WorldWideScience

Sample records for program expectations modifications

  1. Modifications to the FISS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.V.

    1985-11-01

    FISS is a computer code for use in investigating alternative fuel cycle strategies, performing system simulations accounting for the dynamic effects in growing systems. The changes that have been made to the original FISS program reported in AECL-5814 are described

  2. Performance expectations of measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The principal index for designing and assessing the effectiveness of safeguards is the sensitivity and reliability of gauging the true status of material balances involving material flows, transfers, inventories, and process holdup. The measurement system must not only be capable of characterizing the material for gradation or intensity of protection, but also be responsive to needs for detection and localization of losses, provide confirmation that no diversion has occurred, and help meet requirements for process control, health and safety. Consequently, the judicious application of a measurement control and quality assurance program is vital to a complete understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the measurement system including systematic and random components of error for weight, volume, sampling, chemical, isotopic, and nondestructive determinations of material quantities in each material balance area. This paper describes performance expectations or criteria for a measurement control program in terms of ''what'' is desired and ''why'', relative to safeguards and security objectives

  3. Modifications to the control program HASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, M.; Dall'Olio, L.; Mareso, T.; Ricci, F.

    1973-01-01

    Modification to HASP version 3, level 0, a control program for an electronic computer, was described with the purpose of solving some operative and managing problems not solved by the standard version for the IBM 360/75 computer. The application and utilization of these facilities require a deep knowledge of the HASP II design, version 3, level 0, 360D-05.1.014

  4. 14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director, Airports, Service, or the Regional Director concerned may, on individual...

  5. A survey on parental expectations toward preschool programs

    OpenAIRE

    菊池, 知美

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what parents expect from preschool programs. Pilot Study tried to construct a scale to measure parental expectations toward preschools. Based on weekly observation of children at a preschool, interviews with their teachers, and open-end questionnaires filled in by mothers, the parental expectations were hypothesized to involve four dimensions of children's competencies: intellectual abilities, good classroom attitude, sociability, and interactions....

  6. Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depend on the reader’s own experiences, individual feelings, personal associations or on conventions of reading, interpretive communities and cultural conditions? This volume brings together narrative theory, fictionality theory and speech act theory to address such questions of expectations...

  7. 78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications AGENCY: Office of the... Business Enterprise (DBE) Program. In a later notice published on October 25, 2012, the Department extended... writing on specific aspects of the NPRM noted below. DATES: A public listening session will be held on...

  8. 77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications AGENCY: Office of the... the PRA's procedural requirements. Today, the Department is correcting this omission by including discussion of the Uniform Report collection and providing the public with 60 days from today to comment both...

  9. Expectancy, False Galvanic Skin Response Feedback, and Systematic Desensitization in the Modification of Phobic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, John

    1975-01-01

    This study compared systematic desensitization and two pseudotherapy manipulations with and without false galvanic skin response feedback after every session suggesting improvement in the modification of intense snake and spider fear. The results indicated no consistent differences between the three treatment groups. (Author)

  10. Loss Modification Incentives for Insurers Under Expected Utility and Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.; Zhou, Liting

    We investigate whether a profit-maximizing insurer with the opportunity to modify the loss probability will engage in loss prevention or instead spend effort to increase the loss probability. First we study this question within a traditional expected utility framework; then we apply Koszegi and

  11. An expectancy-value theory approach to the long-term modification of smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R W; Deckner, C W; Mewborn, C R

    1978-04-01

    Despite the research interest in modifying smoking behavior, therapeutic treatments that can produce long-term cessation have not been demonstrated rigorously. A follow-up study of two attitude change experiments (N = 173) examined the effects of a fear appeal, that is, increasing smokers' awareness and appreciation of the highly noxious consequences of smoking. Although this familiar type of information may be an integral component of many smoking treatment programs, its long-term suppressive effect has not been demonstrated in well-controlled experiments. The results disclosed that 3 months and also 1 year after treatment, a high-fear manipulation had increased significantly the percentage of smokers who were able to stop smoking completely.

  12. Segmentation of Portuguese customers’ expectations from fitness programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gouveia Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Expectations towards fitness exercises are the major factor in customer satisfaction in the service sector in question. The purpose of this study is to present a segmentation framework for fitness customers, based on their individual expectations. The survey was designed and validated to evaluate individual expectations towards exercises. The study included a randomly recruited sample of 723 subjects (53% males; 47% females; 42.1±19.7 years. Factor analysis and cluster analysis with Ward’s cluster method with squared Euclidean distance were used to analyse the data obtained. Four components were extracted (performance, enjoyment, beauty and health explaining 68.7% of the total variance and three distinct segments were found: Exercise Lovers (n=312, Disinterested (n=161 and Beauty Seekers (n=250. All the factors identified have a significant contribution to differentiate the clusters, the first and third clusters being most similar. The segmentation framework obtained based on customer expectations allows better understanding of customers’ profiles, thus helping the fitness industry develop services more suitable for each type of customers. A follow-up study was conducted 5 years later and the results concur with the initial study.

  13. Modification of reference temperature program in reactor regulating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sung Sik; Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Se Chang; Cheong, Jong Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji In; Doo, Jin Yong [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Yonggwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    In Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4 currently under commercial operation, the cold temperature was very close to the technical specification limit of 298 deg C during initial startup testing, which was caused by the higher-than-expected reactor coolant system flow. Accordingly, the reference temperature (Tref) program needed to be revised to allow more flexibility for plant operations. In this study, the method of a specific test performed at Yonggwang nuclear unit 4 to revise the Tref program was described and the test results were discussed. In addition, the modified Tref program was evaluated on its potential impacts on system performance and safety. The methods of changing the Tref program and the associated pressurizer level setpoint program were also explained. Finally, for Ulchin nuclear unit 3 and 4 currently under initial startup testing, the effects of reactor coolant system flow rate on the coolant temperature were evaluated from the thermal hydraulic standpoint and an optimum Tref program was recommended. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  14. Modification of reference temperature program in reactor regulating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sung Sik; Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Se Chang; Cheong, Jong Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji In; Doo, Jin Yong [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Yonggwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4 currently under commercial operation, the cold temperature was very close to the technical specification limit of 298 deg C during initial startup testing, which was caused by the higher-than-expected reactor coolant system flow. Accordingly, the reference temperature (Tref) program needed to be revised to allow more flexibility for plant operations. In this study, the method of a specific test performed at Yonggwang nuclear unit 4 to revise the Tref program was described and the test results were discussed. In addition, the modified Tref program was evaluated on its potential impacts on system performance and safety. The methods of changing the Tref program and the associated pressurizer level setpoint program were also explained. Finally, for Ulchin nuclear unit 3 and 4 currently under initial startup testing, the effects of reactor coolant system flow rate on the coolant temperature were evaluated from the thermal hydraulic standpoint and an optimum Tref program was recommended. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  15. Radwaste assessment program for nuclear station modifications by design engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eble, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Radwaste burial for Duke Power Company's (DPC's) seven nuclear units has become a complicated and costly process. Burial costs are based on overall volume, surcharges for radioactivity content and weight of containers, truck and cask rental, driver fees, and state fees and taxes. Frequently, radwaste costs can be as high as $500 per drum. Additionally, DPC is limited on the total burial space allocated for each plant each year. The thrust of this program is to reduce radwaste volumes needing burial at either Barnwell, South Carolina, or Richland, Washington. A limited number of options are available at our sites: (a) minimization of radwaste volume production, (b) segregation of contamination and noncontaminated trash, (c) decontamination of small hardware, (d) volume reduction of compatible trash, (e) incineration of combustible trash (available at Oconee in near future), and (f) burial of below-regulatory-concern very low level waste on site. Frequently, costs can be reduced by contracting services outside the company, i.e., supercompaction, decontamination, etc. Information about radwaste volumes, activities, and weight, however, must be provided to the nuclear production department (NPD) radwaste group early in the nuclear station modification (NSM) process to determine the most cost-effective method of processing radwaste. In addition, NSM radwaste costs are needed for the NPD NSM project budget. Due to the advanced planning scope of this budget, NSM construction costs must be estimated during the design-phase proposal

  16. Pediatric Program Director Minimum Milestone Expectations before Allowing Supervision of Others and Unsupervised Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Ting T; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schwartz, Alan; Guillot, Ann; Burke, Ann E; Trimm, R Franklin; Guralnick, Susan; Mahan, John D; Gifford, Kimberly

    2018-04-25

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires semiannual Milestone reporting on all residents. Milestone expectations of performance are unknown. Determine pediatric program director (PD) minimum Milestone expectations for residents prior to being ready to supervise and prior to being ready to graduate. Mixed methods survey of pediatric PDs on their programs' Milestone expectations before residents are ready to supervise and before they are ready to graduate, and in what ways PDs use Milestones to make supervision and graduation decisions. If programs had no established Milestone expectations, PDs indicated expectations they considered for use in their program. Mean minimum Milestone level expectations adjusted for program size, region, and clustering of Milestone expectations by program were calculated for prior to supervise and prior to graduate. Free-text questions were analyzed using thematic analysis. The response rate was 56.8% (113/199). Most programs had no required minimum Milestone level before residents are ready to supervise (80%; 76/95) or ready to graduate (84%; 80/95). For readiness to supervise, minimum Milestone expectations PDs considered establishing for their program were highest for humanism (2.46, 95% CI: 2.21-2.71) and professionalization (2.37, 2.15-2.60). Minimum Milestone expectations for graduates were highest for help-seeking (3.14, 2.83-3.46). Main themes included the use of Milestones in combination with other information to assess learner performance and Milestones are not equally weighted when making advancement decisions. Most PDs have not established program minimum Milestones, but would vary such expectations by competency. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Believing is seeing: an evolving research program on patients' psychotherapy expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss one facet of my evolving research program focused on patients' psychotherapy-related expectations. Although generally considered a common psychotherapeutic factor, expectations have been historically undervalued conceptually, empirically, and clinically. Attempting to somewhat redress this slight, I will (a) define the various forms of patients' psychotherapy-related expectations, (b) present relevant findings from research that my colleagues, students, and I have conducted, (c) summarize an integrative psychotherapy approach that underscores expectations as an explanatory construct for patients' corrective experiences, and (d) highlight future research directions for increasing our understanding of the nature and functions of the expectancy construct.

  18. Clients' experiences of a community based lifestyle modification program: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ruth S M; Lok, Kris Y W; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

    2009-10-01

    There is little information about how clients attending lifestyle modification programs view the outcomes. This qualitative study examined the clients' experience of a community based lifestyle modification program in Hong Kong. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 clients attending the program. Clients perceived the program had positive impacts on their health and nutrition knowledge. They experienced frustration, negative emotion, lack of motivation, and pressure from others during the program. Working environment and lack of healthy food choices in restaurants were the major perceived environmental barriers for lifestyle modification. Clients valued nutritionists' capability of providing professional information and psychological support in the program. Our results suggest that nutritionist's capability of providing quality consultations and patient-centered care are important for empowering clients achieve lifestyle modification.

  19. Clients’ Experiences of a Community Based Lifestyle Modification Program: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Woo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is little information about how clients attending lifestyle modification programs view the outcomes. This qualitative study examined the clients’ experience of a community based lifestyle modification program in Hong Kong. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 clients attending the program. Clients perceived the program had positive impacts on their health and nutrition knowledge. They experienced frustration, negative emotion, lack of motivation, and pressure from others during the program. Working environment and lack of healthy food choices in restaurants were the major perceived environmental barriers for lifestyle modification. Clients valued nutritionists’ capability of providing professional information and psychological support in the program. Our results suggest that nutritionist’s capability of providing quality consultations and patient-centered care are important for empowering clients achieve lifestyle modification.

  20. HR TRAINING PROGRAMS – CASE STUDY: WHAT ARE THE PARTICIPANTS’ EXPECTATIONS?

    OpenAIRE

    Abrudan Maria-Madela; Hatos Roxana; Matei Mirabela-Constanta

    2010-01-01

    When conducting a training program, training providers should ask themselves this question: What are the participants’ expectations? Training providers must correlate their programs with the needs and expectations of participants in order to be successful. Considering there is a need for the professionalization of human resources management activities, we focused our attention on three key occupations of HR: Human Resources Analyst, Human Resources Inspector and Human Resources Manager. To as...

  1. 78 FR 68016 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ..., including: Revisions to personal net worth, application, and reporting forms; modifications to various... (Personal Net Worth, Certification Application, Uniform Report on Awards/ Commitments; DBE Payment Data... may be provided through the chat room). The registration form will ask you to identify the party you...

  2. 75 FR 37733 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY... direct final rule to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program requirements on May 10, 2010. Because EPA... Fuel Standard program requirements, published on May 10, 2010. We stated in that direct final rule that...

  3. A process model of voluntary travel behavior modification and effects of Travel Feedback Programs (TFPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Ayako

    2007-01-01

    This study tested an integrated process model of travel behavior modification. We used a model that combined the theory of planned behavior (TPB), norm activation theory (NAT), a theory of implementation intention, and theories of habit. To test the integrated model, we used panel data (n = 208) obtained before and after travel feedback programs (TFPs); the TFP is a communication program aimed at voluntary travel behavior modification, from automobile use to non-auto means of travel such as p...

  4. JOYO modification program for demonstration tests of FBR innovative technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimi, H.; Hachiya, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A plan is under way at PNC to modify the experimental fast reactor JOYO. The project is called MARK-III (MK-III) program. The purpose of MK-III is to expand the function of JOYO, and to make it possible to receive demonstration tests of new or high level technologies for FBR development. The MK-III program consists of two main modifications: conversion to a highly efficient irradiation facility; and a modification for demonstration testing of new technologies and concepts that have a high potential to reduce FBR plant construction cost, to evaluate plant reliability and to improve plant safety. These modifications are scheduled to start in 1991

  5. Modification of the fission product inventory program FISPIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.B.

    1977-05-01

    The fission product inventory program FISPIN calculates inventories of fission products, actinides and activation products, during and after irradiation in a nuclear reactor, estimates also being given for heat output and radioactive activity of the isotopes. The program has been developed further by making provision for the simulation of fuel reprocessing and in providing subroutines to make the program compatible with nuclear data in a slightly modified ENDF/B4 format. Continuous development of FISPIN over the years has however involved many program alterations and additions, and this has resulted in a generally untidy and cumbersome program. An attempt has therefore been made to improve the basic structure of the program. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: modularisation, direct access data, override facility, selective output, flowcharts, summary. (U.K.)

  6. Changing Patient Expectations Decreases Length of Stay in an Enhanced Recovery Program for THA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Dylan; Smith, Karen; Tanzer, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The implementation of care pathways in hip arthroplasty programs has been shown to result in a decreased length of stay (LOS), but often multiple elements of a care pathway are implemented at the same time. As a result, it is difficult to understand the impact each of the individual modifications has made to the patient's prepathway care. In particular, it is unknown what the role of patient expectations pertaining to anticipated LOS alone is on the LOS after primary THA. (1) Does changing the patient's expectations regarding his or her anticipated LOS, without intentionally changing the rest of the care pathway, result in a change in the patient's LOS after primary THA? (2) Is the resultant LOS associated with the patient's age, gender, or day of the week the surgery was performed? We retrospectively compared the LOS in 100 consecutive patients undergoing THA immediately after the implementation of a 4-day care pathway (4-day Group) with 100 consecutive patients, 3 months later, who were also in the same pathway but were told by their surgeon preoperatively and in the hospital to expect a LOS of 2 days (2-day Group). Aside from reeducation by the surgeon, there was no difference in the surgery or intentional changes to the intraoperative or postoperative management of the two groups. Only the patient and the surgeon were made aware of the accelerated discharge plan. We compared the LOS between the two groups and the number of patients who met their discharge goal. As well, the ability to meet the discharge goal for each group was further determined based on age, gender, and day of the week the surgery was performed. Overall, patients in the 2-day Group had a shorter LOS than those in the 4-day Group (2.9 ± 0.88 days versus 3.9 ± 1.71 days; mean difference 1 day; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.36; p = 0.001). In the 2-day Group, the LOS was 2 days in 32% compared with 8% in the 4-day Group (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.76-9.11; p women (3.4 ± 1.22 days

  7. Situating ICT in the Teacher Education Program: Overcoming Challenges, Fulfilling Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Dragana; Zhang, Zuochen

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined pre-service teachers' expectations of and attitudes toward the learning and integrating of ICT into their teaching, and their perceptions of the availability and use of ICT in the Teacher Education Program (TEP) and their placement schools. For two years in a row the researchers collected data through online…

  8. DEMON/ANGEL - A SUITE OF PROGRAMS TO CARRY OUT DENSITY MODIFICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELLIEUX, FMDAP; HUNT, JF; ROY, S; READ, RJ

    1995-01-01

    The DEMON/ANGEL suite of computer programs has been developed to carry out density modification by non-crystallographic symmetry-averaging, solvent-flattening and histogram-mapping techniques. This suite consists of programs that allow molecular envelopes to be defined and modified,

  9. Modifications to POISSON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    At MSU we have used the POISSON family of programs extensively for magnetic field calculations. In the presently super-saturated computer situation, reducing the run time for the program is imperative. Thus, a series of modifications have been made to POISSON to speed up convergence. Two of the modifications aim at having the first guess solution as close as possible to the final solution. The other two aim at increasing the convergence rate. In this discussion, a working knowledge of POISSON is assumed. The amount of new code and expected time saving for each modification is discussed

  10. The Expected Loss in the Discretization of Multistage Stochastic Programming Problems - Estimation and Convergence Rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 1 (2009), s. 29-45 ISSN 0254-5330 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1294 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multistage stochastic programming problems * approximation * discretization * Monte Carlo Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.961, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/E/smid-the expected loss in the discretization of multistage stochastic programming problems - estimation and convergence rate.pdf

  11. The influence of a behavior modification interventional program on body mass index in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulabi, Tahereh; Khosh Niyat Nikoo, Mohsen; Amini, Fariba; Nazari, Hedayat; Mardani, Mahnaz

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents is increasing rapidly. The present research was performed to determine the influence of a ''behavior modification'' program on body mass index (BMI) in obese public high school students in Iran. In this study, 152 adolescence and their parents were selected from 12 high schools of Khorram Abad from 2004 to 2006, and they were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control groups. The "behavior modification" interventional program consisted of nutritional education, modifying dietary habits, teaching exercise programs, teaching nutritional facts to the parents, and performing exercises 3 days a week. The height and weight as well as waist, hip, and wrist circumferences of the participants were measured before and after implementing the interventional program. BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. The adolescents and parents completed a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Adolescents also completed the Beck's Depression Questionnaire. Adolescent's mean weight, BMI, and waist and hip circumferences decreased significantly after implementing the interventional program, in the intervention group (p≤0.001). In addition, the students' and parents' nutrition knowledge increased in the intervention group after implementing the interventional program (pbehavior modification'' interventional program is effective in reducing BMI in obese students, and therefore, school principals and planners can play an important role in controlling obesity by implementing this program via the students, their parents, and the school staff. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Predictors of Response to an Attention Modification Program in Generalized Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Taylor, Charles T.; Donohue, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: At least 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies have supported the efficacy of computerized attention modification programs (AMPs) in reducing symptoms of anxiety in patients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In this study we examined patient characteristics that predicted response to AMP in a large sample of…

  13. Proposal of Modification Strategy of NC Program in the Virtual Manufacturing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Hirohisa; Chen, Lian-Yi; Fujimoto, Hideo; Shirase, Keiichi; Arai, Eiji

    Virtual manufacturing will be a key technology in process planning, because there are no evaluation tools for cutting conditions. Therefore, virtual machining simulator (VMSim), which can predict end milling processes, has been developed. The modification strategy of NC program using VMSim is proposed in this paper.

  14. [Effects of a coaching program on comprehensive lifestyle modification for women with gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jung Mi; Lee, Jong Kyung

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using a Coaching Program on Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification with pregnant women who have gestational diabetes. The research design for this study was a non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes were recruited from D women's hospital located in Gyeonggi Province from April to October, 2013. Participants in this study were 34 for the control group and 34 for the experimental group. The experimental group participated in the Coaching Program on Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification. The program consisted of education, small group coaching and telephone coaching over 4weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 21.0 program. There were significant improvements in self-care behavior, and decreases in depression, fasting blood sugar and HbA1C in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups for knowledge of gestational diabetes mellitus. The Coaching Program on Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification used in this study was found to be effective in improving self-care behavior and reducing depression, fasting blood sugar and HbA1C, and is recommended for use in clinical practice as an effective nursing intervention for pregnant women with gestational diabetes.

  15. Raw material utilization in slaughterhouses – optimizing expected profit using mixed-integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Kjærsgaard, Niels Christian

    Slaughterhouses are major players in the pork supply chain, and supply and demand must be matched in order to generate the highest profit. In particular, carcasses must be sorted in order to produce the “right” final products from the “right” carcasses. We develop a mixed-integer programming (MIP) ...... at slaughterhouses. Finally, we comment on the expected effect of variations in the raw material supply and the demand as well as future research concerning joint modelling of supply chain aspects.......Slaughterhouses are major players in the pork supply chain, and supply and demand must be matched in order to generate the highest profit. In particular, carcasses must be sorted in order to produce the “right” final products from the “right” carcasses. We develop a mixed-integer programming (MIP...

  16. Incoming dental students' expectations and acceptance of an electronic textbook program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Darlene P; Bates, Michael L; Gallo, John R; Strother, Elizabeth A

    2011-05-01

    Since 2005, the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Dentistry has required the VitalSource Technologies, Inc. Bookshelf as the textbook program for all dental students. In a 2008 survey, four classes of dental students expressed dissatisfaction with most features of the bookshelf. With the expectation that incoming students would be more accustomed and amenable to digital textbooks and to further determine student attitudes toward electronic textbooks, we developed two surveys for first-year dental students in the class of 2013. The sixty-five first-year students received a survey (S1) one week before they were introduced to the e-textbook program. Questions centered on their undergraduate experience with e-books and their expectations of studying with an electronic textbook collection. In the second survey (S2), sent nine months later, the questions focused on students' opinion of the VitalSource Bookshelf. Forty-five students (69.2 percent) completed the S1 survey. Of those, thirty-six (80 percent) responded that they never used e-textbooks in college. Of the nine students who responded that they used e-books, only two liked them without reservations. The response rate to S2 increased to fifty students (77 percent). After using VitalSource for nine months, thirty-three students (66 percent) indicated a preference for reading print textbooks, compared to forty-seven students (57.3 percent) of the four classes surveyed in 2008. Although we expected incoming dental students to have had previous experience with e-textbooks, only nine students had used e-books in college courses. Few students indicated preference for e-textbooks, and over half of the group was undecided. After experience with VitalSource for first-year courses, students indicated that they like VitalSource for the ability to search for specific topics across the entire collection of dental books, but not for reading large amounts of text.

  17. [Social media monitoring of asthmatic children treated in a specialized program: Parents and caregivers expectations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Ávila, Jennifer Bg; Cherrez-Ojeda, Ivan; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Solé, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Social media has been used in support of patients with asthma. However, it remains unclear what are the expectations of parents or caregivers of asthmatic patients. To evaluate the expectations of parents or caregivers of asthmatic children treated at Children's Asthma Prevention Program (PIPA), Uruguaiana, RS, in relation to the use of social media. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional survey of parents or caregivers of children seen at Children's Asthma Prevention Program through responses to a written questionnaire on the use of new technologies and different applications to enhance information about asthma. 210 parents or caregivers (median age: 25 years; age range: 18-42 years of patients were enrolled. The mean age of their children was 7.3 years (age range: 2 to 18 years), the mean duration of asthma was 4.7 years and 65% of parents/caregivers of these children had less than eight years of schooling. Most of them (72%) had no access to the Internet via cell/mobile phones and only 18% actively used to gathered information about asthma by internet. There was high interest (87%) in receiving information via social media. Parents or caregivers of children attending the PIPA program expressed high interest in using social media. However, few use it to control their children's disease. While providing a great benefit to use social media as a mean of communication in health, the content needs to be monitored for reliability and quality. The privacy of users (doctors and patients) must be preserved and it is very important to facilitate the access to Internet.

  18. Racing Sampling Based Microimmune Optimization Approach Solving Constrained Expected Value Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates a bioinspired microimmune optimization algorithm to solve a general kind of single-objective nonlinear constrained expected value programming without any prior distribution. In the study of algorithm, two lower bound sample estimates of random variables are theoretically developed to estimate the empirical values of individuals. Two adaptive racing sampling schemes are designed to identify those competitive individuals in a given population, by which high-quality individuals can obtain large sampling size. An immune evolutionary mechanism, along with a local search approach, is constructed to evolve the current population. The comparative experiments have showed that the proposed algorithm can effectively solve higher-dimensional benchmark problems and is of potential for further applications.

  19. Relationship between Risk Factor Control and Compliance with a Lifestyle Modification Program in the Stenting Aggressive Medical Management for Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Tanya N; Al Kasab, Sami; Nizam, Azhar; Lynn, Michael J; Harrell, Jamie; Derdeyn, Colin P; Fiorella, David; Janis, L Scott; Lane, Bethany F; Montgomery, Jean; Chimowitz, Marc I

    2018-03-01

    Lifestyle modification programs have improved the achievement of risk factor targets in a variety of clinical settings, including patients who have previously suffered a stroke or transient ischemic attack and those with multiple risk factors. Stenting Aggressive Medical Management for Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) was the first vascular disease prevention trial to provide a commercially available lifestyle modification program to enhance risk factor control. We sought to determine the relationship between compliance with this program and risk factor control in SAMMPRIS. SAMMPRIS aggressive medical management included a telephonic lifestyle modification program provided free of charge to all subjects (n = 451) during their participation in the study. Subjects with fewer than 3 expected lifestyle-coaching calls were excluded from these analyses. Compliant subjects (n = 201) had  greater than or equal to 78.5% of calls (median % of completed/expected calls). Noncompliant subjects (n = 200) had less than 78.5% of calls or refused to participate. Mean risk factor values or % in-target for each risk factor was compared between compliant versus noncompliant subjects, using t tests and chi-square tests. Risk factor changes from baseline to follow-up were compared between the groups to account for baseline differences. Compliant subjects had better risk factor control throughout follow-up for low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure (SBP), hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c), non-high-density lipoprotein, nonsmoking, and exercise than noncompliant subjects, but there was no difference for body mass index. After adjusting for baseline differences between the groups, compliant subjects had a greater change from baseline than noncompliant subjects for SBP did at 24 months and HgA1c at 6 months. SAMMPRIS subjects who were compliant with the lifestyle modification program had better risk factor control during the study for almost

  20. Software enhancements and modifications to Program FDTD executable on the Cray X-MP computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringer, J.C.

    1987-09-04

    This report summarizes enhancements and modifications to PROGRAM FDTD executable on the Cray X-MP computer system. Specifically, the tasks defined and performed under this effort are revision of the material encoding/decoding scheme to allow material type specification on an individual cell basis; modification of the I/O buffering scheme to maximize the use of available central memory and minimize the number of physical I/O accesses; user interface enhancements. Provide enhanced input/output features for greater flexibility; increased modularity. Divide the code into additional modules for ease of maintenance and future enhancements; and assist in the conversion and testing of FDTD to Floating Point Systems scientific computers and associated peripheral devices.

  1. Listening to Students: Modification of a Reading Program Based on the Sources of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications implemented in a second year foreign language (FL reading program with respect to the problems students experience while reading in FL. This research draws on the sources of FL reading anxiety identified in the first year reading program with a motivation to re-design the second year program to help the students perceive reading positively free from the anxiety. This paper reports on the responses of students to the modifications implemented in the second year reading program

  2. Aligning Needs, Expectations, and Learning Outcomes to Sustain Self-Efficacy through Transfer Learning Community Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptien, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses strengths and difficulties encountered in implementing transfer learning community models and how efficacy is supported through transfer learning community programming. Transfer programming best practices and recommendations for program improvements are presented.

  3. What can we expect from near to mid-term direct imaging programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaletti, A.

    2015-10-01

    Direct imaging for exoplanets has made enormous progress in the last decades owing to the advent of new technologies, efficient algorithms for postprocessing and dedicated observing strategies. A few young giant exoplanets were detected with the previous generation of instruments (beta Pic b, HS3799bcde, HR95086b ...). While SPHERE and GPI were conceived with this very purpose, we are thus expecting many more discoveries in the next years. SPHERE comes with a series of facilities to characterize the atmosphere of these planets, from the visible to the near IR, with broad band, narrow band filters, and low to medium resolution spectroscopy as well. It is also a fabulous instrument to study circumstellar disks both intensity and polarimetry in order to establish the link between planets and their environments. A large survey of 600 targets on a 5 years baseline has been started. The next space telescope, JWST equipped with MIRI and NIRCAM will extend the ability to characterize young giants in the mid IR. NO doubt we will learn more about their atmospheres. Finally, by the next decade, very large apertures will become available on the ground. Extremely Large Telescope will have general first light instruments (MICADO, HARMONI), but some programs to image and characterize young giant planets around very distant stars (>100pc) will be feasible. For much ambitious goal, detecting telluric planets and studying their atmosphere, two paths are now considered either from space (WFIRST AFTA-C is good candidate) and from the Ground with SPHERE-like instruments on ELTs. A review of achievments and perspectives in the context of direct imaging will be presented.

  4. The CEMHaVi program: control, evaluation, and modification of lifestyles in obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Marchand, Frédéric; Fardy, Paul; Zunquin, Gautier; Loeuille, Guy-André; Renaut, Hervé; Mikulovic, Jacques; Hurdiel, Rémy; Béghin, Laurent; Theunynck, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in children has increased in recent years. Many studies with differing methodologies have been undertaken to treat obesity. The Control, Evaluation, and Modification of Lifestyles in Obese Youth (CEMHaVi) program is a unique 2-year health-wellness program of physical activity and health education for obese youth. Findings of this study represent results at 1-year follow-up. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the CEMHaVi program. Physician-referred subjects (N = 26) participated in the study, 14 girls (13.4 +/- 2.9 years) and 12 boys (12.3 +/- 2.8 years). Measurements included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), academic performance, sleep habits, and health knowledge. The intervention consisted of a unique program of physical activity, including a variety of games specifically selected to be enjoyable, maintain interest, and motivate subjects to adhere. Activity sessions were offered once per week, 2 hours each session, for 12 months. A health education program was offered once every 3 months for 2 hours per session. Health knowledge, academic performance, self-esteem, and sleep were assessed before and after the intervention. Means were calculated at baseline and following intervention and were compared by paired t tests. Findings suggest significant improvements in academic performance (P < .001), quality and quantity of sleep (P < .05), and obesity (P < .05). The program reduced BMI and improved health knowledge, sleep, and academic performance in obese children. The feasibility of a beneficial lifestyle intervention program is encouraging in addressing obesity and related issues in young boys and girls.

  5. Translation of lifestyle modification programs focused on physical activity and dietary habits delivered in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Stanzilis, Katie; Falcon, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) can provide individuals with behavioral skills to sustain long-term changes to their physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits. Yet, there is much work to be done in the translation of these programs to community settings. This review identified LMPs that focused on changing both PA and dietary behaviors and examined common features and barriers faced in their translation to community settings. A search of multiple online databases was conducted to identify LMPs that included participants over the age of 18 who enrolled in LMPs, offered in community settings, and had the goal of improving both PA and dietary behaviors. Data were extracted on participant demographics, study design characteristics, and study outcome variables including changes in PA, dietary habits, body weight, and clinical outcomes. We identified 27 studies that met inclusion criteria. Despite high levels of retention and adherence to the interventions, varying levels of success were observed in increasing PA levels, improving dietary habits, reducing body weight, and improving clinic outcomes. LMPs addressing issues of PA and dietary habits can be successfully implemented in a community setting. However, inconsistent reporting of key components in the translation of these studies (participant recruitment, utilization of behavioral strategies) may limit their replication and advancement of future programs. Future efforts should better address issues such as identifying barriers to participation and program implementation, utilization of community resources, and evaluating changes across multiple health behaviors.

  6. Effectiveness of a behavior modification program for older people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnapiruk, Liwan; Wirojratana, Virapun; Meehatchai, Nitaya; Turale, Sue

    2014-06-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of a behavior modification program for diabetic control in Thai elders with uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 elders from one community as an intervention group, and 30 from a neighboring community as a control group. The intervention group participated in a program of 12 weeks' duration involving activities related to group counseling, group discussion, and an empowerment process that enhanced appropriate consumption of healthy diet, medication taking, and exercise. Data were collected by interviews using a questionnaire to assess knowledge of diabetes, perceived self-efficacy, and diabetes control behavior, including fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, were examined at the baseline and three months thereafter. At program completion, the intervention group had significantly higher scores of knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors than those in the control group, but blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin were not significantly different. Although nurses can use aspects of this program to benefit elders with diabetes who require support and education, further research is required to provide improved health outcomes such as better glycemic control. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  8. Benefits and costs of intensive lifestyle modification programs for symptomatic coronary disease in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu; Stason, William B; Fournier, Stephen; Razavi, Moaven; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Bhalotra, Sarita M; Shepard, Donald S

    2013-05-01

    This study reports outcomes of a Medicare-sponsored demonstration of two intensive lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease: the Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute (MBMI) and the Dr Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease® (Ornish). This multisite demonstration, conducted between 2000 and 2008, enrolled Medicare beneficiaries who had had an acute myocardial infarction or a cardiac procedure within the preceding 12 months or had stable angina pectoris. Health and economic outcomes are compared with matched controls who had received either traditional or no cardiac rehabilitation following similar cardiac events. Each program included a 1-year active intervention of exercise, diet, small-group support, and stress reduction. Medicare claims were used to examine 3-year outcomes. The analysis includes 461 elderly, fee-for-service, Medicare participants and 1,795 controls. Cardiac and non-cardiac hospitalization rates were lower in participants than controls in each program and were statistically significant in MBMI (P costs of $3,801 and $4,441 per participant for the MBMI and Ornish Programs, respectively, were offset by reduced health care costs yielding non-significant three-year net savings per participant of about $3,500 in MBMI and $1,000 in Ornish. A trend towards lower mortality compared with controls was observed in MBMI participants (P = .07). Intensive, year-long LMPs reduced hospitalization rates and suggest reduced Medicare costs in elderly beneficiaries with symptomatic coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-12-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an `expert panel.` The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC`s increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate.

  10. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an 'expert panel.' The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC's increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the open-quotes expert panelclose quotes and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate

  11. Design and Intervention of an Educational-Leadership Program: Student Voice and Agency, Expectations and Internationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Anna Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the lived experiences of a diverse student cohort enrolled in a master's degree educational-leadership program. The program's global focus was on the quality of teacher education, prospective teachers' workplace preparedness and leaders in the workforce in higher education. Internationalization, real-life experiences and…

  12. Should providers encourage realistic weight expectations and satisfaction with lost weight in commercial weight loss programs? a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gretchen E; Thomas, Colleen S; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Attrition is a problem among patients who participate in commercial weight loss programs. One possible explanation is that if patients are unable to reach a weight that they expect to achieve, they may be more likely to drop out of treatment. This study investigated variables associated with attrition among 30 obese patients who completed a liquid meal replacement program (LMR) and enrolled in a 52-week Small Changes Maintenance intervention (SCM). Patients lost a median 18% of body weight during LMR and completed assessments about weight expectations and weight satisfaction pre- and post-SCM. Of the 30 patients who started SCM, 8 (27%) were lost to attrition. Odds of SCM attrition were higher in patients who lost ≤ 18.2% of pre-LMR weight (OR: 12.25, P = 0.035), had lower satisfaction (≤7) pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040), and who expected further weight loss of 9.1 kg or more pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040). SCM completers significantly increased weight loss expectations by a median of 2.3 kg from pre-SCM to post-SCM (WSR P = 0.049) that paralleled weight regained post-SCM (2.7 kg). After completion of a medically-supervised commercial weight loss program, patients with the greatest expectations for further weight loss and the lowest weight satisfaction were more likely to drop out of SCM. Failure to participate in maintenance treatment may lead to regain of greater than half of lost weight over the next year. Among SCM completers, lower expectations for further weight loss and greater weight satisfaction appeared to be associated with continued engagement in maintenance treatment.

  13. Weight maintenance through behaviour modification with a cooking course or neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Greve, Tine; Kreutzer, Martin; Pedersen, Ulla; Nielsen, Claus Meyer; Toubro, Søren; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effect on weight regain of behaviour modification consisting of either a gourmet cooking course or neurolinguistic programming (NLP) therapy. Fifty-six overweight and obese subjects participated. The first step was a 12-week weight loss program. Participants achieving at least 8% weight loss were randomized to five months of either NLP therapy or a course in gourmet cooking. Follow-up occurred after two and three years. Forty-nine participants lost at least 8% of their initial body weight and were randomized to the next step. The NLP group lost an additional 1.8 kg and the cooking group lost 0.2 kg during the five months of weight maintenance (NS). The dropout rate in the cooking group was 4%, compared with 26% in the NLP group (p=0.04). There was no difference in weight maintenance after two and three years of follow-up. In conclusion, weight loss in overweight and obese participants was maintained equally efficiently with a healthy cooking course or NLP therapy, but the dropout rate was lower during the active cooking treatment.

  14. Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first

  15. Expected value based fuzzy programming approach to solve integrated supplier selection and inventory control problem with fuzzy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno; Widowati; Sunarsih; Kartono

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model in quadratic programming with fuzzy parameter is proposed to determine the optimal strategy for integrated inventory control and supplier selection problem with fuzzy demand. To solve the corresponding optimization problem, we use the expected value based fuzzy programming. Numerical examples are performed to evaluate the model. From the results, the optimal amount of each product that have to be purchased from each supplier for each time period and the optimal amount of each product that have to be stored in the inventory for each time period were determined with minimum total cost and the inventory level was sufficiently closed to the reference level.

  16. Possibility/Necessity-Based Probabilistic Expectation Models for Linear Programming Problems with Discrete Fuzzy Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Katagiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers linear programming problems (LPPs where the objective functions involve discrete fuzzy random variables (fuzzy set-valued discrete random variables. New decision making models, which are useful in fuzzy stochastic environments, are proposed based on both possibility theory and probability theory. In multi-objective cases, Pareto optimal solutions of the proposed models are newly defined. Computational algorithms for obtaining the Pareto optimal solutions of the proposed models are provided. It is shown that problems involving discrete fuzzy random variables can be transformed into deterministic nonlinear mathematical programming problems which can be solved through a conventional mathematical programming solver under practically reasonable assumptions. A numerical example of agriculture production problems is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed models to real-world problems in fuzzy stochastic environments.

  17. Listening to Students: Modification of a Reading Program Based on the Sources of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications implemented in a second year foreign language (FL reading program with respect to the problems students experience while reading in FL. This research draws on the sources of FL reading anxiety identified in the first year reading program with a motivation to re-design the second year program to help the students perceive reading positively free from the anxiety. This paper reports on the responses of students to the modifications implemented in the second year reading program. The participants of the study were 50 FL students who were in their second year at a state university in Turkey. All participants had already taken the first year reading course and were enrolled in the second year reading course. It was based on two qualitative research instruments. The first instrument was a semi-structured questionnaire administered to all participants. The second one was a semi-structured interview conducted with half of the participants to obtain more in depth information concerning the modifications that had been introduced. Both instruments revealed that students responded positively to the modifications introduced. The results of the study put forward that obtaining students’ opinions, giving them responsibility and involving them in decision making processes enhance their motivation, confidence and analytical skills while reading in a foreign language.

  18. Modification of the RTMTRACE program for numerical simulation of particle dynamics at racetrack microtrons with account of space charge forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, I.V.; Shvedunov, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents modification results of the program for simulation of particle dynamics in cyclic accelerators with RTMTRACE linear gap. The program was modified with regard for the effect of space charge effect on particle dynamics. Calculation results of particle dynamics in 1 MeV energy continuous-duty accelerator with 10 kw beam were used to develop continuous powerful commercial accelerator. 3 refs., 2 figs

  19. Universities' Expectations for Study-Abroad Programs Fostering Internationalization: Educational Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take, Hiroko; Shoraku, Ai

    2018-01-01

    Because internationalization in higher education has recently received significant attention within the context of globalization, universities in Japan have begun to develop study-abroad programs to support their students in gaining international experience. This article explores those university policies designed to support the…

  20. Nordic Experiences: Participants' Expectations and Experiences of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Katariina; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish high school students' and teachers' perceptions of the effects of short-term Nordic study abroad programs in which they had participated. The data presented were based on a "mixed-methods strategy." The data set consisted of responses from 158 students and 92 teachers to a specifically…

  1. The influence of modifications of a fatigue loading history program on fatigue lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, J.

    1972-01-01

    Rectangular specimens of 7075 and 2014 aluminum alloys with two holes (stress concentration factor of 3.24) have been tested under axial fatigue loading on a six-rod test bed with modifications of the loading program, the surface particulars, and the frequency. The length of the precrack stage was investigated by use of a new crack detector. In most cases the two alloys behaved similarly, with similar life to crack start under the same loading. Some overloads lengthened the life. Truncation by omission of the lowest peak loads should be limited to about 20 percent of the ultimate load. Simplifying counting methods gave misleading results. Very thin surface layers of anodizing, protection by vinyl, dry nitrogen atmosphere, as well as stepwise reaming or grinding the surface of the holes, lengthened the life; thick anodized layers shortened the life. Compressing the hole surface by rolling had no influence. Frequencies at about 210 to 240 cpm produced shorter lives than those at 40 cpm. At 5.4 cpm the life was considerably longer. A model to better understand the precrack-stage fatigue mechanism is discussed.

  2. Social media monitoring of asthmatic children treated in a specialized program: Parents and caregivers expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Parents or caregivers of children attending the PIPA program expressed high interest in using social media. However, few use it to control their children’s disease. While providing a great benefit to use social media as a mean of communication in health, the content needs to be monitored for reliability and quality. The privacy of users (doctors and patients must be preserved and it is very important to facilitate the access to Internet.

  3. Experiments expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini, B; Meschi, E

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the expectations and the constraints of the experiments relatively to the commissioning procedure and the running conditions for the 2015 data taking period. The views about the various beam parameters for the p-p period, like beam energy, maximum pileup, bunch spacing and luminosity limitation in IP2 and IP8, are discussed. The goals and the constraints of the 2015 physics program are also presented, including the heavy ions period as well as the special...

  4. Expectations of iPad use in an internal medicine residency program: is it worth the "hype"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nancy; Chapman, Christopher G; Patel, Bhakti K; Woodruff, James N; Arora, Vineet M

    2013-05-08

    While early reports highlight the benefits of tablet computing in hospitals, introducing any new technology can result in inflated expectations. The aim of the study is to compare anticipated expectations of Apple iPad use and perceptions after deployment among residents. 115 internal medicine residents received Apple iPads in October 2010. Residents completed matched surveys on anticipated usage and perceptions after distribution 1 month prior and 4 months after deployment. In total, 99% (114/115) of residents responded. Prior to deployment, most residents believed that the iPad would improve patient care and efficiency on the wards; however, fewer residents "strongly agreed" after deployment (34% vs 15% for patient care, PApple iOS product owners were also more likely to use the iPad in key areas. Overall, 84% of residents thought the iPad was a good investment for the residency program, and over half of residents (58%) reported that patients commented on the iPad in a positive way. While the use of tablets such as the iPad by residents is generally well received, high initial expectations highlight the danger of implementing new technologies. Education on the realistic expectations of iPad benefits may be warranted.

  5. Expectations of iPad Use in an Internal Medicine Residency Program: Is It Worth the “Hype”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nancy; Chapman, Christopher G; Patel, Bhakti K; Woodruff, James N

    2013-01-01

    Background While early reports highlight the benefits of tablet computing in hospitals, introducing any new technology can result in inflated expectations. Objective The aim of the study is to compare anticipated expectations of Apple iPad use and perceptions after deployment among residents. Methods 115 internal medicine residents received Apple iPads in October 2010. Residents completed matched surveys on anticipated usage and perceptions after distribution 1 month prior and 4 months after deployment. Results In total, 99% (114/115) of residents responded. Prior to deployment, most residents believed that the iPad would improve patient care and efficiency on the wards; however, fewer residents “strongly agreed” after deployment (34% vs 15% for patient care, PiPad for placing orders post call and during admission (71% vs 44% post call, P=.01, and 16% vs 0% admission, P=.04). Previous Apple iOS product owners were also more likely to use the iPad in key areas. Overall, 84% of residents thought the iPad was a good investment for the residency program, and over half of residents (58%) reported that patients commented on the iPad in a positive way. Conclusions While the use of tablets such as the iPad by residents is generally well received, high initial expectations highlight the danger of implementing new technologies. Education on the realistic expectations of iPad benefits may be warranted. PMID:23656727

  6. Faculty and Student Expectations and Perceptions of E-mail Communication in a Campus and Distance Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul D.; Monaghan, Michael S.; Walters, Ryan W.; Merkel, Jennifer J.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Lenz, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine faculty members' and students' expectations and perceptions of e-mail communication in a dual pathway pharmacy program. Methods Three parallel survey instruments were administered to campus students, distance students, and faculty members, respectively. Focus groups with students and faculty were conducted. Results Faculty members perceived themselves as more accessible and approachable by e-mail than either group of students did. Campus students expected a shorter faculty response time to e-mail and for faculty members to be more available than did distance students. Conclusion E-mail is an effective means of computer-mediated communication between faculty members and students and can be used to promote a sense of community and inclusiveness (ie, immediacy), especially with distant students. PMID:21436932

  7. 75 FR 39953 - Modification to the Basic Center Program Funding Opportunity Announcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    .... Announcement Type: Modification. Funding Opportunity Number: HHS-2010-ACF-ACYF-CY-0002. CFDA Number: 93.623... points. Margins less than \\1/2\\ inch: Deduction of 3 points. Font is not at least 12-point size or Times...

  8. Quality of life and body mass index in overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome during a lifestyle modification program

    OpenAIRE

    De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; Stuyver, Isabelle; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Design: Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Setting: Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Participants: Thirty-three overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. ...

  9. 78 FR 53466 - Modification of Two National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Document Image... National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) tests concerning document imaging, known as the Document Image... the National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) tests concerning document imaging, known as the...

  10. Quality of Life and Body Mass Index in Overweight Adult Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome During a Lifestyle Modification Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; Stuyver, Isabelle; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Thirty-three overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. Participants followed a 24-week lifestyle modification program consisting of a diet, exercise, and psychological subprogram. BMI was assessed at Weeks 0, 8, 16, and 24 of the program. The HRQoL was measured at Week 0, 12, and 24 of the program using the PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to evaluate the influence of acne on HRQoL. During a 24-week period no significant decrease in BMI occurred (mean difference = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.38, 4.81]. During that period, there was a significant positive evolution of the total PCOSQ score, F(2, 37.5) = 23.7, the emotions, F(2, 37.9) = 4.2, weight, F(2, 42.1) = 24.8, body hair, F(2, 35.6) = 3.3, and infertility problems domain scores, F(2, 43.1) = 15.64, of the PCOSQ, as well as of the acne VAS score, F(2, 29.3) = 4.2. These effects primarily occurred during the first 12 weeks. In spite of no significant changes in BMI, the HRQoL of overweight adult women with PCOS significantly improved during a 24-week lifestyle modification program. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. 76 FR 65769 - Airport Improvement Program: Modifications to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... have risen faster than the general rate of inflation. Since we were unable to locate construction cost... enables us to best respond. B. Modifications to Policy The previous AIP grant policy, issued June 24, 1997... established a docket and invited airport sponsors and other interested parties to comment on the BCA...

  12. 75 FR 26025 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... technologies, we have created new definitions for membrane separation and raw starch hydrolysis. We also... technical errors and areas within the final RFS2 regulations that could benefit from clarification or... benefit from clarification or modification. As a result, we are making the following amendments to the...

  13. 78 FR 18445 - Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Capital Financing Program; Modification of Terms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... addition to the cost neutrality estimates described below in the No Net Cost to the Federal Government... the modifications do not result in any net cost to the Federal Government. This notice (1) establishes... not result in any net cost to the Federal Government. DATES: The effective date of the determination...

  14. Communication training improves sense of performance expectancy of public health nurses engaged in long-term elderly prevention care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Motoko; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Izumi, Sin-Ichi

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a communication skill training based on a coaching theory for public health nurses (PHNs) who are engaged in Japan's long-term care prevention program. The participants in this study included 112 PHNs and 266 service users who met with these PHNs in order to create a customized care plan within one month after the PHNs' training. The participants were divided into three groups: a supervised group in which the PHNs attended the 1-day training seminar and the follow-up supervision; a seminar group attended only the 1-day training seminar; a control group. The PHNs' sense of performance expectancy, and user's satisfaction, user's spontaneous behavior were evaluated at the baseline (T1), at one month (T2), and at three months (T3) after the PHNs' training. At T3, the PHNs performed a recalled evaluation (RE) of their communication skills before the training. The PHNs' sense of performance expectancy increased significantly over time in the supervised group and the control group (F = 11.28, P < 0.001; F = 4.03, P < 0.05, resp.). The difference score between T3-RE was significantly higher in the supervised group than the control group (P < 0.01). No significant differences in the users' outcomes were found.

  15. Teaching implementation science in a new Master of Science Program in Germany: a survey of stakeholder expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Charlotte; Mahler, Cornelia; Forstner, Johanna; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Wensing, Michel

    2017-04-27

    Implementation science in healthcare is an evolving discipline in German-speaking countries. In 2015, the Medical Faculty of the University of Heidelberg, Germany, implemented a two-year full-time Master of Science program Health Services Research and Implementation Science. The curriculum introduces implementation science in the context of a broader program that also covers health services research, healthcare systems, research methods, and generic academic skills. Our aim was to assess the expectations of different stakeholder groups regarding the master's program. An online survey listing desired competencies of prospective graduates was developed and administered to four groups: national experts in the field (including potential employers of graduates), teaching staff, enrolled students, and prospective students (N = 169). Competencies were extracted from the curriculum's module handbook. A five-point Likert scale was used for the assessment of 42 specific items. Data were analyzed descriptively. A total of 83 people participated in the survey (response rate 49%). The online survey showed a strong agreement across the groups concerning the desired competencies of graduates. About two-thirds of the listed competencies (27 items) were felt to be crucial or very important by 80% or more of participants, with little difference between stakeholder groups. Of the eight items specifically related to implementation in practice, six were in this category. Knowledge of implementation strategies (90% very important), knowledge of barriers and enablers of implementation (89%), and knowledge of evidence-based practice (89%) were the top priorities. The master's program is largely orientated towards the desired competencies of graduates according to students, teaching staff, and national experts.

  16. 78 FR 27984 - Modification of the National Customs Automation Program Test (NCAP) Regarding Reconciliation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Customs Automation Program Test (NCAP) Regarding Reconciliation for Filing Certain Post-Importation Claims... Automation Program (NCAP) Reconciliation prototype test to include the filing of post-importation [[Page... of the Test Reconciliation, a planned component of the National Customs Automation Program (NCAP), as...

  17. New program and boundary plasma research in GAMMA 10 modification (GAMMA-PDX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    GAMMA 10 is the world's largest tandem mirror machine. Since the incorporation of national universities in 2004, many R and D activities taking advantage of its features have been performed in GAMMA 10 to contribute to the development of thermonuclear fusion researches. In the second mid-term plan since 2010, modification of the machine has been proposed to start boundary plasma research projects. Cooperative studies with other groups in Japan on divertor plasmas and particle transports are conducted by taking advantage of the potential control ability and the availability of the hot ion flux of GAMMA 10. (J.P.N.)

  18. 78 FR 44142 - Modification of Two National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Document Image... (CBP's) plan to modify the National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) tests concerning document imaging... entry process by reducing the number of data elements required to obtain release for cargo transported...

  19. 78 FR 66039 - Modification of National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Cargo Release (Formerly...) plan to both rename and modify the National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning the... data elements required to obtain release for cargo transported by air. The test will now be known as...

  20. Evaluation of the expect respect support group program: A violence prevention strategy for youth exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Holland, Kristin M; Cortina, Kai; Ball, Barbara; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we assess the effects of the Expect Respect Support Groups (ERSG) on frequency of teen dating violence (TDV) and general youth violence. ERSG is a school-based violence prevention program for youth who have been exposed to violence in their home, school, or community. Boys and girls (N=1,678, M age =14.3, S.D.=1.7, Range=11-17) from 36 schools in Texas participated in this accelerated longitudinal (7-year trajectory) study beginning in 2011. Latent growth curve analyses were conducted using three waves of data from three cross-sectional cohorts of adolescents. Among boys, the number of ERSG sessions attended related to incremental declines in psychological TDV perpetration and victimization, physical TDV victimization, sexual TDV perpetration and victimization, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression. Girls attending ERSG demonstrated reductions in reactive and proactive aggression. The present findings suggest ERSG may be an effective cross-cutting strategy to reduce TDV and other forms of violence among high-risk boys and possibly girls. This information provides valuable understanding of TDV and youth violence in high-risk populations and may be useful in tailoring future prevention efforts to different groups of teens. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modification of an Internet-based patient education program for adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder to suit adolescents with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Anna; Anttila, Minna; Välimäki, Maritta

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to produce a user-friendly and high quality Internet-based patient education program for adolescents with psychosis. To achieve this, we ascertained the adolescents' and health care professionals' needs and expectations of patient education using Internet and the improvement proposals for an existing MentalNet program originally developed for adults with schizophrenia. The research process was conducted in two phases. First, adolescents' and healthcare professionals' needs for patient education and Internet were ascertained by interviewing adolescents and in two educational sessions with staff members (Phase I). Second, the preliminary evaluation of the Internet-based patient education program MentalNet was gathered from adolescents by an iterative process (see cyclic, recurring, repeating method), in one educational session with staff members and a questionnaire via email from other health care professionals (Phase II). The needs and expectations of adolescents and health care professionals were related to the content, usability, design and realization of Internet-based patient education. Based on the information obtained the MentalNet program was modified to satisfy adolescents' needs. The usefulness and effectiveness of the program will require scrutiny in future studies.

  2. Dietary modification in a workplace health promotion program in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Foong Ming; Ab Sallam, Atiya; Wong, Mee Lian

    2008-10-01

    Lifestyle modification is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours to prevent cardiovascular disease. This study was a quasi-experimental trial with a follow up of two years. The intervention group (n = 102) received intensive individual and group counselling on diet and physical activity. The comparison group (n = 84) was given minimal education through mail and group counselling. Following the intervention, both groups reduced their total fat intake through a replacement in carbohydrate intake. The saturated fat and cholesterol intake was also reduced with a larger magnitude in the intervention group. Fruits and vegetables consumption was increased within the intervention group. The intervention group showed a statistically significant reduction in their mean total cholesterol levels with an intervention effect of -0.38 (95% C.I. = -0.63, -0.14) mmol/l. This study has achieved moderate improvement in dietary intakes as well as the total cholesterol of the participants.

  3. How accurately do instructors judge students' attitudes online? A measurement of expectations and level of satisfaction with an Online Information Systems masters program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren-Nicole Macht

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to run a successful educational program, instructors as well as staff members must constantly review and adapt to the expectations, concerns, demographics and satisfaction level of their student consumers. This study was conducted in order to examine these issues in an online educational setting. First, interviews were given to the program instructors in order to determine their opinions about the students' expectations and satisfaction levels. This information was then used to create a student survey that assessed the students' expectations and level of satisfaction. These two sets of results were then compared This comparison revealed that the online instructors did have a good grasp of the online students' expectations, concerns, demographics and satisfaction level. The only areas where the instructors' concepts of student views were slightly less accurate was student concerns and student feelings about the program administration, where the instructors overestimated the level of concern the students had about successfully returning to the learning environment and underestimated the students' satisfaction with the program's administration. This leads us to conclude that, even with the added online factor, instructors strongly understand student expectations, satisfaction levels, demographics and concerns.

  4. 75 FR 79964 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... renewable fuel facility to be considered biogas for purposes of Table 1 to Sec. 80.1426; --Sec. 80.1452(b... explained that many developers of ethanol facilities, including their own, sought to obtain construction permits without going through EPA's New Source Review (NSR) program, and were able to do so by obtaining...

  5. Behavior Modification for Obesity: The Evaluation of Exercise, Contingency Management, and Program Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Stalonas, Peter M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated behavioral programs for obesity. Exercise and self-managed contingency components were compared using obese subjects who were evaluated after treatment and follow-up. Significant weight loss was observed at termination. The influence of exercise at follow-up was noticeable. Subjects engaged in behaviors, yet behaviors were not related…

  6. Modifications of the HEX program for fast automatic resolution of PIXE-spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    The computer code HEX for resolving PIXE-spectra has been modified. By irradiating standard foils, the escape rations for X-ray peaks in the energy interval 3.3-10.6 keV have been measured. The results have been compared with theoretical calculations and experimental results of other research groups. The escape peaks have been included in the computer code. Pile-up peaks in the X-ray spectrum are also fitted by the modified computer program. This procedure is independent of the count rate and the pile-up interval. In addition an effective routine for dropping small X-ray peaks has been developed. (Author)

  7. Modifications of ORNL's computer programs MSF-21 and VTE-21 for the evaluation and rapid optimization of multistage flash and vertical tube evaporators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueckstern, P.; Wilson, J.V.; Reed, S.A.

    1976-06-01

    Design and cost modifications were made to ORNL's Computer Programs MSF-21 and VTE-21 originally developed for the rapid calculation and design optimization of multistage flash (MSF) and multieffect vertical tube evaporator (VTE) desalination plants. The modifications include additional design options to make possible the evaluation of desalting plants based on current technology (the original programs were based on conceptual designs applying advanced and not yet proven technological developments and design features) and new materials and equipment costs updated to mid-1975.

  8. Dietary regulation of developmental programming in ruminants: epigenetic modifications in the germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K D; Karamitri, A; Gardner, D S

    2010-01-01

    Ruminants have been utilised extensively to investigate the developmental origins of health and disease, with the sheep serving as the model species of choice to complement dietary studies in the rat and mouse. Surprisingly few studies, however, have investigated delayed effects of maternal undernutrition during pregnancy on adult offspring health and a consistent phenotype, together with underlying mechanistic pathways, has not emerged. Nevertheless, when broad consideration is given to all studies with ruminants it is apparent that interventions that are initiated very early in gestation, and/or prior to conception, lead to greater effects on adult physiology than those that are specifically targeted to late gestation. Effects induced following dietary interventions at the earliest stages of mammalian development have been shown to arise as a consequence of alterations to key epigenetic processes that occur in germ cells and pluripotent embryonic cells. Currently, our understanding of epigenetic programming in the germline is greatest for the mouse, and is considered in detail in this article together with what is known in ruminants. This species imbalance, however, looks set to change as fully annotated genomic maps are developed for domesticated large animal species, and with the advent of 'next-generation' DNA sequencing technologies that have the power to globally map the epigenome at single-base-pair resolution. These developments would help to address such issues as sexually dimorphic epigenetic alterations to DNA methylation that have been found to arise following dietary restrictions during the peri-conceptional period, the effects of paternal nutritional status on epigenetic programming through the germline, and transgenerational studies where, in future, greater emphasis in domesticated ruminants should be placed on traits of agricultural importance.

  9. Outcome Evaluation of a Policy-Mandated Lifestyle and Environmental Modification Program in a National Job Training Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Harris, Amanda; Luna, Donald; Velasquez, Daniel; Slovik, Jonathan; Kong, Alberta

    2017-06-01

    Excess weight gain is common when adolescents become young adults, but there are no obesity prevention or weight management interventions that have been tested for emerging adults who follow non-traditional post-secondary paths, such as enrolling in job training programs. We evaluated Healthy Eating & Active Lifestyles (HEALs), a policy-mandated lifestyle education/environmental modification program, at a job training center for low-income 16-24 year olds. We examined average change in body mass index (BMI) z-score from baseline to 6 months for emerging adults (aged 16-24 years) in pre-HEALs implementation (n = 125) and post-HEALs implementation (n = 126) cohorts living at the job training center, by baseline weight status. In both cohorts, average BMI z-score significantly increased from baseline to 6 months for students with BMI < 25. Average BMI z-score significantly decreased for the overweight (BMI 25 to <30; -0.11, p = .03) and obese (BMI ≥ 30; -0.11, p = .001) students only within the post-HEALs cohort; changes within the pre-HEALs cohort and between cohorts were not significant. HEALs may promote positive weight-related trends for overweight/obese students, but prevention efforts for non-overweight/obese students need to be improved.

  10. Enhancing the growth performance of replacement female breeder goats through modification of feeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. A. Ghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at a smallholder goat farm located in Labu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of proper feeding program on growth performances of replacement breeder goats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy female boer cross goats at the age of 4 months old with average initial live body weight (BW of 20.05±0.5 kg were used for on-farm feeding trial to evaluate the growth performance as preparation for breeding purposes. The experimental goats were divided into two groups of 15 animals each labeled as control and treatment groups, which were kept under intensive farming system. Goats in control group were fed with normal routine feeding protocol practiced by the farmer, while goats in the treatment group were fed with new feed formulation. Throughout the experimental period, on-farm monitoring and data collection were carried out. Initial BW and body condition score (BCS were recorded before the start of the experiment while final BW and BCS were gained after 7 months of the experimental period. Average daily gain (ADG was calculated after the experiment end. Data on BW, ADG, and BCS were recorded from both groups for every 2 weeks and reported monthly. The feed intake for the control group was 2.8 kg/animal/day which practiced by the farmer and 3.2 kg/animal/day as new feed formulation for the treatment group. Results: After 7 months of the experimental period, final BW shows an improvement in treatment group (39.1±1.53 kg compared with control group (32.3±1.23 kg. The ADG in treatment group also gives promising result when comparing with control group. Goats in treatment group significantly attained better ADG than control group which were 126.7 g/day and 83.3 g/day, respectively. For the BCS, goats in the treatment group had shown an improvement where 86.67% (13 out of 15 of the group had BCS =3 (1-5 scoring scale and only 66.67% (10 out of 15 of the control group had

  11. Modification of an environmental surveillance program to monitor PCDD/Fs and metals around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Mari, Montse; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2009-11-01

    Since the mid-90s, an environmental surveillance program has been on-going to provide information on the levels of PCDD/Fs and various metals in soil and vegetation samples collected in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). However, the presence of other potential sources of pollution in the zone, such as traffic, forest fires, local industries, etc., makes hard to determine the impact concerning the MSWI. Therefore, in 2007 a change in the monitoring program was implemented by collecting additional ambient air samples through active and passive sampling devices. Mean PCDD/F levels in herbage and soil were 0.10 ng I-TEQ/kg dry weight (range: 0.05-0.17 ng I-TEQ/kg dw) and 0.64 ng I-TEQ/kg dw (range: 0.13-2.41 ng I-TEQ/kg dw), respectively. A significant reduction of the PCDD/F concentration in both monitors was observed with respect to our previous surveys. Air mean concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 12.04 and 15.21 fg WHO-TEQ/m(3) in 2007 and 2008, respectively, meaning a non-significant increase of 26%. In addition, a generalized increase of environmental metal levels with respect to our baseline study was not observed. The current concentrations of PCDD/Fs and metals in the vicinity of the MSWI of Tarragona are relatively low in comparison with other areas under the influence of emissions from waste incinerators. This indicates that the environmental impact of the MSWI of Tarragona is not significant. Moreover, the modification of the surveillance program has proven to be successful.

  12. Teacher Reactions to the Performance-Based Bonus Program: How the Expectancy Theory Works in the South Korean School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Bong-Woon; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers…

  13. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    , they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical...... cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  14. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    the role of causal inference in social science; and it discusses the potential of the findings of the dissertation to inform educational policy. In Chapters II and III, constituting the substantive contribution of the dissertation, I examine the process through which students form expectations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...

  15. Genetic Modulation of Lipid Profiles following Lifestyle Modification or Metformin Treatment: The Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Kathleen A.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Florez, Jose C.; Bray, George A.; Culbert, Iris W.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Eberhardt, Barbara; Greenway, Frank; Guillory, Fonda G.; Herbert, April A.; Jeffirs, Michael L.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Morris, Laura H.; Melancon, Lee E.; Ryan, Donna; Sanford, Deborah A.; Smith, Kenneth G.; Smith, Lisa L.; Amant, Julia A. St.; Tulley, Richard T.; Vicknair, Paula C.; Williamson, Donald; Zachwieja, Jeffery J.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Tobian, Janet; Ehrmann, David; Matulik, Margaret J.; Clark, Bart; Czech, Kirsten; DeSandre, Catherine; Hilbrich, Ruthanne; McNabb, Wylie; Semenske, Ann R.; Caro, Jose F.; Watson, Pamela G.; Goldstein, Barry J.; Smith, Kellie A.; Mendoza, Jewel; Liberoni, Renee; Pepe, Constance; Spandorfer, John; Donahue, Richard P.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Prineas, Ronald; Rowe, Patricia; Calles, Jeanette; Cassanova-Romero, Paul; Florez, Hermes J.; Giannella, Anna; Kirby, Lascelles; Larreal, Carmen; McLymont, Valerie; Mendez, Jadell; Ojito, Juliet; Perry, Arlette; Saab, Patrice; Haffner, Steven M.; Montez, Maria G.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martinez, Arlene; Hamman, Richard F.; Nash, Patricia V.; Testaverde, Lisa; Anderson, Denise R.; Ballonoff, Larry B.; Bouffard, Alexis; Calonge, B. Ned; Delve, Lynne; Farago, Martha; Hill, James O.; Hoyer, Shelley R.; Jortberg, Bonnie T.; Lenz, Dione; Miller, Marsha; Price, David W.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Seagle, Helen; Smith, Carissa M.; Steinke, Sheila C.; VanDorsten, Brent; Horton, Edward S.; Lawton, Kathleen E.; Arky, Ronald A.; Bryant, Marybeth; Burke, Jacqueline P.; Caballero, Enrique; Callaphan, Karen M.; Ganda, Om P.; Franklin, Therese; Jackson, Sharon D.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Kula, Lyn M.; Kocal, Margaret; Malloy, Maureen A.; Nicosia, Maryanne; Oldmixon, Cathryn F.; Pan, Jocelyn; Quitingon, Marizel; Rubtchinsky, Stacy; Seely, Ellen W.; Schweizer, Dana; Simonson, Donald; Smith, Fannie; Solomon, Caren G.; Warram, James; Kahn, Steven E.; Montgomery, Brenda K.; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Knopp, Robert H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Marr, Michelle; Trence, Dace; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Murphy, Mary E.; Applegate, William B.; Bryer-Ash, Michael; Frieson, Sandra L.; Imseis, Raed; Lambeth, Helen; Lichtermann, Lynne C.; Oktaei, Hooman; Rutledge, Lily M.K.; Sherman, Amy R.; Smith, Clara M.; Soberman, Judith E.; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly; Metzger, Boyd E.; Johnson, Mariana K.; Behrends, Catherine; Cook, Michelle; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Giles, Mimi M.; Heard, Deloris; Johnson, Cheryl K.H.; Larsen, Diane; Lowe, Anne; Lyman, Megan; McPherson, David; Molitch, Mark E.; Pitts, Thomas; Reinhart, Renee; Roston, Susan; Schinleber, Pamela A.; Nathan, David M.; McKitrick, Charles; Turgeon, Heather; Abbott, Kathy; Anderson, Ellen; Bissett, Laurie; Cagliero, Enrico; Florez, Jose C.; Delahanty, Linda; Goldman, Valerie; Poulos, Alexandra; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Carrion-Petersen, Mary Lou; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Edelman, Steven V.; Henry, Robert R.; Horne, Javiva; Janesch, Simona Szerdi; Leos, Diana; Mudaliar, Sundar; Polonsky, William; Smith, Jean; Vejvoda, Karen; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Lee, Jane E.; Allison, David B.; Aronoff, Nancy J.; Crandall, Jill P.; Foo, Sandra T.; Pal, Carmen; Parkes, Kathy; Pena, Mary Beth; Rooney, Ellen S.; Wye, Gretchen E.H. Van; Viscovich, Kristine A.; Marrero, David G.; Prince, Melvin J.; Kelly, Susie M.; Dotson, Yolanda F.; Fineberg, Edwin S.; Guare, John C; Hadden, Angela M.; Ignaut, James M.; Jackson, Marcia L.; Kirkman, Marion S.; Mather, Kieren J.; Porter, Beverly D.; Roach, Paris J.; Rowland, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Madelyn L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Youssef, Gretchen; Shapiro, Sue; Bavido-Arrage, Catherine; Boggs, Geraldine; Bronsord, Marjorie; Brown, Ernestine; Cheatham, Wayman W.; Cola, Susan; Evans, Cindy; Gibbs, Peggy; Kellum, Tracy; Levatan, Claresa; Nair, Asha K.; Passaro, Maureen; Uwaifo, Gabriel; Saad, Mohammed F.; Budget, Maria; Jinagouda, Sujata; Akbar, Khan; Conzues, Claudia; Magpuri, Perpetua; Ngo, Kathy; Rassam, Amer; Waters, Debra; Xapthalamous, Kathy; Santiago, Julio V.; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; White, Neil H.; Das, Samia; Santiago, Ana; Brown, Angela; Fisher, Edwin; Hurt, Emma; Jones, Tracy; Kerr, Michelle; Ryder, Lucy; Wernimont, Cormarie; Saudek, Christopher D.; Bradley, Vanessa; Sullivan, Emily; Whittington, Tracy; Abbas, Caroline; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Charleston, Jeanne B.; Freel, Janice; Horak, Katherine; Jiggetts, Dawn; Johnson, Deloris; Joseph, Hope; Loman, Kimberly; Mosley, Henry; Rubin, Richard R.; Samuels, Alafia; Stewart, Kerry J.; Williamson, Paula; Schade, David S.; Adams, Karwyn S.; Johannes, Carolyn; Atler, Leslie F.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Burge, Mark R.; Canady, Janene L.; Chai, Lisa; Gonzales, Ysela; Hernandez-McGinnis, Doris A.; Katz, Patricia; King, Carolyn; Rassam, Amer; Rubinchik, Sofya; Senter, Willette; Waters, Debra; Shamoon, Harry; Brown, Janet O.; Adorno, Elsie; Cox, Liane; Crandall, Jill; Duffy, Helena; Engel, Samuel; Friedler, Allison; Howard-Century, Crystal J.; Kloiber, Stacey; Longchamp, Nadege; Martinez, Helen; Pompi, Dorothy; Scheindlin, Jonathan; Violino, Elissa; Walker, Elizabeth; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Zimmerman, Elise; Zonszein, Joel; Orchard, Trevor; Wing, Rena R.; Koenning, Gaye; Kramer, M. Kaye; Barr, Susan; Boraz, Miriam; Clifford, Lisa; Culyba, Rebecca; Frazier, Marlene; Gilligan, Ryan; Harrier, Susan; Harris, Louann; Jeffries, Susan; Kriska, Andrea; Manjoo, Qurashia; Mullen, Monica; Noel, Alicia; Otto, Amy; Semler, Linda; Smith, Cheryl F.; Smith, Marie; Venditti, Elizabeth; Weinzierl, Valarie; Williams, Katherine V.; Wilson, Tara; Arakaki, Richard F.; Latimer, Renee W.; Baker-Ladao, Narleen K.; Beddow, Ralph; Dias, Lorna; Inouye, Jillian; Mau, Marjorie K.; Mikami, Kathy; Mohideen, Pharis; Odom, Sharon K.; Perry, Raynette U.; Knowler, William C.; Cooeyate, Norman; Hoskin, Mary A.; Percy, Carol A.; Acton, Kelly J.; Andre, Vickie L.; Barber, Rosalyn; Begay, Shandiin; Bennett, Peter H.; Benson, Mary Beth; Bird, Evelyn C.; Broussard, Brenda A.; Chavez, Marcella; Dacawyma, Tara; Doughty, Matthew S.; Duncan, Roberta; Edgerton, Cyndy; Ghahate, Jacqueline M.; Glass, Justin; Glass, Martia; Gohdes, Dorothy; Grant, Wendy; Hanson, Robert L.; Horse, Ellie; Ingraham, Louise E.; Jackson, Merry; Jay, Priscilla; Kaskalla, Roylen S.; Kessler, David; Kobus, Kathleen M.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Manus, Catherine; Michaels, Sara; Morgan, Tina; Nashboo, Yolanda; Nelson, Julie A.; Poirier, Steven; Polczynski, Evette; Reidy, Mike; Roumain, Jeanine; Rowse, Debra; Sangster, Sandra; Sewenemewa, Janet; Tonemah, Darryl; Wilson, Charlton; Yazzie, Michelle; Bain, Raymond; Fowler, Sarah; Brenneman, Tina; Abebe, Solome; Bamdad, Julie; Callaghan, Jackie; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Gao, Yuping; Grimes, Kristina L.; Grover, Nisha; Haffner, Lori; Jones, Steve; Jones, Tara L.; Katz, Richard; Lachin, John M.; Mucik, Pamela; Orlosky, Robert; Rochon, James; Sapozhnikova, Alla; Sherif, Hanna; Stimpson, Charlotte; Temprosa, Marinella; Walker-Murray, Fredricka; Marcovina, Santica; Strylewicz, Greg; Aldrich, F. Alan; O'Leary, Dan; Stamm, Elizabeth; Rautaharju, Pentti; Prineas, Ronald J.; Alexander, Teresa; Campbell, Charles; Hall, Sharon; Li, Yabing; Mills, Margaret; Pemberton, Nancy; Rautaharju, Farida; Zhang, Zhuming; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Moran, Robert R.; Ganiats, Ted; David, Kristin; Sarkin, Andrew J.; Eastman, R.; Fradkin, Judith; Garfield, Sanford; Gregg, Edward; Zhang, Ping; Herman, William; Florez, Jose C.; Altshuler, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Jablonski, Kathleen; Knowler, William C.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04–1×10−17). Except for total HDL particles (r = −0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07–0.17, P = 5×10−5–1×10−19). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8×10−5, P interaction = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = −0.03, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P interaction = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE±0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P interaction = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = −0.002, SEE±0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE±0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P interaction = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss. PMID:22951888

  16. Genetic modulation of lipid profiles following lifestyle modification or metformin treatment: the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni I Pollin

    Full Text Available Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1 × 10(-17. Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26, all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P = 5 × 10(-5-1 10(-19. The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8 × 10(-5, P(interaction = 0.02 in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35 or metformin (β = -0.03, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P(interaction = 0.64 groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE ± 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P(interaction = 0.01 but not in the placebo (β = -0.002, SEE ± 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74 or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE ± 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P(interaction = 0.24 groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss.

  17. Mental models of adherence: parallels in perceptions, values, and expectations in adherence to prescribed home exercise programs and other personal regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Jon; Bell, Alexandra

    2018-05-09

    A mental model is the collection of an individual's perceptions, values, and expectations about a particular aspect of their life, which strongly influences behaviors. This study explored orthopedic outpatients mental models of adherence to prescribed home exercise programs and how they related to mental models of adherence to other types of personal regimens. The study followed an interpretive description qualitative design. Data were collected via two semi-structured interviews. Interview One focused on participants prior experiences adhering to personal regimens. Interview Two focused on experiences adhering to their current prescribed home exercise program. Data analysis followed a constant comparative method. Findings revealed similarity in perceptions, values, and expectations that informed individuals mental models of adherence to personal regimens and prescribed home exercise programs. Perceived realized results, expected results, perceived social supports, and value of convenience characterized mental models of adherence. Parallels between mental models of adherence for prescribed home exercise and other personal regimens suggest that patients adherence behavior to prescribed routines may be influenced by adherence experiences in other aspects of their lives. By gaining insight into patients adherence experiences, values, and expectations across life domains, clinicians may tailor supports that enhance home exercise adherence. Implications for Rehabilitation A mental model is the collection of an individual's perceptions, values, and expectations about a particular aspect of their life, which is based on prior experiences and strongly influences behaviors. This study demonstrated similarity in orthopedic outpatients mental models of adherence to prescribed home exercise programs and adherence to personal regimens in other aspects of their lives. Physical therapists should inquire about patients non-medical adherence experiences, as strategies patients

  18. Comparing the Effectiveness of Paroxetine, Attention Modification Program and Combination of both on Improving Social Anxiety Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Khedmatgozar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the effectiveness of paroxetine and Attention Modification Program has been studied separately in treating social anxiety disorder, there has been no research comparing them according to the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of paroxetine, Attention Modification Program (AMP and combination of both on improving the Social Anxiety Symptoms. Methods: 33 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned in 3 groups: 11 in paroxetine group, 11 in AMP group and 11 in combined group. Treatment intervention was done during 8 weeks period. Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS were administered before and after treatment intervention. One-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was used to determine the differences and efficacy of treatment interventions between groups. Data analysis was done by SPSS-16 software. Results: 28 participants completed the treatment period. One-way ANCOVA results showed statistically significant differences in post-treatment scores of social phobia (p=0/007, depressive symptoms (p=0.007 and daily life functioning (p=0.011 between three groups. Bonferroni correction showed that combined treatment is significantly more effective than AMP in reducing social phobia symptoms (p=0.007, depressive symptoms (p=0.022 and enhancing daily life functioning (0.019. Yet, there were no significant differences between Paroxetine and combined treatment in all post-treatment scores (p=0.890, p=1.000, p=1.000 for social phobia, depressive symptoms and daily life functioning respectively. Paroxetine showed more significant improvement of depressive symptoms (p=0.016 and enhancing daily life functioning (p=0.045 than AMP. Also, there were no significant differences between paroxetine and AMP in reducing social anxiety symptoms. Discussion: It seems that paroxetine has wider effect in reducing social

  19. Comparing the Effectiveness of Paroxetine, Attention Modification Program and Combination of both on Improving Social Anxiety Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Asgharnejad Farid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the effectiveness of paroxetine and Attention Modification Program has been studied separately in treating social anxiety disorder, there has been no research comparing them according to the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of paroxetine, Attention Modification Program (AMP and combination of both on improving the Social Anxiety Symptoms.Methods:33 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned in 3 groups: 11 in paroxetine group, 11 in AMP group and 11 in combined group. Treatment intervention was done during 8 weeks period. Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS were administered before and after treatment intervention. One-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was used to determine the differences and efficacy of treatment interventions between groups. Data analysis was done by SPSS-16 software.Results:28 participants completed the treatment period. One-way ANCOVA results showed statistically significant differences in post-treatment scores of social phobia (p=0/007, depressive symptoms (p=0.007 and daily life functioning (p=0.011 between three groups. Bonferroni correction showed that combined treatment is significantly more effective than AMP in reducing social phobia symptoms (p=0.007, depressive symptoms (p=0.022 and enhancing daily life functioning (0.019. Yet, there were no significant differences between Paroxetine and combined treatment in all post-treatment scores (p=0.890, p=1.000, p=1.000 for social phobia, depressive symptoms and daily life functioning respectively. Paroxetine showed more significant improvement of depressive symptoms (p=0.016 and enhancing daily life functioning (p=0.045 than AMP. Also, there were no significant differences between paroxetine and AMP in reducing social anxiety symptoms.Discussion:It seems that paroxetine has wider effect in reducing social

  20. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  1. [Educational effectiveness of a group health education program in the workplace and an examination of educational methods to promote behavior modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Makoto; Odagiri, Keiichi; Suzuki, Naoko; Honda, Kumiko; Onoue, Kazue; Yamamoto, Makoto; Mizuta, Isagi; Uehara, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that health education programs carried out in the work place are useful for employees' health promotion. However, the effectiveness of group health education programs for workers as a population approach is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a group health education program in the workplace, and to investigate educational methods which support workers modifying their health behaviors. A total of 289 workers who received a group health education program in the manufacturing industry (mean age, 42.1 ± 11.3 years old; 175 males and 114 females) were enrolled in this study. The group health education program was carried out to educate the subjects about periodontitis, oral health actions and lifestyle behaviors to prevent oral diseases. Participants were required to fill out a self-administered questionnaire which included information about oral health knowledge, oral health actions, lifestyle behaviors and symptoms of periodontitis before, immediately after and one month after the education. We used McNemar's test for the paired comparison of questionnaire responses. The relation between acquiring knowledge about periodontitis and subjects' modification of oral health action, behavior modification and symptoms of periodontitis were examined using the chi-squared test. The relationships of knowledge retention about periodontitis, the modification of the oral health actions and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and eating between meals), were examined with participants' characteristics (i.e., age, gender and occupational category) using Fisher's exact test. Knowledge about periodontitis significantly improved immediately after receiving the health education, and this effect of education was evident one month later. However, not all of the knowledge was sufficiently retained one month after the education session. The proportion of participants undertaking desirable oral health actions

  2. Comparing oncology clinical programs by use of innovative designs and expected net present value optimization: Which adaptive approach leads to the best result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Tom; Marchenko, Olga; Anisimov, Vladimir; Ivanova, Anastasia; Jennison, Christopher; Perevozskaya, Inna; Song, Guochen

    2017-01-01

    Designing an oncology clinical program is more challenging than designing a single study. The standard approaches have been proven to be not very successful during the last decade; the failure rate of Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials in oncology remains high. Improving a development strategy by applying innovative statistical methods is one of the major objectives of a drug development process. The oncology sub-team on Adaptive Program under the Drug Information Association Adaptive Design Scientific Working Group (DIA ADSWG) evaluated hypothetical oncology programs with two competing treatments and published the work in the Therapeutic Innovation and Regulatory Science journal in January 2014. Five oncology development programs based on different Phase 2 designs, including adaptive designs and a standard two parallel arm Phase 3 design were simulated and compared in terms of the probability of clinical program success and expected net present value (eNPV). In this article, we consider eight Phase2/Phase3 development programs based on selected combinations of five Phase 2 study designs and three Phase 3 study designs. We again used the probability of program success and eNPV to compare simulated programs. For the development strategies, we considered that the eNPV showed robust improvement for each successive strategy, with the highest being for a three-arm response adaptive randomization design in Phase 2 and a group sequential design with 5 analyses in Phase 3.

  3. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  4. Teaching implementation science in a new Master of Science Program in Germany: a survey of stakeholder expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullrich, C.; Mahler, C.; Forstner, J.; Szecsenyi, J.; Wensing, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implementation science in healthcare is an evolving discipline in German-speaking countries. In 2015, the Medical Faculty of the University of Heidelberg, Germany, implemented a two-year full-time Master of Science program Health Services Research and Implementation Science. The

  5. Pragmatic Graph Rewriting Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

    1999-01-01

    We present new pragmatic constructs for easing programming in visual graph rewriting programming languages. The first is a modification to the rewriting process for nodes the host graph, where nodes specified as 'Once Only' in the LHS of a rewrite match at most once with a corresponding node in the host graph. This reduces the previously common use of tags to indicate the progress of matching in the graph. The second modification controls the application of LHS graphs, where those specified a...

  6. Modular Synthesis of Heparin-Related Tetra-, Hexa- and Octasaccharides with Differential O-6 Protections: Programming for Regiodefined 6-O-Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Baráth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heparin and heparan sulphate (H/HS are important members of the glycosaminoglycan family of sugars that regulate a substantial number of biological processes. Such biological promiscuity is underpinned by hetereogeneity in their molecular structure. The degree of O-sulfation, particularly at the 6-position of constituent D-GlcN units, is believed to play a role in modulating the effects of such sequences. Synthetic chemistry is essential to be able to extend the diversity of HS-like fragments with defined molecular structure, and particularly to deconvolute the biological significance of modifications at O6. Here we report a synthetic approach to a small matrix of protected heparin-type oligosaccharides, containing orthogonal D-GlcN O-6 protecting groups at programmed positions along the chain, facilitating access towards programmed modifications at specific sites, relevant to sulfation or future mimetics.

  7. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  8. Listening to diverse community voices: the tensions of responding to community expectations in developing a male circumcision program for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The success of health programs is influenced not only by their acceptability but also their ability to meet and respond to community expectations of service delivery. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have recommended medical male circumcision (MC) as an essential component of comprehensive HIV prevention programs in high burden settings. This study investigated community-level perceptions of MC for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea (PNG), a setting where diverse traditional and contemporary forms of penile foreskin cutting practices have been described. Methods A multi-method qualitative study was undertaken in four provinces in two stages from 2009 to 2011. A total of 82 in-depth interviews, and 45 focus group discussions were completed during Stage 1. Stage 2 incorporated eight participatory workshops that were an integral part of the research dissemination process to communities. The workshops also provided opportunity to review key themes and consolidate earlier findings as part of the research process. Qualitative data analysis used a grounded theory approach and was facilitated using qualitative data management software. Results A number of diverse considerations for the delivery of MC for HIV prevention in PNG were described, with conflicting views both between and within communities. Key issues included: location of the service, service provider, age eligibility, type of cut, community awareness and potential shame amongst youth. Key to developing appropriate health service delivery models was an appreciation of the differences in expectations and traditions of unique cultural groups in PNG. Establishing strong community coalitions, raising awareness and building trust were seen as integral to success. Conclusions Difficulties exist in the implementation of new programs in a pluralistic society such as PNG, particularly if tensions arise between biomedical knowledge and medico

  9. Listening to diverse community voices: the tensions of responding to community expectations in developing a male circumcision program for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Anna; Hill, Peter S; Kelly, Angela; Kupul, Martha; Aeno, Herick; Naketrumb, Richard; Siba, Peter; Kaldor, John; Vallely, Andrew

    2013-08-13

    The success of health programs is influenced not only by their acceptability but also their ability to meet and respond to community expectations of service delivery. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have recommended medical male circumcision (MC) as an essential component of comprehensive HIV prevention programs in high burden settings. This study investigated community-level perceptions of MC for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea (PNG), a setting where diverse traditional and contemporary forms of penile foreskin cutting practices have been described. A multi-method qualitative study was undertaken in four provinces in two stages from 2009 to 2011. A total of 82 in-depth interviews, and 45 focus group discussions were completed during Stage 1. Stage 2 incorporated eight participatory workshops that were an integral part of the research dissemination process to communities. The workshops also provided opportunity to review key themes and consolidate earlier findings as part of the research process. Qualitative data analysis used a grounded theory approach and was facilitated using qualitative data management software. A number of diverse considerations for the delivery of MC for HIV prevention in PNG were described, with conflicting views both between and within communities. Key issues included: location of the service, service provider, age eligibility, type of cut, community awareness and potential shame amongst youth. Key to developing appropriate health service delivery models was an appreciation of the differences in expectations and traditions of unique cultural groups in PNG. Establishing strong community coalitions, raising awareness and building trust were seen as integral to success. Difficulties exist in the implementation of new programs in a pluralistic society such as PNG, particularly if tensions arise between biomedical knowledge and medico-legal requirements, compared to existing

  10. Community expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, L.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between the nuclear generator and the local community has been one of stability and co-operation. However in more recent times (2000-2003) the nuclear landscape has had several major issues that directly effect the local nuclear host communities. - The associations mandate is to be supportive of the nuclear industry through ongoing dialogue, mutual cooperation and education, - To strengthen community representation with the nuclear industry and politically through networking with other nuclear host communities. As a result of these issues, the Mayors of a number of communities started having informal meetings to discuss the issues at hand and how they effect their constituents. These meetings led to the official formation of the CANHC with representation from: In Canada it is almost impossible to discuss decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear Facilities without also discussing Nuclear Waste disposal for reasons that I will soon make clear. Also I would like to briefly touch on how and why expectation of communities may differ by geography and circumstance. (author)

  11. Accommodating for plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Modification to a nuclear power plant may have different causes: 1) new instructions by the authorities; 2) changes of the marginal conditions on the construction site; 3) progress in the technological development. - Examples from different plants are supposed to demonstrate how such changes influence the planning or the construction and how they are integrated in the process of preparation. A distinction can be made between modifications before the completion of the submission of the order, during the phase of preparatory planning and during the construction phase. Of great importance are especially modifications made after the beginning of the construction works, since, in general, there is little scope for technical modifications and since consequences for the time schedule are to be expected. (orig.) [de

  12. International Workshop on Ion Beam Modification and Processing of High Tc- Superconductors: Physics and Devices: Program and Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-12

    that a train levitated by superconductivity magnets will be used routinely in Japan around the end of the century. All this has been achieved without...study of the effect of irradiation temperature on radiation damage. This study demonstrated that films or devices operating at liquid nitrogen ...April 1989 us Allpy R. i A- Ua NY 5510 1"~l HARWELL UK ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITY ION BEAM MODIFICATION AND PROCESSING IN HIGH-T, SUPERCONDUCTORS: PHYSICS

  13. Effect of goal attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: Randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moonkyoung; Song, Rhayun; Jeong, Jin-Ok

    2017-06-01

    Effect of goal-attainment-theory-based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: randomized study BACKGROUND: The behavioral modification strategies should be explored at the time of admission to lead the maximum effect of cardiovascular risk management. This randomized study aimed to elucidate the effects of a nurse-led theory-based education program in individuals with a first episode of acute myocardial infarction on cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The study involved a convenience sample of 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction who were randomly assigned to either the education group or the control group. The goal-attainment-based education program was designed to set the mutually agreed goals of risk management and the behavioral modification strategies for achieving those goals. Those in the control group received routine management only. The participants in both groups were contacted at 6-8 weeks and at 6 months after discharge to measure outcome variables. Repeated measure ANOVA was conducted using SPSSWIN (version 20.0) to determine the significance of differences in outcome variables over 6 months between the groups. Both groups showed significant positive changes in cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The 2-year risk of cardiovascular disease was significantly reduced in both study groups, but with no significant interaction effect (F=2.01, p=0.142). The performance and maintenance of health behaviors (F=3.75, p=0.029) and the mental component of quality of life (F=4.03, p=0.020) were significantly better in the education group than the control group. Applying a goal-oriented education program at an early stage of hospital management improved and maintained blood glucose, health behaviors, and mental component of the quality of life up to six months in

  14. Self-management for obesity and cardio-metabolic fitness: Description and evaluation of the lifestyle modification program of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coates Alison M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustainable lifestyle modification strategies are needed to address obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Intensive, individualised programs have been successful, but are limited by time and resources. We have formulated a group-based lifestyle education program based upon national diet and physical activity (PA recommendations to manage obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors. This article describes the content and delivery of this program, with information on compliance and acceptability. Methods Overweight/obese adults (n = 153 with metabolic syndrome were recruited from the community and randomly allocated to intervention (INT or control (CON. Written copies of Australian national dietary and PA guidelines were provided to all participants. INT took part in a 16-week lifestyle program which provided a curriculum and practical strategies on 1 dietary and PA information based on national guidelines, 2 behavioural self-management tools, 3 food-label reading, supermarkets tour and cooking, 4 exercise sessions, and 5 peer-group support. Compliance was assessed using attendance records and weekly food/PA logs. Participants' motivations, perceived benefits and goals were assessed through facilitated discussion. Program acceptability feedback was collected through structured focus groups. Results Although completion of weekly food/PA records was poor, attendance at information/education sessions (77% overall and exercise participation (66% overall was high, and compared with CON, multiple markers of body composition and cardio-metabolic health improved in INT. Participants reported that the most useful program components included food-label reading, cooking sessions, and learning new and different physical exercises, including home-based options. Participants also reported finding self-management techniques helpful, namely problem solving and short-term goal setting. The use of a group setting and supportive 'peer' leaders

  15. The influence of a behavior modification interventional program on body mass index in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Toulabi

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: The ‘‘behavior modification’’ interventional program is effective in reducing BMI in obese students, and therefore, school principals and planners can play an important role in controlling obesity by implementing this program via the students, their parents, and the school staff.

  16. The effects of a pedometer-based behavioral modification program with telephone support on physical activity and sedentary behavior in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Karlijn P; Deforche, Benedicte I; Ruige, Johannes B; Bouckaert, Jacques J; Tudor-Locke, Catrine E; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M

    2011-08-01

    Effectiveness of a behavioral modification program on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in diabetes patients. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The 24-weeks intervention consisted of a face-to-face session, pedometer and seven telephone follow-ups. Mean selection criteria were 35-75 years; 25-35 kg/m(2); ≤ 12% HbA1c, treated for type 2 diabetes; no PA limitations. PA and sedentary behavior were measured by pedometer, accelerometer and questionnaire over the short- (24 weeks) and intermediate- (1 year) term. The intervention group increased their steps/day by 2744, their total PA by 23 min/day (pbehavior by 23 min/day (pbehavior (pbehavioral modification program with telephone support showed lasting positive effects on steps/day, PA and sedentary behavior. This study tested a convenient way to increase PA among type 2 diabetes patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of a Lifestyle Modification Program on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Hypertensive Patients with Angioplasty: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Jafari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of knowledge, attitude and practice are some of the barriers of having a healthy lifestyle and controlling high blood pressure. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program on knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertensive patients with angioplasty. Methods: This study was a randomizedcontrolledclinical trial conducted from November to April 2014 on 60 hypertensive patients with angioplasty in ShahidChamran hospital of Isfahan, Iran. The samples were randomly assigned to two equal groups. Data collection was performed in three stages by a researcher-made questionnaire. The intervention plan was 6 education sessions and then follow up were done by phone call. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (V.20, using t-test, Chi-square, repeated measurement, and post hoc LSD test andANOVA statistics. Results: The mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice in the experimental group immediately after the intervention was 77.8±7.2, 88.3±6.4 and 86.2±6.5, respectively and one month after the intervention was 80.8±7.4, 91.1±3.5 and 92.5±2.2, respectively. But in the control group, the mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice immediately after the intervention (34.90±11.23, 61.11±6.28, and 38.64±7.15 and one month after the intervention was (38.64±7.15, 59.56±6.31 and 37.27±7.26. Conclusion: Lifestyle modification program can be effective in promoting the knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertensive patients with angioplasty. Nurses can use this program in their care provision programs for these patients.

  18. The Effect of a Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification Program on Glycemic Control and Body Composition in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Soo Yoo, PhD, RN

    2007-09-01

    Conclusion: CLMP is a useful program, and its multiple approaches by nurses as the leaders and coordinators appear to have positive and synergistic roles in improving and maintaining stable glucose level and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Modification of perseverative responding that increased earnings but impeded skill acquisition in a job-skills training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFulio, Anthony; Iati, Carina; Needham, Mick; Silverman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Adults in a therapeutic workplace working on a computerized keyboarding training program earned vouchers for typing correct characters. Typing technique was evaluated on review steps. Participants could pass the review and earn a bonus, or skip the review and proceed with no bonus. Alternatively, participants could continue practicing on the same step. Participants persistently repeated the same step, which halted progress through the program but allowed them to increase their rate of responding and, as a result, their earnings. Blocking the initiation of practice on review steps and removing payment for practice initiated after prompts (extinction) both produced rapid progress through the program. These results underscore the importance of careful arrangement of the contingencies in adult education programs.

  20. Modification and verification of the program COBRA-RERTR for the application in the thermohydraulic analysis of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Ghazi, N.

    2005-01-01

    In the frame work of testing, evaluation and application of computer codes in the design and safety analysis of research reactors, the thermal hydraulic code COBRA-RERTR (Reduced Enriched Research and Test Reactor) has been tested and partially validated. COBRA-RERTR has been selected due to the available options, which are suitable for the analysis of research reactors which are operated at low temperatures, and which may use plate-type fuel elements and heavy water as the coolant. In addition to that, the code enables the consideration of cross-flow that is important in case of parallel and open coolant channel. The test of the code shows an overestimation of the wall temperature with an addition to some fluctuation from node to node. This results from the solution scheme that uses an explicit, non-iterative solution for heat conduction and heat transfer to the coolant. The code evaluation regarding the basic thermal hydraulic phenomena indicates the necessity to modify and extent the physical models deals with the estimation of slip ratio and simulation of void content in the sub-cooled boiling. The code has been validated by recalculation of special experiments on axial void distribution and thermal hydraulic instability in the subcooled boiling regime. The validation indicates significant improvement of the code in prediction the axial void distribution in subcooled boiling. The discrepancy between calculation and experiments was about 20% after the modification comparing to 100% in the original models. On the other hand the validation shows the capability of the modified code to stimulate thermal hydraulic flow instability characterized by the critical inlet flow velocity at which the flow just become unstable. This point is identical to the minimum in the integral pressure drop curve. The code results show, from the view point of reactor safety, conservative estimation since the predicted values of critical inlet velocity are higher than the experimental

  1. Modification and verification of the program COBRA-RERTR for the application in the thermohydraulic analysis of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Ghazi, N.

    2004-02-01

    In the frame work of testing, evaluation and application of computer codes in the design and safety analysis of research reactors, the thermal hydraulic code COBRA-RERTR (Reduced Enriched Research and Test Reactor) has been tested and partially validated. COBRA-RERTR has been selected due to the available options, which are suitable for the analysis of research reactors which are operated at low temperatures, and which may use plate-type fuel elements and heavy water as the coolant. In addition to that, the code enables the consideration of cross-flow that is important in case of parallel and open coolant channel. The test of the code shows an overestimation of the wall temperature with an addition to some fluctuation from node to node. This results from the solution scheme that uses an explicit, non-iterative solution for heat conduction and heat transfer to the coolant. The code evaluation regarding the basic thermal hydraulic phenomena indicates the necessity to modify and extent the physical models deals with the estimation of slip ratio and simulation of void content in the sub-cooled boiling. The code has been validated by recalculation of special experiments on axial void distribution and thermal hydraulic instability in the subcooled boiling regime. The validation indicates significant improvement of the code in prediction the axial void distribution in subcooled boiling. The discrepancy between calculation and experiments was about 20% after the modification comparing to 100% in the original models. On the other hand the validation shows the capability of the modified code to stimulate thermal hydraulic flow instability characterized by the critical inlet flow velocity at which the flow just become unstable. This point is identical to the minimum in the integral pressure drop curve. The code results show, from the view point of reactor safety, conservative estimation since the predicted values of critical inlet velocity are higher than the experimental

  2. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek hydrogeologic regime at the Y-12 Plant, 1990: Data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This report is a detailed assessment of groundwater quality at several hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites are located in an area defined as the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes that have been defined at the Y-12 Plant in an effort to unify and coordinate site-specific monitoring activities for planning and reporting purposes. Section 2.0 contains background information regarding the monitored sites and a discussion of the program objectives. An overview of the complex hydrogeologic system in the BCHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1990 assessment data, a review of groundwater geochemistry and background water quality, detailed descriptions of groundwater contaminant plumes, and a discussion regarding the quality of groundwater and surface water exiting the BCHR are presented in Section 4.0. Findings of the 1990 assessment program are summarized in Section 5.0. Modification to the assessment monitoring program proposed for 1991 are in Section 6.0, and a list of references (Section 7.0) concludes the report. 20 refs., 23 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: Data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This report is a detailed assessment of groundwater quality at several hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites are located in an area defined as the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes that have been established at the Y-12 Plant in an effort to unify and coordinate site-specific monitoring activities for planning and reporting purposes. Section 2.0 contains background information and a discussion of the 1990 program objectives. An overview of the complex hydrogeologic system in the UEFPCHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1990 assessment data, a review of groundwater geochemistry and background water quality, detailed descriptions of groundwater contaminant plumes, and a discussion regarding the quality of groundwater exiting the UEFPCHR are presented in Section 4.0. Findings of the 1990 assessment program are summarized in Section 5.0. Modifications to the assessment monitoring program proposed for 1991 are presented in Section 6.0, and a list of references (Section 7.0) concludes the report. 20 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Regulatory activities related with the modification of the frequency of the programmed stoppings of the Argentine nuclear centrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, E.; Calvo, J.; Waldman, R.; Navarro, R.

    2006-01-01

    The mandatory character documentation of the Argentinean nuclear power stations in Embalse and Atucha I, required the realization of a programmed stoppings every twelve months to execute that settled down in the maintenance and surveillance programs for each installation. Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A., in it character of Responsible Entity of the operation of these power stations, requested to the Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority, in 2003 and 2005 respectively, the authorization to change the period of the repetitive tests and of the preventive maintenance of the systems related with the safety, to extend them from twelve to eighteen months. The mentioned applications were founded in economic aspects and in inclining to a decrease in the doses of the workers that perform in the activities that are carried out in the programmed stops. The adopted position by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority to decide on these applications was based on the result of diverse evaluations that included the use of the Probabilistic Analysis of Safety specific of each power station, the operative experience resultant of the execution of the preventive maintenance program, and of the results of the repetitive tests and of the inspections in service. The regulatory decisions were different in each case. Indeed, the Embalse nuclear power station was authorized by the Regulatory Authority to modify from twelve to eighteen months the period among the realization of the repetitive tests and of the preventive maintenance, conditioned to the execution of some specific regulatory requirements. On the other hand, the Atucha I nuclear power station was not authorized to modify this period. In this presentation that is detailed the acted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in both cases, the used analysis tools, and the foundation of the adopted decisions. (Author)

  5. Dietary intake modification in response to a participation in a resistance training program for sedentary older adults with prediabetes: findings from the Resist Diabetes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Tanya M; Davy, Brenda M; Clark, Adrienne G; Baugh, Mary Elizabeth; Hedrick, Valisa E; Marinik, Elaina L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, J; Winett, Sheila; Winett, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Engagement in one type of health behavior change may exert a "spillover" effect resulting in other behavior changes. Few studies have examined dietary intake following prolonged training, and none have evaluated spontaneous dietary changes beyond alterations in energy or macronutrient intake following initiation of strength/resistance training (RT). The purpose of this observational investigation was to determine if spontaneous dietary intake modifications occur in response to initiation of an RT program, among older adults. Previously sedentary adults with prediabetes (n=134, age=59±1 years) were enrolled in a supervised 12-week RT program. Participants were not given dietary advice or encouraged to change eating behaviors. Three non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks of RT. Reductions in intake of energy (1914±40 kcal vs. 1834±427 kcal, p=0.010), carbohydrate (211.6±4.9 g vs. 201.7±5.2 g, p=0.015), total sugar (87.4±2.7 g vs. 81.5±3.1 g, p=0.030), glycemic load (113.4±3.0 vs. 108.1±3.2, p=0.031), fruits and vegetables (4.6±0.2 servings vs. 4.1±0.2 servings, p=0.018), and sweets and desserts (1.1±0.07 servings vs. 0.89±0.07 servings, p=0.023) were detected over time. No changes in other dietary intake variables were observed. Mode of exercise and disease state may be important factors in determining whether dietary modifications occur with exercise initiation, among previously sedentary adults. Successful initiation of RT may represent an opportunity for health care professionals to promote beneficial changes in dietary habits, among older adults with prediabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Benefits of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise on albuminuria in diabetic and non-diabetic Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Kabasawa, Keiko; Hosojima, Michihiro; Yata, Yusuke; Saito, Mariko; Tanaka, Noriko; Tanaka, Junta; Tanabe, Naohito; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Saito, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Albuminuria is a biomarker for chronic kidney disease and an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. A recent meta-analysis concluded that these risks increase with urinary albumin concentration, even when below the microalbuminuria threshold. Thus, minimizing urinary albumin may be a valuable therapeutic goal regardless of disease status. We investigated the benefits and safety of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise for reducing albuminuria in 295 normoalbuminuric or microalbuminuric Japanese adults, including 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 104 with metabolic syndrome (MS), and 145 with hypertension (HT). In the study population, the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was reduced significantly (ΔUACR -3.8 ± 16.8 mg/g, P < 0.001) with no change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ΔeGFR -0.4 ± 7.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.343). The reduction in UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05). The UACR was also reduced in the T2DM, MS, and HT groups with no change in eGFR. Reduced UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose in the MS group and decreased systolic blood pressure in the HT group. The UACR was also reduced in 46 subjects using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with no change in eGFR. Our 12-week lifestyle modification program reduced UACR, maintained eGFR, and improved multiple fitness findings in Japanese subjects including T2DM, MS, and HT patients.

  7. Expectancies as core features of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Glombiewski, Julia A; Gollwitzer, Mario; Schubö, Anna; Schwarting, Rainer; Thorwart, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Expectancies are core features of mental disorders, and change in expectations is therefore one of the core mechanisms of treatment in psychiatry. We aim to improve our understanding of expectancies by summarizing factors that contribute to their development, persistence, and modification. We pay particular attention to the issue of persistence of expectancies despite experiences that contradict them. Based on recent research findings, we propose a new model for expectation persistence and expectation change. When expectations are established, effects are evident in neural and other biological systems, for example, via anticipatory reactions, different biological reactions to expected versus unexpected stimuli, etc. Psychological 'immunization' and 'assimilation', implicit self-confirming processes, and stability of biological processes help us to better understand why expectancies persist even in the presence of expectation violations. Learning theory, attentional processes, social influences, and biological determinants contribute to the development, persistence, and modification of expectancies. Psychological interventions should focus on optimizing expectation violation to achieve optimal treatment outcome and to avoid treatment failures.

  8. Spitting in the Ocean: Realistic Expectations of the Impact of Driver Alcohol Education and Rehabilitation Programs on the Problem of Drunk Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.

    Alcohol education and rehabilitation programs are widely accepted as an integral part of the enforcement of drunk driving laws; however, careful evaluations of these programs generally fail to show subsequent beneficial effects on traffic crashes. This fact is due in part to the many barriers to conducting sound program evaluations and in part to…

  9. The Planning, Licensing, Modifications, and Use of a Russian Vessel for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel by Sea in Support of the DOE RRRFR Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyacke, Michael; Bolshinsky, Igor; Tomczak, Wlodzimierz; Naletov, Sergey; Pichugin, Oleg

    2001-01-01

    The Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program, under the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, began returning Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia in January 2006. During the first years of making HEU SNF shipments, it became clear that the modes of transportation needed to be expanded from highway and railroad to include sea and air to meet the extremely aggressive commitment of completing the first series of shipments by the end of 2010. The first shipment using sea transport was made in October 2008 and used a non-Russian flagged vessel. The Russian government reluctantly allowed a one-time use of the foreign-owned vessel into their highly secured seaport, with the understanding that any future shipments would be made using a vessel owned and operated by a Russian company. ASPOL-Baltic of St. Petersburg, Russia, owns and operates a small fleet of vessels and has a history of shipping nuclear materials. ASPOL-Baltic's vessels were licensed for shipping nuclear materials; however, they were not licensed to transport SNF materials. After a thorough review of ASPOL Baltic's capabilities and detailed negotiations, it was agreed that a contract would be let with ASPOL-Baltic to license and refit their MCL Trader vessel for hauling SNF in support of the RRRFR Program. This effort was funded through a contract between the RRRFR Program, Idaho National Laboratory, and Radioactive Waste Management Plant of Swierk, Poland. This paper discusses planning, Russian and international maritime regulations and requirements, Russian authorities reviews and approvals, licensing, design, and modifications made to the vessel in preparation for SNF shipments. A brief summary of actual shipments using this vessel, experiences, and lessons learned also are described.

  10. The Planning, Licensing, Modifications, and Use of a Russian Vessel for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel by Sea in Support of the DOE RRRFR Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Wlodzimierz Tomczak; Sergey Naletov; Oleg Pichugin

    2001-10-01

    The Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program, under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative, began returning Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia in January 2006. During the first years of making HEU SNF shipments, it became clear that the modes of transportation needed to be expanded from highway and railroad to include sea and air to meet the extremely aggressive commitment of completing the first series of shipments by the end of 2010. The first shipment using sea transport was made in October 2008 and used a non-Russian flagged vessel. The Russian government reluctantly allowed a one-time use of the foreign-owned vessel into their highly secured seaport, with the understanding that any future shipments would be made using a vessel owned and operated by a Russian company. ASPOL-Baltic of St. Petersburg, Russia, owns and operates a small fleet of vessels and has a history of shipping nuclear materials. ASPOL-Baltic’s vessels were licensed for shipping nuclear materials; however, they were not licensed to transport SNF materials. After a thorough review of ASPOL Baltic’s capabilities and detailed negotiations, it was agreed that a contract would be let with ASPOL-Baltic to license and refit their MCL Trader vessel for hauling SNF in support of the RRRFR Program. This effort was funded through a contract between the RRRFR Program, Idaho National Laboratory, and Radioactive Waste Management Plant of Swierk, Poland. This paper discusses planning, Russian and international maritime regulations and requirements, Russian authorities’ reviews and approvals, licensing, design, and modifications made to the vessel in preparation for SNF shipments. A brief summary of actual shipments using this vessel, experiences, and lessons learned also are described.

  11. Online Coaching of Emotion-Regulation Strategies for Parents: Efficacy of the Online Rational Positive Parenting Program and Attention Bias Modification Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Oana A; Capris, David; Jarda, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Parenting programs are currently treatment of choice for behavioral disorders in children and one of their main components is reducing the negativity bias in the child-parent dyad. The Rational Positive Parenting Program (rPPP) is a program with a special focus on parent emotion-regulation functional reappraisal strategies, which has recently received consistent support for reducing child externalizing and internalizing disorders. In the last years, online interventions were proliferated and the Attention Bias Modification (ABM) becoming a promising implicit therapeutic intervention based on attention deployment emotion-regulation strategy, or adjunctive module to usual treatments, with results in multiple domains, varying from pain to self-esteem and emotional disorders (e.g., anxiety). We conducted two studies to investigate (1) the efficacy of the ABM procedures applied to parents and (2) the efficacy of the online version of the rPPP augmented with an ABM module. A total of 42 parents of children aged 2-12 years old participated in the first study, being allocated either to the ABM training or wait-list. Positive results were reported by the parents participating in the ABM group for own distress, satisfaction, positive interactions with the child, and child's strengths. In the second study, 53 parents and their children were allocated either in the rPPP group or in the rPPP + ABM group. Results show that ABM training can boost the effects of the rPPP on the strengths of children reported by the parents after the intervention. Findings are discussed in the light of limited research on using online tools for coaching effective emotion-regulation strategies for parents.

  12. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek hydrogeologic regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These sites lie in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant within the boundaries of the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring. The Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources. The annual GWQR for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, summarizes the status and findings of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  13. Exploring the expectations, needs and experiences of general practitioners and nurses towards a proactive and structured care program for frail older patients: a mixed-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valerie ten Dam; Mattijs Numans; Nienke Bleijenberg; Bas Steunenberg; Niek de Wit; Prof. Dr. Marieke J. Schuurmans; Irene Drubbel

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To report the expectations and experiences of general practitioners and practice nurses regarding the U-CARE programme, to gain a better understanding of the barriers and facilitators in providing proactive, structured care to frail older people and to determine whether implementation is

  14. Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Telomerase Gene Expression in Hypertensive Patients: A Pilot Trial of Stress Reduction and Health Education Programs in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Duraimani

    Full Text Available African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans.Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who participated in a larger randomized controlled trial volunteered for this substudy. These subjects participated in either stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation technique and a basic health education course (SR or an extensive health education program (EHE for 16 weeks. Primary outcomes were telomerase gene expression (hTERT and hTR and clinic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included lifestyle-related factors. Data were analyzed for within-group and between-group changes.Both groups showed increases in the two measures of telomerase gene expression, hTR mRNA levels (SR: p< 0.001; EHE: p< 0.001 and hTERT mRNA levels (SR: p = 0.055; EHE: p< 0.002. However, no statistically significant between-group changes were observed. Both groups showed reductions in systolic BP. Adjusted changes were SR = -5.7 mm Hg, p< 0.01; EHE = -9.0 mm Hg, p < 0.001 with no statistically significant difference between group difference. There was a significant reduction in diastolic BP in the EHE group (-5.3 mm Hg, p< 0.001 but not in SR (-1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.42; the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.04. The EHE group showed a greater number of changes in lifestyle behaviors.In this pilot trial, both stress reduction (Transcendental Meditation technique plus health education and extensive health education groups demonstrated increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP. The association between increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP observed in this high

  15. Use of net present value analysis to evaluate a publicly funded biomass-to-ethanol research, development, and demonstration program and valuate expected private sector participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1998-01-01

    One of the functions of government is to invest tax dollars in programs, projects, and properties that will result in greater public benefit than would have resulted from leaving the tax dollars in the private sector or using them to pay off the public debt. This paper describes the use of Net Present Value (NPV) as an approach to analyze and select investment opportunities for government money in public research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) programs and to evaluate potential private sector participation in the programs. This approach is then applied to a specific biomass-to-ethanol opportunity in California.

  16. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    My program examines the plant secondary metabolites (i.e. phenolics) important for human health, and which impart the organoleptic properties that are quality indicators for fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions; a...

  17. Prepare 2 Learn: A mathematics intervention program for students at risk in Years 3 to 6 designed to help them reach expected level and become confident, responsible, independent mathematics learners

    OpenAIRE

    BERNADETTE MARY LONG

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on an intervention, Prepare 2 Learn, designed taking into account research literature and components of other successful mathematics programs. The research targeted students approximately 6 months behind the expected mathematics level for their year. The intervention consisted of four key components: building prerequisite knowledge of mathematical language, concepts, and skills to prepare students for their classroom mathematics; increasing fluency with mental computation; ...

  18. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for the promotion of joint implementation etc. (Ryazanskaya thermal power station modification program); 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa Ryazanskaya karyoku hatsudensho kaishu keikaku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Under study is the modification of the four antiquated 300MW brown coal-fired power plants of the Ryanzanskaya thermal power station. Under the modification program, the plants will be burning a mixture of 60% coal and 40% natural gas for an increase in efficiency and for a great decrease in greenhouse gas emission. The amount of greenhouse gas emission of 6,858,592 tons/year before the modification will be reduced by 19.4% to 5,532,198 ton/year. The budget for the modification will call for 719,731,700 US dollars. EIRR (economical internal rate of return) is calculated based on the figures provided by the Russian office concerned about the current fuel cost and the current rates for the supply of electricity and heat. It is found that EIRR fluctuates depending on the ruble/dollar exchange rate. Although it does not pay at the current exchange rate, yet, when a US dollar is worth 13.0 rubles, an EIRR of 15% will realize at an availability factor of 70%. The same result is obtained when the availability factor is 80% and a US dollar is worth 14.8 rubles. There is a plan to fire the plants with 100% natural gas in the future. If the plan is implemented, a modification to incorporate gas turbine combined cycle will become feasible. (NEDO)

  19. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  20. Application of Sigma Metrics Analysis for the Assessment and Modification of Quality Control Program in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory of a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sahar; Mustansar, Tazeen

    2017-03-01

    Sigma is a metric that quantifies the performance of a process as a rate of Defects-Per-Million opportunities. In clinical laboratories, sigma metric analysis is used to assess the performance of laboratory process system. Sigma metric is also used as a quality management strategy for a laboratory process to improve the quality by addressing the errors after identification. The aim of this study is to evaluate the errors in quality control of analytical phase of laboratory system by sigma metric. For this purpose sigma metric analysis was done for analytes using the internal and external quality control as quality indicators. Results of sigma metric analysis were used to identify the gaps and need for modification in the strategy of laboratory quality control procedure. Sigma metric was calculated for quality control program of ten clinical chemistry analytes including glucose, chloride, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, albumin, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, protein and creatinine, at two control levels. To calculate the sigma metric imprecision and bias was calculated with internal and external quality control data, respectively. The minimum acceptable performance was considered as 3 sigma. Westgard sigma rules were applied to customize the quality control procedure. Sigma level was found acceptable (≥3) for glucose (L2), cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, direct bilirubin and creatinine at both levels of control. For rest of the analytes sigma metric was found control levels (8.8 and 8.0 at L2 and L3, respectively). We conclude that analytes with the sigma value quality control procedure. In this study application of sigma rules provided us the practical solution for improved and focused design of QC procedure.

  1. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  2. Effect of Combined Systematized Behavioral Modification Education Program With Desmopressin in Patients With Nocturia: A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, and Parallel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yong Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy of combining the systematized behavioral modification program (SBMP with desmopressin therapy and to compare this with desmopressin monotherapy in the treatment of nocturnal polyuria (NPU. Methods Patients were randomized at 8 centers to receive desmopressin monotherapy (group A or combination therapy, comprising desmopressin and the SBMP (group B. Nocturia was defined as an average of 2 or more nightly voids. The primary endpoint was a change in the mean number of nocturnal voids from baseline during the 3-month treatment period. The secondary endpoints were changes in the bladder diary parameters and questionnaires scores, and improvements in self-perception for nocturia. Results A total of 200 patients were screened and 76 were excluded from the study, because they failed the screening process. A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive treatment, with group A comprising 68 patients and group B comprising 56 patients. The patients' characteristics were similar between the groups. Nocturnal voids showed a greater decline in group B (-1.5 compared with group A (-1.2, a difference that was not statistically significant. Significant differences were observed between groups A and B with respect to the NPU index (0.37 vs. 0.29, P=0.028, the change in the maximal bladder capacity (-41.3 mL vs. 13.3 mL, P<0.001, and the rate of patients lost to follow up (10.3% [7/68] vs. 0% [0/56], P=0.016. Self-perception for nocturia significantly improved in both groups. Conclusions Combination treatment did not have any additional benefits in relation to reducing nocturnal voids in patients with NPU; however, combination therapy is helpful because it increases the maximal bladder capacity and decreases the NPI. Furthermore, combination therapy increased the persistence of desmopressin in patients with NPU.

  3. Endocrine surgery fellowship graduates past, present, and future: 8 years of early job market experiences and what program directors and trainees can expect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vikram D; Gutnick, Jesse; Slotcavage, Rachel; Jin, Judy; Berber, Eren; Siperstein, Allan; Shin, Joyce J

    2017-01-01

    Given the increasing number of endocrine surgery fellowship graduates, we investigated if expectations and job opportunities changed over time. American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AAES) fellowship graduates, surgery department chairs, and physician recruiters were surveyed. Univariate analysis was performed with JMP Pro 12 software. We identified 141 graduates from 2008-2015; survey response rate was 72% (n = 101). Compared to earlier graduates, fewer academic opportunities were available for the recent graduates who intended to join them (P = .001). Unlike earlier graduates, recent graduates expected to also perform elective general surgery, which ultimately represented a greater percentage of their practices (both P job offers decreased. Overall, 84% of graduates matched their intended practice type and 98% reported being satisfied. Reponses from graduates, department chairs, and physician recruiters highlighted opportunities to improve mentor involvement, job search strategies, and online job board utilization. The endocrine surgery job market has diversified resulting in more graduates entering nonacademic practices and performing general surgery. This rapid evolution supports future analyses of the job market and opportunities for job creation. Almost every graduate reported job satisfaction, which encourages graduates to consider joining both academic and nonacademic practices equally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expecting the unexpected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Heath, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    People who live in wildfire-prone communities tend to form their own hazard-related expectations, which may influence their willingness to prepare for a fire. Past research has already identified two important expectancy-based factors associated with people's intentions to prepare for a natural......) and measured actual rather than intended preparedness. In addition, we tested the relation between preparedness and two additional threat-related expectations: the expectation that one can rely on an official warning and the expectation of encountering obstacles (e.g., the loss of utilities) during a fire...

  5. Best Practice Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012) of maximum life......Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has...... expectancies at birth and age 65, for both sexes, using data from the Human Mortality Database and the United Nations. Conclusions: Generalized extreme value distributions offer a theoretically justified way to model best-practice life expectancies. Using this framework one can straightforwardly obtain...

  6. Meeting the expectations of chronic tinnitus patients: comparison of a structured group therapy program for tinnitus management with a problem-solving group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, K; Rief, W; Goebel, G

    1998-06-01

    Two different group treatments were evaluated in 144 in-patients suffering from impairment due to chronic tinnitus. A tinnitus management therapy (TMT) was developed using principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy and compared with problem solving group therapy. Self-ratings were used to evaluate the help patients found in dealing with life problems and tinnitus as well as the degree to which they felt they were being properly treated and taken seriously. Patients showed significantly more satisfaction with the TMT group and evaluated the help they found in coping with tinnitus and life problems significantly higher. Thus, in the light of unsatisfactory medical solutions and the poor acceptance of some psychological treatments for tinnitus, TMT appears to be an acceptable and helpful treatment program.

  7. Determining health expectancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robine, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jean-Marie Robine 9 1 Increase in Life Expectancy and Concentration of Ages at Death . . . . France Mesle´ and Jacques Vallin 13 2 Compression of Morbidity...

  8. Performance appraisal of expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russkikh G.A.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available this article provides basic concepts for teachers to estimate and reach planned students’ expectations, describes functions and elements of expectations; nature of external and internal estimate, technology to estimate the results, gives recommendations how to create diagnostic assignments.

  9. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations are generated with different degrees of certainty. Given distributions of expectedness ratings for multiple continuations of each context, as obtained with the probe-tone paradigm, this certainty can be quantified in terms of Shannon entropy. Because expectations arise from s...

  10. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchesini G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR, Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, obesity, lifestyle modification, cognitive behavior therapy

  11. Expectant Parent Classes: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, E. Rick

    1978-01-01

    Mental health problems among children resulting from poor parenting, a high neonatal death rate, and a low level of medical education in the county provided impetus for developing a primary prevention program--Expectant Parent Program. This article summarizes the development, content, staff, funding, and results of the program. (Author)

  12. More than a century of Grain for Green Program is expected to restore soil carbon stock on alpine grassland revealed by field {sup 13}C pulse labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Dongdong; Zhao, Liang [Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Yang, Xue [Department of Education of Qinghai Province, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Xu, Shixiao [Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Zhao, Xinquan, E-mail: xqzhao@nwipb.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 10041, Sichuan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Anthropogenic changes in land use/cover have altered the vegetation, soil, and carbon (C) cycling on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP) over the last ~ 50 years. As a result, the Grain for Green Program (GfGP) has been widely implemented over the last 10 years to mitigate the impacts of cultivation. To quantify the effects of the GfGP on C partitioning and turnover rates at the ecosystem scale, an in situ {sup 13}C pulse labeling experiment was conducted on natural and GfGP grasslands in an agro-pastoral ecotone in the Lake Qinghai region on the QTP. We found that there were significant differences in the C stocks of all the considered pools in both the natural and GfGP grasslands, with higher CO{sub 2} uptake rates in the GfGP grassland than that in the natural grassland. Partitioning of photoassimilate (% of recovered {sup 13}C) in C pools of both grasslands was similar 25 days after labeling, except in the roots of the 0–15 and 5–15 cm soil layer. Soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate in the GfGP grassland was 11.59 ± 1.89 g C m{sup −2} yr{sup −1} significantly greater than that in the natural grassland. The results confirmed that the GfGP is an efficient approach for grassland restoration and C sequestration. However, it will take more than a century (119.19 ± 20.26 yr) to restore the SOC stock from the current cropland baseline level to the approximate level of natural grassland. We suggest that additional measures are needed in the selection of suitable plant species for vegetation restoration, and in reasonable grazing management. - Highlights: • Grain for Green Project initiated in 1999 converts cropland to grassland/shrubland. • Impact of Grain for Green on carbon cycling on Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau is unknown. • Effects on carbon partitioning and turnover were accessed by {sup 13}CO{sub 2} pulse labeling. • Different mass of {sup 13}C in excess, similar {sup 13}C partitioning are shown in grasslands. • Soil organic carbon of

  13. More than a century of Grain for Green Program is expected to restore soil carbon stock on alpine grassland revealed by field "1"3C pulse labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Dongdong; Zhao, Liang; Yang, Xue; Xu, Shixiao; Zhao, Xinquan

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use/cover have altered the vegetation, soil, and carbon (C) cycling on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP) over the last ~ 50 years. As a result, the Grain for Green Program (GfGP) has been widely implemented over the last 10 years to mitigate the impacts of cultivation. To quantify the effects of the GfGP on C partitioning and turnover rates at the ecosystem scale, an in situ "1"3C pulse labeling experiment was conducted on natural and GfGP grasslands in an agro-pastoral ecotone in the Lake Qinghai region on the QTP. We found that there were significant differences in the C stocks of all the considered pools in both the natural and GfGP grasslands, with higher CO_2 uptake rates in the GfGP grassland than that in the natural grassland. Partitioning of photoassimilate (% of recovered "1"3C) in C pools of both grasslands was similar 25 days after labeling, except in the roots of the 0–15 and 5–15 cm soil layer. Soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate in the GfGP grassland was 11.59 ± 1.89 g C m"−"2 yr"−"1 significantly greater than that in the natural grassland. The results confirmed that the GfGP is an efficient approach for grassland restoration and C sequestration. However, it will take more than a century (119.19 ± 20.26 yr) to restore the SOC stock from the current cropland baseline level to the approximate level of natural grassland. We suggest that additional measures are needed in the selection of suitable plant species for vegetation restoration, and in reasonable grazing management. - Highlights: • Grain for Green Project initiated in 1999 converts cropland to grassland/shrubland. • Impact of Grain for Green on carbon cycling on Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau is unknown. • Effects on carbon partitioning and turnover were accessed by "1"3CO_2 pulse labeling. • Different mass of "1"3C in excess, similar "1"3C partitioning are shown in grasslands. • Soil organic carbon of cropland will be restored to natural

  14. Life expectancy and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    , we find that US states with higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease prior to the 1970s experienced greater increases in adult life expectancy and higher education enrollment. Our estimates suggest that a one-standard deviation higher treatment intensity is associated with an increase...... in adult life expectancy of 0.37 years and 0.07–0.15 more years of higher education....

  15. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  16. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  17. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Gas pipeline system optimization involving Ukrainian pipeline modification for reduction in global warming gas emissions; 1999 nendo ondanka gas haishutsu sakugen no tame no Ukraina ni okeru gas pipeline no kaishu wo fukumu pipeline system no saitekika chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The result of a survey which involves a 520km-long gas pipeline (Shebelinka-Dikanka-Kyiv) modification in the Ukraine is described, which will promote joint implementation programs under COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Since the greenhouse effect of methane gas is 21 times as serious as that of CO2, it is important to ensure good maintenance and structural soundness for natural gas transporting pipeline systems. The currently available Ukrainian gas turbines and compressors are so obsolescent that their efficiency rate is as low as 23%. The rate will rise to 36% when the old ones are replaced by high power equipment capable of high efficiency combustion. Pipelines will be checked for deterioration due to stress corrosion cracking and dangerous pipes will be replaced, with attention paid particularly to joint sections. It is expected that there will be a greenhouse gas reduction of 512,000 tons (in terms of CO2) and a saving of 103,000 tons on fuel (in terms of crude). Balance is tentatively estimated in case the expected reduction in emissions is transacted in emission trading. Profitability will occur, in view of profit from emission trading and gas sales revenue after gas leakage prevention thanks to project implementation, when the emission right sells at 30 dollars/ton or higher. The rippling effect will be great now that the Ukrainian pipeline system is quite extensive (with 30% thereof superannuated). (NEDO)

  18. Intra-family role expectations and reluctance to change identified as key barriers to expanding vegetable consumption patterns during interactive family-based program for Appalachian low-income food preparers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J Lynne; Wenrich, Tionni R

    2012-08-01

    Few Americans eat sufficient vegetables, especially the protective deep orange and dark green vegetables. To address this, a community-based wellness program to broaden vegetables served at evening meals targeting Appalachian food preparers and their families was tested in a randomized, controlled intervention. Food preparers (n=50) were predominately married (88%), white (98%), and female (94%), with several children living at home. Experimental food preparers (n=25) attended the program sessions and controls (n=25) were mailed relevant handouts and recipes. At program sessions, participants received nutrition information, hands-on cooking instruction, and prepared recipes to take home for family evaluation. As qualitative assessment, 10 couples from each treatment group (n=20 couples) were randomly selected for baseline and immediate post-intervention interviews to explore impact on the food preparer's family. These in-depth interviews with the food preparer and their adult partner were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers conducted thematic analysis using constant comparison. Family flexibility about food choices was assessed using roles, rules, and power concepts from Family Systems Theory. Interviews at baseline revealed dinner vegetable variety was very limited because food preparers served only what everyone liked (a role expectation) and deferred to male partner and children's narrow vegetable preferences (power). Control couples reported no change in vegetable dinner variety post-intervention. Most experimental couples reported in-home tasting and evaluation was worthwhile and somewhat broadened vegetables served at dinners. But the role expectation of serving only what everyone liked and the practice of honoring powerful family members' vegetable preferences remained major barriers to change. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute and long-term nutrient-led modifications of gene expression: potential role of SIRT1 as a central co-ordinator of short and longer-term programming of tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, Mark J; Caton, Paul W; Sugden, Mary C

    2010-05-01

    Environmental factors can influence the acute and longer-term risks of developing diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Increasing evidence suggests that these effects can be achieved by modification of metabolic gene expression. These include acute changes in histone methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination and longer-term DNA silencing elicited by DNA methylation. Thus, an increased risk of disease may reflect acute or chronic stable modification of genes that regulate nutrient handling, leading to altered nutrient utilization (increased lipid oxidation at the expense of glucose utilization) and/or changes in the balance between nutrient storage and energy production, thereby favoring the development of obesity. The review addresses the hypothesis that early-life epigenetic programming of gene expression could be mirrored by changes in acute function of nuclear receptors, in particular the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, achieved by enzymes that are more conventionally involved in regulating DNA methylation and post-transcriptional modification of histones. Emphasis is placed on the potential importance of the protein deacetylase sirtuin-1 as a central co-ordinator. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  1. Alcohol expectancies pre-and post-alcohol use disorder treatment: Clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jason M; Gullo, Matthew J; Feeney, Gerald F X; Young, Ross McD; Dingle, Genevieve A; Connor, Jason P

    2018-05-01

    Modification of elevated positive expectations of alcohol consumption (alcohol outcome expectancies; AOEs) is a key feature of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) approaches to Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Despite extensive research supporting the efficacy of CBT for AUD, few studies have examined AOE change. This study aimed to assess AOE change following completion of CBT for AUD and its association with drinking behaviour. One-hundred and seventy-five patients who completed a 12-week CBT program for AUD were administered the Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire (DEQ) at pre-treatment assessment and upon completion of treatment. Abstinence was achieved by 108 (61.7%) of completing patients. For patients who lapsed, the mean proportion of abstinent days was 93%. DEQ scales assessing expectations of positive alcohol effects on tension reduction, assertiveness, and cognitive enhancement were significantly lower post-treatment (pscale. Greater percentage of abstinent days over treatment was associated with lower pre-and post-treatment tension reduction expectancy scores (p<0.05). Drinking during treatment was associated with smaller changes in expectations of negative effects of alcohol on mood (p<0.05). Individuals who completed CBT treatment for AUD showed significant AOE change. Tension reduction and affective change expectancies may be particularly important for abstinence and useful markers of lapse risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance expectation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  3. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  4. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  5. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  6. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  7. Life Expectancy in 2040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; DuGoff, Eva H; Wu, Albert W.

    2016-01-01

    We use expert clinical and public health opinion to estimate likely changes in the prevention and treatment of important disease conditions and how they will affect future life expectancy. Focus groups were held including clinical and public health faculty with expertise in the six leading causes...

  8. Modification and co-option of leaf developmental programs for the acquisition of flat structures in monocots: Unifacial leaves in Juncus and cladodes in Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokuto eNakayama

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that modification and co-option of existing gene regulatory networks (GRNs play an important role in the morphological diversity. In plants, leaf development is one of active research areas, and the basic GRN for leaf development is beginning to be understood. Moreover, leaves show wide variation in their form, and some of this variation is thought to be the result of adaptation. Thus, leaves and leaf-like organs are an emerging and interesting model to reveal how existing GRNs give rise to novel forms and architectures during evolution. In this review, we highlight recent findings in Evo-Devo studies, especially on Juncus unifacial leaves, which are composed of lamina with abaxialized identities, and Asparagus cladodes, which are leaf-like organs at the axils of scale leaves. Based on these studies, we discuss how flat structures have evolved and morphologically diversified in shoot systems of monocot species, focusing on the modification and co-option of GRN for leaf development.

  9. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Centis, Elena; Marzocchi, Rebecca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Marchesini, Giulio

    2010-11-02

    Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.

  10. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations have long been quantified using expectedness ratings. Motivated by statistical learning and sharper key profiles in musicians, we model musical learning as a process of reducing the relative entropy between listeners' prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions...... of a given musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians are revisited. Exp. 1-2 used jazz, classical and hymn melodies. Exp. 3-5 collected ratings before and after exposure to 5, 15 or 400 novel melodies generated from...... a finite-state grammar using the Bohlen-Pierce scale. We find group differences in entropy corresponding to degree and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions by default, statistical...

  11. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative to...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  12. Expectancy Theory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    accomplish the task, (2) the instrumentality of task performance for job outcomes, and (3) the instrumentality of outcomes for need satisfaction . We...in this discussion: effort, performance , outcomes, and needs. In order to present briefly the conventional approach to the Vroom models, another...Presumably, this is the final event in the sequence of effort, performance , outcome, and need satisfaction . The actual research reported in expectancy

  13. A Multi-Session Attribution Modification Program for Children with Aggressive Behaviour: Changes in Attributions, Emotional Reaction Estimates, and Self-Reported Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P; Brouzos, Andreas; Andreou, Eleni

    2015-09-01

    Research suggests that aggressive children are prone to over-attribute hostile intentions to peers. The current study investigated whether this attributional style can be altered using a Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) procedure. A sample of 10-12-year-olds selected for displaying aggressive behaviours was trained over three sessions to endorse benign rather than hostile attributions in response to ambiguous social scenarios. Compared to a test-retest control group (n = 18), children receiving CBM-I (n = 16) were less likely to endorse hostile attributions and more likely to endorse benign attributions in response to a new set of ambiguous social situations. Furthermore, aggressive behaviour scores reduced more in the trained group than in the untrained controls. Children who received attribution training also reported less perceived anger and showed a trend to report more self-control than those in the control group. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Expectations from the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Atabek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transition from agricultural society to industry society, from industrial society to science society has taken place. In all these societies, expectations from children also vary. In the agricultural community, human labor is based on arm power. For this reason, expectation from children is to increase work power. Having more children is the basis for the expectations in this community to see that the boy is valuable because he has increased his work power. In the industrial society, the power of the arm changed its place with the machine power. The knowledgeable person is not a family grown-up but a foreman. Childhood was distinguished during this period. It has been investigated that the child has a separate development.  In the information society, communication and information has never been as fast as it is in this period.  The widespread use of the Internet, and the use of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter are in this period. In this society, families are panicked to prepare a future in their own heads for their children. Because the parents thought of their children, they decided about the child's life instead of the child making these decisions. This has had a negative impact on children's sense of autonomy and their ability to take responsibility. To change this, parents should train their children in auto control and develop children's impulse control skills. The children should be able to understand their emotions and make decisions by reasoning and reasoning.

  15. 2015 Edition Health Information Technology (Health IT) Certification Criteria, 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) Definition, and ONC Health IT Certification Program Modifications. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    This final rule finalizes a new edition of certification criteria (the 2015 Edition health IT certification criteria or "2015 Edition'') and a new 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) definition, while also modifying the ONC Health IT Certification Program to make it open and accessible to more types of health IT and health IT that supports various care and practice settings. The 2015 Edition establishes the capabilities and specifies the related standards and implementation specifications that Certified Electronic Health Record Technology (CEHRT) would need to include to, at a minimum, support the achievement of meaningful use by eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs (EHR Incentive Programs) when such edition is required for use under these programs.

  16. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    We construct and study the cross-sectional properties of survey-based bond risk premia and compare them to their traditional statistical counterparts. We document large heterogeneity in skill, identify top forecasters, and learn about the importance of subjective risk premia in long-term bonds...... dynamics. The consensus is not a sufficient statistics of the cross-section of expectations and we propose an alternative real-time aggregate measure of risk premia consistent with Friedmans market selection hypothesis. We then use this measure to evaluate structural models and find support...

  17. Referral expectations of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.L.; Altmaier, E.; Berberoglu, L.; Morris, K.

    1989-01-01

    The expectation of the referring physician are key to developing a successful practice in radiology. Structured interviews with 17 clinicians in both community care and academic practice documented that accuracy of the radiologic report was the single most important factor in clinician satisfaction. Data intercorrelation showed that accuracy of report correlated with frequency of referral (r = .49). Overall satisfaction of the referring physician with radiology correlated with accuracy (r = .69), patient satisfaction (r = .36), and efficiency in archiving (r = .42). These data may be weighted by departmental managers to allocate resources for improving referring physician satisfaction

  18. Agreeing on expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Bentsen, Martin Juul

    Commitment and trust are often mentioned as important aspects of creating a perception of reliability between counterparts. In the context of university-industry collaborations (UICs), agreeing on ambitions and expectations are adamant to achieving outcomes that are equally valuable to all parties...... involved. Despite this, our initial probing indicated that such covenants rarely exist. As such, this paper draws on project management theory and proposes the possibility of structuring assessments of potential partners before university-industry collaborations are brought to life. Our analysis suggests...

  19. Probability via expectation

    CERN Document Server

    Whittle, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This book is a complete revision of the earlier work Probability which ap­ peared in 1970. While revised so radically and incorporating so much new material as to amount to a new text, it preserves both the aim and the approach of the original. That aim was stated as the provision of a 'first text in probability, de­ manding a reasonable but not extensive knowledge of mathematics, and taking the reader to what one might describe as a good intermediate level'. In doing so it attempted to break away from stereotyped applications, and consider applications of a more novel and significant character. The particular novelty of the approach was that expectation was taken as the prime concept, and the concept of expectation axiomatized rather than that of a probability measure. In the preface to the original text of 1970 (reproduced below, together with that to the Russian edition of 1982) I listed what I saw as the advantages of the approach in as unlaboured a fashion as I could. I also took the view that the text...

  20. Gender Roles and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Eisenchlas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.

  1. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance expectations must align with and support the DHS mission and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans, and... organizational level; (2) Organizational, occupational, or other work requirements, such as standard operating...

  3. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  4. Customer experiences and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    Customer experiences and expectations from competition and cogeneration in the power industry were reviewed by Charles Morton, Director of Energy at CPC International, by describing Casco's decision to get into cogeneration in the early 1990s in three small corn milling plants in Cardinal, London and Port Colborne, Ontario, mainly as result of the threat of a 40 per cent increase in power prices. He stressed that cost competitiveness of cogeneration is entirely site-specific, but it is generally more attractive in larger facilities that operate 24 hours a day, where grid power is expensive or unreliable. Because it is reliable, cogeneration holds out the prospect of increased production-up time, as well as offering a hedge against higher energy costs, reducing the company's variable costs when incoming revenues fall short of costs, and providing an additional tool in head-to-head competition

  5. Dynamic decision making without expected utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jaffray, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Non-expected utility theories, such as rank dependent utility (RDU) theory, have been proposed as alternative models to EU theory in decision making under risk. These models do not share the separability property of expected utility theory. This implies that, in a decision tree, if the reduction...... maker’s discordant goals at the different decision nodes. Relative to the computations involved in the standard expected utility evaluation of a decision problem, the main computational increase is due to the identification of non-dominated strategies by linear programming. A simulation, using the rank...

  6. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  7. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung

    2014-01-01

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety

  8. Modeling the effect of temperature on thorium and nitric acid extraction and the formation of third phase for modification of the SEPHIS: Thorex computer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S.B.; Rainey, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    Mathematical models have been developed for use with the SEPHIS - Thorex code which correct for the effect of temperature on thorium and nitric acid extraction and which provide a signal to indicate the formation of a second organic phase. Experimental programs have provided data which have been analyzed and indicate that increasing temperature decreases the distribution coefficient of thorium. Also increasing the temperature increases the concentration of thorium in the organic phase at which the third phase is formed. 14 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    Based on individual expectations from the Survey of Professional Forecasters, we construct a realtime proxy for expected term premium changes on long-term bonds. We empirically investigate the relation of these bond term premium expectations with expectations about key macroeconomic variables as ...

  10. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  11. Medium Modifications of Hadrons in Photon Induced Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schadmand, S.

    2004-01-01

    Indications for in-medium modifications of hadron properties are reported from photoabsorption and meson production experiments. Strong medium modifications are observed in inclusive photoabsorption experiments and theoretical models investigate the in-medium dynamics of baryon resonances and their coupling to mesons. Recent experiments study the in-medium behavior of scalar and vector mesons where theoretical models expect in-medium modifications of the meson spectral functions that might be connected to partial restoration of chiral symmetry

  12. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  13. The management of modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the management methods of modifications at EDF. To maintain safety standards of the nuclear power station the 'Direction de l'Equipment' and the 'Direction du Parc en Exploitation' have jointly fixed the modalities of management for all modifications and recorded them in a 'Practical Guide'

  14. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  15. Expectations from ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, P.

    2008-01-01

    Prof. Patricia Fleming, centred her presentation on ethical expectations in regulating safety for future generations. The challenge is to find a just solution, one that provides for a defensible approach to inter-generational equity. The question on equity is about whether we are permitted to treat generations differently and to still meet the demands of justice. And the question must be asked regarding these differences: 'in what ways do they make a moral difference?' She asked the question regarding the exact meaning of the ethical principle 'Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that predicted impacts on the health of future generations will not be greater than relevant levels of impact that are acceptable today'. Some countries have proposed different standards for different time periods, either implicitly or explicitly. In doing so, have they preserved our standards of justice or have they abandoned them? Prof. Fleming identified six points to provide with some moral maps which might be used to negotiate our way to a just solution to the disposal of nuclear waste. (author)

  16. Perceptual grouping effects on cursor movement expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneich, Michael C; Hamblin, Christopher J; Lancaster, Jeff A; Olofinboba, Olu

    2014-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to develop an understanding of factors that drive user expectations when navigating between discrete elements on a display via a limited degree-of-freedom cursor control device. For the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle spacecraft, a free-floating cursor with a graphical user interface (GUI) would require an unachievable level of accuracy due to expected acceleration and vibration conditions during dynamic phases of flight. Therefore, Orion program proposed using a "caged" cursor to "jump" from one controllable element (node) on the GUI to another. However, nodes are not likely to be arranged on a rectilinear grid, and so movements between nodes are not obvious. Proximity between nodes, direction of nodes relative to each other, and context features may all contribute to user cursor movement expectations. In an initial study, we examined user expectations based on the nodes themselves. In a second study, we examined the effect of context features on user expectations. The studies established that perceptual grouping effects influence expectations to varying degrees. Based on these results, a simple rule set was developed to support users in building a straightforward mental model that closely matches their natural expectations for cursor movement. The results will help designers of display formats take advantage of the natural context-driven cursor movement expectations of users to reduce navigation errors, increase usability, and decrease access time. The rules set and guidelines tie theory to practice and can be applied in environments where vibration or acceleration are significant, including spacecraft, aircraft, and automobiles.

  17. Expectations from Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prof. A. Blowers observed that the social context within which radioactive waste management is considered has evolved over time. The early period where radioactive waste was a non-issue was succeeded by a period of intense conflict over solutions. The contemporary context is more consensual, in which solutions are sought that are both technically sound and socially acceptable. Among the major issues is that of inter-generational equity embraced in the question: how long can or should our responsibility to the future extend? He pointed out the differences in timescales. On the one hand, geo-scientific timescales are very long term, emphasizing the issue of how far into the future it is possible to make predictions about repository safety. By contrast, socio cultural timescales are much shorter, focusing on the foreseeable future of one or two generations and raising the issue of how far into the future we should be concerned. He listed. the primary expectations from society which are: safety and security to alleviate undue burdens to future generations and flexibility in order to enable the future generations to have a stake in decision making. The need to reconcile the two had led to a contemporary emphasis on phased geological disposal incorporating retrievability. However, the long timescales for implementation of disposal provided for sufficient flexibility without the need for retrievability. Future generations would inevitably have sold stake in decision making. Prof. A.. Blowers pointed out that society is also concerned with participation in decision making for implementation. The key elements for success are: openness and transparency, staged process, participation, partnership, benefits to enhance the well being of communities and a democratic framework for decision making, including the ratification of key decisions and the right for communities to withdraw from the process up to a predetermined point. This approach for decision making may also have

  18. Expected years ever married

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Mogi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the second half of the 20th century, remarkable marriage changes were seen: a great proportion of never married population, high average age at first marriage, and large variance in first marriage timing. Although it is theoretically possible to separate these three elements, disentangling them analytically remains a challenge. Objective: This study's goal is to answer the following questions: Which of the three effects, nonmarriage, delayed marriage, or expansion, has the most impact on nuptiality changes? How does the most influential factor differ by time periods, birth cohorts, and countries? Methods: To quantify nuptiality changes over time, we define the measure 'expected years ever married' (EYEM. We illustrate the use of EYEM, looking at time trends in 15 countries (six countries for cohort analysis and decompose these trends into three components: scale (the changes in the proportion of never married - nonmarriage, location (the changes in timing of first marriage - delayed marriage, and variance (the changes in the standard deviation of first marriage age - expansion. We used population counts by sex, age, and marital status from national statistical offices and the United Nations database. Results: Results show that delayed marriage is the most influential factor on period EYEM's changes, while nonmarriage has recently begun to contribute to the change in North and West Europe and Canada. Period and cohort analysis complement each other. Conclusions: This study introduces a new index of nuptiality and decomposes its change into the contribution of three components: scale, location, and variance. The decomposition steps presented here offer an open possibility for more elaborate parametric marriage models.

  19. Expectations from implementers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biurrun, E.; Zuidema, P.

    2008-01-01

    Enrique Biurrun (DBE) presented the expectations from the implementer. He explained that the implementer needs a framework to successfully develop a repository which means the definition of requirements and guidance (for repository system development, analysis, licences, etc.) as well as the decision-making process (stepwise approach, roles of different players, etc.). He also needs a reasonable stability of the regulatory system. The regulatory framework should be developed in a clear, reasonable and consistent manner. In the context of the long duration of the project (100 years) there will be technological progress. In that context E. Biurrun asked what is the meaning of best practice. How can one deal with judgmental issues in a step-wise approach? Regulatory criteria and guidance must deal with the repository system for which an iterative process is necessary where dialogue is needed with the regulator despite the need to maintain his independence. The safety case, which is a periodic documentation of the status of the project, must provide a synthesis of the underlying scientific understanding and evidence and becomes part of the design process through feedback. E. Biurrun pointed out that safety is not calculated or assessed, but designed and built into the repository system (by geological and engineered barriers). He stressed the importance of the operational aspects since the implementer has to build and operate the repository safely. He asked the question: is it 'Ethical' to buy 'peace of mind' of some stakeholders with casualties of the implementer's staff because of mining accidents if the repository is left open during a phase of reversibility. The implementer needs dependable criteria, legal security and investment security. He interpreted the 'Precautionary principle' as meaning 'do it now'. Long-lasting solutions are very uncertain. Will we heave the money and the technology to do it later? He made some reflections regarding the ethical need to

  20. Social gradient in life expectancy and health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Otto; Kjøller, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels.......Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels....

  1. ACHP | News | ACHP Issues Program Comment to Streamline Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Comment to Streamline Communication Facilities Construction and Modification ACHP Issues Program Comment to Streamline Communication Facilities Construction and Modification The Advisory Council on

  2. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and stiffness matrices) andaor modal parameters, in order to acquire some ... For the above reasons, another modification approach is presented here ... The data necessary to solve the direct problem are dynamic behaviour of the original.

  3. Evaluation of an osteoporosis and fall risk intervention program for community-dwelling elderly. A quasi-experimental study of behavioral modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte; Blomberg, Carina; Löfman, Owe; Timpka, Toomas; Möller, Margareta

    2006-06-01

    Osteoporosis and fall fractures are increasing problems amongst the elderly. The aim of this study was to explore whether combined population-based and individual interventions directed at risk factors for osteoporosis and falls result in behavioral changes in an elderly population. A quasi-experimental design was used for the study. Persons aged >or=65 years were randomly selected in the intervention and control community. An intervention program was managed from the primary health care center and delivered to the community. Health education was designed to increase awareness of risk factors for the development of osteoporosis and falling. Questionnaires about lifestyle, health, previous fractures, safety behavior and physical activity level were distributed at baseline in 1989 and at the follow-ups in 1992 and 1994 in both communities. There was a difference of 17.7% between the dual intervention (receiving both population-based and individual interventions) and the control samples regarding the self-reported use of shoe/cane spikes, and a difference of 20.5% regarding the reported "moderate level" of physical activity in 1994. There was an increase in the number of participants in the dual intervention sample who, at baseline, had not reported equipping their homes with non-slip mats and removing loose rugs but who did report these changes in 1994. The increase in the reported use of shoe/cane spikes in the dual intervention sample was observed mainly for the period 1992-1994. A public health intervention model, including both population-based and individual interventions, can contribute to behavioral changes in the prevention of falls and changed physical activity patterns amongst elderly people.

  4. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araú jo, Paula A.; Miller, Daniel J.; Correia, Patrí cia B.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kruithof, Joop C.; Freeman, Benny Dean; Paul, Donald; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2012-01-01

    surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g

  5. Modification of JRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    1978-01-01

    This report gives an outline of some of the main modifications carried out around the Reactor Core on the Research Reactor JRR-2, at the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. The JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Main modifications were a standing seal weld at the support ring to stop heavy water leakage, replacement of the reactor top shield and improvement of the helium system. The control-rod assemblies and the refueling devices were replaced by the newly designed ones also. In addition to the modification plan, the irradiated air exhaust system was improved to reduce radioactive argon gas release through the stack. Works were completed successfully in September 1975. But a light water leakage occurred at the stand pipe below the light water tank on November 11, 1975, which was repaired in about 4 months. When considering the operation of above 5,000 hours after the modification, however, the quality of the modification work may be said to be quite satisfactory. The present report in which works to the completion are described may be valuable as a record of reactor modification which is a new experience at JAERI. (auth.)

  6. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  7. Patient (customer) expectations in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Sedat; Acuner, Taner; Yilmaz, Gökhan

    2007-06-01

    The expectations of patient are one of the determining factors of healthcare service. The purpose of this study is to measure the Patients' Expectations, based on Patient's Rights. This study was done with Likert-Survey in Trabzon population. The analyses showed that the level of the expectations of the patient was high on the factor of receiving information and at an acceptable level on the other factors. Statistical meaningfulness was determined between age, sex, education, health insurance, and the income of the family and the expectations of the patients (pstudy, the current legal regulations have higher standards than the expectations of the patients. The reason that the satisfaction of the patients high level is interpreted due to the fact that the level of the expectation is low. It is suggested that the educational and public awareness studies on the patients' rights must be done in order to increase the expectations of the patients.

  8. Expectations about Expectations of the Public. Political Elections and the Segmentation of the Political Public

    OpenAIRE

    Kusche, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that expectations about particularistic expectations of the political public play in the relationship between political actors and voters. It questions the systems-theoretical assumption that political elections and public communication about politics create an unknown public and that parties therefore can attract voters only with the help of relatively universalistic programs. Beyond the universalism induced by the mass media parties and politicians utilize opp...

  9. 7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ecological and economic values to the United States. ... the program so long as the modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for... of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no additional cost to the...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.938 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... the term of this agreement and in the interest of achieving program objectives, the parties may agree... agreement. Any changes to this agreement will be accomplished by a written bilateral modification. [End of...

  11. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    as well as aggregate macroeconomic uncertainty at the level of individual forecasters. We find that expected term premia are (i) time-varying and reasonably persistent, (ii) strongly related to expectations about future output growth, and (iii) positively affected by uncertainty about future output growth...... and in ation rates. Expectations about real macroeconomic variables seem to matter more than expectations about nominal factors. Additional findings on term structure factors suggest that the level and slope factor capture information related to uncertainty about real and nominal macroeconomic prospects...

  12. A Weakest Pre-Expectation Semantics for Mixed-Sign Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Benjamin Lucien; Katoen, Joost-Pieter

    2017-01-01

    We present a weakest-precondition-style calculus for reasoning about the expected values (pre-expectations) of \\emph{mixed-sign unbounded} random variables after execution of a probabilistic program. The semantics of a while-loop is well-defined as the limit of iteratively applying a functional to a zero-element just as in the traditional weakest pre-expectation calculus, even though a standard least fixed point argument is not applicable in this context. A striking feature of our semantics i...

  13. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year.

  14. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year

  15. Modification of JRR-4 based on safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Hironobu; Nakajima, Teruo; Funayama, Yoshiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    Since the first criticality was achieved on January 28, 1965, JRR-4 has been operated safely until on January 12, 1996. The modification of JRR-4 was planned according to the framework of reduced enrichment on research reactor program. The modification was designed based on the several national safety guides. JRR-4 has some modifications of facilities to satisfy the guides and guides criteria. (author)

  16. Heterogeneous inflation expectations and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Carlos; Zafar, Basit

    2012-01-01

    Using the panel component of the Michigan Survey of Consumers, we estimate a learning model of inflation expectations, allowing for heterogeneous use of both private information and lifetime inflation experience. “Life-experience inflation” has a significant impact on individual expectations, but only for one-year-ahead inflation. Public information is substantially more relevant for longer-horizon expectations. Even controlling for life-experience inflation and public information, idiosyncra...

  17. Expectations on Track? High School Tracking and Adolescent Educational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of adaptation in expectation formation processes by analyzing how educational tracking in high schools affects adolescents' educational expectations. I argue that adolescents view track placement as a signal about their academic abilities and respond to it in terms...... of modifying their educational expectations. Applying a difference-in-differences approach to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that being placed in an advanced or honors class in high school positively affects adolescents’ expectations, particularly if placement is consistent across...... subjects and if placement contradicts tracking experiences in middle school. My findings support the hypothesis that adolescents adapt their educational expectations to ability signals sent by schools....

  18. Computer program modifications for lung microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Hadley, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    A lung model based on statistical studies of beagle dog lung microstructure was incorporated to describe the distributions of tissue, air space, and cell nuclei in pulmonary lung tissue was modified from basic to FORTRAN to shorten time and increase flexibility

  19. Treating Retentive Encopresis: Dietary Modification and Behavioral Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura; Morgan, Sam B.

    1995-01-01

    A home-based contingency management program, consisting of diet modification, laxatives, correction for soiling accidents, stimulus control training, and positive reinforcement, was implemented for treatment of a 4-year-old encopretic male. The findings provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of dietary modification combined with behavior…

  20. Expectation-based intelligent control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, Michail

    2006-01-01

    New dynamics paradigms-negative diffusion and terminal attractors-are introduced to control noise and chaos. The applied control forces are composed of expectations governed by the associated Fokker-Planck and Liouville equations. The approach is expanded to a general concept of intelligent control via expectations. Relevance to control in livings is emphasized and illustrated by neural nets with mirror neurons

  1. Decomposing change in life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas Romo, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    We extend Nathan Keyfitz's research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates...... in Sweden and Japan....

  2. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  3. Neural correlates of rhythmic expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore P. Zanto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal expectancy is thought to play a fundamental role in the perception of rhythm. This review summarizes recent studies that investigated rhythmic expectancy by recording neuroelectric activity with high temporal resolution during the presentation of rhythmic patterns. Prior event-related brain potential (ERP studies have uncovered auditory evoked responses that reflect detection of onsets, offsets, sustains,and abrupt changes in acoustic properties such as frequency, intensity, and spectrum, in addition to indexing higher-order processes such as auditory sensory memory and the violation of expectancy. In our studies of rhythmic expectancy, we measured emitted responses - a type of ERP that occurs when an expected event is omitted from a regular series of stimulus events - in simple rhythms with temporal structures typical of music. Our observations suggest that middle-latency gamma band (20-60 Hz activity (GBA plays an essential role in auditory rhythm processing. Evoked (phase-locked GBA occurs in the presence of physically presented auditory events and reflects the degree of accent. Induced (non-phase-locked GBA reflects temporally precise expectancies for strongly and weakly accented events in sound patterns. Thus far, these findings support theories of rhythm perception that posit temporal expectancies generated by active neural processes.

  4. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by characterization...

  5. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. Radiation modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial and radiation chemical processes of material modification based on cross-linking of polymers as a result of radiation are considered. Among them are production of cables and rods with irradiated modified insulation, production of hardened and thermo-shrinkaging polymer products (films, tubes, fashioned products), production of radiation cross-linked polyethylene foam, technology of radiation vulcanization of elastomers. Attention is paid to radiation plants on the basis of γ-sources and electron acceleratos as well as to radiation conditions

  7. Response of a veterinary college to career development needs identified in the KPMG LLP study and the executive summary of the Brakke study: a combined MBA/DVM program, business certificate program, and curricular modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2005-04-01

    marketing skills than that reported by males. As a result of these pressing needs, CSU CVMBS has undertaken a major initiative to improve the veterinary practice management and business skills training of veterinary students by offering a variety of options to gain this knowledge: a combined MBA/DVM degree program, a Business Certificate Program for Health Professions, and core curriculum courses. In this way, students can select the amount of focus they want to place on career development and business skills as they earn their DVM degree, to best ensure that they become successful veterinarians.

  8. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  9. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  10. Dialysis centers - what to expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys - dialysis centers; Dialysis - what to expect; Renal replacement therapy - dialysis centers; End-stage renal disease - dialysis ... to a tube that connects to the dialysis machine. Your blood will flow through the tube, into ...

  11. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  12. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home ... expectancy at birth, at 65, and 75 years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2016, table 15 [PDF – 9.8 MB] Life ...

  13. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  14. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  15. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  16. Behavior modification therapy in hyperactive children. Research and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, M L

    1979-09-01

    One hundred fifty-seven studies employing behavior modification in the management of hyperactive and disruptive children were reviewed. The studies were analyzed against standards of scientific validity. The review found: (1) behavior modification was effective in alleviating problem behaviors; (2) token programs were the most commonly used; (3) both positive reinforcement and punishment were effective; positive reinforcement, however, had the advantage of improving self-esteem; (4) behavioral problems occurring in the home most likely require a home-based program; (5) behavior modification and stimulant medication can be used simultaneously, often with additive effects; and (6) long-term benefits beyond one year have not been assessed.

  17. 5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance expectations will support and align with the mission and strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans, and other measures... performance targets at the individual, team, and/or organizational level; (2) Organizational, occupational, or...

  18. Biomaterials modification by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Yi Zhongzhen; Zhang Xu; Wu Yuguang

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam technology is one of best ways for the modification of biomaterials. The results of ion beam modification of biomaterials are given. The method and results of improved biocompatibility are indicated by ion beam technology. The future development of ion beam modification of biomaterials is discussed

  19. The Large Hadron Collider - Expectations and Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litov, Leandar

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Colider (LHC) is the biggest particle accelerator in the world designed to accelerate protons and heavy ions to extremely high energies. The four detector complexes installed around the beam crossing points, are expected to shed light on some of the more fundamental questions about our Universe ever asked--what are the fundamental constituents of the matter, what are the forces controlling their behavior and what is the structure of the space-time. In November, the LHC will be restarted and the detector complexes are expected to commence taking the first collision data. The physical motivation for the LHC experimental program and some open questions of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions (SM) are discussed. Special attention is paid to observation of signatures for physics beyond the SM and the discovery potential of the LHC experiments is commented. One of the two general-purpose detector complexes (CMS, the Compact Muon Solenoid) is described briefly.

  20. Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

  1. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  2. Consumer's inflation expectations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ormonde Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates what are the main components of consumer's inflation expectations. We combine the FGV's Consumer Survey with the indices of inflation (IPCA and government regulated prices, professional forecasts disclosed in the Focus report, and media data which we crawl from one of the biggest and most important Brazilian newspapers, Folha de São Paulo, to determine what factors are responsible for and improve consumer's forecast accuracy. We found gender, age and city of residence as major elements when analyzing micro-data. Aggregate data shows the past inflation as an important trigger in the formation of consumers' expectations and professional forecasts as negligible. Moreover, the media plays a significant role, accounting not only for the expectations' formation but for a better understanding of actual inflation as well.

  3. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  5. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  6. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  7. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  8. In medium modification of nucleon electromagnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, F.; Rakhimov, A.; Yakhsiev, U.

    1997-01-01

    Since nucleons are composite objects, their internal structure is expected to be changed by nuclear environment. A Skyrme like Lagrangian is proposed to consider such effects, namely the modification of electromagnetic (EM) properties of the nucleon. The static properties and EM form factors were obtained. It was shown that the charge radius of the nucleon increased in medium and the mass and axial coupling constant are reduced. The enhancement of magnetic moment of proton is smaller than that obtained in non-topological soliton model.Obtained results may be useful in electron nucleus scattering analysis.(A.A.D.)

  9. Ethical issues and societal expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlay, D.

    2010-01-01

    Daniel Metlay (NWTRB) declared that institutions had always recognised an ethical obligation to manage high- level radioactive waste in unprecedented ways. This obligation has not only endured, but has become more explicit and multidimensional and it now subsumed under a more general rubric of 'societal expectations'. D. Metlay directed attention toward the proceedings of previous RWMC-RF workshop ', which contains five essays, authored by Kjell Andersson, Andrew Blowers, Carl-Reinhold Braakenhielm, Francois Dermange, and Patricia Fleming, that are relevant to the question of ethical issues and societal expectations. D. Metlay observed that 'societal expectations' are hard to define and thus very hard to measure. They may vary considerably with time and from country to country. As an illustration he referred to an inquiry performed by a task group 30 years ago in a document entitled 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management' (NUREG-0300) on behalf of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Conclusions from D. Metlay are that, for the most part, societal expectations in the United States appear to be quite stable over a period of more than 30 years. In two areas, however, there are clear differences in emphasis between expectations articulated in the last few years and those recorded in 1978. (1) While then there was emphasis on the operational reliability of organisations and institutions. In particular, much care was taken to discuss the inherent limitations on bureaucratic error-correction in the future. The focus is nowadays more on bureaucratic behaviours associated with carrying out decision-making processes in the present. (2) While there is current emphasis on the importance of trust, transparency, and accountability, the NRC document may cast some doubt on the reliability of a stepwise decision-making process. In the domain of radioactive waste management, error signals are notoriously unclear, and strong disagreements over objectives and value trade

  10. Enzymatic Modification of Sphingomyelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due to its major role in maintaining the water-retaining properties of the epidermis, ceramide is of great commercial potential in cosmetic and pharmaceuticals such as hair and skin care products. Currently, chemical synthesis of ceramide is a costly process, and developments of alternative cost......-efficient, high yield production methods are of great interest. In the present study, the potential of producing ceramide through the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingomyelin have been studied. sphingomyelin is a ubiquitous membrane-lipid and rich in dairy products or by-products. It has been verified...... that sphingomyelin modification gives a feasible approach to the potential production of ceramide. The reaction system has been improved through system evaluation and the optimization of several important factors, and phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens shows higher activity towards the hydrolysis reaction...

  11. Setting clear expectations for safety basis development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORENO, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    DOE-RL has set clear expectations for a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule) which will ensure long-term benefit to Hanford. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development resulting in a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was issued to standardized methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was issued for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated for Hanford. A standard Site Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) detailing the safety management programs was issued for use as a means of compliance with a majority of 3009 Standard chapters. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. As a result of setting expectations and providing safety analysis tools, the four Hanford Site waste management nuclear facilities were able to integrate into one Master Waste Management Documented Safety Analysis (WM-DSA)

  12. Forecasting Spanish natural life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Montserrat; Vidiella-i-Anguera, Antoni

    2005-10-01

    Knowledge of trends in life expectancy is of major importance for policy planning. It is also a key indicator for assessing future development of life insurance products, substantiality of existing retirement schemes, and long-term care for the elderly. This article examines the feasibility of decomposing age-gender-specific accidental and natural mortality rates. We study this decomposition by using the Lee and Carter model. In particular, we fit the Poisson log-bilinear version of this model proposed by Wilmoth and Brouhns et al. to historical (1975-1998) Spanish mortality rates. In addition, by using the model introduced by Wilmoth and Valkonen we analyze mortality-gender differentials for accidental and natural rates. We present aggregated life expectancy forecasts compared with those constructed using nondecomposed mortality rates.

  13. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented...... and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...

  14. Identifying, meeting, and assessing customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danner, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining proficiency in carrying out mission goals is fundamental to the success of any organization. The definitive mission of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is open-quotes to conduct waste management activities in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient mannerclose quotes. In order to effectively fulfill this mission, must meet or exceed several standards in respect to our customers. These include: (1) identifying current and future customer expectations; (2) managing our relationships with our customers; (3) ensuring our commitment to our customers; and (4) measuring our success m customer satisfaction. Our customers have a great variety of requirements and expectations. Many of these are in the form of local, state, and federal regulations and environmental standards. Others are brought to our attention through inquires made to the Department of Energy (DOE).Consumer surveys have proven to be effective tools which have been used to make improvements, enhance certain program elements, and identify beneficial areas in already existing programs. In addition, national working groups, technology transfer meetings, and manager/contractor's meeting offer excellent opportunities to assess our activities

  15. FRANCHISE EXPECTATIONS: CASE OF KAZAKHSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Raissa Kaziyeva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to provide a critical review of franchising development in Kazakhstan by focusing on the relationship between the franchisor and the franchisee. We have conducted extensive research and communicated with lots of potential and existing Kazakhstani franchisors and franchisees, operating since 2003. Our findings show that the process of signing franchising agreements is quite challenging in Kazakhstan.  Thorough investigation of the differences between expectations ...

  16. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  17. Life Expectancy of Brazilian Neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Jardim Miranda, Bárbara Cristina; Nishikuni, Koshiro; Waisberg, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy (LE) refers to the number of years that an individual is expected to survive. Emphasis is frequently placed on the relationship between LE and the conditions under which a population lives, but fewer studies have investigated the relationship between stress factors associated with specific professions and their effects on LE. The aim of this study is to evaluate Brazilian neurosurgeons' life expectancies (BNLEs) and compare them with those of physicians (both Brazilian and foreign) from other fields, as well as with Brazilian nondoctors. The Brazilian Society of Neurosurgery death registry was used to obtain data that compared LEs from non-neurosurgeon physicians, as described in the national and international literature. BNLEs were also compared with the LEs of Brazilian citizens. Fifty-one neurosurgeons died between 2009 and 2016. All were males. The mean age at death was 68.31 ± 17.71 years. Among all-cause mortality, the breakdown was 20% cardiovascular diseases, 39% malignancies, 10% external factors, 6% gastrointestinal disorders, 12% neurologic illnesses, and 14% unknown causes. BNLE was shorter than LE of male Brazilian citizens. LE was similar among neurosurgeons and other doctors but shorter compared with Brazilian citizens. Further research is needed to provide data that can add to and confirm these results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  19. Price expectations and petroleum development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollio, G.; Marian, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    In the first section of this paper, the authors present a highly stylized model of the world oil market that explicitly incorporates both expectative and financial effects. The model generates the extremely interesting result that actual future price outcomes are inversely related to prevailing price expectations, owing to fluctuation in the level and timing of industry investment expenditure. Given the importance of price expectations, it is surprising that the topic has received such scant attention. The authors therefore present in the second section of selective survey of the various measures that have been proposed and used in the literature, as well as an assessment of the value of potentially new indices and market prices for existing hydrocarbon reserves, for example. In the final section of the paper, we discuss the extent to which financial innovation, in the form of commodity-linked products-such as swaps, caps, collars, and so forth-are transforming the oil market, enabling all market segments to manage price uncertainty far more effectively than was ever possible in the past

  20. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer

  1. The Human Factors Engineering in Process Design Modifications CNAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foronda Delgado, A.; Almeida Parra, P.; Bote Moreno, J.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the process followed at the Almaraz and Trillo Nuclear Power Plants in order to integrate Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in the Design Modifications. This includes the applicable rules and regulations, the classification criteria used to categorize the modification, the activities that are to be carried out in each case, as well as recent examples where the full HFE program model was applied at Almaraz (Alternate Shutdown Panel) and Trillo (Primary Bleed and Feed).

  2. What to expect from Obamacare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall it appears that the ACA will have minimal impact on its goals of expanding care to the poor, reducing costs or improving care for the foreseeable future. It will likely continue to cost shift reimbursement away from physicians while costs continue to rise. Almost certainly it will be entangled in political bickering, eligibility challenges and lawsuits reducing many of the benefits of the law. However, we can probably be assured that CMS will continue to rely on inaccurately reported data, quickly declare their programs successful and stay their course, despite the programs doing little to nothing for patients. When their programs focus on outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, length of stay and readmission rates, real progress can be made in improving patient care rather than “spinning” dubious results.

  3. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  4. Expectation values in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop new methods for calculating expectation values of field operators, in situations where particle creation is important. The goal is to apply these techniques to quantum gravity, to see if the initial singularity in the universe might be avoided in the quantum theory. Standard effective action theory is modified to produce effective field equations satisfied by the expectation value of the field in an in state, as opposed to the usual in-out amplitude. Diagrammatic rules are found for calculation of the new field equations, and are used to show that the equations are real and causal up to two loop order. The theory also provides a simple check of unitarity, which is carried out, again up to two loops. Just as the standard effective field equations can be derived by analytic continuation from a theory defined in Euclidean space, so can the modified equations be obtained from a modified contour rotation of the Euclidean theory. This result is used to prove a recent conjecture which yields a simple rule for finding the real, causal equations. The new formalism is applied to two gravitational systems. First, the stability of flat space time is studied by finding the equation satisfied by small perturbations of Minkowski space

  5. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  6. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S; Taylor, K

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  7. When expectation confounds iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Talis; Aru, Jaan

    2016-10-01

    In response to the methodological criticism (Bachmann & Aru, 2015) of the interpretation of their earlier experimental results (Mack, Erol, & Clarke, 2015) Mack, Erol, Clarke, and Bert (2016) presented new results that they interpret again in favor of the stance that an attention-free phenomenal iconic store does not exist. Here we once more question their conclusions. When their subjects were unexpectedly asked to report the letters instead of the post-cued circles in the 101th trial where letters were actually absent, they likely failed to see the empty display area because prior experience with letters in the preceding trials produced expectancy based illusory experience of letter-like objects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Great expectations: large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on wind turbine product development, and traces the background to wind turbines from the first generation 1.5 MW machines in 1995-6, plans for the second generation 3-5 MW class turbines to meet the expected boom in offshore wind projects, to the anticipated installation of a 4.5 MW turbine, and offshore wind projects planned for 2000-2002. The switch by the market leader Vestas to variable speed operation in 2000, the new product development and marketing strategy taken by the German Pro + Pro consultancy in their design of a 1.5 MW variable speed pitch control concept, the possible limiting of the size of turbines due to logistical difficulties, opportunities offered by air ships for large turbines, and the commissioning of offshore wind farms are discussed. Details of some 2-5 MW offshore wind turbine design specifications are tabulated

  9. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max

    2010-01-01

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

  10. Will energy crop yields meet expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Stephanie Y.; Malins, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations are high for energy crops. Government policies in the United States and Europe are increasingly supporting biofuel and heat and power from cellulose, and biomass is touted as a partial solution to energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation. Here, we review the literature for yields of 5 major potential energy crops: Miscanthus spp., Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), and Eucalyptus spp. Very high yields have been achieved for each of these types of energy crops, up to 40 t ha −1  y −1 in small, intensively managed trials. But yields are significantly lower in semi-commercial scale trials, due to biomass losses with drying, harvesting inefficiency under real world conditions, and edge effects in small plots. To avoid competition with food, energy crops should be grown on non-agricultural land, which also lowers yields. While there is potential for yield improvement for each of these crops through further research and breeding programs, for several reasons the rate of yield increase is likely to be slower than historically has been achieved for cereals; these include relatively low investment, long breeding periods, low yield response of perennial grasses to fertilizer, and inapplicability of manipulating the harvest index. Miscanthus × giganteus faces particular challenges as it is a sterile hybrid. Moderate and realistic expectations for the current and future performance of energy crops are vital to understanding the likely cost and the potential of large-scale production. - Highlights: • This review covers Miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar, willow, and Eucalyptus. • High yields of energy crops are typically from small experimental plots. • Field scale yields are lower due to real world harvesting losses and edge effects. • The potential for yield improvement of energy crops is relatively limited. • Expectations must be realistic for successful policies and commercial production

  11. Expectations and Experiences of Information Literacy Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saga Pohjola-Ahlin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2016, 48 third semester undergraduate students enrolled in the physiotherapy program at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden were given three sets of questionnaires; before the information literacy instruction (ILI started, at the end of the first session, and a week after, at the end of the second and last session. The aim of this small-scale pilot study was to shed some light on students’ motivation to attend ILI, how they value the sessions afterwards and how they assess their learning outcome. Furthermore, it was an attempt to do a "students’ user experience study” in a pedagogical setting, with the intention to evaluate and improve teaching in ILI to meet student expectations. The average response rate for the three questionnaires was 92%. The results show that students’ expectations were similar to the actual content of ILI, and that the students were satisfied with their own learning outcome. Both motivation and the sense of relevance got higher scores after students attended ILI. Motivation rose from 7,4 to 8,12 out of 10. This is positive because a high level of motivation often improves the learning outcome (Schunk, 2012. When asked which areas most needed improvement in order to further enhance their learning outcome, the most common responses were “the pedagogy” and “my own achievement”. It would be interesting to start collaborating with a group of students in order to explore new methods and learning activities.

  12. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  13. Program auto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Plagnol, E.

    1990-01-01

    The program AUTO was developed to be used in the analysis of dE vs E type spectra. This program is written in FORTRAN and calculates dE vs E lines in MeV. The provision is also made in the program to convert these lines from MeV to ADC channel numbers to facilitate the comparison with the raw data from the experiments. Currently the output of this program can be plotted with the display program, called VISU, but it can also be used independent of the program VISU, with little or no modification in the actual fortran code. The program AUTO has many useful applications. In this article the program AUTO is described along with its applications

  14. Educational Expectations and Media Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Missomelius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates themedia-supported educational resources that arecurrently under discussion, such as OERs and MOOCs. Considering the discursive connection between these formats, which is couched in terms of educational freedom and openness, the article’sthesis is that these are expectations which are placed on the media technologies themselves, andthen transferred to learning scenarios. To this end, the article will pursue such questions as: What are the learners, learning materials and learning scenarios allegedly free from or free for? What obstructive configurations should be omitted? To what extent are these characteristics which are of a nature to guaranteelearning processes in the context of lifelong learning or can these characteristics better be attributed to the media technologies themselves and the ways in which they are used? What advantages or new accentuations are promised by proponents of theeducation supplied by media technology? Which discourses provide sustenance for such implied “post-typographic educational ideals” (Giesecke 2001 and Lemke 1998? The importance to learners, teachers and decision-makers at educational institutions of being well informed as far as media is concerned is becoming increasingly apparent.

  15. CMS: Beyond all possible expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After having retraced the entire Standard Model up to the Top, the CMS collaboration is ready to go further and continue the success of what Guido Tonelli – its spokesperson – defines as a ‘magic year’. Things evolve fast at CMS, but scientists have taken up the challenge and are ready for the future.   ‘Enthusiasm’ is the word that best describes the feeling one gets when talking to Guido Tonelli. “In just a few months we have rediscovered the Standard Model and have gone even further by producing new results for cross-sections, placing new limits on the creation of heavy masses, making studies on the excited states of quarks, and seeking new resonances. We could not have expected so much such a short space of time. It’s fantastic”, he says. “We went through the learning phase very smoothly. Our detector was very quickly ready to do real physics and we were able to start to produce results almost ...

  16. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Plan for modification of Turkmenbashi cogeneration power plant; 1999 nendo Turkmenbashi netsuheikyu hatsudensho kaishu keikaku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project aims to carry out the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) protocol. With help of the most advanced technologies, the facilities of the above-named Turkmenian plant will be replaced by high efficiency gas turbine combined cycle power generation facilities for an increase in output (Block-1 to 220MW first and then Block-2 to 330MW 11 years later). For the 35 years following the modification, fuel consumption will be reduced by 734,632TJ or 17.24-million tons in terms of oil at a reduction rate of 42.79% and, as for greenhouse gas, CO2 gas will be reduced by 41.21-million tons at a reduction rate of 42.79%. This project and associated construction work demands 335,850-thousand US dollars in total. As for cost performance under these conditions, energy 0.051 tons in terms of oil and 0.1227 tons of greenhouse gas will be reduced for every dollar expended for modification. The FIRR (financial internal rate of return) is calculated on the basis of data collected at the site. In the absence of emission tradings over the reduced amount of CO2, FIRR is 2.51%, and, at this level, the project will be barely feasible in the presence of soft loans from, for example, the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. (NEDO)

  17. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study shows that as many as half of the matrix ... the dynamicist's analytical modelling skill which would appear both in the numerator as. Figure 2. ..... Brandon J A 1990 Strategies for structural dynamic modification (New York: John Wiley).

  18. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  19. Expectations of millennial nurse graduates transitioning into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Diane Randall

    2013-01-01

    Identified as Millennials, nurses born after 1980 are anticipated to redefine the employer-employee relationship as one based on the employee's wants and needs. The purpose of this study is to portray the expectations of Millennial student nurses immediately before graduation. Understanding these expectations may provide insight for leaders who are responsible for crafting a successful transition experience. Successful transition and decreased turnover are important elements of cost management for the nursing enterprise. A qualitative descriptive design was used to collect data from 14 students enrolled in a traditional BSN academic nursing program approximately 2 months prior to graduation. Upon completion of private, confidential semistructured interviews, data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed. Demographic data were compiled and interview data summarized according to identified themes. Three overarching themes emerged: the expectation that transition would be stressful, the expectation that there would be a safety net of support, and the expectation to be valued and respected as a professional. Revealing was the expectation of supportive relationships and a collaborative approach to patient care. Failure to meet those expectations may result in turnover as Millennials seek opportunities that meet their expectations.

  20. Standard approach to plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecredy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Organizational and management approaches to the design, installation, and turnover of nuclear plant modifications have changed dramatically in the last 10 to 15 yr. In response to these changes, organizational and individual responsibilities have been defined and management systems have been established at Rochester Gas and Electric (RG and E) Corporation to ensure that high-quality plant modifications are installed in a timely manner that satisfies user needs at minimal cost

  1. Response Expectancy and the Placebo Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, I review basic tenets of response expectancy theory (Kirsch, 1985), beginning with the important distinction between response expectancies and stimulus expectancies. Although both can affect experience, the effects of response expectancies are stronger and more resistant to extinction than those of stimulus expectancies. Further, response expectancies are especially important to understanding placebo effects. The response expectancy framework is consistent with and has been amplified by the Bayesian model of predictive coding. Clinical implications of these phenomena are exemplified. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An approach to nuclear plant design and modification support for Russian-designed plants in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidi, J.; Akins, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    projects and providing plant personnel the continuity of assistance necessary to gain sufficient experience in these areas. It further helps assure that the plant's expectations for modifications are met. The Project Management Consultant would establish a modification planning and scheduling protocol for use by plant management on all tasks. The Consultant would focus on development of the modification package process from the problem definition phase through detailed design to the new as-built documentation phase. Additionally, the Consultant would work with the plant staff to develop those managerial programs required to support the modification package process. At project completion, plant management would have these new processes in place and the experience of working with these processes on all plant equipment changes performed during the period, enabling them to work effectively within traditional Western-style contracting schemes.(author)

  3. Macroeconomic Expectations of Households and Professional Forecasters

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher D Carroll

    2002-01-01

    Economists have long emphasized the importance of expectations in determining macroeconomic outcomes Yet there has been almost no recent effort to model actual empirical expectations data; instead macroeconomists usually simply assume expectations are rational This paper shows that while empirical household expectations are not rational in the usual sense expectational dynamics are well captured by a model in which households' views derive from news reports of the views of professional foreca...

  4. Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burska, Agata N.; Hunt, Laura; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J.; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G.; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

  5. Surface modification of metals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation in metals has attracted the attention as a useful technology for the formation of new metastable alloys and compounds in metal surface layers without thermal equilibrium. Current studies of metal surface modification by ion implantation with high fluences have expanded from basic research areas and to industrial applications for the improvement of life time of tools. Many results suggest that the high fluence implantation produces the new surface layers with un-expected microscopic characteristics and macroscopic properties due to implant particles, radiation damage, sputtering, and knock-on doping. In this report, the composition, structure and chemical bonding state in surface layers of iron, iron-based alloy and aluminum sheets implanted with high fluences have been investigated by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tribological properties such as hardness, friction and wear are introduced. (author)

  6. Evolving expectations from international organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Lopez, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author stated that implementation of the geological disposal concept requires a strategy that provides national decision makers with sufficient confidence in the level of long-term safety and protection ultimately achieved. The concept of protection against harm has a broader meaning than radiological protection in terms of risk and dose. It includes the protection of the environment and socio-economic interests of communities. She recognised that a number of countries have established regulatory criteria already, and others are now discussing what constitutes a proper regulatory test and suitable time frame for judging the safety of long-term disposal. Each regulatory programme seeks to define reasonable tests of repository performance, using protection criteria and safety approaches consistent with the culture, values and expectations of the citizens of the country concerned. This means that there are differences in how protection and safety are addressed in national approaches to regulation and in the bases used for that. However, as was recognised in the Cordoba Workshop, it would be important to reach a minimum level of consistency and be able to explain the differences. C. Ruiz-Lopez presented an overview of the development of international guidance from ICRP, IAEA and NEA from the Cordoba workshop up to now, and positions of independent National Advisory Bodies. The evolution of these guidelines over time demonstrates an evolving understanding of long-term implications, with the recognition that dose and risk constraints should not be seen as measures of detriment beyond a few hundred years, the emphasis on sound engineering practices, and the introduction of new concepts and approaches which take into account social and economical aspects (e.g. constrained optimisation, BAT, managerial principles). In its new recommendations, ICRP (draft 2006) recognizes. in particular, that decision making processes may depend on other societal concerns and considers

  7. Heavy flavored jet modification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084335

    2016-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets (from charm and bottom quarks) in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013. Finally, we also will present a proposal for c-jet tagging methodology to be used for the upcoming hi...

  8. Vocational reintegration following spinal cord injury: expectations, participation and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönherr, M C; Groothoff, J W; Mulder, G A; Schoppen, T; Eisma, W H

    2004-03-01

    Survey. To explore the process of reintegration in paid work following a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), including the role of early expectations of individual patients regarding return to work, indicators of success of job reintegration and a description of reintegration interventions and barriers. Dutch rehabilitation centre with special department for patients with spinal cord injuries. Descriptive analysis of data gathered by a mailed questionnaire, which was returned by 57 persons (response 83%) with traumatic SCI, aged 18-60 years, and data of earlier expectations reported by the individual patients during the rehabilitation admission following SCI from 1990 to 1998. Of 49 respondents who were employed at the moment of the SCI, 45% expected to be able to resume work. These positive expectations were associated with a higher educational level. In 67%, return to work was successful. The chance to reintegrate successfully was better if the patient expected to resume work. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal other significant indicators. About one-third of the 49 respondents working preinjury followed vocational retraining, which was successful for most of them so far. In the majority of work situations modifications have been made, such as job adaptations and reduction of working hours. Several unmet needs regarding reintegration interventions were also reported. Positive expectations regarding resumption of work after a SCI are an important indicator of successful reintegration in work. An active role of the rehabilitation team is recommended in drawing up a vocational reintegration plan to prepare the patient, the employer and professionals involved in the reintegration process.

  9. Multicultural Differences in Women's Expectations of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marianne F

    2016-01-01

    This review surveyed qualitative and quantitative studies to explore the expectations around birth that are held by women from different cultures. These studies are grouped according to expectations of personal control expectations of support from partner/others/family; expectations of carel behavior from providers such as nurses, doctors, and/or midwives; expectations about the health of the baby; and expectations about pain in childbirth. Discussed are the findings and the role that Western culture in medicine, power and privilege are noted in providing care to these women.

  10. Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1, and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease.

  11. The surface modification of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremlett, C.

    2000-03-01

    Polymers have ideal bulk properties for many applications. However, adhesion to many polymers is poor without surface pretreatment. This can result, for example, in peeling paint and printing, adhesive joint failure and bio-incompatibility. In applications such as painting, printing, adhesive bonding and biocompatibility, various cleaning or surface chemical modifications may be employed. A commodity polymer where pretreatment is sometimes needed is polystyrene. This project investigated, in detail, the effects of a novel method of modification namely mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), as a mode of surface modification on polystyrene and a comparison was made with other polymers. The resulting modification was investigated using a range of surface analysis techniques to obtain complementary information. These included, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angles, static secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, chemical derivatization, scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and composite lap shear joint testing. It has been shown that MEO modifies the surface of polystyrene introduced oxygen mainly as hydroxyl groups, and a small number of carbonyl groups, that are positioned only on the backbone hydrocarbon chain. This modification improved adhesion, was stable and samples could be stored in aqueous media. The resulting hydroxylation was further derivatized using an amino acid to provide a specialised surface. This was very different from the multiple oxygen functionalities introduced in the comparison studies by UV/ozone and plasma treatments. (author)

  12. 5 CFR 470.315 - Project modification and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of approved project plans will not be modified, duplicated in organizations not listed in the... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project modification and extension. 470... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND DEMONSTRATIONS PROJECTS Regulatory Requirements Pertaining to...

  13. 40 CFR 144.41 - Minor modifications of permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minor modifications of permits. 144.41 Section 144.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... responsibility, coverage, and liability between the current and new permittees has been submitted to the Director...

  14. Modification of a translator of mnemocode the M-6000 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkina, N.V.; Medved', S.V.; Pshenichnikov, O.V.; Shchirov, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    A modification of the mnemonic code translator for the M-6000 computer is described. The modified translator provides diagnostics in the source program and efficient translation-time error recovery and editing procedures. This increases the productivity of programmers labour and decreases the debugging time

  15. Consumers' Attitudes and Their Inflation Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrmann, Michael; Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    situation, their purchasing attitudes, and their expectations about the macroeconomy. Respondents with current or expected financial difficulties and those with pessimistic attitudes about major purchases, income developments, or unemployment have a stronger upward bias than other households. However...

  16. Experiments on Expectations in Macroeconomics and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, Tiziana; Bao, Te; Hommes, Cars; Massaro, Domenico; Duffy, John

    Expectations play a crucial role in finance, macroeconomics, monetary economics, and fiscal policy. In the last decade a rapidly increasing number of laboratory experiments have been performed to study individual expectation formation, the interactions of individual forecasting rules, and the

  17. Interest rate rules with heterogeneous expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anufriev, M.; Assenza, T.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.

    2011-01-01

    The recent macroeconomic literature stresses the importance of managing heterogeneous expectations in the formulation of monetary policy. We use a simple frictionless DSGE model to investigate inflation dynamics under alternative interest rate rules when agents have heterogeneous expectations and

  18. Drug Addiction and DNA Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amber N; Feng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder which can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Research has shown that epigenetic modifications can translate environmental signals into changes in gene expression, suggesting that epigenetic changes may underlie the causes and possibly treatment of substance use disorders. This chapter will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA, which include DNA methylation and several recently defined additional DNA epigenetic changes. We will discuss the functions of DNA modifications and methods for detecting them, followed by a description of the research investigating the function and consequences of drug-induced changes in DNA methylation patterns. Understanding these epigenetic changes may provide us translational tools for the diagnosis and treatment of addiction in the future.

  19. Minimal modification to tribimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaogang; Zee, A.

    2011-01-01

    We explore some ways of minimally modifying the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal, characterized by introducing at most one mixing angle and a CP violating phase thus extending our earlier work. One minimal modification, motivated to some extent by group theoretic considerations, is a simple case with the elements V α2 of the second column in the mixing matrix equal to 1/√(3). Modifications by keeping one of the columns or one of the rows unchanged from tribimaximal mixing all belong to the class of minimal modification. Some of the cases have interesting experimentally testable consequences. In particular, the T2K and MINOS collaborations have recently reported indications of a nonzero θ 13 . For the cases we consider, the new data sharply constrain the CP violating phase angle δ, with δ close to 0 (in some cases) and π disfavored.

  20. Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... that cost elasticity is higher when a demand decrease is expected among companies with similar exposure to demand uncertainty. Overall, this implies that managerial competences in predicting future demand significantly determines firms’ profitability; especially when demand uncertainty is high...

  1. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs across North America, the GI Match, ACG's Mentoring Program and many other educational materials uniquely tailored ... Week GI Jeopardy Competition ACG Case Reports Journal Mentoring Program ACG-FDA Visiting Fellowship Program Job Search / ...

  2. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

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  3. DNA modification by alkylating compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, E.E.

    1985-09-01

    Results are given for research on the physico-chemical properties of alkylating compounds - nitroso alkyl ureas (NAU) which possess a broad spectrum of biological activity, such as mutagenic, carcinogenic, and anti-tumor action that is due to the alkylation and carbamoylation of DNA as well as other cellular components. Identified chemical products of NAU interaction with DNA and its components are cited. Structural conversions of a DNA macromolecule resulting from its chemical modification are examined. NAU are used to discuss possible biological consequences of DNA modification. 148 references.

  4. Corrosion principles and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter examines the important strategies provided by the newer ideas of corrosion science and engineering that surface modification techniques must utilize to help prevent corrosion, especially the most damaging kind of aqueous corrosion, localized corrosion. Provides a brief introduction to the principles underlying the phenomenon of corrosion in order to use them to discuss surface modification strategies to combat corrosion. Discusses the electrochemistry of corrosion; the thermodynamics of corrosion; the kinetics of corrosion; thermodynamic strategies; and kinetic strategies (formation of more protective passive films; resistance to breakdown; ductility; repassivation)

  5. Expectancies as a Determinant of Interference Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasher, Lynn; Greenberg, Michael

    1977-01-01

    One version, by Lockhart, Craik, and Jacoby, of a levels-of-processing model of memory asserts the importance of the role of expectancies about forthcoming information in determining the elaborateness of a memory trace. Confirmed expectancies result in less-elaborated memory traces; disconfirmed expectancies result in elaborate memory traces.…

  6. Measuring Risk When Expected Losses Are Unbounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Balbás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to introduce coherent risk measures for risks with infinite expectation, such as those characterized by some Pareto distributions. Extensions of the conditional value at risk, the weighted conditional value at risk and other examples are given. Actuarial applications are analyzed, such as extensions of the expected value premium principle when expected losses are unbounded.

  7. Parental Expectations of Their Adolescents' Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    Examines parental expectations of their children's teachers through use of the Expectations of Teachers questionnaire. Participating parents (N=765) reported greater expectations for help and assistance, followed by teaching competence and fairness on the part of the teacher. Mothers were found to hold higher fairness, help, and assistance…

  8. Role Of Expectancy Manipulation In Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Alan

    1973-01-01

    Expectancy, relaxation, and hierarchy content were manipulated. Findings did not support the hypothesis that expectancy was the only factor in desensitization, but did clarify the role of expectancy vis-a-vis the counterconditioning elements typically discussed in the literature. (Author)

  9. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Basic research on modification of Symferopoloskaya thermoelectric power station; 1999 nendo Symferopoloskaya karyoku hatsudensho kaishu kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This effort complies with the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) joint implementation clause. The plan is to replace the existing old facilities with three units of 107MW rated single shaft combined cycle power plants. Each unit comprises one 70MW rated gas turbine generator, one water circulating reheat type steam turbine/air cooled synchronous generator, and one exhaust heat recovery boiler. The rated output will be 321MW in total, and the maximum heat supply 71Gcal/hour. Fuel consumption will be less by 304,800 tons/year in terms of oil at a reduction rate of 46.3%. Greenhouse gas will be less by 712,089 tons/year in terms of CO2 at a reduction rate of 46.3%. The modification will cost 224-million US dollars. To secure profitability under the project and to keep EIRR (economic internal rate return) at 15% or higher, CO2 has to sell at 13 US dollars/ton in terms of CO2 or a US dollar has to be equivalent to or less than 4.9 UAHs (with repayment to be made in US dollars). Profitability will vary extensively, dependent on fluctuations in the exchange rate reflecting the Ukrainian economic state and on the magnitude of greenhouse gas trading scheme. (NEDO)

  10. Childbirth expectations and correlates at the final stage of pregnancy in Chinese expectant parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: This study adds to understanding of the childbirth expectations of Chinese expectant parents. It is suggested that maternity healthcare providers pay close attention to the childbirth expectations of expectant parents, and improve the nursing care service to promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction of expectant parents.

  11. An Examination of Existing Guidelines for Programs for the Preservice and Inservice Education of Teachers in Metric Education and the Modification of These and the Development of New Ones if Deemed Necessary. Final Report of Objective No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Dolores

    These guidelines for in-service and preservice teacher education related to the conversion to the metric system were developed from a survey of published materials, university faculty, and mathematics supervisors. The eleven guidelines fall into three major categories: (1) design of teacher training programs, (2) teacher training, and (3)…

  12. Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield; Eccles

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest. Research is reviewed dealing with two issues: (1) change in children's and adolescents' ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and subjective values, and (2) relations of children's and adolescents' ability-expectancy beliefs and subjective task values to their performance and choice of activities. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Behavior modification and pharmacotherapy for separation anxiety in a 2-year-old pointer cross

    OpenAIRE

    Lem, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem in dogs. Treatment is based on developing a behavior modification protocol that gradually desensitizes and counter-conditions the dog to being left alone, by rewarding calm, relaxed behavior. Judicious use of pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct to a behavior modification program.

  14. Practice of radiation dose control for tech-modification items in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Chen Zhongyu; Xu Hongming; Fan Liguang; Jiang Jianqi; Bu Weidong

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear power plant operation, many tech-modifications related to system or equipment have been completed since operation in Qinshan NPP. this paper introduces radiation dose control for mainly tech-modifications items related to radiation, including radiation protection optimization measures and experience in aspects of item planning, program writing, process control, etc. (authors)

  15. Citizen Expectations and Satisfaction Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Expectations are thought to affect how citizens form their attitudes and behavior toward public services. Such attitudes may include citizen satisfaction, where expectations play a fundamental role, and relevant behaviors include choice of services and the decision to voice opinions about them....... However, there are few investigations into what drives citizen expectations and even fewer that consider these relationships across time. This article tests whether prior expectations, perceived performance, and citizen satisfaction influence future expectations, using a unique dataset that follows...... individual citizens across two subsequent school satisfaction surveys from 2011 and 2013. The results show that prior expectations have a large and consistent influence on future expectations, as predicted by the literature, whereas the influence from prior perceived performance seems less consistent. Prior...

  16. Marital Expectations in Strong African American Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra

    2017-12-01

    The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  17. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available the treatment with fluorinated or silicon compounds)1-4 and by enhancing the surface roughness with a fractal structure5-8. Cotton, a cellulose-based material, that is greatly hydrophilic, is more benefited when made hydrophobic. Modification of cotton...

  18. Applications of high power microwaves to atmospheric modification and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, J.

    1993-01-01

    The current state of proposals to use high power microwaves in the atmosphere is reviewed. HPM has been proposed to aid in the conservation of stratospheric ozone by partial breakdown, facilitating chemistry to eliminate chlorine. Another proposal is over-the-horizon radar using a partial breakdown area in the ionosphere. A key to any such effort is rapid diagnosis of the state of the atmosphere before, during and after intervention. Technology requirements of these modification and measurement proposals are reviewed. The elements of an atmospheric modification program are identified and political, economic and ideological factors are discussed

  19. Regulatory activities related with the modification of the frequency of the programmed stoppings of the Argentine nuclear centrals; Actividades regulatorias relacionadas con la modficacion de la frecuencia de las paradas programadas de las centrales nucleares argentinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, E.; Calvo, J.; Waldman, R.; Navarro, R

    2006-07-01

    The mandatory character documentation of the Argentinean nuclear power stations in Embalse and Atucha I, required the realization of a programmed stoppings every twelve months to execute that settled down in the maintenance and surveillance programs for each installation. Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A., in it character of Responsible Entity of the operation of these power stations, requested to the Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority, in 2003 and 2005 respectively, the authorization to change the period of the repetitive tests and of the preventive maintenance of the systems related with the safety, to extend them from twelve to eighteen months. The mentioned applications were founded in economic aspects and in inclining to a decrease in the doses of the workers that perform in the activities that are carried out in the programmed stops. The adopted position by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority to decide on these applications was based on the result of diverse evaluations that included the use of the Probabilistic Analysis of Safety specific of each power station, the operative experience resultant of the execution of the preventive maintenance program, and of the results of the repetitive tests and of the inspections in service. The regulatory decisions were different in each case. Indeed, the Embalse nuclear power station was authorized by the Regulatory Authority to modify from twelve to eighteen months the period among the realization of the repetitive tests and of the preventive maintenance, conditioned to the execution of some specific regulatory requirements. On the other hand, the Atucha I nuclear power station was not authorized to modify this period. In this presentation that is detailed the acted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in both cases, the used analysis tools, and the foundation of the adopted decisions. (Author)

  20. Mental health expectancy--the European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....

  1. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  2. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  3. Expectations, Bond Yields and Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    2011-01-01

    expectations about inflation, output growth, and the anticipated path of monetary policy actions contain important information for explaining movements in bond yields. Estimates from a forward-looking monetary policy rule suggest that the central bank exhibits a preemptive response to inflationary expectations...... of this type may provide traders and policymakers with a new set of tools for formally assessing the reaction of bond yields to shifts in market expectations...

  4. Heterogeneous inflation expectations, learning, and market outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Carlos; Zafar, Basit

    2012-01-01

    Using the panel component of the Michigan Survey of Consumers, we show that individuals, in particular women and ethnic minorities, are highly heterogeneous in their expectations of inflation. We estimate a model of inflation expectations based on learning from experience that also allows for heterogeneity in both private information and updating. Our model vastly outperforms existing models of inflation expectations in explaining the heterogeneity in the data. We find that women, ethnic mino...

  5. Higher Order Expectations in Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe BACCHETTA; Eric VAN WINCOOP

    2004-01-01

    We examine formally Keynes' idea that higher order beliefs can drive a wedge between an asset price and its fundamental value based on expected future payoffs. Higher order expectations add an additional term to a standard asset pricing equation. We call this the higher order wedge, which depends on the difference between higher and first order expectations of future payoffs. We analyze the determinants of this wedge and its impact on the equilibrium price. In the context of a dynamic noisy r...

  6. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

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  7. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

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  8. Caprine Butchery and Bone Modification Templates: A step towards standardisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Popkin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Widely accepted zooarchaeological procedure for recording butchery marks and other types of bone modification involves two processes: Drawing the bone showing the exact location and orientation of the modification and recording all of the information about the bone and its modification into an electronic database. No recording templates have ever been published, however, resulting in individual zooarchaeologists repeating the effort of developing their own templates or drawings for each bone in an assemblage showing a modification. Both of these tasks are time consuming and lead to inconsistencies in recording and quantification methods. To help alleviate this problem a series of caprine (sheep and goat bone templates have been created. These templates show every bone in a goat skeleton, apart from the skull, from six views at life-size when printed on A4 paper. They have intentionally been produced with a minimum of detail (without shading or stippling etc. so that the recorded butchery marks and bone modifications will be clearly visible. Because the skeletal morphology of sheep and goats is so similar these templates may be used interchangeably for either species. They may also be used for many other artiodactyl species such as cattle and deer as no scale has been indicated. The study of butchery marks and bone modification has the potential to provide zooarchaeologists with information about taphonomy, site formation processes, burial/ritual practices, human behaviour, ancient technologies and possibly ethnicity amongst other things, but only if the recording of these bone modifications is undertaken in a standardised fashion across the field. While much effort has been directed towards standardising the recognition and classification of various bone modifications, the recording of these modifications regularly occurs in various ways. Using standardised recording templates will save valuable time and help to alleviate problems of data

  9. Human factors in design modifications: panel alternative stop in Almaraz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Y.; Bote, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering has acquired a crucial role in the development of any design modification (DM), where every aspect relative to any interaction with the human user has to be taken into account at any stage thereof. Considering this, during the last years, Almaraz Nuclear Powe Plants has developed a program of Human Factors Engineering in order to reach the internationally recognized standards or systematic collected on NUREG 0711 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NRC). One of the most important projects of this program at Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has been the implementation of the Alternative Stop Panel and their corresponding Transfer Panels. (Author)

  10. On the evaluation of marginal expected shortfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In the analysis of systemic risk, Marginal Expected Shortfall may be considered to evaluate the marginal impact of a single stock on the market Expected Shortfall. These quantities are generally computed using log-returns, in particular when there is also a focus on returns conditional distribution....... In this case, the market log-return is only approximately equal to the weighed sum of equities log-returns. We show that the approximation error is large during turbulent market phases, with a subsequent impact on Marginal Expected Shortfall. We then suggest how to improve the evaluation of Marginal Expected...

  11. Gamma-Gompertz life expectancy at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon I. Missov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The gamma-Gompertz multiplicative frailty model is the most common parametric modelapplied to human mortality data at adult and old ages. The resulting life expectancy hasbeen calculated so far only numerically. OBJECTIVE Properties of the gamma-Gompertz distribution have not been thoroughly studied. The focusof the paper is to shed light onto its first moment or, demographically speaking, characterizelife expectancy resulting from a gamma-Gompertz force of mortality. The paperprovides an exact formula for gamma-Gompertz life expectancy at birth and a simplerhigh-accuracy approximation that can be used in practice for computational convenience.In addition, the article compares actual (life-table to model-based (gamma-Gompertzlife expectancy to assess on aggregate how many years of life expectancy are not captured(or overestimated by the gamma-Gompertz mortality mechanism. COMMENTS A closed-form expression for gamma-Gomeprtz life expectancy at birth contains a special(the hypergeometric function. It aids assessing the impact of gamma-Gompertz parameterson life expectancy values. The paper shows that a high-accuracy approximation canbe constructed by assuming an integer value for the shape parameter of the gamma distribution.A historical comparison between model-based and actual life expectancy forSwedish females reveals a gap that is decreasing to around 2 years from 1950 onwards.Looking at remaining life expectancies at ages 30 and 50, we see this gap almost disappearing.

  12. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1995 from monitoring wells and springs located at or near several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the boundaries of the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The objectives of the GWPP are to provide the monitoring data necessary for compliance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. corporate policy. The following evaluation of the data is organized into background regulatory information and site descriptions, an overview of the hydrogeologic framework, a summary of the CY 1995 groundwater monitoring programs and associated sampling and analysis activities, analysis and interpretation of the data for inorganic, organic, and radiological analytes, a summary of conclusions and recommendations, and a list of cited references. Appendix A contains supporting maps, cross sections, diagrams, and graphs; data tables and summaries are in Appendix B. Detailed descriptions of the data screening and evaluation criteria are included in Appendix C

  13. Modifications of the SEPHIS computer code for calculating the Purex solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.B.; Rainey, R.H.

    1975-12-01

    The SEPHIS computer program was developed to simulate the countercurrent solvent extraction. This report gives modifications in the program which result in improved fit to experimental data, a decrease in computer storage requirements, and a decrease in execution time. Methods for applying the computer program to practical solvent extraction problems are explained

  14. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    An historical overview of the main advances in the understanding of bombardment-induced surface topography is presented. The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment modification of surfaces and consequent structural, electronic and compositional changes are described. Descriptions of plasma and ion-beam sputtering-induced film formation, primary ion-beam deposition, dual beam techniques, cluster of molecule ion-beam deposition, and modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition are presented. A detailed account is given of the analytical and computational modelling of topography from the viewpoint of first erosion theory. Finally, an account of the possible application and/or importance of textured surfaces in technologies and/or experimental techniques not considered in previous chapters is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  15. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  16. Exploring oxidative modifications of tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houée-Lévin, C; Bobrowski, K; Horakova, L

    2015-01-01

    residues are oxidised in vivo with impact on cellular homeostasis and redox signalling pathways. A notable example is tyrosine, which can undergo a number of oxidative post-translational modifications to form 3-hydroxy-tyrosine, tyrosine crosslinks, 3-nitrotyrosine and halogenated tyrosine, with different...... effects on cellular functions. Tyrosine oxidation has been studied extensively in vitro, and this has generated detailed information about the molecular mechanisms that may occur in vivo. An important aspect of studying tyrosine oxidation both in vitro and in biological systems is the ability to monitor...... residues modified and the nature of the modification. These approaches have helped understanding of the consequences of tyrosine oxidation in biological systems, especially its effects on cell signalling and cell dysfunction, linking to roles in disease. There is mounting evidence that tyrosine oxidation...

  17. NON-EXPECTED UTILITY THEORIES: WEIGHTED EXPECTED, RANK DEPENDENT, AND CUMULATIVE PROSPECT THEORY UTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, Jonathan W.; Frechette, Darren L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the failings of expected utility including the Allais paradox and expected utility's inadequate one dimensional characterization of risk. Three alternatives to expected utility are discussed at length; weighted expected utility, rank dependent utility, and cumulative prospect theory. Each alternative is capable of explaining Allais paradox type problems and permits more sophisticated multi dimensional risk preferences.

  18. Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…

  19. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  20. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    Ion bombardment-induced modification of surfaces may be considered one of the significant scientific and technological developments of the last two decades. The understanding acquired concerning the underlying mechanisms of several phenomena occurring during ion-surface interactions has led to applications within different modern technologies. These include microelectronics, surface acoustical and optical technologies, solar energy conversion, thin film technology, ion implantation metallurgy, nuclear track technology, thermonuclear fusion, vacuum technology, cold welding technology, biomedicine (implantology). It has become clear that information on many relevant advances, regarding ion bombardment modification of surfaces is dispersed among journals involving fields sometimes not clearly related. This may result, in some cases, in a loss of the type of interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, which has proved to be so fruitful for the advancement of science and technology. This book has been planned in an attempt to collect at least some of today's relevant information about the experimental and theoretical knowledge related to surface modification and its application to technology. (Auth.)

  1. Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions.

  2. Perceptions, Experiences and Expectations of Physicians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research assistant explained the study aims and the various parts of the questionnaire to the physicians. Data collection was conducted by a single trained research assistant to ensure consistency. The questionnaire used in this investigation was adapted with minor modifications from previously published studies [12-15].

  3. Using Daily Horoscopes To Demonstrate Expectancy Confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Munro, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration that uses daily horoscopes to show the effect that expectation can have on judgment. Addresses the preparation, procedure, and results of the demonstration, and student evaluations. States that the demonstration appears to be effective for teaching students about expectancy confirmation. (CMK)

  4. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  5. Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leuven, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

  6. Memory, expectation formation and scheduling choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P.R.; Peer, S.; Dekker, T.

    2015-01-01

    Limited memory capacity, retrieval constraints and anchoring are central to expectation formation processes. We develop a model of adaptive expectations where individuals are able to store only a finite number of past experiences of a stochastic state variable. Retrieval of these experiences is

  7. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  8. Video lottery: winning expectancies and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge; Blaszczynski, Alexander; O'Connor, Kieron; Lavoie, Marc E

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of video lottery players' expectancies of winning on physiological and subjective arousal. Participants were assigned randomly to one of two experimental conditions: high and low winning expectancies. Participants played 100 video lottery games in a laboratory setting while physiological measures were recorded. Level of risk-taking was controlled. Participants were 34 occasional or regular video lottery players. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 17, with nine men and eight women in each group. The low-expectancy group played for fun, therefore expecting to win worthless credits, while the high-expectancy group played for real money. Players' experience, demographic variables and subjective arousal were assessed. Severity of problem gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. In order to measure arousal, the average heart rate was recorded across eight periods. Participants exposed to high as compared to low expectations experienced faster heart rate prior to and during the gambling session. According to self-reports, it is the expectancy of winning money that is exciting, not playing the game. Regardless of the level of risk-taking, expectancy of winning is a cognitive factor influencing levels of arousal. When playing for fun, gambling becomes significantly less stimulating than when playing for money.

  9. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I study the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. I show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of exp...

  10. Smoking expands expected lifetime with musculoskeletal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud

    2003-01-01

    By indirect estimation of mortality from smoking and life table methods we estimated expected lifetime without musculoskeletal diseases among never smokers, ex-smokers, and smokers. We found that although life expectancy of a heavy smoker is 7 years shorter than that of a never smoker, heavy...

  11. Test Expectancy and Memory for Important Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research suggests that learners study and remember information differently depending upon the type of test they expect to later receive. The current experiments investigate how testing expectations impact the study of and memory for valuable information. Participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1 to 10 points with the goal…

  12. Expectation formation in dynamic market experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemeijer, P.

    2009-01-01

    People often make mistakes when predicting economic variables such as prices. It is important to understand how these predictions are formed, since people's expectations have a large impact on the development and stability of economic systems. In this thesis the expectation formation of individuals

  13. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...

  14. Subjective Expected Utility Theory with "Small Worlds"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Jacob; Hansen, Frank

    which is a more general construction than a state space. We retain preference axioms similar in spirit to the Savage axioms and obtain, without abandoning linearity of expectations, a subjective expected utility theory which allows for an intuitive distinction between risk and uncertainty. We also...

  15. Expectations as a key element in trusting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Hansen, Uffe Kjærgaard; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    Considering the need for a tangible focus for qualitative research on trusting, we propose that expectations to the behavior of others can provide that. By focusing on expectations, researchers can produce narrative descriptions that explains how trusting develops and changes. Then the key theore...

  16. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  17. International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)

  18. Histone modifications: Cycling with chromosomal replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thon, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications tend to be lost during chromosome duplication. Several recent studies suggest that the RNA interference pathway becomes active during the weakened transcriptional repression occurring at centromeres in S phase, resulting in the re-establishment of histone modifications...

  19. Modification of Particle Distributions by MHD Instabilities II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Roscoe B.

    2011-01-01

    The modification of particle distributions by low amplitude magnetohydrodynamic modes is an important topic for magnetically confined plasmas. Low amplitude modes are known to be capable of producing significant modification of injected neutral beam profiles, and the same can be expected in burning plasmas for the alpha particle distributions. Flattening of a distribution in an island due to phase mixing and portions of phase space becoming stochastic lead to modification of the particle distribution, a process extremely rapid in the time scale of an experiment but still very long compared to the time scale of guiding center simulations. Large amplitude modes can cause profile avalanche and particle loss. Thus it is very valuable to be able to predict the temporal evolution of a particle distribution produced by a given spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic modes. In this paper we further develop and investigate the use of a new method of determining domains of phase space in which good KAM surfaces do not exist and use this method to examine a well documented case of profile modification by instabilities.

  20. Memory for expectation-violating concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel; McKay, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that ideas which violate our expectations, such as schema-inconsistent concepts, enjoy privileged status in terms of memorability. In our study, memory for concepts that violate cultural (cultural schema-level) expectations (e.g., ‘‘illiterate teacher’’, ‘‘wooden bottle...... expectations and with intuitive concepts (e.g., ‘‘galloping pony’’, ‘‘drying orchid’’, or ‘‘convertible car’’), in both immediate recall, and delayed recognition tests. Importantly, concepts related to agents showed a memory advantage over concepts not pertaining to agents, but this was true only...... for expectation-violating concepts. Our results imply that intuitive, everyday concepts are equally attractive and memorable regardless of the presence or absence of agents. However, concepts that violate our expectations (cultural-schema or domain-level) are more memorable when pertaining to agents (humans...

  1. BIOCHAR MODIFICATION, THERMAL STABILITY AND TOXICITY OF PRODUCTS MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana FRIEDRICHOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is a product obtained from processing of waste biomass. The main application of biochar is in soil and environment remediation. Some new applications of this carbonaceous material take advantage of its adsorption capacity use it as a heterogeneous catalyst for energy storage and conversion etc. This contribution describes thermal stability of the original biochar. It discusses biochar modified by chemical and physical methods including a new compound of biochar-graphene oxide. The purpose of the modifications is to increase its active surface to introduce active functional groups into the carbon structure of biochar in relation to fire safety and toxicity of those products.

  2. Recommended programming practices to facilitate the portability of science computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This standard recommends programming practices to facilitate the portability of computer programs prepared for scientific and engineering computations. These practices are intended to simplify implementation, conversion, and modification of computer programs

  3. Students' Outcome Expectation on Spiritual and Religious Competency: A Hierarchical Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junfei; Woo, Hongryun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 74 master's-level counseling students from various programs completed a questionnaire inquiring about their perceived program environment in relation to the topics of spirituality and religion (S/R), program emphasis on nine specific S/R competencies, as well as their outcome expectations toward being S/R competent through training.…

  4. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  5. Medicare and Medicaid programs; modifications to the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for 2014 and other changes to EHR Incentive Program; and health information technology: revision to the certified EHR technology definition and EHR certification changes related to standards. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    This final rule changes the meaningful use stage timeline and the definition of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT) to allow options in the use of CEHRT for the EHR reporting period in 2014. It also sets the requirements for reporting on meaningful use objectives and measures as well as clinical quality measure (CQM) reporting in 2014 for providers who use one of the CEHRT options finalized in this rule for their EHR reporting period in 2014. In addition, it finalizes revisions to the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs to adopt an alternate measure for the Stage 2 meaningful use objective for hospitals to provide structured electronic laboratory results to ambulatory providers; to correct the regulation text for the measures associated with the objective for hospitals to provide patients the ability to view online, download, and transmit information about a hospital admission; and to set a case number threshold exemption for CQM reporting applicable for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) beginning with FY 2013. Finally, this rule finalizes the provisionally adopted replacement of the Data Element Catalog (DEC) and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture (QRDA) Category III standards with updated versions of these standards.

  6. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient/parent expectations of orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obilade, Omolara Abiodun; da Costa, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Sanu, Oluwatosin Oluyemi

    2017-03-01

    Expectations of orthodontic treatment may differ between the patient and their parents, as the parents' expectations may not reflect those of the child. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the expectations of patients and their parents. This was a clinic-based, comparative, cross-sectional study involving 110 patients aged between 10 and 19 years, as well as their accompanying parents or guardians. The expectations of both patients and parents were determined using a questionnaire developed by Sayers and Newton. Results showed that the expectations of the patients and parents differed significantly in a number of areas with the parents' expectations often exceeding those of the patients. Both patients and parents were found to be ignorant about some aspects of orthodontic treatment, with 47.3% of patients and 39.1% of parents unaware of the duration of orthodontic treatment and, as such, requiring information from their clinicians. The results highlight the importance of patient education and counseling as well as the need to focus on the individual patient and not assume that their expectations mirror those of the accompanying parent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Patients' and parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Renske; Bos, Annemieke; Hoogstraten, Johan

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the expectations of children and their primary care-givers towards orthodontic treatment and to compare the results with those of a UK sample. A questionnaire survey of children and their primary care-givers attending for their first consultation. The Department of Orthodontics at the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), the Netherlands. A total of 168 subjects (84 patients and 84 parents) completed the questionnaire. The children were aged 10 to 14 years. The responses of the children and parents and differences between boys and girls were examined using parametric statistical methods. The data from the Dutch sample were compared with a similar UK sample. Patients and parents shared similar expectations of orthodontic treatment, with the exception of expectations of having a brace fitted at the first appointment, orthodontic treatment involving headgear, any problems with orthodontic treatment, duration of orthodontic treatment and concerning reactions from the public. Among the child participants, boys and girls only differed in their expectations of orthodontic treatment involving jaw surgery. Differences between Dutch and English participants were found regarding the first visit, type of orthodontic treatment, reactions from the public, and pain and problems with orthodontic treatment. Since the expectations of patients and their parents differ on several aspects, effective communication between the orthodontist, patient and parent is considered to be essential. Our hypothesis that Dutch patients' and parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment differ from the expectations of English patients and parents was supported.

  9. Expectations in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Burcu; Unver, Bayram; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to decrease pain and restore functional knee joint. Current hypotheses indicate higher knee flexion is required in terms of life style, culture and expectations in Eastern communities. Therefore, society-specific features related to life style and cultural habits are needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the expectations of patients undergoing TKA. The study included 131 patients (18 male, 113 female; mean age: 66.2 ± 8.3 years) who underwent cemented TKA due to knee osteoarthritis. All patients were operated by the same surgeon using the same implant and surgical technique. Patients were evaluated using the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score, a 15-item clinical knee assessment questionnaire and the HSS knee arthroplasty expectation questionnaire. Mean HSS score for the right knee was 89.2 ± 10.5 and for the left knee was 89.6 ± 9.4. The two most expected outcomes were improvements in pain (99.2%) and gait (96.2%) and the two least expected outcomes were improvements in psychological well-being (22.9%) and communicative skills (35.1%). Expectations were not affected by education and working conditions. Patients' most expected outcomes were improvement in pain and restoration of function (gait, climbing stairs and no need of assistive devices), similar to Western and American communities.

  10. Auxiliares de enfermagem: mercado de trabalho, perfil, satisfação e expectativas no Programa de Saúde da Família na cidade de São Paulo Nursing assistants: job market, profile of professionals, satisfaction and expectations in the Family Health Program of the city of São Paulo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Giffoni Marsiglia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available São escassos os estudos sobre os auxiliares de enfermagem, mesmo nas equipes de saúde da família. Este artigo se baseia em estudo que procurou identificar o perfil dos auxiliares de enfermagem do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, o grau de satisfação com o trabalho, sugestões para melhorar o PSF e expectativas quanto ao futuro profissional. Em 2004, o Departamento de Atenção Primária à Saúde e Programa de Saúde da Família da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde da Cidade de São Paulo, aplicou um questionário entre os integrantes das equipes implantadas no município. A análise das respostas de 901 auxiliares de enfermagem contou com o apoio da Unesco. Os principais resultados apresentados neste artigo são: predominância de mulheres, jovens, nível médio de escolarização; capacitação inicial para o PSF, baixa proporção de profissionais com nível técnico. As relações e o processo de trabalho constituem motivos de maior satisfação e as condições de trabalho são pouco satisfatórias. Razões mais citadas para a escolha da profissão, solidariedade e cuidado com o 'próximo'; para a inserção no PSF, nova alternativa no mercado de trabalho e reconhecimento da sociedade. A maioria pretende continuar sua formação, com graduação em Enfermagem e especialização em Saúde Pública ou Saúde da Família².Studies on nursing assistants are rare, even on nursing assistants in family health teams. The article is based on a study that intended to determine the profile of Nursing Assistants in the Family Health Program in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, to identify their level of satisfaction with work, to seek suggestions for improving the Family Health Program, and to assess their expectations as to their professional future. In 2004, the Department of Primary Health Care and Family Health Program of the Municipal Health Secretariat of São Paulo sent out a questionnaire to the

  11. Environmental conditions analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.

    1991-01-01

    The PC-based program discussed in this paper has the capability of determining the steady state temperatures of environmental zones (rooms). A program overview will be provided along with examples of formula use. Required input and output from the program will also be discussed. Specific application of plant monitored temperatures and utilization of this program will be offered. The presentation will show how the program can project individual room temperature profiles without continual temperature monitoring of equipment. A discussion will also be provided for the application of the program generated data. Evaluations of anticipated or planned plant modifications and the use of the subject program will also be covered

  12. Novel concepts in modification of radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bump, E.A.; Palayoor, S.T.; Lai, L.L.; Cerce, B.A.; Langley, R.E.; Coleman, C.N.; Braunhut, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether biological effects of radiation, such as apoptosis, that differ from classical clonogenic cell killing, can be modified with agents that would not be expected to modify classical clonogenic cell killing. This would expand the range of potential modifiers of radiation therapy. EL4 murine lymphoma cell apoptosis was determined by electrophoretic analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation. DNA was extracted 24 h after irradiation or addition of inducing agents. Modifiers of radiation-induced apoptosis were added immediately after irradiation. The effects of radiation on wounded endothelial monolayers were studied by scraping a line across the monolayer 30 min after irradiation. Cell detachment was used as an endpoint to determine the protective effect of prolonged exposure to retinol prior to irradiation. EL4 cell apoptosis can be induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or the glutathione oxidant SR-4077. Radiation-induced EL4 cell apoptosis can be inhibited with 3-aminobenzamide, an agent that sensitizes cells to classical clonogenic cell killing. Radiation-induced endothelial cell detachment from confluent monolayers can be modified by pretreatment with retinol. These results raise the possibility that radiation could induce apoptosis by an oxidative stress mechanism that is different from that involved in classical clonogenic cell killing. These and other recent findings encourage the notion that differential modification of classical clonogenic cell killing and other important endpoints of radiation action may be possible. 47 refs., 3 figs

  13. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites lie within the boundaries of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to ensure protection of local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part I consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part I GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1995 Part I GWQR for the East Fork Regime to the TDEC in February 1996. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality

  14. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    This paper studies the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. We show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of expected...... business conditions in standard predictive regressions improve forecast performance relative to models using information derived from the current term structure or macroeconomic variables. The results are confirmed in a real-time out-of-sample exercise, where the predictive accuracy of the models...... is evaluated both statistically and from the perspective of a mean-variance investor that trades in the bond market....

  15. Towards a Characterization of Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Arieli

    2008-01-01

    R. J. Aumann and J. H. Drèze (2008) define a rational expectation of a player i in a game G as the expected payo of some type of i in some belief system for G in which common knowledge of rationality and common priors obtain. Our goal is to characterize the set of rational expectations in terms of the game's payoff matrix. We provide such a characterization for a specific class of strategic games, called semi-elementary, which includes Myerson's "elementary" games.

  16. The Probability Model of Expectation Disconfirmation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hsin HUANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a probability model to explore the dynamic process of customer’s satisfaction. Bases on expectation disconfirmation theory, the satisfaction is constructed with customer’s expectation before buying behavior and the perceived performance after purchase. The experiment method is designed to measure expectation disconfirmation effects and we also use the collection data to estimate the overall satisfaction and model calibration. The results show good fitness between the model and the real data. This model has application for business marketing areas in order to manage relationship satisfaction.

  17. Epigenetic modifications and diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marpadga A. Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major complication associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Conventional therapeutic strategies are not fully efficacious in the treatment of DN, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Furthermore, evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated a “metabolic memory” of prior exposure to hyperglycemia that continues to persist despite subsequent glycemic control. This remains a major challenge in the treatment of DN and other vascular complications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, nucleosomal histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs control gene expression through regulation of chromatin structure and function and post-transcriptional mechanisms without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Emerging evidence indicates that multiple factors involved in the etiology of diabetes can alter epigenetic mechanisms and regulate the susceptibility to diabetes complications. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of histone lysine methylation in the regulation of key fibrotic and inflammatory genes related to diabetes complications including DN. Interestingly, histone lysine methylation persisted in vascular cells even after withdrawal from the diabetic milieu, demonstrating a potential role of epigenetic modifications in metabolic memory. Rapid advances in high-throughput technologies in the fields of genomics and epigenomics can lead to the identification of genome-wide alterations in key epigenetic modifications in vascular and renal cells in diabetes. Altogether, these findings can lead to the identification of potential predictive biomarkers and development of novel epigenetic therapies for diabetes and its associated complications.

  18. Modification Propagation in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouronte, Mary Luz; Vargas, María Luisa; Moyano, Luis Gregorio; Algarra, Francisco Javier García; Del Pozo, Luis Salvador

    To keep up with rapidly changing conditions, business systems and their associated networks are growing increasingly intricate as never before. By doing this, network management and operation costs not only rise, but are difficult even to measure. This fact must be regarded as a major constraint to system optimization initiatives, as well as a setback to derived economic benefits. In this work we introduce a simple model in order to estimate the relative cost associated to modification propagation in complex architectures. Our model can be used to anticipate costs caused by network evolution, as well as for planning and evaluating future architecture development while providing benefit optimization.

  19. Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Maximizing Expected Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Kate E; Blum, Nathan J; Waryasz, Stephanie A; Augustyn, Marilyn

    Sonia is a 4 years 1 month-year-old girl with Waardenburg syndrome and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who had bilateral cochlear implants at 2 years 7 months years of age. She is referred to Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics by her speech/language pathologist because of concerns that her language skills are not progressing as expected after the cochlear implant. At the time of the implant, she communicated using approximately 20 signs and 1 spoken word (mama). At the time of the evaluation (18 months after the implant) she had approximately 70 spoken words (English and Spanish) and innumerable signs that she used to communicate. She could follow 1-step directions in English but had more difficulty after 2-step directions.Sonia was born in Puerto Rico at 40 weeks gestation after an uncomplicated pregnancy. She failed her newborn hearing test and was given hearing aids that did not seem to help.At age 2 years, Sonia, her mother, and younger sister moved to the United States where she was diagnosed with bilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss. Genetic testing led to a diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome (group of genetic conditions that can cause hearing loss and changes in coloring [pigmentation] of the hair, skin, and eyes). She received bilateral cochlear implants 6 months later.Sonia's mother is primarily Spanish-speaking and mostly communicates with her in Spanish or with gestures but has recently begun to learn American Sign Language (ASL). In a preschool program at a specialized school for the deaf, Sonia is learning both English and ASL. Sonia seems to prefer to use ASL to communicate.Sonia receives speech and language therapy (SLT) 3 times per week (90 minutes total) individually in school and once per week within a group. She is also receiving outpatient SLT once per week. Therapy sessions are completed in English, with the aid of an ASL interpreter. Sonia's language scores remain low, with her receptive skills in the first percentile, and her

  20. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Tumor Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhai, Suodi [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Hua, E-mail: huali88@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Min, E-mail: yemin@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Quan, E-mail: quan.du@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  1. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei; Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan; Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He; Zhai, Suodi; Li, Hua; Ye, Min; Du, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  2. Unconscious and out of control: subliminal priming is insensitive to observer expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Erin K; Lam, Melanie Y; Franks, Ian M; Enns, James T; Chua, Romeo

    2013-09-01

    We asked whether the influence of an invisible prime on movement is dependent on conscious movement expectations. Participants reached to a central target, which triggered a directional prime-mask arrow sequence. Participants were instructed that the visible arrows (masks) would most often signal a movement modification in a specific (biased) direction. Kinematic analyses revealed that responses to the visible mask were influenced by participants' intentional bias, as movements were fastest when the more probable mask was displayed. In addition, responses were influenced by the invisible prime without regard to its relationship to the more probable mask. Analysis of the time of initial trajectory modifications revealed that both primes influenced responses in a similar manner after accounting for participants' bias. These results imply that invisible stimuli automatically activate their associated responses and that unconscious priming of the motor system is insensitive to the conscious expectations of the participant making the pointing movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anesthesia -- What to Expect (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia - What to Expect KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia - What ... Operating Room After Surgery Print Different Kinds of Anesthesia If you're having any kind of procedure ...

  4. Stakeholder expectation and satisfaction in road maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, M.; Hartmann, Andreas; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the process of stakeholder satisfaction is a prerequisite for successful stakeholder management. The expectancy disconfirmation model describes the process of stakeholder satisfaction by relating customers’ satisfaction with a product or service to discrepancy between the perceived

  5. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Earn your CME from the convenience of your home or office by accessing ACG's web-based educational ... ACG Blog Follow ACG on Twitter Patients ACG Home / Media / What to Expect During a Colonoscopy What ...

  6. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  7. AUDIT EXPECTATION GAP: AUDITORS IN UNENDING ROLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    Key Words: Expectation gap, Auditors, Shareholders, Self-regulation, Audit ... of auditing has changed from fraud detection to ‗verification of financial .... According to the role theory, the role of the auditors can be viewed in terms of the.

  8. Enhanced Patient Expectant and Antiemetic Drug Efficacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roscoe, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    ...; and writing abstracts, papers, and book chapters. The training also includes the design, implementation and analyses of a randomized controlled experiment examining the relationship between cancer patient expectations for experiencing chemotherapy...

  9. Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus...... letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer’s temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue–stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps...... of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy...

  10. Retirement expectations and satisfaction with retirement provisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bresser, Jochem; van Soest, Arthur

    This paper investigates the relationship between subjective expectations regarding the replacement rate of income at retirement and several measures of pension satisfaction. We use panel data on Dutch employees, analyzed with fixed effects models, allowing for correlation between unobserved

  11. Training across Cultures: What To Expect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech, William A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses four critical dimensions that help explain the variation in cultural expectations: (1) egalitarianism versus hierarchy; (2) individualism versus collectivism; (3) achievement versus relationship orientation; and (4) loose versus tight structure. Explains how to apply these dimensions in training. (JOW)

  12. Using Expectancy Theory to Explain Performance Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... appraisal conducting style, the relation between the performance appraisal system and task ... the article first explains the theory model which is based expectancy theory. II. ... which in return lead to rewards. According to [12],.

  13. The impact of individual expectations and expectation conflicts on virtual teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra

    Virtual teams are characterized by geographical dispersion, organizational, and cultural heterogeneity, and their members have little history and lateral and weak relationships. Literature denotes the importance of expectations in virtual settings, but individual expectations of virtual team members

  14. Preschool Children's Expectations for Parental Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Angie Geertsen

    1998-01-01

    Many factors influence preschool children's expectations for parental discipline. Parent characteristics such as personality, values, social class, and disciplinary methods can affect the expectations children have for parental discipline. Children's ability to understand and interpret parental messages can also influence how they will respond. All of these factors need to be taken into consideration in order for effective communication between parents and children to occur. In this study,...

  15. Lessons from Learning to Have Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews a growing literature investigating how economic agents may learn rational expectations. Fully rational learning requires implausible initial information assumptions, therefore some form of bounded rationality has come into focus. Such learning models often converge to rational expectations equilibria within certain bounds. Convergence analysis has been much simplified by methods from adaptive control theory. Learning stability as a correspondence principle show some promise...

  16. Are women expected to be more generous?

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes if men and women are expected to behave differently regarding altruism. Since the dictator game provides the most suitable design for studying altruism and generosity in the lab setting, we use a modified version to study the beliefs involved in the game. Our results are substantial: men and women are expected to behave differently. Moreover, while women believe that women are more generous, men consider that women are as generous as men. © 2008 Economic Science Association.

  17. Heterogeneus Inflation Expectations Learning and Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Madeira; Basit Zafar

    2012-01-01

    Using the panel component of the Michigan Survey of Consumers we estimate a learning model of inflation expectations, allowing for heterogeneous use of both private information and lifetime inflation experience. We find that women, ethnic minorities, and less educated agents have a higher degree of heterogeneity in their private information, and are slower to update their expectations. During the 2000s, consumers believe inflation to be more persistent in the short term, but temporary fluctua...

  18. Evolution of non-expected utility preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Widekind, Sven von; Fandel, G

    2008-01-01

    The theory on the evolution of preferences deals with the endogenous formation of preference relations in strategic situations. It is related to the field of evolutionary game theory. In this book we analyze the role and the influence of general, possibly non-expected utility preferences in such an evolutionary setup. In particular, we demonstrate that preferences which diverge from von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility may potentially prove to be successful under evolutionary pressures.

  19. Defining Trust Using Expected Utility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Trust has been discussed in many social sciences including economics, psychology, and sociology. However, there is no widely accepted definition of trust. Inparticular, there is no definition that can be used for economic analysis. This paper regards trust as expectation and defines it using expected utility theory together with concepts such as betrayal premium. In doing so, it rejects the widely accepted black-and-white view that (un) trustworthy people are always (un)trustworthy. This pape...

  20. Telaah Kritis Expectancy Theory Victor Harold Vroom

    OpenAIRE

    Anatan, Lina

    2010-01-01

    Expectancy theory has emerge as the dominant process theory of motivation, originally developed by Vroom is a theory explaining the process individual use to make decision on a various behavioral alternatives. The motivational force for a behavior, action, or task is a function of three distinctive perceptions: expectancy, instrumentality, and valance. The theory contains of two models: for the precition of valance of an outcome, and the other for the prediction of force toward behavior. It p...

  1. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  2. Young infants have biological expectations about animals

    OpenAIRE

    Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

    2013-01-01

    We provide an experimental demonstration that young infants possess abstract biological expectations about animals. Our findings represent a major breakthrough in the study of the foundations of human knowledge. In four experiments, 8-mo-old infants expected novel objects they categorized as animals to have filled insides. Thus, infants detected a violation when objects that were self-propelled and agentive were revealed to be hollow, or when an object that was self-propelled and furry rattle...

  3. Gamma-Gompertz life expectancy at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Trifon I. Missov

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The gamma-Gompertz multiplicative frailty model is the most common parametric modelapplied to human mortality data at adult and old ages. The resulting life expectancy hasbeen calculated so far only numerically. OBJECTIVE Properties of the gamma-Gompertz distribution have not been thoroughly studied. The focusof the paper is to shed light onto its first moment or, demographically speaking, characterizelife expectancy resulting from a gamma-Gompertz force of mortality. The paperprov...

  4. Converting customer expectations into achievable results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G A

    1999-11-01

    It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system.

  5. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Website Patient Assistance Programs Practice Management Practice Management From articles to educational programs, ACG provides you ... Information Medicare Financial Information Health Reform and Practice Management Center Publications Online Store ACG This Week, National ...

  6. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Website Patient Assistance Programs Practice Management Practice Management From articles to educational programs, ACG provides you ... Findings from The American Journal of Gastroenterology Annual Scientific Meeting Meeting Information Press Room Information Embargo Policy ...

  7. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Website Patient Assistance Programs Practice Management Practice Management From articles to educational programs, ACG provides you ... and physicians alike. About the Institute Mission and Leadership Institute Annual Reports Donation Form ACG Visiting Professor ...

  8. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Journal of Gastroenterology Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology ACG Case Reports Journal ACG GI Circle, Hepatology Circle, ACG & CCF ... Question of the Week GI Jeopardy Competition ACG Case Reports Journal Mentoring Program ACG-FDA Visiting Fellowship Program ...

  9. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plans and RFAs Grant Recipients Grant ... Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plan and RFAs Education Campaigns and ...

  10. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Assistance Programs Practice Management Practice Management From articles to educational programs, ACG provides you tools and ... are working on a consumer health story, an article for healthcare providers or need access to GI ...

  11. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Grants Clinical Research Awards Clinical Research Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention ... Grants Clinical Research Awards Clinical Research Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention ...

  12. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plans and RFAs Grant Recipients Grant ... Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plan and RFAs Education Campaigns and ...

  13. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search / Career Center Links Program Director Resources Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) for GI Fellowship Training GI Training Curriculum GI Training Pathway on the Education Universe NYU OSCE Toolkit GI Fellowship Programs Find ...

  14. INEL BNCT Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1991-03-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for March 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, a milestone summary, and animal data charts

  15. INEL BNCT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-08-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for August 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  16. An evaluation of inflation expectations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Soybilgen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of inflation play a critical role in the process of price setting in the market. Central banks closely follow developments in inflation expectations to implement a successful monetary policy. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (CBRT conducts a survey of experts and decision makers in the financial and real sectors to reveal market expectations and predictions of current and future inflation. The survey is conducted every month. This paper examines the accuracy of these survey predictions using forecast evaluation techniques. We focus on both point and sign accuracy of the predictions. Although point predictions from CBRT surveys are compared with those of autoregressive models, sign predictions are evaluated on their value to a user. We also test the predictions for bias. Unlike the empirical evidence from other economies, our results show that autoregressive models outperform most of inflation expectations in forecasting inflation. This indicates that inflation expectations have poor point forecast accuracies. However, we show that sign predictions for all inflation expectations have value to a user.

  17. Laser surface modification of PEEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveiro, A., E-mail: ariveiro@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Escuela Naval Militar, Plaza de Espana 2, 36920 Marin (Spain); Soto, R.; Comesana, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Val, J. del; Quintero, F.; Lusquinos, F.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone) was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adequate processing conditions to improve wettability, roughness, and cell adhesion characteristics are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A design of experiments (DOE) methodology was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV (355 nm) radiation is the most promising laser radiation for improving the adhesive surface properties of PEEK. - Abstract: Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties, which make it attractive for the field of reconstructive surgery. Nevertheless, this material has a poor interfacial biocompatibility due to its large chemical stability which induces poor adhesive bonding properties. The possibilities of enhancing the PEEK adhesive properties by laser treatments have been explored in the past. This paper presents a systematic approach to discern the role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK under three laser wavelengths ({lambda} = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) with the aim to determine the most adequate processing conditions to increase the roughness and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants. Overall results show that the ultraviolet ({lambda} = 355 nm) laser radiation is the most suitable one to enhance surface wettability of PEEK.

  18. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trainee Resources Membership Benefits Trainee Events and Meetings Training Committee Board Review Question of the Week GI Jeopardy Competition ACG Case Reports Journal Mentoring Program ACG-FDA Visiting Fellowship Program Job Search / Career Center Links Program Director Resources Entrustable ...

  19. The development of nuclear energy is expected to go on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    A study carried out by Capgemini shows that nuclear energy will continue to develop despite the Fukushima accident in Japan. 62 reactors are being built among which 50 are located in Asia: 28 in China, 5 in India, 5 in South-Korea, 2 in Japan and 10 in Russia. These countries face a huge demand for energy so these programs will go on except maybe in Japan. Some countries in the Middle-East have renewed their demand to launch nuclear programs. The immediate closure of some German reactors put at risk the security of the electricity supply in Europe and particularly in France that used to import German electricity during winter peak consumption periods, the other negative impact is the expected rise of European gas imports from Russia. The study also shows that the energy mix at the world scale is expected to change in the post Fukushima period: the world consumption of gas is expected to grow by 50% between 2011 and 2035. (A.C.)

  20. Getting What They Want: Aligning Student Expectations of Advising with Perceived Advisor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Whitney; Motto, Justin S.; Bourdeaux, Renee

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining effective undergraduate academic advising programs that meet the needs of students is an ongoing challenge for universities across the country. Using expectancy violations theory as a lens, this study argues that student satisfaction with advising is linked to alignment between student expectations of the advising process and perceived…

  1. Measuring population health in Moldova: health expectancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Avram

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Health measures are decisive for the development and implementation of population health policies. Monitoring health indicators can lead to improvements in health and decrease in the inequalities among subpopulations. The life expectancy at birth for the Moldovan population did not increase considerably during the last decades, due to the social and economic crisis which led to high mortality and poor health. In Moldova, no aggregated health indicators are utilized for health monitoring. Therefore, the authors calculated health indicators to assess the population health and argue their importance. Mortality and subjective data on self-perceived health and self-rated morbidity from the Household Budget Survey was used for constructing period morbidity-mortality tables. Thus, the authors applied Sullivan’s method to calculate the life expectancy in very good/good/fair health and the life expectancy without chronic morbidity for the period 2006 - 2015. The life expectancies in very good/good/fair health showed a compression of morbidity in the older ages for both sexes, and for rural and urban types of residence. The life expectancies without chronic morbidity for males and for urban dwellers demonstrated an expansion of morbidity. Although the life expectancy is slowly increasing, the trends in population health are contradictory, depending on the applied measures. The health expectancy indicators, based on self-perceived health, depict the actual situation in the population health. These indicators are becoming more essential with the ageing process and can be used for the tailoring of social and health policies and services to the real needs of the population.

  2. Activated Carbon Preparation and Modification for Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhe

    compared to charcoal-based commercial AC (143.8 mg g -1). Based on the adsorption experiments of butanol vapor, we found the chemical properties of the AC surface play an important role in adsorbing molecules. The adsorption of creatinine on active carbons was also studied, which is a toxic compound generated by human. High levels of creatinine in the blood stream is normally caused by malfunction or failure of the kidneys. Activated carbons is taken by the patients orally to reduce creatinine level. In order to figure out whether chemical modification could increase the adsorption capacity of creatinine, AC samples modified by nitric acid hydrothermal modification were assessed for their ability to adsorb creatinine. The pore structure and surface properties of the AC samples were characterized by N 2 adsorption, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). It indicated that 4M HNO3 hydrothermal modification with 180 °C was an efficient method in improvement of the creatinine adsorption. The improved adsorption capacity can be attributed mainly to an increase in the acidic oxygen-containing functional groups. The adsorption of creatinine over AC may involve an interaction with the acidic oxygen-containing groups on AC. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the experimental isotherm and isotherm constants. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Freundlich model in the entire saturation range (3.58-59.08 mg L-1 ). The maximum adsorption capacities of AC modified with 180 °C is 62.5 mg g-1 according to the Langmuir model. Pseudo first-order and second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental data fitted well to the second-order kinetic model, which indicates that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step, instead of mass transfer. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  3. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  4. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE, to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate measures of mortality are calculated for England and Wales, Norway, and Switzerland for the years 1880 to 2000. CAL is found to be sensitive to past and present changes in death rates. ACLE requires the most data, but gives the best representation of the survivorship of cohorts present at a given time.

  5. Surface Modification for Microreactor Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Torbicz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods of surface modification of different supports, i.e. glass andpolymeric beads for enzyme immobilisation are described. The developed method ofenzyme immobilisation is based on Schiff’s base formation between the amino groups onthe enzyme surface and the aldehyde groups on the chemically modified surface of thesupports. The surface of silicon modified by APTS and GOPS with immobilised enzymewas characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM, time-of-flight secondary ion massspectroscopy (ToF-SIMS and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The supports withimmobilised enzyme (urease were also tested in combination with microreactors fabricatedin silicon and Perspex, operating in a flow-through system. For microreactors filled withurease immobilised on glass beads (Sigma and on polymeric beads (PAN, a very high andstable signal (pH change was obtained. The developed method of urease immobilisationcan be stated to be very effective.

  6. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  7. Soy protein modification: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy protein products such as flour, concentrates and isolates are used in food formulation because of their functionality, nutritional value and low cost. To obtain their optimal nutritive and functional properties as well as desirable flavor different treatments are used. Soybean proteins can be modified by physical, chemical and enzymatic treatments. Different thermal treatments are most commonly used, while the most appropriate way of modifying soy proteins from the standpoint of safety is their limited proteolysis. These treatments cause physical and chemical changes that affect their functional properties. This review discusses three principal methods used for modification of soy protein products, their effects on dominant soy protein properties and some biologically active compounds.

  8. Attitude Assessment of Managers and Staffs About Urban Modification for People With Disabilities in Municipality of Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Nafiseh Askarinejad

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion This study showed that there is a significant difference in the attitude of managers and staff of municipality regarding urban modification. Recruiting people with higher educational qualifications and awareness or familiarity with the phenomenon of disability could help in the process of urban modification in the community. It is recommended to utilize the findings of this study to formulate urban modification programs across communities for the benefit of the disabled.

  9. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of people living with multiple chronic conditions is increasing, but we know little about the impact of multimorbidity on life expectancy. OBJECTIVE: We analyze life expectancy in Medicare beneficiaries by number of chronic conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN: A retrospective cohort...... study using single-decrement period life tables. SUBJECTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,372,272) aged 67 and older as of January 1, 2008. MEASURES: Our primary outcome measure is life expectancy. We categorize study subjects by sex, race, selected chronic conditions (heart disease, cancer...... and increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Social Security and Medicare actuaries should account for the growing number of beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions when determining population projections and trust fund solvency....

  10. Policing Challenged and People’s Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Mohan Shrestha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Peace, security, rule of law, and sustainable development are driving principles in a democratic notion of developing country like Nepal. "3Is': Injustice, Insecurity and Imbalance have been reflecting in the post transitional Nepal. The study came with the objectives of investigating the peoples' perceptions on the adaptation of policing, the challenges and expectation. The information was collected from 1111(N respondents all over the country from different ways of life, applying mixed method questionnaire survey and interview. The research show the need of system based policing like 'intelligence-led'; 'police public partnership', and 'proactive' respectively. The influence of politicization, political instability, external influence, lack of role model leadership, open border, rampant corruption, nepotism-favoritism, lack of research are the major challenges in the security organizations. Furthermore, most educated and high profile personalities have less interest to encourage their generation in police services. People are expecting proficient and accountable police forces. Keywords: Policing, Challenges, People's Expectation

  11. Identifying public expectations of genetic biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Christine; Nicol, Dianne; McWhirter, Rebekah

    2017-08-01

    Understanding public priorities for biobanks is vital for maximising utility and efficiency of genetic research and maintaining respect for donors. This research directly assessed the relative importance the public place on different expectations of biobanks. Quantitative and qualitative results from a national sample of 800 Australians revealed that the majority attributed more importance to protecting privacy and ethical conduct than maximising new healthcare benefits, which was in turn viewed as more important than obtaining specific consent, benefit sharing, collaborating and sharing data. A latent class analysis identified two distinct classes displaying different patterns of expectations. One placed higher priority on behaviours that respect the donor ( n = 623), the other on accelerating science ( n = 278). Additional expectations derived from qualitative data included the need for biobanks to be transparent and to prioritise their research focus, educate the public and address commercialisation.

  12. Adolescent pregnancy: do expectations affect intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Simon, Catherine; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Beach, Roberta; Harter, Susan

    2005-09-01

    To establish the relationship between expectations about the effects of childbearing on specific aspects of life and the strength of the desire to remain nonpregnant during adolescence. We hypothesized that the absence of negative childbearing expectations is associated with an increase in the odds that sexually active, inadequately contracepting teenage girls are cognitively susceptible to conception. A racially and ethnically diverse group of 351 nulligravida, inadequately contracepting teenagers was studied. Participants responded to 60 items that asked about their expectation about the effects of becoming pregnant and not doing so. Analyses were performed to determine the factorial structure of the childbearing expectations items and their relationship to cognitive susceptibility to conception, defined as the lack of desire to remain nonpregnant. The analysis yielded a 9-factor solution for the childbearing expectations items. All 9 sub-scales exhibited acceptable reliability coefficients, stable factor patterns, and correlated significantly with the desire to remain nonpregnant. A dose-dependent relationship suggestive of causality was also apparent. In stepwise regression the sub-scales that assessed the anticipated effect of childbearing on future plans, self-esteem, and boyfriend relations remained significant and accounted for 56% of the variance in the desire to remain nonpregnant. The lengthy research instrument was reduced to an 8-item screening tool without loss of psychometric integrity or explanatory power. Childbearing expectations reflect distinct concepts and account for a significant portion of the variance in the desire to remain nonpregnant during adolescence. Thus the 8-item screening tool we validated might be used to formulate a differential diagnosis for the enigmatic behavior of teens who say they do not "want" to become pregnant but do not "mind" doing so enough to try to avoid conceiving by default.

  13. Comprehensive Analysis of the Therapeutic IgG4 Antibody Pembrolizumab: Hinge Modification Blocks Half Molecule Exchange In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Fengqiang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Larry; Antonenko, Svetlana; Zhang, Shuli; Zhang, Yi Wei; Tabrizifard, Mohammad; Ermakov, Grigori; Wiswell, Derek; Beaumont, Maribel; Liu, Liming; Richardson, Daisy; Shameem, Mohammed; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    IgG4 antibodies are evolving as an important class of cancer immunotherapies. However, human IgG4 can undergo Fab arm (half molecule) exchange with other IgG4 molecules in vivo. The hinge modification by a point mutation (S228P) prevents half molecule exchange of IgG4. However, the experimental confirmation is still expected by regulatory agencies. Here, we report for the first time the extensive analysis of half molecule exchange for a hinge-modified therapeutic IgG4 molecule, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) targeting programmed death 1 (PD1) receptor that was approved for advanced melanoma. Studies were performed in buffer or human serum using multiple exchange partners including natalizumab (Tysabri) and human IgG4 pool. Formation of bispecific antibodies was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, exchange with Fc fragments, mixed mode chromatography, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The half molecule exchange was also examined in vivo in SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the hinge modification in pembrolizumab prevented half molecule exchange, whereas the unmodified counterpart anti-PD1 wt showed active exchange activity with other IgG4 antibodies or self-exchange activity with its own molecules. Our work, as an example expected for meeting regulatory requirements, contributes to establish without ambiguity that hinge-modified IgG4 antibodies are suitable for biotherapeutic applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...... performance. We explore the proposed impact of diverging relationship norms on relationship expectations using data from an ongoing field study of Danish buyers and Chinese suppliers. We link these diverging expectations to the business practices of Danish buyers and Chinese and their institutional contexts...

  15. TWO MODIFICATIONS OF SCALERS FOR RATE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, T. S.; Gordon, B. E.

    1964-04-15

    Two simple modifications to nuclear scalers have been developed. The first involves an automatic stepping switch which permits a single scaler to be actuated by up to four Geiger counters in sequence and to record the time to reach a preset count for each. The second modification is designed to pick a pulse off a conventional scaler when a preset count has been reached and to use the pulse to actuate a recorder. Both modifications considerably extend the utility of conventional scalers.

  16. Modification of metallic corrosion by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    This review will consider some of the properties of surface alloys, formed by ion implantation, which are effective in modifying corrosion behaviour. Examples will be given of the modification of the corrosion behaviour of pure metals, steels and other engineering alloys, resulting from implantation with metals and metalloids. Emphasis will be given to the modification of anodic processes produced by ion implantation since a review will be given elsewhere in the proceedings concerning the modification of cathodic processes. (orig.)

  17. Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Matthias; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-01-01

    Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now...... systematically applied to protein populations. The combination of function- or structure-based purification of modified 'subproteomes', such as phosphorylated proteins or modified membrane proteins, with mass spectrometry is proving particularly successful. To map modification sites in molecular detail, novel...

  18. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Kamila; Siemion, Przemysław; Kurcok, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  19. Effect of Subliminal Stimulation of Symbiotic Fantasies on Behavior Modification Treatment of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Silverman, Lloyd H.

    1978-01-01

    Obese women were treated in behavior modification programs for overeating. Behavior programs were accompanied by subliminal stimulation and by symbiotic and control messages. The symbiotic condition gave evidence of enhancing weight loss. This finding supports the proposition that subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies can enhance the…

  20. Modifications in the Teach-C computer code for convection analysis-two-dimensional transient diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, P.A.B. de.

    1987-08-01

    Some modifications in Teach-C computer program to analyse the heat conduction with convective heat transport are presented. The utilization of the program to solve a convective - diffusion problem is studied and the results are compared with an analysis of the same problem, in steady - state conditions, by finite element method [pt

  1. 77 FR 72746 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel Sulfur Programs AGENCY... Fuel Standard (``RFS'') program under section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act. The direct final rule also... marine diesel fuel produced by transmix processors, and the fuel marker requirements for 500 ppm sulfur...

  2. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  3. Independent modification on water lubrication loop of radial-axial bearing of Russian reactor coolant pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yingbin

    2012-01-01

    Water lubrication was used for radial-axial bearings of 1391M reactor coolant pumps at both units of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I Project, which was the first trial on large commercial pressurized water reactors in the world. As a prototype, there were inherent deficiencies leading to a series of operational events. Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation conducted the independent innovative technical modification to cope with the defects, and succeeded in reducing heat removal rate of the radial-axial bearings of the reactor coolant pumps, mitigating or preventing the cavitation abrasion of the bearings and improving the cooling effects. This paper illustrates the reasons of the innovative modification, the design and implementation preparation of modification program, the implementation process and evaluation of modification effect, including detailed follow-up work program. (author)

  4. Use of a Scale Model in the Design of Modifications to the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canacci, Victor A.; Gonsalez, Jose C.; Spera, David A.; Burke, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Major modifications were made in 1999 to the 6- by 9-Foot (1.8- by 2.7-m) Icing Research tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center, including replacement of its heat exchanger and associated ducts and turning vanes, and the addition of fan outlet guide vanes (OGV's). A one-tenth scale model of the IRT (designated as the SMIRT) was constructed with and without these modifications and tested to increase confidence in obtaining expected improvements in flow quality around the tunnel loop. The SMIRT is itself an aerodynamic test facility whose flow patterns without modifications have been shown to be accurate, scaled representations of those measured in the IRT prior to the 1999 upgrade program. In addition, tests in the SMIRT equipped with simulated OGV's indicated that these devices in the IRT might reduce flow distortions immediately downstream of the fan by two thirds. Flow quality parameters measured in the SMIRT were projected to the full-size modified IRT, and quantitative estimates of improvements in flow quality were given prior to construction. In this paper, the results of extensive flow quality studies conducted in the SMIRT are documented. Samples of these are then compared with equivalent measurements made in the full-scale IRT, both before and after its configuration was upgraded. Airspeed, turbulence intensity, and flow angularity distributions are presented for cross sections downstream of the drive fan, both upstream and downstream of the replacement flat heat exchanger, in the stilling chamber, in the test section, and in the wakes of the new comer turning vanes with their unique expanding and contracting designs. Lessons learned from these scale-model studies are discussed.

  5. An attempt to target anxiety sensitivity via cognitive bias modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Beard, Courtney; Fisher, Christopher R; Schofield, Casey A

    2015-01-01

    Our goals in the present study were to test an adaptation of a Cognitive Bias Modification program to reduce anxiety sensitivity, and to evaluate the causal relationships between interpretation bias of physiological cues, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety and avoidance associated with interoceptive exposures. Participants with elevated anxiety sensitivity who endorsed having a panic attack or limited symptom attack were randomly assigned to either an Interpretation Modification Program (IMP; n = 33) or a Control (n = 32) condition. During interpretation modification training (via the Word Sentence Association Paradigm), participants read short sentences describing ambiguous panic-relevant physiological and cognitive symptoms and were trained to endorse benign interpretations and reject threatening interpretations associated with these cues. Compared to the Control condition, IMP training successfully increased endorsements of benign interpretations and decreased endorsements of threatening interpretations at visit 2. Although self-reported anxiety sensitivity decreased from pre-selection to visit 1 and from visit 1 to visit 2, the reduction was not larger for the experimental versus control condition. Further, participants in IMP (vs. Control) training did not experience less anxiety and avoidance associated with interoceptive exposures. In fact, there was some evidence that those in the Control condition experienced less avoidance following training. Potential explanations for the null findings, including problems with the benign panic-relevant stimuli and limitations with the control condition, are discussed.

  6. An attempt to target anxiety sensitivity via cognitive bias modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M Clerkin

    Full Text Available Our goals in the present study were to test an adaptation of a Cognitive Bias Modification program to reduce anxiety sensitivity, and to evaluate the causal relationships between interpretation bias of physiological cues, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety and avoidance associated with interoceptive exposures. Participants with elevated anxiety sensitivity who endorsed having a panic attack or limited symptom attack were randomly assigned to either an Interpretation Modification Program (IMP; n = 33 or a Control (n = 32 condition. During interpretation modification training (via the Word Sentence Association Paradigm, participants read short sentences describing ambiguous panic-relevant physiological and cognitive symptoms and were trained to endorse benign interpretations and reject threatening interpretations associated with these cues. Compared to the Control condition, IMP training successfully increased endorsements of benign interpretations and decreased endorsements of threatening interpretations at visit 2. Although self-reported anxiety sensitivity decreased from pre-selection to visit 1 and from visit 1 to visit 2, the reduction was not larger for the experimental versus control condition. Further, participants in IMP (vs. Control training did not experience less anxiety and avoidance associated with interoceptive exposures. In fact, there was some evidence that those in the Control condition experienced less avoidance following training. Potential explanations for the null findings, including problems with the benign panic-relevant stimuli and limitations with the control condition, are discussed.

  7. Configuration management of plant modifications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritsch, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of nuclear power plant operation, regulatory pressure, and the large numbers of people required to operate and support the stations, the control of plant modifications at these plants needs to be expanded and improved. The aerospace and defense industries, as well as the owners or operators of large energy projects have established configuration management programs (CMPs) to control plant design changes. These programs are composed of well-defined functions for identifying, evaluating, recording, tracking, issuing, and documenting the established baseline conditions, as well as required changes to these baseline conditions. The purpose of this paper is to describe a recommended CMP for plant modifications consisting of a computerized data base installed on the utility's computer to provide a central storage of plant design and operations data necessary to control the following activities as they are affected by plant design changes: training; record management; operations; maintenance; health physics; planning/scheduling; procurement/inventory control; outage management (including modifications); and emergency response

  8. College for some to college for all: social background, occupational expectations, and educational expectations over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly A

    2008-06-01

    The educational expectations of 10th-graders have dramatically increased from 1980 to 2002. Their rise is attributable in part to the changing educational composition of students' parents and related to the educational profiles of their expected occupations. Students whose parents have gone to college are more likely to attend college themselves, and students expect occupations that are more prestigious in 2002 than in 1980. The educational requirements of particular occupation categories have risen only slightly. These analyses also reveal that educational expectations in recent cohorts are more loosely linked to social background and occupational plans than they were in 1980. The declining importance of parents' background and the decoupling of educational and occupational plans, in addition to a strong and significant effect of cohort on educational expectations, suggest that the expectation of four-year college attainment is indeed becoming the norm.

  9. Great Expectations: How Role Expectations and Role Experiences Relate to Perceptions of Group Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark A; Irving, P Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns-pertaining to task and social cohesion-were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes' role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.

  10. A multiresolution model of rhythmic expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, L.M.; Honing, H.; Miyazaki, K.; Hiraga, Y.; Adachi, M.; Nakajima, Y.; Tsuzaki, M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a computational model of rhythmic cognition that predicts expected onset times. A dynamic representation of musical rhythm, the multiresolution analysis using the continuous wavelet transform is used. This representation decomposes the temporal structure of a musical rhythm into time

  11. What characterises the expectations of gamblers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Connie

    the gamblers have erroneous thoughts of gambling, their subjective estimates of the return rates of the games, expected gains and motives of consumption and investment for playing. These aspects will help to create a picture of how rational the gamblers are and whether there are significant differences between...

  12. Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

  13. Cardinal Coordinate Independence for Expected Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.

    1984-01-01

    A representation theorem for binary relations on (Re)n is derived. It is interpreted in the context of decision making under uncertainty. There we consider the existence of a subjective expected utility model to represent a preference relation of a person on the set of bets for money on a finite

  14. Cardinal Coordinate Independence for Expected Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractA representation theorem for binary relations on n is derived. It is interpreted in the context of decision making under uncertainty. There we consider the existence of a subjective expected utility model to represent a preference relation of a person on the set of bets for money on a

  15. Characterizing Student Expectations: A Small Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a small empirical study (n = 130), in which undergraduate students in the Business Faculty of a UK university were asked to express views and expectations relating to the study of a mathematics. Factor analysis is used to identify latent variables emerging from clusters of the measured variables and these are…

  16. Provider expectations and father involvement: learning from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... in Gauteng's poor and black communities with fathers that did not ... affect fathers' ability to live up to provider expectations. ... On the contrary, father absence can exacerbate household poverty and “can ... socio-emotional development of the children, although such effects are not uniformly .... explanation.

  17. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  18. Enhanced Patient Expectant and Antiemetic Drug Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Breast Cancer Nausea and Vomiting Expectancy Patient Information Antiemetic Side Effect 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 15 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY ...CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT...5-HT3 receptor antagonist class of antiemetics (ondansetron, granisetron , tropisitron) have greatly reduced chemotherapy-related vomiting, this has

  19. Enhanced Patient Expectation and Antiemetic Drug Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    NUMBER OF PAGES 15 Breast Cancer Expectancy Antiemetic Nausea and Vomiting Patient Information Side Effect 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18... SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT PAGE OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassified...by the introduction of the 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist class of antiemetics (ondansetron, granisetron , tropisitron) have greatly reduced chemotherapy

  20. Stolarsky's inequality for Choquet-like expectation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mesiar, Radko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2016), s. 1235-1248 ISSN 0139-9918 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Choquet-like expectation * Stolarsky’s inequality * Minkowski’s inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/mesiar-0469701.pdf

  1. Expectations and voluntary attrition in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as an important factor in student decisions to voluntarily withdraw. A single case study design was selected to explore the causes of voluntary attrition in nursing students within a School of Nursing and Midwifery. The study population was obtained through purposeful sampling and consisted of 15 students who had previously voluntarily withdrawn from pre-registration nursing programmes. A semi-structured interview method was used to collect data from study participants. The interview schedule developed for use in the study reflected the key components of the conceptual model of higher education (HE) student attrition (Tinto, 1975, 1987, 1993). All interviews were tape recorded to facilitate later transcription. The Cyclical or Interactive Model of Qualitative Research (Miles and Huberman, 1994) was used to analyse data collected from study participants. This paper describes the unrealistic range of expectations which nursing students have of nursing, the information sources and experiences which inform student expectations and how ambiguous expectations contributed to voluntarily attrition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Matching Expectations for Successful University Student Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam; MacCallum, Judith; Young, Susan; Walker, Gabrielle; Holmes, Kirsten; Haski-Leventha, Debbie; Scott, Rowena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of expectation formation and matching for university student volunteers and their hosts. Design/methodology/approach: This research involved a multi-stage data collection process including interviews with student volunteers, and university and host representatives from six…

  3. Heterogeneous expectations in monetary DSGE models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massaro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper derives a general New Keynesian framework with heterogeneous expectations by explicitly solving the micro-foundations underpinning the model. The resulting reduced form is analytically tractable and encompasses the representative rational agent benchmark as a special case. We specify a

  4. Forecasting differences in life expectancy by education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter); F. Peters (Frederik); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractForecasts of life expectancy (LE) have fuelled debates about the sustainability and dependability of pension and healthcare systems. Of relevance to these debates are inequalities in LE by education. In this paper, we present a method of forecasting LE for different educational groups

  5. Expectations and bubbles in asset pricing experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Sonnemans, J.; Tuinstra, J.; van de Velden, H.

    2008-01-01

    We present results on expectation formation in a controlled experimental environment. In each period subjects are asked to predict the next price of a risky asset. The realized market price is derived from an unknown market equilibrium equation with feedback from individual forecasts. In most

  6. Life expectancies for individuals with psychiatric diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, H; Borgå, P; Borritz, M

    2001-09-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate life expectancies in different diagnostic groups for individuals treated as inpatients at Swedish psychiatric clinics. All individuals, older than 18 y and alive on the first of January 1983, who had been registered in the National Hospital Discharge Registry by a psychiatric clinic in 1978-82, were monitored for mortality during 1983 by using the National Cause of Death Registry. The study group consisted of 91 385 men and 77 217 women. The patients were divided into nine diagnostic groups according to the principal diagnosis registered at the latest discharge. Actuarial mathematics was used to construct life expectancy tables, which present the number of years expected to live, by gender and diagnostic group. Expectancies of life were significantly shortened for both genders and in all nine diagnostic groups (with one exception). Mental disorders in general are life shortening. This fact should be recognised in community health when setting health priorities. It should also be addressed in curricula as well as in treatment and preventive programmes.

  7. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO .... our galactic event rate out to the local group. ..... VK thanks her collaborators in the work reviewed here: C Kim, P Grandclément,. C Ihm ...

  8. Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Bennett T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

  9. Expectation Levels in Dictionary Consultation and Compilation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionary consultation and compilation is a two-way engagement between two parties, namely a dictionary user and a lexicographer. How well users cope with looking up words in a Bantu language dictionary and to what extent their expectations are met, depends on their consultation skills, their knowledge of the structure ...

  10. Expectation Levels in Dictionary Consultation and Compilation*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Dictionary consultation and compilation is a two-way engagement between two par- ties, namely a dictionary user and a lexicographer. How well users cope with looking up words in a Bantu language dictionary and to what extent their expectations are met, depends on their con- sultation skills, their knowledge of ...

  11. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  12. Diversity in Literary Response: Revisiting Gender Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendler, Beth M.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on and reexamining theories on gender and literacy, derived from research performed between 1974 and 2002, this qualitative study explored the gender assumptions and expectations of Language Arts teachers in a graduate level adolescent literature course at a university in the Midwestern United States. The theoretical framework was…

  13. A Simple Axiomatization of Nonadditive Expected Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.K. Sarin (Rakesh); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides an extension of Savage's subjective expected utility theory for decisions under uncertainty. It includes in the set of events both unambiguous events for which probabilities are additive and ambiguous events for which probabilities are permitted to be nonadditive. The

  14. A simple axiomatization of nonadditive expected utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Sarin, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides an extension of Savage's subjective expected utility theory for decisions under uncertainty. It includes in the set of events both unambiguous events for which probabilities are additive as well as ambiguous events for which probabilities are permitted to be nonadditive. The main

  15. Training Therapists about Client Expectations of Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Georgia; Marshall, Renee; Chambliss, Catherine

    Research has indicated that premature termination of therapy is sometimes due to a conflict in goal and outcome expectations between therapists and family members of clients. The present study requested both therapists and parents of child clients to complete questionnaires to determine if there is congruence between therapist and parental…

  16. Ambiguous Expectations for Intersectoral Action for Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heering Holt, Ditte; Waldorff, Susanne Boch; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2018-01-01

    of such ideas has proven difficult though. In this paper we argue that neo-institutional theory can help us conceptualize implementation challenges by pointing to implicit expectations and contradictions associated with the ISA idea itself. With Denmark as empirical case, we conducted a document analysis...

  17. Features Students Really Expect from Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Clara; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In higher education settings more and more learning is facilitated through online learning environments. To support and understand students' learning processes better, learning analytics offers a promising approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' expectations toward features of learning analytics systems. In a first…

  18. Effects of Evaluation Expectation on Artistic Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    Conditions are examined under which the imposition of an extrinsic constraint upon performance of an activity can lead to decrements in creativity. Female college students worked on an art activity either with or without the expectation of external evaluation. In addition, subjects were asked to focus upon either the creative or the technical…

  19. Patient expectancy and post-chemotherapy nausea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colagiuri, Ben; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    to determine the strength of the relationship between expectancy and post-chemotherapy nausea. METHODS: The findings from 17 relevant studies (n = 2,400) identified through systematic searches of Medline, PsycInfo, and Cinhal were analyzed using a combination of meta-analytic techniques. RESULTS: Overall...

  20. Knee arthroplasty: are patients' expectations fulfilled?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, Anna K; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören; Roos, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    to pain and physical function after knee arthroplasty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 102 patients (39 men) with knee osteoarthritis and who were assigned for TKR (mean age 71 (51-86) years) were investigated with KOOS, SF-36, and additional questions concerning physical activity level, expectations, satisfaction...

  1. Harnessing placebo effects by targeting expectancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerdeman, K.J.

    2018-01-01

    Placebo effects are health improvements, for example pain reduction, due to an inert treatment. These effects are typically ascribed to a person’s expectations about the beneficial outcomes of the placebo. The literature and experimental research in the current dissertation shows that

  2. Gendered Expectations for Leadership in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Olin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief Despite significant gains in representation at the administration level, there is still a disparity between the percentage of women in our profession and women as library leaders. Additionally, even when women attain leadership roles, even top positions in libraries, there are still hurdles in the shape of gendered expectations. This article examines the […

  3. On the Expected Value of Fuzzy Events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klement, E.P.; Mesiar, Radko

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 57-74 ISSN 0218-4885 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : expected value * fuzzy event * Choquet integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/mesiar-0452568.pdf

  4. Multiple Equilibria in Noisy Rational Expectations Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palvolgyi, Domotor; Venter, Gyuri

    This paper studies equilibrium uniqueness in standard noisy rational expectations economies with asymmetric or differential information a la Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) and Hellwig (1980). We show that the standard linear equilibrium of Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) is the unique equilibrium...

  5. Inflation expectations in the Czech interbank market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fukač, Martin

    -, č. 253 (2005), s. 1-30 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation expectations * nominal interest rate * Fisher rule Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp253.pdf

  6. Effects of Teacher Expectancies: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Robert; And Others

    This study manipulates the variables of children's ethnicity, sex, and ability to ascertain the nature of the interaction relationship between teacher expectancies and student performance. The subjects were urban teachers who were asked to read case histories and then rate the child on a Likert-type family and pupil behavior rating form and a…

  7. 77 FR 54951 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... owned assets and liabilities and the ability of married couples to transfer assets in order to... married couples should extend to couples who are part of domestic partnerships or civil unions where these... officer, employee, director) or has lent money to, provided credit support to, or guaranteed a loan of the...

  8. The link between individual expectations and savings: Do nursing home expectations matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinjans, Kristin J.; Lee, Jinkook

    these expectations and savings behavior, using data from the Health and Retirement Study. We find a clear relation between subjective expectations and probability of future nursing home entry, and a positive effect of these expectations on savings behavior. Surprisingly, we find no difference of this effect...... by wealth group, so it seems that Medicaid eligibility in the context of nursing home entry plays no factor in the decision to save....

  9. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of your home or office by accessing ACG's web-based educational programs, or attend one of ACG's ... profitability. Learn from experts at ACG’s live and web-based educational programs, read what others are doing ...

  10. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pathway on the Education Universe NYU OSCE Toolkit GI Fellowship Programs Find a GI Fellowship Program GI ... Video & PSAs (YouTube) Podcasts ACG Sites GI.ORG GI.ORG cancel GI.ORG ACG CASE REPORTS ACG ...

  11. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... From articles to educational programs, ACG provides you tools and techniques you can use in your practice that will help improve efficiency and increase profitability. Learn from experts at ACG’s live and web-based educational programs, read what others are doing ...

  12. User's guide to program RCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.D.; Rajnak, K.; Renard, P.

    1976-06-01

    This is a set of three Fortran IV programs, RCN29, HFMOD7, and RCN229, based on the Herman--Skillman and Charlotte Froese Fischer programs, with extensive modifications and additions. The programs compute self-consistent-field radial wave functions and the various radial integrals involved in the computation of atomic energy levels and spectra

  13. Expected commodity returns and pricing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortazar, Gonzalo; Kovacevic, Ivo; Schwartz, Eduardo S.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic models of commodity prices have evolved considerably in terms of their structure and the number and interpretation of the state variables that model the underlying risk. Using multiple factors, different specifications and modern estimation techniques, these models have gained wide acceptance because of their success in accurately fitting the observed commodity futures' term structures and their dynamics. It is not well emphasized however that these models, in addition to providing the risk neutral distribution of future spot prices, also provide their true distribution. While the parameters of the risk neutral distribution are estimated more precisely and are usually statistically significant, some of the parameters of the true distribution are typically measured with large errors and are statistically insignificant. In this paper we argue that to increase the reliability of commodity pricing models, and therefore their use by practitioners, some of their parameters — in particular the risk premium parameters — should be obtained from other sources and we show that this can be done without losing any precision in the pricing of futures contracts. We show how the risk premium parameters can be obtained from estimations of expected futures returns and provide alternative procedures for estimating these expected futures returns. - Highlights: • Simple methodology to improve the performance of commodity pricing models • New information about commodity futures expected return is added to the estimation. • No significant effect in pricing futures contracts is observed. • More reliable commodity pricing model's expected returns are obtained. • Methodology is open to any expected futures return model preferred by practitioner

  14. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  15. Modification of First-line Antiretroviral Therapy in Treatment-naive, HIV Positive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Shenoy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modification of initial Antiretroviral Therapy (ART program is an important issue in HIV infected patients as the number of ART regimens available is limited. Hence, there is a need to understand the factors that affect modification and therefore, the durability of the initial antiretroviral regimen. Aim: To study the type of modification of first line ART in treatment-naive HIV positive patients and factors influencing it. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out in the HIV clinic of a tertiary care hospital, using data obtained from the case records of the subjects who were initiated on ART between January 2012 to December 2014. Data on patient baseline characteristics, proportion of patients who required modification, type and time of modification was collected. The determinants of time to modification were analysed using Chi-square test. Binomial logistic regression was utilized to assess independent risk factors for change in regimen. Results: Out of 200 case records analysed, 54 patients had to undergo a modification in their initial regimen. The mean age of patients was 44.68 ± 11.31 years. Majority of the patients were males. The most common reason for modification was Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs (79.63% followed by treatment failure (9.25%. In 85.18% cases, modification involved substitution. Occurrence of ADRs and non-tenofovir based first-line regimens were associated with higher likelihood of substitution in regimen (p<0.05. The median time (IQR to modification was 173 (152.25, 293.50 days. Conclusion: ADRs and the use of non-tenofovir based regimens resulted in significantly higher rates of modification of antiretroviral therapy. There should be monitoring of patients on ART to detect ADRs at the earliest and to obtain increased use of single tablet containing tenofovir based regimen to improve durability of first line regimens.

  16. The hand surgery fellowship application process: expectations, logistics, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Osterman, Meredith

    2015-04-01

    To investigate expectations, logistics, and costs relevant to the hand surgery fellowship application process. We sought to discover (1) what both applicants and program directors are seeking, (2) what both parties have to offer, (3) how both parties collect information about each other, and (4) the costs incurred in arranging each match. We conducted on-line surveys of hand surgery fellowship applicants for appointment in 2015 and of current fellowship program directors. Sixty-two applicants and 41 program directors completed the survey. Results revealed applicants' demographic characteristics, qualifications, method of ranking hand fellowship programs, costs incurred (both monetary and opportunity) during the application process, ultimate match status, and suggestions for change. Results also revealed program directors' program demographics, rationale for offering interviews and favorably ranking applicants, application-related logistical details, costs incurred (both monetary and opportunity) during the application process, and suggestions for change. Applicants for hand surgery fellowship training are primarily interested in a potential program's academic reputation, emphasis on orthopedic surgery, and location. The typical, successfully matched applicant was a 30-year-old male orthopedic resident with 3 publications to his credit. Applicants rely on peers and Web sites for information about fellowships. Fellowship directors are primarily seeking applicants recommended by other experienced surgeons and with positive personality traits. The typical fellowship director offers a single year of orthopedic-based fellowship training to 2 fellows per year and relies on a common application and in-person interviews to collect information about applicants. Applicants appear to be more concerned than directors about the current state of the match process. Applicants and directors alike incur heavy costs, in both dollars and opportunity, to arrange each match. A nuanced

  17. Modification of species-based differential evolution for multimodal optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Said Iskandar Al; Syahputra, Hermawan; Firdaus, Muliawan

    2015-12-01

    At this time optimization has an important role in various fields as well as between other operational research, industry, finance and management. Optimization problem is the problem of maximizing or minimizing a function of one variable or many variables, which include unimodal and multimodal functions. Differential Evolution (DE), is a random search technique using vectors as an alternative solution in the search for the optimum. To localize all local maximum and minimum on multimodal function, this function can be divided into several domain of fitness using niching method. Species-based niching method is one of method that build sub-populations or species in the domain functions. This paper describes the modification of species-based previously to reduce the computational complexity and run more efficiently. The results of the test functions show species-based modifications able to locate all the local optima in once run the program.

  18. A status report on weather modification research in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; Orville, Harold D.; Boe, Bruce A.; Stith, Jeffrey L.

    An overview of the status of weather modification research in North and South Dakota (USA) is presented. The operational North Dakota Cloud Modification Projects has, since 1976, been seeding summer convective clouds for the dual objectives of hail suppression and rainfall enhancement. Research being carried out as part of a Federal/State cooperative program, in coordination with the operational activities, has included physical and statistical evaluation studies as well as numerical cloud modeling investigations. The statistical analyses provide some indications that the intended seeding effects are being obtained. The physical studies involve aircraft and radar observations and emphasize tracer experiments to study the transport and dispersion of seeding agents and the activation of ice nuclei. The modeling studies simulate the experiments and aid in investigation of the process involved and the effects of seeding. The 1989 North Dakota Thunderstorm Project, a major field study emphasizing physical and numerical modeling studies, is described briefly.

  19. Modifications to HFEF/S for IFR fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Forrester, R.J.; Carnes, M.D.; Rigg, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Modifications have begun to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) in order to demonstrate the technology of the integral fast reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. This paper describes the status of the modifications to the facility and briefly reviews the status of the development of the process equipment. The HFEF/S was the demonstration facility for the early Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) melt refining/injection-casting fuel cycle. Then called the Fuel Cycle Facility, ∼400 EBR-II fuel assemblies were recycled in the two hot cells of the facility during the 1964-69 period. Since then it has been utilized as a fuels examination facility. The objective of the IFR fuel cycle program is to upgrade HFEF/S to current standards, install new process equipment, and demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the IFR pyroprocess fuel cycle

  20. A new paradigm of cardiovascular risk factor modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Firdaus1, Jeffery M Asbury2, Dwight W Reynolds21Donald W Reynolds Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Section, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death and disability in the United States. While multiple studies have demonstrated that modification of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs significantly reduces morbidity and mortality rates, clinical control of CVDs and CVRFs remains poor. By 2010, the American Heart Association seeks to reduce coronary heart disease, stroke, and risk by 25%. To meet this goal, clinical practitioners must establish new treatment paradigms for CVDs and CVRFs. This paper discusses one such treatment model – a comprehensive atherosclerosis program run by physician extenders (under physician supervision, which incorporates evidence-based CVD and CVRF interventions to achieve treatment goals.Keywords: atherosclerosis, cardiovascular risk factors, prevention, modification