WorldWideScience

Sample records for program expanding food

  1. 2010 Impacts: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Since 1969, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) has improved the diets and food-related behaviors of program participants. Each year EFNEP enrolls more than half a million new program participants. In 2010, EFNEP reached 137,814 adults and 463,530 youth directly and nearly 400,000 family members indirectly. This paper…

  2. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, poor health, and limited physical activity are major health concerns. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) improves the health and well-being of limited resource families and youth. Additionally, EFNEP leads to public savings. Research shows that better health is associated with reduced health care costs, less…

  3. Creating Healthful Home Food Environments: Results of a Study with Participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Smalling, Agueda Lara; Thompson, Debbe; Watson, Kathleen B.; Reed, Debra; Konzelmann, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. Design: Two-group randomized control trial; intervention versus usual EFNEP curriculum. Setting: Texas EFNEP classes. Participants:…

  4. Creating healthful home food environments: Results of a study with participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. We used a two-group randomized control trial: intervention versus usual EF...

  5. Participant and Household Characteristics Associated With Graduation From the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Barale, Karen; Funaiole, Angie; Power, Thomas G; Combe, Angela

    2016-01-01

    To examine empirically participant and household characteristics associated with Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) graduation and to determine whether they differ across 2 counties. Survey of EFNEP participants from 2011 to 2012. Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program sites serving limited-resource families in 1 rural and 1 urban/suburban county in Washington State. Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program participants (urban/suburban: n = 647; rural: n = 569). Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program completion/graduation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations of participant (ethnicity, race, age, education, pregnancy status, and nutrition knowledge/behavior at baseline) and household (number of people in the house, place of residence, and public assistance services) characteristics with EFNEP graduation. Associations were moderated by county. For the urban/suburban county, participants living with more people (after controlling for the total number of adults) were more likely to graduate. For the rural county, participants living with fewer total adults (after controlling for the total number in the house) and those with better food safety practices at baseline were more likely to graduate. This study aids in understanding which participants are more or less likely to complete EFNEP successfully, and therefore can inform strategies aimed at increasing graduation rates. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Formative assessment in the development of an obesity prevention component for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study conducted formative research (surveys, focus groups); to assess the nutrition education needs of clients in the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program prior to curriculum revision. Current participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program from 3 Texas cities (...

  7. Dietary Changes by Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) Graduates Are Independent of Program Delivery Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luccia, Barbara H. D.; Kunkel, Mary E.; Cason, Katherine L.

    2003-01-01

    Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates (n=1,141) who received either individual (21.3%), group (76.2%), or combined (2.5%) instruction were assessed. Independent of method, participants significantly improved the number of servings consumed from grains, vegetables, dairy, and meat and meat alternatives; total calories consumed;…

  8. Demonstrating Impact through Replicable Analysis: Implications of an Evaluation of Arkansas's Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Josh; Brite-Lane, Allison; Crook, Tina; Hakkak, Reza; Fuller, Serena

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation described in this article focused on the effectiveness of Arkansas's Extension-based Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) but demonstrates an analytic approach that may be useful across Extension programs. We analyzed data from 1,810 Arkansas EFNEP participants' entry and exit Behavior Checklists to assess…

  9. Family and Consumer Sciences Focus on the Human Dimension: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Katherine L.; Chipman, Helen; Forstadt, Leslie A.; Rasco, Mattie R.; Sellers, Debra M.; Stephenson, Laura; York, De'Shoin A.

    2017-01-01

    The history of family and consumer sciences (FCS) and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is discussed with an emphasis on the critical importance of the human dimension. EFNEP's focus on people, education for change, accountability, strategic partnerships, and public value are highlighted as an example and model for…

  10. The impact of goal attainment on behavioral and mediating variables among low income women participating in an Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the relationships between participant goal attainment, and changes in mediating variables, and food choice outcomes from a modified curriculum for the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), promoting healthy home food environments and parenting skills relate...

  11. The Impact of Nutrition Education on Dietary Behavior and Iron Status in Participants of the Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children, and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Nedra K.

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of nutrition edu cation on participants of the Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). The specific objectives were to: 1) determine the impact of participation in EFNEP on iron status as assessed by hematocrit (hct) and ferritin levels; 2) determine the effect of nutrition knowledge on hct and ferritin values; and 3) determine the effect dietary behavior has...

  12. Social Media as a Supplement to Face-to-Face Education: The Perspectives of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Paraprofessionals and Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Sarah R.; Harrison, Judy A.; da Silva, Vanessa R.

    2016-01-01

    Using social media is an inexpensive, innovative approach to supplementing direct education provided by the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). Focus group research was conducted with EFNEP paraprofessionals (n = 33) and participants (n = 39) to inform the development of a social media presence for the program. Although…

  13. The impact of goal attainment on behavioral and mediating variables among low income women participating in an Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Deborah I; Scott, Amanda R; Lara-Smalling, Agueda; Watson, Kathleen B; Konzelmann, Karen

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between participant goal attainment and changes in mediating variables and food choice outcomes from a modified curriculum for the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) promoting healthy home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. EFNEP participants in 54 intervention classes received a goal sheet after each of 6 classes. Participants recorded goal attainment and returned at the next class, Diet and mediating variables were measured at baseline, immediate post, and 4 months later. Mixed model regression analysis over time assessed whether goal attainment was associated with the outcomes at post or follow-up, controlling for baseline assessment. Participants who reported attaining more goals reported greater self-efficacy for planning/encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption and making fruit and vegetables available, menu planning skills, improvement in the food preparation practices and higher home availability for regular vegetables. At post, those who reported attaining more fiber, vegetable, and water goals reported consuming more of these items. Goal attainment was related to some changes in food choice and mediating variables in an at risk population. Further research into the use and efficacy of goal setting and attainment in this population is warranted.

  14. Scaling up: Expanding the impact of food security and nutrition ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-06

    Oct 6, 2016 ... To increase food production; To raise incomes for farming families; To improve nutrition across the Global South. Together with its ... The social business is expanding from the 55 franchises currently serving 25,000 customers in Kenya to 150 franchises that will benefit 375,000 smallholder farmers by 2018.

  15. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 371-374

  16. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 371-374

  17. How Often Are Drugs Made Available Under the Food and Drug Administration's Expanded Access Process Approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Amy E; Markon, André O; Chan-Tack, Kirk M; Lurie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In this review of individual patient expanded-access requests to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research for the period Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2014, we evaluated the number of applications received and the number allowed to proceed. We also evaluated whether drugs and certain biologics obtained under expanded access went on to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Finally, we considered concerns that adverse events occurring during expanded access might place sponsors at risk for legal liability. Overall, 98% of individual patient expanded-access requests were allowed to proceed. During the study period, among drugs without a previous approval for any indication or dosage form, 24% of unique drugs (ie, multiple applications for access to the same drug were considered to relate to 1 unique drug), and 20% of expanded-access applications received marketing approval by 1 year after initial submission; 43% and 33%, respectively, were approved by 5 years after initial submission. A search of 3 legal databases and a database of news articles did not appear to identify any product liability cases arising from the use of a product in expanded access. Our analyses seek to give physicians and patients a realistic perspective on the likelihood of a drug's approval as well as certain information regarding the product liability risks for commercial sponsors when providing expanded access to investigational drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s expanded-access program maintains a careful balance between authorizing patient access to potentially beneficial drugs and protecting them from drugs that may have unknown risks. At the same time, the agency wishes to maintain the integrity of the clinical trials process, ultimately the best way to get safe and effective drugs to patients. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Trials and Triumphs of Expanded Extension Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavengood, Scott; Love, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Oregon extension faced challenges in presenting programs in the wood products industry. Several traditional tactics, revised to suit a new audience, have proved successful: personal coaching, building partnerships, and providing a high level of service. Newer methods, such as database marketing and distance learning, are also proving to be…

  19. Observed Food Safety Practices in the Summer Food Service Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Emily Vaterlaus; Alcorn, Michelle; Watkins, Tracee; Cole, Kerri; Paez, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this exploratory, observational study was three-fold: 1) Determine current food safety practices at Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) sites; 2) Identify types of food served at the sites and collect associated temperatures; and 3) Establish recommendations for food safety training in the SFSP.…

  20. Meeting Expanding Needs to Collect Food Intake Specificity: The Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHeel, Nancy; Pettit, Janet; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    Food and nutrient databases are populated with data obtained from a variety of sources including USDA Reference Tables, scientific journals, food manufacturers and foreign food tables. The food and nutrient database maintained by the Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) at the University of Minnesota is continually updated with current nutrient data and continues to be expanded with additional nutrient fields to meet diverse research endeavors. Data are strictly evaluated for reliability and relevance before incorporation into the database; however, the values are obtained from various sources and food samples rather than from direct chemical analysis of specific foods. Precise nutrient values for specific foods are essential to the nutrition program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Specific foods to be included in the menus of astronauts are chemically analyzed at the Johnson Space Center for selected nutrients. A request from NASA for a method to enter the chemically analyzed nutrient values for these space flight food items into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) software resulted in modification of the database and interview system for use by NASA, with further modification to extend the method for related uses by more typical research studies.

  1. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  2. Critical Research Needed to Examine the Environmental Impacts of Expanded Refrigeration on the Food System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Brent R; Miller, Shelie A

    2016-11-15

    The unbroken global refrigerated supply chain, or cold chain, is rapidly expanding in developing countries. In addition to increasing the energy intensity of the food system, the expanded cold chain may facilitate changes in the global diet, food waste patterns, food production and distribution, and shopping habits. The sustainability impacts of many of these changes chain are unknown, given the complexity of interacting social, economic, and technical factors. The current literature surrounding the environmental impacts of refrigeration in the food system focuses on the direct impacts of energy use and coolant emissions, and lacks a critical evaluation of the accompanying systemic societal changes that potentially carry greater environmental impacts. This review examines the cold chain as a transformative technology, identifying key intrinsic, indirect, and external factors that will favorably, unfavorably, or ambiguously impact the environmental profile of the food system. The review identifies key interactions and feedbacks between the cold chain, food production and consumption decisions, infrastructure development, and the global environment which are largely unexamined and in need of empirical data. Viewing cold chain expansion from this broader perspective is essential to understanding the changing impacts of the food system in developing countries and may inform future sustainability planning.

  3. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  4. Emergency Food Programs: Untapped Opportunities for Extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports results from a questionnaire that assessed the frequency and type of nutrition questions asked at emergency food programs to determine if Extension professionals need to increase direct outreach efforts. Emergency food program workers (n = 460) were recruited via mail to complete a self-administered survey. More than one-third…

  5. Seafood Products: Food Service Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Anita H.; And Others

    The nine lessons and supplementary activities included in this seafood food service program guide are intended for use in secondary and postsecondary occupational home economics food service programs. Material covers nutrition, therapeutic diets, harvesting methods, quality assessment, fish cuts and forms, inspection, dressing, storage,…

  6. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or "Right-to-Try" Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, M E Blair; Berglund, Jelena P; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E; Adamo, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and "Right-to-Try" legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. The FDA EA program includes Single Patient-Investigational New Drug (SP-IND), Emergency SP-IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. "Right-to-Try" legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP-IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Apprenticeship Programs Expand with Help of Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The apprenticeship system, long considered an educational relic by some educators and policy makers, is gaining new attention as a model for improving job skills and meeting national college-completion goals. A number of states and community and technical colleges are working to strengthen and expand apprenticeship opportunities. They offer…

  8. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  9. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cynthia A Naughton

    2017-01-01

    "1 We initiated this article to address both the potential advantages and disadvantages to implementing a dress code to facilitate a discussion surrounding this topic and to assist programs that might...

  10. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Cynthia A; Schweiger, Teresa A; Angelo, Lauren B; Lea Bonner, C; Dhing, Conrad W; Farley, Joel F

    2016-06-25

    Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire is not applied consistently during the didactic portion of students' education. There are arguments for and against the adoption of a professional dress code throughout the entire doctor of pharmacy program, including the classroom setting. Given uncertainty regarding the potential benefits and challenges that may arise from adopting a professional dress code in the didactic portion of a student pharmacist's education, it is perhaps not surprising that programs adopt disparate policies regarding its use. This exploration was conducted as part of a series of debates held in conjunction with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's (AACP) Academic Leadership Fellows Program (ALFP) and was presented at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting on February 7, 2015.

  11. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation…

  12. Expanding Public Outreach: The Solar System Ambassadors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, K. A.

    2000-12-01

    The Solar System Ambassadors Program is a public outreach program designed to work with motivated volunteers across the nation. Those volunteers organize and conduct public events that communicate exciting discoveries and plans in Solar System research, exploration and technology through non-traditional forums, e.g. community service clubs, libraries, museums, planetariums, ``star parties," mall displays, etc. In 2001, 200 Ambassadors from almost all 50 states bring the excitement of space to the public. Ambassadors are space enthusiasts, K-12 in-service educators, retirees, community college teachers, and other members of the general public interested in providing greater service and inspiration to the community at large. Last year, Ambassadors conducted approximately 600 events that directly reached more than one-half million people in communities across the United States. The Solar System Ambassadors Program is sponsored by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and a lead research and development center for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Participating JPL projects include Cassini, Galileo, STARDUST, Outer Planets mission, Solar Probe, Genesis, Ulysses, Voyager, Mars missions, Discovery missions NEAR-Shoemaker and Deep Impact, and the Deep Space Network. Each Ambassador participates in on-line (web-based) training sessions that provide interaction with NASA scientists, engineers and project team members. As such, each Ambassador's experience with the space program becomes personalized. Training sessions provide Ambassadors with general background on each mission and educate concerning specific mission milestones, such as launches, planetary flybys, first image returns, arrivals, and ongoing key discoveries. Additionally, projects provide videos, slide sets, booklets, pamphlets, posters, postcards, lithographs, on-line materials, resource

  13. Interservice Physician Assistant Program: Educators for an Expanding Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Douglas M; Orrahood, Scott A; Cooper, Christopher K; Alvitre, John J; Tozier, William

    2017-10-01

    The number of physician assistant (PA) programs has increased exponentially across the past decade, and the demand for PAs will likely remain strong through 2025. Because of this rapid growth, both new and established PA programs face significant challenges in recruiting experienced educators. We describe the value of using PAs trained through the Interservice Physician Assistant Program (IPAP) as civilian PA educators. The literature on IPAP and its graduates proved too limited to conduct a formal systematic review. We searched the PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases for works speaking to the value that IPAP-trained PAs may bring to civilian PA training. Those findings were supplemented with informal conversations with IPAP-trained PAs currently employed in the military and those working in civilian PA education. Themes were identified supporting the potential value of IPAP-trained PAs in civilian training. Military PAs work within hierarchical organizations and may transition easily to academic settings. They leave military service not only as highly trained and proficient primary care providers but also as experienced educators. Military PAs must demonstrate professionalism across their entire military careers. They serve as leaders and work in teams, but they are also experienced in negotiating up chains of command. They are trained in and apply the latest innovations in health care delivery and have provided care with a degree of autonomy uncommon in civilian PA practice. The PAs trained through IPAP leave the service with skills and experiences valuable to civilian PA training. Employing these PAs in civilian education honors their service contributions while addressing emerging PA educator workforce demands.

  14. LATTICEEASY A Program for Lattice Simulations of Scalar Fields in an Expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Tkachev, Igor; Felder, Gary

    2008-01-01

    We describe a C++ program that we have written and made available for calculating the evolution of interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe. The program is particularly useful for the study of reheating and thermalization after inflation. The program and its full documentation are available on the Web at http://physics.stanford.edu/gfelder/latticeeasy. In this paper we provide a brief overview of what the program does and what it is useful for.

  15. Politics of prevention: expanding prevention benefits in the Medicare program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Susan Bartlett; Blewett, Lynn A

    2003-01-01

    It is critical that public health advocates understand the structure of the Medicare program and the impact of the political process on Medicare's benefit set. This article provides an overview of the design of Medicare and its explicit exclusion of prevention benefits in the original legislation. We then provide a history of subsequent legislation authorizing coverage of specific prevention benefits over the last twenty years. We critique the current process in light of innovation in preventive services and the influence of politics in the decision-making. We conclude with a discussion of policy options to improve access to an appropriate range of evidence-based preventive services in Medicare within the context of new technology innovation and rising health care costs.

  16. Strategies To Expand a Pen Pal Program from Simple Letters into a Full Intergenerational Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Holly Way; Mosher-Ashley, Pearl M.

    2002-01-01

    The Senior Pen Pal Program began as an exchange of letters between first graders and older adults. Structured group visits between the classroom and the senior center, a holiday concert, and assigned readings about aging expanded the reach of the intergenerational program. (SK)

  17. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Stamp Program. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Simplified Food Stamp Program (SFSP) means a program authorized under 7 U.S.C. 2035. (2) Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF...

  18. Research Award: Agriculture and Food Security Program

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    2015-08-06

    Research Award: Agriculture and Food Security. Program. Deadline: August 6, 2015. Please note that all applications must be submitted online. IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance ...

  19. Research Award: Agriculture and Food Security Program

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    2014-08-06

    Research Award: Agriculture and Food Security. Program. Deadline: August 6, 2014. Please note that all applications must be submitted online. IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance ...

  20. Food and Nutrition Services Quality Control Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt-Fraim, Teresa S.

    A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…

  1. 75 FR 22027 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 253 RIN 0584-AD95 Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to amend Food Distribution Program on...

  2. Expanded adult day program as a transition option from hospital to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine R; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan; Dolansky, Mary; Farag, Amany; Krivanek, Mary Jo; Matthews, Laura

    2011-02-01

    This article describes a pilot program for provision of postacute care (PAC) in an established adult day program. Demographic, clinical, utilization, and satisfaction data were abstracted retrospectively from program records; postdischarge readmission and emergency department visit data were obtained from the electronic health record. Comparative data were obtained from the health records of patients who were offered but declined the adult day program. Between 2005 and 2008, 78 patients requiring PAC were approached by the RN coordinator; 33 selected the adult day program, and 45 selected alternative destinations. The majority of patients had a neurological diagnosis, most commonly stroke. Participants and their family caregivers were highly satisfied with the program. The 30-day readmission rate for adult day program participants was significantly lower than that for nonparticipants. An expanded adult day program may represent a viable Transitional Care Model for selected patients and a feasible alternative to skilled nursing facility and home health care for PAC.

  3. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  4. Nutrition education program for food bank clients: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many low income families depend on foods from food banks. The objective of the study was to determine program content and examine feasibility of a pilot nutrition education program for food bank clients. Formative research was conducted with staff at a local food bank and its pantries and adult clie...

  5. Prerequisite programs and food hygiene in hospitals: food safety knowledge and practices of food service staff in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Temel, Mehtap Akçil; Ersun, Azmi Safak; Kivanç, Gökhan

    2005-04-01

    Our objective was to determine food safety practices related to prerequisite program implementation in hospital food services in Turkey. Staff often lack basic food hygiene knowledge. Problems of implementing HACCP and prerequisite programs in hospitals include lack of food hygiene management training, lack of financial resources, and inadequate equipment and environment.

  6. Parental Intentions to Enroll Children in a Voluntary Expanded Newborn Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Ryan S.; Peay, Holly L.; Gehtland, Lisa M.; Lewis, Megan A.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Nearly all babies in the United States are tested at birth for rare, serious, and treatable disorders through mandatory state newborn screening (NBS). Recently, there have been calls for an expanded, voluntary model to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of a wider range of disorders. We applied the reasoned action framework to examine parental intentions to participate in voluntary expanded screening. Methods We recruited a national cohort of recent and expectant parents living in the U.S. who completed a self-administered online survey (N = 1,001). Using a mixed-level fractional factorial experiment, we studied parental participation intentions and preferences for timing of consent, cost, consent format, and testing options. Results We conducted a hierarchical regression analysis assessing parental intentions to participate in voluntary expanded NBS. Attitudes, perceived normative influence, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance in intention, with perceived normative influence emerging as the strongest predictor. We found no evidence that the manipulated program features altered mean levels of intention, but timing of parental permission, cost, and permission format moderated the relative importance of reasoned action constructs on intention. Conclusion Program design features may impact the psychological mechanisms underlying parental decision making for voluntary expanded screening. These results have important implications for parent education, outreach, and informed parental permission procedures. PMID:27526258

  7. U.S. Food and Drug Administration's dioxin monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, P.; S. Kathleen Egan; Troxell, T.; P. Michael Bolger [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are a group of environmental contaminants whose primary route of human exposure occurs via the consumption of fatty foods of animal origin. Recent safety risk assessments conducted by national and international organizations broadly agree that risk management actions should be developed to decrease DLC exposure. Since the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has tested specific foods with the goal of describing and reducing DLC exposure. In 2001, FDA developed a strategy for DLCs (http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/{proportional_to}lrd/dioxstra.html) and substantially expanded its dioxin monitoring program to obtain more comprehensive data on background levels of DLCs in specific food and feed samples as well as to identify and reduce pathways of DLC contamination. FDA's dioxin monitoring program analyzes food collected under its Total Diet Study (TDS) and food and feed from targeted sampling. The TDS is FDA's ongoing market basket survey of approximately 280 core foods in the U.S. food supply. FDA targeted sampling collects and analyzes foods suspected of having both higher DLC levels and more variability in those levels than other foods. The contribution of dietary DLCs to overall exposure and the possible introduction of DLCs in animalbased food via the use of particular feed components was recently identified by the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Implications of Dioxin in the Food Supply and confirmed FDA's approach articulated in its dioxin strategy.

  8. USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) produces high-quality data for USDA food composition databases: Two decades of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytowitz, David B; Pehrsson, Pamela R

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 20years, the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) has expanded and improved the quantity and quality of data in US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) food composition databases (FCDB) through the collection and analysis of nationally representative food samples. NFNAP employs statistically valid sampling plans, the Key Foods approach to identify and prioritize foods and nutrients, comprehensive quality control protocols, and analytical oversight to generate new and updated analytical data for food components. NFNAP has allowed the Nutrient Data Laboratory to keep up with the dynamic US food supply and emerging scientific research. Recently generated results for nationally representative food samples show marked changes compared to previous database values for selected nutrients. Monitoring changes in the composition of foods is critical in keeping FCDB up-to-date, so that they remain a vital tool in assessing the nutrient intake of national populations, as well as for providing dietary advice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. TU-C-HORIZONS-01: The Expanding Horizons Travel Grant Program: ePosters and Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewerdsen, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jeraj, R [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Expanding Horizons travel grant program provides opportunity for students and trainees to broaden the scope of scientific meetings they attend and gain insight from research outside traditional domains of medical physics. Through participation in such conferences, early-career researchers are introduced to new topics with relevance to medical physics research as a means to expand the scientific horizons of our discipline. This year, 21 Expanding Horizons travel grants were awarded, granting travel to 17 conferences, including: Radiomics, the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS), the 3D Printing Conference and Expo, the GPU Technology Conference, the SIAM Imaging Science Conference, the Human Brain Mapping Conference, the OSA Conference on Clinical and Translational Biophotonics, the Society for Neuroscience, the AACR Conference on Tumor Microenvironment, and the Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. The Expanding Horizons electronic poster session gives a venue for AAPM conference attendees to meet and discuss with awardees, learn the hot topics and emerging research areas presented at these conferences, and understand the relevance to future medical physics research.

  10. Expanding your Horizons: a Program for Engaging Middle School Girls in Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Tamera S.; Level, Allison V.

    Gender equity in science, mathematics, and technology is an issue that has generated the creation of a number of programs. Young women need to be aware that there are a variety of careers in science, mathematics, and technology that they can actively pursue. This article highlights one example of a successful middle school science program in Southwest Missouri. Expanding Your Horizons in Science, Mathematics, and Technology (EYH) integrates keynote speakers, role model mentoring sessions, and small group experiments into a hands-on learning environment. Initial survey results of parents and teachers show support for the conference and indicate that the program helps motivate students to consider careers in science, mathematics, and technology. In addition to the goal of increasing awareness for these young people, there is a need for increased scientific literacy of the general public and an increased application of science to "real world" circumstances. This program addresses these issues.

  11. 76 FR 18861 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... to the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION...) regulations to conform FDPIR policy to the requirements included in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of... Assistance Program (SNAP) relative to the requirements set forth in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of...

  12. 78 FR 39548 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 253 RIN 0584-AD95 Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008; Approval of Information... Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 was published on April 6...

  13. Plant Growth Research for Food Production: Development and Testing of Expandable Tuber Growth Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Brennan A.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled and reliable growth of a variety of vegetable crops is an important capability for manned deep space exploration systems for providing nutritional supplementation and psychological benefits to crew members. Because current systems have been limited to leafy vegetables that require minimal root space, a major goal for these systems is to increase their ability to grow new types of crops, including tuber plants and root vegetables that require a large root space. An expandable root zone module and housing was developed to integrate this capability into the Vegetable Production System (Veggie). The expandable module uses a waterproof, gas-permeable bag with a structure that allows for root space to increase vertically throughout the growth cycle to accommodate for expanding tuber growth, while minimizing the required media mass. Daikon radishes were chosen as an ideal tuber crop for their subterraneous tuber size and rapid growth cycle, and investigations were done to study expanding superabsorbent hydrogels as a potential growth media. These studies showed improved water retention, but restricted oxygen availability to roots with pure gel media. It was determined that these hydrogels could be integrated in lower proportions into standard soil to achieve media expansion and water retention desired. Using the constructed module prototype and ideal gel and soil media mixture, daikon radishes are being grown in the system to test the capability and success of the system through a full growth cycle.

  14. Encouraging Reflexivity in a Residency Leadership Development Program: Expanding Outside the Competency Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Gordon, Emily K B; Baranov, Dimitry Y; Trey, Beulah; Tilin, Felice J; Fleisher, Lee A

    2018-02-01

    While leadership development is increasingly a goal of academic medicine, it is typically framed as competency acquisition, which can limit its focus to a circumscribed set of social behaviors. This orientation may also reinforce the cultural characteristics of academic medicine that can make effective leadership difficult, rather than training leaders capable of examining and changing this culture. Expanding leadership development so it promotes social reflexivity presents a way to bolster some of the weaknesses of the competency paradigm. In 2013-2016, the University of Penn sylvania's Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care (DACC) carried out a leadership development program for residents, which included seminars focused on developing particular leadership skills and annual capstone sessions facilitating discussion between residents and attending physicians about topics chosen by residents. The capstone sessions proved to be most impactful, serving as forums for open conversation about how these groups interact when engaged in social behaviors such as giving/receiving feedback, offering support after an adverse event, and teaching/learning in the clinic. The success of the capstone sessions led to a 2016 DACC-wide initiative to facilitate transparency among all professional roles (faculty, residents, nurse anesthetists, administrative staff) and encourage widespread reflexive examination about how the manner in which these groups interact encourages or impedes leadership and teamwork. Further work is necessary to describe how leadership program formats can be diversified to better encourage reflexivity. There is also a need to develop mechanisms for assessing outcomes of leadership programs that expand outside the competency-based system.

  15. Directive and non-directive food-related parenting practices: Associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices and child dietary intake and weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K A; Friend, S; Horning, M L; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Fulkerson, J A

    2016-12-01

    This study examines associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices, specifically, directive and non-directive control, and child weight (BMI z-score) and dietary outcomes [Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, daily servings fruits/vegetables] within a sample of parent-child dyads (8-12 years old; n = 160). Baseline data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME Plus) randomized controlled trial was used to test associations between directive and non-directive control and child dietary outcomes and weight using multiple regression analyses adjusted for parental education. Overall variance explained by directive and non-directive control constructs was also calculated. Markers of directive control included pressure-to-eat and food restriction, assessed using subscales from the Child Feeding Questionnaire; markers of non-directive control were assessed with a parental role modeling scale and a home food availability inventory in which an obesogenic home food environment score was assigned based on the types and number of unhealthful foods available within the child's home food environment. Food restriction and pressure-to-eat were positively and negatively associated with BMI z-scores, respectively, but not with dietary outcomes. An obesogenic home food environment was inversely associated with both dietary outcomes; parental role modeling of healthful eating was positively associated with both dietary outcomes. Neither non-directive behavioral construct was significantly associated with BMI z-scores. Greater total variance in BMI-z was explained by directive control; greater total variance in dietary outcomes was explained by non-directive control. Including a construct of food-related parenting practices with separate markers for directive and non-directive control should be considered for future research. These concepts address different forms of parental control and, in the present study, yielded

  16. The Food Stamp Program: history, nutrition education, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Patti S

    2007-11-01

    The Food Stamp Program has grown from a modest effort to distribute excess farm commodities during the Great Depression to the nation's largest food assistance and nutrition program, serving almost 27 million persons in fiscal year 2006, at a cost of more than 30 billion dollars to federal taxpayers. In 1990 Congress authorized cost sharing for food stamp nutrition education. Since 1992-when only seven states had approved food stamp nutrition education plans totaling 661,076 dollars in federal dollars-the nutrition education program has grown exponentially. In 2007, there were 52 food stamp nutrition education plans for states and territories approved at a total cost of more than 275 million dollars. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the Food Stamp Program from its inception in May 1939 through 2006, including program milestones, changes that have occurred as the result of legislation, and the growth and effectiveness of nutrition education to Food Stamp Program participants. Future investigations are needed to study processes for development and validation of evaluation measures as required by the US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service and to examine the effects of food stamp nutrition education on behavior changes affecting health and nutrition of Food Stamp Program participants.

  17. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... sent to Julie Brewer, Chief, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and..., Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, 3101 Park... Standards for Food Sold in Schools in Competition With School Meals Federal child nutrition programs play a...

  18. Using social impact borrowing to expand preschool through third grade programs in urban public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A; Reynolds, Arthur J

    Budget constraints and difficulty raising taxes limit school districts from expanding education programming even when research shows that additional expenditures would generate economic benefits that are greater than costs. Recently, coalitions of private investors, philanthropists, education practitioners, and government finance analysts have emerged to create opportunities to expand education services that promise high rates of social net benefits without raising taxes or reducing other expenditures. These collaborators have a strong interest in obtaining careful estimates of educational program effectiveness. We describe the use of social-impact borrowing to increase access to the Child-Parent Center preschool-through-third-grade intervention for at-risk students in the Chicago Public School District. The partners include the city, school district, investors, nonprofit organizations, and a university. The key to the feasibility of social-impact borrowing is the ability to document that early intervention can reduce the need for later special-education services. With the help of private investors and nonprofit organizations, it is possible for public school districts to finance services with funds from private sources and use future cost savings to repay this debt. We discuss how social-impact borrowing is being used in Chicago and in Salt Lake County as the nation's first two instances of using pay-for-performance social-impact borrowing to support early education.

  19. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  20. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide, part of a multi-volume dietetic support personnel training program, consists of materials (15 units) for use in training future food production workers. Covered in the first part of the guide are nutrition in food production and diet therapy. The second part of the guide deals with sanitation and safety in food production.…

  1. Managing Food Security Action Programs in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Asefa, Sisay

    1989-01-01

    In its 1986 study of poverty and hunger, the World Bank defined food security as “assess by all people at all times to enough food for active and healthy life.” Based on this definition, about a quarter of Africa’s population or more than 100 million people are food insecure, i.e., do not consume enough food to allow for an active and healthy working life. In seven countries, Ethiopia, Zaire, Uganda, Mozambique, Zambia, and Somalia, about 40% of the population are food insecure, constituting ...

  2. WORK INSTRUCTION PROGRAMS FOR THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KONZ, STEPHAN A.; MIDDLETON, RAYMONA

    A PROJECT WAS INITIATED TO DEVELOP EFFICIENT WORK METHODS FOR 100 COMMON TASKS IN THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY AND THEN TO PREPARE PROGRAMED LEARNING "PACKAGES" FOR EACH OF THESE TASKS FOR TRAINING POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES WITH LOWER LEVELS OF EDUCATION TO HOLD USEFUL JOBS. THE CONCEPT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING PACKAGES FOR FOOD SERVICING WAS…

  3. The School Administrator and the Food Service Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, John N.

    The aim of this publication is to offer information that will assist the elementary school principal in the establishment or improvement of a school lunch program. The material focuses on the necessary ingredients of an effective school food service, the necessity of nutrition education as a part of a food service program, and the importance of…

  4. Development and testing of a nutrition, food safety, and physical activity checklist for EFNEP and FSNE adult programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L; Cox, Ruby H; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Test-retest reliability (Cronbach alpha), internal consistency (Pearson Correlation), criterion-related validity (Spearman Correlation Coefficients), and sensitivity-to-change, were calculated for dietary quality, food safety, and physical activity, based on data collected from 73 EFNEP and FSNE participants. Nutrition and physical activity domains achieved reliability coefficients of 0.70. The instrument scored Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.20 for nutrition, 0.34 for food safety, and 0.28 for physical activity. The instrument consistently measured dietary and physical activity practices, but not food safety. All domains obtained low correlation coefficients, although consistent with other studies' validity results. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Expanding our conceptualization of program implementation: lessons from the genealogy of a school-based nutrition program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

    2007-10-01

    This work presents a theoretical framework in which health promotion and health education program implementation can be conceived as an open dynamic system. By tracing the evolution of an elementary school-based nutrition program from its conception to its recent form, we construct a program genealogy. Data were derived from two interviews and three historical documents from which historical events were identified and reconstructed in the form of a tree analogy. Data analysis ensued using concepts from the actor-network theory about social innovation. These concepts identified social and technical program attributes and situated them within a process which evolved over time, thus permitting the program's genealogy to appear. The genealogy was found to be influenced by the ways in which the involved actors interpreted the issue of food security, namely, as a professional issue, with a nutrition education response and as a social issue, with a community-building response. The interaction between the interests of the actors and the technical components of the program resulted in three temporal program iterations. The results highlight the important role played by the involved actors during program implementation and suggest the need to take these interests into consideration during all phases of program planning.

  6. Expanding the isotopic toolbox: Applications of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios to food web studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah B Vander Zanden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of stable carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopes in tissues of organisms has formed the foundation of isotopic food web reconstructions, as these values directly reflect assimilated diet. In contrast, stable hydrogen (δ2H and oxygen (δ18O isotope measurements have typically been reserved for studies of migratory origin and paleoclimate reconstruction based on systematic relationships between organismal tissue and local environmental water. Recently, innovative applications using δ2H and, to a lesser extent, δ18O values have demonstrated potential for these elements to provide novel insights in modern food web studies. We explore the advantages and challenges associated with three applications of δ2H and δ18O values in food web studies. First, large δ2H differences between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem end members can permit the quantification of energy inputs and nutrient fluxes between these two sources, with potential applications for determining allochthonous vs. autochthonous nutrient sources in freshwater systems and relative aquatic habitat utilization by terrestrial organisms. Next, some studies have identified a relationship between δ2H values and trophic position, which suggests that this marker may serve as a trophic indicator, in addition to the more commonly used δ15N values. Finally, coupled measurements of δ2H and δ18O values are increasing as a result of reduced analytical challenges to measure both simultaneously and may provide additional ecological information over single element measurements. In some organisms, the isotopic ratios of these two elements are tightly coupled, whereas the isotopic disequilibrium in other organisms may offer insight into the diet and physiology of individuals. Although a coherent framework for interpreting δ2H and δ18O data in the context of food web studies is emerging, many fundamental uncertainties remain. We highlight directions for targeted research that

  7. On Common Constitutional Ground: How Georgia's Scholarship Tax Credits Mirror Other State Programs and Expand Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II.; Erickson, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, Georgia launched a tax-credit scholarship program to expand educational opportunities for the state's pre-K through 12th-grade students by providing them scholarships to attend private schools. Georgia's scholarship tax credit program will help over 13,000 children get the best education for their needs at secular and religious private…

  8. Sustaining Our Nation's Seniors through Federal Food and Nutrition Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergerich, Erika; Shobe, Marcia; Christy, Kameri

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity is a pressing issue in the United States where one in six people suffer from hunger. The older adult population faces unique challenges to receiving adequate nutrition. The federal government currently employs four food and nutrition programs that target the senior population in an effort to address their specific needs. These are the Congregate Meals and Home Delivered Meals Programs (provided through the Older Americans Act), and the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program and Child and Adult Care Food Program (provided by the United States Department of Agriculture). As the older adult population continues to grow, it will be important to evaluate and improve these programs and the social policies related to them. This manuscript describes each policy in depth, considers economic and political elements that have shaped each policy, describes the level of program success, and offers suggestions for future research and program development.

  9. Food and beverage advertising during children's television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, P; Macken, A; Leddin, D; Cullen, W; Dunne, C; Gorman, C O

    2015-03-01

    Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns. Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising of food during children's programming, we sought to examine the advertising content in children-specific television broadcasts on Irish television. Advertisement content analysis for 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting from 0700 to 1700 hours on Irish television was performed. Data were coded and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage advertisements were coded based on type of product, nutritional content, intended age group and outcome. 322 advertisements were broadcast during the recording period. 31 % (n = 101) of advertisements related to food or beverage products with 66.3 % (n = 68) of food advertisements being for foods that should be eaten in moderation. The most frequently recorded food advertisement was for fast food products (27.3 %, n = 24), followed by sweets/candy (21.6 %, n = 19) and dairy products (17.0 %, n = 15). The most frequently recorded beverage advertisement was for natural orange juices (46.2 %, n = 6). 54.7 % (n = 176) of advertisements were adult specific with 27.3 % (n = 88) being children specific. All food and beverage advertisements were associated with a positive outcome (n = 322). These results demonstrate that food and beverages depicted in advertisements during children's programming are predominantly unhealthy foods with high salt and sugar contents. The findings from this study again highlight the ongoing need for new rules regarding food advertising in children's programming.

  10. Evaluation of Food Protection and Defense Outreach Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutske, John M.; Pierquet, Jennifer; Michel, Laura; Rasmussen, Ruth; Olson, Debra

    2008-01-01

    This analysis documents the outcomes and impacts from a series of food protection and defense educational programs conducted over a 3-y period for private and public sector food system professionals. Several measures were used to determine the professions of participants; their improvements in skills and abilities that resulted from workshops; the…

  11. Bacteriological quality and food safety in a Brazilian school food program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagla Chaves Trindade, Samara; Silva Pinheiro, Julia; Gonçalves de Almeida, Héllen; Carvalho Pereira, Keyla; de Souza Costa Sobrinho, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Food safety is a critical issue in school food program. This study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality and food safety practices of a municipal school food program (MSFP) in Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil. A checklist based on good manufacturing practices (GMP) for food service was used to evaluate food safety practices. Samples from foods, food contact surfaces, the hands of food handlers, the water supply and the air were collected to assess bacteriological quality in establishments that comprise the MSFP. Nine (81.8%) establishments were classified as poor quality and two (18.2%) as medium quality. Neither Salmonella nor Listeria monocytogenes were detected in food samples. Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 36 (52.9%), 1 (1.5%) and 22 (32.4%) of the food samples and in 24 (40.7%), 2 (3.3%) and 13 (22.0%) of the food contact surfaces, respectively. The counts of coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 1 to 5.0 and 1 to 5.1 log CFU/g of food, respectively. The mean aerobic mesophilic bacteria count was 3.1 log CFU/100 cm2 of surface area. Coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were detected on the hands of 33 (73.3%), 1 (2.2%) and 36 (80%) food handlers, respectively. With regard to air quality, all the establishments had an average aerobic mesophilic count above 1.6 log CFU/cm2/week. The results indicate the need to modify the GMP used in food service in MSFP in relation to food safety, particularly because children served in these establishments are often the most socially vulnerable.

  12. 76 FR 3080 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Food Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...), and the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP). Currently, the nutrition assistance programs... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Food Programs Reporting System AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  13. 78 FR 20612 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Food Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ...) and the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP). Currently, the nutrition assistance programs...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Food Programs Reporting System AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA...

  14. Expanding access to gerontological education via distance learning: the Management of Aging Services Masters Program at UMass Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadash, Pamela; Miller, Edward Alan; Porell, Frank W; Birchander, Ellen; Glickman, Lillian; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the online Management of Aging Services Masters Program at the University of Massachusetts Boston and reports on a recent Program review. The Program has experienced rapid growth, evolving from seven matriculating students in 2003 to 108 in 2012. It has graduated 125 students and boasts a 78% completion rate. The authors describe the Program and report on faculty and student perceptions of performance. The Program demonstrates sound pedagogical practice for online education, incorporating techniques to foster community and encourage students and faculty interaction. Distance learning holds considerable promise for expanding access to gerontological education to reach future aging services professionals.

  15. Integrating Vitamin A Supplementation at 6 months into the Expanded Program of Immunization in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary H; Sesay, Fatmata F; Kamara, Habib I; Nyorkor, Emmanuel D; Bah, Mariama; Koroma, Aminata S; Kandeh, Joseph N; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Wolfe, Adam C; Katcher, Heather I; Blankenship, Jessica L; Baker, Shawn K

    2015-09-01

    Since 2004, twice-yearly mass vitamin A supplementation (VAS) has equitably reached over 85% of children 6-59 months old in Sierra Leone. However infants who turn 6 months after the event may wait until they are 11 months old to receive their first dose. The effectiveness of integrating VAS at 6 months into the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in a revised child health card was studied. Health facilities matched according to staff cadre and work load were assigned to provide either a 'mini package' of VAS and infant and young child feeding (IYCF), a 'full package' of VAS, IYCF and family planning (FP), or 'child health card' only. 400 neonates were enrolled into each group, caregivers given the new child health card and followed until they were 12 months old. More infants in the full: 74.5% and mini: 71.7% group received VAS between 6 and 7 months of age compared with the new CH card only group: 60.2% (p = 0.002, p 60% coverage for infants between 6 and 7 months of age. Provision of FP and/or IYCF further improved coverage. Funding was provided by the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development who had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

  16. Expand the Modeling Capabilities of DOE's EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Shirey

    2008-02-28

    EnergyPlus{trademark} is a new generation computer software analysis tool that has been developed, tested, and commercialized to support DOE's Building Technologies (BT) Program in terms of whole-building, component, and systems R&D (http://www.energyplus.gov). It is also being used to support evaluation and decision making of zero energy building (ZEB) energy efficiency and supply technologies during new building design and existing building retrofits. Version 1.0 of EnergyPlus was released in April 2001, followed by semiannual updated versions over the ensuing seven-year period. This report summarizes work performed by the University of Central Florida's Florida Solar Energy Center (UCF/FSEC) to expand the modeling capabilities of EnergyPlus. The project tasks involved implementing, testing, and documenting the following new features or enhancement of existing features: (1) A model for packaged terminal heat pumps; (2) A model for gas engine-driven heat pumps with waste heat recovery; (3) Proper modeling of window screens; (4) Integrating and streamlining EnergyPlus air flow modeling capabilities; (5) Comfort-based controls for cooling and heating systems; and (6) An improved model for microturbine power generation with heat recovery. UCF/FSEC located existing mathematical models or generated new model for these features and incorporated them into EnergyPlus. The existing or new models were (re)written using Fortran 90/95 programming language and were integrated within EnergyPlus in accordance with the EnergyPlus Programming Standard and Module Developer's Guide. Each model/feature was thoroughly tested and identified errors were repaired. Upon completion of each model implementation, the existing EnergyPlus documentation (e.g., Input Output Reference and Engineering Document) was updated with information describing the new or enhanced feature. Reference data sets were generated for several of the features to aid program users in selecting proper

  17. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  18. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  19. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial foods and culinary arts. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description;…

  20. [Thirty Years of Health Surveillance of Foods in Barcelona: The "ICSA" Food Quality Research Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Rodellar-Torras, Santiago; Portaña-Tudela, Samuel; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The Food Health Quality Research Program (Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos [ICSA]) of the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona [ASPB]) was initiated in 1984 to carry out surveillance of certain chemical and microbiological parameters related to the sanitary and safety of foods sold in the city. The present article analyzes the importance of health surveillance and provides details of the uses of the ICSA program. The main aim of this program is to evaluate whether marketed foods comply with the absence and/or established tolerance levels of specific parameters. Nevertheless, the program is able to incorporate or suppress parameters or foods that pose emerging dangers or interests not represented in current legislation. Besides, the program not only obtains a view of the parameters studied at a specific time period in each report, but also accumulates data over time, allowing risk assessment, calculation of dietary intake of contaminants, analysis of tendencies, and evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations to reduce contaminants. The program can also help in the planning of food control programs. The information obtained is disseminated nationally and internationally and is included in dossiers of contaminants issued by national and European health agencies. This demonstrates that a locally-developed surveillance system can have a wider scope and broader objectives and can provide useful information for managers, administrations, economic operators and consumers.

  1. [Quality of food: perceptions of 'Bolsa Familia' program participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimura, Kátia Yumi; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Lima, Flávia Emília Leite de; Dobrykopf, Vanessa França

    2012-03-01

    This study deals with perceptions of beneficiaries of the 'Bolsa Familia' Program, in Curitiba, southern Brazil, about their feeding habits. To understand the perceptions of participants of the 'Bolsa Família' Program on the quality of their food. A qualitative study based on the critical-interpretive tradition, which used individual interviews as a technique for gathering empirical data from the informants. The study included 38 individuals, members of families included in the program. The discursive content was recorded on digital media and, thereafter, transcribed and analyzed. After categorization, three main themes emerged: a description of food, quality of food, and feelings and experiences of individuals enrolled in the program. the acknowledgement of social vulnerability and consequent feeding habit insecurity to which such groups are subject was the main finding, as well as feelings of resignation.

  2. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010... and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 [FNS-2011-0019] RIN 0584-AE09 National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the...

  3. Expanding The INSPIRED COPD Outreach ProgramTM to the emergency department: a feasibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillis D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Darcy Gillis,1 Jillian Demmons,1 Graeme Rocker1,2 1Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Nova Scotia Health Authority, Halifax, NS, Canada; 2Division of Respirology, Nova Scotia Health Authority, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Background: The Halifax-based INSPIRED COPD Outreach Program™ is a facility-to-community home-based novel clinical initiative that through improved care transitions, self-management, and engagement in advance care planning has demonstrated a significant (60%–80% reduction in health care utilization with substantial cost aversion. By assessing the feasibility of expanding INSPIRED into the emergency department (ED we anticipated extending reach and potential for positive impact of INSPIRED to those with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD who avoid hospital admission.Methods: Patients were eligible for the INSPIRED-ED study if >40 years of age, diagnosed with AECOPD and discharged from the ED, willing to be referred, community dwelling with at least one of: previous use of the ED services, admission to Intermediate Care Unit/Intensive Care Unit, or admission to hospital with AECOPD in the past year. We set feasibility objectives for referral rates, completion of action plans, advance care planning participation, and reduction in ED visit frequency.Results: Referral rates were 0.5/week. Among eligible patients (n=174 33 (19% were referred of whom 15 (M=4, F=11 enrolled in INSPIRED-ED. Mean (SD age was 68 (7 years, post-bronchdilator FEV1 44.2 (15.5 % predicted, and Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea score 3.8 (0.41. We met feasibility objectives for action plan and advance care planning completion. Frequency of subsequent ED visits fell by 54%. Mean (SD Care Transition Measure (CTM-3 improved from 8.6 (2.0 to 11.3 (1.3, P=0.0004, and of 14 patients responding 12 (86% found the program very helpful. An additional 34

  4. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children's Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Maryam; Omidvar, Nasrin; Yeatman, Heather; Shariat-Jafari, Shadab; Eslami-Amirabadi, Maryam; Zahedirad, Malihe

    2014-10-01

    Advertisements can influence children's health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children's television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children's programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s) and mode of presentation (s) were coded. A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31%) across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%). The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54%) and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Although the total number of food advertisements during children's television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.

  5. Sixty years of the National Food Program in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Maria NOGUEIRA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available School meals were introduced in the Brazilian political agenda by a group of scholars known as nutrition scientists' in the 1940s. In 1955, the Campanha de Merenda Escolar, the first official school food program, was stablished, and sixty years after its inception, school food in Brazil stands as a decentralised public policy, providing services to students enrolled in public schools, which involve the Brazilian federal government, twentyseven federative units, and their 5,570 municipalities. Throughout its history, school food has gone through many stages that reflect the social transformations in Brazil: from a campaign to implement school food focused on the problem of malnutrition and the ways to solve it, to the creation of a universal public policy relying on social participation and interface between other modern, democratic, and sustainable policies, establishing a strategy for promoting food and nutrition security, development, and social protection. In this article, the School Food Program is analyzed from the perspective of four basic structures that support it as public policy: the formal structure, consisting of legal milestones that regulated the program; substantive structure, referring to the public and private social actors involved; material structure, regarding the way in which Brazil sponsors the program; and finally, the symbolic structure, consisting of knowledge, values, interests, and rules that legitimatize the policy.

  6. Evaluating local food programs: the case of Select Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew J

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the buy local food program Select Nova Scotia; a government program with the goal to increase awareness and consumption of Nova Scotia produced and processed agri-food products by Nova Scotians and visitors. The evaluation methodology was based on prior evaluation resources and local food consumer research. Data were gathered through a web panel survey; 877 respondents completed the survey in June 2010. The results suggest that the program is reaching a wider audience than just those predisposed to local food initiatives. In addition, awareness of Select Nova was related to perceptions of local benefits and barriers, as well as purchase motivation and behavior. Respondents who were aware of Select Nova Scotia rated societal benefits as more important and viewed location and price as less of a barrier; they were also more likely to be highly motivated to purchase local foods. This study also informs results found in previous consumer research studies and identifies marketing opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of local food programs. The results suggest that societal benefits might be used as a way to differentiate products with similar attributes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Food Safety in the National School Lunch Program. USDA Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Schools that serve meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) are required to maintain proper sanitation and health standards in conformance with all applicable State and local laws and regulations. In addition, schools are required to obtain two school food safety inspections per school year, which are…

  8. Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Estonia has experienced an HIV epidemic among intravenous drug users (IDUs) with the highest per capita HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe. We assessed the effects of expanded syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the capital city, Tallinn, which has an estimated 10,000 IDUs. Methods SEP implementation was monitored with data from the Estonian National Institute for Health Development. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys with HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2005, 2007 and 2009 (involving 350, 350 and 327 IDUs respectively). HIV incidence among new injectors (those injecting for 80%), and young adults (mean ages 24 to 27 years). The proportion of new injectors decreased significantly over the years (from 21% in 2005 to 12% in 2009, p = 0.005). HIV prevalence among all respondents stabilized at slightly over 50% (54% in 2005, 55% in 2007, 51% in 2009), and decreased among new injectors (34% in 2005, 16% in 2009, p = 0.046). Estimated HIV incidence among new injectors decreased significantly from 18/100 person-years in 2005 and 21/100 person-years in 2007 to 9/100 person-years in 2009 (p = 0.026). Conclusions In Estonia, a transitional country, a decrease in the HIV prevalence among new injectors and in the numbers of people initiating injection drug use coincided with implementation of large-scale SEPs. Further reductions in HIV transmission among IDUs are still required. Provision of 70 or more syringes per IDU per year may be needed before significant reductions in HIV incidence occur. PMID:21718469

  9. Supplemental nutrition assistance program participation and child food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabli, James; Worthington, Julie

    2014-04-01

    This article investigates the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and child food security by using data from the largest national survey of the food security of SNAP participants to date. The analysis used a survey of nearly 3000 households with children and a quasi-experimental research design that consisted of 2 sets of comparisons. Using a cross-sectional sample, we compared information collected from SNAP households within days of program entry with information collected from a contemporaneous sample of SNAP households that had participated for ∼6 months. Next, by using a longitudinal sample, we compared baseline information collected from new-entrant SNAP households with information from those same households 6 months later. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between SNAP and child food security. SNAP participation was associated with an approximately one-third decrease in the odds of children being food insecure in both samples. In the cross-sectional analysis only, SNAP was also associated with a decrease in the odds of children experiencing severe food insecurity (designated very low food security). Findings were qualitatively robust to different empirical specifications. After controlling for other possible confounders, we found children in households that had participated in SNAP for 6 months experienced improvements in food security. On the basis of these findings, we conclude SNAP serves a vital role in improving the health and well-being of low-income children by increasing food security. Future research is needed to determine whether specific groups of children experience differential improvements in food security.

  10. Food Security and Weight Status in Children: Interactions With Food Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh T; Ford, Christopher N; Yaroch, Amy L; Shuval, Kerem; Drope, Jeffrey

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) or National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation modifies the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in children. Data were included for 4,719 children aged 9-17 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between household food security (full, marginal, low, and very low) and BMI percentile. Adjusted models were also stratified by SNAP and NSLP participation. There was no significant overall relationship between household food security and BMI percentile. In SNAP non-participants, there was no apparent overall relationship between BMI percentile and household food security. However, BMI percentile in children from households with low food security was significantly higher than that of children from fully food-secure households (risk difference [RD]=5.95, 95% CI=1.11, 10.80). Among SNAP participants, there was no significant relationship between household food security and BMI percentile. By NSLP participation category, there was a non-significant trend toward increasing BMI percentile with decreasing household food security in those reporting two or fewer (RD=1.75, 95% CI= -0.79, 4.29) and two to three (RD=1.07; 95% CI= -1.74, 3.89) lunches/week. There was no apparent relationship between household food security and BMI percentile in those reporting four or more lunches/week. Although the overall relationship between household food security and weight status in school-aged children was not statistically significant, there was some evidence that the relationship may differ by SNAP or NSLP participation, suggesting the need for more research. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Food Service Supervisor. Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide, part of a multi-volume dietetic support personnel training program, consists of materials for use in training future food service supervisors. The first unit provides an overview of the field of dietetics. Addressed next are various aspects of nutrition and diet therapy as well as the functions and sources of nutrients,…

  12. Research Awards: Agriculture and Food Security program Deadline ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    Research Awards: Agriculture and Food Security program. Deadline: 12 September 2012. Please note that all applications must be sent electronically. IDRC's Research Awards are a unique opportunity for master's and doctoral-level students, as well as recent graduates to enhance their research skills and gain a fresh ...

  13. Expanding Antimicrobial Stewardship to Urgent Care Centers Through a Pharmacist-Led Culture Follow-up Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumkow, Lisa E; Beuschel, Thomas S; Brandt, Kasey L

    2017-09-01

    Urgent care centers represent a high-volume outpatient setting where antibiotics are prescribed frequently but resources for antimicrobial stewardship may be scarce. In 2015, our pharmacist-led Emergency Department (ED) culture follow-up program was expanded to include two urgent care (UC) sites within the same health system. The UC program is conducted by ED and infectious diseases clinical pharmacists as well as PGY1 pharmacy residents using a collaborative practice agreement (CPA). The purpose of this study was to describe the pharmacist-led UC culture follow-up program and its impact on pharmacist workload. This retrospective, descriptive study included all patients discharged to home from UC with a positive culture from any site resulting between 1 January and 31 December 2016. Data collected included the culture type, presence of intervention, and proportion of interventions made under the CPA. Additionally, pharmacist workload was reported as the number of call attempts made, new prescriptions written, and median time to complete follow-up per patient. Data were reported using descriptive statistics. A total of 1461 positive cultures were reviewed for antibiotic appropriateness as part of the UC culture follow-up program, with 320 (22%) requiring follow-up intervention. Culture types most commonly requiring intervention were urine cultures (25%) and sexually transmitted diseases (25%). A median of 15 min was spent per intervention, with a median of one call (range 1-6 calls) needed to reach each patient. Less than half of patients required a new antimicrobial prescription at follow-up. A pharmacist-led culture follow-up program conducted using a CPA was able to be expanded to UC sites within the same health system using existing clinical pharmacy staff along with PGY1 pharmacy residents. Service expansion resulted in minimal increase in pharmacist workload. Adding UC culture follow-up services to an existing ED program can allow health systems to expand

  14. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates, and Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...

  15. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates, and Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...

  16. ERDA programs and objectives: energy conservation in food processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towne, E A [ed.

    1977-07-01

    A workshop on energy conservation in the agriculture processing industry sponsored by ERDA in March 1976 resulted in 87 conservation research recommendations to ERDA. These recommendations and their incorporation into ongoing and planned ERDA research and development programs are discussed. Information is included on using food processing wastes, energy conservation in hot processes and waste heat recovery, ERDA responses to specific workshop recommendations on the processing of chemical fertilizers, dairy products, fruits, meats, vegetables, grain, and textiles.

  17. The Summer Food Service Program and the Ongoing Hunger Crisis in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobern, Jade A; Shell, Kathryn J; Henderson, Everett R; Beech, Bettina M; Batlivala, Sarosh P

    2015-10-01

    Food insecurity is simply defined as uncertain access to adequate food. Nearly 50 million Americans, 16 million of whom are children, are food insecure. Mississippi has 21% food insecure citizens, and has the most food insecure county in the nation. Our state's school system's National Breakfast and Lunch Programs help combat food insecurity, but a gap still exists. This gap widens during the summer. In this paper, we describe the Mississippi Summer Food Service Program. While the program has had success in our state, it still faces challenges. Organized action by physicians in Mississippi and the Mississippi State Medical Association could significantly increase participation in these programs that are vital to our state.

  18. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least…

  19. Expanding the Web of Meaning: Thought and Emotion in an Intergenerational Reading and Writing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipardo, Anne; Schnack, Pat

    2004-01-01

    This study explores informants' experiences in a reading/writing program that paired eighth-grade language arts students with elderly volunteers. Twenty-three pairs were followed over an academic year as they read books in common, corresponded in response journals, and met in person at program social events. Through analysis of interviews, their…

  20. Expanding Pathways: A Summer Bridge Program for Community College STEM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaburg, Lubella; Aguirre, Ofelia; Goodchild, Fiona; Kuhn, Jens-Uwe

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the transition of community college students to degree programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The paper presents the results of an evaluation of a two-week residential summer bridge program that recruited community college students from a wide range of academic, ethnic, and socioeconomic…

  1. Impact of the national food supplementary program for children on household food security and maternal weight status in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaram Ghodsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food aid programs are strategies that aim to improve nutritional status and to tackle food insecurity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a National Food Supplementary Program for Children on households′ food security. Methods: The study sample included 359 mothers of children aged 6-72 months under the coverage of the program in two provinces of Iran. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the households and percentage of supplementary food items consumed by target child were assessed by a questionnaire and checklist. Data on household food security were collected by locally adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale at the baseline of the study and 6 months thereafter. Results: At the baseline, only 4.7% of families were food secure, while 43.5% were severely food insecure, and these proportions were changed to 7.9% and 38%, respectively (P 0.05. Conclusions: Findings show that the food supplementary program for children can also improve the household food security status. Further research is needed to assess other factors that affect the effectiveness of this kind of programs.

  2. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  3. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates, and Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 Correction In notice document 2011...

  4. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... national average payment rates for centers reflect a 2.18 percent increase during the 12-month period, May... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates, and Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of...

  5. Food Production, Management, and Services Programs. Food Service Worker. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    To assist instructors in implementing Missouri's Vocational Instructional Management System into the Food Production, Management, and Services Programs, this guide sets forth the competencies identified and validated by occupational food service instructors and personnel from the food service industry. A minimum of two performance objectives per…

  6. Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Howell; Brener, Nancy D.; Kuester, Sarah; Miller, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Presents School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level policies and practices regarding various school food service issues, e.g., organization and staffing, food service and child nutrition requirements and recommendations, menu planning and food preparation, and collaboration. Also addressed are food…

  7. Community context of food justice: reflections on a free local produce program in a New Orleans food desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McKinney

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food justice discourse has emerged partly in response to the critique of alternative food networks during the last decade, but its justice conceptualization tends to be too narrowly focused on food-related injustices rather than broader social injustices that shape food access and food sovereignty, a gap we address. Our analysis of a semi-experimental free local food program we administered in a New Orleans food desert demonstrates that several community context factors shape the residents’ access to a local food market in this neighborhood: fragmented social ties, digital and generational divides, perpetual infrastructural failure, and the location of the market within the neighborhood. We argue that food justice discourse needs to incorporate social and cultural community contexts in its operationalization of food access and sovereignty, especially regarding how the latter concept is defined and executed in practice.

  8. Food Assistance Programs and Outcomes in the Context of Welfare Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Food assistance programs play an important role in meeting the basic needs of low-income households. We consider how the Food Stamp Program (FSP), labor force participation, and food insecurity status affect outcomes of low-income households under different program designs and economic

  9. Child Care Food Program Financial Management Guide. PTM No. 300.83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszu, Louis A.; McAtee, Sharon A.

    While costs are no longer reported to the Child Care Food Program on the monthly reimbursement voucher, Federal regulations for the program require that each participating sponsor operate a nonprofit food service and that any income accrued from the program be used solely for the conduct of improvement of the food service operation. Therefore, it…

  10. 7 CFR 250.64 - Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of... DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.64 Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the...

  11. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  12. Expanding Horizons: A Pilot Mentoring Program Linking College/Graduate Students and Teens With ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Humphrey, Kristin; Vronsky, Kaela; Mattern, Kathryn; Nicastro, Susan; Perrin, Ellen C

    2016-02-01

    A small pilot program of 9 youth 13 to 18 years old with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or Asperger's syndrome assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of an individualized mentoring program. Youth met weekly for 6 months with trained young adult mentors at a local boys and girls club. Participants reported improvements in self-esteem, social anxiety, and quality of life. Participants, parents, mentors, and staff reported that the program improved participants' social connectedness. Although the pilot study was small, it provides preliminary data that mentoring for youth with ASD has promise for increasing self-esteem, social skills, and quality of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Impact of the National Food Supplementary Program for Children on Household Food Security and Maternal Weight Status in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Delaram; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Rashidian, Arash; Raghfar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Food aid programs are strategies that aim to improve nutritional status and to tackle food insecurity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a National Food Supplementary Program for Children on households' food security. The study sample included 359 mothers of children aged 6-72 months under the coverage of the program in two provinces of Iran. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the households and percentage of supplementary food items consumed by target child were assessed by a questionnaire and checklist. Data on household food security were collected by locally adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale at the baseline of the study and 6 months thereafter. At the baseline, only 4.7% of families were food secure, while 43.5% were severely food insecure, and these proportions were changed to 7.9% and 38%, respectively ( P food insecurity in households with medium and high wealth index was 65% and 87% lower than those with low wealth index, respectively (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2-0.61, and OR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.12-0.43). Food sharing was common among more than 95% of the studied households. Mean maternal body mass index (BMI) increased significantly after 6 months ( P food security in the baseline and at the end of the study ( P > 0.05). Findings show that the food supplementary program for children can also improve the household food security status. Further research is needed to assess other factors that affect the effectiveness of this kind of programs.

  14. Should the vaccine injury compensation program be expanded to cover adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd-Puryear, M. A.; Ball, L K; Benor, D

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) asked for a review of the pros and cons of including adult influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP). The authors, as staff to the subcommittees charged with undertaking this assessment, looked at the following questions: (a) Would inclusion in VICP of these two vaccines, used primarily for adults, increase adult vaccination levels? (b) Is this Federal involvement warranted based on the liabili...

  15. Urgent need to strengthen and expand screening and other cancer control programs in the CARICOM Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Renee A; Simeon, Donald T

    2017-11-01

    With high mortality in breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancers in Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries, we examined cancer control initiatives including screening as well as the implementation of relevant international and regional mandates. Secondary data were used to examine cancer control initiatives, which included the presence of national policies, programs, and screening services as well as the implementation of international and regional mandates. To identify the data, an on-line search was conducted using Google/Google Scholar. Data were available for 14 of the 15 full members of CARICOM. Although only six countries had distinct cancer control policies, strategies or action plans, all 14 had key elements of cancer control programs. Screening services were available in the 14 countries for cervical, in 12 countries for breast and in 11 for colorectal cancer. However, only four countries had screening policies. In addition, screening guidelines were available for cervical cancer in nine countries, in one country for breast and in none for colorectal cancer. Selected tobacco control policies were present in the 14 countries and immunization policies for human papillomavirus (HPV) in 13. Treatment services included chemotherapy in 10 countries and radiotherapy in six. Nine countries had palliative care services for patients with advanced disease. The countries were at different stages of implementation/compliance with international and regional mandates and frameworks. There is an urgent need to develop and implement comprehensive and customized cancer control policies addressing screening programs, treatment and palliative care.

  16. Effect of a manager training and certification program on food safety and hygiene in food service operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Hailu; Silverman, Gary S; Baroudi, Karim

    2010-05-06

    Food safety is an important public health issue in the U.S. Eating at restaurants and other food service facilities increasingly has been associated with food borne disease outbreaks. Food safety training and certification of food mangers has been used as a method for reducing food safety violations at food service facilities. However, the literature is inconclusive about the effectiveness of such training programs for improving food safety and protecting consumer health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of food manger training on reducing food safety violations. We examined food inspection reports from the Toledo/Lucas County Health Department (Ohio) from March 2005 through February 2006 and compared food hygiene violations between food service facilities with certified and without certified food managers. We also examined the impact on food safety of a food service facility being part of a larger group of facilities.Restaurants with trained and certified food managers had significantly fewer critical food safety violations but more non-critical violations than restaurants without certified personnel. Institutional food service facilities had significantly fewer violations than restaurants, and the number of violations did not differ as a function of certification. Similarly, restaurants with many outlets had significantly fewer violations than restaurants with fewer outlets, and training was not associated with lower numbers of violations from restaurants with many outlets. The value of having certified personnel was only observed in independent restaurants and those with few branches. This information may be useful in indicating where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Furthermore, we recommend that those characteristics of institutional and chain restaurants that result in fewer violations should be identified in future research, and efforts made to apply this knowledge at the level of individual restaurants.

  17. Effect of a Manager Training and Certification Program on Food Safety and Hygiene in Food Service Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Kassa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is an important public health issue in the U.S. Eating at restaurants and other food service facilities increasingly has been associated with food borne disease outbreaks. Food safety training and certification of food mangers has been used as a method for reducing food safety violations at food service facilities. However, the literature is inconclusive about the effectiveness of such training programs for improving food safety and protecting consumer health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of food manger training on reducing food safety violations. We examined food inspection reports from the Toledo/Lucas County Health Department (Ohio from March 2005 through February 2006 and compared food hygiene violations between food service facilities with certified and without certified food managers. We also examined the impact on food safety of a food service facility being part of a larger group of facilities. Restaurants with trained and certified food managers had significantly fewer critical food safety violations but more non-critical violations than restaurants without certified personnel. Institutional food service facilities had significantly fewer violations than restaurants, and the number of violations did not differ as a function of certification. Similarly, restaurants with many outlets had significantly fewer violations than restaurants with fewer outlets, and training was not associated with lower numbers of violations from restaurants with many outlets. The value of having certified personnel was only observed in independent restaurants and those with few branches. This information may be useful in indicating where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Furthermore, we recommend that those characteristics of institutional and chain restaurants that result in fewer violations should be identified in future research, and efforts made to apply this knowledge at the level of individual restaurants.

  18. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for U.S. EPA Energy Star Labeled Products: Expanded Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard

    2009-09-24

    This report provides a top-level summary of national savings achieved by the Energy Star voluntary product labeling program. To best quantify and analyze savings for all products, we developed a bottom-up product-based model. Each Energy Star product type is characterized by product-specific inputs that result in a product savings estimate. Our results show that through 2007, U.S. EPA Energy Star labeled products saved 5.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided 100 MtC of emissions. Although Energy Star-labeled products encompass over forty product types, only five of those product types accounted for 65percent of all Energy Star carbon reductions achieved to date, including (listed in order of savings magnitude)monitors, printers, residential light fixtures, televisions, and furnaces. The forecast shows that U.S. EPA?s program is expected to save 12.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 215 MtC of emissions over the period of 2008?2015.

  19. An educational program enhances food label understanding of young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Keli M; Moreland, Karen; Griffin, Ian J; Abrams, Steven A

    2006-06-01

    While much research has focused on intake and eating behaviors of young adolescents, few studies have examined their knowledge of the Nutrition Facts label. The goals of this project were to assess the understanding of Nutrition Facts labels and the response of young adolescents to an educational program about Nutrition Facts labels. Thirty-four young adolescents participated by answering a short questionnaire and taking a pretest about Nutrition Facts labels and their food choices, which involved using actual Nutrition Facts labels from foods typically eaten by adolescents. Then the subjects participated in a short educational program on how to read the Nutrition Facts label. This was followed by a posttest. Initial knowledge of the basic use of the Nutrition Facts label was marginal, with only 6.65 (standard deviation=2.23) or approximately 55% of pretest questions answered correctly. However, the subjects' scores improved significantly to 8.32 (standard deviation=2.01) or approximately 70% correct on the posttest (P<0.0001, Fisher's exact test) after the educational session. In conclusion, young adolescents can learn how to read and understand the Nutrition Facts labels through educational sessions.

  20. Four-year treatment outcomes of adult patients enrolled in Mozambique's rapidly expanding antiretroviral therapy program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Auld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Mozambique during 2004-2007 numbers of adult patients (≥15 years old enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART increased about 16-fold, from 60 kg, WHO stage IV (AHR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4, reference group WHO stage I/II, lack of co-trimoxazole prescription (AHR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8, and later calendar year of ART initiation (AHR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8. Rates of immunologic treatment failure and regimen-switch were 14.0 and 0.6 events per 100-patient years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ART initiation at earlier disease stages and scale-up of co-trimoxazole among ART patients could improve outcomes. Research to determine reasons for low regimen-switch rates and increasing rates of attrition during program expansion is needed.

  1. Food in the Schools, Part I. Options in Education, Program #75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    This document presents the program transcripts of a weekly series broadcast by member stations of National Public Radio. The program focuses on food in the schools. It addresses the following issues: plate waste in Chicago and Dallas; banning junk food and vending machines; the results of a vending machine junk food ban in West Virginia;…

  2. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  3. 77 FR 19525 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 210 RIN 0584-AE11 National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; Approval of... rule entitled ``National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related...

  4. Should the vaccine injury compensation program be expanded to cover adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Puryear, M A; Ball, L K; Benor, D

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) asked for a review of the pros and cons of including adult influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP). The authors, as staff to the subcommittees charged with undertaking this assessment, looked at the following questions: (a) Would inclusion in VICP of these two vaccines, used primarily for adults, increase adult vaccination levels? (b) Is this Federal involvement warranted based on the liability burden for these vaccines? (c) Does the risk of adverse events following vaccinations warrant inclusion of these vaccines? (d) Is there a consensus among stakeholders favoring their inclusion? To address these questions, the authors reviewed information on adult vaccines, including data on l lawsuits filed and reports of injuries, and sought input from interested groups. They found no evidence that the use of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines would increase if they were included in VICP. They found a low liability burden for these vaccines, that serious adverse events were rare, and that no consensus existed among stakeholders. After considering the staff report, NVAC chose, in 1996, not to advise the Department of Health and Human Services to include adult vaccines in VICP.

  5. Unsupervised phenotyping of Severe Asthma Research Program participants using expanded lung data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Bleecker, Eugene; Moore, Wendy; Busse, William W; Castro, Mario; Chung, Kian Fan; Calhoun, William J; Erzurum, Serpil; Gaston, Benjamin; Israel, Elliot; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Wenzel, Sally E

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have identified asthma phenotypes based on small numbers of clinical, physiologic, or inflammatory characteristics. However, no studies have used a wide range of variables using machine learning approaches. We sought to identify subphenotypes of asthma by using blood, bronchoscopic, exhaled nitric oxide, and clinical data from the Severe Asthma Research Program with unsupervised clustering and then characterize them by using supervised learning approaches. Unsupervised clustering approaches were applied to 112 clinical, physiologic, and inflammatory variables from 378 subjects. Variable selection and supervised learning techniques were used to select relevant and nonredundant variables and address their predictive values, as well as the predictive value of the full variable set. Ten variable clusters and 6 subject clusters were identified, which differed and overlapped with previous clusters. Patients with traditionally defined severe asthma were distributed through subject clusters 3 to 6. Cluster 4 identified patients with early-onset allergic asthma with low lung function and eosinophilic inflammation. Patients with later-onset, mostly severe asthma with nasal polyps and eosinophilia characterized cluster 5. Cluster 6 asthmatic patients manifested persistent inflammation in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exacerbations despite high systemic corticosteroid use and side effects. Age of asthma onset, quality of life, symptoms, medications, and health care use were some of the 51 nonredundant variables distinguishing subject clusters. These 51 variables classified test cases with 88% accuracy compared with 93% accuracy with all 112 variables. The unsupervised machine learning approaches used here provide unique insights into disease, confirming other approaches while revealing novel additional phenotypes. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cabazitaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: safety data from the Spanish expanded access program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Daniel; Antón Aparicio, Luis M; Esteban, Emilio; Sánchez-Hernández, Alfredo; Germà, Jose Ramón; Batista, Norberto; Maroto, Pablo; Pérez-Valderrama, Begoña; Luque, Raquel; Méndez-Vidal, María José

    2014-09-01

    Based on the TROPIC study results, cabazitaxel was approved for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) progressing on or after docetaxel. This multi-centre program provided early access to cabazitaxel to patients with mCRPC before its commercialization. Safety data from 153 Spanish patients receiving cabazitaxel 25 mg/m(2) i.v. Q3W, plus oral prednisone/prednisolone 10 mg daily, are reported. Median age of patients was 70 years (26.8% ≥ 75 years), 94.1 and 26.8% had bone and visceral metastasis, respectively. Most had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≤ 1 (88.9%) and had received a median of 8.0 cycles of last docetaxel treatment. The median of cabazitaxel cycles and cumulative dose were 6.0 (Interquartile range [IQR]: 4.0; 8.0) and 148.9 (IQR: 98.2; 201.4) mg/m(2), respectively. Adverse events (AEs) possibly related to cabazitaxel occurred in 143 (93.5%) patients. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 AEs were neutropenia (n = 25, 16.3%) and asthenia (n = 17, 11.1%). Febrile neutropenia and grade ≥ 3 diarrhea occurred in 5.2% of the patients each. There were five (3.3%) possibly treatment-related deaths, mainly infection-related. G-CSFs were used in 114 (74.5%) patients, generally as prophylaxis (n = 107; 69.9%). Grade ≥ 3 peripheral neuropathy and nail disorders were uncommon. Cabazitaxel administration, in a real-world setting, is tolerated by Spanish patients with mCRPC, and the AEs are manageable.

  7. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p emulsion based foods.

  8. Food waste in a school nutrition program after implementation of new lunch program guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker, Carmen J; Farris, Alisha R; Marcenelle, Michael; Davis, George C; Serrano, Elena L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the amount of food waste by meal components according to the new National School Lunch Program guidelines among pre-kindergarten and kindergarten students. For 5 consecutive school days in 1 elementary school, the research team collected school lunch trays and separated meal components into bins relative to each food or beverage appearing on the school's daily menu. Bins were weighed in grams and converted to ounces and cups at the end of each lunch period. The researchers examined 304 meals from 1 pre-kindergarten class and 5 kindergarten classes. Of 4,988 oz of food and beverages served, 2,261 oz (45.3%) were wasted during 1 full school week, totaling 141 lb. The greatest amount of food waste was generated from vegetables, the main entree, and milk, respectively. Strategies to reduce food waste in school lunch should be researched and implemented. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children's television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batada, Ameena; Seitz, Maia Dock; Wootan, Margo G; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    A 2005 review by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies concluded that food marketing influences children's food preferences, consumption, and health. Given the powerful influence of marketing on children's diets, this cross-sectional study examined the types of foods, the nutritional quality of those foods, and the marketing techniques and messages used in food advertising during Saturday morning children's television programming. During 27.5 hours of programming in May 2005, 49% of advertisements shown were for food (281 food advertisements out of 572 total advertisements). The most commonly advertised food categories were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and cereal bars (27% of all food advertisements), restaurants (19% of food advertisements), and snack foods (18% of food advertisements). Ninety-one percent of food advertisements were for foods or beverages high in fat, sodium, or added sugars or were low in nutrients. Cartoon characters were used in 74% of food advertisements, and toy or other giveaways were used in 26% of food advertisements. About half of food advertisements contained health/nutrition or physical activity messages and 86% of food advertisements contained emotional appeals. This study provides food and nutrition professionals with information about the amount and types of food children are encouraged to eat during Saturday morning television programming. The findings can help food and nutrition professionals counsel children about healthful eating and/or develop programs or policies to balance those advertisements with healthful eating messages.

  10. 77 FR 50903 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Administrative Funding Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... food, including fresh produce, in FDPIR, and (4) making all Social Security recipients categorically... lifestyle changes. These funds are allocated separately from program administrative funds. D. Regulatory...

  11. Comparison of the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program on household food security and dietary diversity in the face of rising food prices: ways forward for a more nutrition-sensitive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baye, Kaleab; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet

    2014-09-01

    In light of the continuing rise in food prices during and after the 2008 world food crisis, whether food and cash transfers are equally effective in improving food security and diet quality is debatable. To compare the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household food security and dietary diversity. Data on household dietary diversity, child anthropometry, food security, and preference of transfer modalities (food, cash, or mixed) were generated from a cross-sectional survey of 195 PSNP beneficiary households (67 receiving food and 128 receiving cash) in Hawella Tulla District, Sidama, southern Ethiopia. Most beneficiaries (96%) reported food shortages, and 47% reported food shortages that exceeded 3 months. Households receiving cash had better household dietary diversity scores (p = .02) and higher consumption of oils and fats (p = .003) and vitamin A-rich foods (p = .002). Compared with households receiving food, households receiving cash were more affected by increases in food prices that forced them to reduce their number of daily meals (p food (82%) preferred to continue receiving food, households receiving cash (56%) preferred a mix of food and cash. Households receiving cash had better household dietary diversity than households receiving food, a result suggesting that cash transfers may be more effective. However, the continuing rise infood prices may offset these benefits unless cash transfers are index-linked to food price fluctuations.

  12. An economic evaluation of the use of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in the expanded program of immunization of Guizhou province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zundong; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Zhang, Li; Li, Yixing; Zuo, Shuyan; Hutin, Yvan J; Ning, Guijun; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Cairns, Lisa; Luo, Huiming

    2012-08-10

    Historically, China's Japanese encephalitis vaccination program was a mix of household purchase of vaccine and government provision of vaccine in some endemic provinces. In 2006, Guizhou, a highly endemic province in South West China, integrated JE vaccine into the provincial Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI); later, in 2007 China fully integrated 28 provinces into the national EPI, including Guizhou, allowing for vaccine and syringe costs to be paid at the national level. We conducted a retrospective economic analysis of JE integration into EPI in Guizhou province. We modeled two theoretical cohorts of 100,000 persons for 65 years; one using JE live-attenuated vaccine in EPI (first dose: 95% coverage and 94.5% efficacy; second dose: 85% coverage and 98% efficacy) and one not. We assumed 60% sensitivity of surveillance for reported JE rates, 25% case fatality, 30% chronic disability and 3% discounting. We reviewed acute care medical records and interviewed a sample of survivors to estimate direct and indirect costs of illness. We reviewed the EPI offices expenditures in 2009 to estimate the average Guizhou program cost per vaccine dose. Use of JE vaccine in EPI for 100,000 persons would cost 434,898 US$ each year (46% of total cost due to vaccine) and prevent 406 JE cases, 102 deaths, and 122 chronic disabilities (4554 DALYs). If we ignore future cost savings and only use EPI program cost, the program would cost 95.5 US$/DALY, less than China Gross Domestic Product per capita in 2009 (3741 US$). From a cost-benefit perspective taking into account future savings, use of JE vaccine in EPI for a 100,000-person cohort would lead to savings of 1,591,975 US$ for the health system and 11,570,989 US$ from the societal perspective. In Guizhou, China, use of JE vaccine in EPI is a cost effective investment. Furthermore, it would lead to savings for the health system and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Linear programming to build food-based dietary guidelines: Romanian food baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Robertson, Aileen; Hondru, Gabriela

    As in many Member States of the WHO European Region, Romania is seeing an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, particularly among children and adolescents. This is a major risk factor for the development of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and innovative approaches using a (“heal......As in many Member States of the WHO European Region, Romania is seeing an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, particularly among children and adolescents. This is a major risk factor for the development of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and innovative approaches using......, potatoes and fish and considerably less meat, fats, oils and sugar. In conclusion, the linear programming methodology can facilitate the development of national dietary recommendations that meet both recommended nutrient intake values and WHO food-based dietary guidelines in a cost-efficient manner. How...

  14. Eating better for less: a national discount program for healthy food purchases in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Patel, Deepak; Segal, Darren; Sturm, Roland

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether reducing prices for healthy food purchases leads to changes in self-reported measures of food consumption and weight status. Repeated surveys of about 350,000 HealthyFood participants and nonparticipants. Program participation is associated with more consumption of fruits/vegetables and whole-grain foods and less consumption of high sugar/salt foods, fried foods, processed meats, and fast food. There is no strong evidence that participation reduces obesity. A substantial price intervention might be effective in improving diets.

  15. Nutrient density score of typical Indonesian foods and dietary formulation using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jati, Ignasius Radix A P; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Nöhr, Donatus; Biesalski, Hans Konrad

    2012-12-01

    The present research aimed to analyse the nutrient density (ND), nutrient adequacy score (NAS) and energy density (ED) of Indonesian foods and to formulate a balanced diet using linear programming. Data on typical Indonesian diets were obtained from the Indonesian Socio-Economic Survey 2008. ND was investigated for 122 Indonesian foods. NAS was calculated for single nutrients such as Fe, Zn and vitamin A. Correlation analysis was performed between ND and ED, as well as between monthly expenditure class and food consumption pattern in Indonesia. Linear programming calculations were performed using the software POM-QM for Windows version 3. Republic of Indonesia, 2008. Public households (n 68 800). Vegetables had the highest ND of the food groups, followed by animal-based foods, fruits and staple foods. Based on NAS, the top ten food items for each food group were identified. Most of the staple foods had high ED and contributed towards daily energy fulfillment, followed by animal-based foods, vegetables and fruits. Commodities with high ND tended to have low ED. Linear programming could be used to formulate a balanced diet. In contrast to staple foods, purchases of fruit, vegetables and animal-based foods increased with the rise of monthly expenditure. People should select food items based on ND and NAS to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies in Indonesia. Dietary formulation calculated using linear programming to achieve RDA levels for micronutrients could be recommended for different age groups of the Indonesian population.

  16. Timing and delay in children vaccination; evaluation of expanded program of immunization in outskirt of Iranian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejali, Mehri; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Eshrati, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Most studies evaluated the vaccine coverage, but the time of vaccination is important as coverage. This study was conducted to evaluate the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in outskirt of Iranian cities regarding to incidence of delay vaccination among children less than 4 years. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among children 24-47 months old, living in the suburbs of five metropolises of Iran. Totally, 3610 eligible children selected with proportioned cluster sampling method and data of vaccination card extracted after interview with child parents. Delayed incidence rate reported and predictive factors assessed by Chi square test and Multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 56.6% to 93.2% vaccines were administered out of time. Delayed vaccination incidence with more than one-week delay varies from 5.5% to 74.9% for polio at birth and MMR2 at 18 month, respectively. Mother's educational level and birth order were the most important predictors of delayed vaccination. Incidence of delayed vaccination was enlarged by increasing birth order and decreased in lower educated mothers. Incidence rate of delayed vaccination is more than expectation. Regarding to high coverage vaccines in Iran, heath officers and health policy makers should attempt for on-time vaccination beside of high immunization coverage especially in slum areas with more concentrated immigrants due to low literature and crowded families.

  17. Assessing foods offered in the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR) using the Healthy Eating Index 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Smith, Teresa; Ahmed, Selena; Hunts, Holly

    2016-05-01

    To assess the nutritional quality of food packages offered in the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR) using the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Data were collected from the list of the food products provided by the US Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Handbook 501 for FDPIR. Nutritional quality was measured through a cross-sectional analysis of five randomly selected food packages offered through FDPIR. HEI-2010 component and total scores were calculated for each food package. ANOVA and t tests assessed significant differences between food packages and HEI-2010 maximum scores, respectively. This study took place in the USA. Study units included food products offered through FDPIR. The mean total HEI-2010 score for the combined FDPIR food packages was significantly lower than the total HEI-2010 maximum score of 100 (66·38 (sd 11·60); Pfoods (4·14 (sd 0·56); Pfood package HEI-2010 score was notably higher than other federal food assistance and nutrition programmes. Study findings highlight opportunities for the FDPIR to modify its offerings to best support lifestyles towards prevention of diet-related chronic disease.

  18. Emergency Food Assistance in Northern Syria: An Evaluation of Transfer Programs in Idleb Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Tappis, Hannah; Lyles, Emily; Witiw, Joseph; Aken, Vicki

    2017-06-01

    The war in Syria has left millions struggling to survive amidst violent conflict, pervasive unemployment, and food insecurity. Although international assistance funding is also at an all-time high, it is insufficient to meet the needs of conflict-affected populations, and there is increasing pressure on humanitarian stakeholders to find more efficient, effective ways to provide assistance. To evaluate 3 different assistance programs (in-kind food commodities, food vouchers, and unrestricted vouchers) in Idleb Governorate of Syria from December 2014 and March 2015. The evaluation used repeated survey data from beneficiary households to determine whether assistance was successful in maintaining food security at the household level. Shopkeeper surveys and program monitoring data were used to assess the impact on markets at the district/governorate levels and compare the cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of transfer modalities. Both in-kind food assistance and voucher programs showed positive effects on household food security and economic measures in Idleb; however, no intervention was successful in improving all outcomes measured. Food transfers were more likely to improve food access and food security than vouchers and unrestricted vouchers. Voucher programs were found to be more cost-efficient than in-kind food assistance, and more cost-effective for increasing household food consumption. Continuation of multiple types of transfer programs, including both in-kind assistance and vouchers, will allow humanitarian actors to remain responsive to evolving access and security considerations, local needs, and market dynamics.

  19. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  20. Local Food Systems Course for Extension Educators in North Carolina: Summary of an Innovative Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, J. Dara; Lelekacs, Joanna Massey; Dunning, Rebecca; Piner, Abbey; Brinkmeyer, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Interest in local foods began in the early 2000s and has grown substantially over the past decade and a half. Although Extension is addressing local food systems in many states, training and materials in this program area are nascent. To address this circumstance, we developed a graduate course on local food systems for Extension educators.…

  1. Food Group Preferences of Elementary School Children Participating in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Linda; Tripurana, Madhuri; Englund, Tim; Bergman, Ethan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the food group preferences of second through fifth grade children based on ethnic background, gender, and grade. Food group preferences were determined by the amount of various food groups consumed in meals served as part of the National School Lunch Program at selected schools. Research…

  2. State of the States: A Profile of Food and Nutrition Programs across the Nation. [2000 Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Research and Action Center, Washington, DC.

    Noting that persistent poverty, hunger, and food insecurity remain an important challenge in the United States, this report of the Food Research and Action Center details food and nutrition programs throughout the country. The report, designed for use by governments, advocates, religious organizations, schools, service providers, and non-profit…

  3. 75 FR 4911 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 AGENCY: Food and... Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 272 and 273 Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  4. Consumer Knowledge and Perceptions Towards Food Safety Practices: Implications for Consumer Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food safety knowledge and perceptions of consumers are important factors in preventing incidence of foodborne illnesses. The purpose of this study was to determine consumers’ knowledge and perceptions towards food safety and practices. In particular, this study assessed knowledge level of consumers related to key food safety practices and determined the perceptions of consumers regarding food safety practices in foodservice operations. Additionally, it determined consumers’ ability to observe food safety practices in foodservice operations. Results revealed that, in general, consumers were knowledgeable about food safety but did not understand certain basic processes of food safety, such as handwashing and preventing food safety hazards. This study also found that respondents were concerned about food safety and adhered to foodservice operations’ food safety practices. Implications and recommendations for Extension programming were drawn from study results.

  5. 78 FR 69602 - Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals'' proposed rule to allow interested persons an... Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals; Extension of Comment Periods AGENCY: Food and Drug... entitled ``Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals'' that...

  6. Food assistance programs for children afford mixed dietary quality based on HEI-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker, Carmen; Smith, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Backpack programs across the United States distribute easy-to-prepare foods in a backpack to potentially food-insecure students on Fridays to help reduce weekend hunger. This study used Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) to assess foods provided in Montana backpack programs. Healthy Eating Index 2010 measures compliance with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines and is a tool to assess the diet quality of foods provided in supplemental food assistance programs. We hypothesized that HEI-2010 scores would be of average dietary quality. One randomly selected menu was collected from each Montana backpack program (n = 5) from the 2011-2012 academic year. Each food provided was analyzed for diet quality using HEI-2010 to obtain component and total scores. Descriptive statistics and t tests were calculated to assess whether mean HEI-2010 component scores and total scores differed significantly (P quality of backpack programs may further improve with information sharing between programs about the availability of specific food group items. To better suit children's nutritional needs and increase HEI-2010 scores, researchers, practitioners, and the food industry should identify food options for the backpack program that are easy to prepare, appealing, and affordable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Child Care Food Program and Family Day Care: A How-To Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Estelle; Travis, Nancy

    This manual explains what is involved in sponsoring a Child Care Food Program (CCFP) for family day care providers. It draws on the experience of Save the Children's Southern States Office in sponsoring the "Child Care Food Umbrella," a CCFP program serving over 1,000 providers, which Save the Children has operated for 6 years. Chapter 1…

  8. McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (McGovern-Dole program) helps support education, child development, and food security for some of the world's poorest children. It provides for donations of U.S. agricultural products, as well as financial and technical assistance, for school feeding and maternal and…

  9. 76 FR 35301 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Brewer, Chief, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition..., Chief, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, 3101... provided in section 10 of the Child Nutrition Act (42 U.S.C. 1779). The law now requires that the...

  10. Backpack Programs and the Crisis Narrative of Child Hunger-A Critical Review of the Rationale, Targeting, and Potential Benefits and Harms of an Expanding but Untested Model of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah S; Frongillo, Edward A

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, school-based food backpack programs (BPPs) have come into national prominence as a response to a perceived crisis of child hunger in America. Distributing bags of free food directly to schoolchildren for their own personal consumption each weekend, BPPs bring together private donors, faith communities, and public schools around an intuitively appealing project: children are hungry, and so we give them food. Perhaps because of their intuitive appeal, BPPs have expanded rapidly, without rigorous evaluation to determine their impacts on children, families, and schools. This Perspective aims to open up thinking about BPPs, first articulating the implicit conceptual model that undergirds BPPs, drawing on documentation offered by major program providers and on our own experience working with several schools implementing BPPs, to provide a window into what BPPs do and how and why they do it. We focus in particular on how the crisis narrative of child hunger has shaped the BPP model and on the related interplay between public sympathy and the neoliberal climate in which structural solutions to family poverty are eschewed. We then assess the BPP model in light of existing knowledge, concluding that BPPs fit poorly with the needs of the majority of children living in food-insecure households in the United States and consequently put children at risk of negative consequences associated with worry, shame, stigma, and disruptions to family functioning. Finally, we provide recommendations for practice and research, emphasizing the importance of 1) responding to children's actual needs throughout program implementation, 2) avoiding unnecessary risks by effective targeting of services to only those children who need them, and 3) rigorously evaluating program outcomes and unintended consequences to determine whether, even for the small number of US children who experience hunger, the benefits of the BPP model outweigh its psychosocial costs. © 2018 American

  11. Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles in School Nutrition Programs: Implementation Status and Factors Related to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…

  12. Rural income transfer programs and rural household food security in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Zenebe B

    2012-01-01

    Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management.

  13. Optimising the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen-Gerdessen, van J.C.; Souverein, O.W.; Veer, van 't P.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To support the selection of food items for FFQs in such a way that the amount of information on all relevant nutrients is maximised while the food list is as short as possible. Design Selection of the most informative food items to be included in FFQs was modelled as a Mixed Integer Linear

  14. Target salt 2025: a global overview of national programs to encourage the food industry to reduce salt in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-08-21

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  15. Learning from the organic food system as a model for sustainable food systems - the Organic Food System Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Strassner, Carola; Hertwig, Jostein

    2016-01-01

    Today’s understanding of food systems includes product-specific values (e.g. palatability, taste, nutritional and safety values, health promotion) and process-oriented values (e.g. environmental impact, animal welfare and social fairness). These values are currently challenged and changing. Food ...... production and consumption within one system, thus creating and distributing value along the chains for sustainable food systems.......Today’s understanding of food systems includes product-specific values (e.g. palatability, taste, nutritional and safety values, health promotion) and process-oriented values (e.g. environmental impact, animal welfare and social fairness). These values are currently challenged and changing. Food...... habits, cultural, social, ethical, economic and political criteria play an increasingly important role as values. An organic values-based supply chain links food production to values such as partnership, cooperation and trust. Within a values-based supply chain, all actors should be connected through...

  16. Improving Food Safety Knowledge through an Online Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Rebecca S.; Anding, Jenna; Green, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a major public health concern in the U.S. The CDC [Centers for Disease Control] estimates that approximately 48 million Americans become ill, 128,000 hospitalized, and 3,000 die of foodborne illnesses annually. Most of these illnesses are attributed to improper food handling. To meet the growing demand for food safety…

  17. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviors of Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) Program Participants in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Junehee; Wilson, Amber N.S; Bednar, Carolyn; Kennon, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    .... To assess food safety knowledge and food handling behaviors of low-income, high-risk populations, a study was conducted with participants of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC...

  18. Do Food Stamps without Education Improve the Nutrient Intake and Food-Related Behaviors of Recipients? Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Katherine L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Burney, Janie L.

    This study examined the effect of food assistance on the dietary patterns of households in South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data was collected from 6,969 participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and 3,552 participants in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP). EFNEP and FSNEP teach low-income…

  19. A novel food pantry program: food security, self-sufficiency, and diet-quality outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katie S; Wu, Rong; Wolff, Michele; Colantonio, Angela G; Grady, James

    2013-11-01

    The number of food pantries in the U.S. has grown dramatically over 3 decades, yet food insecurity remains a persistent public health problem. The goal of the study was to examine the impact of a food pantry intervention called Freshplace, designed to promote food security. Randomized parallel-group study with equal randomization. Data were collected from June 2010 to June 2012; a total of 228 adults were recruited over 1 year from traditional food pantries and randomized to the Freshplace intervention (n=113) or control group (n=115), with quarterly follow-ups for 12 months. The Freshplace intervention included a client-choice pantry, monthly meetings with a project manager to receive motivational interviewing, and targeted referrals to community services. Control group participants went to traditional food pantries where they received bags of food. Data analyses were conducted from July 2012 to January 2013. Outcomes were food security, self-sufficiency, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Multivariate regression models were used to predict the three outcomes, controlling for gender, age, household size, income, and presence of children in the household. At baseline, half of the sample experienced very low food security. Over 1 year, Freshplace members were less than half as likely to experience very low food security, increased self-sufficiency by 4.1 points, and increased fruits and vegetables by one serving per day compared to the control group, all outcomes p<0.01. Freshplace may serve as a model for other food pantries to promote food security rather than short-term assistance by addressing the underlying causes of poverty. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  20. Nutritional content of foods advertised during the television programs children watch most.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Marske, Amy L

    2005-09-01

    We sought to code food (nutritional content and food type and eating occasion) and character (cartoon and live action) attributes of food advertisements airing during television programs heavily viewed by children, and to represent and evaluate the nutritional content of advertised foods in terms of the nutrition facts label. Food advertisements (n=426) aimed at general and child audiences were coded for food and character attributes. "Nutrition Facts" label data for advertised foods (n=275) were then analyzed. Convenience/fast foods and sweets comprised 83% of advertised foods. Snacktime eating was depicted more often than breakfast, lunch, and dinner combined. Apparent character body size was unrelated to eating behavior. A 2000-calorie diet of foods in the general-audience advertisements would exceed recommended daily values (RDVs) of total fat, saturated fat, and sodium. A similar diet of foods in the child-audience advertisements would exceed the sodium RDV and provide 171 g (nearly 1 cup) of added sugar. Snack, convenience, and fast foods and sweets continue to dominate food advertisements viewed by children. Advertised foods exceed RDVs of fat, saturated fat, and sodium, yet fail to provide RDVs of fiber and certain vitamins and minerals.

  1. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Webster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods—the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  2. An Innovative Method of Measuring Changes in Access to Healthful Foods in School Lunch Programs: Findings from a Pilot Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P Hawkes

    Full Text Available A large local health department in Colorado partnered with 15 school districts to develop an approach to evaluate changes in access to healthy foods in reimbursable school lunches and a la carte offerings.School district nutrition managers were engaged at the start of this project. Health department dietitians developed criteria to classify food items as "Lower Fat and less added Sugar" (LFS and "Higher Fat and more added Sugar" (HFS based on the percentage of calories from fat and grams of added sugar. Lunch production sheets were obtained for two time periods, food items and the number of planned servings recorded. LFS and HFS planned servings were summed for each time period, and a LFS to HFS ratio calculated by dividing LFS planned servings by HFS planned servings. Additional analyses included calculating LFS: HFS ratios by school district, and for a la carte offerings.In 2009, the LFS: HFS ratio was 2.08, in 2011, 3.71 (P<0.0001. The method also detected changes in ratios at the school district level. For a la carte items, in 2009 the ratio of LFS: HFS was 0.53, and in 2011, 0.61 (not statistically significant.This method detected an increase in the LFS: HFS ratio over time and demonstrated that the school districts improved access to healthful food/drink by changing the contents of reimbursable school lunches. The evaluation method discussed here can generate information that districts can use in helping sustain and expand their efforts to create healthier environments for children and adults. Although federal regulations now cover all food and beverages served during the school day, there are still opportunities to improve and measure changes in food served in other settings such as child care centers, youth correction facilities, or in schools not participating in the National School Lunch Program.

  3. Installation and Setup of Whole School Food Waste Composting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A.; Forder, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong, one of the busiest trading harbors in the world, is also a city of 8 million of people. The biggest problem that the government faces is the lack of solid waste landfill space. Hong Kong produces around 13,500 tons of waste per day. There are three landfills in Hong Kong in operation. These three landfills will soon be exhausted in around 2020, and the solid waste in Hong Kong is still increasing. Out of the 13,500 tons of solid waste, 9,000 tons are organic solid waste or food waste. Food waste, especially domestic waste, is recyclable. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy has a project to collect domestic food waste (from the school cafeteria) for decomposition. Our school produces around 15 tons of food waste per year. The project includes a sub-project in the Primary school, which uses the organic soil produced by an aerobic food waste machine, the Rocket A900, to plant vegetables in school. This not only helps our school to process the waste, but also helps the Primary students to study agriculture and have greater opportunities for experimental learning. For this project, two types of machines will be used for food waste processing. Firstly, the Dehydra made by Tiny Planet reduces the volume and the mass of the food waste, by dehydrating the food waste and separating the ground food waste and the excessive water inside machine for further decomposition. Secondly, the A900 Rocket, also made by Tidy Planet; this is used to process the dehydrated ground food waste for around 14 days thereby producing usable organic soil. It grinds the food waste into tiny pieces so that it is easier to decompose. It also separates the wood chips inside the ground food waste. This machine runs an aerobic process, which includes O2 and will produce CO2 during the process and is less harmful to the environment. On the other hand, if it is an anaerobic process occurs during the operation, it will produce a greenhouse gas- CH4 -and smells bad.

  4. Meals for Good: An innovative community project to provide healthy meals to children in early care and education programs through food bank catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Leah R; Smith, Teresa M; Stern, Katherine; Boyd, Lisa Weissenburger-Moser; Rasmussen, Cristy Geno; Schaffer, Kelly; Shuell, Julie; Broussard, Karen; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-12-01

    Innovative approaches to childhood obesity prevention are warranted in early care and education (ECE) settings, since intervening early among youth is recommended to promote and maintain healthy behaviors. The objective of the Meals for Good pilot was to explore feasibility of implementing a food bank-based catering model to ECE programs to provide more nutritious meals, compared to meals brought from home (a parent-prepared model). In 2014-2015, a 12-month project was implemented by a food bank in central Florida in four privately-owned ECE programs. An explanatory sequential design of a mixed-methods evaluation approach was utilized, including a pre-post menu analysis comparing parent-prepared meals to the catered meals, and stakeholder interviews to determine benefits and barriers. The menu analysis of lunches showed daily reductions in calories, fat, and saturated fat, but an increase in sodium in catered meals when compared to parent-prepared meals. Interviews with ECE directors, teachers, parents, and food bank project staff, identified several benefits of the catered meals, including healthfulness of meals, convenience to parents, and the ECE program's ability to market this meal service. Barriers of the catered meals included the increased cost to parents, transportation and delivery logistics, and change from a 5 to a 2-week menu cycle during summer food service. This pilot demonstrated potential feasibility of a food bank-ECE program partnership, by capitalizing on the food bank's existing facilities and culinary programming, and interest in implementing strategies focused on younger children. The food bank has since leveraged lessons learned and expanded to additional ECE programs.

  5. Meals for Good: An innovative community project to provide healthy meals to children in early care and education programs through food bank catering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah R. Carpenter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovative approaches to childhood obesity prevention are warranted in early care and education (ECE settings, since intervening early among youth is recommended to promote and maintain healthy behaviors. The objective of the Meals for Good pilot was to explore feasibility of implementing a food bank-based catering model to ECE programs to provide more nutritious meals, compared to meals brought from home (a parent-prepared model. In 2014–2015, a 12-month project was implemented by a food bank in central Florida in four privately-owned ECE programs. An explanatory sequential design of a mixed-methods evaluation approach was utilized, including a pre-post menu analysis comparing parent-prepared meals to the catered meals, and stakeholder interviews to determine benefits and barriers. The menu analysis of lunches showed daily reductions in calories, fat, and saturated fat, but an increase in sodium in catered meals when compared to parent-prepared meals. Interviews with ECE directors, teachers, parents, and food bank project staff, identified several benefits of the catered meals, including healthfulness of meals, convenience to parents, and the ECE program's ability to market this meal service. Barriers of the catered meals included the increased cost to parents, transportation and delivery logistics, and change from a 5 to a 2-week menu cycle during summer food service. This pilot demonstrated potential feasibility of a food bank-ECE program partnership, by capitalizing on the food bank's existing facilities and culinary programming, and interest in implementing strategies focused on younger children. The food bank has since leveraged lessons learned and expanded to additional ECE programs.

  6. A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations' Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country's Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonse, Brett

    2016-04-29

    It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E.U.) countries, as a block, import significantly more. Each importing country has its own programs and systems in place to ensure the safety of imported seafood. However, most countries that export seafood have regulatory programs in place that comply with the import requirements of the E.U. The purpose of this paper is to describe the United States Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) imported seafood safety program. The primary audience for the information is foreign government regulators, seafood exporters, and U.S. importers. It can also give consumers confidence that f U.S. seafood is safe no matter which country it originates from.

  7. HIV/AIDS, food supplementation and livelihood programs in Uganda: a way forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Yager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs to target the root causes of food insecurity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1 lack of resources (2 timing of the transition and (3 logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1 close involvement of community leaders (2 close ties with local and national government (3 diversification of IHLP activities and (4 close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care. CONCLUSION: Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so

  8. HIV/AIDS, food supplementation and livelihood programs in Uganda: a way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jessica E; Kadiyala, Suneetha; Weiser, Sheri D

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs) to target the root causes of food insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1) lack of resources (2) timing of the transition and (3) logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1) close involvement of community leaders (2) close ties with local and national government (3) diversification of IHLP activities and (4) close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care. Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so as to better evaluate program results.

  9. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  10. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

  11. Foods and Beverages Sold Outside the School Meals Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... schools had either a vending machine or a school store, canteen, or snack bar where students could purchase foods ... sugars from a vending machine or in a school store, canteen, or snack bar during lunch periods. 1 • 12. ...

  12. An Appraisal of the Special Summer Food Service Program for Children. Food and Nutrition Service. Department of Agriculture. Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Special Summer Food Service Program for Children is one of several programs for the feeding of children administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS). The program is designed to feed during summer vacation, children from areas having poor economic conditions or high concentrations of working mothers. It is authorized through fiscal year…

  13. Canada's northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada's remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities. Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011-2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program's performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities. NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program's accountability. From 2011-15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program's own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers' pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities.

  14. Food environment of fruits and vegetables in the territory of the Health Academy Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-01-01

    ... as the Health Academy Program (HAP) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study evaluated commercial food establishments within a buffer area based on a radius of 1,600 meters around each of 18 randomly selected fitness facilities...

  15. Identification of Essential Food Skills for Skill-Based Healthful Eating Programs in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce-Voorham, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Methods: Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were…

  16. The Child and Adult Care Food Program and the Nutrition of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S.; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national…

  17. School Breakfast Program Participation and Rural Adolescents' Purchasing Behaviors in Food Stores and Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Wang, Qi; Shanafelt, Amy; Larson, Nicole; Wei, Susan; Hearst, Mary O.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little is known about adolescents' food purchasing behaviors in rural areas. This study examined whether purchasing food at stores/restaurants around schools was related to adolescents' participation in school breakfast programs and overall diet in rural Minnesota. Methods: Breakfast-skippers enrolled in a group-randomized intervention…

  18. 75 FR 23565 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... / Tuesday, May 4, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 272 and 273 RIN 0584-AD30 Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002; Approval of Information Collection Request...

  19. Seasonal Difference in National School Lunch Program Participation and Its Impacts on Household Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Kim, Youngmi; Barnidge, Ellen

    2016-11-20

    The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one of the most important food assistance programs in the United States to ensure children's food security and healthy development. Previous studies have offered mixed results and challenges in estimating the effects of program participation. This study assesses NSLP's effect on household food security using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). SIPP collects information on food security that covers four reference months, including both summer (June, July, August) and nonsummer months. The number of summer months in these four reference months varies by SIPP rotation group. These unique features allow this study to address the potential selection bias in the research of NSLP and food security by examining a seasonal difference in program participation. The analysis found that one more summer month in the reference period increases the difference in low food security rates by about 1.5 percentage points between recipients and nonrecipients eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. Findings have important social work and health policy implications for increasing food security among low-income households with children. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  20. EFFECTS OF FOOD ASSISTANCE AND NUTRITION PROGRAMS ON NUTRITION AND HEALTH, VOLUME 1, RESEARCH DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, William L.; Rossi, Peter H.

    2002-01-01

    This is the first of four reports in the "Nutrition and Health Outcome Study," which assesses the effects of USDA's food assistance and nutrition programs on nutrition and health outcomes. This report reviews the research designs available to evaluators for assessing the effect of USDA's food assistance and nutrition programs. The random assignment experiment is the "gold standard" design for such an evaluation. Where random assignment is impossible, quasi-experimental designs are used to inf...

  1. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  2. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  3. School menus in Santa Catarina: Evaluation with respect to the National School Food Program regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Marreira Vidal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess compliance of school menu planning with the National School Food Program's regulations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed 133 menus for 542 schools in 49 municipalities of the state of Santa Catarina. The menus were assessed according to the National School Food Program's regulations, the "Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population" and the "Qualitative Evaluation of Menu Components for Schools". The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Nearly all (98.5% municipalities met the requirement of technical responsibility for menu development and 81.0% acquired foods from family farms. The menus contained fruits (87.2% and non-starchy vegetables (94.0%, but the frequencies of fruits and non-starchy vegetables were smaller than two to three times a week. The most common high-sodium and high-fat foods were commercially processed meats (53.0%, but their frequency was smaller than once a week. Likewise, the frequencies of beverages (natural fruit juice, coffee, and tea were smaller than once a week. Most menus (85.1% repeated foods during the week, and only 3.0% of the menus listed organic foods. CONCLUSION: Some school menus from Santa Catarina need to be revised with respect to the frequency of fruits and non-starchy vegetables, high-sugar foods, high-sodium foods, and high-fat foods, and need to increase food diversity and variety.

  4. The growing importance of staple foods and condiments used as ingredients in the food industry and implications for large-scale food fortification programs in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohrer, Rebecca; Larson, Melanie; Maurin, Clémence; Laillou, Arnaud; Capanzana, Mario; Garrett, Greg S

    2013-06-01

    , salt, and vegetable oil are used in widely consumed processed foods would ensure that these foods contribute to improvement in micronutrient intake among populations in Southeast Asia, particularly as the consumption of these foods is increasing. Policymakers and nutrition program managers should consider the contribution to nutritional intake that fortified staples and condiments can provide through processed foods, in addition to being used for cooking in the home, and ensure that the food industry is required to use these fortified staples and condiments rather than nonfortified foods.

  5. Abundance and phenotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in faeces from healthy food animals after slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Miguel A; Teshager, Tirushet; Porrero, M A Concepción; García, María; Escudero, Esther; Torres, Carmen; Domínguez, Lucas

    2007-03-10

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is an increasing phenomenon but its quantitative estimation remains controversial. The classical resistance percentage approach is not well suited to detect either emergence or low levels resistance. One option is to shift the focus from strains to hosts. This approach is applied to test for phenotypic diversity associated with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (DSESC) in faecal Escherichia coli from healthy food animals in Spain. We performed E. coli enumeration in faecal samples of broilers (82 pooled samples) and pigs (80 pooled samples) at the slaughterhouse level, using Coli-ID plates alone and supplemented with cefotaxime at two levels (1 and 8 microg/ml). Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested by the agar diffusion method. Clustering was carried out using these numerical values and Ward and UPGMA methods. When using plates supplemented with 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime for DSESC E. coli detection, 93% (76/82) of broiler pooled samples and 36% (29/80) pig pooled samples tested positive. When using 8 microg/ml of cefotaxime, 67% (55/82) of broilers and 13% (10/80) of pigs were positive. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of this phenotype was low in both animal species (range 0-4.3%). Irrespective of the clustering method (Ward or UPGMA), a noticeable phenotypic diversity was detected, especially from the plates containing 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime. We concluded that: (a) E. coli with phenotype DSESC are common in broilers and pigs but are less frequent in pigs, and (b) the host approach is the most appropriate method for antimicrobial resistance assessment when null or very low levels of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are expected.

  6. Purchase of family farm and organic foods by the Brazilian School Food Program in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Luiza de Andrade CASTELLANI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the purchase of family farm and organic foods by the Brazilian School Food Program in the municipalities of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods This is an analytic and descriptive study conducted from 2010 to 2011. An electronic survey was sent to all 293 Santa Catarina municipalities. The Chi-square test investigated the association between the study variables. Results Between 2010 and 2011, the number of municipalities that purchased family farm foods increased by 36%, with a total of 96% of Santa Catarina municipalities buying family farming foods in 2011. Of the 96%, 70% complied with Article 14 of Law nº 11,947/2009, which determines that at least 30% of the funds provided by the National Fund for the Development of Education should be spent on family farm products, and 48% purchased organic foods. The South was the state region that most complied with Article 14 (85%; p=0.02. However, as municipality size increased, compliance with Article 14 decreased (p=0.04. The municipalities that had the most difficulties buying family farm and organic foods were those with the lowest Municipal Human Development Index and number of students. Conclusion Most Santa Catarina municipalities purchased family farm foods in 2011, and most municipalities that complied with Article 14 of Law nº 11,947/2009 were in the South state region. Finally, municipalities with low Municipal Human Development Index and number of students had the most difficulties buying family farm foods.

  7. Culinary Arts Food Service Training Program. Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bo; And Others

    Special Vocational Services in Salt Lake City has provided food service training, using the facilities of a local high school and the University of Utah, to special needs youth meeting Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) guidelines. The use of industry-based equipment, a formal dining room, and a qualified staff have assured relevant training to…

  8. An introduction of internationalisation in food science doctoral program: a case study of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunaefi, D

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Food Science and Technology- Bogor Agricultural University (DFST-IPB), Indonesia is one of the oldest Departments of its kind in Indonesia. The Department has been founded since 1964 under the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology. The Department has a core competence in the area of food science and technology, particularly in the development of food chemistry, food microbiology, food process engineering, food analysis, food quality and safety. The Department offers educational programs: Undergraduate Program in Food Technology and Master as well as Doctorate Program in Food Science. The Master and Doctorate Program are enrolled by 35 students annually. Globalisation as a global phenomenon has been influencing DFST doctoral program as internationalization in response to globalization is a common feature in majority universities. Facing this challenge, DFST Doctorate Program's has made some efforts to provide students with international atmosphere, including having international guest lecturers, inviting prospective international students, and initiating join program with international universities. In addition, research focusing in tropical food and collaboration with international universities may need to be improved to widen the network, increase publication and place DFST doctorate program visible in the international forum. This paper is intended to reveal the perceived challenges of globalization for food science doctoral program (DFST-IPB) and to what extent and in what form internationalization has been achieved. However, it should be noted that this article is selective rather than comprehensive in reflecting on the internationalization process of food science doctoral program (DFST-IPB).

  9. Nutrition marketing on processed food packages in Canada: 2010 Food Label Information Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermel, Alyssa; Emrich, Teri E; Arcand, JoAnne; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The current study describes the frequency of use of different forms of nutrition marketing in Canada and the nutrients and conditions that are the focus of nutrition marketing messages. Prepackaged foods with a Nutrition Facts table (N = 10,487) were collected between March 2010 and April 2011 from outlets of the 3 largest grocery chains in Canada and 1 major western Canadian grocery retailer. The nutrition marketing information collected included nutrient content claims, disease risk reduction claims, and front-of-pack nutrition rating systems (FOPS). We found that nutrition marketing was present on 48.1% of Canadian food packages, with nutrient content claims being the most common information (45.5%), followed by FOPS on 18.9% of packages. Disease risk reduction claims were made least frequently (1.7%). The marketing messages used most often related to total fat and trans fat (15.6% and 15.5% of nutrient content claims, respectively). Limiting total and trans fats is a current public health priority, as recommended by Health Canada and the World Health Organization. However, other nutrients that are also recommended to be limited, including saturated fats, sodium, and added sugars, were not nearly as prominent on food labels. Thus, greater emphasis should be placed by the food industry on these other important nutrients. Repeated data collection in the coming years will allow us to track longitudinal changes in nutrition marketing messages over time as food marketing, public health, and consumer priorities evolve.

  10. Participant Satisfaction with a Food Benefit Program with Restrictions and Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Sarah A; Turner, Rachael M; Lasswell, Tessa A; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Elbel, Brian; Harnack, Lisa J

    2017-10-27

    Policy makers are considering changes to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Proposed changes include financially incentivizing the purchase of healthier foods and prohibiting the use of funds for purchasing foods high in added sugars. SNAP participant perspectives may be useful in understanding the consequences of these proposed changes. To determine whether food restrictions and/or incentives are acceptable to food benefit program participants. Data were collected as part of an experimental trial in which lower-income adults were randomly assigned to one of four financial food benefit conditions: (1) Incentive: 30% financial incentive on eligible fruits and vegetables purchased using food benefits; (2) Restriction: not allowed to buy sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet baked goods, or candies with food benefits; (3) Incentive plus Restriction; or (4) Control: no incentive/restriction. Participants completed closed- and open-ended questions about their perceptions on completion of the 12-week program. Adults eligible or nearly eligible for SNAP were recruited between 2013 and 2015 by means of events or flyers in the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, metropolitan area. Of the 279 individuals who completed baseline measures, 265 completed follow-up measures and are included in these analyses. χ2 analyses were conducted to assess differences in program satisfaction. Responses to open-ended questions were qualitatively analyzed using principles of content analysis. There were no statistically significant or meaningful differences between experimental groups in satisfaction with the program elements evaluated in the study. Most participants in all conditions found the food program helpful in buying nutritious foods (94.1% to 98.5%) and in buying the kinds of foods they wanted (85.9% to 95.6%). Qualitative data suggested that most were supportive of restrictions, although a few were dissatisfied. Participants were uniformly supportive of incentives. Findings

  11. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Use of linear programming...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...... programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods...

  12. Biochemical screening of 504,049 newborns in Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland - Experience and development of a routine program for expanded newborn screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Hougaard, David Michael; Simonsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    :4942 (mothers excluded) or 1:4421 (mothers included). The false positive rate was 0.038% and positive predictive value 37%. Overall specificity was 99.99%. All patients with true positive results were followed in The Center for Inherited Metabolic Disorders in Copenhagen, and the mean follow-up period was 45......Expanded newborn screening for selected inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland was introduced in 2002. We now present clinical, biochemical, and statistical results of expanded screening (excluding PKU) of 504,049 newborns during nine years as well...... argue that newborn screening for these disorders should be standard of care, though unresolved issues remain, e.g. about newborns with a potential for remaining asymptomatic throughout life. Well organized logistics of the screening program from screening laboratory to centralized, clinical management...

  13. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  14. Report of the Ad Hoc Group for Irradiated Food Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    as salmonellae, and parasites — such as the beef and pork tapeworms , trichinae, and liver flukes; in addition, high-dose processing eliminates the...starting with beef . This commitment required that the test be continued until the products were approved or disapproved by the Food and Drug...Administration (Appendix C). Currently the Army is entering Into the last year of its beef whole- someness testing contract and a decision has recently been made

  15. A 10-Year Review of the Food Science Summer Scholars Program: A Model for Research Training and for Recruiting Undergraduate Students into Graduate Programs and Careers in Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Angela J.; Robbins, Janette; McLandsborough, Lynne; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A pressing problem facing regulatory agencies, academia, and the food industry is a shortage of qualified food science graduates, particularly those with advanced degrees (that is, M.S. or Ph.D.). In 2000, the Cornell Institute of Food Science established the annual Food Science Summer Scholars Program as an experiential summer research program…

  16. What's New in USDA's Food Distribution Program for Schools? School Programs USDA Foods Update. Volume 14, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an update on all the new products and projects that U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has been working on, in its effort to help schools meet the nutritional needs of the students and to help in the President's challenge to End Childhood Hunger by 2015. This issue includes: (1) Back to…

  17. Canada’s northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada’s remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities. Design: Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011–2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program’s performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities. Results: NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program’s accountability. From 2011–15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program’s own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers’ pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities. PMID:28151097

  18. 32 CFR 199.23 - Special Supplemental Food Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... eligibility guidelines contained in USDA regulations, the Director, TRICARE Management Activity (TMA) may... WIC Overseas Program when local conditions preclude strict compliance or when such compliance is... scheduled nutrition education sessions. (e) Financial management. The Department shall establish procedures...

  19. Evaluation of an Online Educational Program for Parents and Caregivers of Children With Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Baqués, A; Contreras-Porta, J; Marques-Mejías, M; Cárdenas Rebollo, J M; Capel Torres, F; Ariño Pla, M N; Zorrozua Santisteban, A; Chivato, T

    2018-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of food allergy affects both patients and their families. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an online educational program designed for parents and caregivers of children with food allergies. The program was developed by a multidisciplinary group comprising health care professionals, researchers, and expert patients under the participatory medicine model. Participants took a 2-week online educational program covering major topics in food allergy management. General knowledge about the disease, symptoms, treatment, and topics relevant to families' daily lives were evaluated. The contents included educational videos, online forums, and live video chats. A pretest/posttest questionnaire survey was used to evaluate the impact of the program. A total of 207 participants enrolled in the educational program, which was completed by 130 (62.8%). Knowledge acquisition improved significantly following participation in the program in 15 out of 30 items (50%), reaching P<.001 for 8 items (26.7%). Of the 207 participants who started the program, 139 (67.1%) visited online forums, and 27.5% attended video chats. Average overall satisfaction with the educational program was 8.78 (on a scale of 0 to 10). The results obtained show that parents improved their knowledge in all areas of food allergy. The high level of satisfaction among participants suggests that digital learning tools are effective and motivational, enabling patients to acquire appropriate knowledge and thus increasing their quality of life.

  20. Every Child's Right to Food: A Handbook on Federally-Funded Child Nutrition Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Rights Group, San Francisco, CA.

    In recognition of the fact that food is an important step in the educational process and in order to generate new child nutrition programs in communities across the nation (especially in rural communities with significant numbers of migrant farmworkers' children), basic information is presented about four federally funded child nutrition programs.…

  1. SNAP Employment and Training: Washington's Basic Food Employment & Training Program (BFET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Lavanya

    2014-01-01

    SNAP Employment & Training (E&T) is an important component of SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) that supports a variety of education, training, employment, and related services for SNAP recipients. It gives recipients opportunities to gain skills, training, or experience that will…

  2. The School Lunch Lobby: A Charmed Federal Food Program that No Longer Just Feeds the Hungry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Consistent with the intent of the original school-lunch program, created by Congress in 1946 to provide "nutritious agricultural commodities" to children, the major purpose of today's school-lunch program is to ensure that children, especially those from poor and low-income families, have nutritious food at school. Even as contentious and partisan…

  3. 75 FR 54530 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Administrative Funding Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... conducting data collection and analysis for several months, the work group completed a preliminary proposal... warehousing and transporting USDA foods to both the independent programs and those programs that they... FNS, the work group recommended that Montana's and North Dakota's warehousing and transportation costs...

  4. Building Partner Capacity: DOD Should Improve Its Reporting to Congress on Challenges to Expanding Ministry of Defense Advisors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MODA ) program more slowly than planned. It had 2 advisors in the field in Kosovo and Montenegro for most of fiscal year...approval process and with advisor recruitment and training. DOD has met most but not all legislative requirements for the MODA program. As required by...of each Global MODA deployment, which could help Congress assess the value of the program in relation to other capacity-building efforts (see figure

  5. 78 FR 102 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... implemented the eCopy Program under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). This guidance... announcing the availability of a final guidance for industry and FDA staff entitled ``eCopy Program for...

  6. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children′s Television Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertisements can influence children′s health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children′s television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. Methods: All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children′s programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s and mode of presentation (s were coded. Results: A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31% across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%. The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54% and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Conclusion: Although the total number of food advertisements during children′s television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.

  7. The Association Between Consumer Competency and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation on Food Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yunhee; Kim, Jinhee; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants exhibited lower food insecurity when they also demonstrated desirable behaviors in the areas of financial management, nutrition literacy, and conscientious food shopping. Using data from the US Department of Agriculture's newly launched National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey, this study examined whether consumer competency is a factor that affects food insecurity. A total of 4,158 participants were included. Sampling weights were applied to represent the population better. Very low food insecurity was the dependent variable. Important independent variables were participants' financial management skills, nutrition literacy, and conscientious shopping. Logit and 2-staged least-squares models were used for empirical analyses. The significance of models was tested at .05, .01, and .001. Consumer competency-related factors such as financial management ability, not defaulting on bill payments within the previous 6 months, and using the nutrition panel frequently when shopping were negatively associated with food insecurity and very low food security after controlling for a number of other demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral characteristics. Policies that focus solely on consumer competency programs such as SNAP-Education might marginally achieve program goals but the effect would be modest owing to the unique challenges that SNAP participants may face. Further investigations are needed to understand better why SNAP participants do not benefit successfully from competent consumer practices. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventive services program: a model engaging volunteers to expand community-based oral health services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ann M; Branson, Bonnie G; Keselyak, Nancy T; Simmer-Beck, Melanie

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the Preventive Services Program (PSP), a community based oral health program model which engages volunteers to provide preventive services and education for underserved children in Missouri. In 2006, the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services created a program for children designed to use a systems approach for population-based prevention of oral disease. Currently, 5 part-time dental hygienists serve as Oral Health Program Consultants to work with the citizens of a community to engage dentists, dental hygienists, parents and other interested stakeholders in the activities of the program. Dental volunteers evaluate oral health and disease in the community's children and facilitate referrals for dental care. Other volunteers apply fluoride varnish and provide educational services to the children. In 2006, 273 volunteer dentists and dental hygienists and 415 community volunteers provided oral screenings, oral health education, 2 fluoride varnish applications and referral for unmet dental care for 8,529 children. In 2011, 775 volunteer dentists and dental hygienists and 1,837 other community volunteers provided by PSP services to nearly 65,000 children. It has been demonstrated that when the local citizens take responsibility for their own needs that a sustainable and evidence-based program like PSP is possible. Guidelines which provide criteria for matching models with the specific community characteristics need to be generated. Furthermore, a national review of successful program models would be helpful to those endeavoring to implement community oral health program.

  9. Expanding versus non expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In cosmology the number of scientists using the framework of an expanding universe is very high. This model, the big-bang, is now overwhelmingly present in almost all aspects of society. It is the main stream cosmology of today. A small number of scientists are researching on the possibility of a non-expanding universe. The existence of these two groups, one very large and the other very small, is a good proof of the use of the scientific method: it does not drive to an absolute certainty. All models have to be permanently validated, falsified. Ockham's razor, a powerful philosophical tool, will probably change the amount of scientists working in each of these groups. We present here a model where a big-bang is unnecessary. It ends, in a finite time, in a second INFLATION, or a disaggregation to infinity. We also discuss the possibilities of a non-expanding universe model. Only a few references will be cited, mainly concerned with our own work in the past, thus purposely avoiding citing the many thousands of ...

  10. Components of Successful Staple Food Fortification Programs: Lessons From Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; de Romaña, Daniel López

    2017-09-01

    There are few effectiveness evaluations of food fortification programs, and little is known about what makes programs successful. We examined 3 food fortification programs in Latin America to identify common features that might explain their success and to draw lessons for program design and implementation everywhere: The vitamin A fortification of sugar in Guatemala with impact on vitamin A status of the population, the fortification of a basket of foods with iron and other micronutrients in Costa Rica with impact on iron status and anemia in women and children, and the fortification of wheat flour with folic acid in Chile, which reduced the incidence of neural tube defects. We identified pertinent literature about these preselected programs and asked regional experts for any additional information. We also conducted structured interviews of key informants to provide historical and contextual information. Institutional research capacity and champions of fortification are features of successful programs in Latin America. We also found that private/public partnerships (industry, government, academia, and civil society) might be key for sustainability. To achieve impact, program managers need to use fortification vehicles that are consumed by the nutritionally vulnerable and to add bioavailable fortificants at adequate content levels in order to fill dietary gaps and reduce micronutrient deficiencies. Adequate monitoring and quality control are essential. For future programs, we recommend that the evaluation be specified up-front, including a baseline/end line and data collection along the program impact pathway to inform needed improvements and to strengthen causal inferences.

  11. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  12. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Parlesak

    Full Text Available Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost.Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA, or dietary guidelines (DG, or nutrient recommendations (N, or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN, or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN. The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods.The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6. The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8. The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN to 134 (DGN foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN. Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN tripled it.Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  13. Implementation of a food insecurity screening and referral program in student-run free clinics in San Diego, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Smith

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is associated with many poor health outcomes yet is not routinely addressed in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to implement a food insecurity screening and referral program in Student-run Free Clinics (SRFC and to document the prevalence of food insecurity screening in this low-income patient population. All patients seen in three SRFC sites affiliated with one institution in San Diego, California were screened for food insecurity using the 6-item United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Security Survey between January and July 2015 and referred to appropriate resources. The percentage of patients who were food insecure was calculated. The screening rate was 92.5% (430/463 patients, 74.0% (318/430 were food insecure, including 30.7% (132/430 with very low food security. A food insecurity registry and referral tracking system revealed that by January 2016, 201 participants were receiving monthly boxes of food onsite, 66 used an off-site food pantry, and 64 were enrolled in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP. It is possible to implement a food insecurity screening and referral program into SRFCs. The prevalence of food insecurity in this population was remarkably high yet remained largely unknown until this program was implemented. Other health care settings, particularly those with underserved patient populations, should consider implementing food insecurity screening and referral programs.

  14. Nutritional content of food and beverage products in television advertisements seen on children's programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-12-01

    Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. TV ratings data for children 2-5 and 6-11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2-5 and 6-11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required.

  15. Expanding a community's justice response to sex crimes through advocacy, prosecutorial, and public health collaboration: introducing the RESTORE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince; Carlson, Carolyn

    2004-12-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date-acquaintance rape and nonpenetration sexual offenses include (a) they are markers of a sexual offending career, yet are viewed as minor; (b) perpetrators are not held accountable in ways that reduce reoffense; and (c) criminal justice response disappoints and traumatizes victims. To address these problems, a collaboration of victim services, prosecutors, legal scholars, and public health professionals are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, a victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program for selected sex crimes. RESTORE prepares survivors, responsible persons (offenders), and both parties' families and friends for face-to-face dialogue to identify the harm and develop a redress plan. The program then monitors the offender's compliance for 12 months. The article summarizes empirical data on problems in criminal justice response, defines restorative justice models, and examines outcome. Then the RESTORE program processes and goals are described. The article highlights community collaboration in building and sustaining this program.

  16. Expanding the Lessons Learned Program to Include Corps Support Command Commanders and Theater Army Area Command Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-10

    INTRODUCTION The Oral History Program’s purpose is to supplement oFficial histories , to isolate successful command, leadership and managerial...of -the program is to capture the experience of senior leaders in the areas of command, leadership , and management . The individual is interviewed...used to gain insight into command and management techniques and to further research in military history . In June of 1984, the Chief of Staff, General

  17. Using Technology to Expand and Enhance Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    C. T. (2007). Predictors of depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of young children with or at risk for developmental delay. Journal of...Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wayne Fisher, Ph.D... Autism in Military Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0444 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Wayne W. Fisher

  18. Expanding occupational sun safety to an outdoor recreation industry: a translational study of the Go Sun Smart program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter A; Buller, David B; Walkosz, Barbara J; Scott, Michael D; Kane, Ilima L; Cutter, Gary R; Dignan, Mark B; Liu, Xia

    2012-03-01

    A successful occupational sun-protection program was translated to 67 ski areas where the effectiveness of two dissemination strategies was assessed. An industry professional association distributed materials to the resorts. Half of the resorts received the basic dissemination strategy (BDS) in which the materials were simply distributed to the resorts. In a randomized trial, the BDS was compared with an enhanced dissemination strategy (EDS) that added interpersonal contact with managers. Employees (n=2,228) at worksites that received the EDS had elevated program exposure (74.0% at EDS vs. 57.5% at BDS recalled a message). Exposure increased at two levels of program use: from less than four (55% exposed) to four to eight (68%) and to nine or more (82%) program items in use. More employees exposed to messages engaged in sun-safety behaviors than those unexposed. At worksites using nine or more items (versus 4-8 or <4), employees engaged in additional sun-safety behaviors. Program effects were strongly mediated by increased self-efficacy. Partnerships with industry associations facilitate dissemination of evidence-based programs. Dissemination methods are needed to maximize implementation and exposure to reduce health risk behaviors.

  19. Evaluating the impact of a Connecticut program to reduce availability of unhealthy competitive food in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michael W; Henderson, Kathryn E; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2010-10-01

    This article seeks to inform state and local school food policies by evaluating the impact of Connecticut's Healthy Food Certification (HFC), a program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside reimbursable school meals. Food service directors from all school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) (N = 151) in Connecticut were surveyed about the availability of competitive foods before and after the 2006-2007 implementation of HFC. Food categories were coded as healthy or unhealthy based on whether they met the Connecticut Nutrition Standards. Data on NSLP participation were provided by the State Department of Education. Changes in NSLP participation and availability of unhealthy competitive foods in elementary, middle, and high schools were compared pre- and post-HFC across districts participating (n = 74) versus not participating (n = 77) in HFC. On average, all districts in Connecticut reduced the availability of unhealthy competitive foods, with a significantly greater reduction among HFC districts. Average NSLP participation also increased across the state. Participating in HFC was associated with significantly greater NSLP participation for paid meals in middle school; however, implementing HFC did not increase overall NSLP participation beyond the statewide upward trend. The 2006-2007 school year was marked by a significant decrease in unhealthy competitive foods and an increase in NSLP participation across the state. Participation in Connecticut's voluntary HFC further reduced the availability of unhealthy competitive foods in local school districts, and had either a positive or neutral effect on NSLP participation. © 2010, American School Health Association.

  20. Expanded Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, D B; Salvi, Sonali; Chandanwale, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal. In clinical practice, the occurrence of atypical presentation should prompt us to investigate for dengue. Knowledge of expanded dengue helps to clinch the diagnosis of dengue early, especially during ongoing epidemics, avoiding further battery of investigations. Dengue has proved to be the epidemic with the ability to recur and has a diverse array of presentation as seen in large series from India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Taiwan. WHO has given the case definition of dengue fever in their comprehensive guidelines. Accordingly, a probable case is defined as acute febrile illness with two or more of any findings viz. headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia and supportive serology. There have been cases of patients admitted with fever, altered mentation with or without neck stiffness and pyramidal tract signs. Some had seizures or status epilepticus as presentation. When they were tested for serology, dengue was positive. After ruling out other causes, dengue remained the only culprit. We have come across varied presentations of dengue fever in clinical practice and the present article throws light on atypical manifestations of dengue. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  1. Food for Work Program and its Implications on Food Security: A Critical Review with a Practical Example from the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Gedamu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of food-for-work (FFW programs in Ethiopia is seriously lacking. Most of the few available reports indicate that these programs have reached very few achievements in terms of food security and reduction of poverty at large. As expressed by Holden et al. (2005, FFW programs are commonly aimed to produce or maintain potentially valuable public goods necessary to stimulate productivity and thus income growth. Natural resources management, like rural road construction, erosion control and afforestation of degraded lands can be mentioned as valuable measures which could stimulate productivity and agricultural growth. The poverty reduction and food security impact of food or cash for work activities are larger if they offer not only seasonal job opportunities to the rural community but also long term employment possibilities. This is more likely if the projects are regionally dispersed and combined with basic education. In the Ethiopian context, it was always questionable if the continuous boom in food aid (regardless of cash or food for work purposes was the solution for the long standing food insecurity and poverty crises in the country. The study discusses the efficiency of FFW programs that aimed to reduce rural poverty and ensure food security on the one hand, and the impact of the food aid on resource and time allocation of the participating households for own food production on the other. The study is based on a field research conducted at a FFW program project, in the Amhara region, Ethiopia run by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ with the view of improving food security in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A household theoretical model is used to analyze the sample data, whether FFW program may indeed reduce household food insecurity and/or has some crowding-out effects on labour allocation of participating households for own field production.

  2. 'Expanding your mind': the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Virgilio Mariano Salazar; Goicolea, Isabel; Edin, Kerstin; Ohman, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. This study has two aims: (i) to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii) to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW). A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled 'Expanding your mind', in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and 'The feminist man'. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility) and behavior (thoughtful action) that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.

  3. EFFECTS: an expanded access program of everolimus for patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarasi, Andras; De Waele, Liesbeth; Bartalini, Gabriella; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Laforgia, Nicola; Verhelst, Helene; Petrak, Borivoj; Pedespan, Jean-Michel; Witt, Olaf; Castellana, Ramon; Crippa, Stefania; Gislimberti, Gabriella; Gyorsok, Zsuzsanna

    2016-08-08

    Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The Everolimus For Fast Expanded aCcess in TSC SEGA (EFFECTS) study was designed to provide everolimus access to patients with SEGA associated with TSC and to mainly assess the safety and also efficacy of everolimus in a real-world setting. EFFECTS was a phase 3b, open-label, noncomparative, multicenter, expanded access study. Eligible patients were ≥ 3 years of age, with a definite diagnosis of TSC, and with at least one SEGA lesion identified by MRI or CT scan. Patients received once daily everolimus (dose adjusted to attain a trough level of 5-15 ng/mL). Safety evaluation was the primary objective and included collection of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs, with their severity and relationship to everolimus. Efficacy evaluation, which was the secondary objective, was based on the best overall response as per medical judgment. Of the 120 patients enrolled, 100 (83.3%) completed the study. Median age of patients was 11 years (range, 1-47). Median daily dose of everolimus was 5.82 mg (range, 2.0-11.8). Median duration of exposure was 56.5 weeks (range, 0.3-130). The overall incidence of AEs was 74.2%. Aphthous stomatitis (18 [15.0%]), pyrexia (18 [15.0%]), bronchitis (11 [9.2%]), and stomatitis (10 [8.3%]) were the most common AEs reported. Overall, 25 patients had grade 3 AEs; most frequent was stomatitis (4 [3.3%]). Grade 4 AEs were reported in three (2.5%) patients. A total of 62 (51.7%) patients had suspected drug-related AEs, of which 15 (12.5%) were of grade 3 or 4. In eight (6.7%) patients, AEs led to drug discontinuation. With regard to efficacy, 81 (67.5%) patients had a partial response, 35 (29.2%) had a stable disease, and one (0.8%) had progressive disease. The response was unknown in three (2.5%) patients. This study confirms the

  4. Using program impact pathways to understand and improve program delivery, utilization, and potential for impact of Helen Keller International's homestead food production program in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Deanna K; Vicheka, Sao; Kro, Meng; Chakriya, Chhom; Kroeun, Hou; Hoing, Ly Sok; Talukder, Aminzzaman; Quinn, Victoria; Iannotti, Lora; Becker, Elisabeth; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2013-06-01

    Evidence of the impact of homestead food production programs on nutrition outcomes such as anemia and growth is scant. In the absence of information on program impact pathways, it is difficult to understand why these programs, which have been successful in increasing intake of micronutrient-rich foods, have had such limited documented impact on nutrition outcomes. To conduct a process evaluation of Helen Keller International's (HKI's) homestead food production program in Cambodia to assess whether the program was operating as planned (in terms of design, delivery, and utilization) and to identify ways in which the program might need to be strengthened in order to increase its potential for impact. A program theory framework, which laid out the primary components along the hypothesized program impact pathways, was developed in collaboration with HKI and used to design the research. Semistructured interviews and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries (n = 36 and 12, respectively), nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), and program implementers (n = 17 and 2, respectively) and observations of key program delivery points, including health and nutrition training sessions (n = 6), village model farms (n = 6), and household gardens of beneficiaries (n = 36) and nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), were conducted to assess the delivery and utilization of the primary program components along the impact pathways. The majority of program components were being delivered and utilized as planned. However, challenges with some of the key components posited to improve outcomes such as anemia and growth were noted. Among these were a gap in the expected pathway from poultry production to increased intake of eggs and poultry meat, and some weaknesses in the delivery of the health and nutrition training sessions and related improvements in knowledge among the village health volunteers and beneficiaries. Although the program has been successful in delivering the majority of the program

  5. Using Technology to Expand and Enhance Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Virtual Care Predelivery” 2. Shipping options: a. Carriers . b. Insurance. c. Costs. 37 7.1 Pre-Installation...d. On the GoToMeeting program control panel, make sure that the microphone is not “Muted.” e. If you’re using an external microphone or headphones

  6. Double Up Food Bucks program effects on SNAP recipients' fruit and vegetable purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Adjognon, Marie; Weatherspoon, Dave

    2017-12-12

    To encourage the consumption of more fresh fruits and vegetables, the 2014 United Sates Farm Bill allocated funds to the Double Up Food Bucks Program. This program provided Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program beneficiaries who spent $10 on fresh fruits and vegetables, in one transaction, with a $10 gift card exclusively for Michigan grown fresh fruits and vegetables. This study analyzes how fruit and vegetable expenditures, expenditure shares, variety and purchase decisions were affected by the initiation and conclusion, as well as any persistent effects of the program. Changes in fruit and vegetable purchase behaviors due to Double Up Food Bucks in a supermarket serving a low-income, predominantly Hispanic community in Detroit, Michigan were evaluated using a difference in difference fixed effects estimation strategy. We find that the Double Up Food Bucks program increased vegetable expenditures, fruit and vegetable expenditure shares, and variety of fruits and vegetables purchased but the effects were modest and not sustainable without the financial incentive. Fruit expenditures and the fruit and vegetable purchase decision were unaffected by the program. This study provides valuable insight on how a nutrition program influences a low-income, urban, Hispanic community's fruit and vegetable purchase behavior. Policy recommendations include either removing or lowering the purchase hurdle for incentive eligibility and dropping the Michigan grown requirement to better align with the customers' preferences for fresh fruits and vegetables.

  7. Optimising the selection of food items for FFQs using Mixed Integer Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdessen, Johanna C; Souverein, Olga W; van 't Veer, Pieter; de Vries, Jeanne Hm

    2015-01-01

    To support the selection of food items for FFQs in such a way that the amount of information on all relevant nutrients is maximised while the food list is as short as possible. Selection of the most informative food items to be included in FFQs was modelled as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. The methodology was demonstrated for an FFQ with interest in energy, total protein, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, total carbohydrates, mono- and disaccharides, dietary fibre and potassium. The food lists generated by the MILP model have good performance in terms of length, coverage and R 2 (explained variance) of all nutrients. MILP-generated food lists were 32-40 % shorter than a benchmark food list, whereas their quality in terms of R 2 was similar to that of the benchmark. The results suggest that the MILP model makes the selection process faster, more standardised and transparent, and is especially helpful in coping with multiple nutrients. The complexity of the method does not increase with increasing number of nutrients. The generated food lists appear either shorter or provide more information than a food list generated without the MILP model.

  8. School Breakfast Program Participation and Rural Adolescents' Purchasing Behaviors in Food Stores and Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Wang, Qi; Shanafelt, Amy; Larson, Nicole; Wei, Susan; Hearst, Mary O; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about adolescents' food purchasing behaviors in rural areas. This study examined whether purchasing food at stores/restaurants around schools was related to adolescents' participation in school breakfast programs and overall diet in rural Minnesota. Breakfast-skippers enrolled in a group-randomized intervention in 2014 to 2015 (N = 404 from 8 schools) completed 24-hour dietary recalls and pre/post surveys assessing food establishment purchase frequency. Healthy Eating Index Scores (HEI-2010) were calculated for each student. Student-level school breakfast participation (SBP) was obtained from school food service records. Mixed-effects regression models estimated: (1) whether SBP was associated with store/restaurant use at baseline, (2) whether an increase in SBP was associated with a decrease in store/restaurant use, and (3) whether stores/restaurant use was associated with HEI-2010 scores at baseline. Students with increased SBP were more likely to decrease fast-food restaurant purchases on the way home from school (OR 1.017, 95% CI 1.005, 1.029), but were less likely to decrease purchases at food stores for breakfast (OR 0.979, 95% CI 0.959, 0.999). Food establishment use was associated with lower HEI-2010 dairy component scores (p = .017). Increasing participation in school breakfast may result in modest changes in purchases at food establishments. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  9. Building a French for Business and Technology Program Abroad: Giving Students an Edge in an Expanding Global Job Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lemarchand, Lionel J.

    2010-01-01

    The reality of globalization has made international programs more significant than ever before. Students from all over the world are accessing an increasingly competitive world market. Understanding other cultures in the social sense and in the business culture sense is crucial not only for their own benefits but also for their careers. This article describes how to develop an “Abroad Business and Technology Program” and presents the principal components that can insure its success. It also s...

  10. Expanding the Navy’s Managers Internal Control Program’s (MICP) Capability to Prepare for External Financial Audits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the Department is well managed. In 2013, The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission ( COSO ) added 17 principles to the five...analyzing the content of the MICP against the COSO and GAO publications, this thesis developed templates to supplement the MICP in order to bring the...Commission’s ( COSO ) 17 Principles, Office of Financial Operations (FMO), Managers’ Internal Control Program, Managers’ Internal Control Manual. 15. NUMBER OF

  11. Effects of a food supplementation program on the nutritional status of pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Mahmud; Ahmed, Shakil; Protik, Ali Ehsan; Dhar, Badal Chandra; Roy, S K

    2005-12-01

    The Government of Bangladesh implemented a comprehensive nutrition intervention in 1997 to reduce the rates of malnutrition among women and children. The pilot program, the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP), adopted a multisectoral approach targeting women and children through food supplementation, home gardening, and health and nutrition education. This paper estimates the effectiveness of BINP's food supplementation and nutrition education on the nutritional status of pregnant women. Methods. Three effectiveness measures were considered: target efficiency, improvements in the nutritional status of beneficiaries, and the persistence of nutritional effects. To isolate the effects of the intervention, the nutritional status of participants and nonparticipants was compared after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data were collected in 2000 from a random sample of 3262 households in a BINP intervention area. Thirty-nine percent of pregnant women were correctly targeted by the program's food supplementation activities. The nutrition program reduced the prevalence of thinness among participant pregnant women by about 3 percentage points per month of enrollment. The prevalence of thinness among program graduates was 62%, which was much higher than that of the matched (nonparticipant) group (35%). This finding is perplexing but it may simply imply that those who enrolled at the initial phase of the project were severely underweight and they fell back to their original status within a short period of time. The nutrition program was intended to improve the nutritional status of women in the longer run through the provision of nutrition education during the food supplementation phase. The prevalence of thinness or severe underweight in women who exited the program after completion of the enrollment period was found to be much higher than in women of similar age and socioeconomic status in the community. This apparent lack of

  12. Incorporating Nutrition Education Classes into Food Pantry Settings: Lessons Learned in Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison-Moody, Annie; Bowen, Sarah; Bloom, J. Dara; Sheldon, Marissa; Jones, Lorelei; Leach, Brandi

    2015-01-01

    The project reported here evaluated the effectiveness of nutrition education at food pantries. We offer best practices for future Extension-based nutrition programming with this clientele. Three classes were offered at food pantries through the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). Entry and exit surveys were collected for each…

  13. Regional food dishes in the Brazilian National School Food Program: Acceptability and nutritional composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo thimoteo da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition and describe the acceptability of regional culinary dishes served to students from public schools of rural and urban areas. Methods: Ten Brazilian regional dishes were evaluated for acceptability and nutritional composition. the survey was conducted in schools located in rural and urban areas of two cities in the state of São Paulo. Dish acceptability was evaluated using leftover analysis and a 5-point facial hedonic scale. the adherence index was calculated and used as an indirect measure of acceptance, and the nutritional composition was calculated based on the technical files of each dish. Results: A total of 2,384 students from 20 schools participated in the study and 1,174 tasted and evaluated the dishes. the test using the 5-point facial hedonic scale demonstrated that five dishes (Caldo verde soup, persimmon jelly, chicken with okra, puréed cornmeal with spinach, and arugula pizza had an acceptability rate above 85.0%. the mean adherence indices were 57.3% and 55.6% in urban and rural environments, respectively. Analysis of the nutritional composition of regional dishes indicates that these dishes can partially meet macronutrient recommendations. Conclusion: the tested dishes can become part of school menus as they were accepted or partly accepted by the students regardless of school location, whether rural or urban. the cultural heritage is an important resource for the food sovereignty of a country and should be constantly encouraged.

  14. Lessons learned from the scaling-up of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program in the integrated food security program (PISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Gross, Rainer; Vivanco, Oscar Aquino; Gross, Ursula; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Weekly multimicronutrient supplementation was initiated as an appropriate intervention to protect poor urban populations from anemia. To identify the lessons learned from the Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]) weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program implemented in poor urban populations of Chiclayo, Peru. Data were collected from a 12-week program in which multimicronutrient supplements were provided weekly to women and adolescent girls 12 through 44 years of age and children under 5 years of age. A baseline survey was first conducted. Within the weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program, information was collected on supplement distribution, compliance, biological effectiveness, and cost. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary strategies can be integrated synergistically within a micronutrient intervention program. To ensure high cost-effectiveness of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program, the following conditions need to be met: the program should be implemented twice a year for 4 months; the program should be simultaneously implemented at the household (micro), community (meso), and national (macro) levels; there should be governmental participation from health and other sectors; and there should be community and private sector participation. Weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs are cost effective options in urban areas with populations at low risk of energy deficiency and high risk of micronutrient deficiencies.

  15. Innovation in diabetes care: improving consumption of healthy food through a "chef coaching" program: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Rani; Dill, Diana; Abrahamson, Martin J; Pojednic, Rachele M; Phillips, Edward M

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition therapy as part of lifestyle care is recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, most people with diabetes do not follow this guideline. Changing eating habits involves obtaining knowledge and building practical skills such as shopping, meal preparation, and food storage. Just as fitness coaches use their specific knowledge base in fitness to enhance the effectiveness of their coaching, credentialed chefs trained as health coaches might combine their culinary expertise with coaching in order to improve clients' food choices and lifestyles. This report documents the case of a 55-year-old white male physician, single and living alone, who was recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and reported chronic stress, sedentary behavior, and unhealthy eating habits. He participated in a chef coaching program of 8 weekly one-on-one 30-minute coaching sessions via Skype delivered by a chef trained as a health coach. During the first five meetings, the patient's goals were primarily culinary; however, with his success in accomplishing these goals, the patient progressed and expanded his goals to include other lifestyle domains, specifically exercise and work-life balance. At the end of the program, the patient had improved both his nutritional and exercise habits, his confidence in further self-care improvement, and his health parameters such as HgA1c (8.8% to 6.7%; normal coaching has the potential to help people with diabetes improve their practical culinary skills and implement them so that they eat better and, further, has the potential to help them improve their overall self-care. We intend to further develop chef coaching and assess its potential as we learn from its implementation.

  16. Innovation in Diabetes Care: Improving Consumption of Healthy Food Through a “Chef Coaching” Program: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Diana; Abrahamson, Martin J.; Pojednic, Rachele M.; Phillips, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition therapy as part of lifestyle care is recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, most people with diabetes do not follow this guideline. Changing eating habits involves obtaining knowledge and building practical skills such as shopping, meal preparation, and food storage. Just as fitness coaches use their specific knowledge base in fitness to enhance the effectiveness of their coaching, credentialed chefs trained as health coaches might combine their culinary expertise with coaching in order to improve clients' food choices and lifestyles. This report documents the case of a 55-year-old white male physician, single and living alone, who was recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and reported chronic stress, sedentary behavior, and unhealthy eating habits. He participated in a chef coaching program of 8 weekly one-on-one 30-minute coaching sessions via Skype delivered by a chef trained as a health coach. During the first five meetings, the patient's goals were primarily culinary; however, with his success in accomplishing these goals, the patient progressed and expanded his goals to include other lifestyle domains, specifically exercise and work-life balance. At the end of the program, the patient had improved both his nutritional and exercise habits, his confidence in further self-care improvement, and his health parameters such as HgA1c (8.8% to 6.7%; normal chef coaching has the potential to help people with diabetes improve their practical culinary skills and implement them so that they eat better and, further, has the potential to help them improve their overall self-care. We intend to further develop chef coaching and assess its potential as we learn from its implementation. PMID:25568831

  17. The online professional master of science in food safety degree program at Michigan State University: an innovative graduate education in food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Edward C; McNiel, Pattie A

    2006-01-01

    A market-research study conducted in 2000 indicated a need for a degree program in food safety that would cover all aspects of the food system, from production to consumption. Despite this, such a program was not enthusiastically supported by employers, who feared losing their valued employees while they were enrolled in traditional on-campus graduate programs. A terminal professional degree was successfully created, offered, and modified over the succeeding five years. The innovative, non-traditional online program was developed to include a core curriculum and leadership training, with elective courses providing flexibility in specific areas of student interest or need. The resulting Professional Master of Science in Food Safety degree program provides a transdisciplinary approach for the protection of an increasingly complex food system and the improvement of public health. Enrollment in the program steadily increased in the first three years of delivery, with particular interest from industry and government employees. The curriculum provides a platform of subject material from which certificate programs, short-courses, seminars, workshops, and executive training programs may be delivered, not only to veterinarians but also to related food and health specialists. The program has fulfilled a need for adult learners to continue as working professionals in the workforce. The benefit to the employer and to society is an individual with enhanced knowledge and networking and leadership skills.

  18. Reconfiguring REU programs to build links between institutions is an efficiient way of expanding student participation in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    There is good evidence that STEM career recruiting would be bettered by a shift in REU programs from an individual student focus to building institutional links with faculty participation. This would improve recruiting, duration and the scientific productivity of the REU system. Student commitment would benefit from a more sophisticated and productive project that this would enable as would research groups and mentors at all institutions. Such programs build long lasting links between the institutions and individual faculty. For teaching institutions, scientifically centered collaborations bring faculty and students into the research culture. Faculty who teach at such institutions will maintain their research skills as well as their links to the field and gain respect both internally and externally. Visibility of the collaboration at the non-research centered institution will attract other students into the area. An on-going collaboration offers benefits to the research institution as well. First, recruitment becomes less hit and miss because the partners have observed and taught their students. Second partners will provide appropriate training and context before the summer starts for new students. Third, the availability of partners to help mentoring the students during the summer and into the academic year makes it easier for graduate students, post-docs and the research university faculty as well. Fourth, a good collaboration builds respect and understanding on all sides, which, since many in the research group will go on to teach at teaching centered institutions is important. Building respect for transfer students from Community Colleges and smaller teaching institutions among the research faculty is another benefit. I will describe programs that I have designed an led that successfully implement these ideas.

  19. 78 FR 45729 - Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... (HACCP) and preventive controls programs), we believe that it provides the most effective way to... fishery products (which are already subject to verification under FDA's HACCP regulations), food for... industry. FDA's regulations on the processing of juice and seafood products under HACCP systems, as well as...

  20. Evaluation of a HACCP pilot program for the food service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Tom; Hart, Robert

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and applicability of a HACCP-based program for use in restaurants. A randomly selected sample of 16 intervention and 42 control full service, "stand-alone" restaurants with a minimum of 3 full-time food handling staff on duty per shift. Six communities in Central West Ontario. The Critical Approach, a HACCP-based program for use in restaurants, was designed in consultation with health inspectors and restaurant operators. It focusses on generic risk factors (Critical Control Points, CCPs) for food handlers rather than assessing specific menu items or foods; offers appropriate training of both management and staff; and encourages self-monitoring of CCPs by operators without extensive record keeping or retention. Outcome indicators measured changes in three areas: the environment, knowledge, and behaviour. Results suggest that among a subpopulation of restaurants, the program is acceptable to operators and capable of producing tangible results. Principles and methods of the program (i.e., an initial assessment of the site, working with the operator to identify and suggest improvements, and return visits to monitor compliance) may be transferable to other types of food service operations.

  1. A Needs Assessment for the Introduction of a Food Science Program at the Univ. of Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This research describes the outcome of a needs assessment to determine whether the Univ. of Guyana should introduce a Food Science program. The research design utilized interviews and questionnaires to large manufacturing organizations and agroprocessors to determine if the required skills are available for the manufacturing process. Results…

  2. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  3. Child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage brand appearances during prime-time television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speers, Sarah E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2011-09-01

    The food industry disproportionately markets to young people through product placements. Children and adolescents may be more susceptible to these disguised persuasive attempts. Quantify incidence and youth exposure to food and beverage brand appearances within shows on prime-time TV. Data on the number of food, beverage, and restaurant brand appearances within shows during prime-time programming in 2008 were purchased from Nielsen and analyzed by product category and company in 2010. Exposure to these brand appearances by children, adolescents, and adults were examined and compared with exposure to prime-time TV advertisements for the same categories and companies using additional Nielsen data. Food, beverage, and restaurant brands appeared a total of 35,000 times within prime-time TV programming examined by Nielsen in 2008. Regular soft drinks, traditional restaurants (i.e., not quickserve), and energy/sports drinks made up 60% of all brand appearances. Young people viewed relatively few of these appearances with one notable exception. Coca-Cola products were seen 198 times by the average child and 269 times by the average adolescent during prime-time shows over the year, accounting for 70% of child exposure and 61% of adolescent exposure to brand appearances. One show, American Idol, accounted for more than 95% of these exposures. Exposure of children to Coca-Cola products through traditional advertisements was much less common. Brand appearances for most food industry companies, except for Coca-Cola, are relatively rare during prime-time programming with large youth audiences. Coca-Cola has pledged to refrain from advertising to children, yet the average child views almost four Coke appearances on prime-time TV every week. This analysis reveals a substantial, potential loophole in current food industry self-regulatory pledges to advertise only better-for-you foods to children. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Expanding the generation and use of economic and financial data to improve HIV program planning and efficiency: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Charles B; Atun, Rifat; Avila, Carlos; Blandford, John M

    2011-08-01

    Cost information is needed at multiple levels of health care systems to inform the public health response to HIV. To date, most attention has been paid to identifying the cost drivers of providing antiretroviral treatment, and these data have driven interventions that have been successful in reducing drug and human resource costs. The need for further cost information, especially for less well-studied areas such as HIV prevention, is particularly acute given global budget constraints and ongoing efforts to extract the greatest possible value from money spent on the response. Cost information can be collected from multiple perspectives and levels of the health care system (site, program, and national levels), and it is critical to choose the appropriate methodology in order to generate the appropriate information for decision-making. Organizations such as United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, and other organizations are working together to bridge the divide between the fields of economics and HIV program implementation by accelerating the collection of cost data and building further local demand and capacity for their use.

  5. Food Waste in the National School Lunch Program 1978-2015: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Banna, Jinan; Serrano, Elena L

    2017-11-01

    Food waste studies have been used for more than 40 years to assess nutrient intake, dietary quality, menu performance, food acceptability, cost, and effectiveness of nutrition education in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Describe methods used to measure food waste and respective results in the NSLP across time. A systematic review using PubMed, Science Direct, Informaworld, and Institute of Scientific Information Web of Knowledge was conducted using the following search terms: waste, school lunch, plate waste, food waste, kitchen, half method, quarter method, weight, and photography. Studies published through June 2015 were included. The systematic review followed preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses recommendations. The final review included 53 articles. Food waste methodologies included in-person visual estimation (n=11), digital photography (n=11), direct weighing (n=23), and a combination of in-person visual estimation, digital photography, and/or direct weighing (n=8). A majority of studies used a pre-post intervention or cross-sectional design. Fruits and vegetables were the most researched dietary component on the lunch tray and yielded the greatest amount of waste across studies. Food waste is commonly assessed in the NSLP, but the methods are diverse and reporting metrics are variable. Future research should focus on establishing more uniform metrics to measure and report on food waste in the NSLP. Consistent food waste measurement methods will allow for better comparisons between studies. Such measures may facilitate better decision making about NSLP practices, programs, and policies that influence student consumption patterns across settings and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Food group preferences and energy balance in moderately obese postmenopausal women subjected to brisk walking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Sophie; Vallée, Karine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Joffroy, Sandra; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Auneau, Gérard; Mauriège, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of a 16-week walking program on food group preferences and energy balance of sedentary, moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal Caucasian women, aged 60 ± 5 years old. One hundred and fifty-six volunteers were subjected to 3 sessions/week of 45 min of walking at 60% of heart rate reserve. Total energy intake (TEI) and food group preferences (3-day dietary record), total energy expenditure (TEE, 3-day physical activity diary), cardiorespiratory fitness (2-km walking test), anthropometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were measured before and after walking. Data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA with repeated measures on 1 factor (time). The modest increase in TEE of 151 ± 24 kcal/day (p < 0.0001) leads to body weight, fat mass losses, and waist girth reduction (p < 0.0001). TEI remained unchanged despite a slight decrease in carbohydrate intake and a minor increase in protein intake (p < 0.05). Analysis of food records revealed a decreased consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and sweet and fatty foods (p < 0.01), but an increase in oil consumption (p < 0.0001) after walking. Women with the highest body weight loss showed the greatest reduction in the consumption of fruits, sugar, sweet foods, and fatty foods (p < 0.05). Women with the greatest fat mass loss showed the highest decrease in fatty food intake (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although our walking program changed some food group consumption patterns, body weight loss was primarily because of the increased TEE.

  7. Health workers' and managers' perceptions of the integrated community case management program for childhood illness in Malawi: the importance of expanding access to child health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Hyder, Adnan A; George, Asha; Gilroy, Kate E; Nsona, Humphreys; Mtimuni, Angella; Bryce, Jennifer

    2012-11-01

    Community case management (CCM) is a promising task-shifting strategy for expanding treatment of childhood illness that is increasingly adopted by low-income countries. Its success depends in part on how the strategy is perceived by those responsible for its implementation. This study uses qualitative methods to explore health workers' and managers' perceptions about CCM provided by health surveillance assistants (HSAs) during the program's first year in Malawi. Managers and HSAs agreed that CCM contributed beneficially by expanding access to the underserved and reducing caseloads at health facilities. Managers differed among themselves in their endorsements of CCM, most offered constrained endorsement, and a few had stronger justifications for CCM. In addition, HSAs uniformly wanted continued expansion of their clinical role, while managers preferred to view CCM as a limited mandate. The HSAs also reported motivating factors and frustrations related to system constraints and community pressures related to CCM. The impact of CCM on motivation and workload of HSAs is noted and deserves further attention.

  8. Military Personnel: DOD Needs More Complete Data on Active-Duty Servicemembers Use of Food Assistance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    component military personnel, military retired members, DOD civilian personnel (including foreign -national direct and indirect hires, as well as...1) limited awareness of some food assistance programs (2) stigma associated with receiving food assistance; and (3) misconceptions about military...that they believe a societal stigma exists generally for those who use food assistance. Officials at one installation added that the self- sufficient

  9. 77 FR 63837 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... guidance describes how FDA plans to implement the eCopy Program under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic... FDA is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry and FDA staff entitled ``eCopy...

  10. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reverse Transcriptase and Protease Sequence Database: an expanded data model integrating natural language text and sequence analysis programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, R; Machekano, R; Gonzales, M J; Dupnik, K; Schapiro, J M; Shafer, R W

    2001-01-01

    The HIV Reverse Transcriptase and Protease Sequence Database is an on-line relational database that catalogs evolutionary and drug-related sequence variation in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease enzymes, the molecular targets of anti-HIV therapy (http://hivdb.stanford.edu). The database contains a compilation of nearly all published HIV RT and protease sequences, including submissions from International Collaboration databases and sequences published in journal articles. Sequences are linked to data about the source of the sequence sample and the antiretroviral drug treatment history of the individual from whom the isolate was obtained. During the past year 3500 sequences have been added and the data model has been expanded to include drug susceptibility data on sequenced isolates. Database content has also been integrated with didactic text and the output of two sequence analysis programs.

  12. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  13. How much does it cost to get a dose of vaccine to the service delivery location? Empirical evidence from Vietnam's Expanded Program on Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvundura, Mercy; Kien, Vu Duy; Nga, Nguyen Tuyet; Robertson, Joanie; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Tung, Ho Thanh; Hong, Duong Thi; Levin, Carol

    2014-02-07

    Few studies document the costs of operating vaccine supply chains, but decision-makers need this information to inform cost projections for investments to accommodate new vaccine introduction. This paper presents empirical estimates of vaccine supply chain costs for Vietnam's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) for routine vaccines at each level of the supply chain, before and after the introduction of the pentavalent vaccine. We used micro-costing methods to collect resource-use data associated with storage and transportation of vaccines and immunization supplies at the national store, the four regional stores, and a sample of provinces, districts, and commune health centers. We collected stock ledger data on the total number of doses of vaccines handled by each facility during the assessment year. Total supply chain costs were estimated at approximately US$65,000 at the national store and an average of US$39,000 per region, US$5800 per province, US$2200 per district, and US$300 per commune health center. Across all levels, cold chain equipment capital costs and labor were the largest drivers of costs. The cost per dose delivered was estimated at US$0.19 before the introduction of pentavalent and US$0.24 cents after introduction. At commune health centers, supply chain costs were 104% of the value of vaccines before introduction of pentavalent vaccine and 24% after introduction, mainly due to the higher price per dose of the pentavalent vaccine. The aggregated costs at the last tier of the health system can be substantial because of the large number of facilities. Even in countries with high-functioning systems, empirical evidence on current costs from all levels of the system can help estimate resource requirements for expanding and strengthening resources to meet future immunization program needs. Other low- and middle-income countries can benefit from similar studies, in view of new vaccine introductions that will put strains on existing systems. Copyright

  14. Expanding your mind’: the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Virgilio Mariano Salazar; Goicolea, Isabel; Edin, Kerstin; Öhman, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. Objective This study has two aims: (i) to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii) to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW). Design A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Results Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled ‘Expanding your mind’, in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and ‘The feminist man’. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility) and behavior (thoughtful action) that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Conclusions Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men. PMID:22870066

  15. Expanding your mind’: the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Mariano Salazar Torres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. Objective: This study has two aims: (i to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW. Design: A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Results: Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled ‘Expanding your mind’, in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and ‘The feminist man’. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility and behavior (thoughtful action that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Conclusions: Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.

  16. Food environment of fruits and vegetables in the territory of the Health Academy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-11-01

    This study provides a spatial analysis of distribution and access to commercial fruit and vegetable establishments within the territory of a representative sample of public fitness facilities known as the Health Academy Program (HAP) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study evaluated commercial food establishments within a buffer area based on a radius of 1,600 meters around each of 18 randomly selected fitness facilities. Quality of access to fruits and vegetables was assessed by the Healthy Food Store Index (HFSI), consisting of the variables availability, variety, and advertising of fruits, vegetables and ultra-processed foods. The analysis was based on calculation of the Kernel intensity estimator, nearest neighbor method, and Ripley K-function. Of the 336 food establishments, 61.3% were green grocers and open-air markets, with a median HFSI of 11 (5 to 16). In only 17% of the territories, the majority of the "hot area" establishments displayed better access to healthy foods, and only three areas showed a clustering pattern. The study showed limited access to commercial establishments supplying healthy fruits and vegetables within the territory of the public fitness program.

  17. Breaking Child Nutrition Barriers: Innovative Practices in Massachusetts School Breakfast, Summer Food, and After-School Snack Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bryan

    Despite the importance of breakfast, summer, and after-school child nutrition programs, coverage in these programs in Massachusetts is low. This report describes the barriers facing the states School Breakfast, Summer Food Service, and After-School Snack Programs and suggests many innovative solutions and resources that program sponsors can use to…

  18. Nutrition and health education intervention for whole grain foods in the Georgia older Americans nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jeanna; Johnson, Mary Ann; Fischer, Joan G; Hargrove, James L

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education intervention on improving the intake and behaviors related to whole grain foods in congregate meal recipients in senior centers in north Georgia. Participants were a convenience sample and completed a pretest, an educational intervention, and a post-test (N = 84, mean age = 77 years, 88% female, 76% Caucasian, and 24% African American). At the pre-test, most participants agreed that eating more whole grain foods would help reduce their risk of cancer (69%), heart disease (76%), type 2 diabetes (65%), and bowel disorders (82%), but consumption of 11 whole grain foods was low (10.5 times/week). Following the intervention, participants were more likely to suggest one or more correct ways to identify whole grain foods (45 vs. 62%, Pwhole grain bread, cereal, and crackers (5.8 vs. 6.9 times/week, P whole grain foods was high, the intakes were low. As a first step, this intervention improved several aspects of the consumption of whole grain foods; however, additional interventions that target the individual and the congregate meal program are needed to increase intakes to the recommended three servings daily.

  19. "PrepCom" ends with U.S. vow to expand pop programs; House panels act on UNFPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-28

    Delegates to Prepcom II have just completed the new World Population Plan of Action (WPP), which provides goals and a structural outline for action. The WPP will be presented at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September, 1994. Prepcom will meet again in April, 1994 in New York. The Conference chair, Dr. Fred Sai of Ghana, remarked that there was unprecedented agreement, even on abortion. Debate on the new plan centered on the US delegation's objection to the inclusion of a new chapter on "The Family" which might be construed to imply that there is one notion of family type. US concern was also directed to the omission of "environment" from many chapter headings. The stalemate was broken when the chairman agreed to present the entire outline to the plenary as the "chairman's summary." Substantive chapters were to be devoted to the following: the interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; gender equality and empowerment of women; population growth and structure; the family, its role and composition; reproductive rights, reproductive health, and family planning, health and mortality; and population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration. The US delegation representative remarked that there was an expressed appreciation for the complex links among population, environment, consumption, migration, and development. These issues need to be considered from the standpoint of people, especially women, who are affected the most. There was a promise to increase the effort to broaden US support for reproductive health, family planning, and population programs in its foreign assistance budget. In the deliberations about the State Department authorization bill to restore funding for the UN Family Planning Association (UNFPA), a motion carried to withhold $13.8 million from the $50 million authorized for UNFPA in each of fiscal years 1994 and 1995, unless President Clinton

  20. Positive influence of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food packages on access to healthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Middleton, Ann E; Long, Michael W; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2012-06-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) has important potential for preventing diet-related disease in low-income children. WIC food packages were recently revised to offer foods that better reflect dietary recommendations for Americans. This article reports on how implementation of the new healthier WIC food packages affected access of low-income populations to healthy foods (eg, whole grains, fruit and vegetables, and lower-fat milk). A pre-post store inventory was completed using a standardized instrument to assess availability, variety, quality and prices of WIC-approved foods (65 food items). Stores were assessed before (spring 2009) and shortly after the new WIC package implementation (spring 2010). All convenience stores and nonchain grocery stores located in five towns of Connecticut (N=252), including 33 WIC-authorized stores and 219 non-WIC stores. The healthy food supply score was constructed to summarize postrevision changes in availability, variety, prices of healthy foods, and produce quality. The effect of the WIC food package revisions was measured by differential changes in the scores for stores authorized to accept WIC benefits and stores not participating in WIC, including differences by neighborhood income. Multivariate multilevel regression models were estimated. The 2009 introduction of the revised WIC food packages has significantly improved availability and variety of healthy foods in WIC-authorized and (to a smaller degree) non-WIC convenience and grocery stores. The increase in the composite score of healthy food supply varied from 16% in WIC convenience and grocery stores in higher-income neighborhoods to 39% in lower-income areas. Improved availability and variety of whole-grain products were responsible for most of the increase in the composite score of healthy food supply. Designed as cost-neutral changes, the WIC food package revisions have improved access to healthy foods for WIC participants

  1. Food and beverage cues in UK and Irish children-television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Paul; Reid, Orlaith; Macken, Alan; Healy, Mark; Saunders, Jean; Leddin, Des; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum; O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2014-11-01

    Increased time in which children spend watching television is a well-described contributor to paediatric obesity. This study investigated the frequency and type of food and beverage placement in children-specific television broadcasts and compared data from UK (UK) and Irish television stations. Content analysis, totalling 82.5 h, reflecting 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting on UK and Irish television channels was performed. To allow comparison between UK and Irish food and beverage cues, only broadcasts between 06.00 and 11.30 were analysed. Data were coded separately by two analysts and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage cues were coded based on type of product, product placement, product use, motivation, outcome and characters involved. A total of 1155 food and beverage cues were recorded. Sweet snacks were the most frequent food cue (13.3%), followed by sweets/candy (11.4%). Tea/coffee was the most frequent beverage cue (13.5%), followed by sugar-sweetened beverages (13.0%). The outcome of the cue was positive in 32.6%, negative in 19.8%, and neutral in 47.5% of cases. The most common motivating factor associated with each cue was celebratory/social (25.2%), followed by hunger/thirst (25.0%). Comparison of UK and Irish placements showed both to portray high levels of unhealthy food cues. However, placements for sugar-sweetened beverages were relatively low on both channels. This study provides further evidence of the prominence of unhealthy foods in children's programming. These data may provide guidance for healthcare professionals, regulators and programme makers in planning for a healthier portrayal of food and beverage in children's television. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Development of a Food Safety and Nutrition Education Program for Adolescents by Applying Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Jeong, Soyeon; Ko, Gyeongah; Park, Hyunshin; Ko, Youngsook

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an educational model regarding food safety and nutrition. In particular, we aimed to develop educational materials, such as middle- and high-school textbooks, a teacher's guidebook, and school posters, by applying social cognitive theory. To develop a food safety and nutrition education program, we took into account diverse factors influencing an individual's behavior, such as personal, behavioral, and environmental factors, based on social cognitive theory. We also conducted a pilot study of the educational materials targeting middle-school students (n = 26), high-school students (n = 24), and dietitians (n = 13) regarding comprehension level, content, design, and quality by employing the 5-point Likert scale in May 2016. The food safety and nutrition education program covered six themes: (1) caffeine; (2) food additives; (3) foodborne illness; (4) nutrition and meal planning; (5) obesity and eating disorders; and (6) nutrition labeling. Each class activity was created to improve self-efficacy by setting one's own goal and to increase self-control by monitoring one's dietary intake. We also considered environmental factors by creating school posters and leaflets to educate teachers and parents. The overall evaluation score for the textbook was 4.0 points among middle- and high-school students, and 4.5 points among dietitians. This study provides a useful program model that could serve as a guide to develop educational materials for nutrition-related subjects in the curriculum. This program model was created to increase awareness of nutrition problems and self-efficacy. This program also helped to improve nutrition management skills and to promote a healthy eating environment in middle- and high-school students.

  3. Differences in home food availability of high- and low-fat foods after a behavioral weight control program are regional not racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Delia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, if any, have examined the impact of a weight control program on the home food environment in a diverse sample of adults. Understanding and changing the availability of certain foods in the home and food storage practices may be important for creating healthier home food environments and supporting effective weight management. Methods Overweight adults (n = 90; 27% African American enrolled in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program in Vermont and Arkansas. Participants were weighed and completed measures of household food availability and food storage practices at baseline and post-treatment. We examined baseline differences and changes in high-fat food availability, low-fat food availability and the storage of foods in easily visible locations, overall and by race (African American or white participants and region (Arkansas or Vermont. Results At post-treatment, the sample as a whole reported storing significantly fewer foods in visible locations around the house (-0.5 ± 2.3 foods, with no significant group differences. Both Arkansas African Americans (-1.8 ± 2.4 foods and Arkansas white participants (-1.8 ± 2.6 foods reported significantly greater reductions in the mean number of high-fat food items available in their homes post-treatment compared to Vermont white participants (-0.5 ± 1.3 foods, likely reflecting fewer high-fat foods reported in Vermont households at baseline. Arkansas African Americans lost significantly less weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg than Vermont white participants (-8.3 ± 6.8 kg, while Arkansas white participants did not differ significantly from either group in weight loss (-6.2 ± 6.0 kg. However, home food environment changes were not associated with weight changes in this study. Conclusions Understanding the home food environment and how best to measure it may be useful for both obesity treatment and understanding patterns of obesity prevalence and health disparity.

  4. The effect of a healthy school tuck shop program on the access of students to healthy foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kirang; Hong, Seo Ah; Yun, Sung Ha; Ryou, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Sun; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a healthy school tuck shop program, developed as a way of creating a healthy and nutritional school environment, on students' access to healthy foods. Five middle schools and four high schools (775 students) participated in the healthy school tuck shop program, and nine schools (1,282 students) were selected as the control group. The intervention program included restriction of unhealthy foods sold in tuck shops, provision of various f...

  5. To expand coverage, or increase frequency: Quantifying the tradeoffs between equity and efficiency facing cervical cancer screening programs in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Nicole G; Tsu, Vivien; Jeronimo, Jose; Mvundura, Mercy; Lee, Kyueun; Kim, Jane J

    2017-03-15

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with 85% of the disease burden residing in less developed regions. To inform evidence-based decision-making as cervical cancer screening programs are planned, implemented, and scaled in low- and middle-income countries, we used cost and test performance data from the START-UP demonstration project in Uganda and a microsimulation model of HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis to quantify the health benefits, distributional equity, cost-effectiveness, and financial impact of either (1) improving access to cervical cancer screening or (2) increasing the number of lifetime screening opportunities for women who already have access. We found that when baseline screening coverage was low (i.e., 30%), expanding coverage of screening once in a lifetime to 50% can yield comparable reductions in cancer risk to screening two or three times in a lifetime at 30% coverage, lead to greater reductions in health disparities, and cost 150 international dollars (I$) per year of life saved (YLS). At higher baseline screening coverage levels (i.e., 70%), screening three times in a lifetime yielded greater health benefits than expanding screening once in a lifetime to 90% coverage, and would have a cost-effectiveness ratio (I$590 per YLS) below Uganda's per capita GDP. Given very low baseline coverage at present, we conclude that a policy focus on increasing access for previously unscreened women appears to be more compatible with improving both equity and efficiency than a focus on increasing frequency for a small subset of women. © 2016 UICC.

  6. [Research trends in public policy: an assessmentof the National School Food Program (PNAE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libermann, Angelita Pinto; Bertolini, Geysler Rogis Flor

    2015-11-01

    The scope of the article is to evaluate the research trends of the Brazilian School Food Program (PNAE), by analyzing the papers published in journals on the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES) website in the period from 2008 to 2013. It involved bibliographical research by means of qualitative analysis to detect the most relevant issues addressed and discussed by the program. Ten scientific articles related to the area were selected after reading the abstracts and research topics of the articles and by a search for the following key words: public policy, family farming, school food. Studies related to the PNAE and its impacts were also considered, due to the connection with the activities carried out in Brazilian public policy. The paper presents the issues analyzed and discussed most on the subject during the period under consideration. The conclusion reached is that the main research trends are characterized by the study of strategies for food and nutrition safety, analyzing the composition and acceptance of foods offered to students by an analysis of production, better living conditions and local development of rural producers.

  7. 'It's just so much waste.' A qualitative investigation of food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Djang, Holly Carmichael; Metayer, Nesly; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Economos, Christina D

    2015-06-01

    To understand stakeholders' perspectives on food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program implementing a Breakfast in the Classroom model. Semi-structured focus groups and interviews were conducted with school district stakeholders. Inductive methods were used to code resulting transcripts, from which themes were identified. The analysis provides a thematic analysis of stakeholders' perspectives on food waste in the School Breakfast Program. Ten elementary schools in a large urban school district implementing a universal free Breakfast in the Classroom model of the US national School Breakfast Program. Elementary-school students (n 85), parents (n 86), teachers (n 44), cafeteria managers (n 10) and school principals (n 10). Stakeholders perceived food waste as a problem and expressed concern regarding the amount of food wasted. Explanations reported for food waste included food-related (palatability and accessibility), child-related (taste preferences and satiation) and programme-related (duration, food service policies, and coordination) factors. Milk and fruit were perceived as foods particularly susceptible to waste. Several food waste mitigation strategies were identified by participants: saving food for later, actively encouraging children's consumption, assisting children with foods during mealtime, increasing staff support, serving smaller portion sizes, and composting and donating uneaten food. Stakeholders recognized food waste as a problem, reported myriad contributing factors, and have considered and employed multiple and diverse mitigation strategies. Changes to the menu and/or implementation logistics, as well as efforts to use leftover food productively, may be possible strategies of reducing waste and improving the School Breakfast Program's economic, environmental and nutritional impact.

  8. Promotion of healthy nutrition among students participating in a school food aid program: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Dina; Dalma, Archontoula; Petralias, Athanassios; Lykou, Anastasia; Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Yannakoulia, Mary; Karnaki, Pania; Belogianni, Katerina; Veloudaki, Afroditi; Riza, Elena; Malik, Rhea; Linos, Athena

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the potential benefits on students' eating habits, of incorporating healthy nutrition education as part of a school food aid program. 146 schools participating in the DIATROFI Program in Greece during the 2013-2014 school year were randomly allocated to the environmental intervention (received a healthy daily meal) and the multicomponent intervention (MI) group (in addition to the meal, a healthy nutrition educational program was applied). The analysis, based on 3627 pre-post intervention questionnaire pairs, was stratified for children (ages 4-11 years) and adolescents (ages 12-18 years). Children participating in the MI group displayed 25 % higher odds of increasing the weekly consumption of milk/yoghurt and fruits, 61 % higher odds of improving BMI from overweight/obese to normal and 2.5 times higher odds of improving from underweight to normal. For adolescents in the MI group, the odds of increasing the consumption of vegetables were 40 % higher. In both intervention groups, approximately one in four overweight/obese adolescents reached normal weight. Educational programs on healthy nutrition might be considered worth implementing in the framework of school food aid programs.

  9. The fetal programming of food preferences: current clinical and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Molle, R; Bischoff, A R; Portella, A K; Silveira, P P

    2015-09-28

    Increased energy consumption is one of the major factors implicated in the epidemic of obesity. There is compelling evidence, both clinical and experimental, that fetal paucity of nutrients may have programming effects on feeding preferences and behaviors that can contribute to the development of diseases. Clinical studies in different age groups show that individuals born small for their gestational age (SGA) have preferences towards highly caloric foods such as carbohydrates and fats. Some studies have also shown altered eating behaviors in SGA children. Despite an apparent discrepancy in different age groups, all studies seem to converge to an increased intake of palatable foods in SGA individuals. Small nutrient imbalances across lifespan increase the risk of noncommunicable diseases in adult life. Homeostatic factors such as altered responses to leptin and insulin and alterations in neuropeptides associated with appetite and satiety are likely involved. Imbalances between homeostatic and hedonic signaling are another proposed mechanism, with the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway having differential reward and pleasure responses when facing palatable foods. Early exposure to undernutrition also programs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with SGA having higher levels of cortisol in different ages, leading to chronic hyperactivity of this neuroendocrine axis. This review summarizes the clinical and experimental evidence related to fetal programming of feeding preferences by SGA.

  10. Does the Food Stamp Program cause obesity? A realist review and a call for place-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Nathaniel L; Ross, Nancy A; Berrang-Ford, Lea

    2012-07-01

    The high prevalence of obesity among low income groups has led some to question the role of food assistance programs in contributing to the problem. The USDA's Food Stamp Program (now known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program - SNAP) is the largest food assistance program in the United States with over 40 million participants. This paper employed systematic realist review methods to determine whether participation in the Food Stamp Program causes obesity and the causal pathways through which this relationship may exist. Findings indicate a more consistent positive relationship for women than for men, especially for women who are long term users of the program. All studies discussed the "food stamp cycle" and an "income effect" as explanations for the role of food stamps in increased obesity yet evidence for these factors is limited. Curiously, the research in this field does not address obesogenic environments and we suggest that the absence of an understanding of household behavior in local contexts is a significant impediment to the reform of the Food Stamp Program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of a food assistance program on nutritional status, disease progression, and food security among people living with HIV in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Faust, Elizabeth; Maluccio, John A; Kadiyala, Suneetha

    2014-05-01

    Although the last decade has seen increased access to antiretroviral therapy across the developing world, widespread food insecurity and undernutrition continue to compromise an effective response to the AIDS epidemic. Limited evidence exists on the potential benefit of food security and nutrition interventions to people living with HIV (PLHIV). We capitalized on an existing intervention to PLHIV in Uganda and conducted a prospective quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of a monthly household food basket, provided to food insecure antiretroviral therapy-naive PLHIVs for 12 months. The outcomes of interest measured at baseline and follow-up were nutritional status [body mass index; mid-upper arm circumference and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations], disease severity (CD4 count), and 2 measures of food security: diet quality (Individual Dietary Diversity Score) and food access (Household Food Insecurity Access Scale). We used difference-in-difference propensity score matching to examine the impact of food assistance. Over 12 months, food assistance significantly increased body mass index by 0.6 kg/m (P < 0.01) and mid-upper arm circumference by 6.7 mm (P < 0.05). We found no impact on CD4 count, Hb concentrations, or Individual Dietary Diversity Score. Restricting the analysis to individuals with CD4 counts of greater than 350 cells per microliter, there were significant impacts on Hb concentrations (1.0 g/dL; P < 0.05). At the household level, food assistance increased the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, by 2.1 points (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates the potential for food assistance programming to be part of the standard of care for PLHIV in areas of widespread food insecurity.

  12. FDA's expanding postmarket authority to monitor and publicize food and consumer health product risks: the need for procedural safeguards to reduce "transparency" policy harms in the post-9/11 regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah Taylor; Pippins, Raqiyyah R; Ngai, Jennifer W

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the expansion of FDA's discretionary authority in the post-9/11 period, particularly with respect to FDA's authority to monitor and publicize potential health risks linked to food, dietary supplements, nonprescription drugs, and other consumer health products. In addition, this article evaluates the need for FDA to establish procedural safeguards to reduce the significant risks of unintended and undue harm to people and regulated companies that can result from adverse publicity in the more "transparent" post 9/11 FDA regulatory environment. Specifically, Part I summarizes the amendments to the FDCA enacted during the post-9/11 period that have expanded FDA's postmarket authority to monitor, evaluate, and publicize potential health risks linked to food, dietary supplements, nonprescription drugs and other consumer health products marketed in the United States, in conjunction with FDA's Sentinel Initiative, Reportable Food Registry, and other adverse event reporting requirements. Part II discusses the convergence of FDA's expanded postmarket authority to publicize product-related risks with President Obama's transparency initiative aimed at fostering "open government" through increased public access to government information. In addition, Part II considers the nature of the procedural safeguards needed in the post-9/11 FDA regulatory environment, in view of FDA's historical record and illustrative cases that help expose how adverse "transparency" surrounding FDA warning letters, recalls and safety alerts concerning products in the marketplace can have undue and unintended prejudicial and harmful effects for the people and companies that are legally responsible for such products. Finally, based on these analysis, this article concludes with some observations concerning the nature of the procedural safeguards needed to reduce the significant risks of "transparency" policy harms in the pos-9/11 regulatory environment.

  13. Advanced Expander Test Bed Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Aoceptance Tests 2. Design Methodology Review a. Cononent Acceptance Tm w/ Spares 3. Preliminary DeignReview 9. Engine Asembly and Acceptance Teets 4. Critical...of the disk and the bearing of both primary and secondary turbines, has been revised to accommodate brush seals for reduced leakage. Primary disk

  14. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NSIP) The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) Child Nutrition Programs Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) Fresh Fruit ... Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) Data Program Data SNAP Child Nutrition WIC Food Distribution Overview Newsroom USDA Blog Posts ...

  15. The Backpack Food Program's Effects on U.S. Elementary Students' Hunger and On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Meghan E.; Sifers, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the BackPack Food Program's effectiveness in combating students' hunger over the weekends and school breaks, as well as analyze the program's effects on students' on-task behavior in the classroom. Additionally, this study examined program satisfaction from students, parents, and…

  16. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  17. Food assistance is associated with improved body mass index, food security and attendance at clinic in an HIV program in central Haiti: a prospective observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivers Louise C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available to guide programmatic solutions to the overlapping problems of undernutrition and HIV infection. We evaluated the impact of food assistance on patient outcomes in a comprehensive HIV program in central Haiti in a prospective observational cohort study. Methods Adults with HIV infection were eligible for monthly food rations if they had any one of: tuberculosis, body mass index (BMI 2, CD4 cell count 3 (in the prior 3 months or severe socio-economic conditions. A total of 600 individuals (300 eligible and 300 ineligible for food assistance were interviewed before rations were distributed, at 6 months and at 12 months. Data collected included demographics, BMI and food insecurity score (range 0 - 20. Results At 6- and 12-month time-points, 488 and 340 subjects were eligible for analysis. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that at 6 months, food security significantly improved in those who received food assistance versus who did not (-3.55 vs -0.16; P Conclusions Food assistance was associated with improved food security, increased BMI, and improved adherence to clinic visits at 6 and 12 months among people living with HIV in Haiti and should be part of routine care where HIV and food insecurity overlap.

  18. What linear programming contributes: world food programme experience with the "cost of the diet" tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frega, Romeo; Lanfranco, Jose Guerra; De Greve, Sam; Bernardini, Sara; Geniez, Perrine; Grede, Nils; Bloem, Martin; de Pee, Saskia

    2012-09-01

    Linear programming has been used for analyzing children's complementary feeding diets, for optimizing nutrient adequacy of dietary recommendations for a population, and for estimating the economic value of fortified foods. To describe and apply a linear programming tool ("Cost of the Diet") with data from Mozambique to determine what could be cost-effective fortification strategies. Based on locally assessed average household dietary needs, seasonal market prices of available food products, and food composition data, the tool estimates the lowest-cost diet that meets almost all nutrient needs. The results were compared with expenditure data from Mozambique to establish the affordability of this diet by quintiles of the population. Three different applications were illustrated: identifying likely "limiting nutrients," comparing cost effectiveness of different fortification interventions at the household level, and assessing economic access to nutritious foods. The analysis identified iron, vitamin B2, and pantothenic acid as "limiting nutrients." Under the Mozambique conditions, vegetable oil was estimated as a more cost-efficient vehicle for vitamin A fortification than sugar; maize flour may also be an effective vehicle to provide other constraining micronutrients. Multiple micronutrient fortification of maize flour could reduce the cost of the "lowest-cost nutritious diet" by 18%, but even this diet can be afforded by only 20% of the Mozambican population. Within the context of fortification, linear programming can be a useful tool for identifying likely nutrient inadequacies, for comparing fortification options in terms of cost effectiveness, and for illustrating the potential benefit of fortification for improving household access to a nutritious diet.

  19. Impact of an Interdisciplinary Food, Nutrition and Health Education Program for adolescent Brazilian volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Vilela Silva DANIEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of an Interdisciplinary Food, Nutrition and Health Education Program on nutrition knowledge, intention to change eating behavior, and body dissatisfaction of adolescent volleyball players. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 female volleyball players from the juvenile category of the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, who participated in a program with eight monthly meetings (one discussion group followed by six educational activities and one final discussion group for evaluation. Results: Nutrition knowledge, body perception, intention to change eating behavior, eating attitudes and practices were investigated using questionnaires and discussion groups before and after the athletes' participation in ludic activities designed to address nutrition strategies for athletic performance and healthy eating, and how to deal with pressure for results and self-image. Nutrition knowledge improved from 57.0%±9.9 to 63.0%±11.8 (p=0.03 of correct answers. The mean body distortion score did not change (70.0±14.9 versus 76.5±22.4, p=0.235. Six athletes advanced in their intention to change eating behavior. Positive food practices were reported during the program and the identified discourses indicated the intention of changing the daily eating habits in the future. Conclusion: The program had a positive impact on nutrition knowledge and intention of changing eating behavior; however, for other issues, especially involving emotional aspects, further interventions should be planned.

  20. Pharmacy staff characteristics associated with support for pharmacy-based HIV-testing in pharmacies participating in the New York State Expanded Access Syringe Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesty, Silvia; Blaney, Shannon; Crawford, Natalie D.; Rivera, Alexis V.; Fuller, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine support of in-pharmacy HIV-testing among pharmacy staff and the individual-level characteristics associated with in-pharmacy HIV testing support. Design Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study. Setting New York City (NYC) during January 2008 to March 2009. Intervention 131 pharmacies registered in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP) completed a survey. Participants 480 pharmacy staff, including pharmacists, owners/managers, and technicians/clerks. Main outcome measures Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing. Results Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among pharmacy staff (79.4%). Pharmacy staff that supported in-pharmacy vaccinations were significantly more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Pharmacy staff that think that selling syringes to IDUs causes the community to be littered with dirty syringes were significantly less likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Conclusion Support for in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among our sample of ESAP pharmacy staff actively involved in non-prescription syringe sales. These findings suggest that active ESAP pharmacy staff may be amenable to providing HIV counseling and testing to injection drug users and warrants further investigation. PMID:22825227

  1. Impact of Connecticut legislation incentivizing elimination of unhealthy competitive foods on National School Lunch Program participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michael W; Luedicke, Joerg; Dorsey, Marice; Fiore, Susan S; Henderson, Kathryn E

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed the impact of Connecticut legislation incentivizing voluntary school district-level elimination of unhealthy competitive foods on National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation. We analyzed data on free, reduced, and paid participation in the NSLP from 904 schools within 154 Connecticut school districts from the 2004-2005 to the 2009-2010 school year, resulting in 5064 observations of annual school-level meal participation. We used multilevel regression modeling techniques to estimate the impact of the state competitive food legislation on the count of NSLP lunches served per student in each school. Overall, the state statute was associated with an increase in school lunch participation. We observed increases between 7% and 23% for middle- and high-school meal programs, and a slight decrease of 2.5% for the elementary school free meal eligibility category, leading to an estimated revenue increase of roughly $30 000 for an average school district per school year. This study provides support for national implementation of proposed rigorous competitive food standards that can improve the health of students while supporting local school district finances.

  2. Food and Nutrients Intake in the School Lunch Program among School Children in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenru Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the intake of food and nutrients among primary, middle, and high schools students in Shanghai, and provide recommendations for possible amendments in new school lunch standards of Shanghai. Twenty schools were included in the school lunch menu survey. Of those, seven schools enrolled 5389 students and conducted physical measurement of plate waste and a questionnaire survey. The amount of food and nutrients was compared according to the new China National Dietary Guideline for School Children (2016 and Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (2013. The provision of livestock and poultry meat in menus was almost 5–8 times the recommended amount. The amount of seafood was less than the recommended amount, and mostly came from half-processed food. The average percentage of energy from fat was more than 30% in students of all grades. The greatest amount of food wasted was vegetables with 53%, 42%, and 31%, respectively, among primary, middle and high school students. Intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin B2, calcium, and iron was about 50% of the recommended proportion. Only 24.0% students were satisfied with the taste of school lunches. Higher proportions of livestock and poultry meat and low intake of vegetables have become integral problems in school lunch programs. Additionally, more attention needs to be paid to the serving size in primary schools with five age groups.

  3. Food and Nutrients Intake in the School Lunch Program among School Children in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenru; Gao, Runying; Bawuerjiang, Nadila; Zhang, Yali; Huang, Xiaoxu; Cai, Meiqin

    2017-06-07

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake of food and nutrients among primary, middle, and high schools students in Shanghai, and provide recommendations for possible amendments in new school lunch standards of Shanghai. Twenty schools were included in the school lunch menu survey. Of those, seven schools enrolled 5389 students and conducted physical measurement of plate waste and a questionnaire survey. The amount of food and nutrients was compared according to the new China National Dietary Guideline for School Children (2016) and Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (2013). The provision of livestock and poultry meat in menus was almost 5-8 times the recommended amount. The amount of seafood was less than the recommended amount, and mostly came from half-processed food. The average percentage of energy from fat was more than 30% in students of all grades. The greatest amount of food wasted was vegetables with 53%, 42%, and 31%, respectively, among primary, middle and high school students. Intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin B₂, calcium, and iron was about 50% of the recommended proportion. Only 24.0% students were satisfied with the taste of school lunches. Higher proportions of livestock and poultry meat and low intake of vegetables have become integral problems in school lunch programs. Additionally, more attention needs to be paid to the serving size in primary schools with five age groups.

  4. Comparative assessment of the food purchase program and the national school feeding program's impact in Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Leandro Gomes de; Batalha, Mário Otávio; Pettan, Kleber Batista

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Food Purchase Program (PAA) and the National School Feeding Program (PNAE) are the main trading programs of Brazil that promote a connection between the family farm and institutional markets. The case study portrayed in this article aimed to evaluate and compare the socioeconomic impacts generated by the PAA and PNAE among Ubá's family farmers in Minas Gerais. To do this, two tipes of questionnaires were applied to managers and farmers who participate in the programs and obtaine...

  5. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP); Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and... (HACCP) was published on December 15, 2009, which implemented a legislative provision requiring school... food safety program must be based on the (HACCP) system established by the Secretary of Agriculture...

  6. Nutrient profiling can help identify foods of good nutritional quality for their price: a validation study with linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Ferguson, Elaine L; Drewnowski, Adam; Darmon, Nicole

    2008-06-01

    Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient content. They may help identify foods with a good nutritional quality for their price. This hypothesis was tested using diet modeling with linear programming. Analyses were undertaken using food intake data from the nationally representative French INCA (enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) survey and its associated food composition and price database. For each food, a nutrient profile score was defined as the ratio between the previously published nutrient density score (NDS) and the limited nutrient score (LIM); a nutritional quality for price indicator was developed and calculated from the relationship between its NDS:LIM and energy cost (in euro/100 kcal). We developed linear programming models to design diets that fulfilled increasing levels of nutritional constraints at a minimal cost. The median NDS:LIM values of foods selected in modeled diets increased as the levels of nutritional constraints increased (P = 0.005). In addition, the proportion of foods with a good nutritional quality for price indicator was higher (P linear programming and the nutrient profiling approaches indicates that nutrient profiling can help identify foods of good nutritional quality for their price. Linear programming is a useful tool for testing nutrient profiling systems and validating the concept of nutrient profiling.

  7. Best Practices for Serving Students with Special Food and/or Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alexandra; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research project was to identify goals and establish best practices for school nutrition (SN) programs that serve students with special food and/or nutrition needs based on the four practice categories identified in previous National Food Service Management Institute, Applied Research Division (NFSMI, ARD)…

  8. Pilot study of a budget-tailored culinary nutrition education program for undergraduate food science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrison, Dorothy Adair

    The primary objective of this pilot study is to provide evidence that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program is both appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students both in everyday life as well as their future health careers. Two validated programs were combined into one program in order to evaluate their combined effects: Cooking With a Chef and Cooking Matters at the Store. The secondary objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the components and reliability of a questionnaire created specifically for this pilot study. A review of past literature was written, which included culinary nutrition as a source of primary prevention, the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition, and the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition. Based on the literature review, it was determined that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program was appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students interested in pursuing health-related careers. The pilot study design was a semi-crossover study: all four groups received the program, however, two groups were first treated as the control groups. All fifty-four participants received 5 sessions of culinary nutrition information from Cooking With a Chef, collaboratively delivered by a nutrition educator and a chef, and one session of information about shopping healthy on a budget from Cooking Matters at the Store in the form of a grocery store tour led by the nutrition educator. Three questionnaires were administered to the participants that evaluated culinary nutrition and price knowledge, cooking attitudes, and opinions of the programs' relevance to participants' everyday lives and careers. Two of the questionnaires, including a questionnaire developed specifically for the pilot study, were delivered as a pre- and post-test while the third questionnaire was delivered as a post-test. Eight random participants also partook in a focus group session led by the nutrition

  9. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  10. Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Andrew P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to

  11. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  12. [Panorama of purchasing food products from family farmers for the Brazilian School Nutrition Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Elisa Braga; da Silva, Ana Paula Ferreira; de Sousa, Anete Araújo; Cerqueira, Gabrielle Fernandes; Chagas, Carolina Martins dos Santos; Toral, Natacha

    2013-04-01

    This article seeks to describe the viewpoint of purchasing food products from family farmers, analyzing their performance within the new guidelines of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE). It is a critical assessment based on a review of the literature and the official data provided by the National Fund for the Development of Education/Ministry of Education relating to 2010. The program budget in 2010 was approximately R$2.5 billion and attended 45.6 million children, adolescents and adults. From the total amount, R$150,397,052.68 was allocated for the purchase of agricultural products from family farmers. In Brazil, 47.4% of the local councils acquired food products from family farmers for the Brazilian School Nutrition Program and the purchase percentage was, on average, 22.7%. Given the nature of recent legislation, other aspects should be explored in order to strengthen the compliance with the regulations in different Brazilian contexts and thus contribute both to local economic development and the provision of school meals which fulfill the principles of a healthy and adequate diet.

  13. [Sustainability of an innovative school food program: a case study in the northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mariana Navarro Tavares de; Sá, Ronice Maria Pereira Franco de; Melo, Djalma Agripino de

    2016-06-01

    The Brazilian School Food Program (PNAE) is intersectoral innature. It encourages social participation and local economies and is considered here as a health promotionpractice. In the Northeastern State of Pernambuco, the city of Tabira acquired international renownin 2012 for the management of its school food program (PAE). This study analyzed the positive and negative factors related to the sustainability of the innovations in Tabira to understand the processes related to the continuity of the innovative actions implemented. The research used a qualitative approach with a case study strategy. A focus group, semi-structured interviews with key actors and document analysis were performed. The data were processed using content analysis and the techniques of thematic analysis. Positive organizational and socio-political factors were: the program institutionalization, the efficient use of financial resources, municipalized management, high community participation and the use of local resources. Negative factors were: weak inter-sectoral coordination and training and poor professional qualification. The strong political engagement at the local level showed both positive and negative impacts on sustainability.

  14. Delivering Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children: Benefit Use and Impacts on Food Security and Foods Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anne R; Briefel, Ronette R; Collins, Ann M; Rowe, Gretchen M; Klerman, Jacob A

    2017-03-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children (SEBTC) demonstration piloted summer food assistance through electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), providing benefits either through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) EBT. To inform food assistance policy and describe how demonstrations using WIC and SNAP models differed in benefit take-up and impacts on food security and children's food consumption. Sites chose to deliver SEBTC using the SNAP or WIC EBT system. Within each site, in 2012, households were randomly assigned to a benefit group or a no-benefit control group. Grantees (eight states and two Indian Tribal Organizations) selected school districts serving many low-income children. Schoolchildren were eligible in cases where they had been certified for free or reduced-price meals during the school year. Before the demonstration, households in the demonstration sample had lower incomes and lower food security, on average, than households with eligible children nationally. Grantees provided selected households with benefits worth $60 per child per summer month using SNAP or WIC EBT systems. SNAP-model benefits covered most foods. WIC-model benefits could only be used for a specific package of foods. Key outcomes were children's food security (assessed using the US Department of Agriculture food security scale) and food consumption (assessed using food frequency questions). Differences in mean outcomes between the benefit and control groups measured impact, after adjusting for household characteristics. In WIC sites, benefit-group households redeemed a lower percentage of SEBTC benefits than in SNAP sites. Nonetheless, the benefit groups in both sets of sites had similar large reductions in very low food security among children, relative to no-benefit controls. Children receiving benefits consumed more healthful foods, and these impacts were larger in WIC

  15. Adaptation of New Colombian Food-based Complementary Feeding Recommendations Using Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharrey, Marion; Olaya, Gilma A; Fewtrell, Mary; Ferguson, Elaine

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to use linear programming (LP) analyses to adapt New Complementary Feeding Guidelines (NCFg) designed for infants aged 6 to 12 months living in poor socioeconomic circumstances in Bogota to ensure dietary adequacy for young children aged 12 to 23 months. A secondary data analysis was performed using dietary and anthropometric data collected from 12-month-old infants (n = 72) participating in a randomized controlled trial. LP analyses were performed to identify nutrients whose requirements were difficult to achieve using local foods as consumed; and to test and compare the NCFg and alternative food-based recommendations (FBRs) on the basis of dietary adequacy, for 11 micronutrients, at the population level. Thiamine recommended nutrient intakes for these young children could not be achieved given local foods as consumed. NCFg focusing only on meat, fruits, vegetables, and breast milk ensured dietary adequacy at the population level for only 4 micronutrients, increasing to 8 of 11 modelled micronutrients when the FBRs promoted legumes, dairy, vitamin A-rich vegetables, and chicken giblets. None of the FBRs tested ensured population-level dietary adequacy for thiamine, niacin, and iron unless a fortified infant food was recommended. The present study demonstrated the value of using LP to adapt NCFg for a different age group than the one for which they were designed. Our analyses suggest that to ensure dietary adequacy for 12- to 23-month olds these adaptations should include legumes, dairy products, vitamin A-rich vegetables, organ meat, and a fortified food.

  16. Clients' safe food-handling knowledge and risk behavior in a home-delivered meal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Barbara A; Namkung, Young; Ismail, Joseph A; Nelson, Douglas C

    2007-05-01

    To determine typical handling practices of home-delivered meals, and provide appropriate handling instructions to reduce the risk of foodborne illness by improving consumer handling of home-delivered meals. Once permission was given by the home-delivered meal site directors, clients were provided a voluntary survey and requested by the delivery drivers to complete the self-administered questionnaire. The completed questionnaire was collected by the driver the following day. Because of the special needs of the home-delivered meal populations, the questionnaire was made as easy and convenient to answer as possible. Two hundred fifty-eight male clients (31%) and 575 female clients (69%) whose mean age was 79 years participated in the study. The respondents' safe food-handling practices, food safety knowledge, and demographic information were assessed. Average time for delivery and consumption of meals were also measured. Descriptive statistics (frequency and chi(2) test) of the participants' handling of home-delivered meals, their general food safety knowledge, and demographic information were reported. Delivery time and consumption time were calculated for each subject. Five hundred thirty-six of 869 clients (63%) reported that they ate their meals as soon as they were delivered. Of those clients who did not eat their meals immediately, 234 (82%) stored the cold food in the refrigerator and 142 (58%) stored the hot food in the freezer. More than one-third of the clients (n=277, 35%) reported that they had leftovers and only 34 (15%) ate the leftovers within 2 hours. Significant differences among groups on the basis of a derived food safety knowledge score were observed in terms of whether or not they ate their meal immediately (Pconsumed their meals an average of 1.22 hours after delivery. Time in conjunction with temperature can be used as a hazard control measure to reduce foodborne illness caused by improper food-handling procedures. Careful attention should be

  17. Minimization of hepatitis B infection among children in Jiangsu, China, 12years after integration of hepatitis B vaccine into the expanded program on immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoqian; Yang, Jishi; Lu, Huixia; Zhou, Yulin; Zhou, Guiping; Wu, Huiyi; Xu, Chenyu; Wu, Qiaozhen; Liu, Jingli; Chen, Shanshan; Yang, Muyi; Gu, Guangyu; Hu, Yali; Zhou, Yi-Hua

    2016-12-12

    China has integrated hepatitis B vaccine into the Expanded Program on Immunization since 2002. We aimed to survey the seroprevalence of and immunity to hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children born from 2002 to 2014 in Jiangsu, China. Totally 3442 children (M:F=2072:1370) at the age of 7months to 12years (5.5±3.6), from five cities and rural areas across Jiangsu province, were enrolled. Blood samples were measured for HBV markers by ELISA and quantitative microparticle enzyme immunoassay. HBV DNA was tested by real-time PCR and S region was amplified by nested PCR. Twelve (0.35%) children were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 34 (0.99%) were HBsAg negative and positive for antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Totally 2542 (73.85%) children had anti-HBs levels ⩾10mIU/ml and 535 (15.54%) with 2-9.9mIU/ml. All 12 HBsAg-positive children had detectable HBV DNA with a mean level of 6.1±1.7logIU/ml (3.3-8.1logIU/ml); 8 were genotype C and 4 were genotype B. No mutation was detected in the a determinant of HBsAg. HBV DNA was not detected in all the 34 children with positive anti-HBc and negative HBsAg. HBsAg prevalence among children in Jiangsu born after the introduction of universal vaccination against hepatitis B has significantly decreased. No mutation of S gene is associated with vaccine failure in the cohort of children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of television food advertising on children's programming on "free-to-air" broadcast stations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; Santos, Luana Caroline Dos

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the content of television food advertising on Brazilian 'free-to-air' broadcast stations during children's programming. This is a descriptive study which evaluated the content of food advertising between 08:00 a.m. and 06:00 p.m. on three Brazilian 'free-to-air' broadcast stations (A, B and C). Data collection was performed during 10 week days and weekends. Food advertising was organized according to the food group classification from the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. The annual exposure to food advertising was obtained considering the national children average exposure to television of five daily hours. The χ2 and Fisher's exact test were conducted in order to identify differences in the content of television advertising in the morning and in the afternoon and between broadcast stations. One hundred and twenty six hours of programming were recorded, totalizing 1,369 commercials - 13.8% of food. There was major participation of 'sugars and sweets' (48.1%) and 'oils and fats' (29.1%) among food advertising and much food publicity in the afternoon (15.7%; morning: 12.2%, p = 0.037). Moreover, the broadcast with more audience was the one that advertised more food (A: 63.5%; B: 12.2%; C: 24.3%), especially 'sugar and sweets' (A: 59.2%; B: 43.5%; C: 21.7%). Finally, an annual average exposure to 2,735.5 commercials was obtained for Brazilian children, totalizing 2,106.3 of food rich in sugar and fat publicity. Food advertising is focused on poor nutritionally food, emphasizing the need for specific intervention strategies.

  19. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: is physical activity more 'programmable' than food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaoyu; Eclarinal, Jesse; Baker, Maria S; Li, Ge; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mechanisms underlying such developmental programming of energy balance are poorly understood, limiting our ability to intervene. Most studies of developmental programming of energy balance have focused on persistent alterations in the regulation of energy intake; energy expenditure has been relatively underemphasised. In particular, very few studies have evaluated developmental programming of physical activity. The aim of this review is to summarise recent evidence that early environment may have a profound impact on establishment of individual propensity for physical activity. Recently, we characterised two different mouse models of developmental programming of obesity; one models fetal growth restriction followed by catch-up growth, and the other models early postnatal overnutrition. In both studies, we observed alterations in body-weight regulation that persisted to adulthood, but no group differences in food intake. Rather, in both cases, programming of energy balance appeared to be due to persistent alterations in energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). These effects were stronger in female offspring. We are currently exploring the hypothesis that developmental programming of SPA occurs via induced sex-specific alterations in epigenetic regulation in the hypothalamus and other regions of the central nervous system. We will summarise the current progress towards testing this hypothesis. Early environmental influences on establishment of physical activity are likely an important factor in developmental programming of energy balance. Understanding the fundamental underlying mechanisms in appropriate animal models will help determine whether early life

  20. Linear programming: an alternative approach for developing formulations for emergency food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, Ershad; Dabbagh Moghaddam, Arasb; Sharifan, Anousheh; Afshari, Zahra

    2017-08-04

    To minimize the mortality rates of individuals affected by disasters, providing high-quality food relief during the initial stages of an emergency is crucial. The goal of this study was to develop a formulation for a high-energy, nutrient-dense prototype using linear programming (LP) model as a novel method for developing formulations for food products. The model consisted of the objective function and the decision variables, which were the formulation costs and weights of the selected commodities, respectively. The LP constraints were the Institute of Medicine and the World Health Organization specifications of the content of nutrients in the product. Other constraints related to the product's sensory properties were also introduced to the model. Nonlinear constraints for energy ratios of nutrients were linearized to allow their use in the LP. Three focus group studies were conducted to evaluate the palatability and other aspects of the optimized formulation. New constraints were introduced to the LP model based on the focus group evaluations to improve the formulation. LP is an appropriate tool for designing formulations of food products to meet a set of nutritional requirements. This method is an excellent alternative to the traditional 'trial and error' method in designing formulations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Organic foods from family farms in the National School Food Program: Perspectives of social actors from Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Andrade Silverio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze suggestions that facilitate the use of organic foods produced by family farms made by the social actors responsible for Santa Catarina's school meals. METHODS: This qualitative and exploratory study used an electronic questionnaire for surveying 293 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina in 2010 and identified the percentage of organic school foods purchased from family farms. The social actors from 52 municipalities who were responsible for organic food acquisition were interviewed in person. Their suggestions were categorized and analyzed by content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 446 social actors made 684 suggestions categorized into four themes: Awareness strategies for the use of organic foods (n=286 were proposed by principals and dieticians, who emphasized the need of educating social actors and community and raising community awareness; Better Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar management (n=148 was suggested by principals and family farmers, who wanted less bureaucracy and outsourcing, fewer taxes, and more management involvement; Better coordination between the demand and supply of organic foods (n=130 was suggested by principals, family farmers, and cooks because of logistic and supply problems; and Better management of school food production (n=120 was suggested by principals and cooks, who reported problems with the supply of specific foods, low organic food diversity, and lack of certification. CONCLUSION: For the social actors, the use of organic foods in the schools of Santa Catarina requires the education of those involved (technical support, educational strategies, and community awareness, government support, coordination between demand and supply, and better management of organic food production.

  2. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation is associated with an increase in household food security in a national evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabli, James; Ohls, Jim

    2015-02-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance benefits to low-income families in an effort to reduce hunger and improve health and well-being. Because 1 in 7 Americans participate in the program each month, policymakers need to know whether the program is meeting these objectives effectively. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between SNAP participation and household food security using recent data from the largest national survey of the food security of SNAP participants to date. The analysis used a survey of nearly 6500 households and a quasi-experimental research design that consisted of 2 sets of comparisons. Using a cross-sectional sample, we compared information collected from SNAP households within days of program entry with information collected from a contemporaneous sample of SNAP households that had participated for ∼6 mo. Next, using a longitudinal sample, we compared baseline information collected from new-entrant SNAP households with information from those same households 6 mo later. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between SNAP and household food security. SNAP participation decreased the percentage of SNAP households that were food insecure in both samples by 6-17%. SNAP participation also decreased the percentage of households experiencing severe food insecurity--designated very low food security--by 12-19%. Findings were qualitatively robust to different empirical specifications. SNAP serves a vital role in improving the health and well-being of households by increasing food security. Given recent legislation to reduce program size and limit program eligibility, this study underscores SNAP's continued importance in affecting households' well-being. Future research is needed to determine whether specific groups of households experience differential improvements in food security. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Food security status of older adult home-delivered meals program participants and components of its measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Food security status was assessed for 143 West Central Indiana community-dwelling older adults participating in a home-delivered meals program, using the national CPS-FSSM survey, based on economics, and augmented items, including such factors as ability to prepare and/or shop for food. Results showed that 74.8% were food secure, much lower than the national rate for households with elderly (94.0%). Gender and age were found to be statistically significant predictors of food security status (national items). Scores based on national versus augmented items were significantly correlated, but scores for augmented items showed more food insecurity, indicating these items identified more food insecure older adults than the national items alone.

  4. Adapting Extension Food Safety Programming for Vegetable Growers to Accommodate Differences in Ethnicity, Farming Scale, and Other Individual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Terence R.; Kneen, Harold; Barrett, Eric; Kleinschmidt, Andy; Doohan, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Differences in vegetable production methods utilized by American growers create distinct challenges for Extension personnel providing food safety training to producer groups. A program employing computers and projectors will not be accepted by an Amish group that does not accept modern technology. We have developed an outreach program that covers…

  5. Teaching Healthful Food Choices to Elementary School Students and Their Parents: The Nutrition Detectives[TM] Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L.; Katz, Catherine S.; Treu, Judith A.; Reynolds, Jesse; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Michael, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nutrition education program designed to teach elementary school students and their parents, and to distinguish between more healthful and less healthful choices in diverse food categories. Methods: Three schools were assigned to receive the Nutrition Detectives[TM] program and…

  6. Pilot Implementation of the Improving Children's Health through Farming, Food, and Fitness Program in Select California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Karrie; Junge, Sharon K.; Schneider, Connie; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the effect of the Improving Children's Health through Farming, Food, and Fitness Program (CHF3) on the dietary knowledge and habits of participating children. Methods: The CHF3 program aims to 1) establish salad bars and integrate nutrition messages into cafeteria activities; 2) develop…

  7. Contribution to the development of a food guide in Benin: linear programming for the optimization of local diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Sarah; Delisle, Hélène; Agueh, Victoire

    2015-03-01

    Food guides are important tools for nutrition education. While developing a food guide in Benin, the objective was to determine the daily number of servings per food group and the portion sizes of common foods to be recommended. Linear programming (LP) was used to determine, for each predefined food group, the optimal number and size of servings of commonly consumed foods. Two types of constraints were introduced into the LP models: (i) WHO/FAO Recommended Nutrient Intakes and dietary guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases; and (ii) dietary patterns based on local food consumption data recently collected in southern Benin in 541 adults. Dietary intakes of the upper tertile of participants for diet quality based on prevention and micronutrient adequacy scores were used in the LP algorithms. Southern area of the Republic of Benin. Local key-players in nutrition (n 30) from the government, academic institutions, international organizations and civil society were partners in the development of the food guide directed at the population. The number of servings per food group and the portion size for eight age-sex groups were determined. For four limiting micronutrients (Fe, Ca, folate and Zn), local diets could be optimized to meet only 70 % of the Recommended Nutrient Intakes, not 100 %. It was possible to determine the daily number of servings and the portion sizes of common foods that can be recommended in Benin with the help of LP to optimize local diets, although Recommended Nutrient Intakes were not fully met for a few critical micronutrients.

  8. Frequency and types of foods advertised on Saturday morning and weekday afternoon English- and Spanish-language American television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina

    2009-01-01

    To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering to Spanish-language, children, youth, Black youth, and general audiences were analyzed. Each advertisement was coded for the nature of the item promoted, the selling propositions used, and any nutritional claims made. Cross-tabulations using Fisher's exact test (P food. Food ads were especially prevalent on Saturday programs and children's networks. Seventy percent of food ads were for items high in sugar or fat. More than one fourth of food advertisements were for fast-food restaurants, which were especially common on MTV and Spanish-language networks. Ads for fruits and vegetables were rare (1.7%). One nutrition-related public service announcement was found for every 63 food ads. Food advertisements continue to promote less-healthful items. Until marketing of high calorie, low-nutrient food to children is restricted, education and media literacy remain the best strategies for mitigating advertising effects.

  9. PERAN PROGRAM STUDI TEKNIK PANGAN (FOOD ENGINEERING UNTUK MENUNJANG PEMBANGUNAN INDUSTRI PANGAN DI INDONESIA [The Roles of Engineering fot the Development of Agro Industries in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhargo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available At this time more than 60 % of Indonesian population still depend on the agricultural sector. Accordingly, in future agro and food industries are expected to be the main steppingstone for the economic development in Indonesia. In order to make the agricultural products competitive in the global market; it is necessary that the development of food or agro industries is supported by technology especially in the food product development and their processing. The food product development consist of food product design, process design, equipment and machinery design and packaging design. Consequently the food product development requires the knowledge of food science, and is necessary to be supported by the knowledge of engineering or know as food engineering. As a course, food engineering is already offered in the study program of food science and technology. However, food engineering is not developed yet as a study program as well as in the other countries, the study program in food engineering is necessarily different from the study program of food science and technology. Food engineering is scientific discipline to study and apply the engineering principles in food preservation, conservation, conversion and distribution. In several countries both study programs are paralely offered as two different study programs with deferent competence and knowledge. The competency of food engineering is mainly in the application of engineering knowledge for food design, design and construction of food process equipment, process design, process equipment operation and management. Accordingly, the content of the food engineering curriculum covers engineering and physics (50-60%, biology and food science (20-30% and other supporting knowledge’s (statics, communication, etc, 10-20%. The graduates in food engineering will have opportunities working as engineers as well as designing, constructing and operating process equipment in food industries

  10. Identifying Sources of Children’s Consumption of Junk Food in Boston After-School Programs, April–May 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Erica L; Austin, S. Bryn; Cradock, Angie L; Giles, Catherine M.; Lee, Rebekka M.; Kirsten K. Davison; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about how the nutrition environment in after-school settings may affect children’s dietary intake. We measured the nutritional quality of after-school snacks provided by programs participating in the National School Lunch Program or the Child and Adult Care Food Program and compared them with snacks brought from home or purchased elsewhere (nonprogram snacks). We quantified the effect of nonprogram snacks on the dietary intake of children who also received progra...

  11. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods: results from a long-term surveillance program (1995 through 2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, R J; Ribeiro, C D; Smith, R M M; Walker, A M; Simmons, M; Worthington, D; Edwards, C

    2005-08-01

    The coordination of food sampling activities across Wales, a part of the United Kingdom with a population of approximately 3 million, led to the establishment in 1995 of a coordinated food-sampling program designed to monitor on a long-term basis the microbiological quality and safety of specific ready-to-eat products. This surveillance system has been ongoing for 9 years and has generated a database of microbiological and associated demographic results for 15,228 ready-to-eat food samples. The food types that had the poorest overall results were sliced meats, unsliced poultry, sandwiches made without salad, and cakes made without dairy cream. For all food types, the overall unsatisfactory rate was 17% for aerobic colony counts, 1.6% for Escherichia coli, and 0.5% for Listeria spp. Overall unsatisfactory or unacceptable rates for pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus were all below 0.5%. No Campylobacter-positive samples and only one Salmonella-positive sample were found. The analysis of the results show that the ready-to-eat food types sampled over the 9 years of the program were generally of good microbiological quality when compared with current United Kingdom guidelines. The information contained in the database provides a baseline measurement of the microbial quality of a variety of ready-to-eat foods and allows environmental health officers and food microbiologists to generate hypotheses for targeted surveys or research work.

  12. Preparing students for careers in food-supply veterinary medicine: a review of educational programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, R Daniel; Hoffsis, Glen F; Cullor, James S; Naylor, Jonathan M; Chaddock, Michael; Ames, Trevor R

    2012-01-01

    The real and/or perceived shortage of veterinarians serving food-supply veterinary medicine has been a topic of considerable discussion for decades. Regardless of this debate, there are issues still facing colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) about the best process of educating future food-supply veterinarians. Over the past several years, there have been increasing concerns by some that the needs of food-supply veterinary medicine have not adequately been met through veterinary educational institutions. The food-supply veterinary medical curriculum offered by individual CVMs varies depending on individual curricular design, available resident animal population, available food-animal caseload, faculty, and individual teaching efforts of faculty. All of the institutional members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) were requested to share their Food Animal Veterinary Career Incentives Programs. The AAVMC asked all member institutions what incentives they used to attract and educate students interested in, or possibly considering, a career in food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). The problem arises as to how we continue to educate veterinary students with ever shrinking budgets and how to recruit and retain faculty with expertise to address the needs of society. Several CVMs use innovative training initiatives to help build successful FSVM programs. This article focuses on dairy, beef, and swine food-animal education and does not characterize colleges' educational efforts in poultry and aquaculture. This review highlights the individual strategies used by the CVMs in the United States.

  13. Economic impact of the introduction of machine perfusion preservation in a kidney transplantation program in the expanded donor era: cost-effectiveness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, V; Galeano, C; Diez, V; Bueno, C; Díaz, F; Burgos, F J

    2012-11-01

    Kidney transplantations (KT) from expanded criteria donors (ECD) show a higher rate of delayed graft function (DGF) that increases postoperative costs because of the prolonged hospital stay as well as the needs for dialysis and additional diagnostic procedures. Hypothermic machine perfusion (MP) might be superior to cold storage (CS) to reduce the relative risks of DGF and primary nonfunction (PNF) as well as to increase 1-year graft survival. The aim of the study was to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of two different storage methods: MP versus CS. A probabilistic decision tree was developed to compare MP and CS as graft preservation methods. The structure of the model was populated by review of the literature and outcomes of KT from ECD in our center. The model estimated budget impact and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in terms of DGF and PNF cases. The cost comparison of methods for KT preservation included: hospitalization and intermediate care unit stay; post-KT dialysis; graft removal; immunosuppressive regimen; treatment of acute rejection episodes; as well as costs of preservation solutions and pulsatile preservation device or storage containers. Resource consumption for CS stratified by graft function varied from $8,159 for immediate graft function (IGF) recipients to $10,865 for DGF recipients to $25,933 for PNF recipients. Meanwhile, resource consumption for MP varied from $9,522 for IGF to $12,228 for DGF to $27,297 for PNF recipients. The main components of resource consumption were hospitalization stay (41.5%-53.9%); graft explantation (20.2%), and the need for dialysis (16.0%). The budget impact per patient for the introduction of MP was $505. However, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $3,369 for each DGF- or PNF- saved case. The introduction of the MP preservation technology in a KT program form ECD is cost-effective in terms of savings for DGF and PNF cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying sources of children's consumption of junk food in Boston after-school programs, April-May 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Austin, S Bryn; Cradock, Angie L; Giles, Catherine M; Lee, Rebekka M; Davison, Kirsten K; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2014-11-20

    Little is known about how the nutrition environment in after-school settings may affect children's dietary intake. We measured the nutritional quality of after-school snacks provided by programs participating in the National School Lunch Program or the Child and Adult Care Food Program and compared them with snacks brought from home or purchased elsewhere (nonprogram snacks). We quantified the effect of nonprogram snacks on the dietary intake of children who also received program-provided snacks during after-school time. Our study objective was to determine how different sources of snacks affect children's snack consumption in after-school settings. We recorded snacks served to and brought in by 298 children in 18 after-school programs in Boston, Massachusetts, on 5 program days in April and May 2011. We measured children's snack consumption on 2 program days using a validated observation protocol. We then calculated within-child change-in-change models to estimate the effect of nonprogram snacks on children's dietary intake after school. Nonprogram snacks contained more sugary beverages and candy than program-provided snacks. Having a nonprogram snack was associated with significantly higher consumption of total calories (+114.7 kcal, P foods with added sugars (+0.5 servings; P foods and nearly twice as many calories than on days when they consumed only program-provided snacks. Policy strategies limiting nonprogram snacks or setting nutritional standards for them in after-school settings should be explored further as a way to promote child health.

  15. Availability of Foods and Beverages in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Authorized Dollar Stores in a Region of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Batada, Ameena; Solomon, Corliss A; Story, Mary

    2016-10-01

    There are >25,000 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorized dollar stores throughout the United States; many are located in lower-income neighborhoods and provide an accessible food and beverage source for area residents. The purpose of this research was to determine the percent of food deserts within 16 counties in North Carolina that include a SNAP dollar store; examine the types of foods and beverages at SNAP dollar stores in these counties; test whether the foods and beverages offered vary by SNAP dollar store chain; and test whether the foods and beverages available differ by rural and urban location. This cross-sectional study used a combination of publicly available data and primary data to investigate the research questions. Secondary data sources were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's SNAP retailer locator, the US Census, and the US Department of Agriculture's Food Access Research Atlas. Availability of foods and beverages was assessed among a sample of 90 SNAP dollar stores in 16 counties in southern and western sections of North Carolina. Data were collected in June 2014. About half (52%) of the food deserts in the research area included a SNAP dollar store. Most of the sampled stores sold healthier food staples, such as frozen meats, brown rice, 100% whole-wheat bread, and dried beans. None of the stores sold fresh fruits or vegetables. Some of the foods and beverages offered (eg, frozen fruit, frozen unseasoned vegetables, nonfat or low-fat milk, frozen ground beef) varied by SNAP dollar store chain. The foods and beverages offered did not differ by rural or urban county location. SNAP dollar stores offer a number of healthy food staples; however, they do not sell fresh fruits or vegetables. Further food environment research should include dollar stores. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A voluntary nutrition labeling program in restaurants: Consumer awareness, use of nutrition information, and food selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Health Check (HC was a voluntary nutrition labeling program developed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada as a guide to help consumers choose healthy foods. Items meeting nutrient criteria were identified with a HC symbol. This study examined the impact of the program on differences in consumer awareness and use of nutritional information in restaurants. Exit surveys were conducted with 1126 patrons outside four HC and four comparison restaurants in Ontario, Canada (2013. Surveys assessed participant noticing of nutrition information, influence of nutrition information on menu selection, and nutrient intake. Significantly more patrons at HC restaurants noticed nutrition information than at comparison restaurants (34.2% vs. 28.1%; OR = 1.39; p = 0.019; however, only 5% of HC restaurant patrons recalled seeing the HC symbol. HC restaurant patrons were more likely to say that their order was influenced by nutrition information (10.9% vs. 4.5%; OR = 2.96, p < 0.001; and consumed less saturated fat and carbohydrates, and more protein and fibre (p < 0.05. Approximately 15% of HC restaurant patrons ordered HC approved items; however, only 1% ordered a HC item and mentioned seeing the symbol in the restaurant in an unprompted recall task, and only 4% ordered a HC item and reported seeing the symbol on the item when asked directly. The HC program was associated with greater levels of noticing and influence of nutrition information, and more favourable nutrient intake; however, awareness of the HC program was very low and differences most likely reflect the type of restaurants that “self-selected” into the program.

  17. Energy 83. Revised and Expanded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, John, Ed.

    Energy 80 is an energy education program for middle/junior high school students. This document is a booklet of energy topics designed for student use in the program. Topics considered in this booklet include: forms of energy; energy rules; solar energy; food energy; fossil fuels; coal; oil and gas production and consumption; nuclear fission;…

  18. Association between travel times and food procurement practices among female supplemental nutrition assistance program participants in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Moore, Justin B; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E

    2011-01-01

    To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time and distance, perceived stress, food procurement practices (grocery shopping frequency, fast-food consumption, home meal consumption), and body mass index among female SNAP participants aged 20-65 years (n = 215) in eastern North Carolina. There were positive associations (P travel patterns and stress (r = 0.18 for average miles traveled), grocery shopping frequency (r = 0.16 for average miles traveled), and fast-food consumption (r = 0.19 for average miles traveled, r = 0.29 for average minutes traveled). SNAP education materials should focus on healthful interactions with the food environment, even when participants must travel long distances. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Vitamin A and D status among child participants in a food supplementation program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihayashi, Aline Yukari; Augusto, Rosangela Aparecida; Escaldelai, Fernanda Martins Dias; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin A and D serum concentrations and risk factors for their deficiencies were investigated in children participating in a government-sponsored fortified milk program. The study used multivariate linear regression analysis with hierarchical selection of independent variables: socio-demographic conditions, children's health, food consumption, breastfeeding, fortified milk, exposure to sunlight, anthropometric measurements, and serum concentration of retinol and 25(OH)D. Vitamin A and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency values were defined as Vitamin A and D intake was inadequate. Prevalence rates for vitamin A and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were 19%, 6%, 82%, and 58%, respectively. Factors associated with low serum vitamin A were exclusive breastfeeding for less than 120 days, low maternal schooling, maternal unemployment, more consumers of fortified milk in the family, and low serum vitamin D. Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were low exposure to sunlight and low serum vitamin A. Nutritional education is needed to improve children's nutritional status.

  20. Agricultural countermeasure program - AGRICP: food and dose module in ARGOS- accident reporting and Guidance Operational System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calábria, Jaqueline A.A.; Morais, Gustavo F., E-mail: jaqueline.calabria@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: gustavo.morais@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear or radiological emergencies can affect food, feed and commodities grown. The regulatory bodies has a role in the post-accident phase instructing the population regarding the consumption of agricultural products, monitoring and recovering the contaminated areas and disposing the generated waste. To deal with nuclear/radiological emergencies, in the end of 2007, Brazil took part of the ARGOS consortium. ARGOS is a software used for support the Preparedness and Response of a nuclear emergency. Specifically for use during the recovery phase, ARGOS has a module called AgriCP (Agricultural Countermeasure Program). This functionality was add to the version 9.0 of ARGOS, in 2012, replacing FMD (Food and Dose Module) model. AgriCP can be very useful in the post-accident phasing, helping to planning the actions that must be taken, saving human and budged resources. However, most of the parameters used by default for the model are specific for Central Europe and must be adapted to the Brazilian characteristics. In this paper the basic functionalities of AgriCP are presented and a general view of the issues to be addressed while implementing AgriCP for the Brazilian case is given. Besides the lack of specific parameters for the Brazilian reality, the definition of the area to be considering for intervention in an accident, taking into account the very complex meteorological characteristic of the Brazilian NPPs (nuclear power plants) site, are some of the matters of concern. (author)

  1. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford James

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community food programs (CFPs, including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Methods Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n = 94 were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1 month period, along with key informant interviews. Results Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. Conclusions The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would

  2. Marketing complementary foods and supplements in Burkina Faso, Madagascar, and Vietnam: lessons learned from the Nutridev program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyeron, Olivier; Denizeau, Mirrdyn; Berger, Jacques; Trèche, Serge

    2010-06-01

    Sustainable approaches to improving infant and young child feeding are needed. The Nutridev program worked in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to test different strategies to improve complementary feeding using fortified products sold to families. To review the experiences of programs producing and marketing fortified complementary foods and to report on the feasibility of local production and marketing of fortified complementary foods to increase usage of high-quality foods among children of low-income families in a self-sustaining manner. Project documents, surveys of mothers, and production and sales reports were reviewed. Nutridev experience in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso demonstrates that it is possible to produce affordable, high-quality complementary foods and supplements locally in developing countries. Strategies to make products readily available to the targeted population and to convince this population to consume them yielded mixed results, varying greatly based on the strategy utilized and the context in which it was implemented. In several contexts, the optimal approach appears to be strengthening the existing food distribution network to sell complementary foods and supplements, with the implementation of a temporary promotion and nutrition education network in partnership with local authorities (e.g., health services) to increase awareness among families about the fortified complementary food product and optimal feeding practices. In urban areas, where the density of the population is high, design and implementation of specific networks very close to consumers seems to be a good way to combine economic sustainability and good consumption levels.

  3. Randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of an interactive multimedia food safety education program for clients of the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L; Davila, Evelyn P; Matthew, Karen J; Dixon, Zisca; Huffman, Fatma G

    2008-06-01

    Pregnant women and the very young are among those most susceptible to foodborne infections and at high risk of a severe outcome from foodborne infections. To determine if interactive multimedia is a more effective method than pamphlets for delivering food safety education to Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clients. A randomized controlled trial of WIC clients was conducted. Self-reported food safety practices were compared between pre- and postintervention questionnaires completed >or=2 months after the intervention. Pregnant WIC clients or female caregivers (usually mothers) of WIC clients who were 18 years of age or older and able to speak and read English were recruited from an inner-city WIC clinic. Participants were randomized to receive food safety pamphlets or complete an interactive multimedia food safety education program on a computer kiosk. Change from pre- to postintervention food safety scores. A mean food safety score was determined for each participant for the pre- and postintervention questionnaires. The scores were used in a two-group repeated measures analysis of variance. Of the 394 participants, 255 (64.7%) completed the postintervention questionnaire. Satisfaction with the program was high especially among those with no education beyond high school. When considering a repeated measures analysis of variance model with the two fixed between-subject effects of group and age, a larger improvement in score in the interactive multimedia group than in the pamphlet group (P=0.005) was found, but the size of the group effect was small (partial eta(2)=0.033). Women aged 35 years or older in the interactive multimedia group had the largest increase in score. The interactive multimedia was well-accepted and resulted in improved self-reported food safety practices, suggesting that interactive multimedia is an effective option for food safety education in WIC clinics.

  4. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar-Quinonez Hugo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia. Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319. Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF. Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  5. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo; Uribe, Martha C Alvarez

    2008-05-23

    We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA - Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia). Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319). Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  6. 21 CFR 878.5035 - Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene surgical suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... surgical suture. 878.5035 Section 878.5035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 878.5035 Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene surgical suture. (a) Identification. Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) surgical suture is a monofilament, nonabsorbable, sterile...

  7. Food for Thought: An Analysis of Pro-Environmental Behaviours and Food Choices in Ontario Environmental Studies Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Mary

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, there exists a noteworthy educational initiative referred to as Environmental Studies Programs (ESPs). These secondary school programs are interdisciplinary, helping to link subject matter and encouraging student responsibility. This paper will present student reports from five case studies where I investigated how ESP participation…

  8. Designing optimal food intake patterns to achieve nutritional goals for Japanese adults through the use of linear programming optimization models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-06-06

    Simultaneous dietary achievement of a full set of nutritional recommendations is difficult. Diet optimization model using linear programming is a useful mathematical means of translating nutrient-based recommendations into realistic nutritionally-optimal food combinations incorporating local and culture-specific foods. We used this approach to explore optimal food intake patterns that meet the nutrient recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) while incorporating typical Japanese food selections. As observed intake values, we used the food and nutrient intake data of 92 women aged 31-69 years and 82 men aged 32-69 years living in three regions of Japan. Dietary data were collected with semi-weighed dietary record on four non-consecutive days in each season of the year (16 days total). The linear programming models were constructed to minimize the differences between observed and optimized food intake patterns while also meeting the DRIs for a set of 28 nutrients, setting energy equal to estimated requirements, and not exceeding typical quantities of each food consumed by each age (30-49 or 50-69 years) and gender group. We successfully developed mathematically optimized food intake patterns that met the DRIs for all 28 nutrients studied in each sex and age group. Achieving nutritional goals required minor modifications of existing diets in older groups, particularly women, while major modifications were required to increase intake of fruit and vegetables in younger groups of both sexes. Across all sex and age groups, optimized food intake patterns demanded greatly increased intake of whole grains and reduced-fat dairy products in place of intake of refined grains and full-fat dairy products. Salt intake goals were the most difficult to achieve, requiring marked reduction of salt-containing seasoning (65-80%) in all sex and age groups. Using a linear programming model, we identified optimal food intake patterns providing practical food choices and

  9. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  10. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  11. Federal Food Programs-1975. Hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session. Part 8--Administrative Failure of Food Stamp Program. Hearings held Detroit, Michigan, Februrary 6, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs focused on the Food Stamp Programs problems in Detroit, Michigan. Testimony was heard from such witnesses as the following: Coleman Young, Mayor of the City of Detroit; Eleanor Josatis, Chairwoman; Mayor-Common Council's Task Force on Hunger and Malnutrition; Muriel…

  12. Overweight and obesity in school children aged 5 to 11 years participating in food assistance programs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Monterrubio, Eric A; Morales-Ruan, María del Carmen; Moreno-Macías, Lidia B

    2009-01-01

    To determine the association between overweight and obesity among Mexican school-aged children and participation in the Liconsa milk and the School Breakfast food assistance programs. Data from 15 003 school-aged children included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) were analyzed. Information on body mass index (BMI) and participation in food assistance programs was obtained. Descriptive analyses were conducted and logistic regression models were adjusted. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% and 9%, respectively. No significant association between overweight and obesity and participation in Liconsa was found. Among school-aged children in the middle socioeconomic status quintile, those enrolled in the School Breakfast program were more likely to be overweight than those not enrolled (OR= 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3). We found no association between the Liconsa and the School Breakfast programs and overweight or obesity in school-aged children.

  13. Impact of Food Assistance Programs on Obesity in Mothers and Children: A Prospective Cohort Study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    To assess obesity risk among mothers participating in Community Kitchens and children participating in Glass of Milk (Peru food assistance programs). We analyzed prospective data from the Young Lives study. The exposure consisted in varying degrees of benefit from any of the programs (no participation in any of the programs, program participation for some months, or program participation nearly every month) at baseline (2006-2007). The outcome was overweight and obesity in mothers and children at follow-up (2009-2010). Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was 15.5% and 5.1%, respectively; the corresponding figures for mothers were 40.5% and 14.6%. Children exposed nearly every month to the Glass of Milk program had a 65% lower risk of becoming obese compared with children not participating in the program (relative risk [RR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.18, 0.66). Mothers participating frequently in the Community Kitchens program had almost twice the risk of becoming obese compared with those who did not participate (RR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.18, 3.15). Participating in food assistance programs in Peru was associated with a lower risk of obesity in children and greater risk of obesity in mothers.

  14. A Food Transfer Program without a Formal Education Component Modifies Complementary Feeding Practices in Poor Rural Mexican Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; González de Cosío, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate complementary feeding partially explains micronutrient deficiencies in the first 2 y of life. To prevent malnutrition, the Mexican government implemented the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which transferred either food baskets containing micronutrient-fortified milk and animal food products or cash to beneficiary families along with educational sessions. This study evaluated the impact of PAL on 2 indicators of complementary feeding: minimum dietary diversity and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods in children aged 6-23 mo. A secondary analysis of the original PAL evaluation design was conducted through a randomized community trial implemented with 3 intervention groups (food basket with education, food basket without education, and cash transfer with education) and a control. The impact of PAL after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in 2 cross-sectional groups of children aged 6-23 mo at baseline and at follow-up in a panel of 145 communities by using difference-in-difference models. Only children who lived in households and communities that were similar between treatment groups at baseline were included in the analysis. These children were identified by using a propensity score. Of the 3 intervention groups, when compared with the control, only the food basket without education group component increased the consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods by 31.2 percentage points (PP) (P food baskets that include fortified complementary foods may be more effective than cash transfers. The fact that the 2 food basket groups differed in the observed impact does not allow for more convincing conclusions to be made about the education component of the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01304888. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Coordinating Education & Industry in the 1990's: A Strategy for Managing a Food Service/Hospitality Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalla, Edward V.

    Research was conducted to determine areas of strengths and weaknesses of the Food Service/Hospitality Management program of Ferris State University (Michigan). The study examined graduates' perceptions of the preparation they received and of the adequacy of their preparation for the hospitality industry. A literature review focused on strategies…

  16. Ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition: Considerations for scaling up production and use in programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use foods are one of the available strategies for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), but challenges remain in the use of these products in programs at scale. This paper focuses on two challenges: the need for cheaper formulations using locally available ingredients that are...

  17. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  18. Associations between Participation in the National School Lunch Program, Food Insecurity, and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    This study examined the association between food insecurity, participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and child well-being. Participants were children age 6-12 years in families in which at least one child participated in the NSLP. Data came from the 1997 Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Food…

  19. A comprehensive linear programming tool to optimize formulations of ready-to-use therapeutic foods: An application to Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the standard of care for children suffering from noncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objective was to develop a comprehensive linear programming (LP) tool to create novel RUTF formulations for Ethiopia. A systematic approach that surveyed inter...

  20. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  1. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  2. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... by marketing, inventory or sales) is not the sale of food, be eligible to participate in SNAP? 10. Restaurants are generally prohibited from being SNAP retailers, and hot foods cannot be purchased with SNAP...

  3. Identifying Sources of Children’s Consumption of Junk Food in Boston After-School Programs, April–May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. Bryn; Cradock, Angie L.; Giles, Catherine M.; Lee, Rebekka M.; Davison, Kirsten K.; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about how the nutrition environment in after-school settings may affect children’s dietary intake. We measured the nutritional quality of after-school snacks provided by programs participating in the National School Lunch Program or the Child and Adult Care Food Program and compared them with snacks brought from home or purchased elsewhere (nonprogram snacks). We quantified the effect of nonprogram snacks on the dietary intake of children who also received program-provided snacks during after-school time. Our study objective was to determine how different sources of snacks affect children’s snack consumption in after-school settings. Methods We recorded snacks served to and brought in by 298 children in 18 after-school programs in Boston, Massachusetts, on 5 program days in April and May 2011. We measured children’s snack consumption on 2 program days using a validated observation protocol. We then calculated within-child change-in-change models to estimate the effect of nonprogram snacks on children’s dietary intake after school. Results Nonprogram snacks contained more sugary beverages and candy than program-provided snacks. Having a nonprogram snack was associated with significantly higher consumption of total calories (+114.7 kcal, P desserts (+0.3 servings, P < .001), and foods with added sugars (+0.5 servings; P < .001) during the snack period. Conclusion On days when children brought their own after-school snack, they consumed more salty and sugary foods and nearly twice as many calories than on days when they consumed only program-provided snacks. Policy strategies limiting nonprogram snacks or setting nutritional standards for them in after-school settings should be explored further as a way to promote child health. PMID:25412028

  4. Layouts of Expander Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  5. Relationship between ultra-processed foods and metabolic syndrome in adolescents from a Brazilian Family Doctor Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Garcia Rosa, Maria Luiza; Yokoo, Edna Massae

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the association between food intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional design conducted from July 2006 to December 2007. Adolescents assisted by the Family Doctor Program (FDP) in Niterói, a metropolitan area in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Survey of 210 adolescents. Individuals with three or more of the following components of MetS were classified as having this syndrome: TAG ≥ 110 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol 100 mg/dl; and blood pressure ≥90th percentile. A semi-quantitative FFQ was used, and foods were grouped as: unprocessed or minimally processed foods (Group 1), processed culinary and food industry ingredients (Group 2) and ultra-processed foods (Group 3). The associations between food consumption and MetS were adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioural and family history covariates and were estimated using generalized estimation equations with the Poisson regression model. MetS was diagnosed in 6·7 % of the adolescents; the most frequent diagnostic criteria included the reduction of HDL cholesterol (46·7 %), elevated serum glucose (17·1 %) and the elevation of waist circumference (16·7 %). Crude analysis showed higher average daily intakes of energy, carbohydrates and ultra-processed foods among adolescents with MetS. After statistical adjustment, the intake of ultra-processed foods (≥3rd quartile) remained associated with MetS (prevalence ratio = 2·5; P = 0·012). High consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with the prevalence of MetS in this adolescents group.

  6. 2006 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Culinary and Related Foods Technology. (Program CIP: 20.0401 - Institutional Food Workers & Admin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Linda; Early, Lanell; Wood, Becky Jolly

    2006-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  7. Reestablishing healthy food retail: changing the landscape of food deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpyn, Allison; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    The term "food desert" was formally introduced into the lexicon in 1995 and has come to describe areas with limited access to affordable nutritious foods, particularly areas in lower-income neighborhoods. The definition has led to the development of national and regional maps that focus efforts on equity in food access. Recognition of food deserts also marks a strategic change in public health's approach to obesity prevention. Today's emphasis on prevention has shifted away from individual responsibility to the role of the environment in health promotion. A number of solutions are underway to address food deserts, including public–private financing programs, industry commitments, as well as local and regional efforts to put healthy food within reach. The promise of financing programs to facilitate development of healthy food markets in underserved communities is rooted in their potential to alleviate the grocery gap and address underlying environmental contributors to obesity and diet-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. As food desert mapping and related interventions expand, there remains a need for ongoing investigation of impacts and the mechanisms by which impacts are achieved.

  8. The use of linear programming to determine whether a formulated complementary food product can ensure adequate nutrients for 6- to 11-month-old Cambodian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Bunthang, Touch; Chamnan, Chhoun

    2014-01-01

    A new software tool, Optifood, developed by the WHO and based on linear programming (LP) analysis, has been developed to formulate food-based recommendations.......A new software tool, Optifood, developed by the WHO and based on linear programming (LP) analysis, has been developed to formulate food-based recommendations....

  9. The Child and Adult Care Food Program: Who Is Served and What Are Their Nutritional Outcomes? NBER Working Paper No. 16148

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses three basic questions about an under-studied food subsidy program, the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP): (1) Does CACFP reach targeted low-income children? (2) How do eligible families and child care providers who participate differ from those who do not participate? (3) What is the association between attending…

  10. Evaluation of the Expanded and Enhanced Model System-Wide K-9 Drug/Alcohol Abuse Prevention Training Program for Counselors, Social Workers, and Nurses, 1991-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weich, Leah; Philip, Radhika

    The objective of this program, which was created in response to the emergency situation in New York City's Community School District 3, was to train all guidance counselors, social workers, and nurses in the district to develop the skills to deliver substance abuse prevention counseling and support services. Program sponsored training was to be…

  11. Evaluation of Prerequisite Programs Implementation and Hygiene Practices at Social Food Services through Audits and Microbiological Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Roncesvalles; Yánez, Nathaly; Díez-Leturia, María; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Vitas, Ana Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Prerequisite programs are considered the most efficient tool for a successful implementation of self-control systems to ensure food safety. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of these programs in 15 catering services located in Navarra and the Basque Country (regions in northern Spain), through on-site audits and microbiological analyses. The implementation of the prerequisite program was incomplete in 60% of the sample. The unobserved temperature control during both the storage and preparation of meals in 20% of the kitchens reveals misunderstanding in the importance of checking these critical control points. A high level of food safety and hygiene (absence of pathogens) was observed in the analyzed meals, while 27.8% of the tested surfaces exceeded the established limit for total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (≤100 CFU/25 cm²). The group of hand-contact surfaces (oven door handles and aprons) showed the highest level of total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Enterobacteriaceae, and the differences observed with respect to the food-contact surfaces (work and distribution utensils) were statistically significant (P < 0.001). With regard to the food workers' hands, lower levels of microorganisms were observed in the handlers wearing gloves (that is, for Staphylococcus spp we identified 43 CFU/cm2 on average compared with 4 CFU/cm2 (P < 0.001) for those not wearing and wearing gloves, respectively). For a proper implementation of the prerequisites, it is necessary to focus on attaining a higher level of supervision of activities and better hygiene training for the food handlers, through specific activities such as informal meetings and theoretical-practical sessions adapted to the characteristics of each establishment. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Developing an Online Certification Program for Nutrition Education Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. Design: An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and…

  13. Amendments to Accreditation of Third-Party Certification Bodies To Conduct Food Safety Audits and To Issue Certifications To Provide for the User Fee Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is amending its regulations on accreditation of third-party certification bodies to conduct food safety audits and to issue certifications to provide for a reimbursement (user fee) program to assess fees for the work FDA performs to establish and administer the third-party certification program under the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA).

  14. Hazard analysis and critical control point evaluation of school food programs in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A A; Spencer, N J

    1996-03-01

    Hazard analyses were conducted in six food preparation sites and 16 school canteens in the State of Bahrain. Sandwiches made with cheese, meat, eggs, liver, and beef burgers were prepared in small shops or a bakery outside schools. Foods were cooked between 4 and 5 A.M. Time-temperature exposure during cooking was adequate to kill vegetative microbes and their spores, but potential for recontamination existed from the hands of food workers, utensils, and cloths and sponges used for wiping. All foods were left at room temperature before they were transported in vans to schools where they were also kept at room temperature between 17 degrees C and 41 degrees C. Air temperature inside the canteens during this investigation was between 18.5 and 28 degrees C with a relative humidity of 65 to 70%. Hazard analyses, which included observation of operations inside school canteens and sites of food preparation, measuring temperatures, and interviewing workers and consumers (teachers, students) were carried out. Hazards were primarily associated with preparation of foods long before they were consumed, physical touching of products, and holding foods at room temperature after preparation. Holding foods at room temperature would have allowed germination of bacterial spores and multiplication of microbes. Reheating of foods was not practiced. Health promoters must be aware of these hazards and need to educate food workers, administrators, and the public on the methods of prevention.

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association, American Society for Nutrition, and Society for Nutrition Education: Food and nutrition programs for community-residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Barbara J; Wellman, Nancy S; Russell, Carlene

    2010-03-01

    Given the federal cost-containment policy to rebalance long-term care away from nursing homes to home- and community-based services, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education that all older adults should have access to food and nutrition programs that ensure the availability of safe, adequate food to promote optimal nutritional status. Appropriate food and nutrition programs include adequately funded food assistance and meal programs, nutrition education, screening, assessment, counseling, therapy, monitoring, evaluation, and outcomes documentation to ensure more healthful aging. The growing number of older adults, the health care focus on prevention, and the global economic situation accentuate the fundamental need for these programs. Yet far too often food and nutrition programs are disregarded or taken for granted. Growing older generally increases nutritional risk. Illnesses and chronic diseases; physical, cognitive, and social challenges; racial, ethnic, and linguistic differences; and low socioeconomic status can further complicate a situation. The beneficial effects of nutrition for health promotion, risk reduction, and disease management need emphasis. Although many older adults are enjoying longer and more healthful lives in their own homes, others, especially those with health disparities and poor nutritional status, would benefit from greater access to food and nutrition programs and services. Food and nutrition practitioners can play a major role in promoting universal access and integrating food and nutrition programs and nutrition services into home- and community-based services.

  16. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the expanded program on immunization does not affect seroconversion to oral poliovirus vaccine in infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. Semba; M. Muhilal; N.E. Mohgaddam (Nasrin); Z. Munasir; A. Akib; D. Permaesih; M.S. Muherdiyantiningsih; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractChildhood immunization programs may provide infrastructure for delivering vitamin A supplements to infants in developing countries. The effect of giving vitamin A, an immune enhancer, on antibody responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV) is unknown. A

  17. Effects of reduced juice allowances in food packages for the women, infants, and children program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Tripp, Amanda S; Henderson, Kathryn E

    2013-05-01

    In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented revisions to the composition and quantities of WIC food packages. Juice allowances were reduced by approximately half. This report describes changes in purchases of 100% juice and other beverages among WIC participants after the WIC revisions. Scanner data from a New England supermarket chain were used to assess juice and other beverage purchases among 2137 WIC-participating households during a 2-year period (N = 36 051 household-months). Purchased beverage amounts were compared before (January-September 2009) and after (January-September 2010) implementation of the revised WIC packages. Generalized estimating equation models were used. Before the revisions, WIC juice accounted for two-thirds of purchased juice volume among WIC households. After implementation of the revisions, WIC juice purchases were reduced on par with allowance changes (43.5% of juice volume, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.9%-45.1%). This reduction was only partly compensated for by an increase of 13.6% (8.4%-19.0%) in juice purchases using personal and other non-WIC funds. In total, juice purchases declined by 23.5% (21.4%-25.4%) from an adjusted monthly total of 238 oz to 182 oz per household. WIC households increased purchases of fruit drinks by 20.9% (14.9%-27.3%) and other noncarbonated beverages by 21.3% (12.1%-31.2%) but purchased 12.1% (8.1%-15.0%) less soft drinks. After the WIC revisions, total purchases of 100% juice among WIC households declined by about a quarter, with little compensation occurring from non-WIC funds for juice and other beverages. The public health impact of the shift in beverage purchase patterns could be significant.

  18. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  19. Integrated Food and Nutrition Security Programming to Address Undernutrition : The Plan Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de F.A.; Verdonk, I.

    2012-01-01

    From a technical point of view, it is widely recognised that an integrated approach to food and nutrition security is an effective way to promote child nutritional well-being. In this desk review, based on project documents of the countries which took part in the PLAN NL supported Food and Nutrition

  20. Development of an Evaluation Tool for Online Food Safety Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jack A., Jr.; Murphy, Cheryl A.; Crandall, Philip G.; O'Bryan, Corliss A.; Keifer, Elizabeth; Ricke, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide the person in charge and food safety instructors an assessment tool to help characterize, identify strengths and weaknesses, determine the completeness of the knowledge gained by the employee, and evaluate the level of content presentation and usability of current retail food safety training platforms. An…

  1. Understanding the Concept of Food Sovereignty Using the Ghana School Feeding Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.; Frempong, G.; Essegbey, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article deepens the understanding of the emerging food sovereignty concept using a case study of a home-grown school feeding programme that promotes local food demand - supply linkages. A school feeding programme in four selected districts in Ghana is analysed with respect to community

  2. Surveillance program on dioxin-like compounds in fatty food in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh Junghyuck; Choi Dongmi; Lee Eunju; Hong Mooki [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Although dioxin-like compounds (PCDD/Fs and co-planar PCBs) are environmental contaminants mainly produced from municipal waste incineration, the main route of human intake of these are food. This is because these chemicals have strong tendencies to bioaccumulate in lipid-rich compartments of organisms because of their highly lipophilic property. The contamination levels of dioxin-like compounds depends on species. Species with a higher fat content may have higher contamination levels so that detectable levels are found in fatty food such as meat, eggs, dairy products and fishes. Therefore it is very important to measure the levels of dioxin-like compounds in food(especially fatty food) and to do the risk assessment. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of dioxin-like compounds of retail food in Korea and then assess the health risks potentially associated with the dioxin-like compounds intake.

  3. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...... facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable....

  4. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.

  5. Expanding Options. A Model to Attract Secondary Students into Nontraditional Vocational Programs. For Emphasis in: Building Trades, Electronics, Health Services, Machine Shop, Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, James D.; DeVore, Mary Ann

    This model has been designed for use by Missouri secondary schools in attracting females and males into nontraditional occupational programs. The research-based strategies are intended for implementation in the following areas: attracting females into building trades, electronics, machine shop, and welding; and males into secondary health…

  6. OPTImal CArdiac REhabilitation (OPTICARE) following Acute Coronary Syndromes: Rationale and design of a randomised, controlled trial to investigate the benefits of expanded educational and behavioural intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunamura, M; Ter Hoeve, N; van den Berg-Emons, H J G; Haverkamp, M; Redekop, K; Geleijnse, M L; Stam, H J; Boersma, E; van Domburg, R T

    2013-07-01

    The majority of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) referrals consist of patients who have survived an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although major changes have been implemented in ACS treatment since the 1980s, which highly influenced mortality and morbidity, CR programs have barely changed and only few data are available on the optimal CR format in these patients. We postulated that standard CR programs followed by relatively brief maintenance programs and booster sessions, including behavioural techniques and focusing on incorporating lifestyle changes into daily life, can improve long-term adherence to lifestyle modifications. These strategies might result in improved (cardiac) mortality and morbidity in a cost-effective fashion. In the OPTImal CArdiac REhabilitation (OPTICARE) trial we will assess the effects of two advanced and extended CR programs that are designed to stimulate permanent adaption of a heart-healthy lifestyle, compared with current standard CR, in ACS patients. We will study the effects in terms of cardiac risk profile, levels of daily physical activity, quality of life and health care consumption.

  7. Comparative assessment of the food purchase program and the national school feeding program's impact in Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Gomes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Food Purchase Program (PAA and the National School Feeding Program (PNAE are the main trading programs of Brazil that promote a connection between the family farm and institutional markets. The case study portrayed in this article aimed to evaluate and compare the socioeconomic impacts generated by the PAA and PNAE among Ubá's family farmers in Minas Gerais. To do this, two tipes of questionnaires were applied to managers and farmers who participate in the programs and obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods and non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney. Results showed that the two policies present positive socioeconomic benefits to family farmers, although the PNAE's producers income be higher and the food prices traded in PAA are superior. On the other side, having participated in the PAA and PNAE does not provide extra income arising from entry into new markets, which in theory could be the result of improving the quality of production,and does not promote the reduction in the use of fertilizers and pesticides.

  8. Overview of the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market - The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mock, John E.; Budraja, Vikram; Jaros, Richard; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Hinrichs, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    This overview at the Geothermal Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Technology Advancements to Support Growth in Geothermal Power Sales in a Dynamic Utility Market'' by John E. Mock; ''Geothermal Energy Market in Southern California: Past, Present and Future'' by Vikram Budraja; ''Taking the High Ground: Geothermal's Place in the Revolving Energy Market'' by Richard Jaros; ''Recent Developments in Japan's Hot Dry Rock Program'' by Tsutomu Yamaguchi; and ''Options in the Eleventh Year for Interim Standard Offer Number Four Contracts'' by Thomas C. Hinrichs.

  9. Food-intake patterns assessed by using front-of-pack labeling program criteria associated with better diet quality and lower cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Carson, JoAnn S; Johnson, Rachel K; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Pappas, Antigoni; Rupp, Linda; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-03-01

    Front-of-pack labeling systems may provide additional guidance to that already available to facilitate the identification of foods that improve diet quality. We examined the association between choosing foods that meet criteria of an established front-of-pack labeling system with food-group and nutrient intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors. The association between the consumption of foods that met 2014 American Heart Association (AHA) Heart-Check Food Certification Program criteria and 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2005) scores, food-group intake, energy intake, nutrient intake, and cardiometabolic risk factors was analyzed in 11,296 men and women ≥ 19 y old by using 1-d dietary recall data from the NHANES 2007-2010. Individuals were categorized into consumers and nonconsumers of AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods and quartiles of intakes on the basis of the percentage of calories. The consumption of AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods was positively associated with HEI-2005 scores and fruit, vegetable, whole-grain, total sugar, fiber, potassium, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and inversely associated with the percentage of energy from saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, added sugars, alcohol, and intakes of cholesterol and sodium. The highest quartile of daily energy intake from AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods was associated with lower risk of obesity (26%), lower risk of elevated waist circumference (29%), and lower risk of metabolic syndrome (24%) than with lowest intakes (all P front-of-pack labeling system positively influences food-group and nutrient intakes and is associated with a higher diet quality and lower risk of cardiometabolic syndrome.

  10. Understanding needs is important for assessing the impact of food assistance program participation on nutritional and health status in U.S. elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J S; Frongillo, E A

    2001-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of food assistance programs on nutritional and health status of nutritionally needy elderly persons. Two cross-sectional and one longitudinal data sets were used: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-94), Nutrition Survey of the Elderly in New York State (1994) and Longitudinal Study of Aging (1984-1990). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine whether food assistance participants among food insecure elderly (i.e., those whose needs for food assistance programs are met) have better nutrient intake, skinfold thickness and self-reported health status and less nutritional risk, hospitalization and mortality than nonparticipants (i.e., those whose needs are unmet) and whether the benefit is larger than that among food secure elderly persons. Across three data sets, food insecure elderly persons had poorer nutritional and health status than food secure elderly persons. Contrary to the hypotheses, among food insecure elderly persons, food assistance participants had similar or poorer nutrient intakes, skinfold thickness, nutritional risk, self-reported health status, hospitalization and mortality than nonparticipants. Food secure participants had similar nutritional and health status as food secure nonparticipants. Lack of information on the dynamic nature and changes in needs with program participation in the three data sets likely did not allow accurate estimation of the impact of food assistance participation. Different study designs, as well as theory and knowledge of needs that clarifies need status and its change within each older individual across an appropriate time interval, are necessary to accurately assess impacts of food assistance programs.

  11. 78 FR 64468 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... sugar, sodium or solid fats? 9. Should stores whose primary business (as evidenced by marketing, inventory or sales) is not the sale of food, be eligible to participate in SNAP? 10. Restaurants are...

  12. 78 FR 51136 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    .... Should stores whose primary business (as evidenced by marketing, inventory or sales) is not the sale of food, be eligible to participate in SNAP? 10. Restaurants are generally prohibited from being SNAP...

  13. Evaluation of food-relevant chemicals in the ToxCast high-throughput screening program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Thousands of chemicals are directly added to or come in contact with food, many of which have undergone little to no toxicological evaluation. The landscape of the...

  14. Impact of the Bolsa Família program on food availability of low-income Brazilian families: a quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bolsa Família Program was created in Brazil in 2003, by the joint of different social programs aimed at poor or very poor families with focus on income transfer to promote immediate poverty relief, conditionalities and complementary programs. Given the contributions of conditional cash transfer programs to poverty alleviation and their potential effects on nutrition and health, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food purchases of low-income households in Brazil. Methods Representative data from the Household Budget Survey conducted in 2008–2009 were studied, with probabilistic sample of 55,970 households. 11,282 households were eligible for this study and 48.5 % were beneficiaries of the BFP. Food availability indicators were compared among paired blocks of households (n = 100, beneficiaries or non-beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program, with monthly per capita income up to R$ 210.00. Blocks of households were created based on the propensity score of each household to have beneficiaries and were homogeneous regarding potential confounding variables. The food availability indicators were weekly per capita expenditure and daily energy consumption, both calculated considering all food items and four food groups based on the extent and purpose of the industrial food processing. The comparisons between the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries blocks of households were conducted through paired ‘t’ tests. Results Compared to non-beneficiaries, the beneficiaries households had 6 % higher food expenditure (p = 0.015 and 9.4 % higher total energy availability (p = 0.010. It was found a 7.3 % higher expenditure on in natura or minimally processed foods and 10.4 % higher expenditure on culinary ingredients among the Bolsa Família Program families. No statistically significant differences were found regarding the expenditure and the availability of

  15. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  16. TRIPLE ACTION PALATE EXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yordanova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion correction essentially involves expansion of the maxilla, protrusion of anterior teeth and opening the bite. Expansion is often the stage preceding the treatment with fixed appliances. The elevation of the occlusion using accomplished with different devices (bite planes -fixed or removable, composite material on the occlusall surface of molars carries the risk of breaking or debonding them.The present article proposes an expanding appliance with triple action as a therapeutic means of choice in an orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The expander can simultaneously be used to protrude upper teeth, to expand the upper jaw and disarticulate the occlusion. It can be easily fabricated in clinical conditions, causes no discomfort and does not hamper oral hygiene because it can be removed and cleaned.

  17. Food Barn for The Village Community To Strengthen Community Empowerment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidyah Indira Hasmarini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the achievement level of community empowerment in realizing food security. The result was expected to reveal a model of community empowerment, particularly farmer community institution as an attempt to attain food security. Survey was employed as the research method that involved the farmers (farmer groups as the members of Food Barn for the Village Community (Lumbung Pangan Masyarakat Desa/LPMD. Technique of rapid rural appraisal was selected in the form of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Preliminary survey in study area was carried out to obtain the characteristic and status of food security; and to mapping the potential and role of Lumbung Pangan Masyarakat Desa in the process of community empowerment. Subsequently, study and analysis was done based on the survey. The results demonstrated the active role of stakeholders (A-B-G-C was significant in supporting the farmer institution (food barn. The economic and social aspects were also evidenced to have important role in enhancing the farmer community empowerment. This model is called social engine for rural community and local institution, particularly to attain the regional food security.

  18. Effect of a Nutrient Rich Foods consumer education program: results from the nutrition advice study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; Hersey, James; Cates, Sheryl; Muth, Mary; Creel, Darryl; Nicholls, Jill; Fulgoni, Victor; Zaripheh, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) approach to eating uses the NRF Index, a nutrient profiling metric to help consumers choose foods that contain more vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients per kilocalorie. Research is needed to test the efficacy of dietary guidance using nutrient profiling systems to rank foods. To examine whether nutrition education and supporting materials would increase understanding of the NRF approach and improve food shopping, meal planning, consumption of nutrient-rich foods, and diet quality. Unbalanced randomized controlled trial conducted in February to May 2009 with participants assigned to NRF education group (n=128) or control group receiving standard nutrition education (n=61). Adult primary food shoppers and preparers with at least one child in the household aged 3 to 17 years. Group education session and support tools (pocket guide, shopping list, refrigerator magnet, weekly e-mail messages, and biweekly mailings). Surveys of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and two 24-hour telephone dietary recalls at baseline and after an 8-week intervention period. Examined time-by-treatment interactions in outcome measures. Compared to controls, NRF participants increased meal planning (+24.2% vs ?4.9%; PNutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of Food Premises Inspection and Disclosure Program with retail-acquired foodborne illness and operator noncompliance in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serapiglia, Tino; Kennedy, Erin; Thompson, Sylvanus; de Burger, Ron

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the city of Toronto was the only health unit in Canada to have implemented a multi-component disclosure system as part of its provincially mandated food safety program. To measure the impact on the ultimate goal of preventing foodborne illness, the authors of the study reported here assessed directly the association of Toronto Public Health's program with the specific incidence of retail-acquired foodborne illness by analyzing secondary data on reportable local enteric disease. In addition, the study indirectly measured prevention of retail-acquired foodborne illness by assessing existing data on regulatory compliance in Toronto food premises as an inherent performance indicator. Results of the statistical analysis show that although there has not been a significant difference in the overall incidence rate of retail foodborne illness (Chi-squared = 0.009, p = .93), certain key diseases, such as Campylobacter infection, have decreased significantly since the implementation of the disclosure program in Toronto. There has also been a significant trend in the reduction of operator noncompliance rates (Z = 32, p foodborne illness (r = .73, p foodborne illness and decreasing operator noncompliance in the city of Toronto. Programs of this type may assist other local health units to achieve similar results.

  20. Representations by Caregivers, Teachers, and Children on Food, Nutrition, Health, and School Breakfast Contributions for the "ESNUT" Nutritional Stabilization Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Gallegos-Martínez

    Full Text Available Objective.This work sought to determine the social representations conferred by caregivers, teachers, and children to food, health, and nutrition and the school breakfast program for children from three to seven years of age in the city of San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, through identifying a knowledge and practices and b meanings attributed on health and nutrition of children from three to seven years of age and on the school breakfast program. Methods. This was a qualitative health study. The sample included 33 mothers, 3 grandmothers, 1 father, 30 children from 3 to 7 years of age, and 8 teachers who signed an informed consent. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview and treated through content analysis modality thematic analysis. Results. The analysis yielded the categories: knowledge on food, the health-feeding relation, customs and practices of the child's feeding, and meanings of the school breakfast program. Conclusion. On the reflection on the representations of the different players included in the school breakfast program, elements become manifest that would support an educational intervention by nursing, which would have to be based on the family as the central figure to provide good nutrition and teach good habits.

  1. Representations by Caregivers, Teachers, and Children on Food, Nutrition, Health, and School Breakfast Contributions for the "ESNUT" Nutritional Stabilization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Martínez, Josefina; Reyes-Hernández, Jaime

    2016-06-01

    This work sought to determine the social representations conferred by caregivers, teachers, and children to food, health, and nutrition and the school breakfast program for children from three to seven years of age in the city of San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, through identifying a) knowledge and practices and b) meanings attributed on health and nutrition of children from three to seven years of age and on the school breakfast program. This was a qualitative health study. The sample included 33 mothers, 3 grandmothers, 1 father, 30 children from 3 to 7 years of age, and 8 teachers who signed an informed consent. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview and treated through content analysis modality thematic analysis. The analysis yielded the categories: knowledge on food, the health-feeding relation, customs and practices of the child's feeding, and meanings of the school breakfast program. On the reflection on the representations of the different players included in the school breakfast program, elements become manifest that would support an educational intervention by nursing, which would have to be based on the family as the central figure to provide good nutrition and teach good habits.

  2. [Comparison of two national food surveys (INCA 1 1998-99 and Health Nutrition Barometer 2002) with regard to five food recommendations of the National Nutrition and Health Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Gautier, A; Delamaire, C; Perrin-Escalon, H; Guilbert, P; Volatier, J-L

    2006-02-01

    Monitoring the dietary intake of the French population requires the implementation and regular renewal of representative national survey. As these surveys can use different methodologies (food frequency questionnaire, 24 hour recall, 3 or 7-day dietary record...), it seems useful to check whether they supply similar results. The aim of this study is to determine whether two representative national surveys with different methodologies can be used alternately to monitor changes in food consumption of the French population. Percentages of consumers aged 15-75 were compared between two national food surveys (Health Nutrition Barometer 2002 and INCA 1 1998-99) with respect to five food frequency recommendations of the French National Nutrition and Health Program. The same public health priorities were found in both surveys: the food groups were graded according to the same hierarchy of adequate food intake prevalences (ascending: fruits and vegetables, dairy products, fish, starchy foods and meat-fish-egg products). On the other hand, significant statistical different elements were pointed out in a few food groups which may be explained by methodological patterns. Definitions of portions and food groups, survey duration and seasons are indeed important parameters to be considered when comparing surveys. The results show the need to elaborate standardized methods for comparison of food consumption surveys, which can be useful for the evaluation of the national nutritional recommendations. The methodological limitations described in this study also indicate that the quantitative description of food intake trends should improve when established by the results of the same regularly repeated survey.

  3. Food Reformulation, Responsive Regulation, and "Regulatory Scaffolding": Strengthening Performance of Salt Reduction Programs in Australia and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Reeve, Belinda

    2015-06-30

    Strategies to reduce excess salt consumption play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease, which is the largest contributor to global mortality from non-communicable diseases. In many countries, voluntary food reformulation programs seek to reduce salt levels across selected product categories, guided by aspirational targets to be achieved progressively over time. This paper evaluates the industry-led salt reduction programs that operate in the United Kingdom and Australia. Drawing on theoretical concepts from the field of regulatory studies, we propose a step-wise or "responsive" approach that introduces regulatory "scaffolds" to progressively increase levels of government oversight and control in response to industry inaction or under-performance. Our model makes full use of the food industry's willingness to reduce salt levels in products to meet reformulation targets, but recognizes that governments remain accountable for addressing major diet-related health risks. Creative regulatory strategies can assist governments to fulfill their public health obligations, including in circumstances where there are political barriers to direct, statutory regulation of the food industry.

  4. Influence of the Bolsa Família program on nutritional status and food frequency of schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariene Silva do Carmo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the food frequency and nutritional status among students according to participation in the Bolsa Família program funded by the government. Methods Cross-sectional study carried out with students from the fourth grade of elementary school in the municipal capital of the southeastern region of Brazil. Food consumption and anthropometry were investigated by a questionnaire administered in school, while participation in the Bolsa Família program and other socio-economic information was obtained through a protocol applied to mothers/guardians. Statistical analysis included the Mann–Whitney test, the chi-squared test, and Poisson regression with robust variance, and the 5% significance level was adopted. Results There were 319 children evaluated; 56.4% were male, with a median of 9.4 (8.6–11.9 years, and 37.0% were beneficiaries of Bolsa Família program. Between the two groups, there was high prevalence of regular soda consumption (34.3%, artificial juice (49.5%, and sweets (40.3%, while only 54.3% and 51.7% consumed fruits and vegetables regularly, respectively. Among participants of Bolsa Família program, a prevalence 1.24 times higher in the regular consumption of soft drinks (95% CI: 1.10–1.39 was identified compared to non-beneficiaries. The prevalence of overweight was higher in the sample (32.9%, with no difference according to participation in the program. Conclusion The study found increased consumption of soft drinks among BFP participants. The high rate of overweight and poor eating habits denote the need to develop actions to promote healthy eating, especially for the beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família program, to promote improvements in nutritional status and prevent chronic diseases throughout life.

  5. Influence of the Bolsa Família program on nutritional status and food frequency of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Ariene Silva; de Almeida, Lorena Magalhães; de Oliveira, Daniela Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the food frequency and nutritional status among students according to participation in the Bolsa Família program funded by the government. Cross-sectional study carried out with students from the fourth grade of elementary school in the municipal capital of the southeastern region of Brazil. Food consumption and anthropometry were investigated by a questionnaire administered in school, while participation in the Bolsa Família program and other socio-economic information was obtained through a protocol applied to mothers/guardians. Statistical analysis included the Mann-Whitney test, the chi-squared test, and Poisson regression with robust variance, and the 5% significance level was adopted. There were 319 children evaluated; 56.4% were male, with a median of 9.4 (8.6-11.9) years, and 37.0% were beneficiaries of Bolsa Família program. Between the two groups, there was high prevalence of regular soda consumption (34.3%), artificial juice (49.5%), and sweets (40.3%), while only 54.3% and 51.7% consumed fruits and vegetables regularly, respectively. Among participants of Bolsa Família program, a prevalence 1.24 times higher in the regular consumption of soft drinks (95% CI: 1.10-1.39) was identified compared to non-beneficiaries. The prevalence of overweight was higher in the sample (32.9%), with no difference according to participation in the program. The study found increased consumption of soft drinks among BFP participants. The high rate of overweight and poor eating habits denote the need to develop actions to promote healthy eating, especially for the beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família program, to promote improvements in nutritional status and prevent chronic diseases throughout life. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Web-based public health geographic information systems for resources-constrained environment using scalable vector graphics technology: a proof of concept applied to the expanded program on immunization data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamadjeu Raoul

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic Information Systems (GIS are powerful communication tools for public health. However, using GIS requires considerable skill and, for this reason, is sometimes limited to experts. Web-based GIS has emerged as a solution to allow a wider audience to have access to geospatial information. Unfortunately the cost of implementing proprietary solutions may be a limiting factor in the adoption of a public health GIS in a resource-constrained environment. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG is used to define vector-based graphics for the internet using XML (eXtensible Markup Language; it is an open, platform-independent standard maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C since 2003. In this paper, we summarize our methodology and demonstrate the potential of this free and open standard to contribute to the dissemination of Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI information by providing interactive maps to a wider audience through the Internet. Results We used SVG to develop a database driven web-based GIS applied to EPI data from three countries of WHO AFRO (World Health Organization – African Region. The system generates interactive district-level country immunization coverage maps and graphs. The approach we describe can be expanded to cover other public health GIS demanding activities, including the design of disease atlases in a resources-constrained environment. Conclusion Our system contributes to accumulating evidence demonstrating the potential of SVG technology to develop web-based public health GIS in resources-constrained settings.

  7. Food safety behaviors observed in celebrity chefs across a variety of programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria

    2017-03-01

    Consumers obtain information about foodborne illness prevention from many sources, including television media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a variety of cooking shows with celebrity chefs to understand their modeling of food safety behaviors. Cooking shows (100 episodes) were watched from 24 celebrity chefs preparing meat dishes. A tabulation of food safety behaviors was made for each show using a checklist. Proper modeling of food safety behaviors was limited, with many incidences of errors. For example, although all chefs washed their hands at the beginning of cooking at least one dish, 88% did not wash (or were not shown washing) their hands after handling uncooked meat. This was compounded with many chefs who added food with their hands (79%) or ate while cooking (50%). Other poor behaviors included not using a thermometer (75%), using the same cutting board to prepare ready-to-eat items and uncooked meat (25%), and other hygiene issues such as touching hair (21%) or licking fingers (21%). This study suggests that there is a need for improvement in demonstrated and communicated food safety behaviors among professional chefs. It also suggests that public health professionals must work to mitigate the impact of poorly modeled behaviors.

  8. Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Eytan A; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2003-06-24

    Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms (GRDFs) have been designed for the past 3 decades. They were originally created for possible veterinary use, but later the design was modified for enhanced drug therapy in humans. These GRDFs are easily swallowed and reach a significantly larger size in the stomach due to swelling or unfolding processes that prolong their gastric retention time (GRT). After drug release, their dimensions are minimized with subsequent evacuation from the stomach. Gastroretentivity is enhanced by the combination of substantial dimensions with high rigidity of the dosage form to withstand the peristalsis and mechanical contractility of the stomach. Positive results were obtained in preclinical and clinical studies evaluating GRT of expandable GRDFs. Narrow absorption window drugs compounded in such systems have improved in vivo absorption properties. These findings are an important step towards the implementation of expandable GRDFs in the clinical setting. The current review deals with expandable GRDFs reported in articles and patents, and describes the physiological basis of their design. Using the dog as a preclinical screening model prior to human studies, relevant imaging techniques and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic aspects of such delivery systems are also discussed.

  9. Associations between Participation in the National School Lunch Program, Food Insecurity, and Child Well-Being. Discussion Paper No. 1249-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between food insecurity, participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and children's well-being. We address problems of selection by restricting our sample to children in families in which at least one child participates in the NSLP. Results suggest that food insecurity is associated with…

  10. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  11. Maintenance of effects of the eat smart school food service program: results from the CATCH-ON study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osganian, Stavroula K; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Zive, Michelle; Mitchell, Paul D; Snyder, Patricia; Webber, Larry S

    2003-08-01

    The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Eat Smart Program targeted the food service of the 56 CATCH intervention elementary schools to effect positive changes in the total fat and saturated fat content of school lunch. Maintenance of the food service intervention in former intervention (n = 56) and control (n = 20) schools was evaluated 5 years postintervention. After 5 years of follow-up and no further intervention, the former CATCH intervention schools not only maintained prior levels but also had further decreases in the mean percentage of calories from total and saturated fat to 31% and 10.4%, respectively. Significant decreases in these nutrients were also observed in the former CATCH control schools; however, the former intervention schools more closely approached the Eat Smart goal for total fat Overall, sodium levels rose in both school conditions and did not differ significantly at follow-up.

  12. Child and Adult Care Food Program: Meal Pattern Revisions Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-25

    This final rule updates the meal pattern requirements for the Child and Adult Care Food Program to better align them with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. This rule requires centers and day care homes participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program to serve more whole grains and a greater variety of vegetables and fruit, and reduces the amount of added sugars and solid fats in meals. In addition, this final rule supports mothers who breastfeed and improves consistency with the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and with other Child Nutrition Programs. Several of the changes are extended to the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, and Special Milk Program. These changes are based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, science-based recommendations made by the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies), cost and practical considerations, and stakeholder's input. This is the first major revision of the Child and Adult Care Food Program meal patterns since the Program's inception in 1968. These improvements to the meals served in the Child and Adult Care Food Program are expected to safeguard the health of young children by ensuring healthy eating habits are developed early, and improve the wellness of adult participants.

  13. Campus sustainable food projects: critique and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Peggy F

    2011-01-01

    Campus sustainable food projects recently have expanded rapidly. A review of four components - purchasing goals, academic programs, direct marketing, and experiential learning - shows both intent and capacity to contribute to transformational change toward an alternative food system. The published rationales for campus projects and specific purchasing guidelines join curricular and cocurricular activities to evaluate, disseminate, and legitimize environmental, economic, social justice, and health concerns about conventional food. Emerging new metrics of food service practices mark a potential shift from rhetoric to market clout, and experiential learning builds new coalitions and can reshape relations with food and place. Campus projects are relatively new and their resilience is not assured, but leading projects have had regional, state, and national impact. The emergence of sustainability rankings in higher education and contract-based compliance around purchasing goals suggests that if support continues, higher education's leadership can extend to the broader agrifood system.

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility programs of Big Food in Australia: a content analysis of industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Zoe; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Pettigrew, Simone

    2015-12-01

    To examine Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) tactics by identifying the key characteristics of CSR strategies as described in the corporate documents of selected 'Big Food' companies. A mixed methods content analysis was used to analyse the information contained on Australian Big Food company websites. Data sources included company CSR reports and web-based content that related to CSR initiatives employed in Australia. A total of 256 CSR activities were identified across six organisations. Of these, the majority related to the categories of environment (30.5%), responsibility to consumers (25.0%) or community (19.5%). Big Food companies appear to be using CSR activities to: 1) build brand image through initiatives associated with the environment and responsibility to consumers; 2) target parents and children through community activities; and 3) align themselves with respected organisations and events in an effort to transfer their positive image attributes to their own brands. Results highlight the type of CSR strategies Big Food companies are employing. These findings serve as a guide to mapping and monitoring CSR as a specific form of marketing. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. 76 FR 45221 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for Progress Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    .... Frequently Asked Questions: Please see the FAS Web site for frequently asked questions on applying for the... frameworks are available on the FAS Web site at: http://www.fas.usda.gov/excredits/FoodAid/FFP/Results... assessment should focus on the country specific context for the project including key problems or barriers...

  16. Evaluation of On-Farm Food Safety Programming in Pennsylvania: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Roshan; Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; Radhakrishna, Rama; LaBorde, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Penn State Extension conducted on-farm food safety workshops statewide to train fruit and vegetable growers on Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). These workshops were evaluated using pre- and post-tests to assess the impact of the training on participating growers. Results indicate overall increases in produce growers' knowledge, attitudes,…

  17. 77 FR 5027 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program To Increase Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... data more accessible and user-friendly. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel W. Sigelman, Office of... INFORMATION: FDA is announcing the availability of a report entitled ``Food and Drug Administration...

  18. 5 Steps to Food Preservation Program Meets the Needs of Idaho Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Lorie; Hoffman, Katie

    2014-01-01

    University of Idaho FCS Extension Educators in southeastern Idaho developed a five-lesson condensed version of safe food preservation classes, driven by participants' interest to meet the needs of everyday home preservers. A post-test survey revealed that participants took the course to be self-reliant, use their own produce, and be in control of…

  19. The expanding role of civil society in the global HIV/AIDS response: what has the President's Emergency Program For AIDS Relief's role been?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Alex; Roxo, Uchechi; Epino, Henry; Muganzi, Alex; Dorward, Emily; Pick, Billy

    2012-08-15

    Civil society has been part of the HIV/AIDS response from the very beginning of the epidemic, often becoming engaged before national governments. Traditional roles of civil society--advocacy, activism, serving as government watchdog, and acting as community caretaker--have been critical to the response. In addition, civil society organizations (CSOs) play an integral part in providing world-class HIV prevention and treatment services and helping to ensure continuity of care. The President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has significantly increased the global scale-up of combination antiretroviral therapy reaching for more than 5 million people in developing countries, as well as implementation of effective evidence-based combination prevention approaches. PEPFAR databases in 5 countries and annual reports from a centrally managed initiative were mined and analyzed to determine the numbers and types of CSOs funded by PEPFAR over a 5-year period (2006-2011). Data are also presented from Uganda showing the overall resource growth in CSO working for HIV. Case studies document the evolution of 3 indigenous CSOs that increased the capacity to implement activities with PEPFAR funding. A legacy of PEPFAR has been the growth of civil society to address social and health issues as well as recognition by governments that partnerships with beneficiaries and civil society result in better outcomes. Scale-up of the global response could not have happened without the involvement of civil society and people living with HIV. This game changing partnership to jointly tackle the problems that countries face may well be the greatest benefit emerging from the HIV epidemic.

  20. [Evaluation of food security and anti-hunger public policies in Brazil, 1995-2002: 4--National School Nutrition Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves dos; Santana, Luciana Alaíde Alves; Henrique, Flavia Conceição Santos; Mazza, Roseanne Porto Dantas; Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva; Santos, Lílian Silva dos

    2007-11-01

    This study evaluated the Brazilian National School Nutrition Program from a structure-process-results perspective. The methodology involved document research and a case study in 45 counties and 73 schools in the State of Bahia, including program manager interviews and household questionnaires involving 3,367 children (7-14 years of age). Relating to program structure, the study analyzed the evolution of normative instruments and some infrastructure aspects. Managers reported problems with the installations for preparing and distributing meals in 28% of the counties. Decentralization to the county (municipal) level was present in 93% of cases and to the school level in about 20%; however, nearly 70% of the schools received the food supplies directly. Although Social Control Councils were created, members were not always chosen democratically. Acceptability of the meals was good, as expected considering the widespread poverty in the target population. Overall program coverage was high (95%), but 77% of schoolchildren in the interior and 39% in the capital city did not receive meals every day. So far, irregular school meal distribution has frustrated the program's aspirations to become a universal social policy and ensure a basic right for children.

  1. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  2. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  3. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  4. Food Price Volatility and Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. Weather shocks and large changes in international commodity prices in the last decade have increased pressure on local food prices. This paper will review several studies that link climate variability as measured with satellite remote sensing to food price dynamics in 36 developing countries where local monthly food price data is available. The focus of the research is to understand how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in agricultural societies. Economies are vulnerable to extreme weather at multiple levels. Subsistence small holders who hold livestock and consume much of the food they produce are vulnerable to food production variability. The broader society, however, is also vulnerable to extreme weather because of the secondary effects on market functioning, resource availability, and large-scale impacts on employment in trading, trucking and wage labor that are caused by weather-related shocks. Food price variability captures many of these broad impacts and can be used to diagnose weather-related vulnerability across multiple sectors. The paper will trace these connections using market-level data and analysis. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation's World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. Econometric models and spatial analysis are used

  5. A cost constraint alone has adverse effects on food selection and nutrient density: an analysis of human diets by linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Ferguson, Elaine L; Briend, André

    2002-12-01

    Economic constraints may contribute to the unhealthy food choices observed among low socioeconomic groups in industrialized countries. The objective of the present study was to predict the food choices a rational individual would make to reduce his or her food budget, while retaining a diet as close as possible to the average population diet. Isoenergetic diets were modeled by linear programming. To ensure these diets were consistent with habitual food consumption patterns, departure from the average French diet was minimized and constraints that limited portion size and the amount of energy from food groups were introduced into the models. A cost constraint was introduced and progressively strengthened to assess the effect of cost on the selection of foods by the program. Strengthening the cost constraint reduced the proportion of energy contributed by fruits and vegetables, meat and dairy products and increased the proportion from cereals, sweets and added fats, a pattern similar to that observed among low socioeconomic groups. This decreased the nutritional quality of modeled diets, notably the lowest cost linear programming diets had lower vitamin C and beta-carotene densities than the mean French adult diet (i.e., diets and influence food selection in ways that reproduce the food intake patterns observed among low socioeconomic groups. They suggest that economic measures will be needed to effectively improve the nutritional quality of diets consumed by these populations.

  6. From diets to foods: using linear programming to formulate a nutritious, minimum-cost porridge mix for children aged 1 to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Irene Stuart Torrié; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Dejmek, Petr; Håkansson, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Linear programming has been used extensively as a tool for nutritional recommendations. Extending the methodology to food formulation presents new challenges, since not all combinations of nutritious ingredients will produce an acceptable food. Furthermore, it would help in implementation and in ensuring the feasibility of the suggested recommendations. To extend the previously used linear programming methodology from diet optimization to food formulation using consistency constraints. In addition, to exemplify usability using the case of a porridge mix formulation for emergency situations in rural Mozambique. The linear programming method was extended with a consistency constraint based on previously published empirical studies on swelling of starch in soft porridges. The new method was exemplified using the formulation of a nutritious, minimum-cost porridge mix for children aged 1 to 2 years for use as a complete relief food, based primarily on local ingredients, in rural Mozambique. A nutritious porridge fulfilling the consistency constraints was found; however, the minimum cost was unfeasible with local ingredients only. This illustrates the challenges in formulating nutritious yet economically feasible foods from local ingredients. The high cost was caused by the high cost of mineral-rich foods. A nutritious, low-cost porridge that fulfills the consistency constraints was obtained by including supplements of zinc and calcium salts as ingredients. The optimizations were successful in fulfilling all constraints and provided a feasible porridge, showing that the extended constrained linear programming methodology provides a systematic tool for designing nutritious foods.

  7. Beliefs about whole-grain foods by food and nutrition professionals, health club members, and special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children participants/State fair attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Len; Pham, Anh-Tram; Lautenschlager, Lauren; Croy, Michael; Sobal, Jeffery

    2006-11-01

    Whole-grain foods are important components of healthful diets that may help prevent chronic diseases. Consumer beliefs that influence consumption of whole grains are poorly understood. This analysis surveyed three groups regarding their beliefs about whole-grain foods. The groups were food and nutrition professionals (n=103), health club members (n=103), and individuals representing various consumer segments of the general population, including participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and state fair attendees (n=68). Most respondents were aware of the term whole-grain foods, but less often reported that they use the term. Bread and cereal were most often named as examples of whole-grain foods. Lack of processing and use of the entire grain were the major reasons a food was perceived as being a whole-grain food. The major benefit of eating whole grains was reported to be fiber intake. Food and nutrition professionals provided more differentiated responses, whereas WIC/state fair participants had fewer and less elaborate responses. Assessing beliefs about whole grains offers insights to nutrition professionals for encouraging healthful food consumption.

  8. Applying linear programming to estimate fluxes in ecosystems or food webs: An example from the herpetological assemblage of the freshwater Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Richards, Paul M.; Dalrymple, George H.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We present the application of Linear Programming for estimating biomass fluxes in ecosystem and food web models. We use the herpetological assemblage of the Everglades as an example. We developed food web structures for three common Everglades freshwater habitat types: marsh, prairie, and upland. We obtained a first estimate of the fluxes using field data, literature estimates, and professional judgment. Linear programming was used to obtain a consistent and better estimate of the set of fluxes, while maintaining mass balance and minimizing deviations from point estimates. The results support the view that the Everglades is a spatially heterogeneous system, with changing patterns of energy flux, species composition, and biomasses across the habitat types. We show that a food web/ecosystem perspective, combined with Linear Programming, is a robust method for describing food webs and ecosystems that requires minimal data, produces useful post-solution analyses, and generates hypotheses regarding the structure of energy flow in the system.

  9. Fetal kidney programming by severe food restriction: effects on structure, hormonal receptor expression and urinary sodium excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Barbara; Mesquita, Flavia F; Gontijo, Jose A R; Boer, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigates, in 23-day-old and adult male rats, the effect of severe food restriction in utero on blood pressure (BP), and its association with nephron structure and function changes, angiotensin II (AT1R/AT2R), glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor expression. The daily food supply to pregnant rats was measured and one group (n=15) received normal quantity of food (NF) while the other received 50% of that (FR50%) (n=15). Kidneys were processed to AT1R, AT2R, MR, and GR immunolocalization and for western blotting analysis. The renal function was estimated by creatinine and lithium clearances in 12-week-old offspring. By stereological analyses, FR50% offspring present a reduction of nephron numbers (35%) with unchanged renal volume. Expression of AT1R and AT2R was significantly decreased in FR50% while the expression of GR and MR increased in FR50%. We also verified a pronounced decrease in urinary sodium excretion accompanied by increased BP in 12-week-old FR50% offspring. The current data suggest that changes in renal function are conducive to excess sodium tubule reabsorption, and this might potentiate the programming of adult hypertension. It is plausible to arise in the current study an association between decreasing natriuresis, reciprocal changes in renal AngII and steroid receptors with the hypertension development found in FR50% compared with age-matched NF offspring. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. A comprehensive linear programming tool to optimize formulations of ready-to-use therapeutic foods: an application to Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kelsey N; Adams, Katherine P; Vosti, Stephen A; Ordiz, M Isabel; Cimo, Elizabeth D; Manary, Mark J

    2014-12-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the standard of care for children suffering from noncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objective was to develop a comprehensive linear programming (LP) tool to create novel RUTF formulations for Ethiopia. A systematic approach that surveyed international and national crop and animal food databases was used to create a global and local candidate ingredient database. The database included information about each ingredient regarding nutrient composition, ingredient category, regional availability, and food safety, processing, and price. An LP tool was then designed to compose novel RUTF formulations. For the example case of Ethiopia, the objective was to minimize the ingredient cost of RUTF; the decision variables were ingredient weights and the extent of use of locally available ingredients, and the constraints were nutritional and product-quality related. Of the new RUTF formulations found by the LP tool for Ethiopia, 32 were predicted to be feasible for creating a paste, and these were prepared in the laboratory. Palatable final formulations contained a variety of ingredients, including fish, different dairy powders, and various seeds, grains, and legumes. Nearly all of the macronutrient values calculated by the LP tool differed by lead to production of a variety of low-cost RUTF formulations that meet international standards and thereby potentially allow more children to be treated for SAM. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Jamie's Ministry of Food: quasi-experimental evaluation of immediate and sustained impacts of a cooking skills program in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flego

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immediate and sustained effectiveness of the first Jamie's Ministry of Food Program in Australia on individuals' cooking confidence and positive cooking/eating behaviours.A quasi- experimental repeated measures design was used incorporating a wait-list control group. A questionnaire was developed and administered at baseline (T1, immediately post program (T2 and 6 months post completion (T3 for participants allocated to the intervention group, while wait -list controls completed it 10 weeks prior to program commencement (T1 and just before program commencement (T2. The questionnaire measured: participants' confidence to cook, the frequency of cooking from basic ingredients, and consumption of vegetables, vegetables with the main meal, fruit, ready-made meals and takeaway. Analysis used a linear mixed model approach for repeated measures using all available data to determine mean differences within and between groups over time.All adult participants (≥18 years who registered and subsequently participated in the program in Ipswich, Queensland, between late November 2011- December 2013, were invited to participate.In the intervention group: 694 completed T1, 383 completed T1 and T2 and 214 completed T1, T2 and T3 assessments. In the wait-list group: 237 completed T1 and 149 completed T1 and T2 assessments. Statistically significant increases within the intervention group (P<0.001 and significant group*time interaction effects (P<0.001 were found in all cooking confidence measures between T1 and T2 as well as cooking from basic ingredients, frequency of eating vegetables with the main meal and daily vegetable intake (0.52 serves/day increase. Statistically significant increases at T2 were sustained at 6 months post program in the intervention group.Jamie's Ministry of Food Program, Australia improved individuals' cooking confidence and cooking/eating behaviours contributing to a healthier diet and is a promising community

  12. Food security of older adults requesting Older Americans Act Nutrition Program in Georgia can be validly measured using a short form of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sun; Johnson, Mary Ann; Brown, Arvine; Nord, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Food security is a newly recommended outcome measure for the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP); however, it is unknown how best to evaluate the need for this program and assess its impact on a large scale. Therefore, we measured food security in all new OAANP participants and waitlisted applicants in Georgia between July and early November, 2008 (n = 4731) with the self-administered mail survey method used in the ongoing Georgia Performance Outcomes Measures project. We used a modified 6-item U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) with a 30-d reference period and 2 reminder postcards. Approximately 33% of those identified completed the survey (n = 1594, mean age 74.6 ± 9.5 y, 68.6% female, 30.6% black). Most of the respondents (91%) completed all 6 food security questions, whereas 26 did not respond to any question. Infit and outfit statistics for each of the 6 questions were within an acceptable range. Psychometric properties observed in our food security data were generally similar to those in the nationally representative survey conducted by the Census Bureau and suggest that our food security statistics may be meaningfully compared with national food security statistics published by the USDA. Our findings suggest that food security can be reasonably measured by a short form of HFSSM in older adults requesting OAANP. Such methodology also can be used to estimate the extent of food insecurity and help guide program and policy decisions to meet the nutrition assistance needs of vulnerable older adults.

  13. Results of the monitoring program of pesticide residues in organic food of plant origin in Lombardy (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiopoulou, Stavroula; Chiodini, Alessandro M; Vellere, Francesca; Visentin, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Organic agriculture, with its restrictions on the use of synthetic chemical inputs, seems to offer a low-residue alternative to conventional methods. In Europe, the Council Regulation n. 2092/91/EEC regulates the production and trade of organic products and foodstuffs; national and regional legislation in Italy gives specific guidance on the surveillance of organic agriculture. However, monitoring of specific chemical residues in organic foodstuffs is part of the regular controls on food, aiming to safeguard consumer's health. Monitoring programs are coordinated at the national level by the Ministry of Health and at local level by Regional authorities. In Lombardy, in accordance with the provisions of the General Directorate of Health of the Region and under the supervision of the 15 Local Health Units, a monitoring program of pesticide residues in food of plant origin is undertaken every year. The International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention (ICPS), on behalf of the General Directorate of Health of the Region of Lombardy, has been collecting and elaborating the data resulting from the analysis of food samples, carried out by the local laboratories. During the period 2002-2005, a total of 3508 samples food of plant origin were analyzed for pesticide residues, among which were 266 samples of organic farming products. Commodities were classified into groups (citrus fruits, legumes, vegetables, potatoes, processed products, cereals, and fruit other than citrus) and the outcomes of the analyses were reported by year, origin of the sample and presence/absence of pesticide residues. Results showed that the vast majority of organic farming products were in conformity with the relevant legislation and did not contain detectable pesticide residues. A limited amount of samples had residues at concentration below the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). Only in one sample the residue level was above the MRL, however it did not pose a concern for public health, as

  14. A Model Train-The-Trainer Program for HACCP-Based Food Safety Training in the Retail/Food Service Industry: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kenneth E.; Knabel, Steve; Mendenhall, Von

    1999-01-01

    A survey showed states are adopting higher training and certification requirements for food-service workers. A train-the-trainer model was developed to prepare extension agents, health officers, and food-service managers to train others in food-safety procedures. (SK)

  15. 78 FR 52827 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Income Deductions and Resource Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... received 98 written comments from seven elected Tribal leaders, seven FDPIR program administrators, three... race, color, national origin, sex, age, political beliefs, religious creed, or disability. The... teleconferences, for collaborative conversations with Tribal leaders and their representatives concerning ways to...

  16. The evaluation of a food allergy and epinephrine autoinjector training program for personnel who care for children in schools and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Ann; Stephens, Hilary; Ruffo, Mark; Jones, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    With the dramatic increase in the incidence of food allergies, nurses and other school personnel are likely to encounter a child with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of in-person training on enhancing knowledge about food allergies and improving self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating food allergy reactions and to collect information about prior training and participation in response to food allergy incidents. A total of 4,818 individuals at 247 schools and community sites participated in the training program, which was delivered by a licensed registered nurse. Written evaluations, online surveys, and phone interviews were used to measure the impact including content retention, confidence, and behavior changes. The results of this study show that in-person training can increase participant's knowledge about food allergies and improve self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating allergic reactions and that these gains were sustained over time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The War on Fraud and Error in the Food Stamp Program: An Evaluation of Its Effects in the Carter and Reagan Administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E.; Cook, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation of efforts by the Carter and Reagan Administrations to reduce fraud, error, and mismanagement in social programs is provided, examining the food stamp program as an example. Data available do not make it possible to say whether these administrative and political efforts actually decreased fraud and error. (SLD)

  18. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-Based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program: The HEALTHY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A.; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program…

  19. ‘I used to be ashamed’. The influence of an educational program on tribal and non-tribal children's knowledge and valuation of wild food plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Howard, P.L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of an extra-curricular educational program on children's knowledge and cultural valuation of wild food plants, which are an important component of their diets. This program aims to reinforce children's traditional knowledge and values around biological resources in

  20. "Can't We Just Have Some Sazón?" Student, Family, and Staff Perspectives on a New School Food Program at a Boston High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Avik; Daftary, Genevieve; Campbell, Meg; Gatison, Lenward; Day, Liam; Ramsey, Kibret; Goldman, Roberta; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In September 2013, a Massachusetts high school launched a nutrition program in line with 2013 United States Department of Agriculture requirements. We sought to understand attitudes of stakeholders toward the new program. Methods: We employed community-based participatory research methods in a qualitative evaluation of the food program…

  1. Evaluation of the impact of a food program on the micronutrient nutritional status of Argentinean lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Ana; Malpeli, Agustina; Disalvo, Liliana; Apezteguía, María; Falivene, Mariana; Ferrari, Guillermina; Pereyras, Silvia; Carmuega, Estéban; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Vojkovic, María; González, Horacio F

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a food aid program (Plan Más Vida, PMV) on the micronutrient nutritional condition of lactating mothers 1 year after its implementation. The food program provided supplementary diets (wheat- and maize-fortified flour, rice or sugar, and fortified soup) to low-income families from the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. A prospective, non-experimental study was carried out to evaluate the micronutrient nutritional status of lactating mothers (n = 178 at baseline and n = 151 after 1 year). Biochemical tests (hemoglobin, ferritin, zinc, vitamin A, and folic acid), anthropometric assessments (weight and height) and dietary surveys (24-h recall) were performed. We found no significant changes in anthropometric values 1 year after the intervention. The risk for vitamin A (retinol 20-30 μg/dl) and folate deficiency significantly decreased 1 year after PMV implementation (56.3 vs. 29.9 and 50.3 vs. 3.4 %, respectively; p nutritional data obtained after assessing the early impact of PMV actions may be useful to provincial health authorities to perform periodic evaluations in the future.

  2. Long-term changes in dietary and food intake behaviour in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, L M; Ma, Y; Davis, N; Delahanty, L M; Mayer-Davis, E J; Franks, P W; Brown-Friday, J; Isonaga, M; Kriska, A M; Venditti, E M; Wylie-Rosett, J

    2014-12-01

    To compare change in dietary intake, with an emphasis on food groups and food intake behaviour, over time across treatment arms in a diabetes prevention trial and to assess the differences in dietary intake among demographic groups within treatment arms. Data are from the Diabetes Prevention Program and Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Participants were randomized to a lifestyle intervention (n = 1079), metformin (n = 1073) or placebo (n = 1082) for an average of 3 years, after which the initial results regarding the benefits of the lifestyle intervention were released and all participants were offered a modified lifestyle intervention. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and at 1, 5, 6 and 9 years after randomization. Compared with the metformin and placebo arms, participants in the lifestyle arm maintained a lower total fat and saturated fat and a higher fibre intake up to 9 years after randomization and lower intakes of red meat and sweets were maintained for up to 5 years. Younger participants had higher intakes of poultry and lower intakes of fruits compared with their older counterparts, particularly in the lifestyle arm. Black participants tended to have lower dairy and higher poultry intakes compared with white and Hispanic participants. In the lifestyle arm, men tended to have higher grain, fruit and fish intakes than women. Changes in nutrient intake among participants in the lifestyle intervention were maintained for up to 9 years. Younger participants reported more unhealthy diets over time and thus may benefit from additional support to achieve and maintain dietary goals. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  3. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  4. Early Impacts of a Healthy Food Distribution Program on the Availability and Price of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Small Retail Venues in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Gase, Lauren N; Webber, Eliza; Kuo, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Healthy food distribution programs that allow small retailers to purchase fresh fruits and vegetables at wholesale prices may increase the profitability of selling produce. While promising, little is known about how these programs affect the availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved communities. This study examined the impacts of a healthy food distribution program in Los Angeles County over its first year of operation (August 2015-2016). Assessment methods included: (1) a brief survey examining the characteristics, purchasing habits, and attitudes of stores entering the program; (2) longitudinal tracking of sales data examining changes in the volume and variety of fruits and vegetables distributed through the program; and (3) the collection of comparison price data from wholesale market databases and local grocery stores. Seventeen stores participated in the program over the study period. One-fourth of survey respondents reported no recent experience selling produce. Analysis of sales data showed that, on average, the total volume of produce distributed through the program increased by six pounds per week over the study period (95% confidence limit: 4.50, 7.50); trends varied by store and produce type. Produce prices offered through the program approximated those at wholesale markets, and were lower than prices at full-service grocers. Results suggest that healthy food distribution programs may reduce certain supply-side barriers to offering fresh produce in small retail venues. While promising, more work is needed to understand the impacts of such programs on in-store environments and consumer behaviors.

  5. School Feeding Analysis in the context of a Food and Nutrition Program - doi:10.5020/18061230.2006.p164

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of standards related to school feeding makes it a complex topic and difficult to lead with. This research aimed at reflecting on the essential aspects of the subject, in a bibliographical revision of global proposal that was based on what the term “program” represents. The School Feeding Program means a combination of projects addressed to bring meals to keep students nourished, independent of their condition. This concept implies that all School Feeding Program should consist of three stages: design, carrying out and evaluation. The design includes important controversial aspects, related to school feeding, such as: the program objectives, their relationship with starvation, malnutrition and school failure; and the distinction of treating this matter from the perspective of breeding right. There are significant differences among experiences in running School Feeding Programs in developed and in developing countries, as well as within the last ones. The evaluation stage usually is not well designed or it is not considered. This stage is really important and it is addressed to determine if the outcomes are corresponding to planned objectives. In order to complete a useful evaluation stage, the use of proper indicators is a main point. Finally, a whole analysis of the Program is carried out in order to obtain unquestionable results. The School Feeding Program is discussed as a Public Policy, into the context of Food Security and the other complementary activities included in it. The proposed view considers school feeding as a right that must be satisfied in the implementation of organized projects.

  6. The Impact of a Home-Delivered Meal Program on Nutritional Risk, Dietary Intake, Food Security, Loneliness, and Social Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lauri; Vance, Lauren; Sudduth, Christina; Epps, James B

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining independence and continuing to live at home is one solution to manage the rising health care costs of aging populations in the United States; furthermore, seniors are at risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Home-delivered meal programs are a tool to address food, nutrition, and well-being concerns of this population. Few studies have identified outcomes from these programs; this pilot study reviews the nutritional status, dietary intake, well-being, loneliness, and food security levels of seniors participating in a Meals on Wheels delivery service. Clients, new to the meal program, participated in pre- and postphone interviews, and 51 seniors completed the study. The survey was composed of five scales or questionnaires, and statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS. Improvements across all five measures were statistically significant after participating two months in the home-delivered meal program. Implications for further research, practice, and the Older Americans Act are discussed.

  7. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  8. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  9. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Federal Food Programs--1973. Part 2--Hunger in 1973. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 4, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    The "Hunger-1973" committee report, details the continuing hunger problem in the country. The report shows that the administration and participation of the Food Stamp and Surplus Food Program vary widely across the country. It shows that the benefits available under both programs are being severely restricted by the current food cost…

  10. Local Foods, Local Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Local Foods, Local Places technical assistance program protects human health and the environment, spurs revitalization, increases access to healthy foods, and creates economic opportunities by promoting local foods.

  11. Mycotoxin in the food supply chain-implications for public health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, D; Nastasijevic, I; Petrovic, Z

    2016-10-01

    Mycotoxins are a group of naturally occurring toxic chemical substances, produced mainly by microscopic filamentous fungal species. Regarding potential synergisms or even mitigating effects between toxic elements, mycotoxin contamination will continue to be an area of concern for producers, manufacturers, regulatory agencies, researchers, and consumers in the future. In Serbia, recent drought and then flooding confirmed that mycotoxins are one of the foodborne hazards most susceptible to climate change. In this article, we review key aspects of mycotoxin contamination of the food supply chain and implications for public health from the Serbian perspective.

  12. SELF-STUDY PROGRAM IN RETAIL STORE OPERATIONS, UNITS 1-13 AND STUDY GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaker Oats Co., Chicago, IL.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS SELF-STUDY PROGRAM IS TO PROVIDE A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF TOTAL RETAIL FOOD STORE OPERATIONS AND TO BROADEN THE KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF THOSE IN OR STUDENTS AND OTHERS PREPARING TO ENTER THE FOOD INDUSTRY. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY THE QUAKER OATS COMPANY FOR ITS SALESMEN BUT WAS EXPANDED FOR USE OUTSIDE THE COMPANY. THE…

  13. Expanding Media Reach

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    In this podcast, two nurses serving a Chinese American community show how they have used local ethnic media to communicate health messages.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/11/2007.

  14. Food, Fun and Fitness Internet program for girls: influencing log-on rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internet-based interventions hold promise as an effective channel for reaching large numbers of youth. However, log-on rates, a measure of program dose, have been highly variable. Methods to enhance log-on rate are needed. Incentives may be an effective method. This paper reports the effect of reinf...

  15. The organizational structure and governing principles of the Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrow, Susan; Campion, Daniel M; Herrinton, Lisa J; Nair, Vinit P; Robb, Melissa A; Wilson, Marcus; Platt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel pilot program is developing an organizational structure as well as principles and policies to govern its operations. These will inform the structure and function of the eventual Sentinel System. Mini-Sentinel is a collaboration that includes 25 participating institutions. We describe the program's current organizational structure and its major principles and policies. The organization includes a coordinating center with program leadership provided by a principal investigator; a planning board and subcommittees; an operations center; and data, methods, and protocol cores. Ad hoc workgroups are created as needed. A privacy panel advises about protection of individual health information. Principles and policies are intended to ensure that Mini-Sentinel conforms to the principles of fair information practices, protects the privacy of individual health information, maintains the security and integrity of data, assures the confidentiality of proprietary information, provides accurate and timely communications, prevents or manages conflicts of interest, and preserves respect for intellectual property rights. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Expanding hollow metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  17. Is expanding HPV vaccination programs to include school-aged boys likely to be value-for-money: a cost-utility analysis in a country with an existing school-girl program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Wilson, Nick; Smith, Megan; Canfell, Karen; Blakely, Tony

    2014-06-26

    Similar to many developed countries, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is provided only to girls in New Zealand and coverage is relatively low (47% in school-aged girls for dose 3). Some jurisdictions have already extended HPV vaccination to school-aged boys. Thus, exploration of the cost-utility of adding boys' vaccination is relevant. We modeled the incremental health gain and costs for extending the current girls-only program to boys, intensifying the current girls-only program to achieve 73% coverage, and extension of the intensive program to boys. A Markov macro-simulation model, which accounted for herd immunity, was developed for an annual cohort of 12-year-olds in 2011 and included the future health states of: cervical cancer, pre-cancer (CIN I to III), genital warts, and three other HPV-related cancers. In each state, health sector costs, including additional health costs from extra life, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were accumulated. The model included New Zealand data on cancer incidence and survival, and other cause mortality (all by sex, age, ethnicity and deprivation). At an assumed local willingness-to-pay threshold of US$29,600, vaccination of 12-year-old boys to achieve the current coverage for girls would not be cost-effective, at US$61,400/QALY gained (95% UI $29,700 to $112,000; OECD purchasing power parities) compared to the current girls-only program, with an assumed vaccine cost of US$59 (NZ$113). This was dominated though by the intensified girls-only program; US$17,400/QALY gained (95% UI: dominant to $46,100). Adding boys to this intensified program was also not cost-effective; US$128,000/QALY gained, 95% UI: $61,900 to $247,000).Vaccination of boys was not found to be cost-effective, even for additional scenarios with very low vaccine or program administration costs - only when combined vaccine and administration costs were NZ$125 or lower per dose was vaccination of boys cost-effective. These results suggest that

  18. Grocery store beverage choices by participants in federal food assistance and nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Henderson, Kathryn E; Tripp, Amanda S

    2012-10-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages are a target for reduction in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about sugar-sweetened beverages purchased with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. This paper describes purchases of non-alcoholic refreshment beverages among participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and SNAP. Grocery store scanner data from a regional supermarket chain were used to assess refreshment beverage purchases of 39,172 households in January-June 2011. The sample consisted of families with a history of WIC participation in 2009-2011; about half also participated in SNAP. Beverage spending and volume purchased were compared for WIC sampled households either using SNAP benefits (SNAP) or not (WIC-only). Analyses were completed in 2012. Refreshment beverages were a significant contributor to expenditure on groceries by SNAP and WIC households. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for 58% of refreshment beverage purchases made by SNAP households and 48% of purchases by WIC-only households. Soft drinks were purchased most by all households. Fruit-based beverages were mainly 100% juice for WIC-only households and sugary fruit drinks for SNAP households. SNAP benefits paid for 72% of the sugar-sweetened beverage purchases made by SNAP households. Nationwide, SNAP was estimated to pay at least $1.7 to $2.1 billion annually for sugar-sweetened beverages purchased in grocery stores. Considerable amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages are purchased by households participating in WIC and SNAP. The SNAP program pays for most of the sugar-sweetened beverage purchases among SNAP households. The upcoming SNAP reauthorization could be a good time to reconsider the program priorities to align public funds with public health. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An open-label safety study of first-line bevacizumab in combination with standard chemotherapy in Chinese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated in an expanded access program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Der; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Wang, Hwei-Ming; Tsao, Chao-Jung; Hsu, Tzu-Chi; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Su, Wu-Chou; Wang, Jeng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    An increased risk of serious adverse effects related to bevacizumab has been observed in many Western studies for metastatic colorectal cancer. To evaluate the safety of bevacizumab in Chinese patients, a safety study was conducted in Taiwan. Bevacizumab was provided by the Expanded Access Program in combination with first-line chemotherapy per investigator's choice. The primary objective is the safety profile, particularly the targeted adverse events such as proteinuria, bowel perforation, hypertension, wound healing complication, thromboembolism and bleeding. The second objectives include time to disease progression and overall survival time. Patients with major surgical procedure performed within the 28 days of bevacizumab were excluded from this study. Forty patients were eligible for intent-to-treat analysis. The overall rate of objective response and disease control was 55.2 and 81.6%. The median time to disease progression and overall survival were 11.9 and 22.9 months. The actuarial 2-year survival was 46.6%. Regarding toxicity, 7 subjects (17.5%) had serious adverse effects related to study treatment. None of the patients in this cohort had arterial thrombotic events and bowel perforation. Bevacizumab demonstrates a similar activity and safety profile in Chinese patients. Life-threatening bowel complications were avoided in this study by excluding patients with major surgery within the first 28 days. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Climate Change and Food Safety: Beyond Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, L. H.; Crimmins, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    There is merited interest in determining the extent of climate disruption on agricultural production and food security. However, additional aspects of food security, including food safety, nutrition and distribution have, overall, received less attention. Beginning in 2013, the U.S. Global Change Research Program as part of the ongoing National Climate Assessment, began a directed effort to evaluate the vulnerability of climate change to these under-represented aspects of food security for developed countries. Based on this extensive review of current science, several key findings were developed: (a) Climate change, including rising temperatures and changes in weather extremes, is expected to increase the exposure of food to certain pathogens and toxins; (b) Climate change will increase human exposure to chemical contaminants in food through several pathways; (c) The nutritional value of agriculturally important food crops, including cereals, will decrease in response to the ongoing increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide; (d) Increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events associated with climate change may disrupt food distribution. These findings will be presented as a means to describe the state of the science and expand on food security research in the broader context of public health and climate change.

  1. Economic approaches to measuring the significance of food safety in international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, J A

    2000-12-20

    International trade in food products has expanded rapidly in recent years. This paper presents economic approaches for analyzing the effects on trade in food products of the food safety requirements of governments and private buyers. Important economic incentives for companies to provide improved food safety arise from (1) public incentives such as ex ante requirements for sale of a product with sufficient quality and ex post penalties (liability) for sale of products with deficient quality, and (2) private incentives for producing quality such as internal performance goals (self-regulation) and the external (certification) requirements of buyers. The World Trade Organization's Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement facilitates scrutiny of the benefits and costs of country-level regulatory programs and encourages regulatory rapprochement on food safety issues. Economists can help guide risk management decisions by providing estimates of the benefits and costs of programs to improve food safety and by analyzing their effect on trade in food products.

  2. Stable isotope aided evaluation of community nutrition program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Aïta Sarr; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Guèye, Amadou Lamine; Diop, El Hadji Issakha; Diaham, Babou; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Cissé, Djibril; Sarr, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Wade, Salimata

    2002-09-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fat-free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p = .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  3. Making Food Aid Fit-for-Purpose in the 21st Century: A Review of Recent Initiatives Improving the Nutritional Quality of Foods Used in Emergency and Development Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Patrick; Caiafa, Kristine; Walton, Shelley

    2017-12-01

    Important strides have been made recently in upgrading the global food aid agenda in line with evolving medical and nutrition sciences, operational experience, and innovations in food technology. A 2011 report endorsed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) recommended numerous improvements to products intended to support improved survival and nutrition in humanitarian programming, as well as greater rigor and transparency in the research agenda that supports innovations in this critical field. This article reviews progress since 2011 made by USAID, and other global food aid providers, in developing food aid products that are fit-for-purpose and are appropriately formulated to save lives in emergencies and to promote healthy mothers and children in nonemergency contexts. It highlights important modifications and addition made to products and identifies persisting knowledge gaps that should be prioritized in future research.

  4. Variation in food availability mediate the impact of density on cannibalism, growth, and survival in larval yellow spotted mountain newts (Neurergus microspilotus): Implications for captive breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaissi, Somaye; Sharifi, Mozafar

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared in a captive breeding facility. We designed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, crossing two levels of food with two levels of density including high food/high density, high food/low density, low food/high density, and low food/low density. The level of cannibalistic behavior (including the loss of fore and hind limbs, missing toes, tail, gills, body damage, and whole body consumption) changed as the larvae grew, from a low level during the first 4 weeks, peaking from weeks 7 to 12, and then dropped during weeks 14-52. Both food level and density had a significant effect on cannibalism. The highest frequency of cannibalism was recorded for larvae reared in the low food/high density and lowest in high food/low density treatments. Growth, percent of larval metamorphosed, and survival were all highest in the high food/low density and lowest in low food/high density treatment. Food level had a significant effect on growth, metamorphosis, and survival. However, the two levels of density did not influence growth and metamorphosis but showed a significant effect on survival. Similarly, combined effects of food level and density showed significant effects on growth, metamorphosis, and survival over time. Information obtained from current experiment could improve productivity of captive breeding facilities to ensure the release of adequate numbers of individuals for reintroduction programs. Zoo Biol. 35:513-521, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of the nutritional status of workers of transformation industries adherent to the Brazilian Workers' Food Program. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ingrid W Leal; Oliveira, António Gouveia; Pinheiro, Liana G B; Morais, Célia M M; Sampaio, Luciano M B

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the Brazilian Workers' Food Program (WFP) is associated with changes in the nutritional status of workers in the transformation industry. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, comparative study, based on prospectively collected data from a combined stratified and two-stage probability sample of workers from 26 small and medium size companies, 13 adherent and 13 non-adherent to the WFP, in the food, mining and textile sectors. Study variables were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and dietary intake at lunch obtained by 24-hour dietary recall. Data were analyzed with nested mixed effects linear regression with adjustment by subject variables. Sampling weights were applied in computing population parameters. The final sample consisted of 1069 workers, 541 from WFP-adherent and 528 from WFP non-adherent companies. The groups were different only in education level, income and in-house training. Workers in WFP-adherent companies have greater BMI (27.0 kg/m2 vs. 26.0 kg/m2, p = 0.002) and WC (87.9 cm vs. 86.5, p = 0.04), higher prevalence of excessive weight (62.6% vs. 55.5%, pprogram.

  6. Food Protection Has Many Facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)

  7. New benchmarks for costs and cost-efficiency of school-based feeding programs in food-insecure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Cavallero, Andrea; Minervini, Licia; Mirabile, Mariana; Molinas, Luca; de la Mothe, Marc Regnault

    2011-12-01

    School feeding is a popular intervention that has been used to support the education, health and nutrition of school children. Although the benefits of school feeding are well documented, the evidence on the costs of such programs is remarkably thin. Address the need for systematic estimates of the cost of different school feeding modalities, and of the determinants of the considerable cost variation among countries. WFP project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected for 78 projects in 62 countries through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The standardized yearly average school feeding cost per child, not including school-level costs, was US$48. The yearly costs per child were lowest at US$23 for biscuit programs reaching school-going children and highest at US$75 for take-home rations programs reaching families of schoolgoing children. The average cost of programs combining on-site meals with extra take-home rations for children from vulnerable households was US$61. Commodity costs were on average 58% of total costs and were highest for biscuit and take-home rations programs (71% and 68%, respectively). Fortified biscuits provided the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery, whereas take-home rations were more cost-efficient in terms of food quantities delivered. Both costs and effects should be considered carefully when designing school feeding interventions. The average costs of school feeding estimated here are higher than those found in earlier studies but fall within the range of costs previously reported. Because this analysis does not include school-level costs, these

  8. Food choices to meet nutrient recommendations for the adult Brazilian population based on the linear programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Quenia; Sichieri, Rosely; Darmon, Nicole; Maillot, Matthieu; Verly-Junior, Eliseu

    2018-01-18

    To identify optimal food choices that meet nutritional recommendations to reduce prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes. Linear programming was used to obtain an optimized diet with sixty-eight foods with the least difference from the observed population mean dietary intake while meeting a set of nutritional goals that included reduction in the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes to ≤20 %. Brazil. Participants (men and women, n 25 324) aged 20 years or more from the first National Dietary Survey (NDS) 2008-2009. Feasible solution to the model was not found when all constraints were imposed; infeasible nutrients were Ca, vitamins D and E, Mg, Zn, fibre, linolenic acid, monounsaturated fat and Na. Feasible solution was obtained after relaxing the nutritional constraints for these limiting nutrients by including a deviation variable in the model. Estimated prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was reduced by 60-70 % for most nutrients, and mean saturated and trans-fat decreased in the optimized diet meeting the model constraints. Optimized diet was characterized by increases especially in fruits (+92 g), beans (+64 g), vegetables (+43 g), milk (+12 g), fish and seafood (+15 g) and whole cereals (+14 g), and reductions of sugar-sweetened beverages (-90 g), rice (-63 g), snacks (-14 g), red meat (-13 g) and processed meat (-9·7 g). Linear programming is a unique tool to identify which changes in the current diet can increase nutrient intake and place the population at lower risk of nutrient inadequacy. Reaching nutritional adequacy for all nutrients would require major dietary changes in the Brazilian diet.

  9. Exploring implementation of the 2010 Institute of Medicine’s Child and Adult Food Care Program recommendations for after-school snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Glatt, Carissa

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore the implementation of nutrition recommendations made in the 2010 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Child and Adult Care Food Program: Aligning Dietary Guidance for All, in school-based after-school snack programmes. Design A descriptive study. Setting One large suburban school district in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Subjects None. Results Major challenges to implementation included limited access to product labelling and specifications inconsistent with the IOM’s Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) recommendations, limited access to healthier foods due to current school district buying consortium agreement, and increased costs of wholegrain and lower-sodium foods and pre-packaged fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Opportunities for government and industry policy development and partnerships to support schools in their efforts to promote healthy after-school food environments remain. Several federal, state and industry leadership opportunities are proposed: provide product labelling that makes identifying snacks which comply with the 2010 IOM CACFP recommended standards easy; encourage compliance with recommendations by providing incentives to programmes; prioritize the implementation of paperwork and technology that simplifies enrolment and accountability systems; and provide support for food safety training and/or certification for non-food service personnel. PMID:22050891

  10. Few changes in food security and dietary intake from short-term participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program among low-income Massachusetts adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W.; Cluggish, Sarah; Villamor, Eduardo; Catalano, Paul J.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine if short-term participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) affects food security and dietary quality among low-income adults recruited from a Massachusetts-wide emergency food hotline. Methods A three-month, longitudinal study was conducted among 107 adults recruited at the time of SNAP application assistance. Outcomes included household food security (10-item USDA Food Security Survey Module), dietary intake (e.g. grains, fruits) and diet quality (modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index). Data were analyzed using paired t-tests and multivariable linear regression. Results SNAP participation was not associated with improved household food security over three months (P=0.25). Compared to nonparticipants, SNAP participants increased refined grain intake by 1.1 serving/day (P=0.02), from baseline to follow-up. No associations were observed with other foods, nutrients, or dietary quality. Conclusion and Implications Policies that simultaneously improve household food security and dietary quality should be implemented to support the health of low-income Americans participating in this crucial program. PMID:24238909

  11. The US Food and Drug Administration's Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Program - Current Status and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jasmanda; Juhaeri, Juhaeri

    2016-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 granted the FDA new authorities to enhance drug safety by requiring application holders to submit a proposed Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS). A REMS is a required risk management plan that uses tools beyond the package insert. REMS elements may include a medication guide and patient package insert for patients and a communication plan focused on health care professionals. Elements to assure safe use (ETASUs) are put in place to mitigate a specific known serious risk when other less restrictive elements of a REMS are not sufficient to mitigate such risk. An implementation system is required for an REMS that includes the ETASUs. With approximately eight years of experience with REMS programs, many health care settings have created systems to manage REMS and also to integrate REMS into their practice settings. At the same time, there are issues associated with the development and implementation of REMS. In 2011, FDA created the REMS Integration Initiative to develop guidance on how to apply statutory criteria to determine when a REMS is required, to improve standardization and assessment of REMS, and to improve integration of REMS into the existing healthcare system. A key component of the REMS Integration Initiative is stakeholder outreach to better understand how existing REMS programs are working and to identify opportunities for improvement. This review attempts to share our company's experience with the REMS program, and to provide updates on FDA's efforts to improve REMS communication, to standardize REMS process, to reduce REMS program burdens and to build a common REMS platform. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Developing and delivering food systems training programs for 21st century audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Hahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Expectations for training programmes today are very different from expectations for training programmes in the past, because today’s audiences are not only multigenerational, but the younger generations learn in distinctly different ways from older, more traditional audiences. To meet the needs of these multigenerational audiences, the Auburn University Food Systems Institute (AUFSI has developed on-demand, online courses that offer a variety of ways for learners to interact with training materials. For example, a typical course may offer not only traditional text, but audio, video, simulations, and more. In addition, AUFSI has developed supporting educational tools such as interactive virtual tours and video games. This approach to creating courses is a response to the  different levels of experiences of the generations as well as different expectations of how materials should be delivered. In order to be effective, training materials need to be designed to appeal to this multigenerational audience. Traditionalists (born before 1946 prefer face-to-face training programmes. Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964 are more accepting of technology. Generations X (born 1965-1980, Y (born 1981- 2000 and C (born after 2000, however, expect to receive training at their convenience, to have it delivered electronically, and to be entertained as well as educated.

  13. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: nutrition standards for all foods sold in school as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    This interim final rule amends the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations to establish nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Amendments made by Section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) require the Secretary to establish nutrition standards for such foods, consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and directs the Secretary to consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, à la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). In addition, this interim final rule requires schools participating in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service, consistent with amendments made by section 203 of the HHFKA, and in the cafeteria during breakfast meal service. This interim final rule is expected to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day, and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits.

  14. 75 FR 31800 - Substances Generally Recognized as Safe Added to Food for Animals; Notice of Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... amendment) to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). The 1958 amendment required that, before a... food additive regulation. Current Sec. 570.3(f) defines ``common use in food'' as a substantial history of consumption for food use by a significant number of animals in the United States. C. History of...

  15. Measuring Competitive Foods in Schools: A Point of Sales Approach. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series. Report No. CN-04-CFMPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rhoda; KewalRamani, Angelina; Nogales, Renee; Ohls, James; Sinclair, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research that Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) has conducted for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), to develop methods to track the use of "competitive foods" in schools over time. Competitive foods are foods from a la carte cafeteria sales, vending machines, school stores,…

  16. Improving and expanding NGO programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A

    1993-06-01

    India has massive problems and is in need of improving and expanding non governmental organization (NGO) programs by broadening the scope of NGO activities, identifying successful NGO activities, and by moving closer to the community to participate in their activities. The problems and experience in the last few decades indicate that with expansion bureaucratization takes place. The institution begins to depend on donors and follows donor-driven agendas. As more money is given by the government, many more so called GONGO or Government-NGO projects materialize. Another problem is that the government almost always approaches the NGOs for the implementation of a project, and there is complete lack of cooperation at the planning stage. The government is considering a loan from the World Bank and UNICEF to launch a mother and child health program, but there has not been any discussion with the dozens of people who have worked on issues concerning mother and child health issues for many years. There is a need to be more demanding of the government about the various programs that are implemented for the government. Very few NGO health and family welfare projects are run by ordinary nurses or ordinary Ayurvedic doctors under ordinary conditions. Since successful NGO work has to be extended to other parts of the country, they will have to be run by ordinary people with very ordinary resources. Over the years, the NGO community has become preoccupied with its own agenda. Today, despite very sophisticated equipment and infrastructure, they are not able to reach the 60,000-70,000 workers and employees. Some of the ideas with respect to the strengthens and weaknesses of community participation have to be shared. NGOs should include all the existing non governmental organizations throughout the country, and have a dialogue with other nongovernmental bodies such as trade unions. The challenge is to adjust the current agenda, prevailing style, and present way of operating and move

  17. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  18. SNAP-Ed (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education) Increases Long-Term Food Security among Indiana Households with Children in a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rebecca L; Maulding, Melissa K; Abbott, Angela R; Craig, Bruce A; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2016-11-01

    Food insecurity is negatively associated with US children's dietary intake and health. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) aims to alleviate food insecurity by offering nutrition, budgeting, and healthy lifestyle education to low-income individuals and families. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of the Indiana SNAP-Ed on food security among households with children. A randomized, controlled, parallel study design with SNAP-Ed as an intervention was carried out during a 4- to 10-wk intervention period. Intervention group participants received the first 4 Indiana SNAP-Ed curriculum lessons. Study participants (n = 575) were adults aged ≥18 y from low-income Indiana households with ≥1 child living in the household. Both treatment groups completed an assessment before and after the intervention period and 1 y after recruitment. The 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module was used to classify the primary outcomes of food security for the household and adults and children in the household. A linear mixed model was used to compare intervention with control group effects over time on food security. Mean ± SEM changes in household food security score and food security score among household adults from baseline to 1-y follow-up were 1.2 ± 0.4 and 0.9 ± 0.3 units lower, respectively, in the intervention group than in the control group (P food security score from baseline to 1-y follow-up among household children was not significantly different in the intervention group compared with the control group. SNAP-Ed improved food security over a longitudinal time frame among low-income Indiana households with children in this study. SNAP-Ed may be a successful intervention to improve food security. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Effect of nutrition changes on foods selected by students in a middle school-based diabetes prevention intervention program: the HEALTHY experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C; Stadler, Diane D; Staten, Myrlene A; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-02-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and à la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools. The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools. Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and à la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high-fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and added-sugar beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and à la carte. The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and à la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Mice gut microbiota programming by using the infant food profile. The effect on growth, gut microbiota and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Samper, Elvira; Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Andreo-Martínez, Pedro; Salminen, Seppo; Ros, Gaspar

    2017-10-18

    During the complementary feeding (CF) period, nutritional imbalances can have negative consequences not only on a child's health in the short term but also later in adulthood, as a phenomenon known as "nutritional programming" takes place. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes in body growth, gut microbiota (GM) and the immune system in mice fed with two different commercial sterilized baby foods in jars (BFJs) for CF. Mice fed with different BFJs (A and B groups) showed an accelerated growth from the fifth week of life when compared with the control (C) group. Group A showed a higher BMI, post-weaning growth rate, and IL-10 levels and a decrease in the Lactobacillus group. Group B showed a significant decrease in the total bacterial count, Lactobacillus group, Enterococcus spp. and Bacteroidetes-Prevotella. The Bifidobacterium genus tended to be lower in groups A and B. Akkermansia muciniphila was more frequently detected in group C. The results obtained from groups A and B can be attributed to the BFJ fatty acid profile, rich in UFAs. This study demonstrates for the first time that the commercial BFJ composition during CF might be a "programming" factor for body growth, GM and the immune system.

  1. Testing an Integrated Model of Program Implementation: the Food, Health & Choices School-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention Process Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Gray, Heewon Lee; Tipton, Elizabeth; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex, worldwide problem. Significant resources are invested in its prevention, and high-quality evaluations of these efforts are important. Conducting trials in school settings is complicated, making process evaluations useful for explaining results. Intervention fidelity has been demonstrated to influence outcomes, but others have suggested that other aspects of implementation, including participant responsiveness, should be examined more systematically. During Food, Health & Choices (FHC), a school-based childhood obesity prevention trial designed to test a curriculum and wellness policy taught by trained FHC instructors to fifth grade students in 20 schools during 2012-2013, we assessed relationships among facilitator behaviors (i.e., fidelity and teacher interest); participant behaviors (i.e., student satisfaction and recall); and program outcomes (i.e., energy balance-related behaviors) using hierarchical linear models, controlling for student, class, and school characteristics. We found positive relationships between student satisfaction and recall and program outcomes, but not fidelity and program outcomes. We also found relationships between teacher interest and fidelity when teachers participated in implementation. Finally, we found a significant interaction between fidelity and satisfaction on behavioral outcomes. These findings suggest that individual students in the same class responded differently to the same intervention. They also suggest the importance of teacher buy-in for successful intervention implementation. Future studies should examine how facilitator and participant behaviors together are related to both outcomes and implementation. Assessing multiple aspects of implementation using models that account for contextual influences on behavioral outcomes is an important step forward for prevention intervention process evaluations.

  2. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  3. Stocking characteristics and perceived increases in sales among small food store managers/owners associated with the introduction of new food products approved by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Laska, Melissa N; Zenk, Shannon N; Tester, June; Rose, Donald; Odoms-Young, Angela; McCoy, Tara; Gittelsohn, Joel; Foster, Gary D; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed the impact of the 2009 food packages mandated by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on perceived sales, product selection and stocking habits of small, WIC-authorized food stores. A cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews with store managers/owners. Small, WIC-authorized food stores in eight major cities in the USA. Fifty-two store managers/owners who had at least 1 year of experience in the store prior to study participation. The WIC-approved food products (fresh, canned and frozen fruits; fresh, canned and frozen vegetables; wholegrain/whole-wheat bread; white corn/whole-wheat tortillas; brown rice; lower-fat milk (customer requests (87 %), refrigerator/freezer availability (65 %) and profitability (71 %) were rated as very important when making stocking decisions. Most managers/owners perceived increases in sales of new WIC-approved foods including those considered most profitable (wholegrain/whole-wheat bread (89 %), lower-fat milk (89 %), white corn/whole wheat tortillas (54 %)), but perceived no changes in sales of processed fruits and vegetables. Supply mechanisms and frequency of supply acquisition were only moderately associated with perceived sales increases. Regardless of type or frequency of supply acquisition, perceived increases in sales provided some evidence for the potential sustainability of these WIC policy efforts and translation of this policy-based strategy to other health promotion efforts aimed at improving healthy food access in underserved communities.

  4. Assessing food selection in a health promotion program: validation of a brief instrument for American Indian children in the southwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, K M; Cunningham-Sabo, L; Lambert, L C; McCalman, R; Skipper, B J; Davis, S M

    2000-02-01

    Brief dietary assessment instruments are needed to evaluate behavior changes of participants in dietary intervention programs. The purpose of this project was to design and validate an instrument for children participating in Pathways to Health, a culturally appropriate, cancer prevention curriculum. Validation of a brief food selection instrument, Yesterday's Food Choices (YFC), which contained 33 questions about foods eaten the previous day with response choices of yes, no, or not sure. Reference data for validation were 24-hour dietary recalls administered individually to 120 students selected randomly. The YFC and 24-hour dietary recalls were administered to American Indian children in fifth- and seventh-grade classes in the Southwest United States. Dietary recalls were coded for food items in the YFC and results were compared for each item using percentage agreement and the kappa statistic. Percentage agreement for all items was greater than 60%; for most items it was greater than 70%, and for several items it was greater than 80%. The amount of agreement beyond that explained by chance (kappa statistic) was generally small. Three items showed substantial agreement beyond chance (kappa > or = 0.6); 2 items showed moderate agreement (kappa = 0.40 to 0.59) most items showed fair agreement (kappa = 0.20 to 0.39). The food items showing substantial agreement were hot or cold cereal, low-fat milk, and mutton or chile stew. Fried or scrambled eggs and deep-fried foods showed moderate agreement beyond chances. Previous development and validation of brief food selection instruments for children participating in health promotion programs has had limited success. In this study, instrument-related factors that apparently contributed to poor agreement between data from the YFC and 24-hour dietary recall were inclusion of categories of foods vs specific foods; food knowledge, preparation, and vocabulary, item length, and overreporting of attractive foods. Collecting and

  5. Local foods can meet micronutrient needs for women in urban Burkina Faso, but only if rarely consumed micronutrient-dense foods are included in daily diets: A linear programming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimond, Mary; Vitta, Bineti S; Martin-Prével, Yves; Moursi, Mourad; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-01-01

    Women of reproductive age are at nutritional risk due to their need for nutrient-dense diets. Risk is further elevated in resource-poor environments. In one such environment, we evaluated feasibility of meeting micronutrient needs of women of reproductive age using local foods alone or using local foods and supplements, while minimizing cost. Based on dietary recall data from Ouagadougou, we used linear programming to identify the lowest cost options for meeting 10 micronutrient intake recommendations, while also meeting energy needs and following an acceptable macronutrient intake pattern. We modeled scenarios with maximum intake per food item constrained at the 75th percentile of reported intake and also with more liberal maxima based on recommended portions per day, with and without the addition of supplements. Some scenarios allowed only commonly consumed foods (reported on at least 10% of recall days). We modeled separately for pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant, nonlactating women. With maxima constrained to the 75th percentile, all micronutrient needs could be met with local foods but only when several nutrient-dense but rarely consumed items were included in daily diets. When only commonly consumed foods were allowed, micronutrient needs could not be met without supplements. When larger amounts of common animal-source foods were allowed, all needs could be met for nonpregnant, nonlactating women but not for pregnant or lactating women, without supplements. We conclude that locally available foods could meet micronutrient needs but that to achieve this, strategies would be needed to increase consistent availability in markets, consistent economic access, and demand. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Usage and users of online self-management programs for adult patients with atopic dermatitis and food allergy : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Leent-de Wit, Ilse; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Knulst, André

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two online self-management programs for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) or food allergy (FA) were developed with the aim of helping patients cope with their condition, follow the prescribed treatment regimen, and deal with the consequences of their illness in daily life. Both

  7. The CAP Approach to Modifying Vocational Programs for Handicapped Students. Vol. 4: Home Economics with an Example in Food Preparation. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Carol Berry; Mendini, Daniel

    This workbook, the fourth in a five-volume series on vocational programs for the handicapped (see note), is an illustrated student guide for a food preparation task in a home economics course. The workbook provides step-by-step procedures, each accompanied by photographs, for making blender cheesecake. (CP)

  8. The Confluence of Sociology, Statistics, and Public Policy in the Quality Control of the Food Stamps, AFDC, and Medicaid Family Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, S. James; Tanur, Judith M.

    1991-01-01

    Relevance of the intersection of sociology, statistics, and public policy to the study of quality control in three family assistance programs--food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), and Medicaid--is reviewed using a study by the National Academy of Sciences of methods for improving quality control systems. (SLD)

  9. Nutritional status of children after a food-supplementation program integrated with routine health care through mobile clinics in migrant communities in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Kavita; Marein-Efron, Gabriela; Huang, Shirley; O'Hare, Geraldine; Finalle, Rodney; Shah, Samir S

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare acute and chronic undernutrition rates before and after the introduction of a food-supplementation program as an adjunct to routine health care for children of migrant workers in the Dominican Republic. The cross-sectional study was conducted in five rural communities in the Dominican Republic. Children 18 years and younger were eligible if they received routine health care from local mobile clinics. Data were obtained before (2005) and after (2006) initiation of a food-supplementation program. chi(2) or Fisher exact tests were used for analysis. Among 175 children in 2005, 52% were female, and 59% were supplementation program. Rates of chronic undernutrition decreased from 33% to 18% after the initiation of the food-supplementation program (P = 0.003). Food supplementation in the context of routine health-care visits improved the nutritional status of children, and it warrants further exploration as a way to reduce childhood undernutrition in resource-scarce areas.

  10. The Strategy to Increase Women Farmer's Participation in the Program of Village Food Barn in East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliatia, Yayuk; Iskaskar, Riyanti

    2016-01-01

    Food Barn Village Programme is one of the government's efforts in achieving household food security which includes four components. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy to increase women's participation in the Food Barn Village Programme. This research was conducted in three villages in the district of Malang, namely: Village…

  11. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  12. Home-Based Intervention Program to Reduce Food Insecurity in Elderly Populations Using a TV App: Study Protocol of the Randomized Controlled Trial Saúde.Come Senior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Gregório, Maria João; Gein, Pierre; Eusébio, Mónica; Santos, Maria José; de Sousa, Rute Dinis; Coelho, Pedro S; Mendes, Jorge M; Graça, Pedro; Oliveira, Pedro; Branco, Jaime C; Canhão, Helena

    2017-03-13

    The limited or uncertain access to adequate food in elderly people includes not only economic restrictions but also inability of food utilization due to functional or cognitive impairment, health problems, and illiteracy. The aim of this work is to present the protocol of the randomized controlled trial Saúde.Come Senior, an educational and motivational television (TV)-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles and decrease food insecurity in elderly people. A randomized controlled study will be conducted in subjects aged 60 years and older with food insecurity, identified at 17 primary care centers in the Lisboa e Vale do Tejo health region in Lisbon, Portugal. The primary outcome will be the changes in participants' food insecurity score (evaluated by the Household Food Insecurity Scale) at 3 months. Change in other outcomes will be assessed (dietary habits, nutritional status, physical activity, health status, and clinical outcomes). Subjects will be followed over 6 months; the intervention will last 3 months. Data collection will be performed at 3 different time points (baseline, end of intervention at 3 months, and follow-up at 6 months). The intervention is based on an interactive TV app with an educational and motivational program specifically developed for the elderly that has weekly themes and includes daily content in video format: (1) nutrition and diet tips for healthy eating, (2) healthy, easy to cook and low-cost recipes, and (3) physical exercise programs. Furthermore, brief reminders on health behaviors will also be broadcasted through the TV app. The total duration of the study will be 6 months. The intervention is considered to be effective and meaningful if 50% of the individuals in the experimental group have a decrease of 1 point in the food insecurity score, all the remaining being unchanged. We expect to include and randomize 282 (141 experimental and 141 control) elderly with food insecurity. We will recruit a total of 1,128 subjects

  13. Examining Lead Exposures in California through State-Issued Health Alerts for Food Contamination and an Exposure-Based Candy Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Nelson, Kali; Sanford, Eric; Clarity, Cassidy; Emmons-Bell, Sophia; Gorukanti, Anuhandra; Kennelly, Patrick

    2017-10-26

    In California, the annual number of children under age 6 y of age with blood lead levels (BLL) ≥10μg/dL is estimated at over 1,000 cases, and up to 10,000 cases when BLL between 4.5 and 9.5 μg/dL are included. State-issued health alerts for food contamination provide one strategy for tracking sources of food-related lead exposures. As well, California passed legislation in 2006 for the Food and Drug Branch (FDB) of the state health department to test and identify lead in candy. This report presents health alert data from California over a 14-y period, compares data before and after the candy testing program began, and examines country of origin, ZIP code data, and time from candy testing to release of health alerts for lead-contaminated candies for 2011-2012. After 2007, health alerts issued for lead in candy and food increased significantly. Analysis of candy-testing data indicated that multiple counties and ZIP codes were affected. Seventeen candies with high lead concentrations were identified, resulting in rapid dissemination (lead exposures from state-based food and candy testing programs provides an opportunity to identify and immediately act to remove nonpaint sources of lead affecting children. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2582.

  14. Implementation of School Districts' Food Safety Plans and Perceptions of Support for Food Safety and Training in Child Nutrition Programs in One USDA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawso Van Druff, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    School foodservice directors (FSDs) and school business officials (SBOs) in public school districts with enrollments between 2,500 and 25,000 in the USDA Mid-Atlantic geographic region provided responses to a paper-and-pencil survey. The FSDs assessed the level of implementation of a mandated school food safety plan in their districts and…

  15. Scale of production and implementation of food safety programs influence the performance of current food safety management systems: Case of dairy processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Opiyo, Beatrice; Wangoh, John

    2017-01-01

    An FSMS-Diagnostic Instrument was used to evaluate fifteen Kenyan dairy processors based on indicators and descriptive grids for context riskiness, FSMS activities, and microbial food safety (FS) output with respect to scale of production. Contextual riskiness was diagnosed as low, moderate or high...

  16. Effectiveness of a school-based nutrition and food safety education program among primary and junior high school students in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Jie; Xu, Xiang-Long; Li, Ge; Sharma, Manoj; Qie, Ya-Ling; Zhao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Health behavioral patterns, especially eating patterns, established in childhood often carry over into adulthood, and some of the unhealthy ones are later associated with adult morbidity and mortality. Recently, a few nutrition and food safety education programs have been implemented in primary and junior high schools in China. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a school-based nutrition and food safety education program among primary and junior high school students in China. A mixed study design incorporating an intervention study and a quantitative survey was conducted for this research. With stratified cluster sampling, students from the 5(th) and 6(th) grade in one primary school and the 7(th) and 8(th) grade in one junior high school in Chongqing, China, were all selected and separated randomly into an intervention group (n = 501) and a control group (n = 522). Effectiveness evaluation investigations were performed at the initial time and nine-month follow-up (n = 472), respectively. Effectiveness of pre-/post-intervention and nine-month follow-up changes in scores of nutrition knowledge and food safety was assessed using a two-tailed t-test and analysis of variance. Nutrition knowledge scores for the intervention group were mean 9.03, SD±2.75 at the baseline, and 14.70±3.28 after intervention. There was a significant improvement (t = 29.78, p Food safety scores of the post-intervention were higher (p food safety knowledge among primary and junior high school students through school-based nutrition and food safety education programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Mothers prefer fresh fruits and vegetables over jarred baby fruits and vegetables in the new Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Loan P; Whaley, Shannon E; Gradziel, Pat H; Crocker, Nancy J; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Harrison, Gail G

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant use and satisfaction with jarred baby foods, assessed preference for cash value vouchers (CVVs) for fruits and vegetables vs jarred baby foods, and examined whether preferences varied among selected ethnic groups. A survey of California WIC participants and statewide redemption data were used. Participants reported high satisfaction with the CVV for fruits and vegetables and jarred baby foods, with statistically significant variation across ethnic groups. About two thirds of all participants reported a preference for CVVs for fruits and vegetables over jarred baby foods. Redemption data indicated declining redemption rates for jarred fruits and vegetables with increasing age of the infant across all ethnic groups. Although the addition of jarred fruits and vegetables to the food package for infants ages 6-11 months was well received, many caregivers want the option to choose between jarred foods and fresh fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  18. SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF ADDITIONAL FOOD INTRODUCTION, STATED IN THE NATIONAL PROGRAM OF THE INFANTS FEEDING OPTIMIZATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Skvortsova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of the study of clinical and biochemical blood markers of iron metabolism in infants. This study represents a part of the research, aimed to scientific confirmation of the statements associated with additional food introduction and stated in the «National program of the infants feeding optimization in the Russian Federation». In controlled conditions the children were divided into 2 main groups: feeding with breast milk and with artificial milk formulas. Each group was divided into sub-groups according to the age of the additional food introduction: 4, 5 or 6 months. The received data suggest that the iron content was appropriate in both groups at the age of 4 months before the additional food introduction; there was a gradual decrease of several values after that, especially marked in children feeding with breast milk and later introduction of additional food. The comparative analysis showed that at the age of 9 months the lowest values were in breast-fed children with additional food introduction at the age of 6 months. This can be associated not only with late additional food introduction, but also with difficulties occurring when beginning it at this age and leading to insufficient supply with certain nutrients, including iron. The detailed analysis of diets for children of different sub-groups will be discussed in the next article.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Model for Youth EFNEP Programs: What Do We Measure and How Do We Do It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena; McFerren, Mary; Lambur, Michael; Ellerbock, Michael; Hosig, Kathy; Franz, Nancy; Townsend, Marilyn; Baker, Susan; Muennig, Peter; Davis, George

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is one of the United States Department of Agriculture's hallmark nutrition education programs for limited-resource youth. The objective of this study was to gather opinions from experts in EFNEP and related content areas to identify costs, effects (impacts), and related instruments to…

  20. The Impact of the 2009 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Food Package Revisions on Participants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Daniel Joseph; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Houghtaling, Bailey

    2015-11-01

    For the first time since 1980, the US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policies were revised in 2009 to meet the Institute of Medicine's nutrition recommendations. These changes included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy to improve nutrition and health of WIC participants. Our systematic review of the literature assessed the influence that the 2009 WIC food package revisions have had on dietary intake, healthy food and beverage availability, and breastfeeding participation. The systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Four electronic databases were searched between April 1 and 30, 2014, for peer-reviewed research. Two reviewers screened the articles, extracted the data, and established inter-rater reliability by discussing and resolving discrepancies. Twenty articles were included that met our inclusion criteria. Nine of the studies analyzed changes in dietary intake, eight examined changes in healthy food and beverage availability, and three evaluated breastfeeding participation exclusively. The review demonstrated an improved dietary intake and an increase in the availability of healthier foods and beverages in authorized WIC stores. The revised food package was also associated with improved dietary intake of WIC participants. Mixed results were demonstrated in regard to improved breastfeeding outcomes. Further research is needed to assess the influence of WIC 2009 food package revisions on breastfeeding outcomes and to make conclusions about broad nutrition-related implications. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule and interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This rule adopts as final, with some modifications, the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations set forth in the interim final rule published in the Federal Register on June 28, 2013. The requirements addressed in this rule conform to the provisions in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 regarding nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Most provisions of this final rule were implemented on July 1, 2014, a full year subsequent to publication of the interim final rule. This was in compliance with section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, which required that State and local educational agencies have at least one full school year from the date of publication of the interim final rule to implement the competitive food provisions. Based on comments received on the interim final rule and implementation experience, this final rule makes a few modifications to the nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools implemented on July 1, 2014. In addition, this final rule codifies specific policy guidance issued after publication of the interim rule. Finally, this rule retains the provision related to the standard for total fat as interim and requests further comment on this single standard.

  2. Short-term evaluation of the impact of a fortified food aid program on the micronutrient nutritional status of Argentinian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpeli, Agustina; Ferrari, María Guillermina; Varea, Ana; Falivene, Mariana; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Vojkovic, María; Carmuega, Estéban; Disalvo, Liliana; Apezteguía, María; Pereyras, Silvia; Tournier, Andrea; Vogliolo, Daniel; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2013-11-01

    We studied the impact of a food supplementation program (Plan Más Vida (PMV)) on the micronutrient nutritional condition of pregnant women from low-income families 1 year after its implementation. The food program provided supplementary diet (wheat and maize--fortified flour, rice or sugar, and fortified soup). We performed a prospective, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, evaluating pregnant women at baseline (n = 164) and 1 year after PMV implementation (n = 108). Biochemical tests (hemogram, ferritin, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid), anthropometric assessments (weight and height), and dietary surveys (24 h recall) were performed at the two study points. One year after PMV implementation, no significant changes in anthropometric values were observed. Folic acid deficiency and the risk of vitamin A deficiency (retinol, 20-30 μg/dl) decreased significantly (35.8 to 6.1 % and 64 to 41 %, respectively; p nutritional strategies had a high impact on the prevalence of folic acid deficiency. We also observed a decrease in the risk of vitamin A deficiency, and no impact on iron and zinc nutritional status. Adherence to the specific fortified food (soup) was not good and intra-family dilution and distribution of food was high.

  3. Delivering Food Safety Education to Middle School Students Using a Web-Based, Interactive, Multimedia, Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Rebecca A.; Steen, M. Dale; Pritchard, Todd J.; Buzzell, Paul R.; Pintauro, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    More than 76 million persons become ill from foodborne pathogens in the United States each year. To reduce these numbers, food safety education efforts need to be targeted at not only adults, but school children as well. The middle school grades are ideal for integrating food safety education into the curriculum while simultaneously contributing…

  4. Frequency and Types of Foods Advertised on Saturday Morning and Weekday Afternoon English- and Spanish-Language American Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Design: Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering…

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Society for Nutrition Education, and American School Food Service Association--Nutrition services: an essential component of comprehensive school health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Safaii, SeAnne; Beall, Deborah Lane

    2003-04-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), the Society for Nutrition Education (SNE), and the American School Food Service Association (ASFSA) that comprehensive nutrition services must be provided to all of the nation's preschool through grade twelve students. These nutrition services shall be integrated with a coordinated, comprehensive school health program and implemented through a school nutrition policy. The policy should link comprehensive, sequential nutrition education; access to and promotion of child nutrition programs providing nutritious meals and snacks in the school environment; and family, community, and health services' partnerships supporting positive health outcomes for all children. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is directly attributed to physical inactivity and diet. Schools can play a key role in reversing this trend through coordinated nutrition services that promote policies linking comprehensive, sequential nutrition education programs, access to and marketing of child nutrition programs, a school environment that models healthy food choices, and community partnerships. This position paper provides information and resources for nutrition professionals to use in developing and supporting comprehensive school health programs. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:505-514.

  6. The unhealthy food environment does not modify the association between obesity and participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Harrison, Gail G; Wang, May C; Seto, Edmund Y W; Pebley, Anne R

    2017-01-14

    Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has been linked to an increased risk of obesity, but not much is known about the mechanisms behind this association. The objective of this study was to determine if the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets modifies the association between obesity and participation in SNAP. Data comes from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey; included are a subsample of adults (18+ years) who were SNAP participants or eligible non-participants (N = 1,176). We carried out multilevel analyses with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m 2 ), SNAP participation, and the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets as dependent, independent and modifying variables, respectively, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, working status, mental health, and neighborhood poverty. SNAP participants had double the odds of obesity compared to eligible non-participants (OR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.44-2.83). However, the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets did not modify this association. SNAP participation was associated with higher odds of obesity in our primarily Hispanic sample in Los Angeles County, with no effect modification found for the unhealthy portion of the food environment. More research is needed with additional food environment measures to confirm our null findings. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking SNAP participation and obesity as they remain unclear.

  7. Food insecurity, diet quality and body mass index of women participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: The role of intrapersonal, home environment, community and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevi, Namrata; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne; Hersh, Matthew

    2018-02-07

    Obesity is a public health problem that disproportionately affects low-income populations. Moreover, participation in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has been associated with obesity among low-income women. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of intrapersonal, home environment, community and social factors on diet quality and body mass index (BMI) of low-income women participating in SNAP. This study also aimed to examine the role of these factors in mediating the relationship between food insecurity and diet quality, and BMI. A total of 152 women receiving SNAP benefits were recruited from low-income neighborhood centers and housing communities, and administered a demographics questionnaire, the United States adult food security scale, food frequency questionnaire, and multi-dimensional home environment scale (MHES). They also were measured for height and weight to calculate BMI. The Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index 2015 was used to measure diet quality. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the MHES subscales that were significant predictors of diet quality and BMI. The Preacher and Hayes mediation model was used to evaluate the mediation of the relationship between food insecurity and diet quality, and BMI by the MHES. Emotional eating resistance and favorable social eating behaviors were positively associated with diet quality; whereas emotional eating resistance, lower availability of unhealthy food at home, neighborhood safety and favorable social eating behaviors were inversely associated with BMI in women participating in SNAP. The MHES significantly mediated the relationship between food insecurity and BMI. These results emphasize the importance of intrapersonal, home environment, community and social factors in mediating the relationship between food insecurity and BMI in low-income women. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 78 FR 49990 - Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe uses of vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 as nutrient supplements in food. DATES: The food additive petition was filed on June 27, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Judith Kidwell, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug...

  9. Linking Halal Food Certification and Business Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ab Talib, Mohamed Syazwan; Chin, Thoo Ai; Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    performance, consistent with other established food standards such as ISO 22000 or HACCP. Originality/value Although numerous studies have concentrated on well-established food certifications, the expanding Muslim population, rising demand for Halal food, and lucrative Halal food market have raised...

  10. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    . It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...... as a guideline for evaluating game design thinking and for measuring solutions made in the development process. To strengthen our model of expanded design space, we will present examples from our game design courses.......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...

  11. The US Food and Drug Administration's Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Program - Current Status and Future Direction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jasmanda Wu; Juhaeri Juhaeri

    2016-01-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 granted the FDA new authorities to enhance drug safety by requiring application holders to submit a proposed Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS...

  12. The role of local food in the touristic experience : A focus on Visit Tampere All Bright! Marketing Program

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Monroy, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In an age where the population is being encouraged to think about eating more healthily, and celebrity chefs are highlighting the often unsavory side of mass farming, local food is a valuable resource which makes a significant contribution to local economies and encourages diversification amongst rural communities, not to mention the big opportu-nities that can bring to the tourism industry. This thesis tries to define the role local food plays in tourism promotion by analyzing the promot...

  13. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  14. Child hunger and the protective effects of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and alternative food sources among Mexican-origin families in Texas border colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C

    2013-09-13

    Nutritional health is essential for children's growth and development. Many Mexican-origin children who reside in limited-resource colonias along the Texas-Mexico border are at increased risk for poor nutrition as a result of household food insecurity. However, little is known about the prevalence of child hunger or its associated factors among children of Mexican immigrants. This study determines the prevalence of child hunger and identifies protective and risk factors associated with it in two Texas border areas. This study uses 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA) data from 470 mothers who were randomly recruited by promotora-researchers. Participants from colonias near two small towns in two South Texas counties participated in an in-home community and household assessment. Interviewer-administered surveys collected data in Spanish on sociodemographics, federal food assistance program participation, and food security status. Frequencies and bivariate correlations were examined while a random-effects logistic regression model with backward elimination was used to determine correlates of childhood hunger. Hunger among children was reported in 51% (n = 239) of households in this C-HCFRA sample. Bivariate analyses revealed that hunger status was associated with select maternal characteristics, such as lower educational attainment and Mexican nativity, and household characteristics, including household composition, reliance on friend or neighbor for transportation, food purchase at dollar stores and from neighbors, and participation in school-based nutrition programs. A smaller percentage of households with child hunger participated in school-based nutrition programs (51%) or used alternative food sources, while 131 households were unable to give their child or children a balanced meal during the school year and 145 households during summer months. In the random effects model (RE = small town), increased household

  15. Expanding nail or expanding femur? An adverse event with the expandable intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Soham; Riley, Nicholas D; Sivaji, Chellappan K

    2010-01-01

    The expandable intramedullary nail is self-locking and has the advantage of reducing operating time and exposure to ionizing radiation. The nail is recommended for simple diaphyseal fractures involving the middle third of long bones, where the nail can bypass the fracture site by at least 5 cm. We encountered a unique complication with the expandable nail in a simple transverse shaft fracture at the junction of the middle and distal third of the left femur in an otherwise healthy 57-year-old man. The fracture was reduced and a 12-mm expandable nail was inserted. Following full expansion, intraoperative radiographs were obtained prior to closure. After six postoperative weeks, it was noted that the nail expanded the femoral canal, converting a simple fracture to a distally progressing comminuted fracture with a butterfly fragment. A review of the intraoperative radiographs showed slight widening of the medullary canal at the level of the fracture. As the alignment was satisfactory and callus was present, no further surgical intervention was considered. The patient was advised not to bear weight and was provided with a locked knee brace in extension to wear for six weeks. Radiographs at 12 weeks demonstrated good progress of healing with adequate callus and the patient was permitted to bear weight as tolerated and commence knee flexion. The fracture united satisfactorily at four months. This adverse experience emphasizes that caution should be exercised when expanding the nail, with close observation of the medullary canal diameter during the later stages of expansion.

  16. Scaling up: Expanding the impact of food security and nutrition ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    innovations; and local knowledge combined with cutting- edge science. The experience of IDRC shows that a portfolio approach provides flexibility to test multiple solutions, and to focus on scaling up the solutions with the highest potential for impact. Building leadership. IDRC strengthens the capacities of researchers, ...

  17. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, affects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction.

  18. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  19. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  20. Food Reformulation, Responsive Regulation, and “Regulatory Scaffolding”: Strengthening Performance of Salt Reduction Programs in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Magnusson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to reduce excess salt consumption play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease, which is the largest contributor to global mortality from non-communicable diseases. In many countries, voluntary food reformulation programs seek to reduce salt levels across selected product categories, guided by aspirational targets to be achieved progressively over time. This paper evaluates the industry-led salt reduction programs that operate in the United Kingdom and Australia. Drawing on theoretical concepts from the field of regulatory studies, we propose a step-wise or “responsive” approach that introduces regulatory “scaffolds” to progressively increase levels of government oversight and control in response to industry inaction or under-performance. Our model makes full use of the food industry’s willingness to reduce salt levels in products to meet reformulation targets, but recognizes that governments remain accountable for addressing major diet-related health risks. Creative regulatory strategies can assist governments to fulfill their public health obligations, including in circumstances where there are political barriers to direct, statutory regulation of the food industry.