-processing astrophysical image-analysis codes is that the writing of parallel codes has been perceived to be difficult. I describe a new fast parallel-processing image-analysis program called crblaster which does cosmic ray rejection using van Dokkum's L.A.Cosmic algorithm. crblaster is written in C using the industry standard Message Passing Interface (MPI) library. Processing a single 800×800 HST WFPC2 image takes 1.87 seconds using 4 processes on an Apple Xserve with two dual-core 3.0-GHz Intel Xeons; the efficiency of the program running with the 4 processors is 82%. The code can be used as a software framework for easy development of parallel-processing image-anlaysis programs using embarrassing parallel algorithms; the biggest required modification is the replacement of the core image processing function with an alternative image-analysis function based on a single-processor algorithm. I describe the design, implementation and performance of the program.

  7. Complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fewtrell, Mary; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    but should not be delayed beyond 6 months. Content: Infants should be offered foods with a variety of flavours and textures including bitter tasting green vegetables. Continued breast-feeding is recommended alongside CF. Whole cows' milk should not be used as the main drink before 12 months of age...

  8. Breast Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  9. Physical quality of pelleted feed : a feed model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, a review and experimental work is presented on the relation between processing conditions and functional properties of feed constituents with respect to hardness and durability characteristics of pelleted feed. In the first three chapters, a literature overview is presented

  10. Addressing data center efficiency. Lessons learned from process evaluations of utility energy efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, A.J.; Holmes, J. [Energy Market Innovations, Inc, 83 Columbia St., Suite 303, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    This paper summarizes the unique challenges related to addressing energy efficiency in the data center industry and lessons learned from original research and two process evaluations of energy efficiency programs with components that specifically target data centers. The lessons learned include: creating program opportunities specifically focused on data centers; clearly identifying target data centers able to implement energy efficiency programs; understanding decision making in these facilities; and effectively communicating the program opportunities to the target market. The growing energy use of data centers has drawn international attention from policy makers, regulators, industry consortiums, and electric utilities. Any program effective at improving the energy performance of data centers must include specific strategies and processes aimed at confronting a number of challenges specific to this industry, including: the concentrated and rapidly growing energy use of these facilities; the rapid pace of innovation; the extremely high reliability requirements; and the significant split incentives due to the typical data center management structure. The process evaluations covered in this paper are the Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) High-Tech program and the Silicon Valley Power (SVP) Public Benefits Program. While the PG and E evaluation was a more complete process evaluation, the SVP evaluation focused specifically on participation from co-location facilities. These process evaluations together included interviews with program participants, nonparticipants and utility staff and also included outreach to a large variety of industry stakeholders. In addition, the PG and E evaluation included detailed process-mapping used to identify the necessity and importance of all program processes. The insights gathered from these evaluations are not only applicable to US electrical utilities but can also be applied to any international organization looking to create

  11. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  12. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  13. Problem-Solving Strategies and Group Processes in Small Groups Learning Computer Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Planning and debugging strategies and group processes predicting learning of computer programming were studied in 30 students aged 11 to 14. Students showed little advance planning. Factors associated with learning included high-level planning of program chunks, debugging of single statements, explaining, and verbalizing aloud while typing.…

  14. Second screening for news: Effects of presentation on information processing and program liking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, G.J.; Kleemans, M.; Cauwenberge, A.M.R. van

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of second screen presentation mode on information processing and program liking. In an experiment, 121 participants watched a television news program. One group was assigned to a dual screen condition in which participants were required to actively look up

  15. Collaborative Learning Processes in the Context of a Public Health Professional Development Program: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Chiocchio, François; Beaudet, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The health promotion laboratory (HPL-Canada) is a public health professional development program building on a collaborative learning approach in order to support long-term practice change in local health services teams. This study aims to analyse the collaborative learning processes of two teams involved in the program during the first year of…

  16. Public Relations for Brazilian Libraries: Process, Principles, Program Planning, Planning Techniques and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette N.

    A brief overview of the functions of public relations in libraries introduces this manual, which provides an explanation of the public relations (PR) process, including fact-finding, planning, communicating, evaluating, and marketing; some PR principles; a 10-step program that could serve as a model for planning a PR program; a discussion of PR…

  17. Process and Outcome Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew B.; Betts, Donna J.; Blausey, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Program evaluation offers an opportunity for improving the implementation and impact of art therapy. This article describes a process and outcomes evaluation of an art therapy program within the mental health services unit of a community-based organization for people living with HIV/AIDS. The aims were to assess utilization patterns and program…

  18. Creation of an Innovative Sustainability Science Undergraduate Degree Program: A 10-Step Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, Nicholas J.; Shebitz, Daniela J.

    2013-01-01

    We explain the process used at Kean University (New Jersey) to create an innovative undergraduate degree program in sustainability science. This interdisciplinary program provides students with the strong science background necessary to understand and address the opportunities associated with sustainability. We articulate seven steps taken during…

  19. Translating the PLAYgrounds program into practice: A process evaluation using the RE-AIM framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Toussaint, H.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To present the results of the process evaluation of the PLAYgrounds program, using the RE-AIM framework. Design: This study provides information regarding Reach, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance. Methods: The PLAYgrounds program promotes increasing levels of physical activity in

  20. 77 FR 77005 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and... Secretary of the Interior initiated a review of the Federal Subsistence Management Program. An ensuing...

  1. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive Process Approached Social Skills Training Program for People with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekinarslan, Ilknur Cifci; Sucuoglu, Bulbin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cognitive-process approach based social skills program was effective on learning and generalizing three social skills (apologizing, coping with teasing and avoiding inappropriate touching) of the nine students with mental retardation. Social skills program covered dimensions of the cognitive…

  3. A Mock UF6 Feed and Withdrawal System for Testing Safeguards Monitoring Systems and Strategies Intended for Nuclear Fuel Enrichment and Processing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Bates, Bruce E [ORNL; Chesser, Joel B [ORNL; Koo, Sinsze [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes an engineering-scale, mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F&W) system, its operation, and its intended uses. This system has been assembled to provide a test bed for evaluating and demonstrating new methodologies that can be used in remote, unattended, continuous monitoring of nuclear material process operations. These measures are being investigated to provide independent inspectors improved assurance that operations are being conducted within declared parameters, and to increase the overall effectiveness of safeguarding nuclear material. Testing applicable technologies on a mock F&W system, which uses water as a surrogate for UF6, enables thorough and cost-effective investigation of hardware, software, and operational strategies before their direct installation in an industrial nuclear material processing environment. Electronic scales used for continuous load-cell monitoring also are described as part of the basic mock F&W system description. Continuous monitoring components on the mock F&W system are linked to a data aggregation computer by a local network, which also is depicted. Data collection and storage systems are described only briefly in this report. The mock UF{sub 6} F&W system is economical to operate. It uses a simple process involving only a surge tank between feed tanks and product and withdrawal (or waste) tanks. The system uses water as the transfer fluid, thereby avoiding the use of hazardous UF{sub 6}. The system is not tethered to an operating industrial process involving nuclear materials, thereby allowing scenarios (e.g., material diversion) that cannot be conducted otherwise. These features facilitate conducting experiments that yield meaningful results with a minimum of expenditure and quick turnaround time. Technologies demonstrated on the engineering-scale system lead to field trials (described briefly in this report) for determining implementation issues and performance of the monitoring technologies under plant

  4. A systematic writing program as a tool in the grief process: part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Bodil; Dysvik, Elin

    2010-01-01

    Bodil Furnes, Elin DysvikUniversity of Stavanger, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Health Studies, Stavanger, NorwayObjective: The basic aim of this paper is to suggest a flexible and individualized writing program as a tool for use during the grief process of bereaved adults.Methods: An open, qualitative approach following distinct steps was taken to gain a broad perspective on the grief and writing processes, as a platform for the writing program.Results: Following several systemat...

  5. Variation in outcomes of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Ball, Kylie; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David A; Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age. A cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 mother/infant pairs from 62 existing first-time parent groups was conducted in 2008 in Melbourne, Australia. The intervention involved 6 × 2-hour dietitian-delivered sessions, DVD and written resources from infant age 4-15 months. Outcomes included infant diet (3 × 24 h diet recalls), physical activity (accelerometry), television viewing and body mass index. We tested for moderation by maternal education (with/without a University degree) and age (education and age. The intervention effects on vegetable (positive effect) and sweet snack consumption (negative effect) were greater in children with higher educated mothers while intervention effects on water consumption (positive effect) were greater in infants with lower educated mothers. The intervention was also more effective in increasing both vegetable and water consumption in infants with mothers aged education and age. Evidence of differential effects is important for informing more sensitively targeted/tailored approaches. © 2013.

  6. Effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the drying process of pellets for japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the mass transfer kinetics during the drying process of pellets used for Japanese Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding. In the experimental design, three temperatures were used for convective drying, as well as three different diet compositions (Diets A, B and C, in which the amount of fishmeal, spirulin, algae, fish oil and cornstarch varied. The water diffusion coefficient of the pellets was determined using the equation of Fick's second law, which resulted in values between 0.84-1.94×10-10 m²/s. The drying kinetics was modeled using Page, Modified Page, Root of time, Exponential, Logarithmic, Two-Terms, Modified Henderson-Pabis and Weibull models. In addition, two new models, referred to as 'Proposed' models 1 and 2, were used to simulate this process. According to the statistical tests applied, the models that best fitted the experimental data were Modified Henderson-Pabis, Weibull and Proposed model 2, respectively. Bifactorial analysis of variance ANOVA showed that Diet A (fishmeal 44%, spirulin 9%, fish oil 1% and cornstarch 36% presented the highest diffusion coefficient values, which were favored by the temperature increase in the drying process.

  7. A new technology transfer process for DOE's residential and commercial conservation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; White, D.L.; Vories, R.; Kirchen, S.

    1988-10-01

    This report provides a technology transfer plan for DOE's Residential and Commercial Conservation Program (RCCP). It catalogues and classifies the types of research results and lessons developed and disseminated by the Program, and examines the audiences for these results. It then describes the process of assessing needs, analyzing potential technology transfer mechanisms, and evaluating progress that should be part of the technology transfer process for RCCP and its individual projects. A technology transfer strategy is proposed along with recommended future technology transfer activities. A set of seven worksheets is also developed to help RCCP program managers design outreach efforts for their current and future projects. 28 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Residual Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz, Roberto D.; Paulino, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Low rates of return on investment for livestock operations are a fact of life. Producers have little impact on the market price for their cattle; therefore management must be focused on the things producers can actually do something about. For many years, genetic selection programs have focused on production (output) traits, with little attention given to production costs (inputs). Recently, this view has begun to change, and the efficiency of conversion of feed (i.e., t...

  9. Results from a systematic writing program in grief process: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bodil; Dysvik, Elin

    2011-01-06

    This paper, the second of two, reports the results of a systematic writing program used as a tool in the grief process. The study was based on a specifically developed program, which has been described and discussed previously in Part 1. The study had a qualitative research design, with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The research tool of the study, a writing program, was developed and implemented. A purposive sample was used, consisting of 13 bereaved adults. From an analysis of all of the texts written during the program, we drew four conclusions. Writing yields new thoughts and increases knowledge. Writing is stressful as well as a relief. Writing awakens and preserves memories. The value of writing is related to the forms, ways, and situations of writing. We have discussed handling grief with a unique process. Our findings reveal a great breadth and variation in the experiences associated with different writing forms, ways of writing, and writing situations. This implies that flexibility and individualization are important when implementing grief management programs like this. We believe that a structured writing program can be helpful in promoting thought activity and as a tool to gain increased coherence and understanding of the grief process. This writing program may be a valuable guide for program development and future research.

  10. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  11. Municipal Wastewater Processes. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Lorna

    Described is a one-hour overview of the unit processes which comprise a municipal wastewater treatment system. Topics covered in this instructor's guide include types of pollutants encountered, treatment methods, and procedures by which wastewater treatment processes are selected. A slide-tape program is available to supplement this component of…

  12. Program Trainer for Operator of Phosphoric Acid production by Wet-Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir А. Krivonosov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the major problems of operator of phosphoric acid production by wet-process during production control, develops program trainer, enabling to speed up the process of operators training, promote their professional qualifications and the production control

  13. 78 FR 35056 - Effectiveness of the Reactor Oversight Process Baseline Inspection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Effectiveness of the Reactor Oversight Process Baseline Inspection Program AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission (NRC) plans to hold a public meeting to discuss the effectiveness of the reactor oversight process... CONTACT: Marsha Gamberoni, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulations, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  14. Integrating Clinical Experiences in a TESOL Teacher Education Program: Curriculum Mapping as Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecher, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Across all certification areas, teacher education is being challenged to better integrate clinical experiences with coursework. This article describes the process of curriculum mapping and its impact on the organization of clinical experiences in a master's TESOL program over a 1-year redesign process. Although curriculum mapping has been employed…

  15. Nitrogen removal on recycling water process of wastewater treatment plant effluent using subsurface horizontal wetland with continuous feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazkiaturrizki, T.; Soewondo, P.; Handajani, M.

    2018-01-01

    Recycling water is a generic term for water reclamation and reuse to solve the scarcity of water. Constructed wetlands have been recognized as providing many benefits for wastewater treatment including water supply and control by recycling water. This research aims to find the best condition to significantly remove nitrogen using constructed wetland for recycling water of Bojongsoang Waste Water Treatment Plan (WWTP) effluent. Using media of soil, sand, gravel, and vegetation (Typha latifolia and Scirpus grossus) with an aeration system, BOD and COD parameters have been remarkably reduced. On the contrary, the removal efficiency for nitrogen is only between 50–60%. Modifications were then conducted by three step of treatment, i.e., Step I is to remove BOD/COD using Typha latifolia with an aeration system, Step II is todecrease nitrogen using Scirpus grossus with/without aeration, and Step III isto complete the nitrogen removal with denitrification process by Glycine max without aeration. Results of the research show that the nitrogen removal has been successfully increased to a high efficiency between 80–99%. The combination of aeration system and vegetation greatly affects the nitrogen removal. The vegetation acts as the organic nitrogen consumer (plant uptake) for amino acids, nitrate, and ammonium as nutrition, as well as theoxygen supplier to the roots so that aerobic microsites are formed for ammonification microorganisms.

  16. STRUCTURE AND INTERFACE OF PROGRAM FACILITIES FOR RESEARCH OF PHYSICAL PROCESSES ON COMPUTER MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii M. Bazurin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of physical processes on computer models is the one of ways of research approach in the study of general physics in pedagogical universities. The basic elements of software for research of physical processes on computer models are certain in the article: structure of program mean and feature of interface. The author offers his vision of structure of program facilities by means which the computer models of the physical phenomena and processes are realized: block of registration, block of entrance background check, block of design of physical process and block of results verification. A structure of this kinds of software is given, in opinion of author, is universal. The program facilities developed by an author are described in the article.

  17. Using a profiling process to insure program quality: Volume I - a self-instructional manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaser, J.S.; Roody, D.S.; Raizen, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    Between 1990 and 1995 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Center for Improving Science Education (National Center) developed a system for ongoing evaluation of K-12 educational programs in the DOE-supported national energy Laboratories. As part of the formative evaluation component of this collaborative endeavor, field staff in the Laboratories began creating profiles of their programs. However, many individuals within DOE Headquarters were not familiar with this profiling process and were unprepared to use the valuable information that the profiles generated. This manual was produced to orient Headquarters staff to profiling. It focuses on how Headquarters staff can use the profiling process to help their funded programs establish and/or maintain high quality. Its purpose, then, is not to train Headquarters staff to become proficient in profiling, but to show them how to draw on the Laboratories` use of profiling to bring about program improvement. Profiling is the process of systematically examining and describing a program`s elements against a set of components that define Effective Practice. The instrument used to capture the data for analysis is called a template, and most of this manual focuses on the templates and how to read and interpret them. However, since it is important to understand these data in context, the authors also describe what should accompany each template in a complete profiling packet and offer guidelines for reviewing complete packets and providing feedback to program managers.

  18. A systematic writing program as a tool in the grief process: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bodil; Dysvik, Elin

    2010-12-06

    The basic aim of this paper is to suggest a flexible and individualized writing program as a tool for use during the grief process of bereaved adults. An open, qualitative approach following distinct steps was taken to gain a broad perspective on the grief and writing processes, as a platform for the writing program. Following several systematic methodological steps, we arrived at suggestions for the initiation of a writing program and its structure and substance, with appropriate guidelines. We believe that open and expressive writing, including free writing and focused writing, may have beneficial effects on a person experiencing grief. These writing forms may be undertaken and systematized through a writing program, with participation in a grief writing group and with diary writing, to achieve optimal results. A structured writing program might be helpful in promoting thought activities and as a tool to increase the coherence and understanding of individuals in the grief process. Our suggested program may also be a valuable guide to future program development and research.

  19. The demand-side management program development process: A utility perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Yourstone, N.E. (Yourstone (Evelin), Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This report describes an aspect of DSM that has received little attention, namely, how utilities develop DSM programs. The selection of utilities to study purposely was biased in favor of those with reputations for being experienced DSM program developers so as to optimize the chances to obtain detailed information. The DSM planning process is affected by organizational factors and external influences: (1) the location of the demand-side planning department within the utility; (2) the demand-side planning group's functional responsibilities; (3) upper management participation in the DSM program development process; and (4) the organizational relationship between (or, separation of) supply-side and demand-side planning. Organizational factors reflect utilities' views of DSM programs and thus can affect the adoption of a technology- or customer-oriented approach. Despite repeated claims of the uniqueness of the demand- side planning process and its resistance to standardization, two general approaches to program development were discerned, namely technology- or customer-orientation. Although utilities consider customer related and technological factors in their DSM program development process, utilities can be differentiated by their emphasis on one or the other approach. 25 refs.

  20. The demand-side management program development process: A utility perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yourstone, N.E. [Yourstone (Evelin), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This report describes an aspect of DSM that has received little attention, namely, how utilities develop DSM programs. The selection of utilities to study purposely was biased in favor of those with reputations for being experienced DSM program developers so as to optimize the chances to obtain detailed information. The DSM planning process is affected by organizational factors and external influences: (1) the location of the demand-side planning department within the utility; (2) the demand-side planning group`s functional responsibilities; (3) upper management participation in the DSM program development process; and (4) the organizational relationship between (or, separation of) supply-side and demand-side planning. Organizational factors reflect utilities` views of DSM programs and thus can affect the adoption of a technology- or customer-oriented approach. Despite repeated claims of the uniqueness of the demand- side planning process and its resistance to standardization, two general approaches to program development were discerned, namely technology- or customer-orientation. Although utilities consider customer related and technological factors in their DSM program development process, utilities can be differentiated by their emphasis on one or the other approach. 25 refs.

  1. Investigation of the tableting process in continuous production: influence of feeding and extended dwell time during compression on dependent process variables and tablet properties

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high quantities of tablets produced daily, a lot of the established processes and formulations are the results of (suboptimal) trial-and-error experiments, contributing to the image that the entire field of pharmaceutical powder technology is more “an art than a science” [1]. Also, a large number of contributing papers to the field date from roughly two or three decades ago. Although the operation mode and press lay-out stayed basically unchanged since its invention, the instrumen...

  2. [Documenting a rehabilitation program using a logic model: an advantage to the assessment process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, Frédérique; Swaine, Bonnie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale

    2017-03-06

    The cognitive and behavioral disorders after brain injury can result in severe limitations of activities and restrictions of participation. An interdisciplinary rehabilitation program was developed in physical medicine and rehabilitation at the Pitié-Salpêtriere Hospital, Paris, France. Clinicians believe this program decreases activity limitations and improves participation in patients. However, the program’s effectiveness had never been assessed. To do this, we had to define/describe this program. However rehabilitation programs are holistic and thus complex making them difficult to describe. Therefore, to facilitate the evaluation of complex programs, including those for rehabilitation, we illustrate the use of a theoretical logic model, as proposed by Champagne, through the process of documentation of a specific complex and interdisciplinary rehabilitation program. Through participatory/collaborative research, the rehabilitation program was analyzed using three “submodels” of the logic model of intervention: causal model, intervention model and program theory model. This should facilitate the evaluation of programs, including those for rehabilitation.

  3. Preparing promotoras to deliver health programs for Hispanic communities: training processes and curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskan, Alexis M; Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Walsemann, Katrina M; Messias, DeAnne K H

    2013-05-01

    Training is an essential component of health programs that incorporate promotoras de salud (the Spanish term for community health workers) in the delivery of health education and behavioral interventions to Hispanics. During training sessions, promotoras are exposed to information and skill-building activities they need to implement the health programs. This analysis was one component of a broader study which explored program planners' approaches to recruiting and training promotoras to deliver and sustain health promotion programs for Hispanic women. The purpose of this study was to examine promotora-curriculum and training processes used to prepare promotoras to deliver health programs. The authors examined transcripts of 12 in-depth interviews with program planners and conducted a content analysis of seven different training materials used in their respective promotora programs. Interview themes and narratives included program planners' varying conceptualizations of promotora-training, including their personal definitions of "training the trainer," the practice of training a cadre of promotoras before selecting those best fit for the program, and the importance of providing goal-directed, in-depth training and supervision for promotoras. The content analysis revealed a variety of strategies used to make the training materials interactive and culturally competent. Study implications describe the importance of planners' provision of ongoing, goal-directed, and supervised training using both appropriate language and interactive methods to engage and teach promotoras.

  4. The Role of Program Evaluation in the Decision-Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca ANTONIE

    2011-01-01

    The decision of not organizing a Program Evaluation System at country level government has many negative implications as far as the decision-making process is concerned. The lack of political responsiveness, fiscal discipline and institutional effectiveness are part of the effects. The government does not require a coherent, solid evaluation system and, in exchange, it gets ‘Bleak House’- type reports. Program evaluation offers the adequate tools to do evidence-based decision-making on public...

  5. Seismic Qualification Program Plan for continued operation at DOE-SRS Nuclear Material Processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Kennedy, W.N.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Facilities for the most part were constructed and maintained to standards that were developed by Du Pont and are not rigorously in compliance with the current General Design Criteria (GDC); DOE Order 6430.1A requirements. In addition, any of the facilities were built more than 30 years ago, well before DOE standards for design were issued. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a program to address the evaluation of the Nuclear Material Processing (NMP) facilities to GDC requirements. The program includes a facility base-line review, assessment of areas that are not in compliance with the GDC requirements, planned corrective actions or exemptions to address the requirements, and a safety assessment. The authors from their direct involvement with the Program, describe the program plan for seismic qualification including other natural phenomena hazards for existing NMP facility structures to continue operation. Professionals involved in similar effort at other DOE facilities may find the program useful.

  6. Seismic Qualification Program Plan for continued operation at DOE-SRS Nuclear Material Processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Kennedy, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Facilities for the most part were constructed and maintained to standards that were developed by Du Pont and are not rigorously in compliance with the current General Design Criteria (GDC); DOE Order 6430.1A requirements. In addition, any of the facilities were built more than 30 years ago, well before DOE standards for design were issued. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a program to address the evaluation of the Nuclear Material Processing (NMP) facilities to GDC requirements. The program includes a facility base-line review, assessment of areas that are not in compliance with the GDC requirements, planned corrective actions or exemptions to address the requirements, and a safety assessment. The authors from their direct involvement with the Program, describe the program plan for seismic qualification including other natural phenomena hazards for existing NMP facility structures to continue operation. Professionals involved in similar effort at other DOE facilities may find the program useful.

  7. Processes and Procedures of the Higher Education Programs at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Pamala D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of my research was to investigate the policies, processes, procedures and timelines for the higher education programs at Marshall Space Flight Center. The three higher education programs that comprised this research included: the Graduate Student Researchers Program (GSRP), the National Research Council/Resident Research Associateships Program (NRC/RRA) and the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP). The GSRP award fellowships each year to promising U.S. graduate students whose research interest coincides with NASA's mission. Fellowships are awarded for one year and are renewable for up to three years to competitively selected students. Each year, the award provides students the opportunity to spend a period in residence at a NASA center using that installation's unique facilities. This program is renewable for three years, students must reapply. The National Research Council conducts the Resident Research Associateships Program (NRC/RRA), a national competition to identify outstanding recent postdoctoral scientists and engineers and experience senior scientists and engineers, for tenure as guest researchers at NASA centers. The Resident Research Associateship Program provides an opportunity for recipients of doctoral degrees to concentrate their research in association with NASA personnel, often as a culmination to formal career preparation. The program also affords established scientists and engineers an opportunity for research without any interruptions and distracting assignments generated from permanent career positions. All opportunities for research at NASA Centers are open to citizens of the U.S. and to legal permanent residents. The Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP) is conducted each summer. NASA awards research fellowships to university faculty through the NASA/American Society for Engineering Education. The program is designed to promote an exchange of ideas between university faculties, NASA scientists and engineers. Selected

  8. Measuring Science Inquiry Skills in Youth Development Programs: The Science Process Skills Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Arnold

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on science learning in 4-H and other youth development programs. In an effort to increase science capacity in youth, it is easy to focus only on developing the concrete skills and knowledge that a trained scientist must possess. However, when science learning is presented in a youth-development setting, the context of the program also matters. This paper reports the development and testing of the Science Process Skills Inventory (SPSI and its usefulness for measuring science inquiry skill development in youth development science programs. The results of the psychometric testing of the SPSI indicated the instrument is reliable and measures a cohesive construct called science process skills, as reflected in the 11 items that make up this group of skills. The 11 items themselves are based on the cycle of science inquiry, and represent the important steps of the complete inquiry process.

  9. Adapting high-level language programs for parallel processing using data flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Hilda M.

    1988-01-01

    EASY-FLOW, a very high-level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high-level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes. A program written in EASY-FLOW is a set of subprogram calls as units, structured by iteration, branching, and distribution constructs. A data flow graph may be deduced from an EASY-FLOW program.

  10. The Information Technology Program Manager’s Dilemma: Rapidly Evolving Technology and Stagnant Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    information technology systems. The current DoDI 5000.02 leaves IT project and program managers wondering how the current process applies to them, as the guidance is fairly rigid and does not allow for the flexibility required to appropriately manage IT programs. Until very recently, in comparison to the development of a traditional weapons system, IT programs seemed to have been viewed as a utility or service instead of a critical component to national security. Perhaps that is because data passing through cables cannot be observed with the naked senses and therefore an

  11. Improvement of training process of powerlifters on the basis of an interactive program "PersTrainer"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Ashanin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and scientifically substantiate the program "PersTrainer" for improving the training process of powerlifters. Material & Methods: the study involved the powerlifters of 16–18 years. The following research methods were used: analysis and generalization of the literary sources and data of the Internet, pedagogical observation and the method of information modeling. Results: the interactive program "PersTrainer" is developed and theoretically justified, which allows individually calculating the training load in different training cycles. Conclusion: it is possible to plan training loads on the basis of individually proposed exercise complexes, which are presented in the interactive program "PersTrainer".

  12. A Process Evaluation of the Alaska Native Colorectal Cancer Family Outreach Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Diana; Provost, Ellen; Lopez, Ellen D S; Skewes, Monica; Johnson, Rhonda; Christensen, Claudia; Sacco, Frank; Haverkamp, Donald

    2016-02-01

    This article presents the results of a process evaluation of the Alaska Native (AN) Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Family Outreach Program, which encourages CRC screening among AN first-degree relatives (i.e., parents, siblings, adult children; hereafter referred to as relatives) of CRC patients. Among AN people incidence and death rates from CRC are the highest of any ethnic/racial group in the United States. Relatives of CRC patients are at increased risk; however, CRC can be prevented and detected early through screening. The evaluation included key informant interviews (August to November 2012) with AN and non-AN stakeholders and program document review. Five key process evaluation components were identified: program formation, evolution, outreach responses, strengths, and barriers and challenges. Key themes included an incremental approach that led to a fully formed program and the need for dedicated, culturally competent patient navigation. Challenges included differing relatives' responses to screening outreach, health system data access and coordination, and the program impact of reliance on grant funding. This program evaluation indicated a need for more research into motivating patient screening behaviors, electronic medical records systems quality improvement projects, improved data-sharing protocols, and program sustainability planning to continue the dedicated efforts to promote screening in this increased risk population. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  13. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  14. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2009-03-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  15. THE PROGRAMMING NEURO-LINGUISTICS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY IN THE PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Álamo Sánchez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available He/she is carried out a study referred to tools of Programming Neuro-linguistics (PNL for the Selection, Employment and Training that allow choosing the appropriate personnel taking the language and the behavior as a result. For their development theories were revised referred to the PNL and the recruitment process and selection sustained in the process of the interview. The summations are oriented to the importance and convenience for the Management of Human resources of applying the Programming Neuro-linguistics as selection tool of personal. Finally it is recommended to apply the proposal inside the mark of adaptability according to the necessities and demands of each organization.

  16. North American Rendering: processing high quality protein and fats for feed North American Rendering: processamento de proteínas e gorduras de alta qualidade para alimentos para animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Meeker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One third to one half of each animal produced for meat, milk, eggs, and fiber is not consumed by humans. These raw materials are subjected to rendering processes resulting in many useful products. Meat and bone meal, meat meal, poultry meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, fish meal, and animal fats are the primary products resulting from the rendering process. The most important and valuable use for these animal by-products is as feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and companion animals. There are volumes of scientific references validating the nutritional qualities of these products, and there are no scientific reasons for altering the practice of feeding rendered products to animals. Government agencies regulate the processing of food and feed, and the rendering industry is scrutinized often. In addition, industry programs include good manufacturing practices, HACCP, Codes of Practice, and third-party certification. The rendering industry clearly understands its role in the safe and nutritious production of animal feed ingredients and has done it very effectively for over 100 years. The availability of rendered products for animal feeds in the future depends on regulation and the market. Regulatory agencies will determine whether certain raw materials can be used for animal feed. The National Renderers Association (NRA supports the use of science as the basis for regulation while aesthetics, product specifications, and quality differences should be left to the market place. Without the rendering industry, the accumulation of unprocessed animal by-products would impede the meat industries and pose a serious potential hazard to animal and human health.De um terço a metade da produção animal para carne, leite, ovos e fibra, não são consumidos pelos seres humanos. Estes materiais não consumidos são sujeitos a processamento em graxarias e indústrias de alimentos de origem animal, resultando em uma série de produtos

  17. Sustainable multistage process for enhanced productivity of bioplastics from waste remediation through aerobic dynamic feeding strategy: Process integration for up-scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amulya, K; Jukuri, Srinivas; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production was evaluated in a multistage operation using food waste as a renewable feedstock. The first step involved the production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) via acidogenic fermentation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) rich effluent from bio-H2 reactor was subsequently used for PHA production, which was carried out in two stages, Stage II (culture enrichment) and Stage III (PHA production). PHA-storing microorganisms were enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated at two different cycle lengths (CL-24; CL-12). Higher polymer recovery as well as VFA removal was achieved in CL-12 operation both in Stage II (16.3% dry cell weight (DCW); VFA removal, 84%) and Stage III (23.7% DCW; VFA removal, 88%). The PHA obtained was a co-polymer [P(3HB-co-3HV)] of PHB and PHV. The results obtained indicate that this integrated multistage process offers new opportunities to further leverage large scale PHA production with simultaneous waste remediation in the framework of biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CRBLASTER: A Fast Parallel-Processing Program for Cosmic Ray Rejection in Space-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighell, K.

    Many astronomical image analysis tasks are based on algorithms that can be described as being embarrassingly parallel - where the analysis of one subimage generally does not affect the analysis of another subimage. Yet few parallel-processing astrophysical image-analysis programs exist that can easily take full advantage of today's fast multi-core servers costing a few thousands of dollars. One reason for the shortage of state-of-the-art parallel processing astrophysical image-analysis codes is that the writing of parallel codes has been perceived to be difficult. I describe a new fast parallel-processing image-analysis program called CRBLASTER which does cosmic ray rejection using van Dokkum's L.A.Cosmic algorithm. CRBLASTER is written in C using the industry standard Message Passing Interface library. Processing a single 800 x 800 Hubble Space Telescope Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) image takes 1.9 seconds using 4 processors on an Apple Xserve with two dual-core 3.0-GHz Intel Xeons; the efficiency of the program running with the 4 cores is 82%. The code has been designed to be used as a software framework for the easy development of parallel-processing image-analysis programs using embarrassing parallel algorithms; all that needs to be done is to replace the core image processing task (in this case the C function that performs the L.A.Cosmic algorithm) with an alternative image analysis task based on a single processor algorithm. I describe the design and implementation of the program and then discuss how it could possibly be used to quickly do time-critical analysis applications such as those involved with space surveillance or do complex calibration tasks as part of the pipeline processing of images from large focal plane arrays.

  19. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  20. Effects of the Conservation Reserve Program on Hydrologic Processes in the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, E. M.; Smidt, S. J.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern High Plains Aquifer is a rapidly depleting resource that supports agriculture in parts of New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle. The development of the aquifer has changed the landscape and the water cycle of the region. This study illustrates the evolving patterns of land use and the effects of cultivation, from irrigated to dryland farming to the countermanding influence of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Previous research indicates that greater recharge rates occur under cultivated land in the Southern High Plains than under unbroken soil: the transition to cultivation causes increased recharge, under both dryland and irrigated management, though most recharge still occurs through playa lakes. The Conservation Reserve Program takes land out of crop production, replacing the land cover with something more like the natural ecosystem. This may decrease recharge below fields, and reduce runoff that feeds playa lakes; or, CRP may help stabilize playa lakes, increasing recharge. Changes to the water cycle are investigated at the field scale using the System Approach to Land Use Sustainability (SALUS) crop model, and at the regional scale with the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM), and compared with historical data and water table elevations.

  1. Students' perceptions of the admissions process for a program for internationally-trained dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia Ann

    This study is designed to analyze the students' perceptions of the application process for a foreign-trained dental program. The goal was to add to the knowledge base the views of students who have experienced the application process of this type of program. Using a quantitative approach, the method of data collection was through a link to an online Likert survey which was emailed to graduates, first-year and second-year current students of the International Dental Studies (IDS) program at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry. Respondents were students who had experienced the IDS application process and had been accepted into the program. The study identified three topics: background, motivation and perception of fairness. The background information identified whether the participant was male/female and whether they were a current first-/second-year student or a graduate of the program. Motivation for applying was identified through questions about knowing someone who was in or had completed the program, and/or applied because of the program's reputation. Perception of fairness was determined by asking how the student felt about each required element of the process. By using structure based upon construct, which provides the researcher with a methodical review and configuration of the information, the study found that students had some views about application elements that, at times, conflicted with school's requirements. However, in general, the students felt the school was requiring the right elements for their application and were, therefore, basing their acceptance decisions on the correct requisites.

  2. EFFECT OF FEED PROCESSING ON VOLATILE FATTY ACID PRODUCTION RATES MEASURED WITH 13C-ACETATE IN GRAZING LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tothi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of processed cereal grain supplementation on volatile fatty acid (VFA production rates of grazing, lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were measured in a 5x5 Latin square experiment. The experimental treatments were as follows: control (only grazing, no supplement addition, NS, pelleted barley (PB, pelleted maize (PM, toasted and subsequently pelleted barley (TPB, and toasted and subsequently pelleted maize (TPM as supplements. An isotope dilution technique using stable isotope of carbon (13C as an internal marker was employed for the estimation of VFA production. At the beginning of a 3-hour long allowed grazing time, 100 mg of 99% enriched 13C2 Na-acetate were introduced in the rumen and repeated after grazing with 50 mg isotope, after which the cows were starved for 6 hours until evening milking. During grazing disappearance rate (kdis and production rate (kprod of acetate, propionate and butyrate were significantly higher (P≤0.05 in supplemented than in NS cows. Moreover the effect of barley grain and pelleting treatment was higher than the effect of maize grain and toasting. During starvation significantly higher (P≤0.05 kdis and kprod of VFAs were observed in PM and TPM treatments. Total VFA production for the experimental period (grazing + starvation were 49.5, 78.7, 69.9, 88.5, 80.8 mol/day for NS, PB, TPB, PM and TPM, respectively. The higher VFA productions measured in supplemented animals emphasis the extensive digestion that occurs in the rumen after feeding processed grains. In methodological terms, 13C2 Na-acetate labelling appears to be a useful means for examining the VFA acetate production in ruminants.

  3. The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency and include responses (eg coercion to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal. There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods, food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self

  4. Process evaluation of a school-based weight gain prevention program: the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, van W.

    2009-01-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the

  5. Evaluation Of Model Based Systems Engineering Processes For Integration Into Rapid Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    integration of new capabilities seamlessly into an existing software baseline or architecture  the ability to effectively assess performance at... software development,” (b) “model driven development,” (c) “ architecture centric development,” (d) “specification-driven development,” and (e) “generative...Development Process Like the MK54 program, this Radar project utilized an agile Vee process, in a Scrum environment. However, in this case, the software

  6. THE PROGRAMMING NEURO-LINGUISTICS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY IN THE PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Gilma Álamo Sánchez; Yuhane Sangronis

    2008-01-01

    He/she is carried out a study referred to tools of Programming Neuro-linguistics (PNL) for the Selection, Employment and Training that allow choosing the appropriate personnel taking the language and the behavior as a result. For their development theories were revised referred to the PNL and the recruitment process and selection sustained in the process of the interview. The summations are oriented to the importance and convenience for the Management of Human resources of applying the Progra...

  7. Expertise and adventure: In/formalization processes within EU rule of law capacity building programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo M. Zerilli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores dynamics of formalization and informalization as interlinked social processes as a contribution to a critical understanding of rule of law capacity building programs in the framework of EU enlargement process. It also challenges the assumption according to which informality would be a modality characteristic of countries of the “Global South”.

  8. DNAStat, version 2.1--a computer program for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the new DNAStat version 2.1 for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations. The popularization of DNA studies employed in the judicial system has led to the necessity of developing appropriate computer programs. Such programs must, above all, address two critical problems, i.e. the broadly understood data processing and data storage, and biostatistical calculations. Moreover, in case of terrorist attacks and mass natural disasters, the ability to identify victims by searching related individuals is very important. DNAStat version 2.1 is an adequate program for such purposes. The DNAStat version 1.0 was launched in 2005. In 2006, the program was updated to 1.1 and 1.2 versions. There were, however, slight differences between those versions and the original one. The DNAStat version 2.0 was launched in 2007 and the major program improvement was an introduction of the group calculation options with the potential application to personal identification of mass disasters and terrorism victims. The last 2.1 version has the option of language selection--Polish or English, which will enhance the usage and application of the program also in other countries.

  9. Managing complex processing of medical image sequences by program supervision techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crubezy, Monica; Aubry, Florent; Moisan, Sabine; Chameroy, Virginie; Thonnat, Monique; Di Paola, Robert

    1997-05-01

    Our objective is to offer clinicians wider access to evolving medical image processing (MIP) techniques, crucial to improve assessment and quantification of physiological processes, but difficult to handle for non-specialists in MIP. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, our approach consists in the development of a knowledge-based program supervision system, automating the management of MIP libraries. It comprises a library of programs, a knowledge base capturing the expertise about programs and data and a supervision engine. It selects, organizes and executes the appropriate MIP programs given a goal to achieve and a data set, with dynamic feedback based on the results obtained. It also advises users in the development of new procedures chaining MIP programs.. We have experimented the approach for an application of factor analysis of medical image sequences as a means of predicting the response of osteosarcoma to chemotherapy, with both MRI and NM dynamic image sequences. As a result our program supervision system frees clinical end-users from performing tasks outside their competence, permitting them to concentrate on clinical issues. Therefore our approach enables a better exploitation of possibilities offered by MIP and higher quality results, both in terms of robustness and reliability.

  10. Functional process descriptions for the program to develop the Nuclear Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is executing a plan for improvement of the systems implemented to carry out its responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). As part of the plan, OCRWM is performing a systems engineering analysis of both the physical system, i.e., the Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS), and the programmatic functions that must be accomplished to bring the physical system into being. The purpose of the program analysis is to provide a systematic identification and definition of all program functions, functional process flows, and function products necessary and sufficient to provide the physical system. The analysis resulting from this approach provides a basis for development of a comprehensive and integrated set of policies, standard practices, and procedures for the effective and efficient execution of the program. Thus, this analysis will form a basis for revising current OCRWM policies and procedures, or developing new ones is necessary. The primary purposes of this report are as follows: (1) summarizes the major functional processes and process flows that have been developed as a part of the program analysis, and (2) provide an introduction and assistance in understanding the detailed analysis information contained in the three volume report titled The Analysis of the Program to Develop the Nuclear Waste Management System (Woods 1991a).

  11. An Analysis of OpenACC Programming Model: Image Processing Algorithms as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mišić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphics processing units and similar accelerators have been intensively used in general purpose computations for several years. In the last decade, GPU architecture and organization changed dramatically to support an ever-increasing demand for computing power. Along with changes in hardware, novel programming models have been proposed, such as NVIDIA’s Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA and Open Computing Language (OpenCL by Khronos group. Although numerous commercial and scientific applications have been developed using these two models, they still impose a significant challenge for less experienced users. There are users from various scientific and engineering communities who would like to speed up their applications without the need to deeply understand a low-level programming model and underlying hardware. In 2011, OpenACC programming model was launched. Much like OpenMP for multicore processors, OpenACC is a high-level, directive-based programming model for manycore processors like GPUs. This paper presents an analysis of OpenACC programming model and its applicability in typical domains like image processing. Three, simple image processing algorithms have been implemented for execution on the GPU with OpenACC. The results were compared with their sequential counterparts, and results are briefly discussed.

  12. Modelling and simulation of the phased feeding process with biological elimination of nitrogen and phosphorus; Modelizacion y simulacion del proceso de alimentacion escalonada con eliminacion biologica de nitrogeno y fosforo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. C.; Jorda, J. R.; Cortacans, J. A. [Infilco Espanola, S. A. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    It is set forth experimental results on an Alternative Phase Step Feed Pilot Plant (Nitrogen and Phosphorus removal) placed in San Agustin de Guadalix (Madrid CYII) WWTP. Results on IAWQ Model N. 2 calibration and evaluation of its predictive capacity are also included. Finally, it is introduced the Alphasin, Process Simulator that INFILCO uses as a design and assessment tool on Alpha Process Plants with organic matter removal exclusively or incorporating nutrients (Nitrogen and/or Phosphorus) removal. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. An integrated nutrition and health program package on IYCN improves breastfeeding but not complementary feeding and nutritional status in rural northern India: A quasi-experimental randomized longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veena; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Dreyfuss, Michele L; Kiran, Usha; Chaudhery, Deepika N; Srivastava, Vinod K; Ahuja, Ramesh C; Baqui, Abdullah H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Santosham, Mathuram; West, Keith P

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition below two years of age remains a major public health problem in India. We conducted an evaluation of an integrated nutrition and health program that aimed to improve nutritional status of young children by improving breast and complementary feeding practices over that offered by the Government of India's standard nutrition and health care program. In Uttar Pradesh state, through multi-stage cluster random sampling, 81 villages in an intervention district and 84 villages in a comparison district were selected. A cohort of 957 third trimester pregnant women identified during house-to-house surveys was enrolled and, following childbirth, mother-child dyads were followed every three months from birth to 18 months of age. The primary outcomes were improvements in weight-for-age and length-for-age z scores, with improved breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices as intermediate outcomes. Optimal breastfeeding practices were higher among women in intervention than comparison areas, including initiating breastfeeding within one hour of delivery (17.4% vs. 2.7%, punderweight status was lower at 12 months (58.5% vs. 69.3%, p = 0.047) among intervention children. The prevalence of stunting was similar between study arms at all ages. Coefficients to show the differences between the intervention and comparison districts (0.13 cm/mo) suggested significant faster linear growth among intervention district infants at earlier ages (0-5 months). Mothers participating in the intervention district were more likely to follow optimal breast, although not complementary feeding practices. The program modestly improved linear growth in earlier age and weight gain in late infancy. Comprehensive nutrition and health interventions are complex; the implementation strategies need careful examination to improve feeding practices and thus impact growth. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00198835.

  14. Manipulation and handling processes off-line programming and optimization with use of K-Roset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołda, G.; Kampa, A.

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary trends in development of efficient, flexible manufacturing systems require practical implementation of modern “Lean production” concepts for maximizing customer value through minimizing all wastes in manufacturing and logistics processes. Every FMS is built on the basis of automated and robotized production cells. Except flexible CNC machine tools and other equipments, the industrial robots are primary elements of the system. In the studies, authors look for wastes of time and cost in real tasks of robots, during manipulation processes. According to aspiration for optimization of handling and manipulation processes with use of the robots, the application of modern off-line programming methods and computer simulation, is the best solution and it is only way to minimize unnecessary movements and other instructions. The modelling process of robotized production cell and offline programming of Kawasaki robots in AS-Language will be described. The simulation of robotized workstation will be realized with use of virtual reality software K-Roset. Authors show the process of industrial robot’s programs improvement and optimization in terms of minimizing the number of useless manipulator movements and unnecessary instructions. This is realized in order to shorten the time of production cycles. This will also reduce costs of handling, manipulations and technological process.

  15. Reevaluating the selection process for the Israeli Defense Force's paramedic training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lending, Gadi; Nadler, Roy; Abramovich, Amir; Gendler, Sami; Peretz, Asaf; Dagan, David; Gilad, David; Glassberg, Elon

    2015-03-01

    Selecting candidates for medical training programs is a complicated process aimed at identifying specific personal competencies, in an attempt to minimize attrition and produce better medical providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the selection process for the Israeli Defense Force's paramedic training program and its ability to predict success measured at different end points. Selection process test scores were crossed and measured against three different end points: attrition, national certification test scores, and training program graduation scores. Data were available for 146 candidates. A positive association was detected between lower formulated selection scores and attrition rates (pselection score, two had shown significant association with attrition. The calculated score of these specific two tests was found to have similar association with attrition as the formulated selection score. The current Israeli Defense Force's paramedic-formulated selection score has shown association with attrition; candidates performing poorly throughout the selection process were less likely to complete training. Similar results may be achieved by implementing a more efficient selection process based on fewer tests. Further studies are required to identify the optimal composition for selection processes. Ongoing learning and research form the ground for improvement, not only of trauma medicine but of all aspects of medicine. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. EXPANSION OF TURBO PROLOGUE PROGRAMMING SYSTEM BY PREDICATES FOR LIST PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kovalkov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lists are considered as a main data structure in logic Turbo Prologue programming language. However the language does not contain in-set predicates (procedures for list processing. In order to facilitate a problem programming process where lists are used it is proposed to apply a Turbo Prologue version that has a set of predicates in the form of recursive rules for executing frequently repeated operations with lists such as unification of lists, italicization and deletion of some list elements, sorting-out, list reversing and many others. The modified version contains a reference to new input predicates. The proposed Turbo Prologue version is easily expanded by new rules. Usage of this version makes programmer’s work easier and promotes development of new programs where it is necessary to work with lists.

  17. An integrated nutrition and health program package on IYCN improves breastfeeding but not complementary feeding and nutritional status in rural northern India: A quasi-experimental randomized longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Singh

    Full Text Available Undernutrition below two years of age remains a major public health problem in India. We conducted an evaluation of an integrated nutrition and health program that aimed to improve nutritional status of young children by improving breast and complementary feeding practices over that offered by the Government of India's standard nutrition and health care program.In Uttar Pradesh state, through multi-stage cluster random sampling, 81 villages in an intervention district and 84 villages in a comparison district were selected. A cohort of 957 third trimester pregnant women identified during house-to-house surveys was enrolled and, following childbirth, mother-child dyads were followed every three months from birth to 18 months of age. The primary outcomes were improvements in weight-for-age and length-for-age z scores, with improved breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices as intermediate outcomes.Optimal breastfeeding practices were higher among women in intervention than comparison areas, including initiating breastfeeding within one hour of delivery (17.4% vs. 2.7%, p<0.001, feeding colostrum (34.7% vs. 8.4%, p<0.001, avoiding pre-lacteals (19.6% vs. 2.1%, p<0.001 and exclusively breastfeeding up to 6 months (24.1% vs. 15.3%, p = 0.001. However, differences were few and mixed between study arms with respect to complementary feeding practices. The mean weight-for-age z-score was higher at 9 months (-2.1 vs. -2.4, p = 0.0026 and the prevalence of underweight status was lower at 12 months (58.5% vs. 69.3%, p = 0.047 among intervention children. The prevalence of stunting was similar between study arms at all ages. Coefficients to show the differences between the intervention and comparison districts (0.13 cm/mo suggested significant faster linear growth among intervention district infants at earlier ages (0-5 months.Mothers participating in the intervention district were more likely to follow optimal breast, although not complementary

  18. Digestibilidade das dietas e metabolismo de suínos alimentados com dietas contendo bentonita sódica em diferentes programas alimentares Digestibility of diets and metabolism of pigs fed with diets containing sodium bentonite in different feeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheila Roberta Lehnen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento para avaliar a digestibilidade aparente de dietas e o metabolismo de suínos alimentados com dietas contendo bentonita sódica submetidos a diferentes programas alimentares. Foram utilizados 24 suínos machos castrados, meio irmãos paternos, com peso vivo médio inicial de 42,2kg, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com três níveis de bentonita sódica (0,0; 0,3 e 0,5% e dois programas alimentares (restrito e à vontade, com oito repetições cada. A adição de bentonita sódica não alterou (P>0,05 o consumo de ração e os balanços da energia e do nitrogênio. O consumo de ração diferiu (P0,05 a retenção de N pelos animais. A alimentação à vontade alterou (PAn experiment was carried out to evaluate the digestibility of diets and metabolism of pigs fed diets containing sodium bentonite subjected to different feeding programs. Twenty-four barrows were used, littermates, 42.2kg initial live weight, housed in metabolic cages. Experimental design was completely randomized with three sodium bentonite levels (0.0; 0.3 and 0.5% and two feeding programs (restricted and ad libitum, with eight replications each. Addition of sodium bentonite didn't affect (P>0.05 the feed intake, the energy and N balance. The feed intake differ (P0.05 the N retention in pigs. Ad libitum feeding alter (P<0.05 the energy balance, mainly the retained energy (3,825 vs. 3,013kcal d-1. Addition of 0.5% of sodium bentonite in diets reduced in 9% (P<0.01 the fecal phosphorus excretion. Sodium bentonite in diets doesn't alter the energy and N balance neither apparent digestibility of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu and Mn. Sodium bentonite in diets reduce the fecal phosphorus excretion. There is no interaction between the feeding program and the addition of sodium bentonite in diets.

  19. USING DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE LEARNING PROCESS OF MODERN PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia A. Umryk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the research it was reviewed the use of distance learning technologies in the organization of research tasks while studying modern programming languages. The article contains an example of a training project on the subject "Modern programming languages". The authors argue the necessity of the use of modern information and communication technologies, in particular in modern programming languages distance learning, for the formation of students' 21st century skills that are essential in the process of programming (it is skills such as self-organization and self-discipline, communication skills, teamwork skills etc.. It is pointed out the structural units of the training project in accordance with the use of distance learning technologies. It is described the general characteristics and the use of appropriate methods of modern information and communication technologies.

  20. Impact of a two-generation early education program on parenting processes at age 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Casey, Patrick H; Barrett, Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    The Infant Health and Development Program is a two-generation early education model designed to improve parenting competence and child well-being. As part of an 8-site randomized clinical trial involving low birthweight premature children, assessments of children and parents were gathered at the time of program completion (age 3), with follow-up at ages 5, 8, and 18. Two key parenting processes were assessed at age 18 based on theory stipulating the centrality of parenting to long-term development in children. Analyses based on 283 control group and 178 Infant Health and Development Program treatment group participants revealed that treatment group mothers scored higher on one, the provision of enriching experiences. Evidence of sustained impacts on parenting suggests that carefully structured two-generation early education programs may prove good investments for promoting competence and adaptive functioning in high-risk children.

  1. 76 FR 13648 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Process Evaluation of the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... synthesized results across primary and secondary data sources will provide critical insights on... tracking and monitoring systems along with primary data to assess program process and progress, is non-experimental. The assessment is based on secondary source information, with primary source information...

  2. University Strategic Planning: A Process for Change in a Principal Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Federico R.; Zamora, Roberto; Hernandez, Rosalinda; Menchaca, Velma

    2017-01-01

    This study describes a strategic planning process used for developing an educational leadership program that prepares principals for leading 21st century schools. The plan is based on recommendations received from the External reviewers representing Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the Texas Education Agency, survey responses received…

  3. Discussion of the Effectiveness of the National Accreditation Process of Secondary Science Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazler, Judith A.; Van Sickle, Meta; Simonis, Doris; Graybill, Letty; Sorenson, Nancy; Brounstein, Erica

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects upon the development, design, and results of a questionnaire distributed to professors of science education concerning the processes involved in a national accreditation of teacher education programs in science. After a pilot study, five professors/administrators from public and private institutions designed a questionnaire and…

  4. Effect of Teacher Education Program on Science Process Skills of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakar, Zeha

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three or more decades, many studies have been written about teacher education and the preparation of science teachers. Presented here is one which investigated the effectiveness of scientific process skills on pre-service science teachers of Pamukkale University Primary Science Teacher Education Program for four years. This study…

  5. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  6. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-12-10

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report.

  7. Development of an ADP Training Program to Serve the EPA Data Processing Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-29

    problems of project team program walk-thrus. " List the major objectives of a developm.nt support library and HIPO documentation. COURSE ABSTRACT In this... HIPO (Hierarchy Plus Input Process and Output) documentation and its role in designs developed in a top-down manner. * Define class exercise requiring

  8. Tracking Students' Cognitive Processes during Program Debugging--An Eye-Movement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tzu; Wu, Cheng-Chih; Hou, Ting-Yun; Lin, Yu-Chih; Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Chia-Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study explores students' cognitive processes while debugging programs by using an eye tracker. Students' eye movements during debugging were recorded by an eye tracker to investigate whether and how high- and low-performance students act differently during debugging. Thirty-eight computer science undergraduates were asked to debug two C…

  9. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapas, Richard B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colwell, Jeffery A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  10. 76 FR 64882 - Inquiry Into Disbursement Process for the Universal Service Fund Low Income Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Inquiry Into Disbursement Process for the Universal Service Fund Low Income Program... Universal Service Fund low income support to eligible telecommunications carriers (ETCs) based upon claims... Universal Service Administrative Company (USAC) reimburses ETCs for low income support each month based on...

  11. Process Evaluation of a Parenting Program for Low-Income Families in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M.; Kelly, Jane; Cluver, Lucie; Ward, Catherine L.; Hutchings, Judy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This mixed-methods process evaluation examined the feasibility of a parenting program delivered by community facilitators to reduce the risk of child maltreatment in low-income families with children aged 3-8 years in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 68). Method: Quantitative measures included attendance registers, fidelity checklists,…

  12. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-10-31

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report

  13. Linear circuit analysis program for IBM 1620 Monitor 2, 1311/1443 data processing system /CIRCS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J.

    1967-01-01

    CIRCS is modification of IBSNAP Circuit Analysis Program, for use on smaller systems. This data processing system retains the basic dc, transient analysis, and FORTRAN 2 formats. It can be used on the IBM 1620/1311 Monitor I Mod 5 system, and solves a linear network containing 15 nodes and 45 branches.

  14. Programs for algorithms of the adaptation of mathematical models of the technological processes of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, E.M.; Iakubov, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Examination is made of the methodology of the construction of adaptive mathematical models of complex flotation processes, which are described by a system of nonlinear equations. A program is made of the algorithm of adaption, and presentation is made of the results of its practical application.

  15. Management Analysis of the Programming Process (MAPP). Phase I. RDTE Appropriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    phases. [Note: The Comptroller manages the budgeting and execution phases]. This broad charter requires a general knowledge of the’ programming processes...and Transportation SSN Standard Study Number T&E Test and Evaluation TP&M or TPM Directorate for Technology Planning and Management TRADOC US Amy

  16. 1979-80 Budget Process. Phase I: Educational Programs. Procedures Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA. Div. of Educational Planning and Development.

    As Proposition 13 necessitated more drastic curtailment of expenditures than had been anticipated when the modified zero-based operational plan for 1978-79 was devised, the budget development procedure was revised for 1979-80. The process is divided into three phases: educational programs, district fiscal plan, and the operational plan. This…

  17. 78 FR 41401 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Draft Animal Feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards; Availability AGENCY: Food and... associated with the draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards (AFRPS). The draft feed standards are... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards--(OMB...

  18. Development and process evaluation of a Web-based responsible beverage service training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Brian G; Dresser, Jack; Shaw, Tracy; Severson, Herbert H; Tyler, Milagra S; Maxwell, Elisabeth D; Christiansen, Steve M

    2012-09-22

    Responsible beverage service (RBS) training designed to improve the appropriate service of alcohol in commercial establishments is typically delivered in workshops. Recently, Web-based RBS training programs have emerged. This report describes the formative development and subsequent design of an innovative Web-delivered RBS program, and evaluation of the impact of the program on servers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Formative procedures using focus groups and usability testing were used to develop a Web-based RBS training program. Professional alcohol servers (N = 112) who worked as servers and/or mangers in alcohol service settings were recruited to participate. A pre-post assessment design was used to assess changes associated with using the program. Participants who used the program showed significant improvements in their RBS knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Although the current study did not directly observe and determine impact of the intervention on server behaviors, it demonstrated that the development process incorporating input from a multidisciplinary team in conjunction with feedback from end-users resulted in creation of a Web-based RBS program that was well-received by servers and that changed relevant knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The results also help to establish a needed evidence base in support of the use of online RBS training, which has been afforded little research attention.

  19. [Development of an educational program starting from a process approach in a department of radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, E; Delgaudine, M; Coucke, P

    2014-01-01

    In order to be able to implement technological evolution and organizational changes on a regular and continuous manner, the radiotherapy department initiated in 2007 a comprehensive policy of operational risk management and overall quality program. The leadership in the department is convinced that the management of professional skills is mandatory to implement rapidly new treatment techniques while simultaneously assuring a high level of quality for patient care. The "process approach" is based on a comprehensive description of all the processes building up the organization in order to check how every single process contributes to patient satisfaction. This kind of approach allows an enhanced visibility on the functioning of the department, a better control on the inter-individual relations, both between different professional groups among caregivers and between those latter and the patients. This approach yields a view on the gain obtained with each single process and leads to identification of failures in safety barriers. The process approach identifies the required professional skills in order to guarantee a high quality of care. This has resulted in the development of a training program tailored to the needs of a radiotherapy department. This training program has recently been submitted and validated by the university authorities and is nowadays registered as a certificate at the university of Liège.

  20. [Evaluation of the teleconsultation process from the perspective of the provider (Oaxaca Telehealth Program, Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Mauricio; Pacheco, Adrián; Silva, Miriam; Sosa, Dámaris

    2017-05-25

    Identify barriers to implementation of the teleconsultation process in order to develop strategies to improve the program's operation. A process evaluation strategy was used to study the implementation of the teleconsultation service. The program's operating manuals were compared with the qualitative and quantitative information compiled on the practical implementation of the teleconsultation process. The factors reported as obstacles to the teleconsultation process were: slow Internet connection, the hours available to the public, the specialized services offered, and insufficient clinical history included in teleconsultation requests. It was determined that 60% of internal medicine patients received two or more teleconsultations in the study period, as did 44% of patients of the gynecology service. Four consulting medical units accounted for 75% of the teleconsultations and the rest were distributed among 12 medical units. The barriers identified in the teleconsultation process mainly affect consulting physicians; even so, productivity is on an upward trend. Despite the existing barriers, it was determined that some patients receive follow-up through the program, which favors access to care. It is necessary to standardize implementation and to conduct subsequent research on patients' health condition.

  1. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  2. Status summary of chemical processing development in plutonium-238 supply program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wham, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DePaoli, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sherman, Steven R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This document summarizes the status of development of chemical processing in the Plutonium-238 Supply Program (PSP) near the end of Demonstration 1. The objective of the PSP is “to develop, demonstrate, and document a production process that meets program objectives and to prepare for its operation” (Frazier et al. 2016). Success in the effort includes establishing capability using the current infrastructure to produce Np targets for irradiation in Department of Energy research reactors, chemically processing the irradiated targets to separate and purify the produced Pu and transferring the PuO2 product to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at an average rate of 1.5 kg/y.

  3. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  4. Avaliação de diferentes programas de restrição alimentar na recria de matrizes avícolas tipo corte Evaluation of different feeding programs for broiler breeder females during the rearing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neventon Santi Vieira

    1995-01-01

    Santa Maria, to study the of feeding programs on the body weight gain, uniformity of weight and viability of broiler breeders. A completely randomized designe with 3 treatments and 4 replicates of 67 birds was used. In the fírst 2 weeks of age they were all feed ad libitum, and in the 2 subsequent weeks feed was controled daily. From 5 to 20 weeks they were submitted to the following feeding treatments: T1: 5-14 weeks = "Skip-a-Day", 15-17 = "Skip on day out of two and 18-20 = controled daily; T2: 5-8 weeks = "Skip-a-Day", 9-16 = 48-57-63 hours of feeding intervals and 17-20 = ''Skip one day out of two"; T3 = 5-20 " 48-57-63 hours intervals between feeding. The results show that the feeding program of 48-57-63 hours interval between feeding during the rearing period can be used with no negative effects on the parameters studied, and with the advantage ofno need of feeding during the weekend, saving handwork costs.

  5. Using Home-Program Adherence App in Pediatric Therapy: Case Study of Sensory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Eynat; Steinberg, Oren

    2017-12-18

    Pediatric therapies adopt a family-centered approach that encourages a caregiver's involvement in therapy. Contextual interventions in the child's natural environment have been effective in generalization of skills and increasing of child participation in daily activities. The use of home programs is common across a variety of conditions, but adherence has been challenging. Apps have been demonstrated to promote medication adherence and physical activity maintenance. This study suggested and tested a construct for features required for caregivers' behavioral modification during home programs in pediatric therapy. SensoryTreat is an adherence promoting app for home-program treatments of children with sensory processing disorders. The app was evaluated by testing availability of desired features, usage frequency, impact on adherence with home programs, and parental sense of competence. Results suggest a strong significant correlation between SensoryTreat usage frequency and families' adherence with home programs, as well as a strong significant correlation between relevancy and usefulness of SensoryTreat's interventional content, and parental competence and their adherence with home programs. Using SensoryTreat twice or more per week increases parental adherence with home programs. Content plays an important role in promoting adherence and parental sense of competence, yet, as usage frequency grows the interventional content habituates, and other features as goal setting and feedback logs have significant impact on parental competence and adherence with home programs over time. These findings indicate that the content and features of SensoryTreat app have the potential to promote adherence of families with pediatric therapy home programs.

  6. Performance of broilers fed increased levels energy in the pre-starter diet and on subsequent feeding programs having with acidulated soybean soapstock supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate broiler responses to increases in feed energy (2,870, 3,000 and 3,100 kcal ME/kg and the inclusion of Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS when compared to Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO in feeds from placement to 7 days of age. From 7 to 42 days ASS or DSO were included in diets that contained similar energy and nutrient levels. Metabolizable energy values used to formulate the diets for ASS and DSO were 8,351 and 7,701 kcal ME/kg in the first week and 9,314 and 8,559 kcal ME/kg afterwards, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were fed to 1,600 one-d-old male broiler chicks randomly placed in 40 floor pens. No differences in performance due to fat source were seen at 7 days. However, the increase in energy levels to 3,100 kcal ME/kg reduced feed intake, whereas feed conversion was improved with energy at 3,000 kcal ME/kg. Live performance, and the yields of carcass and commercial cuts were not affected by the type of fat included in the feeds from 7 to 42 days, except for increased body weight at 21 and 35 days with ASS supplementation. Litter moisture at 7, 21, 35 and 42 days was not affected by any of the factors and there were no residual effects of treatments at 21, 35 and 42 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 35 days was affected by the interaction of diets fed in the first week with those provided afterwards. The results showed that ME values used for DSO and ASS are adequate and that ASS may be used as fat source in broiler feeds from placement to 42 days of age.

  7. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements.

  8. SEISPRHO: An interactive computer program for processing and interpretation of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Luca; Stanghellini, Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    SEISPRHO is an interactive computer program for processing and interpreting high-resolution seismic reflection profiles developed using the Delphi/Kylix multiplatform programming environment. For this reason, it is available under Windows™ and Linux™ operating systems. The program allows the users to handle SEG-Y data files (and other non-standard formats) carrying out a processing sequence over the data to obtain, as a final result, bitmap images of seismic sections. Some basic algorithms are implemented, including filtering and deconvolution. However, the main feature of SEISPRHO is its interactive graphic interface, which provides the user with several tools for interpreting the data, such as reflector picking and map digitizing. Moreover, the program allows importing and geo-referencing maps and seismic profiles in the form of digital images. Trace-by-trace analysis of seismic signal and sea-bottom reflectivity is also implemented, as well as other special functions such as compilation of time-slice maps from close-spaced grids of seismic lines. SEISPRHO is distributed as public domain software for non-commercial purposes by the Marine Geology division of the Istituto di Scienze Marine ( ISMAR-CNR). This paper is an introduction to the program and a preliminary guide to the users.

  9. Family leader empowerment program using participatory learning process for dengue vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengvanich, Veerapong

    2011-02-01

    Assess the performance of the empowerment program using participatory learning process for the control of Dengue vector The program focuses on using the leaders of families as the main executer of the vector control protocol. This quasi-experimental research utilized the two-group pretest-posttest design. The sample group consisted of 120 family leaders from two communities in Mueang Municipality, Chachoengsao Province. The research was conducted during an 8-week period between April and June 2010. The data were collected and analyzed based on frequency, percentage, mean, paired t-test, and independent t-test. The result was evaluated by comparing the difference between the mean prevalence index of mosquito larvae before and after the process implementation in terms of the container index (CI) and the house index (HI). After spending eight weeks in the empowerment program, the family leader's behavior in the aspect of Dengue vector control has improved. The Container Index and the House Index were found to decrease with p = 0.05 statistical significance. The reduction of CI and HI suggested that the program worked well in the selected communities. The success of the Dengue vector control program depended on cooperation and participation of many groups, especially the families in the community When the family leaders have good attitude and are capable of carrying out the vector control protocol, the risk factor leading to the incidence of Dengue rims infection can be reduced.

  10. An Inversion Program with automatic data processing for Travel-Time based Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Pengxiang; Hu, Rui; Hu, Linwei; Ptak-Fix, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic travel-time based inversion is a useful and promising technique for tomographic aquifer characterization with highly resolved spatial resolution (Brauchler et al., 2003). This inversion itself is computationally very efficient and robust. However, raw data from the field tests needs large amount of specific processing in order to meet the data requirement of inversion, which decreases the total efficiency of this inversion method. Our Visual C# program provides a complete data processing procedure and inversion computation for this technique. This program allows denoising, smoothing, fitting and derivation of raw data. Graphical presentation of the results with statistical values of each applied function is available. Subsequently, travel times with respect to different percentage of peak amplitude can be calculated and applied to early-time inversion to reconstruct and visualize the distribution of hydraulic parameters (Hu et al., 2011). The inversion procedure is based on Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) and Ray-Tracing algorithms, through which the inversion parameters can be set by user or automatically. This program also provides Guide- and Help-files to each function and algorithm. Through the first application, this program shows high efficiency and accuracy of data processing and stable inversion procedure with friendly graphical user interface.

  11. The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program's Algorithm Change Process (ACP): Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program Office is the supporting organization for the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and JPSS-1 satellites. S-NPP carries the following sensors: VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, OMPS, and CERES with instruments that ultimately produce over 25 data products that cover the Earths weather, oceans, and atmosphere. A team of scientists and engineers from all over the United States document, monitor and fix errors in operational software code or documentation with the algorithm change process (ACP) to ensure the success of the S-NPP and JPSS 1 missions by maintaining quality and accuracy of the data products the scientific community relies on. This poster will outline the programs algorithm change process (ACP), identify the various users and scientific applications of our operational data products and highlight changes that have been made to the ACP to accommodate operating system upgrades to the JPSS programs Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), so that the program is ready for the transition to the 2017 JPSS-1 satellite mission and beyond.

  12. Development Of Educational Programs In Renewable And Alternative Energy Processing: The Case Of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirina, Anna; Shindor, Olga; Tatmyshevsky, Konstantin

    2014-12-01

    The paper deals with the main problems of Russian energy system development that proves necessary to provide educational programs in the field of renewable and alternative energy. In the paper the process of curricula development and defining teaching techniques on the basis of expert opinion evaluation is defined, and the competence model for renewable and alternative energy processing master students is suggested. On the basis of a distributed questionnaire and in-depth interviews, the data for statistical analysis was obtained. On the basis of this data, an optimization of curricula structure was performed, and three models of a structure for optimizing teaching techniques were developed. The suggested educational program structure which was adopted by employers is presented in the paper. The findings include quantitatively estimated importance of systemic thinking and professional skills and knowledge as basic competences of a masters' program graduate; statistically estimated necessity of practice-based learning approach; and optimization models for structuring curricula in renewable and alternative energy processing. These findings allow the establishment of a platform for the development of educational programs.

  13. The development and practical study programs for remedial measures sprinter 10-16 years in the training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitnikova N.S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Developed and the complex program of restoration measures is practically grounded for athletes 10-16 years. The program is intended for setup time of training process. The program is directed on optimization of the functional state of the basic physiological systems of organism. The program takes into account age-dependent, individual and morphofunctional features of sportsmen. Basic structural this program elements it is been: water-playing complexes, hydromassage, selfmassage, thermal procedures, application of bioactive addition.

  14. Residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities: service providers' perceptions of change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; McPherson, Amy; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Stewart, Debra; Glencross-Eimantas, Tanya; Jones-Galley, Kimberlea; Morrison, Andrea; Isihi, Ana Maria; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2015-05-01

    Residential immersive life skills (RILS) programs are designed to equip youth with physical disabilities with the foundational life skills required to assume adult roles. The objective was to determine RILS service providers' perceptions of the active ingredients of the intervention change process. Thirty-seven service providers from various disciplines completed measures to assess expertise status and participated in qualitative interviews. Qualitative themes were derived, and similarities and differences in themes were identified for blinded groups of novices, intermediates, and experts. The three main themes, reflecting change processes, were: (a) creating a supportive program atmosphere with multiple opportunities for learning, (b) using strategies to support, encourage, and engage youth, and (c) intentionally fostering youth experiences of skill development, social interaction, and pride in accomplishment. In contrast to the novices, experts displayed a more holistic perspective and paid attention to higher-order issues such as providing opportunities and enabling youth. The findings indicate how RILS service providers work to create a program atmosphere and employ strategies to intentionally foster particular youth experiences. The findings explicate service providers' theories of practice, the intentional design of RILS program environments to bring about client change, and the value of service provider expertise. Implications for Rehabilitation Service providers of youth independence-oriented life skills programs can intentionally create a learning-oriented and supportive program atmosphere by using non-directive, coaching/guiding, and engagement strategies Youth experiences of skill development, shared experience with others, and pride in accomplishment can be cultivated by providing a range of learning opportunities, including choice making, problem-solving, and skill mastery Compared to more novice service providers, experts discussed managing the

  15. Early-stage primary school children attending a school in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) have better reversal learning and lean muscle mass growth than those attending a non-SFP school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Owen W W; Duffy, Maresa E; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Davidson, Philip W; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; O'Brien, Gerard M

    2013-08-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6-8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children.

  16. About one approach to automation and information of the process of drawing up of training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Петрович Офицеров

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the problem of formation of the program of preparation of subjects trained on the basis of selection and definition of their labor input for the purpose of maximization competences in the chosen direction of training is formalized. The method of the automated decision of the received problem with use of information of process of reception of expert estimations is developed. The received result can be used in the distributed information system of HIGH SCHOOL for the automated drawing up of effective programs of training.

  17. The changing face of public education: the process of "revisioning" elementary teacher preparation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Smith, Deborah; Warner, Margaret; Padilla, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Three years ago the elementary education department at Clemson University recognized the need for curricular change in the way we prepare teachers. The current program was not reflective of the changing demographics of multilingual and multicultural students in the public/ private school population. The challenge from the university provost was to create an enhanced elementary curriculum that would be unique in training students to meet these new demands. The purpose of this article is to share the revisioning process that led to redesigning the teacher preparation program. Promoting positive conversations about the richness of viewing diversity through a new lens will provide deeper insights into these issues.

  18. Operating Room Efficiency before and after Entrance in a Benchmarking Program for Surgical Process Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedron, Sara; Winter, Vera; Oppel, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    program for surgical process data was associated with a change in OR efficiency, measured through raw utilization, turnover times, and first-case tardiness. The main analysis is based on panel data from 202 surgical departments in German hospitals, which were derived from the largest database for surgical...... a generally increasing trend during participation. For raw utilization no clear and statistically significant trend could be evidenced. Subgroup analyses revealed differences in effects across different hospital types and department specialties. Participation in a benchmarking and reporting program and thus...... of OR efficiency in German hospitals and could have meaningful consequences for the medium- and long-run capacity planning in the OR....

  19. Development and evaluation of an automatic acne lesion detection program using digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seonguk; Kong, Hyoun-joong; Yoon, Chiyul; Kim, Hee Chan; Suh, Dae Hun

    2013-02-01

    Existing acne grading methods, which depend on overall impression, require a long training period and there is a high degree of variability among raters, including trained dermatologists. The use of lesion count provides fair reproducibility but the method is time consuming. New technologies in photographic equipment and software allow solutions to the problem of acne evaluation. This study was conducted to develop the automatic acne lesion program and evaluation of its usefulness. We made the conditions to optimize characterization of acne lesions and developed the counting program. Twenty-five volunteers with acne lesions were enrolled. Automated lesion counting for five subtypes of acne (papule, nodule, pustule, whitehead comedone, and blackhead comedone) was performed with image processing. The usefulness of the automatic lesion count program was assessed by a comparison with manual counting performed by an expert dermatologist. In a comparison with manual counting performed by an expert dermatologist, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the lesion-counting program was greater than 70% for papules, nodules, pustules, and whitehead comedo. In a comparison with manual counting, findings with the use of the lesion-counting program were well correlated for papules, nodules, pustules, and whitehead comedo (r > 0.9). Automatic lesion-counting program can be a useful tool for acne severity evaluation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common ... X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  2. Using process evaluation for program improvement in dose, fidelity and reach: the ACT trial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitzman-Ulrich Heather

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how formative program process evaluation was used to improve dose and fidelity of implementation, as well as reach of the intervention into the target population, in the "Active by Choice Today" (ACT randomized school-based trial from years 1 to 3 of implementation. Methods The intervention integrated constructs from Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to enhance intrinsic motivation and behavioral skills for increasing long-term physical activity (PA behavior in underserved adolescents (low income, minorities. ACT formative process data were examined at the end of each year to provide timely, corrective feedback to keep the intervention "on track". Results Between years 1 and 2 and years 2 and 3, three significant changes were made to attempt to increase dose and fidelity rates in the program delivery and participant attendance (reach. These changes included expanding the staff training, reformatting the intervention manual, and developing a tracking system for contacting parents of students who were not attending the after-school programs regularly. Process outcomes suggest that these efforts resulted in notable improvements in attendance, dose, and fidelity of intervention implementation from years 1 to 2 and 2 to 3 of the ACT trial. Conclusion Process evaluation methods, particularly implementation monitoring, are useful tools to ensure fidelity in intervention trials and for identifying key best practices for intervention delivery.

  3. Using process evaluation for program improvement in dose, fidelity and reach: the ACT trial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; Griffin, Sarah; Saunders, Ruth P; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Meyers, Duncan C; Mansard, Leslie

    2009-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how formative program process evaluation was used to improve dose and fidelity of implementation, as well as reach of the intervention into the target population, in the "Active by Choice Today" (ACT) randomized school-based trial from years 1 to 3 of implementation. The intervention integrated constructs from Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to enhance intrinsic motivation and behavioral skills for increasing long-term physical activity (PA) behavior in underserved adolescents (low income, minorities). ACT formative process data were examined at the end of each year to provide timely, corrective feedback to keep the intervention "on track". Between years 1 and 2 and years 2 and 3, three significant changes were made to attempt to increase dose and fidelity rates in the program delivery and participant attendance (reach). These changes included expanding the staff training, reformatting the intervention manual, and developing a tracking system for contacting parents of students who were not attending the after-school programs regularly. Process outcomes suggest that these efforts resulted in notable improvements in attendance, dose, and fidelity of intervention implementation from years 1 to 2 and 2 to 3 of the ACT trial. Process evaluation methods, particularly implementation monitoring, are useful tools to ensure fidelity in intervention trials and for identifying key best practices for intervention delivery.

  4. MassCascade: Visual Programming for LC-MS Data Processing in Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisken, Stephan; Earll, Mark; Portwood, David; Seymour, Mark; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is commonly applied to investigate the small molecule complement of organisms. Several software tools are typically joined in custom pipelines to semi-automatically process and analyse the resulting data. General workflow environments like the Konstanz Information Miner (KNIME) offer the potential of an all-in-one solution to process LC-MS data by allowing easy integration of different tools and scripts. We describe MassCascade and its workflow plug-in for processing LC-MS data. The Java library integrates frequently used algorithms in a modular fashion, thus enabling it to serve as back-end for graphical front-ends. The functions available in MassCascade have been encapsulated in a plug-in for the workflow environment KNIME, allowing combined use with e.g. statistical workflow nodes from other providers and making the tool intuitive to use without knowledge of programming. The design of the software guarantees a high level of modularity where processing functions can be quickly replaced or concatenated. MassCascade is an open-source library for LC-MS data processing in metabolomics. It embraces the concept of visual programming through its KNIME plug-in, simplifying the process of building complex workflows. The library was validated using open data.

  5. Programming Merino lambs by early feed restriction reduces growth rates and increases fat accretion during the fattening period with no effect on meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alba; Giráldez, F Javier; Mateo, Javier; Frutos, Javier; Andrés, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of early feed restriction on carcass and meat quality traits in Merino lambs. Twenty-four male Merino lambs (4.81±0.256kg) were assigned to two groups (12 animals in each group). The first group (ad libitum, ADL) was kept permanently with the dams. The second group (restricted, RES) was milk-restricted. After weaning (15kg), daily feed intake of all lambs was identical, but a lower gain: feed ratio was recorded in the RES group (0.320 vs. 0.261; P<0.001). After animals were slaughtered (27kg), lower ultimate pH and reduced yellow colouration of subcutaneous fat was recorded in meat from the RES lambs when compared to ADL group, whereas a trend towards a significant increment of intramuscular fat content and no effect on meat quality traits was observed in the RES lambs. Early feed restriction may be useful to increase intramuscular fat accretion in Merino lambs during the fattening period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding the decision-making process for health promotion programming at small to midsized businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M Courtney; Patrick, Donald L; Hannon, Peggy A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Ghosh, Donetta L

    2011-07-01

    This study explores the decision-making process for implementing and continuing health promotion programs at small to midsized businesses to inform health promotion practitioners and researchers as they market their services to these businesses. Qualitative interviews are conducted with 24 employers located in the Pacific Northwest ranging in size from 75 to 800 employees, with the majority having between 100 and 200 employees. Small to midsized employers depend most on company success-related factors rather than on humanitarian motives when deciding whether to adopt workplace health promotion programs. They rely heavily on health insurers for health promotion and desire more information about the actual costs and cost-benefits of programs. To increase health promotion adoption at small to midsized businesses, health promotion practitioners should appeal to overall company success-related factors, use the insurance channel, and target their information to both human resource personnel and senior management.

  7. The RESTORE program of restorative justice for sex crimes: vision, process, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P

    2014-06-01

    The article reports empirical evaluation of RESTORE, a restorative justice (RJ) conferencing program adapted to prosecutor-referred adult misdemeanor and felony sexual assaults. RESTORE conferences included voluntary enrollment, preparation, and a face-to-face meeting where primary and secondary victims voice impacts, and responsible persons acknowledge their acts and together develop a re-dress plan that is supervised for 1 year. Process data included referral and consent rates, participant characteristics, observational ratings of conferences compared with program design, services delivered, and safety monitoring. Outcome evaluation used 22 cases to assess (a) pre-post reasons for choosing RESTORE, (b) preparation and conference experiences, (c) overall program and justice satisfaction, and (d) completion rates. This is the first peer-reviewed quantitative evaluation of RJ conferencing for adult sexual assault. Although the data have limitations, the results support cautious optimism regarding feasibility, safety, and satisfactory outcomes. They help envision how conferencing could expand and individualize justice options for sexual assault.

  8. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matthew R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-09-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) transitions to the operations and research lifecycle phase, an expected increase in the number of payloads necessitates an easier, more consistent method for management of the hazard reporting process. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with three goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data (e.g., problems, hazards, hardware); and, increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes.These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based, structured data system utilizing the Mission Assurance System (MAS), which is based on the open- source Bugzilla software bug tracker. This paper provides an overview of the MAS system and the approach taken by the ISS Program and the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Human Computer Interaction (HCI) team to determine requirements and implementation strategy for the new system.

  9. 100 Area process improvement program for the period November 1954--April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinker, P.H.; Bupp, L.P.

    1954-11-19

    This is the second of a series of documents issued quarterly. The documents present, for critical examination by management and for the information of related groups, that portion of the future 100 Area technical program which relates directly and more or less immediately to the Technical-Manufacturing efforts to increase both power levels and production. An attempt is made to describe and justify the key production tests planned for the following six month period. Only those tests necessary for the relief of technical and process limitations and vital to the slug improvement program are included. Best estimates of changes in current Process Specifications during the ensuing six months are also given. To further longer range planning, power level forecasts based on foreseeable changes of technical limits and scheduled physical changes of the water plants and reactors are extended several years into the future.

  10. Processes, barriers and facilitators to implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Lindberg, Naja Klærke; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the processes of a participatory ergonomics program among 594 eldercare workers with emphasis on identified risk factors for low back pain and solutions, and reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation. Sixty-nine per cent of the identified risk factors were...... physical ergonomic, 24% were organisational and 7% were psychosocial risk factors. Most solutions were organisational (55%), followed by physical (43%) and psychosocial solutions (2%). Internal factors (e.g. team or management) constituted 47% of the barriers and 75% of the facilitators. External factors...... (e.g. time, financial resources, collaboration with resident or relatives) constituted 53% of the barriers and 25% of the facilitators. This study revealed the processes and implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers. The findings can be transferred to workers...

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Two Software Development Methodologies: Rational Unified Process and Extreme Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Rafael Borth; Henrique Yoshikazu Shishido

    2014-01-01

    Software development methodologies were created to meet the great market demand for innovation, productivity, quality and performance. With the use of a methodology, it is possible to reduce the cost, the risk, the development time, and even increase the quality of the final product. This article compares two of these development methodologies: the Rational Unified Process and the Extreme Programming. The comparison shows the main differences and similarities between the two approaches, and h...

  12. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program 1996 technical exchange meeting. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This document contains summaries of technology development presented at the 1996 Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program Technical Exchange Meeting. This meeting is held annually to promote a free exchange of ideas among technology developers, potential users and other interested parties within the EM community. During this meeting the following many separation processes technologies were discussed such as ion exchange, membrane separation, vacuum distillation, selective sorption, and solvent extraction. Other topics discussed include: waste forms; testing or inorganic sorbents for radionuclide and heavy metal removal; selective crystallization; and electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes. This is the leading abstract, individual papers have been indexed separately for the databases.

  13. Programmatic environmental assessment of the DOE Solar Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The program's potential environmental impacts are evaluated to ensure that environmental issues are considered at the earliest meaningful point in the decision-making process. The existing environment is studied for the following: grain drying; crop drying; livestock shelter heating; food processing; textile products; lumber and wood products; paper products; chemicals; petroleum refining; stone, clay, and glass products; and primary metals industries. Environmental impacts of the proposed action on the following are studied: air quality, water quality, ecosystems, health and safety, land use, esthetics, and social and institutional impacts. (MHR)

  14. Physical activity and nutrition program for adults with metabolic syndrome: Process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Dinh; Jancey, Jonine; Lee, Andy; James, Anthony; Howat, Peter; Thi Phuong Mai, Le

    2017-04-01

    The Vietnam Physical Activity and Nutrition (VPAN) program aimed to improve physical activity and nutrition for adults aged 50-65 years with Metabolic Syndrome in Vietnam. The VPAN program consisted of a range of resources and strategies, including an information booklet, resistance band, face-to-face education sessions, and walking groups. This process evaluation assessed the participation, fidelity, satisfaction, and reasons for completing and not-completing the VPAN. Data were collected by mixed-methods from a sample of 214 intervention participants. Quantitative data were collected via surveys (n=163); qualitative data via face-to-face exit interviews with intervention program completers (n=10) and non-completers (n=10), and brief post education session discussions. Most participants (87%-96%) reported the program resources and strategies useful, assisting them to increase their physical activity level and improving their diet. The education sessions were the most preferred strategy (97%) with high attendance (>78% of participants). The main reasons for withdrawal were work commitments and being too busy. The evaluation indicated that the program reached and engaged the majority of participants throughout the six-month intervention. The combination of printed resources and face-to-face intervention components was a suitable approach to support lifestyle behavioural change in the Vietnamese population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [The intervention mapping protocol: A structured process to develop, implement and evaluate health promotion programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, J-B; Lamort-Bouché, M; Sarnin, P; Durif-Bruckert, C; Péron, J; Letrilliart, L; Durand, M-J

    2016-02-01

    Health promotion programs are expected to improve population health and reduce social inequalities in health. However, their theoretical foundations are frequently ill-defined, and their implementation faces many obstacles. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention mapping protocol in health promotion programs planning, used recently in several countries. The challenges of planning health promotion programs are presented, and the six steps of the intervention mapping protocol are described with an example. Based on a literature review, the use of this protocol, its requirements and potential limitations are discussed. The intervention mapping protocol has four essential characteristics: an ecological perspective (person-environment), a participative approach, the use of theoretical models in human and social sciences and the use of scientific evidence. It comprises six steps: conduct a health needs assessment, define change objectives, select theory-based change techniques and practical applications, organize techniques and applications into an intervention program (logic model), plan for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability, and generate an evaluation plan. This protocol was used in different countries and domains such as obesity, tobacco, physical activity, cancer and occupational health. Although its utilization requires resources and a critical stance, this protocol was used to develop interventions which efficacy was demonstrated. The intervention mapping protocol is an integrated process that fits the scientific and practical challenges of health promotion. It could be tested in France as it was used in other countries, in particular to reduce social inequalities in health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Comparison of growth and efficiency of dietary energy utilization by growing pigs offered feeding programs based on the metabolizable energy or the net energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, J; Patience, J F; Boyd, R D

    2016-04-01

    The NE system describes the useful energy available for growth better than the ME system. The use of NE in diet formulation should maintain growth performance and carcass parameters when diets contain a diversity of ingredients. This study compared the growth performance of pigs on diets formulated using either the ME or the NE system. A total of 944 gilts and 1,110 castrates (40.8 ± 2.0 kg initial BW) were allotted to group pens and assigned to 1 of 5 different feeding programs according to a randomized complete block design. The 5 treatments included: a corn-soybean meal control diet (CTL), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), formulated to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-DC) and a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-DC). When required, fat was added as an energy source. Pigs were harvested at an average BW of 130.3 ± 4.0 kg. Growth performance was not affected by treatment ( = 0.581, = 0. 177, and = 0.187 for ADG, ADFI, and G:F, respectively). However, carcass growth decreased with the addition of coproducts except for the NE-D treatment ( = 0.016, = 0.001, = 0.018, = 0.010, and = 0.010 for dressing percentage, HCW, carcass ADG, back fat, and loin depth, respectively). Carcass G:F and lean percentage did not differ among treatments ( = 0.109 and = 0.433, respectively). On the other hand, NE intake decreased ( = 0.035) similarly to that of carcass gain, suggesting a relationship between NE intake and energy retention. Calculations of NE per kilogram of BW gain differed among treatments ( = 0.010), but NE per kilogram of carcass was similar among treatments ( = 0.640). This suggests that NE may be better than ME at explaining the carcass results

  17. Operating Room Efficiency before and after Entrance in a Benchmarking Program for Surgical Process Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedron, Sara; Winter, Vera; Oppel, Eva-Maria; Bialas, Enno

    2017-08-23

    Operating room (OR) efficiency continues to be a high priority for hospitals. In this context the concept of benchmarking has gained increasing importance as a means to improve OR performance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how participation in a benchmarking and reporting program for surgical process data was associated with a change in OR efficiency, measured through raw utilization, turnover times, and first-case tardiness. The main analysis is based on panel data from 202 surgical departments in German hospitals, which were derived from the largest database for surgical process data in Germany. Panel regression modelling was applied. Results revealed no clear and univocal trend of participation in a benchmarking and reporting program for surgical process data. The largest trend was observed for first-case tardiness. In contrast to expectations, turnover times showed a generally increasing trend during participation. For raw utilization no clear and statistically significant trend could be evidenced. Subgroup analyses revealed differences in effects across different hospital types and department specialties. Participation in a benchmarking and reporting program and thus the availability of reliable, timely and detailed analysis tools to support the OR management seemed to be correlated especially with an increase in the timeliness of staff members regarding first-case starts. The increasing trend in turnover time revealed the absence of effective strategies to improve this aspect of OR efficiency in German hospitals and could have meaningful consequences for the medium- and long-run capacity planning in the OR.

  18. Programming of adaptive repair process chains using repair features and function blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Spöcker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current trends of product customization and repair of high value parts with individual defects demand automation and a high degree of flexibility of the involved manufacturing process chains. To determine the corresponding requirements this paper gives an overview of manufacturing process chains by distinguishing between horizontal and vertical process chains. The established way of modeling and programming processes with CAx systems and existing approaches is shown. Furthermore, the different types of possible adaptions of a manufacturing process chain are shown and considered as a cascaded control loop. Following this it is discussed which key requirements of repair process chains are unresolved by existing approaches. To overcome the deficits this paper introduces repair features which comprise the idea of geometric features and defines analytical auxiliary geometries based on the measurement input data. This meets challenges normally caused by working directly on reconstructed geometries in the form of triangulated surfaces which are prone to artifacts. Embedded into function blocks, this allows the use of traditional approaches for manufacturing process chains to be applied to adaptive repair process chains.

  19. The Nutrient Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill’s By-product Processed with Amofer Technology as Ruminant Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE By-product derived from palm oil plantation and mill is very potential for energy and protein source for ruminant feed. However, it is still underutilized due to low content of crude protein (CP with high crude fiber (CF. Ammoniation or fermentation technology could optimize the quality of by-product by increasing digestibility, reducing CF and increasing CP content. The objective of this research was to determine the nutrient and potency value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product applied with amofer technology for ruminant feed. Sample was prepared in two methods: 1 sample without amofer application, 2 sample with amofer application under anaerobic method and incubated for 18 days. Ammoniation was carried out by adding urea of 3% from the total material and then incubated for nine days. At the ninth day, some microorganisms starter i.e. cellulolytic, amillolytic and proteolytic were added by 1% of the total material. Proximate analysis was carried out in laboratory to examine the nutrient value. The crude protein content at each part of feed material before and after amofer treatment was follow: palm midrib: 3.16%:17%; palm leaves 6.53%:26.51%; empty fruit bunch 7.01%:1673%; palm pressed fiber 5.56%:16.00%. While the crude fiber at each part of feed material was: palm midrib 37.85%:30.86%; palm leaves 30.39%:24.41%; EFB 40.22%:34.98%; PPF 50.39%: 41.70%. The application of amofer could increase the amount of feed material (ton/ha/y: dry matter (DM 14.82:15.89; CP 0.79:2.87; total digestible nutrient (TDN 7.63:8.5. Moreover, amofer application could also increase the nutrient content of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product by increasing CP and reducing CF. This increasing was also followed by the increasing of DM, CP, and TDN which indicated that those feed sources were recommended as ruminant feed material /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal

  20. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate...... amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude...

  1. 77 FR 1707 - National Toxicology Program (NTP) Final Process for Preparation of the Report on Carcinogens (RoC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP) Final Process for Preparation of the Report on Carcinogens (RoC) AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP...: December 21, 2011. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  2. Process Evaluation of a School-Based Education Program about Organ Donation and Registration, and the Intention for Continuance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubsaet, A.; Reinaerts, E. B. M.; Brug, J.; van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the process evaluation of an organ donation education program for high school students aged 15-18 years of which the effectiveness was established. The program consisted of three components: a video with group discussion, an interactive computer-tailored program and a registration training session. A cross-sectional survey was…

  3. Terrestrial feeding in aquatic turtles: environment-dependent feeding behavior modulation and the evolution of terrestrial feeding in Emydidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, Charles Tristan

    2011-12-15

    Evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial environments are common in vertebrate evolution. These transitions require major changes in most physiological functions, including feeding. Emydid turtles are ancestrally aquatic, with most species naturally feeding only in water, but some terrestrial species can modulate their feeding behavior appropriately for both media. In addition, many aquatic species can be induced to feed terrestrially. A comparison of feeding in both aquatic and terrestrial environments presents an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of terrestrial feeding from aquatic feeding, as well as a system within which to develop methods for studying major evolutionary transitions between environments. Individuals from eight species of emydid turtles (six aquatic, two terrestrial) were filmed while feeding underwater and on land. Bite kinematics were analyzed to determine whether aquatic turtles modulated their feeding behavior in a consistent and appropriate manner between environments. Aquatic turtles showed consistent changes between environments, taking longer bites and using more extensive motions of the jaw and hyoid when feeding on land. However, these motions differ from those shown by species that naturally feed in both environments and mostly do not seem to be appropriate for terrestrial feeding. For example, more extensive motions of the hyoid are only effective during underwater suction feeding. Emydids evolving to feed on land probably would have needed to evolve or learn to overcome many, but not all, aspects of the intrinsic emydid response to terrestrial feeding. Studies that investigate major evolutionary transitions must determine what responses to the new environment are shown by naïve individuals in order to fully understand the evolutionary patterns and processes associated with these transitions.

  4. What is actually measured in process evaluations for worksite health promotion programs: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous worksite health promotion program (WHPPs) have been implemented the past years to improve employees’ health and lifestyle (i.e., physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol use and relaxation). Research primarily focused on the effectiveness of these WHPPs. Whereas process evaluations provide essential information necessary to improve large scale implementation across other settings. Therefore, this review aims to: (1) further our understanding of the quality of process evaluations alongside effect evaluations for WHPPs, (2) identify barriers/facilitators affecting implementation, and (3) explore the relationship between effectiveness and the implementation process. Methods Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane (controlled trials) were searched from 2000 to July 2012 for peer-reviewed (randomized) controlled trials published in English reporting on both the effectiveness and the implementation process of a WHPP focusing on physical activity, smoking cessation, alcohol use, healthy diet and/or relaxation at work, targeting employees aged 18-65 years. Results Of the 307 effect evaluations identified, twenty-two (7.2%) published an additional process evaluation and were included in this review. The results showed that eight of those studies based their process evaluation on a theoretical framework. The methodological quality of nine process evaluations was good. The most frequently reported process components were dose delivered and dose received. Over 50 different implementation barriers/facilitators were identified. The most frequently reported facilitator was strong management support. Lack of resources was the most frequently reported barrier. Seven studies examined the link between implementation and effectiveness. In general a positive association was found between fidelity, dose and the primary outcome of the program. Conclusions Process evaluations are not systematically performed alongside effectiveness studies for WHPPs. The quality

  5. Validation of the SEPHIS Program for the Modeling of the HM Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.A.

    1998-12-17

    The SEPHIS computer program is currently being used to evaluate the effect of all process variables on the criticality safety of the HM 1st Uranium Cycle process in H Canyon. The objective of its use has three main purposes. (1) To provide a better technical basis for those process variables that do not have any realistic effect on the criticality safety of the process. (2) To qualitatively study those conditions that have been previously recognized to affect the nuclear safety of the process or additional conditions that modeling has indicated may pose a criticality safety issue. (3) To judge the adequacy of existing or future neutron monitors locations in the detection of the initial stages of reflux for specific scenarios.Although SEPHIS generally over-predicts the distribution of uranium to the organic phase, it is a capable simulation tool as long as the user recognizes its biases and takes special care when using the program for scenarios where the prediction bias is non-conservative. The temperature coefficient used by SEPHIS is poor at predicting effect of temperature on uranium extraction for the 7.5 percent TBP used in the HM process. Therefore, SEPHIS should not be used to study temperature related scenarios. However, within normal operating temperatures when other process variables are being studied, it may be used. Care must be is given to understanding the prediction bias and its effect on any conclusion for the particular scenario that is under consideration. Uranium extraction with aluminum nitrate is over-predicted worse than for nitric acid systems. However, the extraction section of the 1A bank has sufficient excess capability that these errors, while relatively large, still allow SEPHIS to be used to develop reasonable qualitative assessments for reflux scenarios. However, high losses to the 1AW stream cannot be modeled by SEPHIS.

  6. Parental Feeding Practices among Brazilian School-Aged Children: Associations with Parent and Child Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, Laís Amaral; Warkentin, Sarah; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Carnell, Susan; Taddei, José Augusto Aguiar de Carrazedo

    2017-01-01

    Children's eating behavior, food intake, and weight status are highly influenced by parents, who shape their food environment via parental feeding practices. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sociodemographic, anthropometric, and behavioral/attitudinal characteristics of parents and their 5- to 9-year-old children and a range of positive ("healthy eating guidance," "monitoring") and potentially negative ("restriction for weight control," "restriction for health," "emotion regulation/food as reward," and "pressure") parental feeding practices. Parents completed a questionnaire assessing parental and child characteristics. Parental feeding practices were measured using a Brazilian adaptation of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. To test associations between parent and child characteristics and parental feeding practices, we ran bivariate logistic regression models with parent and child characteristics as independent variables and high (above median) scores on individual parental feeding practices as outcome variables. We then conducted multivariate logistic regression models containing all parent and child characteristics, controlling for child age and maternal education. Lower parental perceived responsibility for child feeding, higher child use of screen devices, and higher child ultra-processed food intake were associated with lower scores on "healthy eating guidance" and "monitoring." Higher parental perceived responsibility for child feeding and concern about child overweight were associated with higher scores on "restriction for weight control" and "restriction for health." Parental perceptions of low weight and concern about child underweight, and higher perceived responsibility for child feeding, were associated with higher scores on "pressure." Greater intake of ultra-processed foods and lower maternal age were associated with higher scores on "emotion regulation/food as reward." Parental concerns and perceptions

  7. Child feeding perceptions among mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Feldman, Talya; Ram, Anca; Gur, Eitan; Zubery, Eynat; Steiner, Evelyne; Latzer, Yael; Lock, James D

    2015-12-01

    Feeding and eating difficulties are documented among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Understanding the perspective of mothers with eating disorders is likely essential to develop parent-based early prevention programs for children of these mothers. In the present study, twenty-nine mothers who were diagnosed with an eating disorder prior to becoming mothers and who currently had toddler age children participated in a semi-structured interview examining maternal functioning and child feeding. The maternal perceptions that emerged from the interviews were sorted into central themes and subcategories using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Data indicate that mothers with eating disorders express preoccupation with their child's eating, shape and weight, and many dilemmas about child feeding. They also reported rarity of family meals and their toddlers' preliminary awareness of maternal symptoms. Maternal concerns regarding child nutrition, feeding and weight were reported as more intense in regards to daughters. These maternal perceptions illuminate the maternal psychological processes that underlie the feeding and eating problems of the children of mothers with lifetime eating disorders. Findings should be addressed in the evaluation, treatment, and research of adult and childhood eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EPA OIG's RSS Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA OIG's RSS Feed - The EPA OIG offers an XML news feed (RSS) covering all of our publications and news. To use our pre-made feed, click on the link below, copy the URL, then paste it into your prefferred feed reader.

  9. How inventory consignment programs can improve supply chain performance: a process oriented perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K. Malhotra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inventory Consignment (IC has largely been viewed as a method of shifting the ownership and cost burden of inventory from buyer to supplier to benefit the buyer. This primarily accounting based viewpoint has largely ignored process changes that can occur for both the buyer and supplier. This study addresses this gap in the extant literature by examining IC from a process perspective by specifically addressing: (1 the implementation issues in an IC program for both buyers and suppliers and (2 the financial and operational benefits from IC for both buyers and suppliers. Using the case study methodology, we examined three firms that had varying degrees of involvement and roles in IC programs. Based on our detailed work with these three firms and their supply chain linkages, we offer a series of propositions to demonstrate that IC is not just an accounting issue, but also a management practice that requires a series of process changes in order to be successful. These process changes in turn provide operational benefits for both buyers and suppliers via the mechanism of increased demand visibility to suppliers. Through this approach, this study makes a contribution beyond what has been examined in the prior literature which has mostly dealt with IC as an accounting based inventory management issue.

  10. Implemented or not implemented? : Process evaluation of the school-based obesity prevention program DOiT and associations with program effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S; Hoekstra, T.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators:

  11. Implemented or not implemented? Process evaluation of the school-based obesity prevention program DOiT and associations with program effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; Hoekstra, T.; van Mechelen, W.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.

    This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators:

  12. International Learning through an Organised Study Abroad Program: Goals, Processes and Effects of an Organised Study Program in the United States of America. Report of an Evaluation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Henk; Oostindie, Marga

    This book presents a report of an evaluative study of an organized study abroad program. The problem addressed in this study is: what is the value of the United States of America/Netherlands Social Studies Student-Teachers Exchange Program 1987 with respect to both product and process? A preliminary literature study about internationalization of…

  13. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  14. Distributed cognition and process management enabling individualized translational research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Links

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similarly complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team therefore built the NIH UDP Integrated Collaboration System (UDPICS to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  15. Cooperating to learn teaching to cooperate: adviser processes for program implement CA/AC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón LAGO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is present some results of advise strategy to introduce cooperative learning from the «Cooperating to Learn/ Learning to Cooperate» CL/LC Programme. The first part situates the research project and the research objective focused on how introduction of CL/LC program through a process of advice facilitates permanent improvements to the inclusion of students. In the second we analyzed the phases and tasks of an adviser process for the introduction of cooperative learning and three stages to build on cooperative learning in school: the introduction, generalization and consolidation. The third part is the central part. We describe five process of adviser to implement cooperative learning which we can observe different degrees and modalities of collaboration between teachers and counselors and between teachers. Is possible the first step of a network centers to work cooperatively.

  16. Linking feeding inhibition with reproductive impairment in Gammarus confirms the ecological relevance of feeding assays in environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulaud, Romain; Geffard, Olivier; Vigneron, Amandine; Quéau, Hervé; François, Adeline; Chaumot, Arnaud

    2015-05-01

    The in situ feeding bioassay in Gammarus fossarum is recognized as a reliable tool for monitoring the toxicity of freshwater contamination. However, whether recorded feeding inhibitions can potentially provoke population-level adverse outcomes remains an open question. In the present study, the authors present an experimental study in G. fossarum, which contributes to the quantitative description of the links between feeding inhibitions and impacts on female reproductive performance. The authors studied the impacts of food deprivation on reproductive endpoints (i.e., fecundity, fertility, molt cycle) during 2 successive molting cycles. Among the main results, the authors found that food deprivation triggered a slowdown of the molting process and a reduction in fertility but no alteration to embryonic development. These reproductive impairments appeared for feeding inhibition values usually recorded in monitoring programs of environmental pollution. Using a population model translating Gammarus life-history, the authors predicted that the observed reproductive alterations predict a strong degradation of population dynamics. The present study underlines the importance of feeding inhibition in population-level risk assessment and discusses how establishing upscaling schemes based on quantitative mechanistic links between impacts at different levels of biological organization can be applied in environmental monitoring to propose an ecotoxicological assessment of water quality, which would be sensitive, specific, and ecologically relevant. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Description of an intensive residential aphasia treatment program: rationale, clinical processes, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans-Mitrik, Ronda L; Hula, William D; Dickey, Michael W; Schumacher, James G; Swoyer, Brooke; Doyle, Patrick J

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale, clinical processes, and outcomes of an intensive comprehensive aphasia program (ICAP). Seventy-three community-dwelling adults with aphasia completed a residentially based ICAP. Participants received 5 hr of daily 1:1 evidence-based cognitive-linguistically oriented aphasia therapy, supplemented with weekly socially oriented and therapeutic group activities over a 23-day treatment course. Standardized measures of aphasia severity and communicative functioning were obtained at baseline, program entry, program exit, and follow-up. Results were analyzed using a Bayesian latent growth curve model with 2 factors representing (a) the initial level and (b) change over time, respectively, for each outcome measure. Model parameter estimates showed reliable improvement on all outcome measures between the initial and final assessments. Improvement during the treatment interval was greater than change observed across the baseline interval, and gains were maintained at follow-up on all measures. The rationale, clinical processes, and outcomes of a residentially based ICAP have been described. ICAPs differ with respect to treatments delivered, dosing parameters, and outcomes measured. Specifying the defining components of complex interventions, establishing their feasibility, and describing their outcomes are necessary to guide the development of controlled clinical trials.

  18. Using adaptive processes and adverse outcome pathways to develop meaningful, robust, and actionable environmental monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciszewski, Tim J; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Scrimgeour, Garry J; Dubé, Monique G; Wrona, Fred J; Hazewinkel, Rod R

    2017-09-01

    The primary goals of environmental monitoring are to indicate whether unexpected changes related to development are occurring in the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of ecosystems and to inform meaningful management intervention. Although achieving these objectives is conceptually simple, varying scientific and social challenges often result in their breakdown. Conceptualizing, designing, and operating programs that better delineate monitoring, management, and risk assessment processes supported by hypothesis-driven approaches, strong inference, and adverse outcome pathways can overcome many of the challenges. Generally, a robust monitoring program is characterized by hypothesis-driven questions associated with potential adverse outcomes and feedback loops informed by data. Specifically, key and basic features are predictions of future observations (triggers) and mechanisms to respond to success or failure of those predictions (tiers). The adaptive processes accelerate or decelerate the effort to highlight and overcome ignorance while preventing the potentially unnecessary escalation of unguided monitoring and management. The deployment of the mutually reinforcing components can allow for more meaningful and actionable monitoring programs that better associate activities with consequences. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:877-891. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  19. Process and outcome evaluation of a diabetes prevention education program for community healthcare workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M; Sirichakwal, Prapaisri P; Chittchang, Uraiporn

    2009-12-01

    To describe the development, process and outcome evaluation of a culturally tailored diabetes prevention education program for community healthcare workers (CHCWs) in Thailand. A tailored diabetes prevention education program was designed based on formative research and implemented with 35 CHCWs in semi-urban areas in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Modules were delivered over eight group classes and eight self-directed E-learning sessions (www.FitThai.org). The program incorporated problem-based learning, discussion, reflection, community-based application, self-evaluation and on-line support. The frequency that students accessed on-line materials, including videotaped lectures, readings, monthly newsletters and community resources, was documented. Participant satisfaction was assessed through three questionnaires. Knowledge was assessed through pre-post testing. Three-quarters of participants attended all eight classes and no participant attended fewer than six. On-line support and materials were accessed 3 to 38 times (median 13). Participants reported that program information and activities were fun, useful, culturally-relevant and applicable to diabetes prevention in their specific communities. Participants also appreciated the innovative technology support for their work. Comfort with E-learning varied among participants. Scores on pre-post knowledge test increased from a mean (sd) of 56.5% (6.26) to 75.5% (6.01) (p E-learning were generally well-received and supported better knowledge scores. Ongoing access to web-based materials and expert support may help sustain learning.

  20. Respiratory Protection Program Compliance in Iranian Hospitals: Application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarbakhsh, Marzieh; Jahangiri, Mehdi; Ghaem, Haleh; Farhadi, Payam

    2017-07-01

    In hospitals, health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to a wide range of respiratory hazards, which requires using respiratory protective equipment and implementing Respiratory Protection Programs (RPPs). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate RPP implementation in 36 teaching hospitals located in the Fars province of Iran. A researcher-developed checklist, including nine components of the RPP standard, was completed by industrial hygienists in the study hospitals. The Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) was used to determine the weight coefficient of RPP components. Finally, a Respiratory Protection Program Index (RPPI) was developed to calculate hospital compliance with RPP. The results showed that RPP were not fully implemented in the studied hospitals, and the highest and lowest RPPI scores were related to training and fit testing, respectively. To promote the implementation of RPP, significant efforts are required for all components, especially fit testing and worker evaluation.

  1. Can physical therapists deliver a pain coping skills program? An examination of training processes and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Christina; Lewis, Prudence; Bennell, Kim L; Ahamed, Yasmin; Crough, Denae; Jull, Gwendolen A; Kenardy, Justin; Nicholas, Michael K; Keefe, Francis J

    2014-10-01

    Physical therapists are well established as providers of treatments for common, painful, and disabling conditions, such as knee osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, they are well placed to deliver treatments that integrate physical and psychosocial elements. Attention is usually given to outcomes of such programs, but few studies have examined the processes and outcomes of training physical therapists to deliver such treatments. The aim of this study was to describe the processes in training physical therapists: (1) to deliver a standardized pain coping skills treatment and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of that training. This study was an analysis of data relating to therapist performance in a randomized clinical trial. Eleven physical therapists were trained to deliver a 10-session pain coping skills training program for people with knee OA as part of a randomized controlled trial (N=222). The initial training was provided in a workshop format and included extensive, ongoing supervision by a psychologist and rigorous use of well-defined performance criteria to assess competence. Adherence to the program, ratings of performance, and use of advanced skills were all measured against these criteria in a sample (n=74, 10%) of the audio recordings of the intervention sessions. Overall, the physical therapists achieved a very high standard of treatment delivery, with 96.6% adherence to the program and mean performance ratings all in the satisfactory range. These results were maintained throughout the intervention and across all sessions. Only 10% of the delivered sessions were analyzed, and the physical therapists who took part in the study were a self-selected group. This study demonstrated that a systematic approach to training and accrediting physical therapists to deliver a standardized pain coping skills program can result in high and sustained levels of adherence to the program. Training fidelity was achieved in this group of motivated clinicians, but the supervision

  2. Antenna feeds and receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, B.

    1972-01-01

    The results of 7 months of study, tradeoffs, test design, and fabrication are presented for an effort to modify three ground stations in support of the ATS-F program. As a result of tests on the existing feed system of the Rosman No. 2 85-foot antenna and on the transportable ground station (TGS) 40-foot antenna, it was determined that modifications of the existing phase-compensating rotary joints at Rosman are feasible. Other components must be completely replaced. In the TGS antenna feed system, it was found to be feasible to broadband the existing monopulse comparator by adding simple irises and posts; both spare and active comparators were modified. The TGS polarizers can be broadbanded by adjusting existing pins and adding two new pins. These modifications are also directly applicable to the Mojave 40-foot antenna. Detailed electrical and mechanical characteristics are presented for the new equipment, as well as installation plans to enable NASA and its contractors to determine the adequacy of the designs and to confirm that planned locations are both available and compatible with planned operational concepts.

  3. A natural language processing program effectively extracts key pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brian J; Merchant, Madhur; Zheng, Chengyi; Thomas, Anil A; Contreras, Richard; Jacobsen, Steven J; Chien, Gary W

    2014-12-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) software programs have been widely developed to transform complex free text into simplified organized data. Potential applications in the field of medicine include automated report summaries, physician alerts, patient repositories, electronic medical record (EMR) billing, and quality metric reports. Despite these prospects and the recent widespread adoption of EMR, NLP has been relatively underutilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an internally developed NLP program in extracting select pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy specimen reports in the EMR. An NLP program was generated by a software engineer to extract key variables from prostatectomy reports in the EMR within our healthcare system, which included the TNM stage, Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, histologic subtype, size of dominant tumor nodule, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), perineural invasion (PNI), angiolymphatic invasion (ALI), extracapsular extension (ECE), and surgical margin status (SMS). The program was validated by comparing NLP results to a gold standard compiled by two blinded manual reviewers for 100 random pathology reports. NLP demonstrated 100% accuracy for identifying the Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, SVI, ALI, and ECE. It also demonstrated near-perfect accuracy for extracting histologic subtype (99.0%), PNI (98.9%), TNM stage (98.0%), SMS (97.0%), and dominant tumor size (95.7%). The overall accuracy of NLP was 98.7%. NLP generated a result in report. This novel program demonstrated high accuracy and efficiency identifying key pathologic details from the prostatectomy report within an EMR system. NLP has the potential to assist urologists by summarizing and highlighting relevant information from verbose pathology reports. It may also facilitate future urologic research through the rapid and automated creation of large databases.

  4. Automating academic literature searches with RSS Feeds and Google Reader(™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuque, Erick M

    2011-01-01

    Behavior analytic practitioners have an ethical obligation to stay abreast of the most recent research developments in their areas of expertise. Although conducting frequent and comprehensive literature searches is one way to meet this mandate, doing so can be a time intensive process. One way to reduce the effort involved in this process is setting up automated literature and news searches using RSS feeds via programs like Google Reader(™). This paper outlines the steps necessary for setting up a Google Reader(™) account and creating customized RSS feeds based on searches of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed database and the World Wide Web.

  5. School feeding: outcomes and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Rae; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Gelli, Aulo; Meir, Ute; Espejo, Francisco; Bundy, Donald

    2009-06-01

    School-feeding programs are popular development assistance programs in developing countries but have previously had few sound, empirical analyses of their effectiveness and costs. The goals of this study were to provide a realistic estimate of the costs of school feeding and combine these estimates with outcome information to obtain the cost per outcome. Cost studies were conducted in three African countries by reviewing school-feeding costs provided by the World Food Programme and interviewing stakeholders in ministries of education and in the community. In another African country, existing costing information was used. To compare across the countries, costs were standardized for a 200-day school year, a 700-kcal per day ration, and when children were not fed. To obtain cost per outcome data, outcomes were obtained from a review of school-feeding studies. The cost of school feeding ranged from U.S. $28 to U.S. $63 per child per year (weighted mean cost of U.S. $40 per child per year). The cost for an extra day of attendance was less than U.S. $10 per student, while the cost per extra kilogram of weight ranged from U.S. $38 to U.S. $252. Costs for cognitive outcomes were similarly variable. This analysis estimates a higher average cost but a narrower range of costs when compared with previous estimates, reflecting the greater precision of the current analyses. The cost per outcome was high, but this analysis does not capture the full range of outcomes (e.g., social protection, educational achievement) potentially derived from school feeding.

  6. How Physician Assistant Programs Use the CASPA Personal Statement in Their Admissions Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, John E; Badur, Michalina; Weis, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    This research surveyed physician assistant (PA) program admissions personnel to determine how the Central Application Service for Physician Assistants (CASPA) personal statements are used, what influence the statements had on certain admissions processes, whether there was any concern about authorship of the statements, and how important certain previously identified content themes were to admissions committees and personnel. The PA programs participating in CASPA were contacted and interviewed using a computer-assisted telephone interview system. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions related to the usefulness of the personal statement and asked to score certain items using a Likert-type scale. The response rate for the telephone survey was 75%. Most of the programs (93%) used the personal statement in the applicant review process, and almost two-thirds (62%) indicated that the statement was useful or very useful. Three-fourths (76%) of respondents sometimes or always used the statement for the selection of candidates for interviews. Only 29% of respondents were very to extremely concerned that the statements were not written by the applicants. Despite the observation that the statements were relatively homogeneous in content, respondents ranked identified content themes as an important influence on decision-making. Almost all respondents used the personal statement in their admissions process, usually in the selection of interviewees. Although there was some concern that the statements were not the original work of the applicant, less than a third of respondents were very concerned about this possibility. The homogeneity of the statements was also a concern, but the importance placed on the identified theme content areas validates the applicants' inclusion of these themes in the statements.

  7. Treatment of Severe Feeding Refusal in Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Thomas; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of an inpatient multidisciplinary program for treatment of severe feeding refusal. Nineteen infants and toddlers recovering from medical and surgical disorders which had required non-oral feeding were studied. A modified method of rapid introduction of oral feedings resulted in conversion to…

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Two Software Development Methodologies: Rational Unified Process and Extreme Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rafael Borth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development methodologies were created to meet the great market demand for innovation, productivity, quality and performance. With the use of a methodology, it is possible to reduce the cost, the risk, the development time, and even increase the quality of the final product. This article compares two of these development methodologies: the Rational Unified Process and the Extreme Programming. The comparison shows the main differences and similarities between the two approaches, and highlights and comments some of their predominant features.

  9. Applying a Goal Programming Model to Support the Selection of Artifacts in a Testing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Rodrigues da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the definition of a goal programming model for the selection of artifacts to be developed during a testing process, so that the set of selected artifacts is more viable to the reality of micro and small enterprises. This model was based on the IEEE Standard 829, which establishes a set of artifacts that must be generated throughout the test activities. Several factors can influence the definition of this set of artifacts. Therefore, in order to consider such factors, we developed a multicriteria model that helps in determining the priority of artifacts according to the reality of micro and small enterprises.

  10. Transmission and control of Salmonella in the pig feed chain: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Claudia; Straver, Judith Maria; Häggblom, Per; Bruggeman, Geert; Lindqvist, Per-Anders; Zentek, Jürgen; Andersson, Mats Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Infected breeder pigs and contaminated feed represent potential sources of Salmonella introduction to fattening pig herds and may thereby cause human infections acquired via consumption of contaminated pork. Modelling approaches such as quantitative microbial risk assessment could improve the design of strategies for control and tracing of Salmonella in the feed chain. However, the construction of such models requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the feed chain, including production processes, microbial processes and transport logistics. The present article illustrates a conceptual model of Salmonella in the pig feed chain and explores the possibilities for quantitative modelling including identifying major gaps in data. Information was collected from peer-reviewed scientific journals, official documents and reports and by means of interviews with experts from authorities and the feed industry. Data on prevalence of Salmonella in different parts of the feed chain are difficult to compare as observed prevalence may be biased by variations in sampling procedures as well as limitations of the detection methods. There are almost no data on numbers of Salmonella in commodities of the feed chain, which often makes it difficult to evaluate risks, intervention strategies and sampling plans in a quantitative manner. Tracing the source of Salmonella contamination is hampered by the risk of cross-contamination as well as various mixing and partitioning events along the supply chain, which sometimes makes it impossible to trace the origin of a lot back to a batch or producer. Available information points to contaminated feed materials, animal vectors and persistent contamination of production environments as important sources of Salmonella in feed production. Technological procedures such as hydrothermal or acid treatment can be used to control Salmonella in feed production. However, a large fraction of pig feed is produced without decontamination procedures

  11. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Danish national return-to-work program - aims, content, and design of the process and effect evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aust, Birgit; Helverskov, Trine; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.

    2012-01-01

    The Danish national return-to-work (RTW) program aims to improve the management of municipal sickness benefit in Denmark. A study is currently ongoing to evaluate the RTW program. The purpose of this article is to describe the study protocol. The program includes 21 municipalities encompassing...... absence, (iii) faster full RTW, (iv) more positive development in health, workability, pain, and sleep; it also tests whether the program is cost-effective. The process evaluation investigates: (i) whether the expected target population is reached; (ii) if the program is implemented as intended; (iii) how...

  13. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  14. Comparison and evaluation of pesticide monitoring programs using a process-based mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Jan; Vijver, Martina; Rambohul, Justin; Dunbar, Mike; van 't Zelfde, Maarten; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, Dave

    2016-12-01

    A number of European countries run large-scale pesticide monitoring schemes in watersheds aimed at identifying and evaluating the presence of pesticide residues in the environment. These schemes provide national and regional scale assessments of pesticide concentrations within the context of environmental quality assessment, aiming to ensure some degree of ecological protection. The present study is aimed at evaluating the joint effects of the pesticide mixtures detected in monitoring programs, using a process-based mixture model that was parameterized for Daphnia magna. In total, over 15 000 samples containing over 1 million individual measurements were evaluated for effects. It was found that there are only a small number of places where one can expect to have effects on daphnids, based on measured concentrations. The most polluted samples would cause extinction of a daphnid population within only 30 h. The results show that effects are mostly triggered by a limited number of pesticide residues at locations with high emissions. It was also shown that the analytical detection limits are basically too high to exclude mixture effects. So, despite all the effort that is put into chemical monitoring programs, it remains a challenge to make statements on whether or not the environment is protected. Recommendations are offered for a different setup of monitoring programs to improve this situation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:3113-3123. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Optimizing feed force for turned parts through the Taguchi technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The objective of the paper is to obtain an optimal setting of turning process parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) resulting in an optimal value of the feed force when machining EN24 steel with TiC-coated tungsten- carbide inserts. The effects of the selected turning process parameters on feed force.

  16. Personal Insights and Anecdotes about the Weatherization Assistance Program Process Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treitler, Inga [Anthropology Imagination, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The present report is based on the research conducted for the Process Field Study between March and September 2011. The Process Field Study documents how Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) services were delivered to clients, and the quality with which those services were delivered. The assessments were conducted by visiting 19 agencies in 19 states around the country interviewing agency managers, staff, and contractors; observing program intake along, with 43 audits, 45 measure installation and 37 final inspections; and conducting debriefing interviews with clients and weatherization staff following the observation of service delivery. In this report, we turn to detailed observations of a few field interactions. The client stories from our observations illustrate some of the ways clients and crew interact to build the success of the program, but shows there will always be unanticipated obstacles to building trust and getting the program to the public. Stories of staff and crew career paths indicate that weatherization technology and techniques are being learned and used by technicians out of the new home construction industry and that their new knowledge provides them with technical tools and methods that many hope to take back into the construction industry if and when they return. This report is organized according to the four stages of weatherization: intake, audit, installation, and inspection. It contributes to our understanding of the area where policy, environment, culture, and individual decisions influence social innovation. The anecdotes reveal the realities of implementing programs for the benefit of the greater good at minimal cost and sacrifice in times of ever restricting budgets. As the authors revisited their field notes and compiled memorable narratives to communicate the essence of the weatherization experience, they identified three key takeaways that summarize the major issues. First, in WAP as in all services there will always be

  17. VACTIV: A graphical dialog based program for an automatic processing of line and band spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlokazov, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    The program VACTIV-Visual ACTIV-has been developed for an automatic analysis of spectrum-like distributions, in particular gamma-ray spectra or alpha-spectra and is a standard graphical dialog based Windows XX application, driven by a menu, mouse and keyboard. On the one hand, it was a conversion of an existing Fortran program ACTIV [1] to the DELPHI language; on the other hand, it is a transformation of the sequential syntax of Fortran programming to a new object-oriented style, based on the organization of event interactions. New features implemented in the algorithms of both the versions consisted in the following as peak model both an analytical function and a graphical curve could be used; the peak search algorithm was able to recognize not only Gauss peaks but also peaks with an irregular form; both narrow peaks (2-4 channels) and broad ones (50-100 channels); the regularization technique in the fitting guaranteed a stable solution in the most complicated cases of strongly overlapping or weak peaks. The graphical dialog interface of VACTIV is much more convenient than the batch mode of ACTIV. [1] V.B. Zlokazov, Computer Physics Communications, 28 (1982) 27-37. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYProgram Title: VACTIV Catalogue identifier: ABAC_v2_0 Licensing provisions: no Programming language: DELPHI 5-7 Pascal. Computer: IBM PC series. Operating system: Windows XX. RAM: 1 MB Keywords: Nuclear physics, spectrum decomposition, least squares analysis, graphical dialog, object-oriented programming. Classification: 17.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ABAC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 28 (1982) 27 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. Nature of problem: Program VACTIV is intended for precise analysis of arbitrary spectrum-like distributions, e.g. gamma-ray and X-ray spectra and allows the user to carry out the full cycle of automatic processing of such spectra, i.e. calibration, automatic peak search

  18. Structure, process, and outcomes of care in a telemonitoring program for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocella, Jill M; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Cleland, Charles M; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2016-01-01

    Using Donabedian's structure-process-outcomes (SPO) framework, this descriptive, exploratory study examined the structure of a telemonitoring program in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the process of nurse-patient telephonic interactions, and patients' clinical outcomes. Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from 581 patients who participated in a home telemonitoring program for 12 months. Three point-biserial and six Pearson correlations were estimated to determine how patient demographics related to clinical characteristics. Mixed model regressions were conducted predicting hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels at 6, 9, and 12 months based on the frequency of contact in the earlier 3 months. Analysis of variances were conducted to assess if the frequency of contact was significantly different by change in HbA1c levels from 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 months. Significant negative correlations were found between age and HbA1c (r=-0.10, P=0.015) and DBP (r=-0.16, Ptelemonitoring environment assisted in understanding the effectiveness of this type of unique intervention and the need for further in-depth exploration of self-management techniques among individuals with T2D.

  19. The Evolution of the NASA Commercial Crew Program Mission Assurance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) established the Commercial Crew Program (CCP) in order to provide human access to the International Space Station and low Earth orbit via the commercial (non-governmental) sector. A particular challenge to NASA has been how to determine that the Commercial Provider's transportation system complies with programmatic safety requirements. The process used in this determination is the Safety Technical Review Board which reviews and approves provider submitted hazard reports. One significant product of the review is a set of hazard control verifications. In past NASA programs, 100% of these safety critical verifications were typically confirmed by NASA. The traditional Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) model does not support the nature of the CCP. To that end, NASA S&MA is implementing a Risk Based Assurance process to determine which hazard control verifications require NASA authentication. Additionally, a Shared Assurance Model is also being developed to efficiently use the available resources to execute the verifications.

  20. Use of a structured panel process to define quality metrics for antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Andrew M; Brener, Stacey; Dresser, Linda; Daneman, Nick; Dellit, Timothy H; Avdic, Edina; Bell, Chaim M

    2012-05-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs are being implemented in health care to reduce inappropriate antimicrobial use, adverse events, Clostridium difficile infection, and antimicrobial resistance. There is no standardized approach to evaluate the impact of these programs. To use a structured panel process to define quality improvement metrics for evaluating antimicrobial stewardship programs in hospital settings that also have the potential to be used as part of public reporting efforts. A multiphase modified Delphi technique. Paper-based survey supplemented with a 1-day consensus meeting. A 10-member expert panel from Canada and the United States was assembled to evaluate indicators for relevance, effectiveness, and the potential to aid quality improvement efforts. There were a total of 5 final metrics selected by the panel: (1) days of therapy per 1000 patient-days; (2) number of patients with specific organisms that are drug resistant; (3) mortality related to antimicrobial-resistant organisms; (4) conservable days of therapy among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI), or sepsis and bloodstream infections (BSI); and (5) unplanned hospital readmission within 30 days after discharge from the hospital in which the most responsible diagnosis was one of CAP, SSTI, sepsis or BSI. The first and second indicators were also identified as useful for accountability purposes, such as public reporting. We have successfully identified 2 measures for public reporting purposes and 5 measures that can be used internally in healthcare settings as quality indicators. These indicators can be implemented across diverse healthcare systems to enable ongoing evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship programs and complement efforts for improved patient safety.

  1. Exxon catalytic coal-gasification process development program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euker, Jr, C. A.

    1980-03-01

    Work continued on the catalyst recovery screening studies to evaluate the economic impacts of alternative processing approaches and solid-liquid separation techniques. Equipment specifications have been completed for two cases with countercurrent water washing using rotary-drum filters for the solid-liquid separations. Material and energy balances have been completed for an alternative methane recovery process configuration using low pressure stripping which requires 26% less horsepower than the Study Design system. A study has been initiated to identify trace components which might be present in the CCG gas loop and to assess their potential impacts on the CCG process. This information will be used to assist in planning an appropriate series of analyses for the PDU gasifier effluent. A study has been initiated to evaluate the use of a small conventional steam reformer operating in parallel with a preheat furnace for heat input to the catalytic gasifier which avoids the potential problem of carbon laydown. Preliminary replies from ten manufacturers are being evaluated as part of a study to determine the types and performance of coal crushing equipment appropriate for commercial CCG plants. A material and energy balance computer model for the CCG reactor system has been completed. The new model will provide accurate, consistent and cost-efficient material and energy balances for the extensive laboratory guidance and process definition studies planned under the current program. Other activities are described briefly.

  2. An Evaluation of Alternate Feed Efficiency Estimates in Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Boaitey, Albert; Goddard, Ellen; Mohapatra, Sandeep; Basarab, John A; Miller, Steve; Crowley, John

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the issue of nonlinearity and heterogeneity in the derivation of feed efficiency estimates for beef cattle based on performance data for 6253 animals is examined. Using parametric, non-parametric and integer programming approaches, we find evidence of nonlinearity between feed intake and measures of size and growth, and susceptibility of, feed efficiency estimates to assumptions pertaining to heterogeneity between animals and within cohorts. Further, differences in feed cost imp...

  3. Psychosocial and economic determinants of infant feeding intent by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -economic factors would affect infant feeding choices made antenatally by pregnant HIV-positive women after the routine prevention of mother-to-child transmission counselling process. Patients and methods. The antenatal feeding choices ...

  4. Extended Breast-Feeding: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Curious about extended breast-feeding? Know the benefits, the role breast milk plays ... baby beyond age 1 — also known as extended breast-feeding — you might have questions about the process. Get ...

  5. Machine learning for characterization of insect vector feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects that feed by ingesting plant and animal fluids cause devastating damage to humans, livestock, and agriculture worldwide, primarily by transmitting phytopathogenic and zoonotic pathogens. The feeding processes required for successful disease transmission by sucking insects can be recorded by ...

  6. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  7. Child temperament, parent emotions, and perceptions of the child’s feeding experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Associations between parent and child characteristics and how they influence the approach parents take toward children in the feeding environment have not been examined extensively, especially in low-income minority families who are at a higher risk for obesity. The primary aim of the study was to examine positive and negative parent emotions as potential mediators of the relationship between child temperament and parents’ perceptions of strategy effectiveness and problems encountered in feeding children fruit and vegetables. Methods Participants were low-income families (n = 639, 73% minority, children aged 3–5 years) participating in Head Start programs in two states. Parents completed the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and measures of strategy effectiveness (teachable moments, practical methods, restriction, and enhanced availability) and problems encountered (vegetable characteristics, child attributions for dislike, external influences, and parental demands) in feeding children fruit and vegetables. Results Positive parent emotions partially mediated the relationship between child Effortful Control and strategy effectiveness and fully mediated the relationship between Surgency and strategy effectiveness. Although negative parent emotions were associated with increased perception of problems in feeding children fruit and vegetables, the relationship between Negative Affectivity and problems in feeding was partially mediated by negative parent emotions. Conclusions Positive parent emotions facilitated perceived effectiveness of feeding strategies, with child Effortful Control and Surgency instrumental to this process. Understanding mechanisms in parent–child feeding is important when developing interventions designed to promote healthy child eating behaviors. PMID:22643039

  8. Child temperament, parent emotions, and perceptions of the child's feeding experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2012-05-29

    Associations between parent and child characteristics and how they influence the approach parents take toward children in the feeding environment have not been examined extensively, especially in low-income minority families who are at a higher risk for obesity. The primary aim of the study was to examine positive and negative parent emotions as potential mediators of the relationship between child temperament and parents' perceptions of strategy effectiveness and problems encountered in feeding children fruit and vegetables. Participants were low-income families (n = 639, 73% minority, children aged 3-5 years) participating in Head Start programs in two states. Parents completed the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and measures of strategy effectiveness (teachable moments, practical methods, restriction, and enhanced availability) and problems encountered (vegetable characteristics, child attributions for dislike, external influences, and parental demands) in feeding children fruit and vegetables. Positive parent emotions partially mediated the relationship between child Effortful Control and strategy effectiveness and fully mediated the relationship between Surgency and strategy effectiveness. Although negative parent emotions were associated with increased perception of problems in feeding children fruit and vegetables, the relationship between Negative Affectivity and problems in feeding was partially mediated by negative parent emotions. Positive parent emotions facilitated perceived effectiveness of feeding strategies, with child Effortful Control and Surgency instrumental to this process. Understanding mechanisms in parent-child feeding is important when developing interventions designed to promote healthy child eating behaviors.

  9. Oral feeding readiness in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luann R

    2012-01-01

    Oral feeding is a complex sensorimotor process that is influenced by many variables, making the introduction and management of oral feeding a challenge for many health care providers. Feeding practice guided by tradition or a trial-and-error approach may be inconsistent and has the potential to delay the progression of oral feeding skills. Oral feeding initiation and management should be based on careful, individualized assessment of the NICU infant and requires an understanding of neonatal physiology and neurodevelopment. The purpose of this article is to help the health care provider with this complex process by (a) defining oral feeding readiness, (b) describing the importance of oral feeding in the NICU and the physiology of feeding, and (c) providing a review of the literature regarding the transition from gavage to oral feeding in the NICU.

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your personal ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... Collaborative Info for your patients Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy makers Policies & positions ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... Thank you! Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  18. EPA Proposes Revisions to its Risk Management Program to Improve Chemical Process Safety and Further Protect Communities and First Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to revise its Risk Management Program (RMP) regulations to improve chemical process safety, assist local emergency authorities in planning for and responding to accidents, and

  19. The Self-Assessment Process and Impacts on the Health Information Management Program Performance: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Renae

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how health information management (HIM) educational programs can use the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Model (MBNQAM) educational criteria to meet the self-assessment requirement for Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM) accreditation. An existing instrument, Quantum Performance Group's Organizational Assessment Survey authored by Dr. Mark Blazey, was used in this study. The instrument was designed to self-assess the entire organization. Results of the study demonstrate how the MBNQAM can be used to successfully self-assess HIM programs. This research adds to the body of literature surrounding the application of the MBNQAM for HIM programs and provides new information to deans, administrators, and educators that may be useful, as an added component, when self-assessing HIM programs. The results of this study will help to establish a foundation for HIM programs to strengthen the self-assessment process, providing a strong starting point for strategic planning prioritization for HIM program improvement initiatives. The improved process will help in maturing the HIM program while fulfilling accreditation requirements for self-assessment. As additional HIM programs formalize the self-assessment process, benchmarking opportunities with other HIM programs will be created.

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding ... feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log ...