WorldWideScience

Sample records for program execution control

  1. Operations Program Executive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fague, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Ground Resource Operations Program executive (GROPE) is control program for binding system of programs into single, easily operated entity. It relieves user from complexity arising from decomposition of large application into number of interacting program units. System simplifies job control, data management, and recordkeeping for interacting programs.

  2. From Errors Treatment to Exceptions Treatment Regarding the Execution Control over Visual Basic Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to comply with the quality standards and with the best practices, the execution of the professional programs must be rigorously controlled so that to avoid occurrence of unpredictable situations that might generate anomalies and could lead to computer blockage, forced termination of the execution and data loss. In traditional programming languages, including Visual Basic 6, the concept of error is extremely evolved. It is considered as error any situation in which the program fails to execute correctly, regardless if such anomaly is generated by a software or hardware cause. Nowadays the modern platforms, including VB.NET have introduced a new concept: exception. Unfortunately, perhaps by mistake, exception is assimilated by many IT specialists as an exceptional (extraordinary situation or a rare situation.We agree with the opinion of those IT specialists asserting that error is strictly dependant on the programmer, when he/she fails in correctly generating the application’s structures, whilst exception is a situation not fitting in the usual natural execution or as desired by the programmer or user, without meaning that it occurs more often or more rarely.Designing robust programs implies for such not to terminate abnormally or block, not even upon receiving improper parameters. Two aspects are referred to: the behavior regarding low level errors (caused by the operation system, memory allocation, reading/writing in files or hardware malfunctions and the reaction to the user’s errors, such as providing incorrect input data or incorrect use of operations in respect with their sequences. Notwithstanding what platform is used in designing the programs and regardless the controversy between the specialists, in order for the execution to be terminated under the program’s control, the commands that might generate anomalies and interruptions should be strictly monitored. Implicitly, the execution control

  3. Effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the prevalence of nosocomial infections in Kermanshah's Hospitals (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Sodabe; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Karchani, Mohsen; Hosseini, Zahra; Izadi, Babak; Moradi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the incidence of nosocomial infections in hospitals affiliated with the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (Kermanshah, Iran) during 2010 and 2011. The numbers of patients admitted in 2010 and 2011 were 8084 and 7166, respectively, and the average prevalence of nosocomial infections in 2010 and 2011 was 0.8 and 1.9 infections per 100 patients, respectively. In 2010, the mean scores obtained by hospital for regular Infection Control Committee meetings, regular gatherings, registration of program information analysis, and regular follow-up meetings were 19, 31, 30.5, and 41.7 (out of 100), respectively. In 2011, they were 20.2, 36.4, 38.1, and 50, respectively. The results of this study indicated that executive programs of infection control committees had no effect on the incidence of nosocomial infections; therefore, the experts who assess hospitals should pay more attention to the systems that are used to conduct surveillance of nosocomial infection control programs.

  4. Executive control influences linguistic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Although it is known that words acquire their meanings partly from the contexts in which they are used, we proposed that the way in which words are processed can also influence their representation. We further propose that individual differences in the way that words are processed can consequently lead to individual differences in the way that they are represented. Specifically, we showed that executive control influences linguistic representations by influencing the coactivation of competing and reinforcing terms. Consequently, people with poorer executive control perceive the meanings of homonymous terms as being more similar to one another, and those of polysemous terms as being less similar to one another, than do people with better executive control. We also showed that bilinguals with poorer executive control experience greater cross-linguistic interference than do bilinguals with better executive control. These results have implications for theories of linguistic representation and language organization.

  5. Effect of yoga program on executive functions of adolescents dwelling in an orphan home: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Satya Prakash; Pradhan, Balaram

    2017-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is important for physical and mental health of children. Studies have shown that children with poverty and early life stress have reduced EF. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Yoga program on the EF of orphan adolescents. Seventy two apparently healthy orphan adolescents randomized and allocated into two groups as Yoga group (n = 40; 14 girls, age = 12.69 ± 1.35 yrs) and Wait List Control (WLC) group (n = 32, 13 girls, age = 12.58 ± 1.52 yrs). Yoga group underwent three months of Yoga program in a schedule of 90 min per day, four days per week whereas the WLC group followed the routine activities. They were assessed by Stroop Color-Word Task, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Digits Span Test and Trial Making Test (TMT) at the beginning and end of the program. The repeated measures ANOVA showed significant difference in time and group interactions (p < 0.05) for all subtests of Stroop Color-Word Task and Digit Span Test and part-A of TMT whereas there were no significant difference found in DSST and TMT (part-B). The post-hoc test with Bonferroni adjustment also showed significant improvements (p < 0.001) within the Yoga group in all test scores while in wrong score of DSST did not exhibit significant reduction. Whereas the WLC group, showed significant improvement (p < 0.05) in Stroop Color, Color-Word score, net score of DSST, Digit Span forward and Digit Span Total. Three months Yoga program was found useful for the young orphan adolescents in improving their executive functions.

  6. Executive Education: Predicting Student Success in Executive MBA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Kara O.

    2008-01-01

    Applicants to executive education programs have increased over recent years. Previous researchers had not thoroughly examined admission procedures related to the selection of applicants. In this study, the author examined common admission requirements that researchers and educators have used to predict success in 22 unique executive education…

  7. Income, neural executive processes, and preschool children's executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberry, Erika J; Lengua, Liliana J; Crocker, Leanna Harris; Bruce, Jacqueline; Upshaw, Michaela B; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to specify the neural mechanisms underlying the link between low household income and diminished executive control in the preschool period. Specifically, we examined whether individual differences in the neural processes associated with executive attention and inhibitory control accounted for income differences observed in performance on a neuropsychological battery of executive control tasks. The study utilized a sample of preschool-aged children (N = 118) whose families represented the full range of income, with 32% of families at/near poverty, 32% lower income, and 36% middle to upper income. Children completed a neuropsychological battery of executive control tasks and then completed two computerized executive control tasks while EEG data were collected. We predicted that differences in the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of executive attention and inhibitory control would account for income differences observed on the executive control battery. Income and ERP measures were related to performance on the executive control battery. However, income was unrelated to ERP measures. The findings suggest that income differences observed in executive control during the preschool period might relate to processes other than executive attention and inhibitory control.

  8. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  9. Usefulness of Executive Development Programs to Corporate Executives

    OpenAIRE

    Raval, Vishvesh; Vyas, Khyati; Raval, Brahmaghosh

    2013-01-01

    India has been in centre stage of developing economies and commends high respect in knowledge based industries India has opened it economy to international competition and Indian products now compete with best products of the world. Indian promoters have realized that human resource is basic for future success. Dynamic managements have started training their executives to best practices with view to improve system efficiencies. Executive Development Programs are backbone of such training and...

  10. "Braingame Brian": Toward an Executive Function Training Program with Game Elements for Children with ADHD and Cognitive Control Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.; ten Brink, E.; Dovis, S.; Ponsioen, A.; Geurts, H.M.; de Vries, M.; van der Oord, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the area of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, there is an urgent need for new, innovative, and child-focused treatments. A computerized executive functioning training with game elements aimed at enhancing self-control was developed. The first results are promising, and the next

  11. Cognitive programs: Software for attention's executive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Tsotsos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available What are the computational tasks that an executive controller for visual attention must solve? This question is posed in the context of the Selective Tuning model of attention. The range of required computations go beyond top-down bias signals or region-of-interest determinations, and must deal with overt and covert fixations, process timing and synchronization, information routing, memory, matching control to task, spatial localization, priming, and coordination of bottom-up with top-down information. During task execution, results must be monitored to ensure the expected results. This description includes the kinds of elements that are common in the control of any kind of complex machine or system. We seek a mechanistic integration of the above, in other words, algorithms that accomplish control. Such algorithms operate on representations, transforming a representation of one kind into another, which then forms the input to yet another algorithm. Cognitive Programs (CPs are hypothesized to capture exactly such representational transformations via stepwise sequences of operations. CPs, an updated and modernized offspring of Ullman's Visual Routines, impose an algorithmic structure to the set of attentional functions and play a role in the overall shaping of attentional modulation of the visual system so that it provides its best performance. This requires that we consider the visual system as a dynamic, yet general-purpose processor tuned to the task and input of the moment. This differs dramatically from the almost universal cognitive and computational views, which regard vision as a passively observing module to which simple questions about percepts can be posed, regardless of task. Differing from Visual Routines, CPs explicitly involve the critical elements of Visual Task Executive, Visual Attention Executive, and Visual Working Memory. Cognitive Programs provide the software that directs the actions of the Selective Tuning model of visual

  12. OPTIMAL PRICING OF EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Petit

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the most strategic tuition pricing strategy that can be utilized by senior management in Business Schools when pricing Executive MBA Programs. To determine this information, the state of the Executive MBA market and three pricing strategies were reviewed in detail and an analysis ensued on the viability and applicability of each strategy for pricing Executive MBA Programs. The main findings of this study indicate that the Value Based pricing model ...

  13. "Braingame Brian": Toward an Executive Function Training Program with Game Elements for Children with ADHD and Cognitive Control Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Pier J M; Brink, Esther Ten; Dovis, Sebastiaan; Ponsioen, Albert; Geurts, Hilde M; de Vries, Marieke; van der Oord, Saskia

    2013-02-01

    In the area of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, there is an urgent need for new, innovative, and child-focused treatments. A computerized executive functioning training with game elements aimed at enhancing self-control was developed. The first results are promising, and the next steps involve replication with larger samples, evaluating transfer of training effects to daily life, and enhancing motivation through more gaming elements.

  14. Marketing the Masters of Executive Management program

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera, Mark A.; Karriker, Timothy W.

    2007-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The purpose of this MBA project was to review the current Masters of Executive Management education curriculum at NPS. An internal analysis of the current program was conducted to fully understand the strategic goals of the program and the existing curriculum. An environmental scan of current and potential military customers was conducted to assess requirements for junior executive education and determine whether the MEM program corresponds with these requiremen...

  15. A randomised controlled trial of a web-based multi-modal therapy program to improve executive functioning in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Adina; Ross, Stephanie; Lloyd, Owen; Whittingham, Koa; Ziviani, Jenny; Ware, Robert S; McKinlay, Lynne; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2017-10-01

    To examine the efficacy of a multi-modal web-based therapy program, Move it to improve it (Mitii™) delivered at home to improve Executive Functioning (EF) in children with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Randomised Waitlist controlled trial. Home environment. Sixty children with an ABI were matched in pairs by age and intelligence quotient then randomised to either 20-weeks of Mitii™ training or 20 weeks of Care As Usual (waitlist control; n=30; 17 males; mean age=11y, 11m (±2y, 6m); Full Scale IQ=76.24±17.84). Fifty-eight children completed baseline assessments (32 males; mean age=11.87±2.47; Full Scale IQ=75.21±16.76). Executive functioning was assessed on four domains: attentional control, cognitive flexibility, goal setting, and information processing using subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (D-KEFS), Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), Tower of London (TOL), and Test of Everyday Attention for Children (Tea-Ch). Executive functioning performance in everyday life was assessed via parent questionnaire (Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF). No differences were observed at baseline measures. Groups were compared at 20-weeks using linear regression with no significant differences found between groups on all measures of EF. Out of a potential total dose of 60 hours, children in the Mitii™ group completed a mean of 17 hours of Mitii™ intervention. Results indicate no additional benefit to receiving Mitii™ compared to standard care. Mitii™, in its current form, was not shown to improve EF in children with ABI.

  16. A short executive function training program improves preschoolers’ working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eBlakey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training has been shown to improve executive functions in middle childhood and adulthood. However, fewer studies have targeted the preschool years – a time when executive functions undergo rapid development. The present study tested the effects of a short four session executive function training program in 54 four-year-olds. The training group significantly improved their working memory from pre-training relative to an active control group. Notably, this effect extended to a task sharing few surface features with the trained tasks, and continued to be apparent three months later. In addition, the benefits of training extended to a measure of mathematical reasoning three months later, indicating that training executive functions during the preschool years has the potential to convey benefits that are both long-lasting and wide-ranging.

  17. Social inappropriateness, executive control, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Baynes, Kate

    2009-03-01

    Age-related deficits in executive control might lead to socially inappropriate behavior if they compromise the ability to withhold inappropriate responses. Consistent with this possibility, older adults in the current study showed greater social inappropriateness than younger adults--as rated by their peers--and this effect was mediated by deficits in executive control as well as deficits in general cognitive ability. Older adults also responded with greater social inappropriateness to a provocative event in the laboratory, but this effect was unrelated to executive functioning or general cognitive ability. These findings suggest that changes in both social and cognitive factors are important in understanding age-related changes in social behavior.

  18. Executive Control of Attention in Narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie; Croisier Langenier, Muriel; Cochen De Cock, Valérie; Scholz, Sabine; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by early loss of hypocretin neurons that project to areas involved in the attention network. We characterized the executive control of attention in drug-free patients with NC to determine whether the executive deficits observed in patients with NC are specific to the disease itself or whether they reflect performance changes due to the severity of excessive daytime sleepiness. Methodology Twenty-two patients with NC compared to 22 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwC) matched for age, gender, intellectual level, objective daytime sleepiness and number of sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) were studied. Thirty-two matched healthy controls were included. All participants underwent a standardized interview, completed questionnaires, and neuropsychological tests. All patients underwent a polysomnography followed by multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT), with neuropsychological evaluation performed the same day between MSLT sessions. Principal Findings Irrespective of diagnosis, patients reported higher self-reported attentional complaints associated with the intensity of depressive symptoms. Patients with NC performed slower and more variably on simple reaction time tasks than patients with NwC, who did not differ from controls. Patients with NC and NwC generally performed slower, reacted more variably, and made more errors than controls on executive functioning tests. Individual profile analyses showed a clear heterogeneity of the severity of executive deficit. This severity was related to objective sleepiness, higher number of SOREMPs on the MSLT, and lower intelligence quotient. The nature and severity of the executive deficits were unrelated to NC and NwC diagnosis. Conclusions We demonstrated that drug-free patients with NC and NwC complained of attention deficit, with altered executive control of attention being explained by the severity of objective sleepiness and

  19. Executive control of attention in narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bayard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by early loss of hypocretin neurons that project to areas involved in the attention network. We characterized the executive control of attention in drug-free patients with NC to determine whether the executive deficits observed in patients with NC are specific to the disease itself or whether they reflect performance changes due to the severity of excessive daytime sleepiness. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two patients with NC compared to 22 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwC matched for age, gender, intellectual level, objective daytime sleepiness and number of sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs were studied. Thirty-two matched healthy controls were included. All participants underwent a standardized interview, completed questionnaires, and neuropsychological tests. All patients underwent a polysomnography followed by multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT, with neuropsychological evaluation performed the same day between MSLT sessions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Irrespective of diagnosis, patients reported higher self-reported attentional complaints associated with the intensity of depressive symptoms. Patients with NC performed slower and more variably on simple reaction time tasks than patients with NwC, who did not differ from controls. Patients with NC and NwC generally performed slower, reacted more variably, and made more errors than controls on executive functioning tests. Individual profile analyses showed a clear heterogeneity of the severity of executive deficit. This severity was related to objective sleepiness, higher number of SOREMPs on the MSLT, and lower intelligence quotient. The nature and severity of the executive deficits were unrelated to NC and NwC diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that drug-free patients with NC and NwC complained of attention deficit, with altered executive control of attention being explained by the severity of objective

  20. Automated procedure execution for space vehicle autonomous control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broten, Thomas A.; Brown, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased operational autonomy and reduced operating costs have become critical design objectives in next-generation NASA and DoD space programs. The objective is to develop a semi-automated system for intelligent spacecraft operations support. The Spacecraft Operations and Anomaly Resolution System (SOARS) is presented as a standardized, model-based architecture for performing High-Level Tasking, Status Monitoring and automated Procedure Execution Control for a variety of spacecraft. The particular focus is on the Procedure Execution Control module. A hierarchical procedure network is proposed as the fundamental means for specifying and representing arbitrary operational procedures. A separate procedure interpreter controls automatic execution of the procedure, taking into account the current status of the spacecraft as maintained in an object-oriented spacecraft model.

  1. Evaluating Market Orientation of an Executive MBA Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas, Khalid M.; Ghani, Waqar I.; Davis, Stanley; Strong, James T.

    1998-01-01

    A study assessed the market orientation of the executive Master's in Business Administration (MBA) program at Saint Joseph's University (Pennsylvania) in terms of 12 skills and knowledge areas that reflect effective managerial performance and the student-executives' perceptions of program strengths and weaknesses in delivering these skills.…

  2. An Empirical Investigation of the Effectiveness of Executive Development Programs As Perceived by Participating Marketing and Sales Executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Wilson L.

    A study of the effectiveness of executive development programs for marketing and sales executives tested three hypotheses: (1) participation in such programs results in identifiable benefits as perceived by the participants; (2) academically oriented executive development programs have significant advantages over company oriented programs as…

  3. The Executive Control of Face Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Z. Rapcsak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with frontal lobe damage and cognitively normal elderly individuals demonstrate increased susceptibility to false facial recognition. In this paper we review neuropsychological evidence consistent with the notion that the common functional impairment underlying face memory distortions in both subject populations is a context recollection/source monitoring deficit, coupled with excessive reliance on relatively preserved facial familiarity signals in recognition decisions. In particular, we suggest that due to the breakdown of strategic memory retrieval, monitoring, and decision operations, individuals with frontal lobe impairment caused by focal damage or age-related functional decline do not have a reliable mechanism for attributing the experience of familiarity to the correct context or source. Memory illusions are mostly apparent under conditions of uncertainty when the face cue does not directly elicit relevant identity-specific contextual information, leaving the source of familiarity unspecified or ambiguous. Based on these findings, we propose that remembering faces is a constructive process that requires dynamic interactions between temporal lobe memory systems that operate in an automatic or bottom-up fashion and frontal executive systems that provide strategic top-down control of recollection. Executive memory control functions implemented by prefrontal cortex play a critical role in suppressing false facial recognition and related source memory misattributions.

  4. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  5. Dysfunctional Metacognitive Beliefs Are Associated with Decreased Executive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Kraft

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs (“metacognitions” and executive control are important factors in mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, but the relationship between these concepts has not been studied systematically. We examined whether there is an association between metacognitions and executive control and hypothesized that decreased executive control statistically predicts increased levels of metacognitions. Two hundred and ninety-nine individuals recruited from the general population and outpatient psychiatric clinics completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 and three subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery corresponding to the three-component model of executive functions. Controlling for current depression and anxiety symptoms, decreased ability to shift between mental sets was associated with increased negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry and beliefs about the need to control thoughts. The results suggest a basic association between metacognitions and executive control. Individual differences in executive control could prove important in the personalization of metacognitive therapy.

  6. Virtual reality exercise on a home-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation program, effect on executive function, quality of life and depression, anxiety and stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ágata; Melo, Cristina; Machado, Jorge; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    To analyse the effect of a six-month home-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) specific exercise program, performed in a virtual reality (Kinect) or conventional (booklet) environment, on executive function, quality of life and depression, anxiety and stress of subjects with coronary artery disease. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with subjects, who had completed phase II, randomly assigned to intervention group 1 (IG1), whose program encompassed the use of Kinect (n = 11); or intervention group 2 (IG2), a paper booklet (n = 11); or a control group (CG), only subjected to the usual care (n = 11). The three groups received education on cardiovascular risk factors. The assessed parameters, at baseline (M0), 3 (M1) and 6 months (M2), were executive function, control and integration in the implementation of an adequate behaviour in relation to a certain objective, specifically the ability to switch information (Trail Making Test), working memory (Verbal Digit Span test), and selective attention and conflict resolution ability (Stroop test), quality of life (MacNew questionnaire) and depression, anxiety and stress (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21). Descriptive and inferential statistical measures were used, significance level was set at .05. The IG1 revealed significant improvements, in the selective attention and conflict resolution ability, in comparison with the CG in the variable difference M0 - M2 (p = .021) and in comparison with the IG2 in the variable difference M1 - M2 and M0 - M2 (p = .001 and p = .002, respectively). No significant differences were found in the quality of life, and depression, anxiety and stress. The virtual reality format had improved selective attention and conflict resolution ability, revealing the potential of CR, specifically with virtual reality exercise, on executive function. Implications for Rehabilitation In cardiac rehabilitation, especially in phase III, it is

  7. Peeling the Onion: Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    March–April 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 24 Feature Peeling the Onion Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works Lt Col Alan Docauer...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Peeling the Onion : Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works 5a...Air & Space Power Journal | 25 Docauer Peeling the Onion Feature What Is Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution? Emerging in the aftermath of

  8. NPS Executive Education and Professional Development Programs Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has strong executive education and professional development (EE/PD) programs that extend the reach of its graduate programs to mid- or senior-grade professionals who are unable to take the time out of their careers to attend degree programs, or who need targeted information at their locations on their time schedules. In addition to degree and certificate courses offered for credit, Schools, Centers, Departments, Institutes and other organizations of NPS pro...

  9. Marketing the Masters of Executive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    utilized this example of product differentiation to capture a target market by restructuring their current model line up to include the new four door...managed using a product differentiation strategy to minimize the risks of cannibalization from its 18-month MBA program (Moses, 2005a). Discussion

  10. Executive control suppresses pupillary responses to aversive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noga; Moyal, Natali; Henik, Avishai

    2015-12-01

    Adaptive behavior depends on the ability to effectively regulate emotional responses. Continuous failure in the regulation of emotions can lead to heightened physiological reactions and to various psychopathologies. Recently, several behavioral and neuroimaging studies showed that exertion of executive control modulates emotion. Executive control is a high-order operation involved in goal-directed behavior, especially in the face of distractors or temptations. However, the role of executive control in regulating emotion-related physiological reactions is unknown. Here we show that exercise of executive control modulates reactivity of both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system. Specifically, we demonstrate that both pupillary light reflex and pupil dilation for aversive stimuli are attenuated following recruitment of executive control. These findings offer new insights into the very basic mechanisms of emotion processing and regulation, and can lead to novel interventions for people suffering from emotion dysregulation psychopathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Event Coordination Notation: Execution Engine and Programming Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2012-01-01

    that was written manually. In this paper, we rephrase the main concepts of ECNO. The focus of this paper, however, is on the architecture of the ECNO execution engine and its programming framework. We will show how this framework allows us to integrate ECNO with object-oriented models, how it works without any...

  12. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  13. Navy Executive Development Program, Navy Senior Leader Seminar (NSLS)

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Tyller

    2014-01-01

    Flyer for the Navy Senior Leader Seminar (NSLS) The Course: The Navy Senior Leader Seminar (NSLS) provides senior officers (O6/O5) and senior civilians (GS-15) with an intensive nine-day executive education program that introduces the latest "best practices" in strategic planning, goal setting, strategic communication, effects-based thinking, risk management, financial management, and innovation. The program provide participants with the knowledge and skills required to manage...

  14. Executive control training from middle childhood to adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Karbach, Julia; Unger, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) include a number of higher-level cognitive control abilities, such as cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory, which are instrumental in supporting action control and the flexible adaptation changing environments. These control functions are supported by the prefrontal cortex and therefore develop rapidly across childhood and mature well into late adolescence. Given that executive control is a strong predictor for various life outcomes, such as academic...

  15. Optical Neural Network Models Applied To Logic Program Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormon, Charles D.

    1988-05-01

    Logic programming is being used extensively by Artificial Intelligence researchers to solve problems including natural language processing and expert systems. These languages, of which Prolog is the most widely used, promise to revolutionize software engineering, but much greater performance is needed. Researchers have demonstrated the applicability of neural network models to the solution of certain NP-complete problems, but these methods are not obviously applicable to the execution of logic programs. This paper outlines the use of neural networks in four aspects of the logic program execution cycle, and discusses results of a simulation of three of these. Four neural network functional units are described, called the substitution agent, the clause filter, the structure processor, and the heuristics generator, respectively. Simulation results suggest that the system described may provide several orders of magnitude improvement in execution speed for large logic programs. However, practical implementation of the proposed architecture will require the application of optical computing techniques due to the large number of neurons required, and the need for massive, adaptive connectivity.

  16. Execution time support for scientific programs on distributed memory machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Harry; Saltz, Joel; Scroggs, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Optimizations are considered that are required for efficient execution of code segments that consists of loops over distributed data structures. The PARTI (Parallel Automated Runtime Toolkit at ICASE) execution time primitives are designed to carry out these optimizations and can be used to implement a wide range of scientific algorithms on distributed memory machines. These primitives allow the user to control array mappings in a way that gives an appearance of shared memory. Computations can be based on a global index set. Primitives are used to carry out gather and scatter operations on distributed arrays. Communications patterns are derived at runtime, and the appropriate send and receive messages are automatically generated.

  17. A Working Memory System With Distributed Executive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, André

    2016-01-01

    Working memory consists of domain-specific storage facilities and domain-general executive control processes. In some working memory theories, these control processes are accounted for via a homunculus, the central executive. In the present article, the author defends a mechanistic view of executive control by adopting the position that executive control is situated in the context of goal-directed behavior to maintain and protect the goal and to select an action to attain the goal. On the basis of findings in task switching and dual tasking, he proposes an adapted multicomponent working memory model in which the central executive is replaced by three interacting components: an executive memory that maintains the task set, a collection of acquired procedural rules, and an engine that executes the procedural rules that match the ensemble of working memory contents. The strongest among the rules that match the ensemble of working memory contents is applied, resulting in changes of the working memory contents or in motor actions. According to this model, goals are attained when the route to the goals is known or can be searched when the route is unknown (problem solving). Empirical evidence for this proposal and new predictions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. About Parallel Programming: Paradigms, Parallel Execution and Collaborative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MOCEAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, there were made efforts for delineation of a stabile and unitary frame, where the problems of logical parallel processing must find solutions at least at the level of imperative languages. The results obtained by now are not at the level of the made efforts. This paper wants to be a little contribution at these efforts. We propose an overview in parallel programming, parallel execution and collaborative systems.

  19. 76 FR 17658 - National Forum for State and Territorial Chief Executives (National Forum) Program Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Forum for State and Territorial Chief Executives (National Forum) Program Cooperative Agreement AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... Forum for State and Territorial Chief Executives (National Forum) Program Cooperative Agreement. SUMMARY...

  20. Randomized controlled trials: planning, monitoring, and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Elizabeth; Dicks, Elizabeth; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2015-01-01

    Large integrated multidisciplinary teams have become recognized as an efficient means by which to drive innovation and discovery in clinical research. This chapter describes how to plan, budget and fund these large studies and execute the studies with well-designed governance and monitoring protocols in place, to efficiently manage the large, often dispersed teams involved. Sources of funding are identified, budget development, justification, reporting, financial governance and accountability are described, in addition to the creation and management of the multidisciplinary team that will implement the research plan.

  1. Executive control training from middle childhood to adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eKarbach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions include a number of higher-level cognitive control abilities, such as cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory serving action control and the flexible adaptation to changes in the environment. These control functions are supported by the prefrontal cortex and therefore develop rapidly across childhood and mature well into late adolescence. Given that executive control is a strong predictor for various life outcomes, such as academic attainment, socioeconomic status, and physical health, numerous training interventions have been designed to improve executive functioning across the lifespan, many of them targeting children and adolescents. Despite the increasing popularity of these trainings, their results are neither robust nor consistent, and the transferability of training-induced performance improvements to untrained tasks seems to be limited. In this review, we provide a selective overview of the developmental literature on process-based cognitive interventions by discussing (1 the concept and the development of executive functions and their neural underpinnings, (2 the effects of different types of executive control training in normally developing children and adolescents, (3 individual differences in training-related performance gains as well as (4 the potential of cognitive training interventions for the application in clinical and educational contexts. Based on recent findings, we consider how transfer of process-based executive control trainings may be supported and how interventions may be tailored to the needs of specific age groups or populations.

  2. Executive Control Goes to School: Implications of Preschool Executive Performance for Observed Elementary Classroom Learning Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; James, Tiffany D.; Clark, Caron A. C.; Kidwell, Katherine M.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-01-01

    The transition to elementary school is accompanied by increasing demands for children to regulate their attention and behavior within the classroom setting. Executive control (EC) may be critical for meeting these demands; however, few studies have rigorously examined the association between EC and observed classroom behavior. This study examined…

  3. Acute aerobic exercise alters executive control network in preadolescent children

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ai-Guo

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of acute aerobic exercise on executive function (EF) and executive control network (ECN) in preadolescent children, and further explored the neural basis of acute aerobic exercise on EF in these children. We used a within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order. Nine healthy, right-handed children were scanned with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and performed an EF task both in baseline session and exercise session. T...

  4. Hardware-Assisted System for Program Execution Security of SOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of embedded systems, the systems’ security has become more and more important. Most embedded systems are at the risk of series of software attacks, such as buffer overflow attack, Trojan virus. In addition, with the rapid growth in the number of embedded systems and wide application, followed embedded hardware attacks are also increasing. This paper presents a new hardware assisted security mechanism to protect the program’s code and data, monitoring its normal execution. The mechanism mainly monitors three types of information: the start/end address of the program of basic blocks; the lightweight hash value in basic blocks and address of the next basic block. These parameters are extracted through additional tools running on PC. The information will be stored in the security module. During normal program execution, the security module is designed to compare the real-time state of program with the information in the security module. If abnormal, it will trigger the appropriate security response, suspend the program and jump to the specified location. The module has been tested and validated on the SOPC with OR1200 processor. The experimental analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can defence a wide range of common software and physical attacks with low performance penalties and minimal overheads.

  5. Executive control training from middle childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, Julia; Unger, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) include a number of higher-level cognitive control abilities, such as cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory, which are instrumental in supporting action control and the flexible adaptation changing environments. These control functions are supported by the prefrontal cortex and therefore develop rapidly across childhood and mature well into late adolescence. Given that executive control is a strong predictor for various life outcomes, such as academic achievement, socioeconomic status, and physical health, numerous training interventions have been designed to improve executive functioning across the lifespan, many of them targeting children and adolescents. Despite the increasing popularity of these trainings, their results are neither robust nor consistent, and the transferability of training-induced performance improvements to untrained tasks seems to be limited. In this review, we provide a selective overview of the developmental literature on process-based cognitive interventions by discussing (1) the concept and the development of EFs and their neural underpinnings, (2) the effects of different types of executive control training in normally developing children and adolescents, (3) individual differences in training-related performance gains as well as (4) the potential of cognitive training interventions for the application in clinical and educational contexts. Based on recent findings, we consider how transfer of process-based executive control trainings may be supported and how interventions may be tailored to the needs of specific age groups or populations.

  6. TEST CONTROL OF CALCULATED TASKS EXECUTION AT THE ALGORITHMIC LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr O. Petkov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the question of the open calculated tasks test control. These materials are focused on basic algorithmic level of educational activity. A method for estimating the control results based on the implementation of the minimum number of open computational tasks is proposed. The technique allows the possibility of refutation mark, exposed by a computer program. It also describes, the characteristics of the controlling program, realizing the method. There are presented the results of calculated tasks execution using the developed program. Information of the article can be used for control tests developing at any algorithmic level of educational activities and for researching of complexity of open calculated tasks.

  7. 2011 National Drug Control Strategy. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy", a comprehensive approach to combat the public health and safety consequences posed by drug use. Now, a year later, the Administration is releasing its update building upon that initial "Strategy". The "Strategy" establishes ambitious goals to…

  8. Scaling Concolic Execution of Binary Programs for Security Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    execution. We also study unexplored applications of concolic execution in security-related problems such as malware genealogy and protocol model inference...tions of concolic execution. We also study unexplored applications of con- colic execution in security-related problems such as malware genealogy and...discovery and signature generation. We then study further unexplored uses of concolic execution in security-related problems such as malware genealogy

  9. Plasticity of Executive Control through Task Switching Training in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, Katharina; Einert, Manuela; Pfennig, Lydia; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that cognitive training can enhance performance in executive control tasks. The current study was designed to explore if executive control, specifically task switching, can be trained in adolescents, what particular aspects of executive control may underlie training and transfer effects, and if acute bouts of exercise directly prior to cognitive training enhance training effects. For that purpose, a task switching training was employed that has been shown to be effective in other age groups. A group of adolescents (10-14 years, n = 20) that received a three-session task switching training was compared to a group (n = 20) that received the same task switching training but who exercised on a stationary bike before each training session. Additionally, a no-contact and an exercise only control group were included (both ns = 20). Analyses indicated that both training groups significantly reduced their switching costs over the course of the training sessions for reaction times and error rates, respectively. Analyses indicated transfer to mixing costs in a task switching task that was similar to the one used in training. Far transfer was limited to a choice reaction time task and a tendency for faster reaction times in an updating task. Analyses revealed no additional effects of the exercise intervention. Findings thus indicate that executive control can be enhanced in adolescents through training and that updating may be of particular relevance for the effects of task switching training.

  10. Constellation Program: Lessons Learned. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    This document (Volume I) provides an executive summary of the lessons learned from the Constellation Program. A companion Volume II provides more detailed analyses for those seeking further insight and information. In this volume, Section 1.0 introduces the approach in preparing and organizing the content to enable rapid assimilation of the lessons. Section 2.0 describes the contextual framework in which the Constellation Program was formulated and functioned that is necessary to understand most of the lessons. Context of a former program may seem irrelevant in the heady days of new program formulation. However, readers should take some time to understand the context. Many of the lessons would be different in a different context, so the reader should reflect on the similarities and differences in his or her current circumstances. Section 3.0 summarizes key findings developed from the significant lessons learned at the program level that appear in Section 4.0. Readers can use the key findings in Section 3.0 to peruse for particular topics, and will find more supporting detail and analyses in Section 4.0 in a topical format. Appendix A contains a white paper describing the Constellation Program formulation that may be of use to readers wanting more context or background information. The reader will no doubt recognize some very similar themes from previous lessons learned, blue-ribbon committee reviews, National Academy reviews, and advisory panel reviews for this and other large-scale human spaceflight programs; including Apollo, Space Shuttle, Shuttle/Mir, and the ISS. This could represent an inability to learn lessons from previous generations; however, it is more likely that similar challenges persist in the Agency structure and approach to program formulation, budget advocacy, and management. Perhaps the greatest value of these Constellation lessons learned can be found in viewing them in context with these previous efforts to guide and advise the Agency and its

  11. Executive and Language Control in the Multilingual Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pak-Hin Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1, English (L2, and Mandarin (L3 speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T’s executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.

  12. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  13. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Programs for Students with ADHD with Executive Function Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimaha, Napalai; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Lersilp, Suchitporn; Chinchai, Supaporn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of therapeutic programs, an executive function training program and a collaborative program, for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with executive function deficits (EFDs), especially regarding working memory, planning, and monitoring. The participants were…

  14. Benefits of Exercise on the Executive Functions in People with Parkinson Disease: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renata Terra; Felippe, Lilian Assunção; Bucken Gobbi, Lilian Teresa; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Christofoletti, Gustavo

    2017-05-01

    We have made a 3-arm trial (group vs. individual exercise vs. no treatment) to test the effects of a 6-month exercise program upon the executive functions in participants with Parkinson disease. Twenty-four subjects were randomly allocated in 3 groups and undertook individualized exercises (G1, n = 8), group exercises (G2, n = 8), or monitoring (G3, n = 8). Executive functions were evaluated by means of the Wisconsin card sorting test and the Raven colored matrices, both assessed at the beginning of the program and after 6 months. The statistical analyses consisted of the application of repeated measurement tests, with a significant level of 5%. The findings showed similar behavior of groups in terms of the Wisconsin card sorting test (P = 0.792), reporting no benefit of the program on such instrument. Differently, Raven colored matrices evidenced a significant benefit provided by the intervention (P = 0.032). Compared with the control group, individuals from G1 had a substantial improvement on executive functions (P = 0.031) and from G2 had a trend of significance (P = 0.072). Findings of this study show that 6 months of exercise improved some aspects of executive functions when compared with control peers. Individual therapy seems to have a more prominent improvement than group therapy.

  15. Conceptual Understanding of Computer Program Execution: Application to C++

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fedaghi, Sabah

    2013-01-01

    A visual programming language uses pictorial tools such as diagrams to represent its structural units and control stream. It is useful for enhancing understanding, maintenance, verification, testing, and parallelism. This paper proposes a diagrammatic methodology that produces a conceptual representation of instructions for programming source codes. Without loss of generality in the potential for using the methodology in a wider range of applications, this paper focuses on using these diagram...

  16. Executive control goes to school: Implications of preschool executive performance for observed elementary classroom learning engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; James, Tiffany D; Clark, Caron A C; Kidwell, Katherine M; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-05-01

    The transition to elementary school is accompanied by increasing demands for children to regulate their attention and behavior within the classroom setting. Executive control (EC) may be critical for meeting these demands; however, few studies have rigorously examined the association between EC and observed classroom behavior. This study examined EC in preschool (age 5 years 3 months) as a predictor of classroom learning engagement behaviors in first grade, using a battery of performance-based EC tasks and live classroom observations in a longitudinal sample of 313 children. Multilevel modeling results indicated that stronger EC predicted more focused engagement and fewer task management and competing responses, controlling for socioeconomic status, child sex, and age at observations. Results suggest that early EC may support subsequent classroom engagement behaviors that are critical for successful transition to elementary school and long-term learning trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    improved CWMD targeting and planning. The Simu- lation Environment & Response Program Execution Nesting Tool ( SERPENT ), version 2.2, improved the...effects to support target analysis for conventional and agent defeat weapons ( SERPENT ); and neutralization effects of various environments on CB agents...WMD USSTRATCOM Center for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction SERPENT Simulation Environment & Response Program Execution Nesting Tool SLD Second

  18. Motor skill experience modulates executive control for task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuhua; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Chau, Bolton; Fu, Amy S N

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis further confirmed these findings. For the simple reaction task, there were no differences found among the three groups. These findings suggest that experience in open skills has benefits of promoting both proactive and reactive controls for task switching, which corresponds to the activity context exposed by the participants. In contrast, experience in closed skills appears to only benefit development of reactive control for task switching. The neural mechanisms for the proactive and reactive controls of executive functions between experts with open and closed skills call for future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The role of executive functioning in children's attentional pain control: an experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Katrien; Dick, Bruce; Eccleston, Christopher; Goubert, Liesbet; Crombez, Geert

    2014-02-01

    Directing attention away from pain is often used in children's pain treatment programs to control pain. However, empirical evidence concerning its effectiveness is inconclusive. We therefore sought to understand other influencing factors, including executive function and its role in the pain experience. This study investigates the role of executive functioning in the effectiveness of distraction. School children (n=164) completed executive functioning tasks (inhibition, switching, and working memory) and performed a cold-pressor task. One half of the children simultaneously performed a distracting tone-detection task; the other half did not. Results showed that participants in the distraction group were engaged in the distraction task and were reported to pay significantly less attention to pain than controls. Executive functioning influenced distraction task engagement. More specifically, participants with good inhibition and working memory abilities performed the distraction task better; participants with good switching abilities reported having paid more attention to the distraction task. Furthermore, distraction was found to be ineffective in reducing pain intensity and affect. Executive functioning did not influence the effectiveness of distraction. However, a relationship was found between executive functioning and pain affect, indicating that participants with good inhibition and working memory abilities experienced the cold-pressor task as less stressful and unpleasant. Our findings suggest that distraction as a process for managing pain is complex. While it appears that executive function may play a role in adult distraction, in this study it did not direct attention away from pain. It may instead be involved in the overall pain experience. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the short-term executive plus intervention for executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial with minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Joshua; Ashman, Teresa; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Dijkers, Marcel P; Gordon, Wayne; Spielman, Lisa; Tsaousides, Theodore; Allen, Hafina; Nguyen, Michael; Oswald, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the Short-Term Executive Plus (STEP) cognitive rehabilitation program improves executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Randomized, waitlist controlled trial with minimization and blinded outcome assessment. Community. Participants with TBI and executive dysfunction (N=98; TBI severity 50% moderate/severe; mean time since injury ± SD, 12±14y; mean age ± SD, 45±14y; 62% women; 76% white). STEP program: 12 weeks (9h/wk) of group training in problem solving and emotional regulation and individual sessions of attention and compensatory strategies training. Factor analysis was used to create a composite executive function measure using the Problem Solving Inventory, Frontal Systems Behavior Scale, Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome, and Self-Awareness of Deficits Interview. Emotional regulation was assessed with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The primary attention measure was the Attention Rating and Monitoring Scale. Secondary measures included neuropsychological measures of executive function, attention, and memory and measures of affective distress, self-efficacy, social participation, and quality of life. Intention-to-treat mixed-effects analyses revealed significant treatment effects for the composite executive function measure (P=.008) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (P=.049) and Problem Solving Inventory (P=.016). We found no between-group differences on the neuropsychological measures or on measures of attention, emotional regulation, self-awareness, affective distress, self-efficacy, participation, or quality of life. The STEP program is efficacious in improving self-reported post-TBI executive function and problem solving. Further research is needed to identify the roles of the different components of the intervention and its effectiveness with different TBI populations. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Resilient Control System Execution Agent (ReCoSEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig G. Rieger; Kris Villez

    2012-08-01

    In an increasingly networked world, critical infrastructure systems suffer from two types of vulnerability. The first is the traditionally recognized problem of monitoring the systems for faults and failures, recognizing and analyzing data, and responding with real understanding to the problems of the system. Increasingly complex systems create the opportunity for single points of failure to cascade when inaccurate assessment of system health increases response time or leads to faulty analysis of the problems involved. A second problem involves vulnerability to cyber intrusion, in which bad actors can mask system deterioration or present false data about system status. A resilient system will protect stability, efficiency, and security. To ensure these three states, the system must react to changing conditions within the system with coordination: no one component of the system can be allowed to react to problems without real consideration of the effects of that action on other components within the system. Systems with multi-agent design typically have three layers of action, a management layer, a coordination layer, and an execution layer. A resilient multi-agent system will emphasize functions of the execution layer, which has the responsibility of initiating actions, monitoring, analyzing, and controlling its own processes, while feeding information back to the higher levels of management and coordination. The design concept of a resilient control system execution agent (ReCoSEA) grows out of these underpinnings, and through the use of computational intelligence techniques, this paper suggests an associated design methodology.

  2. Localizing Bugs in Program Executions with Graphical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Laura; Dallmeier, Valentin; Zeller, Andreas; Scheffer, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We devise a graphical model that supports the process of debugging software by guiding developers to code that is likely to contain defects. The model is trained using execution traces of passing test runs; it reflects the distribution over transitional patterns of code positions. Given a failing test case, the model determines the least likely transitional pattern in the execution trace. The model is designed such that Bayesian inference has a closed-form solution. We...

  3. How do emotion and motivation direct executive control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2009-04-01

    Emotion and motivation have crucial roles in determining human behavior. Yet, how they interact with cognitive control functions is less understood. Here, the basic elements of a conceptual framework for understanding how they interact are introduced. More broadly, the 'dual competition' framework proposes that emotion and motivation affect both perceptual and executive competition. In particular, the anterior cingulate cortex is hypothesized to be engaged in attentional/effortful control mechanisms and to interact with several other brain structures, including the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, in integrating affectively significant signals with control signals in prefrontal cortex. An implication of the proposal is that emotion and motivation can either enhance or impair behavioral performance depending on how they interact with control functions.

  4. Geometric Modeling Applications Interface Program (GMAP). Volume 1. Executive Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    342f CI FTR560240OOlU September 1989 SECTION 2 SCOPE OF GMAP GMAP focused on the generacion , control, and exchange of computer information to replace...embraced the idea of PDD and product models that had come out of the PDDI program. As part of the GMAP contract, it was necessay to establish the minimum... ideas and concepts that result from this research and be appropriately motivated to develop commercial products. 5.5 INTEGRATE PD WITH SUPPLIER BASE The

  5. Teaching OM at an Action-based Learning Program for Top Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Staffensen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses design and execution of OM module in an intensive program for top executives. The participants are working as consultants in six different host companies on developing growth strategies. The OM module is designed to enable the participants to develop operations strategy...... that supports corporate growth strategy....

  6. Executive Control Mediates the Association Between Aerobic Fitness and Emotion Regulation in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Mark A; Jensen, Chad D

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated direct and indirect associations between aerobic fitness, executive control, and emotion regulation among a community sample of preadolescent children. Two-hundred and seventy-eight children aged 8-12 years completed measures of aerobic fitness (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) and executive control (Stroop Test). Parents completed questionnaires assessing child emotion regulation and executive control (Emotion Regulation Checklist; Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire). We evaluated associations between these constructs using structural equation modeling. Study findings supported a moderate direct association between childhood aerobic fitness and executive control, a strong direct negative association between executive control and emotion regulation, and a moderate indirect association between aerobic fitness and emotion regulation through executive control. These findings provide preliminary evidence that executive control functions as a mediator between aerobic fitness and emotion regulation and may help explain the mechanism by which aerobic exercise influences emotional well-being among preadolescent children.

  7. Among three different executive functions, general executive control ability is a key predictor of decision making under objective risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eSchiebener

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive functioning is supposed to have an important role in decision making under risk. Several studies reported that more advantageous decision-making behavior was accompanied by better performance in tests of executive functioning and that the decision-making process was accompanied by activations in prefrontal and subcortical brain regions associated with executive functioning. However, to what extent different components of executive functions contribute to decision making is still unclear. We tested direct and indirect effects of three executive functions on decision-making performance in a laboratory gambling task, the Game of Dice Task (GDT. Using Brand’s model of decisions under risk (2006 we tested seven structural equation models with three latent variables that represent executive functions supposed to be involved in decision making. The latent variables were general control (represented by the general ability to exert attentional and behavioral self-control that is in accordance with task goals despite interfering information, concept formation (represented by categorization, rule detection, and set maintenance, and monitoring (represented by supervision of cognition and behavior. The seven models indicated that only the latent dimension general control had a direct effect on decision making under risk. Concept formation and monitoring only contributed in terms of indirect effects, when mediated by general control. Thus, several components of executive functioning seem to be involved in decision making under risk. However, general control functions seem to have a key role. They may be important for implementing the calculative and cognitively controlled processes involved in advantageous decision making under risk.

  8. Improving Air Force Command and Control Through Enhanced Agile Combat Support Planning, Execution, Monitoring, and Control Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Architec- ture for Combat Support Execution Planning and Control, James A. Leftwich, Robert S. Tripp, Amanda B. Geller , Patrick Mills, Tom LaTourrette...influences, such as Program Budget Deci- sion 720, dated November 7, 2006, reducing Air Force manpower end strength and budget cuts , changed the...example of a political objective might be to expel Saddam Hussein from Kuwait. The regional oper- ational objective was to cut off communications and

  9. Why are they late? Timing abilities and executive control among students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, Nufar; Rosenblum, Sara

    2016-12-01

    is the first analysis of the relationships between their executive control and time estimation deficits and their influence upon their daily function and organization in time abilities. Our findings demonstrate that students with LD need more time in order to execute simple daily activities, such as preparing a cup of coffee. Deficient working memory, retrospective time estimation ability and inhibition predicted their performance time and organization in time abilities. Therefore, this paper sheds light on the mechanism behind daily performance in time among students with LD and emphasizes the need for future development of focused intervention programs to meet their unique needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exact and approximate probabilistic symbolic execution for nondeterministic programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic...

  11. Restructuring Symbolic Programs for Concurrent Execution on Multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    spastic kind. -Richard G. Gill, White Water and Black Magic Optin1ization of Concurrent Progran1s This chapter briefly describes some...the definition above can be strengthened by the additional constraint: 4. The execution of 5 1 and 5 2 is not mutually exclusive. Precisely

  12. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-04-16

    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  13. Study on Displaying the Execution History for Java Programs Using JavaCC

    OpenAIRE

    竹下, 彰人; 片山, 徹郎

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###Recently, Java programs are widely diffused to society. The improvement of the ###reliability of Java programs is needed. Detecting errors in programs leads to the im-###provement of the reliability. of the programs. In this research, the execution history for ###Java programs is displayed by using a syntax analyzer in order to improve the relia-###bility of the programs. The syntax analyzer which consists of statically analyzing part ###and probe embedding part is implemented. Ja...

  14. The effect of script similarity on executive control in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2014-01-01

    The need for executive control (EC) during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a "bilingual advantage" on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual's two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE), Polish-English (PE), and Arabic-English (AE), respectively) and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic influences in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities.

  15. The Effect of Script Similarity on Executive Control in Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Coderre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for executive control (EC during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a ‘bilingual advantage’ on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual’s two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE, Polish-English (PE, and Arabic-English (AE, respectively and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic interference in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities.

  16. WWC Review of the Report "Effects of the FITKids Randomized Controlled Trial on Executive Control and Brain Function." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This study measured the impact of the "Fitness Improves Thinking in Kids" ("FITKids") afterschool program on the executive control (i.e., maintaining focus, performing multiple cognitive processes) and physical fitness of preadolescent students. The "FITKids" program was held at the University of Illinois' campus and…

  17. Academic Executive Programs in Public Administration and Management: Some Variety across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Universities and other higher education institutions in Europe offer a vast and increasing number of academic degree programs in the broad field of Public Administration. A subset of these programs is those offering postgraduate degrees to experienced students being already employed by public or private organisations. These executive programs are…

  18. Using Student Input to Develop a Marketing Strategy for an Executive MBA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite continued growth in the number of Executive MBA (EMBA) Programs in the U. S. and worldwide, previous research concerning the marketing of EMBA Programs has been very limited. Here, the author investigates ways to successfully market an EMBA Program at a southern U. S. university. Extensive exploratory research was conducted among current…

  19. Prospective associations between bilingualism and executive function in Latino children: sustained effects while controlling for biculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Shin, Hee-Sung; Unger, Jennifer B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-10-01

    The study purpose was to test 1-year prospective associations between English-Spanish bilingualism and executive function in 5th to 6th grade students while controlling for biculturalism. Participants included 182 US Latino students (50 % female). Self-report surveys assessed biculturalism, bilingualism, and executive function (i.e., working memory, organizational skills, inhibitory control, and emotional control, as well as a summary executive function score). General linear model regressions demonstrated that bilingualism significantly predicted the summary executive function score as well as working memory such that bilingual proficiency was positively related to executive function. Results are the first to demonstrate (a) prospective associations between bilingualism to executive function while controlling for the potential third variable of biculturalism, and (b) a principal role for working memory in this relationship. Since executive function is associated with a host of health outcomes, one implication of study findings is that bilingualism may have an indirect protective influence on youth development.

  20. Preschool Executive Control and Internalizing Symptoms in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D; Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Tomaso, Cara C; Hankey, Maren; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2018-01-08

    Depression and anxiety are prevalent and impairing forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Deficits in early executive control (EC) may contribute to the development of these problems, but longitudinal studies with rigorous measurement across key developmental periods are limited. The current study examines EC in preschool as a predictor of subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms in elementary school in a community sample (N = 280). Child participants completed a battery of nine developmentally-appropriate tasks designed to measure major aspects of EC at age 5 years, 3 months. Children later participated in an elementary school follow-up phase, during which they completed validated norm-referenced self-report questionnaires of depression and anxiety symptoms in fourth grade. Results indicate that poorer preschool EC was significantly associated with both greater depression and anxiety symptoms in elementary school, controlling for baseline depression and anxiety symptoms in preschool and other relevant variables. These findings suggest that poor EC may be an important risk factor for the development of internalizing psychopathology in childhood. Given emerging evidence for the modifiability of EC, particularly in preschool, EC promotion interventions may hold promise as a potential target in psychopathology prevention.

  1. Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary describes highlights from the report, "Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities." City-led efforts to build coordinated systems of afterschool programming are an important strategy for improving the health, safety and academic preparedness of children…

  2. Mindfulness Meditation Training and Executive Control Network Resting State Functional Connectivity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Creswell, J David

    Mindfulness meditation training has been previously shown to enhance behavioral measures of executive control (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive control), but the neural mechanisms underlying these improvements are largely unknown. Here, we test whether mindfulness training interventions foster executive control by strengthening functional connections between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)-a hub of the executive control network-and frontoparietal regions that coordinate executive function. Thirty-five adults with elevated levels of psychological distress participated in a 3-day randomized controlled trial of intensive mindfulness meditation or relaxation training. Participants completed a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan before and after the intervention. We tested whether mindfulness meditation training increased resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between dlPFC and frontoparietal control network regions. Left dlPFC showed increased connectivity to the right inferior frontal gyrus (T = 3.74), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) (T = 3.98), right supplementary eye field (T = 4.29), right parietal cortex (T = 4.44), and left middle temporal gyrus (T = 3.97, all p < .05) after mindfulness training relative to the relaxation control. Right dlPFC showed increased connectivity to right MFG (T = 4.97, p < .05). We report that mindfulness training increases rsFC between dlPFC and dorsal network (superior parietal lobule, supplementary eye field, MFG) and ventral network (right IFG, middle temporal/angular gyrus) regions. These findings extend previous work showing increased functional connectivity among brain regions associated with executive function during active meditation by identifying specific neural circuits in which rsFC is enhanced by a mindfulness intervention in individuals with high levels of psychological distress. Clinicaltrials.gov,NCT01628809.

  3. Executive control and felt concentrative engagement following intensive meditation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Paul Zanesco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of mental training have been shown to improve performance on cognitively demanding tasks. Individuals trained in meditative practices, for example, show generalized improvements on a variety of tasks assessing attentional performance. A central claim of this training, derived from contemplative traditions, posits that improved attentional performance is accompanied by subjective increases in the stability and clarity of concentrative engagement with one’s object of focus, as well as reductions in felt cognitive effort as expertise develops. However, despite frequent claims of mental stability following training, the phenomenological correlates of meditation-related attentional improvements have yet to be characterized. In a longitudinal study, we assessed changes in executive control (performance on a 32-minute response inhibition task and retrospective reports of task engagement (concentration, motivation, and effort following one month of intensive, daily Vipassana meditation training. Compared to matched controls, training participants exhibited improvements in response inhibition accuracy and reductions in reaction time variability. The training group also reported increases in concentration, but not effort or motivation, during task performance. Critically, increases in concentration predicted improvements in reaction time variability, suggesting a link between the experience of concentrative engagement and ongoing fluctuations in attentional stability. By incorporating experiential measures of task performance, the present study corroborates phenomenological accounts of stable, clear attentional engagement with the object of meditative focus following extensive training. These results provide initial evidence that meditation-related changes in felt experience accompany improvements in adaptive, goal-directed behavior, and that such shifts may reflect accurate awareness of measurable changes in performance.

  4. The effect of childhood bilectalism and multilingualism on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Kyriakos; Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria; Katsos, Napoleon

    2016-04-01

    Several investigations report a positive effect of childhood bilingualism on executive control (EC). An issue that has remained largely unexamined is the role of the typological distance between the languages spoken by bilinguals. In the present study we focus on children who grow up with Cypriot Greek and Standard Modern Greek, two closely related varieties that differ from each other on all levels of language analysis (vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar). We compare the EC performance of such bilectal children to that of English-Greek multilingual children in Cyprus and Standard Modern Greek-speaking monolingual children in Greece. A principal component analysis on six indicators of EC revealed two distinct factors, which we interpreted as representing working memory and inhibition. Multilingual and bilectal children exhibited an advantage over monolinguals that was evident across EC factors and emerged only after statistically controlling for their lower language proficiency. These results demonstrate that similar EC advantages as previously reported for 'true' bilingual speakers can be found in bilectal children, which suggests that minimal typological distance between the varieties spoken by a child suffices to give rise to advantages in EC. They further indicate that the effect of speaking more than one language or dialect on EC performance is located across the EC system without a particular component being selectively affected. This has implications for models of the locus of the bilingual advantage in EC performance. Finally, they show that the emergence of EC advantages in bilinguals is moderated by the level of their language proficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CAL--ERDA program manual. [Building Design Language; LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, REPORT, EXECUTIVE, CAL-ERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, B. D.; Diamond, S. C.; Bennett, G. A.; Tucker, E. F.; Roschke, M. A.

    1977-10-01

    A set of computer programs, called Cal-ERDA, is described that is capable of rapid and detailed analysis of energy consumption in buildings. A new user-oriented input language, named the Building Design Language (BDL), has been written to allow simplified manipulation of the many variables used to describe a building and its operation. This manual provides the user with information necessary to understand in detail the Cal-ERDA set of computer programs. The new computer programs described include: an EXECUTIVE Processor to create computer system control commands; a BDL Processor to analyze input instructions, execute computer system control commands, perform assignments and data retrieval, and control the operation of the LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, and REPORT programs; a LOADS analysis program that calculates peak (design) zone and hourly loads and the effect of the ambient weather conditions, the internal occupancy, lighting, and equipment within the building, as well as variations in the size, location, orientation, construction, walls, roofs, floors, fenestrations, attachments (awnings, balconies), and shape of a building; a Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) SYSTEMS analysis program capable of modeling the operation of HVAC components including fans, coils, economizers, humidifiers, etc.; 16 standard configurations and operated according to various temperature and humidity control schedules. A plant equipment program models the operation of boilers, chillers, electrical generation equipment (diesel or turbines), heat storage apparatus (chilled or heated water), and solar heating and/or cooling systems. An ECONOMIC analysis program calculates life-cycle costs. A REPORT program produces tables of user-selected variables and arranges them according to user-specified formats. A set of WEATHER ANALYSIS programs manipulates, summarizes and plots weather data. Libraries of weather data, schedule data, and building data were prepared.

  6. Two routes to closure: Time pressure and goal activation effects on executive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossowska Małgorzata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the impact of need for cognitive closure (NFC manipulations via time pressure and explicit closure goal activation on executive control was investigated. Although there is some evidence that NFC, measured as an individual variable, is related to better performing in attentional tasks involving executive control, these results have never been validated across different manipulations of NFC. Thus, in the present study we induced NFC via internal and external time pressure and tested the impact of these manipulations on the performance in tasks that measure executive control, i.e., the Stroop and switching tasks. The results revealed that induced high (vs. low NFC, indeed boosted performance in executive control tasks. Moreover, there was no difference in the effect of both NFC manipulations on task performance. The implications regarding the role of executive control and specific NFC manipulations in social cognition are discussed.

  7. Executive Assistant - Vice-President, Programs and Partnerships ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In collaboration with the Senior Programs Advisor , tracks Branch operational expenditures, reviews accounting reports, determines spending patterns, and plans for upcoming expenses. Coordinates the Branch annual intake of summer students, from calculating how many can be hired according to budget and office space ...

  8. Operations Management in the Design and Execution of MBA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busing, Michael E.; Palocsay, Susan W.

    2016-01-01

    Master of business administration (MBA) programs are under intense pressure to improve efficiencies, lower tuition, and offer refreshed curriculum that is of high quality and regarded as relevant by the marketplace. In light of this environment, the authors propose a conceptual framework for effectively employing operations management (OM)…

  9. The pervasive nature of unconscious social information processing in executive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjani ePrabhakaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans not only have impressive executive abilities, but we are also fundamentally social creatures. In the cognitive neuroscience literature, it has long been assumed that executive control mechanisms, which play a critical role in guiding goal-directed behavior, operate on consciously processed information. Although more recent evidence suggests that unconsciously processed information can also influence executive control, most of this literature has focused on visual masked priming paradigms. However, the social psychological literature has demonstrated that unconscious influences are pervasive, and social information can unintentionally influence a wide variety of behaviors, including some that are likely to require executive abilities. For example, social information can unconsciously influence attention processes, such that simply instructing participants to describe a previous situation in which they had power over someone or someone else had power over them has been shown to unconsciously influence their attentional focus abilities, a key aspect of executive control. In the current review, we consider behavioral and neural findings from a variety of paradigms, including priming of goals and social hierarchical roles, as well as interpersonal interactions, in order to highlight the pervasive nature of social influences on executive control. These findings suggest that social information can play a critical role in executive control, and that this influence often occurs in an unconscious fashion. We conclude by suggesting further avenues of research for investigation of the interplay between social factors and executive control.

  10. Executing Military Family Programs in the New Fiscal Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Office has four primary missions. First, it provides family support policies and programs in such areas as family center operations, child care...deployment  family- centered – children need to be assessed, monitored, and treated in the context of their family and its support structure...because installation facilities serve only half of military school children, services must also be provided in daycare and other facilities 9

  11. National Program Plan Fuel Cells in Transportation. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Fuel cells are being developed for application in the transportation sector because they will convert hydrogen to electric power at high efficiencies with virtually no detrimental environmental impact. To realize these energy, environmental, and economic benefits, developers of FCVs need to (1) reduce the size and weight of current designs, (2) develop fuel cell propulsion systems with rapid start-up and greater load-following capability, (3) reduce system cost and/or improve performance, and (4) utilize alternative fuels to a large extent. This Plan addresses the FCV-related requirements of the Energy Act, describing a development program for light- and heavy-duty propulsion systems, a basic R&D program on fuel cell technology that is separate from, but feeds into, the system development activities, and supporting analyses. Implementation of the Program Plan by means of industry/government alliances will accelerate the commercialization of FCVs. In the long term, the successful deployment of large numbers of FCVs promises to eliminate the transportation sector as a major contributor to the nation`s environmental problems.

  12. Implications of DOD Funds Execution Policy for Acquisition Program Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    E only 5 3 7 1 Procurement and RDT&E 8 1 5 4 Platform Mod C3 UAS Support Equipment Other 9 3 4 3 2 4 Program by Type 19 to distinguish causes and...2010, full-rate production decision scheduled for September 2012  Increment 2 failed IOT &E (Initial Operational Test and Evaluation)  September 2012...ADM provided only additional Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) quantities, pending completion of follow-on IOT &E  September 2013 ADM again only

  13. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  14. A Best Practice Modular Design of a Hybrid Course Delivery Structure for an Executive Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy E.; Wright, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights a best practice approach that showcases the highly successful deployment of a hybrid course delivery structure for an Operations core course in an Executive MBA Program. A key design element of the approach was the modular design of both the course itself and the learning materials. While other hybrid deployments may stress…

  15. 75 FR 57973 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Sector-Specific Agency Executive Management Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Sector-Specific Agency Executive Management Office... partners, both public and private. An SSA is responsible for leading a unified public-private sector effort... resiliency of the Nation by leading the unified public-private sector effort to ensure its assigned CIKR are...

  16. 75 FR 11990 - Chicago Executive Airports Noise Exposure Map Approval and Noise Compatibility Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Chicago Executive Airports Noise Exposure Map Approval and Noise... Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by the... noise exposure map, and that this program will be approved or disapproved on or before October 1, 2010...

  17. Marketing Executive MBA Programs: A Comparison of Student and Sponsoring Organization Decision Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Ann E.; Schoenbachler, Denise D.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed students and supporting organizations about their decision considerations regarding enrolling in and supporting an executive master of business administration (EMBA) program. The findings from this studyprovide direction for EMBA directors in strengthening recruiting efforts toward both students and organization sponsors. (EV)

  18. Balancing Automatic-Controlled Behaviors and Emotional-Salience States: A Dynamic Executive Functioning Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Viola, Thiago W.; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how executive functions are conceptualized in psychopathology. Since several models have been proposed, the major issue lies within the definition of executive functioning itself. Theoretical discussions have emerged, narrowing the boundaries between “hot” and “cold” executive functions or between self-regulation and cognitive control. Nevertheless, the definition of executive functions is far from a consensual proposition and it has been suggested that these models might be outdated. Current efforts indicate that human behavior and cognition are by-products of many brain systems operating and interacting at different levels, and therefore, it is very simplistic to assume a dualistic perspective of information processing. Based upon an adaptive perspective, we discuss how executive functions could emerge from the ability to solve immediate problems and to generalize successful strategies, as well as from the ability to synthesize and to classify environmental information in order to predict context and future. We present an executive functioning perspective that emerges from the dynamic balance between automatic-controlled behaviors and an emotional-salience state. According to our perspective, the adaptive role of executive functioning is to automatize efficient solutions simultaneously with cognitive demand, enabling individuals to engage such processes with increasingly complex problems. Understanding executive functioning as a mediator of stress and cognitive engagement not only fosters discussions concerning individual differences, but also offers an important paradigm to understand executive functioning as a continuum process rather than a categorical and multicomponent structure. PMID:28154541

  19. Balancing Automatic-Controlled Behaviors and Emotional-Salience States: A Dynamic Executive Functioning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Viola, Thiago W; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how executive functions are conceptualized in psychopathology. Since several models have been proposed, the major issue lies within the definition of executive functioning itself. Theoretical discussions have emerged, narrowing the boundaries between "hot" and "cold" executive functions or between self-regulation and cognitive control. Nevertheless, the definition of executive functions is far from a consensual proposition and it has been suggested that these models might be outdated. Current efforts indicate that human behavior and cognition are by-products of many brain systems operating and interacting at different levels, and therefore, it is very simplistic to assume a dualistic perspective of information processing. Based upon an adaptive perspective, we discuss how executive functions could emerge from the ability to solve immediate problems and to generalize successful strategies, as well as from the ability to synthesize and to classify environmental information in order to predict context and future. We present an executive functioning perspective that emerges from the dynamic balance between automatic-controlled behaviors and an emotional-salience state. According to our perspective, the adaptive role of executive functioning is to automatize efficient solutions simultaneously with cognitive demand, enabling individuals to engage such processes with increasingly complex problems. Understanding executive functioning as a mediator of stress and cognitive engagement not only fosters discussions concerning individual differences, but also offers an important paradigm to understand executive functioning as a continuum process rather than a categorical and multicomponent structure.

  20. Executive control and relationship maintenance processes: An empirical overview and theoretical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Pronk, T.M.; Wal, R.C. van der

    2015-01-01

    Why do romantic partners sometimes act in ways that potentially threaten relationship satisfaction and stability, even when strongly committed to the relationship? This article discusses research that has addressed this question by examining the role of executive control. We argue that executive

  1. Executive control and relationship maintenance processes : An empirical overview and theoretical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karremans, J.C.; Pronk, Tila; van der Wal, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Why do romantic partners sometimes act in ways that potentially threaten relationship satisfaction and stability, even when strongly committed to the relationship? This article discusses research that has addressed this question by examining the role of executive control. We argue that executive

  2. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  3. Enhancing skills for evidence-based healthcare leadership: the Executive Training for Research Application (EXTRA) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklin, Wendy; Stipich, Nina

    2005-01-01

    The Executive Training for Research Application (EXTRA) is a new training program that aims to increase the skills of health services executives and their organizations to use research evidence in healthcare management and decision-making. This paper describes the goals and rationale of the EXTRA program and its learning objectives and curriculum, and reports on some early baseline evaluative research. In particular, the authors address the opportunities that EXTRA offers to leaders in the nursing profession to transform the practice of nursing and patient care, and the unique opportunities that the program offers for collaboration across the healthcare professions and disciplines. While the EXTRA training program requires substantive investment of time and commitment by healthcare leaders and their organizations, it offers great potential for increasing research application in healthcare leadership decision-making. It is therefore a potential long-term lever of cultural decision-making change within healthcare organizations.

  4. Impacts of a prekindergarten program on children's mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Publicly funded prekindergarten programs have achieved small-to-large impacts on children's cognitive outcomes. The current study examined the impact of a prekindergarten program that implemented a coaching system and consistent literacy, language, and mathematics curricula on these and other nontargeted, essential components of school readiness, such as executive functioning. Participants included 2,018 four and five-year-old children. Findings indicated that the program had moderate-to-large impacts on children's language, literacy, numeracy and mathematics skills, and small impacts on children's executive functioning and a measure of emotion recognition. Some impacts were considerably larger for some subgroups. For urban public school districts, results inform important programmatic decisions. For policy makers, results confirm that prekindergarten programs can improve educationally vital outcomes for children in meaningful, important ways. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. American Organization of Nurse Executives Care Innovation and Transformation program: improving care and practice environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlies, Amanda Stefancyk

    2014-09-01

    The American Organization of Nurse Executives conducted an evaluation of the hospitals participating in the Care Innovation and Transformation (CIT) program. A total of 24 hospitals participated in the 2-year CIT program from 2012 to 2013. Reported outcomes include increased patient satisfaction, decreased falls, and reductions in nurse turnover and overtime. Nurses reported statistically significant improvements in 4 domains of the principles and elements of a healthful practice environment developed by the Nursing Organizations Alliance.

  6. Work with Apple's Rhapsody Operating System which Allows Simultaneous UNIX Program Development, UNIX Program Execution, and PC Application Execution

    CERN Document Server

    Summers, D; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, Don; Riley, Chris; Cremaldi, Lucien; Sanders, David

    2001-01-01

    Over the past decade, UNIX workstations have provided a very powerful program development environment. However, workstations are more expensive than PCs and Macintoshes and require a system manager for day-to-day tasks such as disk backup, adding users, and setting up print queues. Native commercial software for system maintenance and "PC applications" has been lacking under UNIX. Apple's new Rhapsody operating system puts the current MacOS on a NeXT UNIX foundation and adds an enhanced NeXTSTEP object oriented development environment called Yellow Box. Rhapsody simultaneously runs UNIX and commercial Macintosh applications such as word processing or spreadsheets. Thus a UNIX detector Monte Carlo can run for days in the background at the same time as a commercial word processing program. And commercial programs such as Dantz Retrospect are being made available to make disk backup easy under Rhapsody. Apple has announced that in 1999 they intend to be running Rhapsody, or MacOS X as it will be called in the co...

  7. Worst-Case Execution Time Based Optimization of Real-Time Java Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hepp, Stefan; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Standard compilers optimize execution time for the average case. However, in hard real-time systems the worst-case execution time (WCET) is of primary importance. Therefore, a compiler for real-time systems shall include optimizations that aim to minimize the WCET. One effective compiler...... optimization is method in lining. It is especially important for languages, like Java, where small setter and getter methods are considered good programming style. In this paper we present and explore WCET driven in lining of Java methods. We use the WCET analysis tool for the Java processor JOP to guide...

  8. Episodic memory and executive functioning in currently depressed patients compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2015-01-01

    At present, little is still known about the link between depression, memory and executive functioning. This study examined whether there are memory-related impairments in depressed patients and whether the size of such deficits depends on the age group and on specific types of cognitive measures. Memory performances of 215 clinically depressed patients were compared to the data of a matched control sample. Regression analyses were performed to determine the extent to which executive dysfunctions contributed to episodic memory impairments. When compared with healthy controls, significantly lower episodic memory and executive functioning performances were found for depressed patients of all age groups. Effect sizes appeared to vary across different memory and executive functioning measures. The extent to which executive dysfunctions could explain episodic memory impairments varied depending on the type of measure examined. These findings emphasise the need to consider memory-related functioning of depressed patients in the context of therapeutic treatments.

  9. Implementation and execution of military forward resuscitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Timothy J; Nadler, Roy; Badloe, John; Butler, Frank K; Glassberg, Elon

    2014-05-01

    Through necessity, military medicine has been the driver of medical innovation throughout history. The battlefield presents challenges, such as the requirement to provide care while under threat, resource limitation, and prolonged evacuation times, which must be overcome to improve casualty survival. Focus must also be placed on identifying the causes, and timing, of death within the battlefield. By doing so, military medical doctrine can be shaped, appropriate goals set, new concepts adopted, and relevant technologies investigated and implemented. The majority of battlefield casualties still die in the prehospital environment, before reaching a medical treatment facility, and hemorrhage remains the leading cause of potentially survivable death. Many countries have adopted policies that push damage control resuscitation forward into the prehospital setting, while understanding the need for timely medical evacuation. Although these policies vary according to country, the majority share many common principles. These include the need for early catastrophic hemorrhage control at point-of-wounding, judicious use of fluid resuscitation, use of blood products as far forward as possible, and early evacuation to a surgical facility. Some countries place medical providers with the ability, and resources, for advanced resuscitation with the forward fighting units (perhaps at company level), whereas others have established en route resuscitation capabilities. If we are to continue to improve battlefield casualty survival, we must continue to work together and learn from each other. We must also carry on working alongside our civilian colleagues so that the benefits of translational experience are not lost. This review describes several countries current military approaches to prehospital trauma care. These approaches, refined through a decade of experience, merit consideration for integration into civilian prehospital care practice.

  10. Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-05-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Lexical quality and executive control predict children's first and second language reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudszus, H.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual

  12. Effects of Structured Physical Activity Program on Chinese Young Children’s Executive Functions and Perceived Physical Competence in a Day Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanying Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the effects of a structured physical activity program on executive functions and perceived physical competence as compared to a traditional recess among preschool children. Methods. Participants were 40 preschool children aged 4-5 from an urban child care center in a southern Chinese metropolitan area. Prior to the intervention, baseline assessments of children’s executive functions and perceived physical competence were conducted. Children were then assigned to (1 intervention condition: a structured physical activity intervention group; (2 control condition: free-activity recess. The structured physical activity or recess programs were provided to the intervention and control groups 30 minutes daily for 3 months, respectively, followed by the identical postintervention measures. Results. Thirty-nine children (19 girls; mean age = 4.67 years old, BMI = 15.54±1.21 were included in the analysis. In general, children’s executive functions and perceived physical competence increased over time. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed the intervention group had significant greater increases in executive functions compared to the control children (F(1, 37 = 4.20, p=0.04, η2=.10, yet there were no greater increases in perceived physical competence (F(1, 37 = 2.35, p=0.13, η2=.06. Conclusion. The intervention exerted significant greater increases in executive functions in preschool children. It is meaningful to offer structured physical activity programs in day care centers.

  13. Individual Differences in Executive Control Relate to Metaphor Processing: An Eye Movement Study of Sentence Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgie eColumbus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension.We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1.When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors. Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal, and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  14. Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A.; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R.; Titone, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented. PMID:25628557

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF THE HOME-STREET AND MANAGING EXECUTIVE EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doshenko G.G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A home-street temperature control device and executive equipment management have been developed, which is characterized by high reliability and comparatively low cost. Due to the improvement of the analog circuit it is ensured to increase the speed of the developed device and its reliability. Practical recommendations for the manufacture of a home-street temperature control device and executive equipment management are presented

  16. The Impact of Outplacement Programs on Reemployment Criteria: A Longitudinal Study of Displaced Managers and Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the impact of outplacement support (e.g., counseling end psychological assessment) on several reemployment criteria. A sample of 1,880 managers and executives using the services of a large outplacement organization was examined. Controlling for past salary, severance, and demographics,…

  17. Modes of executive control in sequence learning: from stimulus-based to plan-based control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Elisabet; Hommel, Bernhard; López-Moliner, Joan

    2007-02-01

    The authors argue that human sequential learning is often but not always characterized by a shift from stimulus- to plan-based action control. To diagnose this shift, they manipulated the frequency of 1st-order transitions in a repeated manual left-right sequence, assuming that performance is sensitive to frequency-induced biases under stimulus- but not plan-based control. Indeed, frequency biases tended to disappear with practice, but only for explicit learners. This tendency was facilitated by visual-verbal target stimuli, response-contingent sounds, and intentional instructions and hampered by auditory (but not visual) noise. Findings are interpreted within an event-coding model of action control, which holds that plans for sequences of discrete actions are coded phonetically, integrating order and relative timing. The model distinguishes between plan acquisition, linked to explicit knowledge, and plan execution, linked to the action control mode. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Intelligent Control Technology of Manufacturing Execution Process Based on RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ruicheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent manufacturing is an important trend in the development of the future manufacturing industry, and how to use the current technology to realize the existing traditional manufacturing mode change to the intelligent manufacturing mode need to be studied. Aimed at the implementation of the intelligent manufacturing mode, this paper proposed the intelligent manufacturing execution process control technology based on RFID. The framework of intelligent manufacturing execution process control technology proposed an effective way to realize the manufacturing process intelligent control based on existing MES; the technology of logistics identification and control based on RFID realized the effectiveness control of logistics; the intelligent monitoring technology of mobile terminal solve the mobile terminal positioning problem, MES pushing information to mobile terminal problem and other problems. Finally, the author developed a set of intelligent manufacturing execution process control system which includes RFID reader, MES server, mobile terminal, and verified the effectiveness of the above mentioned technologies.

  19. Method and System for Controlling a Dexterous Robot Execution Sequence Using State Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Quillin, Nathaniel (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Pfeiffer, Joseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot and a controller. The robot includes a plurality of robotic joints, actuators for moving the joints, and sensors for measuring a characteristic of the joints, and for transmitting the characteristics as sensor signals. The controller receives the sensor signals, and is configured for executing instructions from memory, classifying the sensor signals into distinct classes via the state classification module, monitoring a system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the system state. A method for controlling the robot in the above system includes receiving the signals via the controller, classifying the signals using the state classification module, monitoring the present system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the present system state.

  20. Executive Summary: 30th Report on Physician Assistant Educational Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lindsey M

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this executive summary was to provide an overview of key findings from By the Numbers: 30th Report on Physician Assistant Educational Programs in the United States. The 2014 Program Survey is a Web-based survey and is administered annually to all member physician assistant (PA) program directors. This executive summary will focus on 4 of the 7 sections of the survey instrument: general, financial, program personnel, and students. The typical PA program's sponsoring institution is private and in a nonacademic health center. Most PA programs (93.0%) offer a master's degree as the primary or highest credential. The average total program budget was $2,221,751 (SD=$2,426,852). The average total resident tuition was $64,961, and the average total nonresident tuition was $75,964. Overall, 181 programs reported 1843 program faculty. Of those, 1467 were identified as core faculty and 376 were identified as adjunct faculty. A typical first-year PA student is 26 years old (SD=2.51), female (70.3%, n=5898), non-Hispanic (89.3%, n=3631), White (79.9%, n=3712), and has an overall undergraduate and science grade point average (GPA) of 3.52 (SD=0.14) and 3.47 (SD=0.16), respectively. In 2014, there were approximately 7556 graduates from 164 responding programs. By gaining a better understanding of the characteristics of PA programs and their faculty and students, policy makers can be better informed. Physician assistant educators and stakeholders are encouraged to use this information to advance and advocate for the profession.

  1. Executive control of stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanmei; Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2016-10-01

    We examined the role of executive control in stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory using probed recall of a series of objects, a task that allows study of the dynamics of storage through analysis of serial position data. Experiment 1 examined whether executive control underlies goal-directed prioritization of certain items within the sequence. Instructing participants to prioritize either the first or final item resulted in improved recall for these items, and an increase in concurrent task difficulty reduced or abolished these gains, consistent with their dependence on executive control. Experiment 2 examined whether executive control is also involved in the disruption caused by a post-series visual distractor (suffix). A demanding concurrent task disrupted memory for all items except the most recent, whereas a suffix disrupted only the most recent items. There was no interaction when concurrent load and suffix were combined, suggesting that deploying selective attention to ignore the distractor did not draw upon executive resources. A final experiment replicated the independent interfering effects of suffix and concurrent load while ruling out possible artifacts. We discuss the results in terms of a domain-general episodic buffer in which information is retained in a transient, limited capacity privileged state, influenced by both stimulus-driven and goal-directed processes. The privileged state contains the most recent environmental input together with goal-relevant representations being actively maintained using executive resources.

  2. Eficienţa economică a programării şi urmăririi automate a lucrărilor în execuţia drumurilor forestiere. [Economic efficiency of automatic planning and control of works in the execution of forest roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereziuc R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the prospect of forest roads network system development and examines the actual management of theirs execution. We suggest the extension of automatic planning and control with addition of specific charts. The research showed that, in contrast with actual methods, automatic planning may guides to economic efficiency, regarding manual and mechanized labour – with 30 % reduction in execution time and a 35 % cut in cost

  3. Meditation, mindfulness and executive control: the importance of emotional acceptance and brain-based performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the positive effects of mindfulness meditation on executive control. What has been lacking, however, is an understanding of the mechanism underlying this effect. Some theorists have described mindfulness as embodying two facets—present moment awareness and emotional acceptance. Here, we examine how the effect of meditation practice on executive control manifests in the brain, suggesting that emotional acceptance and performance monitoring play important roles. We investigated the effect of meditation practice on executive control and measured the neural correlates of performance monitoring, specifically, the error-related negativity (ERN), a neurophysiological response that occurs within 100 ms of error commission. Meditators and controls completed a Stroop task, during which we recorded ERN amplitudes with electroencephalography. Meditators showed greater executive control (i.e. fewer errors), a higher ERN and more emotional acceptance than controls. Finally, mediation pathway models further revealed that meditation practice relates to greater executive control and that this effect can be accounted for by heightened emotional acceptance, and to a lesser extent, increased brain-based performance monitoring. PMID:22507824

  4. 7 CFR 656.2 - Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders applicable to NRCS-assisted programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders... PROCEDURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL PROPERTIES ENCOUNTERED IN NRCS-ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 656.2 Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders applicable to NRCS-assisted...

  5. Posttraumatic Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Reduced Inhibitory Control, not General Executive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; McCulloch, Bay; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2015-05-01

    Although there is mounting evidence that greater PTSD symptoms are associated with reduced executive functioning, it is not fully understood whether this association is more global or specific to certain executive function subdomains, such as inhibitory control. We investigated the generality of the association between PTSD symptoms and executive function by administering a broad battery of sensitive executive functioning tasks to a cohort of returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with varying PTSD symptoms. Only tasks related to inhibitory control explained significant variance in PTSD symptoms as well as symptoms of depression, while measures of working memory, measures of switching, and measures simultaneously assessing multiple executive function subdomains did not. Notably, the two inhibitory control measures that showed the highest correlation with PTSD and depressive symptoms, measures of response inhibition and distractor suppression, explained independent variance. These findings suggest that greater posttraumatic psychological symptoms are not associated with a general decline in executive functioning but rather are more specifically related to stopping automatic responses and resisting internal and external distractions.

  6. The role of executive functions in the control of aggressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike M Krämer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An extensive literature suggests a link between executive functions and aggressive behavior in humans, pointing mostly to an inverse relationship, i.e. increased tendencies towards aggression in individuals scoring low on executive function tests. This literature is limited, though, in terms of the groups studied and the measures of executive functions. In this paper, we present data from two studies addressing these issues. In a first behavioral study, we asked whether high trait aggressiveness is related to reduced executive functions. A sample of over 600 students performed in an extensive behavioral test-battery including paradigms addressing executive functions such as the Eriksen Flanker task, Stroop task, n-back task and Tower of London. High trait aggressive participants were found to have a significantly reduced latency score in the Tower of London, indicating more impulsive behavior compared to low trait aggressive participants. No other differences were detected. In an EEG-study, we assessed neural and behavioral correlates of error monitoring and response inhibition in participants who were characterized based on their laboratory-induced aggressive behavior in a competitive reaction time task. Participants who retaliated more in the aggression paradigm and had reduced frontal activity when being provoked did not, however, show any reduction in behavioral or neural correlates of executive control compared to the more aggressive participants. Our results question a strong relationship between aggression and executive functions at least for healthy, high-functioning people.

  7. Patients with bipolar disorder show differential executive dysfunctions: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Meranda M W; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Ya; Tsui, Chi F; Au, Angie C W; Yeung, Hera K H; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Chi-Wai; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-04-30

    Executive deficits in euthymic bipolar I disorder were examined in a fractionated manner based on the "Supervisory Attentional System" (SAS) model, and the relationship between the degree of executive impairment and the demographic and clinical characteristics of bipolar I participants was explored. A battery of neurocognitive tests capturing specific components of executive function was administered on 30 patients with bipolar I disorder in euthymic state, and compared with 30 healthy controls who were matched by age, gender and IQ. A differential impairment in executive function was demonstrated in euthymic bipolar I participants by using a fractionated approach of the SAS. Euthymic bipolar I patients were found to have significantly poorer performance in immediate and delayed visual memory; and in the executive domains of "initiation", "sustained attention", and "attention allocation and planning". Those with a greater number of executive impairments had lower IQ and higher negative sub-scores on PANSS. These findings might provide a the basis for further studies on identifying the executive components that are associated with particular disease characteristics of bipolar disorder, and those with poorer functional outcome, so that rehabilitation can be focused on the selective domains concerned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of language proficiency and executive control on verbal fluency performance in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their self-rated English proficiency but differed in levels of receptive and expressive vocabulary. We hypothesized that the difference between the two bilingual groups in vocabulary and between the monolingual and bilingual groups in executive control would lead to differences in performance on the category and letter fluency tests and dissociate the roles of vocabulary knowledge and executive control in verbal production. Bilinguals and monolinguals performed equivalently in category fluency, but the high-vocabulary bilingual group outperformed both monolinguals and low-vocabulary bilinguals in letter fluency. An analysis of the retrieval time-course functions in letter fluency showed dissociable effects of resources available at the initiation of the trial, considered to reflect vocabulary size, and ability to monitor and retrieve new items using a novel phonemic-based word searching strategy, considered to reflect executive control. The difference in slope of the best-fitting curves reflected enhanced executive control for both bilingual groups compared to monolinguals, whereas the difference in the starting point of the logarithmic functions reflected higher levels of vocabulary for high-vocabulary bilinguals and monolinguals compared to low-vocabulary bilinguals. The results are discussed in terms of the contributions of linguistic resources and executive control to verbal performance.

  9. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use: the moderating role of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Nienke C; Ostafin, Brian D; Glashouwer, Klaske A; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use are moderated by executive control. This is the first study that explores the potential moderating role of executive control in the relation between reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Participants were 76 university students, selected on earlier given information about their alcohol use. Half of the participants indicated to drink little alcohol and half indicated to drink substantial amounts of alcohol. As expected, correlational analyses showed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use and a negative relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Regression analysis confirmed that reward sensitivity was a significant independent predictor of alcohol use. Executive control moderated the relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use, but not the relation between reward sensitivity and alcohol use. Only in individuals with weak executive control punishment sensitivity and alcohol use were negatively related. The results suggest that for individuals with weak executive control, punishment sensitivity might be a protective factor working against substantial alcohol use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer Program Development Specification for IDAMST Operational Flight Programs. Addendum 1. Executive Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    establishes the requirements for performance and design of the Executive Software for the Integrated Diqital Avionics for a Medium Short Takeoff and Landing...system design . a. System Specification for IDAMST, Type A (S1-1010), June 1976. b. Prime Item Development Specification, IDAMST Processor, Type Bl (Sl...This bit shall be set to logic 1, in Master Mooc onjy, cafer receiving an excepted, valid status word associzeo witn a Remote device in Transmit Mooe

  11. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  12. The Use of Executive Control Processes in Engineering Design by Engineering Students and Professional Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Raymond A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    A cognitive construct that is important when solving engineering design problems is executive control process, or metacognition. It is a central feature of human consciousness that enables one "to be aware of, monitor, and control mental processes." The framework for this study was conceptualized by integrating the model for creative design, which…

  13. Executive control of learning and memory in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Desirée A; Christ, Shawn E

    2005-11-01

    Executive control of learning and memory was examined in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). We hypothesized that SCP-related brain damage would disrupt executive but not associative aspects of learning and memory. To test this hypothesis, the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version was administered to 16 children with bilateral SCP and 19 control children ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Controlling for general verbal ability, the groups did not differ in initial learning and retention of information over time, suggesting that associative learning and memory processes subserved by medial temporal brain regions were relatively intact in children with SCP. In contrast, impairments in learning over repeated trials, strategic processing, and inhibition in the SCP group pointed to disruptions in prefrontally-mediated executive aspects of learning and memory. The inhibitory deficit was more pronounced in younger children with SCP, suggesting a developmental delay in this ability.

  14. Individual Differences In The Executive Control Of Attention, Memory, And Thought, And Their Associations With Schizotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael J.; Meier, Matt E.; Smeekens, Bridget A.; Gross, Georgina M.; Chun, Charlotte A.; Silvia, Paul J.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    A large correlational study took a latent-variable approach to the generality of executive control by testing the individual-differences structure of executive-attention capabilities and assessing their prediction of schizotypy, a multidimensional construct (with negative, positive, disorganized, and paranoid factors) conveying risk for schizophrenia. Although schizophrenia is convincingly linked to executive deficits, the schizotypy literature is equivocal. Subjects completed tasks of working memory capacity (WMC), attention restraint (inhibiting prepotent responses), and attention constraint (focusing visual attention amid distractors), the latter two in an effort to fractionate the “inhibition” construct. We also assessed mind-wandering propensity (via in-task thought probes) and coefficient of variation in response times (RT CoV) from several tasks as more novel indices of executive attention. WMC, attention restraint, attention constraint, mind wandering, and RT CoV were correlated but separable constructs, indicating some distinctions among “attention control” abilities; WMC correlated more strongly with attentional restraint than constraint, and mind wandering correlated more strongly with attentional restraint, attentional constraint, and RT CoV than with WMC. Across structural models, no executive construct predicted negative schizotypy and only mind wandering and RT CoV consistently (but modestly) predicted positive, disorganized, and paranoid schizotypy; stalwart executive constructs in the schizophrenia literature — WMC and attention restraint — showed little to no predictive power, beyond restraint’s prediction of paranoia. Either executive deficits are consequences rather than risk factors for schizophrenia, or executive failures barely precede or precipitate diagnosable schizophrenia symptoms. PMID:27454042

  15. The influence of contract type in program execution/V-22 Osprey: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danny Roy

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at the impact of a fixed price type contract on program execution of a major weapon system. The full scale development phase of the V-22 Osprey program was used as a case study. The focus of this thesis was to determine the affects of this contract type and identify the actions program management took to address it's influences. The predominant conclusion brought out by this research was that based on the political, historical, and economic circumstances of the period, the fixed price incentive fee contract was the best contractual instrument for the government to use. The major recommendations are: in future contracts, ensure an appropriate spread between ceiling and target price in order to adequately incentivize the contractor; in teaming arrangements, employ incentives to guarantee the appropriate transfer of technical information; and incentivize comprehensive production plans and Production Readiness Reviews.

  16. Interaction between the development of postural control and the executive function of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Dinah S; van Donkelaar, Paul; Saavedra, Sandy; Woollacott, Marjorie H

    2008-03-01

    The authors examined the interaction between the development of postural control and the development of the executive function of attention in 13 children and 6 adults in dual-task conditions. Participants performed an attentionally demanding cognitive task and a postural task simultaneously. The authors equalized the attentional load of the cognitive task across age groups. Comparative changes in the center of pressure in dual- and single-task conditions indicated that dual tasks interfered with postural performance in the wide stance (WS) and the modified Romberg stance (RS). Children at 4-6 years of age (but not children at ages 7-12 years of age or adults) experienced postural control interference in both stance positions, but interference was greater in the RS (p = .018). For all participants, cognitive task performance in RS was unchanged from that in WS. The knowledge gained from the results of this study will contribute to the design and implementation of academic and preacademic programming for young children. Their performance of an intentionally demanding cognitive task would be enhanced by the provision of appropriately sized desks and chairs or their use of an alternate, less demanding position.

  17. An Analysis of the Air War College’s Executive Health and Fitness Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    1.6335 60 1.7782 77 1.8865 (SOURC;E: Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, Calitornia) 30 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Castelli, W. P. " Epedemiology of Coronary...1% AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT No. AU-AWC-85-057 0AN ANALYSIS OF THE AIR WAR COLLEGE’S EXECUTIVE HEALTH AND FITNESS ASSESSMENT PROGRAM In I...COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yr., Mo., Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Research FROM TO May 1985 132 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION S COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS

  18. Development and content validity of the CENA Program for Educational Training on the Neuropsychology of Learning, with an emphasis on executive functions and attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureza, Janice R.; Fonseca, Rochele P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The importance of executive functions (EF) in childhood development, and their role as indicators of health, well-being, professional and academic success have been demonstrated by several studies in the literature. FE are cognitive processes that aim to control and manage behavior to achieve specific goal and included skills planning, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, (executive) attention and the central executive component of working memory (WM). In the context of education, the EF are crucial for continued learning and efficient academic performance due to their involvement in several components of the educational process. Objective The aim of this article was to describe the development and content validity of the CENA Program for Educational Training on the Neuropsychology of Learning, with an emphasis on executive functions and attention. Methods The study involved seven specialists (four responsible for evaluating the program, and three involved in brainstorming), and was carried out in three stages: Background research: neuropsychology and education; Program development - author brainstorming and Evaluation by expert judges The goals, language and methods. Results CENA Program were considered adequate, attesting to its content validity as a school-based neuropsychological intervention. Conclusion Teacher training in school neuropsychology may be an important area for future investment and contribute to academic achievement and student development in the Brazilian education system. PMID:29213497

  19. Effectiveness Through Control: Centralized Execution in Air Mobility Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    this a violation of the most sacred of airpower tenets as written by the Air Force doctrinal framers ? Examining the origins of the tenet provides the...where airpower was divided up ineffectively, and Vietnam, where airpower was controlled too tightly at too high a level.”28 Previous editions of Air

  20. Arousal, Executive Control and Decision Making in Compulsive Buying Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Zöega; Zuraigat, Farah Qureshi; Jacobsen, Catrine

    2013-01-01

    products was associated with a stronger emotional response in CBD subjects, while no relationship between emotions and WTP could be observed in healthy controls. This suggests that CBD, instead of being tentatively classified as an ICD, should rather be understood as a behavioral addiction. By this token...

  1. COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphisms moderate executive control in cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Cuenca, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Cuyás, Elisabet; Langohr, Klaus; de Sola Llopis, Susana; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

    2013-07-01

    The adverse effects of cannabis use on executive functions are still controversial, fostering the need for novel biomarkers able to unveil individual differences in the cognitive impact of cannabis consumption. Two common genetic polymorphisms have been linked to the neuroadaptive impact of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure and to executive functions in animals: the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene val158met polymorphism and the SLC6A4 gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. We aimed to test if these polymorphisms moderate the harmful effects of cannabis use on executive function in young cannabis users. We recruited 144 participants: 86 cannabis users and 58 non-drug user controls. Both groups were genotyped and matched for genetic makeup, sex, age, education, and IQ. We used a computerized neuropsychological battery to assess different aspects of executive functions: sustained attention (CANTAB Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, RVIP), working memory (N-back), monitoring/shifting (CANTAB ID/ED set shifting), planning (CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge, SOC), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT). We used general linear model-based analyses to test performance differences between cannabis users and controls as a function of genotypes. We found that: (i) daily cannabis use is not associated with executive function deficits; and (ii) COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms moderate the link between cannabis use and executive performance. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val/val genotype exhibited lower accuracy of sustained attention, associated with a more strict response bias, than val/val non-users. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val allele also committed more monitoring/shifting errors than cannabis users carrying the met/met genotype. Finally, cannabis users carrying the 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype had worse IGT performance than s/s non-users. COMT and SLC6A4 genes moderate the impact of cannabis use on executive functions.

  2. Design and development of a computer program for the evaluation of the healthcare executive - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Daniel; Bava, Michele; Delendi, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    According to the Italian law which regulates executive healthcare contracts, the professional evaluation is mandatory. The goal of the periodic evaluation is to enhance and motivate the professional involved. In addition this process should 1. increase the sense of duty towards the patients, 2. become aware of ones own professional growth and aspirations and 3. enhance the awareness of the healthcare executive regarding the companys strategies. To satisfy these requirements a data sheet has been modeled for every evaluated subject, divided in two sections. In the first part, the chief executive officer (CEO) scores: 1. behavioral characteristics, 2. multidisciplinary collaboration and involvement, 3. organizational skills, 4. professional quality and training, 5. relationships with the citizens. The scores for these fields are decided by the CEO. In the second part the CEO evaluates: 1. quantitative job dimension, 2.technology innovation, 3. scientific and educational activities. The value scores of these fields are decided by the CEO together with the professional under evaluation. A previously established correction coefficient can be used for all the scores. This evaluation system model has been constructed according to the enhancement quality approaches (Deming cycle) and a web-based software has been developed on a Linux platform using LAMP technology and php programming techniques. The program replicates all the evaluation process creating different profiles of authentications and authorizations which can then give to the evaluator the possibility to make lists of the professionals to evaluate, to upload documents regarding their activities and goals, to receive individual documents in automatically generated folders, to change the correction coefficients, to obtain year by year the individual scores. The advantages of using this web-based software include easy data consultation and update, the implementation of IT security issues, the easy portability and

  3. Executive Functions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Panic Disorder Patients in Comparison to Healty Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Emel; Yildirim, Erol; Topçuoğlu, Volkan

    2017-12-01

    Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired cognitive functions, including attention, verbal and visual memory, and visual-spatial abilities as well as executive function But some studies did not show any disturbance in executive function of patients with OCD. To date, only few studies have been conducted on neuropsychological functioning of patients with panic disorder (PD). There are limited studies to reach a definite conclusion on executive functions of patients with OCD and those with PD. In this study, we aimed to measure executive functions of patients with OCD and those with PD compared with those of healthy controls. Although there are many studies on cognitive functions of patients with OCD, there appears to be no consistency in results and no findings have been obtained to enable us to reach definite conclusions. Although there are very few studies on neuropsychological functions of patients with PD, impairments on a set of cognitive functions have been demonstrated. To date, no finding with respect to impairment in executive functions of patients with PD has been published. PD and OCD are disorders manifesting similar characteristics, with the presence of anxiety and avoidance behavior. Besides this, patients with OCD also have symptoms such as obsessions and compulsions that are characteristics of this disorder. We aim to compare executive functions in the three groups (patients with OCD, those with PD, and healthy controls) in this study. Seventeen patients with OCD and 15 patients with PD who were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder -IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR) and 26 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Patients who used medication as well as those with medical illnesses and Axis-I comorbidities were excluded. The healthy control group subjects were matched with the patients in terms of age, gender, and education. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders

  4. Automation of control and analysis of execution of official duties and instructions in the hierarchical organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of monitoring over execution of official duties of employees. This problem is characteristic of the enterprises having a hierarchical management structure. The functions and the modes of monitoring are defined, the types of analysis of the staff activities are provided. The description of the program complex allowing distributing functions and instructions for between the employees is given. The developed computer program allows tracking the performance, creating reports. The computer program has a demarcation of access rights and provides the can be operated in both local, and a large-scale network.

  5. Effects of the Central Executive on Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Kasubuchi, Kenji; Osumi, Michihiro; Morioka, Shu

    2016-01-01

    The authors focused on individual working memory (WM) capacity and examined its effect on postural control. Participants were 79 young volunteers split into two groups of low- and high WM span, based on scores from the Reading Span Test. The length of unrest was measured in the following conditions: double-leg standing as a single (D-S) task, single-leg standing as a single (S-S) task, double-leg standing as a dual (D-D) task, and single-leg standing as a dual (S-D) task. Regarding inte-group comparisons, total length was prolonged significantly between the low- and the high-span groups but only on the S-D task. The present results revealed that dual-task interference emerged in the low-span group when in a more unstable posture.

  6. Lexical Quality and Executive Control Predict Children's First and Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years,…

  7. Neural Substrates of Contingency Learning and Executive Control: Dissociating Physical, Valuative, and Behavioral Changes

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman; Scott A Huettel

    2009-01-01

    Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge about environmental contingencies allows behavioral flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of experiential learning have focused on the relationship between actions and the values of associated outcomes. However, outcome values have often been confounded with the physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we dissociated contingency learning into valuative...

  8. Neural substrates of contingency learning and executive control: dissociating physical, valuative, and behavioral changes

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman; Scott A Huettel

    2009-01-01

    Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge about environmental contingencies allows behavioral flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of experiential learning have focused on the relationship between actions and the values of associated outcomes. However, outcome values have often been confounded with the physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we dissociated contingency learning into valuative...

  9. Teachers as Air Traffic Controllers: Helping Adolescents Navigate the Unfriendly Skies of Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Todd; Parks, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize teachers with the concept of executive functioning and to provide them with a collection of strategies that they can use to help support middle and high school students with planning, organization, task-initiation, and impulse control.

  10. Components of Executive Control with Advantages for Bilingual Children in Two Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Viswanathan, Mythili

    2009-01-01

    The present study used a behavioral version of an anti-saccade task, called the "faces task", developed by [Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Ryan, J. (2006). Executive control in a modified anti-saccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32,…

  11. Impact of Attention Training on Academic Achievement, Executive Functioning, and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Hannah; Gray, Kylie; Ellis, Kirsten; Taffe, John; Cornish, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience significant difficulties in attention, learning, executive functions, and behavioral regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training may remediate these impairments. In a double blind controlled trial, 76 children with IDD (4-11 years) were…

  12. Acute Caffeine Consumption Enhances the Executive Control of Visual Attention in Habitual Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Giles, Grace E.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work suggests that a dose of 200-400mg caffeine can enhance both vigilance and the executive control of visual attention in individuals with low caffeine consumption profiles. The present study seeks to determine whether individuals with relatively high caffeine consumption profiles would show similar advantages. To this end, we examined…

  13. Color-Object Interference: Further Tests of an Executive Control Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie

    2011-01-01

    Young children are slower in naming the color of a meaningful picture than in naming the color of an abstract form (Stroop-like color-object interference). The current experiments tested an executive control account of this phenomenon. First, color-object interference was observed in 6- and 8-year-olds but not in 12- and 16-year-olds (Experiment…

  14. Mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagner, Prune; Kliegel, Matthias; Phillips, Louise H; Ihle, Andreas; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2015-01-01

    In the laboratory, studies have shown an inconsistent pattern of whether, and how, mood may affect cognitive functions indicating both mood-related enhancement as well as decline. Surprisingly, little is known about whether there are similar effects in everyday life. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate possible mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation. Mood effects were examined in the context of winning in a sports competition. Sixty-one male handball players were tested with an extensive cognitive test battery (comprising memory and executive control) both after winning a match and after training as neutral baseline. Mood differed significantly between the two testing situations, while physiological arousal and motivation were comparable. Results showed lowered performance after the win compared with training in selected cognitive measures. Specifically, short-term and episodic memory performance was poorer following a win, whereas executive control performance was unaffected by condition. Differences in memory disappeared when emotional states after the match were entered as covariates into the initial analyses. Thus, findings suggest mood-related impairments in memory, but not in executive control processes after a positive real-life event.

  15. Lying and executive control: an experimental investigation using ego depletion and goal neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debey, E.; Verschuere, B.; Crombez, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether lying requires executive control using a reaction-time based lie test. We hypothesized that (1) goal neglect induced by a long response-stimulus interval (RSI; 5-8 s) would make lying harder relative to a short RSI (.2 s) that promoted attentional focus, and (2)

  16. The effectiveness of services marketing: perceptions of executive directors of gerontological programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, L W

    1994-01-01

    Interest in marketing services, as opposed to products, has gained considerable momentum in recent years. The author conducted a survey of human service executives in six metropolitan areas to gauge the current status and efficacy of marketing efforts in programs for the aged. Findings confirm that the majority of health and social service organizations now employ marketing strategies of some kind, although somewhat insensitive and inadequate. The most common indicator of marketing success has been increments in the number of clients served. Health organizations are significantly more likely to measure the effectiveness of marketing efforts than social service agencies. Agencies commonly employ multiple marketing strategies, with face-to-face approaches proving to be the most effective. Least effective are public service messages and commercials on television/radio. The author suggests recommendations for mounting more efficacious and sensitive marketing programs in the human services.

  17. 07051 Executive Summary -- Programming Paradigms for the Web: Web Programming and Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Richard; Thiemann, Peter; Wadler, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The world-wide web raises a variety of new programming challenges. To name a few: programming at the level of the web browser, data-centric approaches, and attempts to automatically discover and compose web services. This seminar brought together researchers from the web programming and web services communities and strove to engage them in communication with each other. The seminar was held in an unusual style, in a mixture of short presentations and in-depth discussio...

  18. Effects of short-term music and second-language training on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on nonverbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals and those with music training, but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the current study pseudorandomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and nonverbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a nonverbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unplugging Institutional Bottlenecks to Restore Growth: A Policy Discussion Paper Prepared for the 2013 Vietnam Executive Leadership Program (VELP)

    OpenAIRE

    Vu Thanh Tu Anh; David Dapice; Huynh The Du; Pham Duy Nghia; Dwight Perkins; Nguyen Xuan Thanh; Do Thien Anh Tuan; Ben Wilkinson

    2013-01-01

    This paper was prepared for the fourth annual Vietnam Executive Leadership Program (VELP), held at the Harvard Kennedy School from August 26 to 30, 2013. This paper aimed to provide participants, including Vietnamese government officials, scholars, and corporate executives, with a concise assessment of some of the key public policy challenges confronting Vietnam today. This paper is by no means comprehensive; it is not possible to offer an exhaustive analysis of every policy area in a brief s...

  20. Development of an integrated modelling framework: comparing client-server and demand-driven control flow for model execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek; de Jong, Kor; de Kok, Jean-Luc; de Jong, Steven M.

    2014-05-01

    The construction of hydrological models at the catchment or global scale depends on the integration of component models representing various environmental processes, often operating at different spatial and temporal discretisations. A flexible construction of spatio-temporal model components, a means to specify aggregation or disaggregation to bridge discretisation discrepancies, ease of coupling these into complex integrated models, and support for stochastic modelling and the assessment of model outputs are the desired functionalities for the development of integrated models. These functionalities are preferably combined into one modelling framework such that domain specialists can perform exploratory model development without the need to change their working environment. We implemented an integrated modelling framework in the Python programming language, providing support for 1) model construction and 2) model execution. The framework enables modellers to represent spatio-temporal processes or to specify spatio-temporal (dis)aggregation with map algebra operations provided by the PCRaster library. Model algebra operations can be used by the modeller to specify the exchange of data and therefore the coupling of components. The framework determines the control flow for the ordered execution based on the time steps and couplings of the model components given by the modeller. We implemented two different control flow mechanisms. First, a client-server approach is used with a central entity controlling the execution of the component models and steering the data exchange. Second, a demand-driven approach is used that triggers the execution of a component model when data is requested by a coupled component model. We show that both control flow mechanisms allow for the execution of stochastic, multi-scale integrated models. We examine the implications of each control flow mechanism on the terminology used by the modeller to specify integrated models, and illustrate the

  1. The Impact of an Urban Universal Public Prekindergarten Program on Children's Early Numeracy, Language, Literacy, and Executive Function Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    The authors add to and extend the emerging evidence base of the effects of public preschool programs on child school readiness. Using a quasi-experimental, Regression Discontinuity (RD) design, they estimate the impacts of a universal preschool program on children's early numeracy, language, literacy, and executive function skills, both for the…

  2. Age-Related Differences in the Reliance on Executive Control in Working Memory: Role of Task Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isingrini, Michel; Angel, Lucie; Fay, Séverine; Taconnat, Laurence; Lemaire, Patrick; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that age-related differences in the reliance on executive control may be better explained by variations of task demand than by a mechanism specifically linked to aging. To this end, we compared the relationship between the performance of young and older adults on two executive functioning tests and an updating working-memory task with different load levels. The results revealed a significant interaction between age, task demand, and individual executive capacities, indicating that executive resources were only involved at lower loads in older adults, and only at higher loads in young adults. Overall, the results are not consistent with the proposition that cognition places greater demand on executive control in older adults. However, they support the view that how much young and older adults rely on executive control to accomplish cognitive tasks depends on task demand. Finally, interestingly these results are consistent with the CRUNCH model accounting for age-related differences in brain activations.

  3. Effects of a cognitive training program and sleep hygiene for executive functions and sleep quality in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Moraes de Almondes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aging process causes changes in the sleep-wake cycle and cognition, especially executive functions. Interventions are required to minimize the impact of the losses caused by the aging process. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a cognitive training program and psychoeducation on sleep hygiene techniques for executive functions and sleep quality in healthy elderly. Methods: The participants were 41 healthy elderly randomized into four groups ([CG] control group, cognitive training group [CTG], sleep hygiene group [SHG] and cognitive training and hygiene group [THG]. The study was conducted in three stages: 1st - assessment of cognition and sleep; 2nd - specific intervention for each group; 3rd - post-intervention assessment. Results: The results showed that the CTG had significant improvements in cognitive flexibility tasks, planning, verbal fluency and episodic memory, gains in sleep quality and decreased excessive daytime sleepiness. The SHG also had improved sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and significant improvements in insights, planning, attention and episodic memory. The THG had significant gains in cognitive flexibility, problem solving, verbal fluency, attention and episodic memory. Conclusion: Cognitive training and sleep hygiene interventions were useful strategies for improving cognitive performance and sleep quality of healthy elderly, but there was no evidence that sessions combining cognitive training and psychoeducation on sleep hygiene enhanced the gains provided by these interventions applied individually.

  4. Sources of individual differences in the speed of naming objects and actions: The contribution of executive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Z.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Meyer, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the contribution of executive control to individual differences in response time (RT) for naming objects and actions. Following Miyake et al., executive control was assumed to include updating, shifting, and inhibiting abilities, which were assessed using operation span, task-switching,

  5. The Role of Control Functions in Mentalizing: Dual-Task Studies of Theory of Mind and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Phillips, Louise H.; Conway, Claire A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicting evidence has arisen from correlational studies regarding the role of executive control functions in Theory of Mind. The current study used dual-task manipulations of executive functions (inhibition, updating and switching) to investigate the role of these control functions in mental state and non-mental state tasks. The "Eyes"…

  6. Executive Functions, Trait Self-Control, and the Intention-Behavior Gap in Physical Activity Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Ines; Strobach, Tilo

    2017-10-24

    Many people fail to translate their physical activity intentions into behavior. This intention-behavior gap can be explained by (a) explicit trait self-control, (b) implicit executive functions, and (c) their interactions. In 118 participants, the intention-behavior gap was measured in a prospective design. Trait self-control was assessed via self-report questionnaires, whereas executive functioning was measured with test performance in inhibition, updating, and shifting at baseline. Regression analysis showed that (a) higher trait self-control predicts a smaller intention-behavior gap; (b) updating performance is related with this gap; and (c) behavior in tests on inhibition, updating, and shifting moderate the relation between the trait self-control and the intention-behavior gap. The present study showed that the complex pattern that modulates the relation between intended and realized physical activity behavior includes trait self-control, executive functions, as well as the combination of these cognitive components supporting dual-process approaches of self-control including implicit and explicit processing components.

  7. Qualitative differences between bilingual language control and executive control: evidence from task switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eCalabria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that highly-proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2, the so called ‘symmetrical switch cost’ effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly-proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC. We tested highly-proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1 or L3 (Experiment 2 depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag. In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (colour and shape. Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system.

  8. Qualitative Differences between Bilingual Language Control and Executive Control: Evidence from Task-Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Marco; Hernández, Mireia; Branzi, Francesca M; Costa, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that highly proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2), the so-called "symmetrical switch cost" effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC) can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC). We tested highly proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1) or L3 (Experiment 2) depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag). In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (color and shape). Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system.

  9. The persistent influence of concussion on attention, executive control and neuroelectric function in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Davis R; Pindus, Dominika M; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Ellemberg, Dave; Hillman, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the influence of pediatric sport-related concussion on brain and cognitive function. To do so, we used a between-participants design, measures of executive control, and event-related potentials (ERPs). The findings demonstrate that children with a history of concussion exhibit behavioral deficits in attention, working memory and impulse control, as well as neuroelectric alterations in ERP indices of visual attention (N1), conflict resolution (N2) and attentional resource allocation (P3). Furthermore, the age at injury related to the magnitude of several concussion-related deficits. Accordingly, a single sports-related concussive incident during childhood (m=2.1years prior to testing) may lead to subtle, yet pervasive alterations in the behavioral and neural indices of attention and executive control, and age at injury may moderate injury outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Software enhancements and modifications to Program FDTD executable on the Cray X-MP computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringer, J.C.

    1987-09-04

    This report summarizes enhancements and modifications to PROGRAM FDTD executable on the Cray X-MP computer system. Specifically, the tasks defined and performed under this effort are revision of the material encoding/decoding scheme to allow material type specification on an individual cell basis; modification of the I/O buffering scheme to maximize the use of available central memory and minimize the number of physical I/O accesses; user interface enhancements. Provide enhanced input/output features for greater flexibility; increased modularity. Divide the code into additional modules for ease of maintenance and future enhancements; and assist in the conversion and testing of FDTD to Floating Point Systems scientific computers and associated peripheral devices.

  12. Patterns of Control in the Romanian Executive Agencies: An Exploratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin HINŢEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the patterns of Romanian ministerial control over executive agencies, based on the data collected in 2010 using the COBRA survey. Seven research questions were constructed starting from the major theories existing in the field aimed at describing and understanding the control patterns. The paper’s main conclusion is that ministries still prefer ex ante types of control in exchange to those after-the-fact, although some rather incremental shifts toward ex post control can be noticed.  

  13. System of Budget Planning, Programming, Development and Execution and the Defence Resources Management Model (DRMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Čutić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The system of budget planning, programming, development and execution of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia (henceforth: the Croatian acronym SPPIIP is the basic system for the strategic management of defence resources through which an effective and rational distribution of available resources is conducted, based on the goals of national security of the Republic of Croatia. This system sets the principles of transparency and democratic management of defence resources while respecting the specificities of the defence system. The SPPIIP allows for decision making based on complete information about alternatives and the choice of the most economical and most efficient way to reach the goal. It unites the strategic plan, program and budget. It consists of four continuous, independent and interconnected phases: planning, programming, development and the execution of the budget. The processes of the phases are dynamic and cyclic. In addition to the SPPIIP, the Defence Resources Management Model (DRMM, Croatian acronym: MURO has also been developed. This is an analytic tool which serves as a decision support system in the SPPIIP. The DRMM is a complex computer model showing graph and tabular overviews in a multi-year period. The model examines three areas: the strength of the forces, expenses and defence programs. The purpose of the model is cost and strength analysis and the analysis of compromise and feasibility, i.e. how sensitive the programs are to fiscal movements in the sphere of the MoD budget in the course of a multiyear cycle, until a certain project ends. The analysis results are an easily understandable basis for decision making. The SPPIIP and the DRMM are mutually independent systems, but they complement each other well. The SPPIIP uses the DRMM in designing and resource allocation based on the goals set. The quality of the DRMM depends on the amount and quality of data in its database. The DRMM can be used as a basis for

  14. 5 CFR 412.302 - Criteria for a Senior Executive Service candidate development program (SESCDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Senior Executive... whether or not within the civil service. The number of expected SES vacancies must be considered as one... executive core qualifications (ECQs); (ii) Address Federal Government leadership challenges crucial to the...

  15. BlueJ Visual Debugger for Learning the Execution of Object-Oriented Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Schulte, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment undertaken in order to evaluate the effect of a program visualization tool for helping students to better understand the dynamics of object-oriented programs. The concrete tool used was BlueJ's debugger and object inspector. The study was done as a control-group experiment in an introductory programming…

  16. Specific executive control impairments in Tourette syndrome: The role of response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Asaf; Benaroya-Milshtein, Noa; Steinberg, Tamar; Ruhrrman, Dafna; Apter, Alan; Lavidor, Michal

    2017-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. While cognitive features of common comorbid conditions such as attention deficit hyperactive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder have been widely investigated, the cognitive profile of TS patients remains to be precisely defined. In this regard, the executive functions system (EF) is of especial interest. The aim of the study was to delineate the various components of executive processes in adult TS patients. A sample of 19 adults diagnosed with TS and 19 age-matched control subjects underwent computerized battery of executive tasks, as well as block design and memory tests. All patients received a thorough clinical assessment with an emphasis on illness severity. There was a marked impairment in response inhibition ability regardless of comorbid conditions, In addition, there was decreased accuracy in set shifting, but not in response time. These results imply that impaired response inhibition in the EF system is the primary cognitive impairment in TS and that many of the previously reported impaired executive functions in TS are secondary to this impairment. This finding of impaired response inhibition in TS may imply that rehabilitation of this inhibition component could prove to be an important therapeutic strategy in adults with TS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Friedreich ataxia: executive control is related to disease onset and GAA repeat length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbauer, Wolfgang; Bodner, Thomas; Boesch, Sylvia; Karner, Elfriede; Eigentler, Andreas; Neier, Lisa; Benke, Thomas; Delazer, Margarete

    2014-02-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most frequent inherited ataxia. Neuropsychological studies suggest that FRDA may be associated with specific cognitive impairment. Very little is known about the relation between cognitive performance, demographics and disease-related parameters, such as GAA repeat size, age of onset and disease duration. The present investigation aimed at assessing cognitive functions in a representative sample of FRDA patients and at identifying the most relevant disease-related parameters. Twenty-nine adult FRDA patients underwent neuropsychological tests assessing executive functions, attention, memory and visual perception. Performance was compared with 28 age- and education-matched controls as well as with standardized norms. The relation between neuropsychological outcome, demographical variables and disease-related parameters was assessed. Cognitive impairment affected only a subgroup of patients and mostly concerned attentional and executive functions. Good cognitive performance was associated with a later disease onset, shorter GAA repeat length and lower burden of disease. Age at disease onset has been found to be a good predictor when a cut-off of 14 years was chosen. No correlation was found between cognitive performance and education, age or disease duration. The present study extends earlier findings in FRDA showing that performance in attentional and executive function tasks is best predicted by the age at disease onset. Moreover, executive functions show a clear relationship to disease severity and repeat size of the shorter GAA allele. These findings therefore have important implications for patient counselling regarding education and career choices.

  18. The Relations Between Temperament, Character, and Executive Functions in Children With ADHD and Clinical Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drechsler, Renate; Zulauf Logoz, Marina; Walitza, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the overlap between executive functions and temperament as measured by two questionnaires and to examine characteristic profiles in children with ADHD and clinical controls. METHOD: Parents of 111 clinically referred children, half of whom...... were diagnosed with ADHD and half with other or no diagnoses, completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Cloninger Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). RESULTS: Factor analysis of both instruments resulted in three common factors representing aspects...... disorder (CD/ODD) but not ADHD accounted for problems in BRIEF Emotional Control and Self-Monitor and JTCI low Cooperativeness. CONCLUSION: The two instruments only partially overlap and may complement each other....

  19. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in 62 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay) but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression (ANT) and complex response inhibition (go/no-go task). On the go/no-go task, ERPs showed larger P3 amplitudes and shorter N2 and P3 latencies for bilingual children than for monolinguals. These latency and amplitude data were associated with better behavioral performance and better discrimination between stimuli for bilingual children but not for monolingual children. These results clarify the conditions that lead to advantages for bilingual children in executive control and provide the first evidence linking those performance differences to electrophysiological brain differences in children. PMID:27133956

  20. Interaction Between the Development of Postural Control and the Executive Function of Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Dinah S.; van Donkelaar, Paul; Saavedra, Sandy; Woollacott, Marjorie H

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the interaction between the development of postural control and the development of the executive function of attention in 13 children and 6 adults in dual-task conditions. Participants performed an attentionally demanding cognitive task and a postural task simultaneously. The authors equalized the attentional load of the cognitive task across age groups. Comparative changes in the center of pressure in dual- and single-task conditions indicated that dual tasks interfered ...

  1. Aerobic fitness and executive control of relational memory in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Buck, Sarah M; Cohen, Neal J

    2011-02-01

    the neurocognitive benefits of an active lifestyle in childhood have public health and educational implications, especially as children in today's technological society are becoming increasingly overweight, unhealthy, and unfit. Human and animal studies show that aerobic exercise affects both prefrontal executive control and hippocampal function. This investigation attempts to bridge these research threads by using a cognitive task to examine the relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control of relational memory in preadolescent 9- and 10-yr-old children. higher-fit and lower-fit children studied faces and houses under individual item (i.e., nonrelational) and relational encoding conditions, and the children were subsequently tested with recognition memory trials consisting of previously studied pairs and pairs of completely new items. With each subject participating in both item and relational encoding conditions, and with recognition test trials amenable to the use of both item and relational memory cues, this task afforded a challenge to the flexible use of memory, specifically in the use of appropriate encoding and retrieval strategies. Hence, the task provided a test of both executive control and memory processes. lower-fit children showed poorer recognition memory performance than higher-fit children, selectively in the relational encoding condition. No association between aerobic fitness and recognition performance was found for faces and houses studied as individual items (i.e., nonrelationally). the findings implicate childhood aerobic fitness as a factor in the ability to use effective encoding and retrieval executive control processes for relational memory material and, possibly, in the strategic engagement of prefrontal- and hippocampal-dependent systems.

  2. Lexical quality and executive control predict children’s first and second language reading comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years, SD = 5 months) learning to read Dutch in the Netherlands. Bilingual children showed lower Dutch vocabulary, syntactic integration and reading comprehens...

  3. Visual working memory capacity increases between ages 3 and 8 years, controlling for gains in attention, perception, and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailian, Hrag; Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2016-08-01

    Research in adults has aimed to characterize constraints on the capacity of Visual Working Memory (VWM), in part because of the system's broader impacts throughout cognition. However, less is known about how VWM develops in childhood. Existing work has reached conflicting conclusions as to whether VWM storage capacity increases after infancy, and if so, when and by how much. One challenge is that previous studies did not control for developmental changes in attention and executive processing, which also may undergo improvement. We investigated the development of VWM storage capacity in children from 3 to 8 years of age, and in adults, while controlling for developmental change in exogenous and endogenous attention and executive control. Our results reveal that, when controlling for improvements in these abilities, VWM storage capacity increases across development and approaches adult-like levels between ages 6 and 8 years. More generally, this work highlights the value of estimating working memory, attention, perception, and decision-making components together.

  4. Controlling the EU Executive? The Politics of Delegation in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    . Controlling the EU executive represents the first comprehensive investigation of this conflict. It does so by a combination of methods and data, including process-tracing of the introduction of the new system in the Lisbon Treaty, case studies of selected post-Lisbon delegation situations and statistical......’). However, this system was contested by the European Parliament which was left without any influence. The Lisbon Treaty introduced a new control regime for delegated powers, the so-called delegated acts system, which was meant to supplement the existing system. The new system involves direct control...

  5. The Role of Inhibitory Control in Behavioral and Physiological Expressions of Toddler Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one toddlers (ranging from 24 to 27 months) participated in a biobehavioral investigation of inhibitory control. Maternal-report measures of inhibitory control were related to laboratory tasks assessing inhibitory abilities under conditions of conflict, delay, and compliance challenge as well as toddler verbal ability. Additionally, unique variance in inhibitory control was explained by task-related changes in brain electrical activity at lateral frontal scalp sites as well as concurrent inhibitory task performance. Implications regarding neural correlates of executive function in early development and a central, organizing role of inhibitory processing in toddlerhood are discussed. PMID:20719337

  6. Lexical quality and executive control predict children's first and second language reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years, SD  = 5 months) learning to read Dutch in the Netherlands. Bilingual children showed lower Dutch vocabulary, syntactic integration and reading comprehension skills, but better decoding skills than their monolingual peers. There were no differences in working memory or inhibition. Multigroup path analysis showed relatively invariant connections between predictors and reading comprehension for monolingual and bilingual readers. For both groups, there was a direct effect of lexical quality on reading comprehension. In addition, lexical quality and executive control indirectly influenced reading comprehension via syntactic integration. The groups differed in that inhibition more strongly predicted syntactic integration for bilingual than for monolingual children. For a subgroup of bilingual children, for whom home language vocabulary data were available ( n  = 56), there was an additional positive effect of home language vocabulary on second language reading comprehension. Together, the results suggest that similar processes underlie reading comprehension in first and second language readers, but that syntactic integration requires more executive control in second language reading. Moreover, bilingual readers additionally benefit from first language vocabulary to arrive at second language reading comprehension.

  7. Effortless control: executive attention and conscious feeling of mental effort are dissociable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Lionel; Dehaene, Stanislas; Cohen, Laurent; Habert, Marie-Odile; Guichart-Gomez, Elodie; Galanaud, Damien; Willer, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Recruitment of executive attention is normally associated to a subjective feeling of mental effort. Here we investigate the nature of this coupling in a patient with a left mesio-frontal cortex lesion including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and in a group of comparison subjects using a Stroop paradigm. We show that in normal subjects, subjective increases in effort associated with executive control correlate with higher skin-conductance responses (SCRs). However, our patient experienced no conscious feeling of mental effort and showed no SCR, in spite of exhibiting normal executive control, and residual right anterior cingulate activity measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). Finally, this patient demonstrated a pattern of impaired behavior and SCRs in the Iowa gambling task-elaborated by Damasio, Bechara and colleagues-replicating the findings reported by these authors for other patients with mesio-frontal lesions. Taken together, these results call for a theoretical refinement by revealing a decoupling between conscious cognitive control and consciously reportable feelings. Moreover, they reveal a fundamental distinction, observed here within the same patient, between the cognitive operations which are depending on normal somatic marker processing, and those which are withstanding to impairments of this system.

  8. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Reveals Executive Control Dissociation in the Rostral Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijiang He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have shown that the rostral prefrontal cortex (rPFC plays a crucial role in executive tasks, the various functions of the rPFC in the humans are still understudied. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS with continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS to interfere with the executive control functions of the right rostrolateral PFC (RLPFC or the right rostromedial PFC (RMPFC. Subjects performed a task-switching paradigm, which included spatial detection (SD, prospective memory (PM and working memory (WM tasks, after cTBS. The performance of 18 healthy volunteers was evaluated on different days after cTBS over the right RLPFC, the right RMPFC, and the vertex (serving as a control site. The application of cTBS over the RLPFC significantly increased the switching costs (SCs of the error rates (ERs when switching to the PM task, while RMPFC-cTBS decreased SCs of ERs when switching to the WM task, compared with the control vertex site. These findings provide evidence for a differential role of the RLPFC and the RMPFC in executive functions, with a specific involvement of the RLPFC and the RMPFC in PM, and WM, respectively.

  9. Control channels in the brain and their influence on brain executive functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglei; Choa, Fow-Sen; Hong, Elliot; Wang, Zhiguang; Islam, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    In a computer network there are distinct data channels and control channels where massive amount of visual information are transported through data channels but the information streams are routed and controlled by intelligent algorithm through "control channels". Recent studies on cognition and consciousness have shown that the brain control channels are closely related to the brainwave beta (14-40 Hz) and alpha (7-13 Hz) oscillations. The high-beta wave is used by brain to synchronize local neural activities and the alpha oscillation is for desynchronization. When two sensory inputs are simultaneously presented to a person, the high-beta is used to select one of the inputs and the alpha is used to deselect the other so that only one input will get the attention. In this work we demonstrated that we can scan a person's brain using binaural beats technique and identify the individual's preferred control channels. The identified control channels can then be used to influence the subject's brain executive functions. In the experiment, an EEG measurement system was used to record and identify a subject's control channels. After these channels were identified, the subject was asked to do Stroop tests. Binaural beats was again used to produce these control-channel frequencies on the subject's brain when we recorded the completion time of each test. We found that the high-beta signal indeed speeded up the subject's executive function performance and reduced the time to complete incongruent tests, while the alpha signal didn't seem to be able to slow down the executive function performance.

  10. Executive functioning and risk-taking behavior in Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Fanny; Roze, Emmanuel; Lacomblez, Lucette; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Vidailhet, Marie; Czernecki, Virginie; Corvol, Jean-Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with dopaminergic medication. The purpose of this study was to investigate executive function and risk-taking behavior in PD patients with ICD. 17 PD patients with ICD (ICD-PD) were compared to 20 PD patients without ICD (CTRL-PD) using neuropsychological and experimental tasks. Executive functions were assessed using standard executive testing (Conner's Performance Test, Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test and phonological verbal fluency). Subjects were also submitted to an experimental gambling task consisted of three decks of money cards: neutral deck (equal opportunity for gains as losses), winning deck (small amount of money with a positive balance) and loser deck (high amount of money with a negative balance), evaluating risk-taking behavior (number of cards picked in each deck) and valuation of the reward (subjective appreciation of the value of each deck). There was no significant difference in executive functioning between groups. Both groups selected more cards in the losing deck (high amount of money) as compared to the neutral deck (Mann-Whitney test, ICD-PD, p = 0.02; CTRL-PD, p = 0.003) and to the winning deck (Mann-Whitney test, ICD-PD p = 0.0001; CTRL-PD p = 0.003), suggesting an increased risk-taking behavior. Interestingly, we found that ICD-PD patients estimated the value of decks differently from CTRL-PD patients, taking into account mainly the positive reinforced value of the decks (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.04). This study showed that executive pattern and risk-taking behavior are similar between ICD-PD and CTRL-PD patients. However, ICD-PD patients showed a specific deficit of the subjective estimation of the reward. Links between this deficit and metacognitive skills are discussed.

  11. The relationship between executive function and fine motor control in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Emily J; Johnson, Andrew R; Riddle, Hayley; Gasson, Natalie; Kane, Robert; Loftus, Andrea M

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between executive function (EF) and fine motor control in young and older healthy adults. Participants completed 3 measures of executive function; a spatial working memory (SWM) task, the Stockings of Cambridge task (planning), and the Intra-Dimensional Extra-Dimensional Set-Shift task (set-shifting). Fine motor control was assessed using 3 subtests of the Purdue Pegboard (unimanual, bimanual, sequencing). For the younger adults, there were no significant correlations between measures of EF and fine motor control. For the older adults, all EFs significantly correlated with all measures of fine motor control. Three separate regressions examined whether planning, SWM and set-shifting independently predicted unimanual, bimanual, and sequencing scores for the older adults. Planning was the primary predictor of performance on all three Purdue subtests. A multiple-groups mediation model examined whether planning predicted fine motor control scores independent of participants' age, suggesting that preservation of planning ability may support fine motor control in older adults. Planning remained a significant predictor of unimanual performance in the older age group, but not bimanual or sequencing performance. The findings are discussed in terms of compensation theory, whereby planning is a key compensatory resource for fine motor control in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  13. 41 CFR 102-38.360 - What must an executive agency do to implement the eFAS program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Implementation of the Federal Asset Sales Program § 102-38.360 What... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an executive...

  14. Deficits in Executive and Memory Processes in Delusional Disorder: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Casas, Inmaculada; De Portugal, Enrique; Gonzalez, Nieves; McKenney, Kathryn A.; Haro, Josep M.; Usall, Judith; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Cervilla, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Delusional disorder has been traditionally considered a psychotic syndrome that does not evolve to cognitive deterioration. However, to date, very little empirical research has been done to explore cognitive executive components and memory processes in Delusional Disorder patients. This study will investigate whether patients with delusional disorder are intact in both executive function components (such as flexibility, impulsivity and updating components) and memory processes (such as immediate, short term and long term recall, learning and recognition). Methods A large sample of patients with delusional disorder (n = 86) and a group of healthy controls (n = 343) were compared with regard to their performance in a broad battery of neuropsychological tests including Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Colour-Word Stroop Test, and Complutense Verbal Learning Test (TAVEC). Results When compared to controls, cases of delusional disorder showed a significantly poorer performance in most cognitive tests. Thus, we demonstrate deficits in flexibility, impulsivity and updating components of executive functions as well as in memory processes. These findings held significant after taking into account sex, age, educational level and premorbid IQ. Conclusions Our results do not support the traditional notion of patients with delusional disorder being cognitively intact. PMID:23844005

  15. Deficits in executive and memory processes in delusional disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Casas, Inmaculada; De Portugal, Enrique; Gonzalez, Nieves; McKenney, Kathryn A; Haro, Josep M; Usall, Judith; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Delusional disorder has been traditionally considered a psychotic syndrome that does not evolve to cognitive deterioration. However, to date, very little empirical research has been done to explore cognitive executive components and memory processes in Delusional Disorder patients. This study will investigate whether patients with delusional disorder are intact in both executive function components (such as flexibility, impulsivity and updating components) and memory processes (such as immediate, short term and long term recall, learning and recognition). A large sample of patients with delusional disorder (n = 86) and a group of healthy controls (n = 343) were compared with regard to their performance in a broad battery of neuropsychological tests including Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Colour-Word Stroop Test, and Complutense Verbal Learning Test (TAVEC). When compared to controls, cases of delusional disorder showed a significantly poorer performance in most cognitive tests. Thus, we demonstrate deficits in flexibility, impulsivity and updating components of executive functions as well as in memory processes. These findings held significant after taking into account sex, age, educational level and premorbid IQ. Our results do not support the traditional notion of patients with delusional disorder being cognitively intact.

  16. Age-Based Differences in Task Switching Are Moderated by Executive Control Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, Teal S; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Stern, Yaakov; Gopher, Daniel

    2016-09-15

    Recent work has identified different aspects of executive function that may underlie cognitive changes associated with age. The current study used a multifactorial design to investigate age sensitivity in the ability to shift between different task sets and the interaction of this ability with several specific aspects of executive control. A large, well-characterized sample of younger (n = 40) and clinically healthy older (n = 51) adults completed a task switching paradigm in which 3 aspects of executive control were manipulated between subjects: a) sensorimotor demand (the number of distinct stimulus-response options); b) stimulus-level interference (i.e., flanker effects); and c) updating/monitoring (the frequency of task switches). Unique age-related deficits were observed for different aspects of local task switching performance costs and updating/monitoring, but not for interference. Sensorimotor demand was also an important additional factor that interacted with task switching performance. Our findings suggest that task switching, coupled with infrequent and unexpected transitions from one task set to another, in the context of high motoric demands, is particularly difficult for older adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Deficits in executive and memory processes in delusional disorder: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ibanez-Casas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Delusional disorder has been traditionally considered a psychotic syndrome that does not evolve to cognitive deterioration. However, to date, very little empirical research has been done to explore cognitive executive components and memory processes in Delusional Disorder patients. This study will investigate whether patients with delusional disorder are intact in both executive function components (such as flexibility, impulsivity and updating components and memory processes (such as immediate, short term and long term recall, learning and recognition. METHODS: A large sample of patients with delusional disorder (n = 86 and a group of healthy controls (n = 343 were compared with regard to their performance in a broad battery of neuropsychological tests including Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Colour-Word Stroop Test, and Complutense Verbal Learning Test (TAVEC. RESULTS: When compared to controls, cases of delusional disorder showed a significantly poorer performance in most cognitive tests. Thus, we demonstrate deficits in flexibility, impulsivity and updating components of executive functions as well as in memory processes. These findings held significant after taking into account sex, age, educational level and premorbid IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support the traditional notion of patients with delusional disorder being cognitively intact.

  18. The selection and suppression of action: ERP correlates of executive control in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S R; Jackson, G M; Roberts, M

    1999-03-17

    A key aspect of higher cortical function is the ability to selectively withhold or suppress action where appropriate. To examine the time course of executive control we used dense-sensor EEG recording techniques to study event-related electrical potentials (ERPs) during a visual 'go/no-go' task. We show that during both go and no-go trials there is a positive deflection in the ERP, which develops over posterior parietal sensors approximately 350 ms (P300) after the onset of a conditional visual stimulus, but is selectively suppressed during no-go trials. We also show that this modulation of the parietal P300 is preceded by a negative deflection in the ERP recorded over frontal cortex (N2), which is apparent only for no-go trials. We suggest that this signal provides an electrophysiological marker in man for the decision to withhold the execution of a motor response.

  19. Moderators, mediators and nonspecific predictors of outcome after cognitive rehabilitation of executive functions in a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tornås, Sveinung; Stubberud, Jan; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Evans, Jonathan; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Løvstad, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Moderators, mediators and nonspecific predictors of treatment after cognitive rehabilitation of executive functions in a randomised controlled trial\\ud \\ud Objective: To explore moderators, mediators and nonspecific predictors of executive functioning after cognitive rehabilitation in a randomised controlled trial, comparing Goal Management Training (GMT) with an active psycho-educative control-intervention, in patients with chronic acquired brain injury.\\ud \\ud Methods: Seventy patients with...

  20. Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Mark D; Orban, Sarah A; Kofler, Michael J; Friedman, Lauren M

    2013-12-01

    Children with ADHD are characterized frequently as possessing underdeveloped executive functions and sustained attentional abilities, and recent commercial claims suggest that computer-based cognitive training can remediate these impairments and provide significant and lasting improvement in their attention, impulse control, social functioning, academic performance, and complex reasoning skills. The present review critically evaluates these claims through meta-analysis of 25 studies of facilitative intervention training (i.e., cognitive training) for children with ADHD. Random effects models corrected for publication bias and sampling error revealed that studies training short-term memory alone resulted in moderate magnitude improvements in short-term memory (d=0.63), whereas training attention did not significantly improve attention and training mixed executive functions did not significantly improve the targeted executive functions (both nonsignificant: 95% confidence intervals include 0.0). Far transfer effects of cognitive training on academic functioning, blinded ratings of behavior (both nonsignificant), and cognitive tests (d=0.14) were nonsignificant or negligible. Unblinded raters (d=0.48) reported significantly larger benefits relative to blinded raters and objective tests (both peffects. Critical examination of training targets revealed incongruence with empirical evidence regarding the specific executive functions that are (a) most impaired in ADHD, and (b) functionally related to the behavioral and academic outcomes these training programs are intended to ameliorate. Collectively, meta-analytic results indicate that claims regarding the academic, behavioral, and cognitive benefits associated with extant cognitive training programs are unsupported in ADHD. The methodological limitations of the current evidence base, however, leave open the possibility that cognitive training techniques designed to improve empirically documented executive function

  1. Executive functions and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: Comparisons between probands, parents and controls in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is said to be a core feature of schizophrenia. Executive function is an important cognitive domain. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess cognitive impairment among Indian patients with schizophrenia (Sz or schizoaffective disorder (SzA, compared with their parents and unaffected individuals (controls. Settings and Design: Executive functions as measured by Trail-making Test (TMT, of patients and their parents were compared with controls. The patients were recruited from the Outpatients′ Department (OPD of a government hospital. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed as Sz or SzA (n=172 and their parents (n=196: families n=132, 119 fathers and 77 mothers participated. We also included 120 persons with no history of psychiatric illness. Cognitive function was assessed with the TMT. The Information Score of the Post Graduate Institute Battery of Brain Dysfunction test, developed in India for Indian subjects was used as a proxy for general fixed knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Logistic and linear regression was used to compare cognitive deficits of cases, parents and controls. Results: Cases and their parents took significantly more time than controls on Part B of the TMT. There were no statistically significant differences between cases and parents on any of the TMT parameters. Using regression analysis, the most significant correlates of all TMT parameters among cases were with occurrence of auditory hallucinations and current age. Conclusion: Cases, as well as their parents showed more cognitive impairment than controls on the TMT.

  2. Lowest Price, Technically Acceptable Evaluation Criteria Used in the November 2014 Request for Proposal for the Program Executive Office Soldier Systems Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA) Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    USED IN THE NOVEMBER 2014 REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL FOR THE PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE SOLDIER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (SETA) CONTRACT...NOVEMBER 2014 REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL FOR THE PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE SOLDIER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (SETA) CONTRACT 5. FUNDING...evaluation process for replies received in response to a request for proposal (RFP) for systems engineering and technical assistance (SETA) support

  3. Modulations of the executive control network by stimulus onset asynchrony in a Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2013-07-31

    Manipulating task difficulty is a useful way of elucidating the functional recruitment of the brain's executive control network. In a Stroop task, pre-exposing the irrelevant word using varying stimulus onset asynchronies ('negative' SOAs) modulates the amount of behavioural interference and facilitation, suggesting disparate mechanisms of cognitive processing in each SOA. The current study employed a Stroop task with three SOAs (-400, -200, 0 ms), using functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate for the first time the neural effects of SOA manipulation. Of specific interest were 1) how SOA affects the neural representation of interference and facilitation; 2) response priming effects in negative SOAs; and 3) attentional effects of blocked SOA presentation. The results revealed three regions of the executive control network that were sensitive to SOA during Stroop interference; the 0 ms SOA elicited the greatest activation of these areas but experienced relatively smaller behavioural interference, suggesting that the enhanced recruitment led to more efficient conflict processing. Response priming effects were localized to the right inferior frontal gyrus, which is consistent with the idea that this region performed response inhibition in incongruent conditions to overcome the incorrectly-primed response, as well as more general action updating and response preparation. Finally, the right superior parietal lobe was sensitive to blocked SOA presentation and was most active for the 0 ms SOA, suggesting that this region is involved in attentional control. SOA exerted both trial-specific and block-wide effects on executive processing, providing a unique paradigm for functional investigations of the cognitive control network.

  4. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence E. [Alstom Grid, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This is the executive summary for a report that provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  5. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: Evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eHeidlmayr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e. interference suppression and conflict resolution and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French-German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200. Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and the prefrontal cortex (PFC in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400 but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential, the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present EEG data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role.

  6. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French-German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role.

  7. BlueJ Visual Debugger for Learning the Execution of Object-Oriented Programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens B.; Schulte, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment undertaken in order to evaluate the effect of a program visualization tool for helping students to better understand the dynamics of object-orientedprograms. The concrete tool used was BlueJ?s debugger and object inspector. The study was done as a control...

  8. On Static and Dynamic Control-Flow Information in Program Analysis and Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniel

    This thesis addresses several aspects of static and dynamic control-flow information in programming languages, by investigating its interaction with program transformation and program analysis. Control-flow information indicates for each point in a program the possible program points to be executed...... that a non-duplicating CPS transformation does not alter the result of a monovariant constraint-based control-flow analysis. Building on control-flow analysis, we show that traditional constraint-based binding-time analysis and traditional partial evaluation benefit from the effects of a CPS transformation...

  9. Examining the mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory: capture and rumination, and impaired executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan

    2011-02-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is an important cognitive phenomenon in depression, but questions remain regarding the underlying mechanisms. The CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007) proposes three mechanisms that may contribute to OGM, but little work has examined the possible additive and/or interactive effects among them. We examined two mechanisms of CaR-FA-X: capture and rumination, and impaired executive control. We analysed data from undergraduates (N=109) scoring high or low on rumination who were presented with cues of high and low self-relevance on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). Executive control was operationalised as performance on both the Stroop Colour-Word Task and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). Hierarchical generalised linear modelling was used to predict whether participants would generate a specific memory on a trial of the AMT. Higher COWAT scores, lower rumination, and greater cue self-relevance predicted a higher probability of a specific memory. There was also a rumination×cue self-relevance interaction: Higher (vs lower) rumination was associated with a lower probability of a specific memory primarily for low self-relevant cues. We found no evidence of interactions between these mechanisms. Findings are interpreted with respect to current autobiographical memory models. Future directions for OGM mechanism research are discussed. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  10. Dopaminergic influences on executive function and impulsive behaviour in impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, Iracema; Barraclough, Michelle; McKie, Shane; Hinvest, Neal; Evans, Jonathan; Elliott, Rebecca; McDonald, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    The development of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) may arise from an interaction among cognitive impairment, impulsive responding and dopaminergic state. Dopaminergic state may be influenced by pharmacologic or genotypic (catechol-O-methyltransferase; COMT) factors. We sought to investigate this interaction further by comparing those with (n = 35) and without (n = 55) ICDs on delay-discounting in different pharmacologic conditions (ON or OFF dopaminergic medication) and on response inhibition as well as aspects of executive functioning in the ON state. We then undertook an exploratory sub-group analysis of these same tasks when the overall PD group was divided into different allelic variants of COMT (val/val vs. met/met). A healthy control group (HC; n = 20) was also included. We found that in those with PD and ICDs, 'cognitive flexibility' (set shifting, verbal fluency, and attention) in the ON medication state was not impaired compared with those without ICDs. In contrast, our working memory, or 'cognitive focus', task was impaired in both PD groups compared with the HC group when ON. During the delay-discounting task, the PD with ICDs group expressed greater impulsive choice compared with the PD group without ICDs, when in the ON, but not the OFF, medication state. However, no group difference on the response inhibition task was seen when ON. Finally, the met homozygous group performed differently on tests of executive function compared with the val homozygous group. We concluded that the disparity in levels of impairment among different domains of executive function and impulsive decision-making distinguishes those with ICD in PD from those without ICD, and may in part be affected by dopaminergic status. Both pharmacologic and genotypic influences on dopaminergic state may be important in ICD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Fathers Matter: The Role of Father Autonomy Support and Control in Preschoolers' Executive Function Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, Alyssa S.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that mothers' parenting influences the development of child executive function (important self-control skills developed in the preschool years) the role of fathers' parenting has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed fathers' autonomy support and control in dyadic play with their 3-year-old children (N pairs = 110), and measured father and child EF independently with laboratory tasks. We found that fathers' controlling parenting was significantly inversely related to the child EF composite, above and beyond family income and child verbal ability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fathers are important for the development of EF in their children, and suggest fathers should be included in both research and parenting interventions. PMID:26209884

  12. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: matias.urrea@iberdrola.es [Iberdrola Generacion S.A. Valencia (Spain). C.N. Cofrentes; Curiel, M., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Teconologicos, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Spain) of Control Rods PCC/24 Friction Test Procedure. In order to perform this, a Control Rod Friction Test System has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The PCC/24 Procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a CRD (Control Rod Drive) movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time.(author)

  13. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes nuclear power plant (Spain) of control rods Pcc/24 friction test procedure. In order to perform this, a control rod friction test system has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The Pcc/24 procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a control rod drive movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time. (Author)

  14. Aging effect on Executive Control in the Random Number Generation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The decline of abilities related to Executive Control –EC with aging has been related with the Pre-Frontal System neurobiological aging. This study compared the score obtained in the Random Number Generation Test (RNG by two groups: 30 college students (older than 18 and 36 elderly (older than 60. This last group was divided according to the criteria of schooling in up to 8 years of schooling and over 8 years of schooling. The results show that the younger participants scored 0,344 ± 0,04 in the RNG test; the elderly with up to 8 years of schooling punctuated 0,432 ± 0,10 and that those who studied for 9 years or more reached a mean of 0,393 ± 0,05. The statistical analysis of these data suggest that the elderly performance in the RNG test (0,420 ± 0,09 was significantly worse when compared to the performance of the younger participants (t (64 = -3,9927; p = 0,0001, which confirms that the manipulation and inhibitory control abilities of information are decreased in older people, probably due to the natural aging process of the Frontal Cortex. Keywords: neuropsychology; aging; executive functions.

  15. Executive control systems in the engineering design environment. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    An executive control system (ECS) is a software structure for unifying various applications codes into a comprehensive system. It provides a library of applications, a uniform access method through a cental user interface, and a data management facility. A survey of twenty-four executive control systems designed to unify various CAD/CAE applications for use in diverse engineering design environments within government and industry was conducted. The goals of this research were to establish system requirements to survey state-of-the-art architectural design approaches, and to provide an overview of the historical evolution of these systems. Foundations for design are presented and include environmental settings, system requirements, major architectural components, and a system classification scheme based on knowledge of the supported engineering domain(s). An overview of the design approaches used in developing the major architectural components of an ECS is presented with examples taken from the surveyed systems. Attention is drawn to four major areas of ECS development: interdisciplinary usage; standardization; knowledge utilization; and computer science technology transfer.

  16. The disruptive effects of pain on complex cognitive performance and executive control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Keogh

    Full Text Available Pain interferes and disrupts attention. What is less clear is how pain affects performance on complex tasks, and the strategies used to ensure optimal outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of pain on higher-order executive control processes involved in managing complex tasks. Sixty-two adult volunteers (40 female completed two computer-based tasks: a breakfast making task and a word generation puzzle. Both were complex, involving executive control functions, including goal-directed planning and switching. Half of those recruited performed the tasks under conditions of thermal heat pain, and half with no accompanying pain. Whilst pain did not affect central performance on either task, it did have indirect effects. For the breakfast task, pain resulted in a decreased ability to multitask, with performance decrements found on the secondary task. However, no effects of pain were found on the processes thought to underpin this task. For the word generation puzzle, pain did not affect task performance, but did alter subjective accounts of the processes used to complete the task; pain affected the perceived allocation of time to the task, as well as switching perceptions. Sex differences were also found. When studying higher-order cognitive processes, pain-related interference effects are varied, and may result in subtle or indirect changes in cognition.

  17. Neural substrates of contingency learning and executive control: dissociating physical, valuative, and behavioral changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge about environmental contingencies allows behavioral flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of experiential learning have focused on the relationship between actions and the values of associated outcomes. However, outcome values have often been confounded with the physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we dissociated contingency learning into valuative and non-valuative forms, using a novel version of the two-alternative choice task, while measuring the neural effects of contingency changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Changes in value-relevant contingencies evoked activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC, posterior parietal cortex (PPC, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC consistent with prior results (e.g., reversal-learning paradigms. Changes in physical contingencies unrelated to value or to action produced similar activations within the LPFC, indicating that LPFC may engage in generalized contingency learning that is not specific to valuation. In contrast, contingency changes that required behavioral shifts evoked activation localized to the DMPFC, supplementary motor, and precentral cortices, suggesting that these regions play more specific roles within the executive control of behavior.

  18. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  19. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  20. Executive control over unconscious cognition: Attentional sensitization of unconscious information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eKiefer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Unconscious priming is a prototypical example of an automatic process, which is initiated without deliberate intention. Classical theories of automaticity assume that such unconscious automatic processes occur in a purely bottom-up driven fashion independent of attentional control mechanisms. In contrast to these classical theories, our attentional sensitization model of unconscious information processing proposes that unconscious processing is susceptible to attentional top-down control and is only elicited if the cognitive system is configured accordingly. It is assumed that unconscious processing depends on attentional amplification of task-congruent processing pathways. This article provides an overview of the latest research on executive control influences on unconscious information processing. I introduce refined theories of automaticity with a particular focus on the attentional sensitization model of unconscious cognition which is specifically developed to account for various attentional influences on different types of unconscious information processing. In support of the attentional sensitization model, empirical evidence is reviewed demonstrating attentional top-down influences on unconscious cognition in the domains of visuo-motor, semantic and emotional processing: Subliminal priming depends on attentional resources, is susceptible to stimulus expectations and is influenced by action intentions and task sets. This suggests that even unconscious processing is flexible and context-dependent as a function of higher-level executive control settings. It is discussed that the assumption of attentional sensitization of unconscious information processing can accommodate conflicting findings regarding the automaticity of processes in many areas. This theoretical view has the potential to stimulate future research on the cognitive control of unconscious processing in healthy and clinical populations.

  1. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  2. Size and Reversal Learning in the Beagle Dog as a Measure of Executive Function and Inhibitory Control in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Tapp, P. Dwight; Siwak, Christina T.; Estrada, Jimena; Head, Elizabeth; Muggenburg, Bruce A.; Cotman, Carl W.; Milgram, Norton W.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies converge on the idea that executive processes age earlier than other cognitive processes. As part of a larger effort to investigate age-related changes in executive processes in the dog, inhibitory control was measured in young, middle-aged, old, and senior dogs using size discrimination learning and reversal procedures. Compared to young and middle-aged dogs, old and senior dogs were impaired on both the initial learning of the size task and the reversal of original reward co...

  3. Individual differences in control of language interference in late bilinguals are mainly related to general executive abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Münte Thomas F; Rodriguez-Fornells Antoni; Festman Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent research based on comparisons between bilinguals and monolinguals postulates that bilingualism enhances cognitive control functions, because the parallel activation of languages necessitates control of interference. In a novel approach we investigated two groups of bilinguals, distinguished by their susceptibility to cross-language interference, asking whether bilinguals with strong language control abilities ("non-switchers") have an advantage in executive function...

  4. Individual differences in control of language interference in late bilinguals are mainly related to general executive abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Festman, J.; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent research based on comparisons between bilinguals and monolinguals postulates that bilingualism enhances cognitive control functions, because the parallel activation of languages necessitates control of interference. In a novel approach we investigated two groups of bilinguals, distinguished by their susceptibility to cross-language interference, asking whether bilinguals with strong language control abilities ('non-switchers") have an advantage in executive functions (inhib...

  5. Why Army Program Managers Struggle As Life Cycle Managers: A Study of the PM’s Roles, Responsibilities, and Barriers In the Execution of Operations and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    SUBTITLE WHY ARMY PROGRAM MANAGERS STRUGGLE AS LIFE CYCLE MANAGERS : A STUDY OF THE PM’S ROLES , RESPONSIBILITIES, AND BARRIERS IN THE EXECUTION OF...unlimited. WHY ARMY PROGRAM MANAGERS STRUGGLE AS LIFE CYCLE MANAGERS : A STUDY OF THE PM’S ROLES , RESPONSIBILITIES, AND BARRIERS IN THE EXECUTION OF...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v WHY ARMY PROGRAM MANAGERS STRUGGLE AS LIFE CYCLE MANAGERS : A STUDY OF THE PM’S ROLES , RESPONSIBILITIES, AND

  6. Age-Related Differences in the Reliance on Executive Control in Working Memory: Role of Task Demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Isingrini

    Full Text Available We examined the hypothesis that age-related differences in the reliance on executive control may be better explained by variations of task demand than by a mechanism specifically linked to aging. To this end, we compared the relationship between the performance of young and older adults on two executive functioning tests and an updating working-memory task with different load levels. The results revealed a significant interaction between age, task demand, and individual executive capacities, indicating that executive resources were only involved at lower loads in older adults, and only at higher loads in young adults. Overall, the results are not consistent with the proposition that cognition places greater demand on executive control in older adults. However, they support the view that how much young and older adults rely on executive control to accomplish cognitive tasks depends on task demand. Finally, interestingly these results are consistent with the CRUNCH model accounting for age-related differences in brain activations.

  7. Effects of Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 on Joint Program Executive Office Chemical Biological Defense (JPEO-CBD) Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    under the guidance of the Army as the Executive Agent, to ensure that warfighters are properly prepared to respond to medical and non -medical CBD...JOINT PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE – CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE (JPEO-CBD) EFFECTIVENESS September 2016 By: Emily C. Whaley Advisors...reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite

  8. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  9. Action versus state orientation moderates the impact of executive functioning on real-life self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Max; Krönke, Klaus-Martin; Venz, John; Kräplin, Anja; Bühringer, Gerhard; Smolka, Michael N; Goschke, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Self-control is commonly assumed to depend on executive functions (EFs). However, it is unclear whether real-life self-control failures result from deficient EF competencies or rather reflect insufficient conflict-induced mobilization of executive control, and whether self-control depends more critically on function-specific EF competencies or general executive functioning (GEF), that is, common competencies that underlie all EFs. Here we investigated whether failure-related action versus state orientation, a personality trait related to the conflict-induced mobilization of cognitive control, moderates the effect of general and function-specific control competencies on self-control. To this end, 240 young adults completed questionnaire measures of action-state orientation and trait self-control, reported everyday self-control failures during 7 consecutive days via smartphone-based experience sampling, and completed 9 EF tasks from which latent variables reflecting GEF as well as inhibition-, updating-, and shifting-specific competencies were derived. Structural equation models confirmed that the effect of GEF on self-control was moderated by action-state orientation: action-oriented compared with more state-oriented participants showed a stronger inverse association between GEF and everyday self-control failures. Corresponding effects of function-specific competencies on self-control were not found. These results highlight that high executive functioning may enable self-controlled behavior only if control is sufficiently mobilized when needed and suggest that self-control may depend more critically on general than function-specific control competencies. More generally, the present study demonstrates the fruitfulness of combining latent-variable models of well-controlled EF tasks with experience sampling of daily self-control and measures of individual differences in control modes to bridge the gap between laboratory research and real-life behavior. (Psyc

  10. Altered attentional control strategies but spared executive functioning in chronic cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Amy T; Whitney, Paul; Cuttler, Carrie; Spradlin, Alexander; Hinson, John M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2017-10-12

    Cannabis use has increased rapidly in recent decades. The increase in cannabis use makes it important to understand the potential influence of chronic use on attentional control and other executive functions (EFs). Because cannabis is often used to reduce stress, and because stress can constrain attentional control and EFs, the primary goal of this study was to determine the joint effect of acute stress and chronic cannabis use on specific EFs. Thirty-nine cannabis users and 40 non-users were assigned to either a stress or no stress version of the Maastricht Acute Stress Test. Participants then completed two cognitive tasks that involve EFs: (1) task switching, and (2) a novel Flexible Attentional Control Task. These two tasks provided assessments of vigilant attention, inhibitory control, top-down attentional control, and cognitive flexibility. Salivary cortisol was assessed throughout the study. Reaction time indices showed an interaction between stress and cannabis use on top-down attentional control (p=0.036, np(2)=0.059). Follow-up tests showed that cannabis users relied less on top-down attentional control than did non-users in the no stress version. Despite not relying on top-down control, the cannabis users showed no overall performance deficits on the tasks. Chronic cannabis users performed cognitive tasks involving EFs as well as non-users while not employing cognitive control processes that are typical for such tasks. These results indicate alterations in cognitive processing in cannabis users, but such alterations do not necessarily lead to global performance deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrophysiological evidence for executive control and efficient categorization involved in implicit self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lili; Gu, Ruolei; Cai, Huajian; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem affects human life. A thorough examination of the cognitive processes and neural activations of implicit self-evaluation should aid our understanding of self-esteem. The current study examined electrophysiological correlates of implicit self-evaluation among 19 healthy participants using event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded during an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Behavioral results showed that participants responded faster in the compatible condition (compared to the incompatible condition) in which "self" was paired with "positive" traits and "others" was paired with "negative" traits, reflecting positive nature of implicit self-evaluation. ERP results showed that the incompatible condition elicited a larger N200 and a smaller P3 compared to the compatible condition. These findings indicated that both executive control and stimulus categorization were involved in implicit self-evaluation, reflected by N200 and P3, respectively. We accordingly suggested that implicit self-evaluation manifests in multiple cognitive processes.

  12. Tai Chi and meditation-plus-exercise benefit neural substrates of executive function: a cross-sectional, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Teresa D; Manselle, Wayne; Woollacott, Marjorie H

    2014-12-01

    We report the first controlled study of Tai Chi effects on the P300 event-related potential, a neuroelectric index of human executive function. Tai Chi is a form of exercise and moving meditation. Exercise and meditation have been associated with enhanced executive function. This cross-sectional, controlled study utilized the P300 event-related potential (ERP) to compare executive network neural function between self-selected long-term Tai Chi, meditation, aerobic fitness, and sedentary groups. We hypothesized that because Tai Chi requires moderate aerobic and mental exertion, this group would show similar or better executive neural function compared to meditation and aerobic exercise groups. We predicted all health training groups would outperform sedentary controls. Fifty-four volunteers (Tai Chi, n=10; meditation, n=16; aerobic exercise, n=16; sedentary, n=12) were tested with the Rockport 1-mile walk (estimated VO2 Max), a well-validated measure of aerobic capacity, and an ecologically valid visuo-spatial, randomized, alternating runs Task Switch test during dense-array electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. Only Tai Chi and meditation plus exercise groups demonstrated larger P3b ERP switch trial amplitudes compared to sedentary controls. Our results suggest long-term Tai Chi practice, and meditation plus exercise may benefit the neural substrates of executive function.

  13. Linking Childhood Poverty and Cognition: Environmental Mediators of Non-Verbal Executive Control in an Argentine Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipina, Sebastián; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, Lucía; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge López; Colombo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, between…

  14. 78 FR 43925 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Executive Excellence a Training and Development Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... the NIC's Academy and Administrative Divisions. NIC Opportunity Number: 13AC11 This number should... your proposal, and in the right justified header of your proposal. Number of Awards and Funds Available...) for an Executive Excellence curriculum should be developed using NIC's Instructional Theory Into...

  15. Energy surveys of army central heating and power plants. Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP). Fort Greely. Volume 1, executive summary. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-04-01

    This is the Executive Summary of the energy survey and project documentation that resulted from the Energy Survey of the Central Heating and Power Plant at Fort Greely. It is a part of the continuing effort under the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP). Similar energy surveys and reports have been developed for Fort Richardson and Fort Wainwright Central Heating and Power Plants concurrently. The Scope of Work of this program was developed by the Huntsville Division Corps of Engineers for use at all Army central heating and power plants. Representatives from the Huntsville Division of the Corps, U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) and John Graham Company, Architect-Engineer visited the Fort Greely power plant during the summer of 1984. At that time, a generic Scope of Work was reviewed. From it, a detailed scope was developed for Fort Greely. A complete Scope of Work can be found in Appendix H Volume 4 of this report. The purpose of this study is to review and study all potential energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) at the Fort Greely Central Heating and Power Plant (CHPP). These ECOs would then be developed to determine the economics and feasibility of implementation. The equipment at this plant is over 30 years old. The plant is meeting the requirements of providing steam for heating the base. It is a functional operating CHPP plant that will, with proper maintenance and repairs, continue to perform for many more years. With a heating plant of this age there was reason to believe that many energy conservation opportunities do exist. Section 4 describes the ECOs found and studied. The study also required that the condition and efficiency of the boilers and auxiliaries of the entire plant be evaluated.

  16. The neurotic wandering mind: An individual differences investigation of neuroticism, mind-wandering, and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Matthew K; Gath, Katherine I; Unsworth, Nash

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience have recently developed a keen interest in the phenomenon of mind-wandering. People mind-wander frequently, and mind-wandering is associated with decreased cognitive performance. But why do people mind-wander so much? Previous investigations have focused on cognitive abilities like working memory capacity and attention control. But an individual's tendency to worry, feel anxious, and entertain personal concerns also influences mind-wandering. The Control Failure × Concerns model of mind-wandering. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 188-197] argues that individual differences in the propensity to mind-wander are jointly determined by cognitive abilities and by the presence of personally salient concerns that intrude on task focus. In order to test this model, we investigated individual differences in mind-wandering, executive attention, and personality with a focus on neuroticism. The results showed that neurotic individuals tended to report more mind-wandering during cognitive tasks, lower working memory capacity, and poorer attention control. Thus the trait of neuroticism adds an additional source of variance in the tendency to mind-wander, which offers support for the Control Failure × Concerns model. The results help bridge the fields of clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, affective neuroscience, and cognitive neuroscience as a means of developing a more complete understanding of the complex relationship between cognition, personality, and emotion.

  17. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... professionals. The centers also offer programs to help clinicians better manage poisoning and overdose cases.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Poison Control Program, Director, Elisa Gladstone via e-mail at...

  18. The infant behavioral assessment and intervention program in very low birth weight infants; outcome on executive functioning, behaviour and cognition at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Houtzager, Bregje; Koldewijn, Karen; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Nollet, Frans; Kok, Joke

    2012-08-01

    The Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP©) improved motor function at 24 months, and mental and behavioural development in high risk subgroups of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine IBAIP's effects on executive functioning, behaviour and cognition at preschool age. Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (RCT). At 44 months corrected age, all 176 VLBW infants were invited for follow-up. Forty-one term born children were assessed for comparison. Visual Attention Task (VAT), Gift delay, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III-NL (PPVT), Visual motor integration tests and Miller assessment for preschoolers. Parents completed Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). At preschool age, 76 (88%) children of the intervention group and 75 (83%) children of the control group participated. There were no significant differences between the intervention and the control group. However, positive interaction effects between intervention and infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants born at gestational agecognition. However, the most vulnerable children had a clinical relevant profit from IBAIP. VLBW children performed worse than the term born children. This study is a follow-up at preschool age of the multi-centre RCT of IBAIP versus usual care in VLBW infants. The RCT was performed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands (IBAIP). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring executive function in control subjects and TBI patients with question completion time (QCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L; Yund, E William; Wyma, John M; Ruff, Ron; Herron, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaire completion is a complex task that places demands on cognitive functions subserving reading, introspective memory, decision-making, and motor control. Although computerized questionnaires and surveys are used with increasing frequency in clinical practice, few studies have examined question completion time (QCT), the time required to complete each question. Here, we analyzed QCTs in 172 control subjects and 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who completed two computerized questionnaires, the 17-question Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) and the 25-question Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). In control subjects, robust correlations were found between self-paced QCTs on the PCL and CFQ (r = 0.82). QCTs on individual questions correlated strongly with the number of words in the question, indicating the critical role of reading speed. QCTs increased significantly with age, and were reduced in females and in subjects with increased education and computer experience. QCT z-scores, corrected for age, education, computer use, and sex, correlated more strongly with each other than with the results of other cognitive tests. Patients with a history of severe TBI showed significantly delayed QCTs, but QCTs fell within the normal range in patients with a history of mild TBI. When questionnaires are used to gather relevant patient information, simultaneous QCT measures provide reliable and clinically sensitive measures of processing speed and executive function.

  20. Age Effects on Transfer Index Performance and Executive Control in Baboons (Papio papio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eBonté

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reversal performance in the transfer index (TI task is known to improve from prosimians to apes, suggesting that this task is a marker of cognitive evolution within the primate taxa (Rumbaugh, 1970. However, the cognitive processes recruited by this task remain unclear. In the present study, 19 socially-housed baboons (Papio papio from 1.6 to 14.3 years were tested on a computerized version of the TI task, using an automated self-testing procedure. Age was a significant factor in the level of success, with the younger baboons outperforming the adults. The younger baboons also learned the pre-reversal discrimination faster and improved their post-reversal performance more rapidly than adult baboons. As the same baboons had been tested in previous studies on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility tasks, comparison across tasks provide indicators of the underlying cognitive processes. Age variations in performance were similar between the TI task and in an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task measuring cognitive flexibility (Bonté, Flemming and Fagot, 2011. This contrasts previous results from a task requiring motor inhibitory control (Fagot, Bonté and Hopkins, 2013. Therefore, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility was a central component of the cognitive system that evolved within nonhuman primates. They also implicate a decline in executive control with age that begins during early adulthood in the baboon species.

  1. Executive Development Programs in the U.S. Air Force: Does Diversity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Nanus . Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers Inc., 1985. Bennis , Warren and Patricia Ward Biederman...Breaking Through: The Making of Minority Executives in Corporate America (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999), 54. 12 Warren Bennis and Burt... Nanus , Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers Inc., 1985), 112 and 118. 13 David A. Thomas and Robin J. Ely

  2. Brain Oscillatory Correlates of Altered Executive Functioning in Positive and Negative Symptomatic Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Barbara; Minarik, Tamas; Griesmayr, Birgit; Stelzig-Schoeler, Renate; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Sauseng, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Working Memory and executive functioning deficits are core characteristics of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Electrophysiological research indicates that altered patterns of neural oscillatory mechanisms underpinning executive functioning are associated with the psychiatric disorder. Such brain oscillatory changes have been found in local amplitude differences at gamma and theta frequencies in task-specific cortical areas. Moreover, interregional interactions are also disrupted as signified by decreased phase coherence of fronto-posterior theta activity in schizophrenia patients. However, schizophrenia is not a one-dimensional psychiatric disorder but has various forms and expressions. A common distinction is between positive and negative symptomatology but most patients have both negative and positive symptoms to some extent. Here, we examined three groups-healthy controls, predominantly negative, and predominantly positive symptomatic schizophrenia patients-when performing a working memory task with increasing cognitive demand and increasing need for executive control. We analyzed brain oscillatory activity in the three groups separately and investigated how predominant symptomatology might explain differences in brain oscillatory patterns. Our results indicate that differences in task specific fronto-posterior network activity (i.e., executive control network) expressed by interregional phase synchronization are able to account for working memory dysfunctions between groups. Local changes in the theta and gamma frequency range also show differences between patients and healthy controls, and more importantly, between the two patient groups. We conclude that differences in oscillatory brain activation patterns related to executive processing can be an indicator for positive and negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, changes in cognitive and especially executive functioning in patients are expressed by alterations in a task-specific fronto

  3. Control Systems Security Test Center - FY 2004 Program Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Polk; Alen M. Snyder

    2005-04-01

    In May 2004, the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) was established at Idaho National Laboratory to execute assessment activities to reduce the vulnerability of the nation’s critical infrastructure control systems to terrorist attack. The CSSC implements a program to accomplish the five goals presented in the US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security. This report summarizes the first year funding of startup activities and program achievements that took place in FY 2004 and early FY 2005. This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center of the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs federal departments to identify and prioritize the critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the National Cyber Security Division to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems.

  4. Effects of Age, Intelligence and Executive Control Function on Saccadic Reaction Time in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishi, Koichi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    The current research aimed to clarify the influence of age, intelligence and executive control function on the central tendency and intraindividual variability of saccadic reaction time in persons with intellectual disabilities. Participants were 44 persons with intellectual disabilities aged between 13 and 57 years whose IQs were between 14 and…

  5. Theory of Mind and Executive Control Deficits in Typically Developing Adults and Adolescents with High Levels of Autism Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçen, Elif; Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by profound difficulties in empathic processing and executive control. Whilst the links between these processes have been frequently investigated in populations with autism, few studies have examined them at the subclinical level. In addition, the contribution of alexithymia, a trait characterised by…

  6. The Role of Executive Control and Readiness to Change in Problematic Drinkers with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Problematic alcohol use is associated with neuropsychological consequences, including cognitive biases. The goal of the study was to explore the moderating role of executive control and readiness to change on the relationship between alcohol use and cognitive biases in light and problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline…

  7. A Chan Dietary Intervention Enhances Executive Functions and Anterior Cingulate Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive dysfunctions have been found to be related to repetitive/disinhibited behaviors and social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of a Shaolin-medicine-based dietary modification on improving executive functions and behavioral symptoms of ASD and exploring the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Twenty-four children with ASD were randomly assigned into the experimental (receiving dietary modification for one month and the control (no modification groups. Each child was assessed on his/her executive functions, behavioral problems based on parental ratings, and event-related electroencephalography (EEG activity during a response-monitoring task before and after the one month. The experimental group demonstrated significantly improved mental flexibility and inhibitory control after the diet modification, which continued to have a large effect size within the low-functioning subgroup. Such improvements coincided with positive evaluations by their parents on social communication abilities and flexible inhibitory control of daily behaviors and significantly enhanced event-related EEG activity at the rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the control group did not show any significant improvements. These positive outcomes of a one-month dietary modification on children with ASD have implicated its potential clinical applicability for patients with executive function deficits.

  8. Improving Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD: Training Multiple Executive Functions within the Context of a Computer Game. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Executive functions (EFs) training interventions aimed at ADHD-symptom reduction have yielded mixed results. Generally, these interventions focus on training a single cognitive domain (e.g., working memory [WM], inhibition, or cognitive-flexibility). However, evidence suggests that most children with ADHD show deficits on multiple EFs, and that these EFs are largely related to different brain regions. Therefore, training multiple EFs might be a potentially more effective strategy to reduce EF-related ADHD symptoms. Methods Eighty-nine children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (aged 8–12) were randomized to either a full-active-condition where visuospatial WM, inhibition and cognitive-flexibility were trained, a partially-active-condition where inhibition and cognitive-flexibility were trained and the WM-training task was presented in placebo-mode, or to a full placebo-condition. Short-term and long-term (3-months) effects of this gamified, 25-session, home-based computer-training were evaluated on multiple outcome domains. Results During training compliance was high (only 3% failed to meet compliance criteria). After training, only children in the full-active condition showed improvement on measures of visuospatial short-term-memory (STM) and WM. Inhibitory performance and interference control only improved in the full-active- and the partially-active condition. No Treatment-condition x Time interactions were found for cognitive-flexibility, verbal WM, complex-reasoning, nor for any parent-, teacher-, or child-rated ADHD behaviors, EF-behaviors, motivational behaviors, or general problem behaviors. Nonetheless, almost all measures showed main Time-effects, including the teacher-ratings. Conclusions Improvements on inhibition and visuospatial STM and WM were specifically related to the type of treatment received. However, transfer to untrained EFs and behaviors was mostly nonspecific (i.e., only interference control improved exclusively in the two EF

  9. Improving executive functioning in children with ADHD: training multiple executive functions within the context of a computer game. a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Dovis

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EFs training interventions aimed at ADHD-symptom reduction have yielded mixed results. Generally, these interventions focus on training a single cognitive domain (e.g., working memory [WM], inhibition, or cognitive-flexibility. However, evidence suggests that most children with ADHD show deficits on multiple EFs, and that these EFs are largely related to different brain regions. Therefore, training multiple EFs might be a potentially more effective strategy to reduce EF-related ADHD symptoms.Eighty-nine children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (aged 8-12 were randomized to either a full-active-condition where visuospatial WM, inhibition and cognitive-flexibility were trained, a partially-active-condition where inhibition and cognitive-flexibility were trained and the WM-training task was presented in placebo-mode, or to a full placebo-condition. Short-term and long-term (3-months effects of this gamified, 25-session, home-based computer-training were evaluated on multiple outcome domains.During training compliance was high (only 3% failed to meet compliance criteria. After training, only children in the full-active condition showed improvement on measures of visuospatial short-term-memory (STM and WM. Inhibitory performance and interference control only improved in the full-active- and the partially-active condition. No Treatment-condition x Time interactions were found for cognitive-flexibility, verbal WM, complex-reasoning, nor for any parent-, teacher-, or child-rated ADHD behaviors, EF-behaviors, motivational behaviors, or general problem behaviors. Nonetheless, almost all measures showed main Time-effects, including the teacher-ratings.Improvements on inhibition and visuospatial STM and WM were specifically related to the type of treatment received. However, transfer to untrained EFs and behaviors was mostly nonspecific (i.e., only interference control improved exclusively in the two EF training conditions. As such

  10. The Moderating Effect of Personality Type on the Relationship between Leisure Activity and Executive Control in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nikki L.; Lin, Feng Vankee; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Kolanowski, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We examined the moderating effect of personality on the association between leisure activities and executive control in healthy community-dwelling older adults. We found two distinct personality typologies: individuals with a Resilient personality were characterized by emotional stability and self-confidence; whereas, those who resembled an Overcontrolled personality tended to be introverted, but also low on neuroticism. Resilient individuals were more likely than Overcontrolled individuals to demonstrate higher executive function and attention as a result of participation in mental activities. These results suggest that personality might be important to include in studies that test the efficacy of activity interventions for improving cognition. PMID:27087715

  11. BLENDED LEARNING (BL AS PEDAGOGICAL ALTERNATIVE TO TEACH BUSINESS COMMUNICATION COURSE: Case Study of UUM Executive Diploma Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham DZAKIRIA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globally, blended learning (BL technologies have been increasingly applied in a variety of fields, both public and private sectors. In recent years, universities, public and private businesses and organizations are among those employing blended learning methods and technologies in training and re-training of professionals in the workforce. In Malaysia, the increasing use of blended learning to enhance learning and enriching of soft skills among professionals and individuals in the work place is evident. The advancement of technology is an onset to many new avenues and tool for learning and teaching, and it is the coalescing of these various technologies with particular pedagogy or andragogy has helped to popularize BL. However, when an institution makes the critical choice of delivery methods, it is pertinent that the university needs to consider various success factors. One in particular is student-centered approach that entails the need to understand the students as the beneficiary of learning, and the support system they need to help them learn. This qualitative study reports in detail the experience of a small group of students undertaking Executive Diplomas at Executive Development Centre (EDC, Universiti Utara Malaysia as they progress through their Executive program. This paper looks at learning experiences as described by the learners- it is their story, their experience, and their perspective. This study suggests that BL offered a comfortable middle ground, and has lots of potential in higher education in Malaysia. It is a pedagogical alternative that could play a significant role not only for teaching Business Communication, but has the potential to promote lifelong learning initiatives in Malaysia in a much meaningful and inviting way. Although this study shows that BL contributed a significant and meaningful learning particularly for adult learners, it needs more definitive studies. Such information can be used to guide policy makers

  12. The Program Manager’s Support System (PMSS). An Executive Overview and Descriptions of Functional Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    50 Program Office Organization and Staffing Module 50 Expert Systems for Acquisition Strategies 51 Procurement Document Generator Module 51...PC; Z-248 50 trade-off analysis Program Office Organization PROS Develop PMO organization Prototype IBM-PC; Z-248 50 and Staffing charts, on board...prototype moduie. It requires a color graphics card. Program Office Organization and Staffing (PROS) Module The Program Office Organization and Staffing

  13. Subjective cognitive complaints and the role of executive cognitive functioning in the working population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive functioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC, involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitive functioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of employees. METHODS: Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases or low (controls levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitive functioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitive functioning.

  14. Tutoring Executives Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programs have largely neglected programs catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA program through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviors already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  15. Verbal and Non-verbal Fluency in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia: Phonological Processing or Executive Control Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Zięcik, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties. Phonemic, semantic and design fluency tasks were presented to adults with dyslexia and without dyslexia, using fine-grained performance measures and controlling for IQ. Hierarchical regressions indicated that dyslexia predicted lower phonemic fluency, but not semantic or design fluency. At the fine-grained level, dyslexia predicted a smaller number of switches between subcategories on phonemic fluency, while dyslexia did not predict the size of phonemically related clusters of items. Overall, the results suggested that phonological processing problems were at the root of dyslexia-related fluency deficits; however, executive control difficulties could not be completely ruled out as an alternative explanation. Developments in research methodology, equating executive demands across fluency tasks, may resolve this issue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Emotion perception and executive control interact in the salience network during emotionally charged working memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Qin, Shaozheng; Fernández, Guillén; Zhang, Yu; Klumpers, Floris; Li, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Processing of emotional stimuli can either hinder or facilitate ongoing working memory (WM); however, the neural basis of these effects remains largely unknown. Here we examined the neural mechanisms of these paradoxical effects by implementing a novel emotional WM task in an fMRI study. Twenty-five young healthy participants performed an N-back task with fearful and neutral faces as stimuli. Participants made more errors when performing 0-back task with fearful versus neutral faces, whereas they made fewer errors when performing 2-back task with fearful versus neutral faces. These emotional impairment and enhancement on behavioral performance paralleled significant interactions in distributed regions in the salience network including anterior insula (AI) and dorsal cingulate cortex (dACC), as well as in emotion perception network including amygdala and temporal-occipital association cortex (TOC). The dorsal AI (dAI) and dACC were more activated when comparing fearful with neutral faces in 0-back task. Contrarily, dAI showed reduced activation, while TOC and amygdala showed stronger responses to fearful as compared to neutral faces in the 2-back task. These findings provide direct neural evidence to the emerging dual competition model suggesting that the salience network plays a critical role in mediating interaction between emotion perception and executive control when facing ever-changing behavioral demands. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Chronic Disease Control Research Fellowship Program (Guatemala ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Program will recruit and mentor research fellows to study policy-relevant issues and translate the resulting knowledge into action. The program will focus initially on tobacco control research (smoking prevention, cessation), in recognition that tobacco use is the leading cause of chronic disease. However, as the program ...

  18. Deficits in Executive and Memory Processes in Delusional Disorder: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Inmaculada Ibanez-Casas; Enrique De Portugal; Nieves Gonzalez; Kathryn A McKenney; Haro, Josep M; Judith Usall; Miguel Perez-Garcia; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] Delusional disorder has been traditionally considered a psychotic syndrome that does not evolve to cognitive deterioration. However, to date, very little empirical research has been done to explore cognitive executive components and memory processes in Delusional Disorder patients. This study will investigate whether patients with delusional disorder are intact in both executive function components (such as flexibility, impulsivity and updating components) and memory processes...

  19. Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability Is Associated with Executive Function in Healthy Controls but Not Methamphetamine Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Ballard

    Full Text Available Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum has been linked with executive function in healthy individuals, and is below control levels among drug addicts, possibly contributing to diminished executive function in the latter group. This study tested for an association of striatal D2/D3 receptor availability with a measure of executive function among research participants who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence.Methamphetamine users and non-user controls (n = 18 per group completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride.The methamphetamine users displayed significantly lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability on average than controls after controlling for age and education (p = 0.008, but they did not register greater proportions of either perseverative or non-perseverative errors when controlling for education (both ps ≥ 0.622. The proportion of non-perseverative, but not perseverative, errors was negatively correlated with striatal D2/D3 receptor availability among controls (r = -0.588, p = 0.010, but not methamphetamine users (r = 0.281, p = 0.258, and the group-wise interaction was significant (p = 0.030.These results suggest that cognitive flexibility, as measured by perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, is not determined by signaling through striatal D2/D3 receptors in healthy controls, and that in stimulant abusers, who have lower D2/D3 receptor availability, compensation can effectively maintain other executive functions, which are associated with D2/D3 receptor signaling in controls.

  20. Planning for cancer control programs: Leadership considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John; Sutcliffe, Simon B

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a significant challenge globally. Reducing the impact of cancer requires a program and plans that address the main aspects of cancer from prevention through to end-of-life care. This article summarizes the requirements of a robust cancer control program and outlines the contextual and leadership considerations that are required to ensure that the planning and implementation of a control program can achieve improved cancer outcomes.

  1. Individual differences in control of language interference in late bilinguals are mainly related to general executive abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münte Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research based on comparisons between bilinguals and monolinguals postulates that bilingualism enhances cognitive control functions, because the parallel activation of languages necessitates control of interference. In a novel approach we investigated two groups of bilinguals, distinguished by their susceptibility to cross-language interference, asking whether bilinguals with strong language control abilities ("non-switchers" have an advantage in executive functions (inhibition of irrelevant information, problem solving, planning efficiency, generative fluency and self-monitoring compared to those bilinguals showing weaker language control abilities ("switchers". Methods 29 late bilinguals (21 women were evaluated using various cognitive control neuropsychological tests [e.g., Tower of Hanoi, Ruff Figural Fluency Task, Divided Attention, Go/noGo] tapping executive functions as well as four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The analysis involved t-tests (two independent samples. Non-switchers (n = 16 were distinguished from switchers (n = 13 by their performance observed in a bilingual picture-naming task. Results The non-switcher group demonstrated a better performance on the Tower of Hanoi and Ruff Figural Fluency task, faster reaction time in a Go/noGo and Divided Attention task, and produced significantly fewer errors in the Tower of Hanoi, Go/noGo, and Divided Attention tasks when compared to the switchers. Non-switchers performed significantly better on two verbal subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Information and Similarity, but not on the Performance subtests (Picture Completion, Block Design. Conclusions The present results suggest that bilinguals with stronger language control have indeed a cognitive advantage in the administered tests involving executive functions, in particular inhibition, self-monitoring, problem solving, and generative fluency, and in two of the

  2. Individual differences in control of language interference in late bilinguals are mainly related to general executive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festman, Julia; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2010-01-13

    Recent research based on comparisons between bilinguals and monolinguals postulates that bilingualism enhances cognitive control functions, because the parallel activation of languages necessitates control of interference. In a novel approach we investigated two groups of bilinguals, distinguished by their susceptibility to cross-language interference, asking whether bilinguals with strong language control abilities ("non-switchers") have an advantage in executive functions (inhibition of irrelevant information, problem solving, planning efficiency, generative fluency and self-monitoring) compared to those bilinguals showing weaker language control abilities ("switchers"). 29 late bilinguals (21 women) were evaluated using various cognitive control neuropsychological tests [e.g., Tower of Hanoi, Ruff Figural Fluency Task, Divided Attention, Go/noGo] tapping executive functions as well as four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The analysis involved t-tests (two independent samples). Non-switchers (n = 16) were distinguished from switchers (n = 13) by their performance observed in a bilingual picture-naming task. The non-switcher group demonstrated a better performance on the Tower of Hanoi and Ruff Figural Fluency task, faster reaction time in a Go/noGo and Divided Attention task, and produced significantly fewer errors in the Tower of Hanoi, Go/noGo, and Divided Attention tasks when compared to the switchers. Non-switchers performed significantly better on two verbal subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Information and Similarity), but not on the Performance subtests (Picture Completion, Block Design). The present results suggest that bilinguals with stronger language control have indeed a cognitive advantage in the administered tests involving executive functions, in particular inhibition, self-monitoring, problem solving, and generative fluency, and in two of the intelligence tests. What remains unclear is the direction of the

  3. Joint Warfighting and Readiness: DoD Execution of the Warsaw Initiative Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prinzbach, Robert F., II; Conway, Dennis L; Stanfield, Clara L; Pack, Tomasa; Stephenson, Susann L; Carvalho, Sharon L

    2005-01-01

    .... In January 1994, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) launched the Partnership for Peace program, which provides assistance to countries seeking cooperative military and peacekeeping relations with NATO...

  4. Bilingualism, executive control, and age at diagnosis among people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Whitaker, Christopher J; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen; Martyr, Anthony; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A; Bastable, Alexandra J M; Pye, Kirstie L; Quinn, Catherine; Thomas, Enlli M; Gathercole, Virginia C Mueller; Hindle, John V

    2016-09-01

    The observation of a bilingual advantage in executive control tasks involving inhibition and management of response conflict suggests that being bilingual might contribute to increased cognitive reserve. In support of this, recent evidence indicates that bilinguals develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) later than monolinguals, and may retain an advantage in performance on executive control tasks. We compared age at the time of receiving an AD diagnosis in bilingual Welsh/English speakers (n = 37) and monolingual English speakers (n = 49), and assessed the performance of bilinguals (n = 24) and monolinguals (n = 49) on a range of executive control tasks. There was a non-significant difference in age at the time of diagnosis, with bilinguals being on average 3 years older than monolinguals, but bilinguals were also significantly more cognitively impaired at the time of diagnosis. There were no significant differences between monolinguals and bilinguals in performance on executive function tests, but bilinguals appeared to show relative strengths in the domain of inhibition and response conflict. Bilingual Welsh/English speakers with AD do not show a clear advantage in executive function over monolingual English speakers, but may retain some benefits in inhibition and management of response conflict. There may be a delay in onset of AD in Welsh/English bilinguals, but if so, it is smaller than that found in some other clinical populations. In this Welsh sample, bilinguals with AD came to the attention of services later than monolinguals, and reasons for this pattern could be explored further. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Razza, Rachel Peters

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of self-regulation in emerging academic ability in one hundred and forty-one 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income homes. Measures of effortful control, false belief understanding, and the inhibitory control and attention-shifting aspects of executive function in preschool were related to measures of math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Results indicated that the various aspects of child self-regulation accounted for unique variance in the academic outcomes independent of general intelligence and that the inhibitory control aspect of executive function was a prominent correlate of both early math and reading ability. Findings suggest that curricula designed to improve self-regulation skills as well as enhance early academic abilities may be most effective in helping children succeed in school.

  6. Phase III Executive Summary. Evaluation of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Marrit J.

    The Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) is a family-oriented child development program initiated by the Administration for Children, Youth and Families to provide support services to low-income families and their children. This report summarizes preliminary findings based on the first year and a half of CFRP evalution. Following the brief…

  7. 29 CFR 1608.5 - Affirmative action compliance programs under Executive Order No. 11246, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission will investigate to determine whether the affirmative action compliance program was adopted by a... Guidelines, or the Department of Labor approves the affirmative action compliance program, the Commission will issue a determination of no reasonable cause under § 1608.10(a). (b) Reliance on these guidelines...

  8. Thalamocortical functional connectivity in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is abnormally enhanced in executive-control and default-mode networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Aaron E L; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D; Archer, John S

    2017-12-01

    To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis. For each cortical network, we assessed between-group differences in thalamic functional connectivity strength using nonparametric permutation-based tests. Anatomical locations were identified by quantifying spatial overlap with a histologically informed thalamic MRI atlas. In both groups, posterior thalamic regions showed functional connectivity with visual, auditory, and sensorimotor networks, whereas anterior, medial, and dorsal thalamic regions were connected with networks of distributed association cortex (including the default-mode, anterior-salience, and executive-control networks). Four cortical networks (left and right executive-control network; ventral and dorsal default-mode network) showed significantly enhanced thalamic functional connectivity strength in patients relative to controls. Abnormal connectivity was maximal in mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei. Specific thalamocortical circuits are affected in LGS. Functional connectivity is abnormally enhanced between the mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamus and the default-mode and executive-control networks, thalamocortical circuits that normally support diverse cognitive processes. In contrast, thalamic regions connecting with primary and sensory cortical networks appear to be less affected. Our previous neuroimaging studies show that epileptic activity in LGS is expressed via the default-mode and executive-control networks. Results of the present study suggest that

  9. Deficiency in Lipoteichoic Acid Synthesis Causes a Failure in Executing the Colony Developmental Program in Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Mamou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Colonies are an abundant form of bacterial multicellularity; however, relatively little is known about the initial stages of their construction. We have previously described that colony development of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a highly ordered process, typically initiating with the formation of extending cell chains arranged in a Y shape structure. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Y arm extension is a key for defining the size of the future colony. Here we conducted a genetic screen surveying for mutants deficient in these early developmental stages, and revealed LtaS, the major lipoteichoic acid (LTA synthase, to be crucial for execution of these events. We found that the ltaS mutant fails to produce proper Y shape structures, forming extremely elongated chains of cells with no evidence of chain breakage, necessary for Y shape formation. Furthermore, we show that frequent cell death at the tips of the cell chains is a major cause in limiting arm extension. Collectively, these perturbations lead to the production of a small sized colony by the mutant. Thus, deficiency in LTA synthesis causes a mechanical failure in executing the colony developmental program.

  10. C-Speak Aphasia Alternative Communication Program for People with Severe Aphasia: Importance of Executive Functioning and Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients’ ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia, (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: 1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and 2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the ten participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment also was examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response. PMID:21506045

  11. Media violence exposure and executive functioning in aggressive and control adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, William G; Mathews, Vincent P; Dunn, David W; Wang, Yang; Wood, Elisabeth A; Giauque, Ann L; Larsen, Joelle J; Rembusch, Mary E; Lowe, Mark J; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between media violence exposure and executive functioning was investigated in samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Age-, gender-, and IQ-matched samples of adolescents who had no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis (N = 27) and of adolescents who had DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses (N = 27) completed measures of media violence exposure and tests of executive functioning. Moderate to strong relationships were found between higher amounts of media violence exposure and deficits in self-report, parent-report, and laboratory-based measures of executive functioning. A significant diagnosis by media violence exposure interaction effect was found for Conners' Continuous Performance Test scores, such that the media violence exposure-executive functioning relationship was stronger for adolescents who had Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses. Results indicate that media violence exposure is related to poorer executive functioning, and this relationship may be stronger for adolescents who have a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Executive Functioning Skills in Long-Term Users of Cochlear Implants: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, David B.; Henning, Shirley C.; Colson, Bethany G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in executive functioning between deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. The cognitive effects of auditory deprivation in childhood may extend beyond speech–language skills to more domain-general areas including executive functioning. Methods Executive functioning skills in a sample of 53 prelingually deaf children, adolescents, and young adults who received CIs prior to age 7 years and who had used their CIs for ≥7 years were compared with age- and nonverbal IQ-matched NH peers and with scale norms. Results Despite having above average nonverbal IQ, the CI sample scored lower than the NH sample and test norms on several measures of short-term/working memory, fluency–speed, and inhibition–concentration. Executive functioning was unrelated to most demographic and hearing history characteristics. Conclusions Prelingual deafness and long-term use of CIs was associated with increased risk of weaknesses in executive functioning. PMID:23699747

  13. The Program Manager’s Support System (PMSS). An Executive Overview and System Description,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    process. The PMSS tool will, when completed, support the program management process in all stages of program nanagement; that is, birth of the...module, developed as a template on LOTUS 1-2-3, is an application of the Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) developed by B. Boehm. The DSMC SWCE module, a...developed for a specific program office but can be modified for use by others. It is a "template" system designed to operate on a Zenith Z-150 using Lotus 1

  14. Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    This Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism is submitted to the United States Congress as required by the 1994 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) (as amended...

  15. Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    This Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism is submitted to the United States Congress as required by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994 (as amended...

  16. An Effectiveness Analysis of the U.S. Federal Government Executive Branch Ethics Policy and Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    and unblushing frauds would have cost those who participated in them their heads under any system than our own (Mackenzie, 2002, p. 55). A reform...and responsibilities. • Employees shall disclose waste, fraud , abuse, and corruption to appropriate authorities. • Employees shall satisfy in good...the programs vary from company to company. A possible research study would involve comparing pre-Enron/ WorldCom business ethics programs to post

  17. A study on efficient work stealing based execution of parallel programs for multicore processors

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of work stealing based techniques of parallel programming for modern shared memory parallel multicore processors. In this thesis, the objectives of the study are to explore e???cient techniques of work stealing strategy that fits on multicore and manycore as well. Work stealing by lazy task creation is a well known e???cient technique for parallel task programming. Work stealing also provides load-balancing capabilitiy. Work stealing enables fine grain task schedu...

  18. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  19. Environmental Restoration Program Document Control Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, L.M.

    1993-09-01

    This Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Document Control Plan has been developed to comply with the document control system requirements of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), the Hanford Federal Facility and the ER Program. One of the five components, or summary subprojects, of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program is program management and support, which includes both management systems development and information and data management. Efforts within the management systems development area include the creation of a document control plan. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and established an overall document control system that governs the methods by which all WHC documents are generated, maintained, and disposed of. The ER Program performing organizations within WHC utilize the established WHC document control systems to the maximum extent possible. These systems are discussed in Chapters 3.0 and 4.0 of this plan. In addition, this plan describes the documents that require control within the ER Program and how they will be controlled.

  20. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom, is making a grant of up to £1 100 000 to IDRC to cover three years of Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) programming between April 2005 and March ...

  1. Traffic control device evaluation program : FY 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report presents findings on three different activities conducted in the Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program during the 2016 fiscal year. The first two activities are evaluations of full-matrix color light-emitting diode changeable message ...

  2. The Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science. Executive summary and program activities update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    In his State of the Union address on January 31, 1990, President Bush set a goal for US students to be number one in the world in mathematics and science achievement by the year 2000. The Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science in Chicago is an experiment of unprecedented boldness and scale that can provide a means to the President`s goal, both for the Chicago area and as a national model. This document covers organization and governance, program activities, future training goals, and evaluation programs.

  3. Executive Functions in Preschool Children with Aggressive Behavior: Impairments in Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Smidts, Diana P.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Maassen, Gerard H.; Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The question whether executive function (EF) deficits in children are associated with conduct problems remains controversial. Although the origins of aggressive behavior are to be found in early childhood, findings from EF studies in preschool children with aggressive behavior are inconsistent. The current study aimed to investigate whether…

  4. 17 CFR 229.401 - (Item 401) Directors, executive officers, promoters and control persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Management and Certain Security Holders § 229.401 (Item 401) Directors, executive officers, promoters and... of directors, if the solicitation is made by persons other than management, information shall be... proxy or information statement, materials to which the omission relates, a description of the event and...

  5. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    This study presents Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls plan. This plan was developed and optimized out of a combination of individual Tug program phased subplans, special emphasis studies, contingency analyses and sensitivity analyses. The subplans cover the Tug program phases: (1) Tug operational, (2) Interim Upper Stage (IUS)/Tug fleet utilization, (3) and IUS/Tug payload integration, (4) Tug site activation, (5) IUS/Tug transition, (6) Tug acquisition. Resource requirements (facility, GSE, TSE, software, manpower, logistics) are provided in each subplan, as are appropriate Tug processing flows, active and total IUS and Tug fleet requirements, fleet management and Tug payload integration concepts, facility selection recommendations, site activation and IUS to Tug transition requirements. The impact of operational concepts on Tug acquisition is assessed and the impact of operating Tugs out of KSC and WTR is analyzed and presented showing WTR as a delta. Finally, cost estimates for fleet management and ground operations of the DDT&E and operational phases of the Tug program are given.

  6. Rehabilitation of Executive Functions in Patients with Chronic Acquired Brain Injury with Goal Management Training, External Cuing, and Emotional Regulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornås, Sveinung; Løvstad, Marianne; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Evans, Jonathan; Endestad, Tor; Hol, Per Kristian; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Stubberud, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Executive dysfunction is a common consequence of acquired brain injury (ABI), causing significant disability in daily life. This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of Goal Management Training (GMT) in improving executive functioning in patients with chronic ABI. Seventy patients with a verified ABI and executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to GMT (n=33) or a psycho-educative active control condition, Brain Health Workshop (BHW) (n=37). In addition, all participants received external cueing by text messages. Neuropsychological tests and self-reported questionnaires of executive functioning were administered pre-intervention, immediately after intervention, and at 6 months follow-up. Assessors were blinded to group allocation. Questionnaire measures indicated significant improvement of everyday executive functioning in the GMT group, with effects lasting at least 6 months post-treatment. Both groups improved on the majority of the applied neuropsychological tests. However, improved performance on tests demanding executive attention was most prominent in the GMT group. The results indicate that GMT combined with external cueing is an effective metacognitive strategy training method, ameliorating executive dysfunction in daily life for patients with chronic ABI. The strongest effects were seen on self-report measures of executive functions 6 months post-treatment, suggesting that strategies learned in GMT were applied and consolidated in everyday life after the end of training. Furthermore, these findings show that executive dysfunction can be improved years after the ABI.

  7. Supporting Museums--Serving Communities: An Evaluation of the Museums for America Program. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Museums for America (MFA) is the largest IMLS grant program for museums; it supports institutions by investing in high-priority, high-value activities that are clearly linked to the institution's strategic plan and enhance its value to its community. MFA grants situate projects within a framework of meeting three strategic goals: engaging…

  8. 1976 Inter-university symposium on renewable resource assessment and programming: executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy G. Pemberton

    1977-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 directs the Secretary of Agriculture to prepare an assessment of the nation's renewable resources and a program that will assure an adequate future supply of these resources. Responsibility for this work is assigned to the Forest Service. An inter-university symposium was held in 1976 to evaluate...

  9. Executive Programs for Brazilian Mid-Career Public Managers: Pitfalls and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Regina Silvia; Franzese, Cibele

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of professional education for mid-career public managers at graduate level, pointing out pitfalls to avoid and obstacles to face. Analyzing the Brazilian case, the goal is to raise issues that may also be present in other cases. The main argument developed here is that the puzzle faced by graduate programs on…

  10. The Efficacy of Adapted MBCT on Core Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Adults With ADHD: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepark, Sevket; Janssen, Lotte; de Vries, Alicia; Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Donders, Rogier; Kan, Cornelis C; Speckens, Anne E M

    2015-11-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness as a treatment for adults diagnosed with ADHD. A 12-week-adapted mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) program is compared with a waiting list (WL) group. Adults with ADHD were randomly allocated to MBCT (n = 55) or waitlist (n = 48). Outcome measures included investigator-rated ADHD symptoms (primary), self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, depressive and anxiety symptoms, patient functioning, and mindfulness skills. MBCT resulted in a significant reduction of ADHD symptoms, both investigator-rated and self-reported, based on per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. Significant improvements in executive functioning and mindfulness skills were found. Additional analyses suggested that the efficacy of MBCT in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving executive functioning is partially mediated by an increase in the mindfulness skill "Act With Awareness." No improvements were observed for depressive and anxiety symptoms, and patient functioning. This study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of MBCT for adults with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Navy Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution: A Reference Guide for Senior Leaders, Managers, and Action Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    time—both because the vision may not be spelled out in detail or in one place and because how the CNO chooses to do business and make decisions may...The approach followed in writ - ing the guide was to first identify the historic reference documents that would provide authoritative sources for such...resource integrator. In other words , in the absence of a coherent capability or program-planning rationale for preferring one requirement over

  12. Executive Function in Adolescence: A Commentary on Regulatory Control and Depression in Adolescents: Findings from Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This commentary addresses the manner in which executive control processes and their development is impacted by major depressive episodes during adolescence. Strengths of the papers within this special section include the breadth of executive functions that were examined, incorporation of biological probes to understand neural mechanisms involved in observed impairments, the use of longitudinal paradigms to assess developmental timing, consideration and modeling of comorbid conditions, and the identification of individual difference factors that may serve as both liabilities and resilience factors. This work is timely; a close examination of negative emotions and how they change during adolescence is needed if we are to fully understand motivation-cognition interactions and how they are impaired by psychopathology. PMID:26743038

  13. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jutta; Karbach, Julia; Haenig, Susann; Freitag, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task-switching, and working memory (WM). In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training) on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal WM as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning). The children in both groups showed improvements in task-switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single-tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal WM, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  14. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta eKray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task switching, and working memory. In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal working memory as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning. The children in both groups showed improvements in task switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal working memory, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  15. Effects of participation in the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) program on women faculty's perceived leadership capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Sharon A; Richman, Rosalyn C; Jackson, Gregg B; Morahan, Page S

    2004-04-01

    This study measured the impact of participation by women academics in the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) program as part of a robust evaluation agenda. The design is a classic pre/post, within-group, self-report study. The survey elicits self-perception about leadership in ten constructs: knowledge of leadership, management, and organizational theory; environmental scanning; financial management; communication; networking and coalition building; conflict management; general leadership; assessment of strengths and weaknesses; acceptance of leadership demands; and career advancement sophistication. The post surveys inquire additionally about perceived program usefulness. Data were collected from 79 participants (1997-98, 1998-99, and 2000-01 classes). Response rates were nearly 100% (pre) and 69% to 76% (post). Statistically significant increases (p leadership capabilities were identified across all ten leadership constructs. Gains were large in knowledge of leadership and organizational theory, environmental scanning, financial management, and general leadership. Gains in career building knowledge were large to moderate. More modest were gains in communication, networking, and conflict management. There were significant correlations between each leadership construct and perceived usefulness of the program. Significant improvements were reported on all leadership constructs, even when participants viewed themselves as already skilled. While it cannot be concluded that participation in ELAM directly and solely caused all improvements, it seems unlikely that midcareer women faculty would improve on all ten constructs in 11 months after program completion by natural maturation alone. Future research will investigate whether the changes are due to ELAM or other factors, and assess whether participants show more rapid advancement into leadership than comparable women not participating in ELAM.

  16. The role of LIFG-based executive control in recovery from garden-paths during sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan C. Vuong

    2014-04-01

    Control: While the man/ coached,/ the woman/ attended/ the party by herself. The three patients, and a group of eight healthy controls, were tested on two self-paced sentence processing tasks, using sentence regions as above, involving meaning interpretation (Experiment 1 and grammaticality judgments (Experiment 2. Results In contrast to healthy controls and the non-LIFG patient, one of the LIFG patients showed a deficit in meaning interpretation that was worse with biased verbs, across garden-path as well as syntactically unambiguous sentences (mean verb bias effect = 32.5%, which was 7 standard deviations above the control mean of -3%, SD = 4.6. She showed spared performance on grammaticality judgments. The other LIFG patient presented with a more severe executive control deficit, and showed spared performance only for grammaticality judgments in the easiest condition, namely the condition involving syntactically unambiguous sentences with neutral verbs (but not in the remaining conditions, including the corresponding condition with biased verbs. Conclusion The results add to prior studies in arguing for a role of executive control across diverse sentence processing situations, including overcoming verb bias preferences.

  17. Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP). Energy surveys of Army central heating and power plants. Volume I. Executive summary, Fort Wainwright

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-04-01

    This is the Executive Summary of the energy survey and project documentation that resulted from the Energy Survey of the Central Heating and Power Plant (CHPP) at Fort Wainwright. It is a part of the continuing effort under the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP). Similar energy surveys and reports have been developed for Fort Richardson and Fort Greely Central Heating and Power Plants concurrently. The Scope of Work of this program was developed by the Huntsville Division Corps of Engineers for use at all Army central heating and power plants. The purpose of this study is to review and study all potential energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) at the Port Wainwright Central Heating and Power Plant (CHPP). These ECOs would then be developed to determine the economics and feasibility of implementation. The equipment at this plant is over 30 years old. The plant is meeting the requirements of providing steam for heating the base. It is a functional operating plant that will, with proper maintenance and repairs, continue to perform for many more years. With a heating plant of this age there was reason to believe that many energy conservation opportunities do exist. Section 4 describes the ECOs found and studied.

  18. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  19. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on cognitive functions in the elderly. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed. Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  20. Brain Training Game Improves Executive Functions and Processing Speed in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Akitsuki, Yuko; Shigemune, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Tsukiura, Takashi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Background The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on cognitive functions in the elderly. Methods and Results Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed). Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. Conclusions Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed) in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825 PMID:22253758

  1. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Akitsuki, Yuko; Shigemune, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Tsukiura, Takashi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on cognitive functions in the elderly. Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed). Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed) in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  2. Executive function predicts response to antiaggression treatment in schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Menahem I; Czobor, Pal

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive experience with antipsychotic medications, we have limited capacity to predict which patients will benefit from which medications and for what symptoms. Such prediction is of particular importance for the proper treatment of violence. Our goal was to determine whether executive function predicts outcome of treatment for aggressive behavior and whether such prediction varies across medication groups. Ninety-nine physically aggressive inpatients (aged 18-60 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosed according to DSM-IV) who completed tests of executive function were randomly assigned in a double-blind, parallel-group, 12-week trial to clozapine (n = 32), olanzapine (n = 32), or haloperidol (n = 35). The number and severity of aggressive events as measured by the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) were the outcome measures. Psychopathology and medication side effects were also assessed. The study was conducted from 1999 to 2004. Poor executive function predicted higher levels of aggression, as measured by MOAS scores over the 12-week period, in all 3 medication groups (F(1,98) = 222.2, P aggression in patients with schizophrenia. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01123408. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Potential Beneficiaries of the Obama Administration’s Executive Action Programs Deeply Embedded in US Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Obama administration has developed two broad programs to defer immigration enforcement actions against undocumented persons living in the United States: (1 Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA; and (2 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA. The DACA program, which began in August 2012, was expanded on November 20, 2014. DAPA and the DACA expansion (hereinafter referred to as “DACA-plus” are currently under review by the US Supreme Court and subject to an active injunction.This paper offers a statistical portrait of the intended direct beneficiaries of DAPA, DACA, and DACA-plus. It finds that potential DAPA, DACA, and DACA-plus recipients are deeply embedded in US society, with high employment rates, extensive US family ties, long tenure, and substantial rates of English-language proficiency. The paper also notes various groups that would benefit indirectly from the full implementation of DAPA and DACA or, conversely, would suffer from the removal of potential beneficiaries of these programs. For example, all those who would rely on the retirement programs of the US government will benefit from the high employment rates and relative youth of the DACA population, while many US citizens who rely on the income of a DAPA-eligible parent would fall into poverty or extreme poverty should that parent be removed from the United States.This paper offers an analysis of potential DAPA and DACA beneficiaries. In an earlier study, the authors made the case for immigration reform based on long-term trends related to the US undocumented population, including potential DAPA and DACA beneficiaries (Warren and Kerwin 2015. By contrast, this paper details the degree to which these populations have become embedded in US society. It also compares persons eligible for the original DACA program with those eligible for DACA-plus.As stated, the great majority of potential DAPA and DACA recipients enjoy strong family

  4. Perceptions of industry responsibility and tobacco control policy by US tobacco company executives in trial testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiton, Michael; Ferrence, Roberta; LeGresley, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Trial testimony from the United States provides a unique opportunity to examine strategies of the American tobacco industry. This paper examines congruence between the arguments for tobacco control policy presented by representatives of the American tobacco industry at trial and the stages of responsibility associated with corporate social responsibility principles in other industries. Trial testimony collected and coded by the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA). All available testimony was gathered from representative senior staff from major tobacco companies: Brown & Williamson, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, and Liggett. Transcripts from each witness selected were collected and imported in text format into WinMax, a qualitative data program. The documents were searched for terms relating to tobacco control policies, and relevant terms were extracted. A hand search of the documents was also conducted by reading through the testimony. Inferred responsibility for various tobacco control policies (health information, second-hand smoking, youth smoking) was coded. The level of responsibility for tobacco control policy varied according to the maturity of the issue. For emerging issues, US tobacco company representatives expressed defensiveness while, for more mature issues, such as youth smoking, they showed increased willingness to deal with the issue. This response to social issues is consistent with corporate social responsibility strategies in other industries. While other industries use corporate social responsibility programmes to address social issues to protect their core business product, the fundamental social issue with tobacco is the product itself. As such, the corporate nature of tobacco companies is a structural obstacle to reducing harm caused by tobacco use.

  5. Hot executive control and response to a stimulant in a double-blind randomized trial in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolovsky, Jessica; Szwarc, Tamar; Schwartz, Miguel; Tirosh, Emanuel; Geva, Ronny

    2017-02-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to involve an executive inhibitory control (IC) deficit, yet it is not clear if this is a general deficit affecting both cold and hot EC, and if methylphenidate (MPH) affects both systems in treated children. We explored this by using a Stroop-like task in children with ADHD as compared to controls, containing different types of emotional stimuli (six levels), and we investigated the role of intervention with MPH on IC as compared to placebo. Children with ADHD and controls (N = 40; 7-13 years old) were tested with a hot and cold Stroop-like task. This was followed by a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of the effect of MPH on these skills. Children with ADHD showed a specific difficulty inhibiting their responses, particularly to hot, angry and frustration-inducing stimuli. Further, treatment with MPH was effective in reducing errors toward frustration-inducing stimuli as compared to placebo (p < .05, η 2 = .347), particularly with repeated exposure to the stimuli. Results indicate that children with ADHD experience executive control difficulties, particularly in hot negative emotional contexts. These emotion regulation difficulties are amenable to stimulant intervention.

  6. Making working memory work: a meta-analysis of executive-control and working memory training in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, Julia; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-11-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effects of process-based executive-function and working memory training (49 articles, 61 independent samples) in older adults (> 60 years). The interventions resulted in significant effects on performance on the trained task and near-transfer tasks; significant results were obtained for the net pretest-to-posttest gain relative to active and passive control groups and for the net effect at posttest relative to active and passive control groups. Far-transfer effects were smaller than near-transfer effects but were significant for the net pretest-to-posttest gain relative to passive control groups and for the net gain at posttest relative to both active and passive control groups. We detected marginally significant differences in training-induced improvements between working memory and executive-function training, but no differences between the training-induced improvements observed in older adults and younger adults, between the benefits associated with adaptive and nonadaptive training, or between the effects in active and passive control conditions. Gains did not vary with total training time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Robust Coordination of Autonomous Systems through Risk-sensitive, Model-based Programming and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-09

    Enterprise architecture has also been deployed to control a Slocum glider autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) owned and operated by scientists at the Woods...for public release. Figure 2.3: Mission goals for the Slocum glider during the Scott Reef deployment. Figure 2.3 illustrates the mission goals for...To the best of our knowledge, a Slocum glider has never before been used inside a reef before, due to the challenges present in that environment. 11

  8. Investigating the role of executive attentional control to self-harm in a non-clinical cohort with borderline personality features

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drabble, Jennifer; Bowles, David P; Barker, Lynne Ann

    2014-01-01

    .... The present study explored the putative relationship between levels of BPD features, three aspects of attentional/executive control, affect, and self-harm history in a sample of 340 non-clinical...

  9. Stochastic control theory dynamic programming principle

    CERN Document Server

    Nisio, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the optimal stochastic control theory via the dynamic programming principle, which is a powerful tool to analyze control problems. First we consider completely observable control problems with finite horizons. Using a time discretization we construct a nonlinear semigroup related to the dynamic programming principle (DPP), whose generator provides the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, and we characterize the value function via the nonlinear semigroup, besides the viscosity solution theory. When we control not only the dynamics of a system but also the terminal time of its evolution, control-stopping problems arise. This problem is treated in the same frameworks, via the nonlinear semigroup. Its results are applicable to the American option price problem. Zero-sum two-player time-homogeneous stochastic differential games and viscosity solutions of the Isaacs equations arising from such games are studied via a nonlinear semigroup related to DPP (the min-ma...

  10. Symbolic Execution Over Native x86

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    approach for our symbolic execution is just-in-time execution, where there is no apriori knowledge of the program before execution, and calculations are...program would execute on a system. The omniscient view requires apriori knowledge which, in most cases for a given framework, are derived from a...execution engine does not have apriori knowledge of the binary code under test other than what it knows from loading the program into memory. From here

  11. Towards a better understanding of the relationship between executive control and theory of mind: an intra-cultural comparison of three diverse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Henry, Julie D; Razmjoee, Maryam; Teymoori, Ali; Wang, Cen

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has consistently indicated that theory of mind (ToM) is associated with executive control in the preschool years. However, interpretation of this literature is limited by the fact that most studies have focused exclusively on urbanized Western cultural samples. Consequently, it is not clear whether the association between ToM and executive control reflects the specific features of this particular cohort or instead reflects a universal pattern. The present study provides the first empirical assessment of these two constructs in three diverse groups of Iranian children. Participants were 142 preschoolers (4-5 years old) from high-socioeconomic status (SES) urban (n = 33), low-SES urban (n = 37) and rural villages (n = 77). The results show that there is a robust association between ToM and executive control in all three groups, and that executive control contributes significant unique variance to ToM understanding, even after controlling for a range of variables that have been proposed as potential confounders of this relationship. However, although the three groups were equated in ToM, significant differences in executive control were evident. Moreover, cluster analysis identified three distinct clusters that were relatively homogeneous with respect to executive control and SES. One of these clusters was characterized by both low SES and low executive functioning, and showed little evidence of ToM understanding. Taken together, these findings provide possibly the clearest evidence to date that the association between ToM and executive control is not dependent on children's previous experiences on the tasks, or their family and cultural background. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Imbalanced functional link between executive control network and reward network explain the online-game seeking behaviors in Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Lin, Xiao; Hu, Yanbo; Xie, Chunming; Du, Xiaoxia

    2015-03-17

    Literatures have shown that Internet gaming disorder (IGD) subjects show impaired executive control and enhanced reward sensitivities than healthy controls. However, how these two networks jointly affect the valuation process and drive IGD subjects' online-game-seeking behaviors remains unknown. Thirty-five IGD and 36 healthy controls underwent a resting-states scan in the MRI scanner. Functional connectivity (FC) was examined within control and reward network seeds regions, respectively. Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was selected as the node to find the interactions between these two networks. IGD subjects show decreased FC in the executive control network and increased FC in the reward network when comparing with the healthy controls. When examining the correlations between the NAcc and the executive control/reward networks, the link between the NAcc - executive control network is negatively related with the link between NAcc - reward network. The changes (decrease/increase) in IGD subjects' brain synchrony in control/reward networks suggest the inefficient/overly processing within neural circuitry underlying these processes. The inverse proportion between control network and reward network in IGD suggest that impairments in executive control lead to inefficient inhibition of enhanced cravings to excessive online game playing. This might shed light on the mechanistic understanding of IGD.

  13. Common and disease-specific dysfunctions of brain systems underlying attentional and executive control in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Tobias; Wolter, Sarah; Falck, Stefanie; Wild, Eva; Wild, Florian; Gruber, Eva; Falkai, Peter; Gruber, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder broadly overlap in multiple areas involving clinical phenomenology, genetics, and neurobiology. Still, the investigation into specific elementary (sub-)processes of executive functioning may help to define clear points of distinction between these categorical diagnoses to validate the nosological dichotomy and, indirectly, to further elucidate their pathophysiological underpinnings. In the present behavioral study, we sought to separate common from diagnosis-specific deficits in a series of specific elementary sub-functions of executive processing in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For our purpose, we administered a modern and multi-purpose neuropsychological task paradigm to equal-sized and matched groups of schizophrenia patients, patients with bipolar disorder, and healthy control subjects. First, schizophrenia patients compared to the bipolar group exhibited a more pronounced deficit in general measures of task performance comprising both response speed and accuracy. Additionally, bipolar patients showed increased advance task preparation, i.e., were better able to compensate for response speed deficits when longer preparation intervals were provided. Set-shifting, on the other hand, was impaired to a similar degree in both patient groups. Finally, schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in conflict processing (inhibitory control) and the shielding of task-relevant processing from distraction (i.e., attentional maintenance). The present investigation suggests that specific neuropsychological measures of elementary executive functions may represent important points of dissociation between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which may help to differentiate the pathophysiological underpinnings of these major psychiatric disorders. In this context, the present findings highlight the measures of inhibitory control and attentional maintenance as promising candidates.

  14. Annual Research Review: On the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T

    2017-04-01

    Self-regulation (SR) is central to developmental psychopathology, but progress has been impeded by varying terminology and meanings across fields and literatures. The present review attempts to move that discussion forward by noting key sources of prior confusion such as measurement-concept confounding, and then arguing the following major points. First, the field needs a domain-general construct of SR that encompasses SR of action, emotion, and cognition and involves both top-down and bottom-up regulatory processes. This does not assume a shared core process across emotion, action, and cognition, but is intended to provide clarity on the extent of various claims about kinds of SR. Second, top-down aspects of SR need to be integrated. These include (a) basic processes that develop early and address immediate conflict signals, such as cognitive control and effortful control (EC), and (b) complex cognition and strategies for addressing future conflict, represented by the regulatory application of complex aspects of executive functioning. Executive function (EF) and cognitive control are not identical to SR because they can be used for other activities, but account for top-down aspects of SR at the cognitive level. Third, impulsivity, risk-taking, and disinhibition are distinct although overlapping; a taxonomy of the kinds of breakdowns of SR associated with psychopathology requires their differentiation. Fourth, different aspects of the SR universe can be organized hierarchically in relation to granularity, development, and time. Low-level components assemble into high-level components. This hierarchical perspective is consistent across literatures. It is hoped that the framework outlined here will facilitate integration and cross-talk among investigators working from different perspectives, and facilitate individual differences research on how SR relates to developmental psychopathology. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. How bilingualism shapes the functional architecture of the brain: A study on executive control in early bilinguals and monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a behavioral advantage of bilinguals over monolinguals during executive tasks is controversial. A new approach to this issue is to investigate the effect of bilingualism on neural control when performing these tasks as a window to understand when behavioral differences are produced. Here, we tested if early bilinguals use more language-related networks than monolinguals while performing a go/no-go task that includes infrequent no-go and go trials. The RTs and accuracy in both groups did not differ. An independent component analyses (ICA) revealed, however, that bilinguals used the left fronto-parietal network and the salience network more than monolinguals while processing go infrequent cues and no-go cues, respectively. It was noteworthy that the modulation of these networks had opposite correlates with performance in bilinguals and monolinguals, which suggests that between-group differences were more qualitative than quantitative. Our results suggest that bilinguals may differently develop the involvement of the executive control networks that comprise the left inferior frontal gyrus during cognitive control tasks than monolinguals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Visual-vestibular interactions in postural control during the execution of a dynamic task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Leah R; McFadyen, Bradford J; Inglis, J Timothy

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the interaction between visual and vestibular information during the transition from quiet standing to the completion of a forward step. Six subjects were asked to take one step forward at the sound of an audio tone, with their eyes open or closed, and terminate the step in a standing position. During stimulation trials, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was delivered 1500 ms before the auditory cue. GVS was delivered at an intensity three-fold that of each subject's quiet stance threshold with either stimulus right, left or no stimulation. Force data were collected from three forceplates for the calculation of centre of pressure (CoP), and kinematic data were used to calculate centre of mass (CoM) and body trajectories. In quiet stance all subjects responded to the GVS perturbation by demonstrating upper body segment roll and whole body sway towards the anode electrode. Unexpectedly, in the presence of vision during quiet stance, the upper body roll response was not attenuated, even though the CoP sway patterns were reduced when vision was available. During the initiation phase of the step, despite ongoing GVS stimulation, there were no significant effects seen in CoM, CoP or upper body roll responses. During step execution, however, both CoM displacement and upper body roll demonstrated significant effects and both responses were significantly reduced when subjects' eyes were open. Analysis of the medio-lateral CoP integrals also indicated a strong stimulation effect between conditions late in the execution phase, which were largely attenuated with vision. The results suggest that the importance of visual and vestibular information varies depending on the phase of the task. In addition, the different integration between visual and vestibular input during quiet standing suggests a dual role for vestibular information. We propose that vestibular information in quiet standing has a role in maintaining whole body

  17. Self- and parent-reported executive problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes are associated with poor metabolic control and low physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Charlotte; Tindberg, Ylva; Haas, Josephine; Swenne, Ingemar; Torbjörnsdotter, Torun; Åkesson, Karin; Örtqvist, Eva; Gustafsson, Jan; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2018-02-01

    Management of diabetes is demanding and requires efficient cognitive skills, especially in the domain of executive functioning. However, the impact of impaired executive functions on diabetes control has been studied to a limited extent. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between executive problems and diabetes control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Two hundred and forty-one of 477 (51%) of 12- to 18-year-old adolescents, with a diabetes duration of >2 years in Stockholm, Uppsala, and Jönköping participated. Parents and adolescents completed questionnaires, including Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) and demographic background factors. Diabetes-related data were collected from the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Registry, SWEDIABKIDS. Self-rated and parent-rated executive problems were analyzed with regard to gender, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), frequency of outpatient visits, and physical activity, using chi-square tests or Fisher's test, where P-values problems as independent variable. Executive problems, according to BRIEF and/or ADHD-RS were for both genders associated with mean HbA1c >70 mmol/mol (patient rating P = .000, parent rating P = .017), a large number of outpatient visits (parent rating P = .015), and low physical activity (patient rating P = .000, parent rating P = .025). Self-rated executive problems were more prevalent in girls (P = .032), while parents reported these problems to a larger extent in boys (P = .028). Executive problems are related to poor metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Patients with executive problems need to be recognized by the diabetes team and the diabetes care should be organized to provide adequate support for these patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Life-long music practice and executive control in older adults: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussard, Aline; Bermudez, Patrick; Alain, Claude; Tays, William; Moreno, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has indicated that music practice can influence cognitive processing across the lifespan. Although extensive musical experience may have a mitigating effect on cognitive decline in older adults, the nature of changes to brain functions underlying performance benefits remains underexplored. The present study was designed to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms that may support apparent beneficial effects of life-long musical practice on cognition. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in older musicians (N=17; average age=69.2) and non-musicians (N=17; average age=69.9), matched for age and education, while they completed an executive control task (visual go/no-go). Whereas both groups showed similar response speed and accuracy on go trials, older musicians showed fewer no-go errors. ERP recordings revealed the typical N2/P3 complex, but the nature of these responses differed between groups in that (1) older musicians showed larger N2 and P3 effects ('no-go minus go' amplitude), with the N2 amplitude being correlated with behavioral accuracy for no-go trials and (2) the topography of the P3 response was more anterior in musicians. Moreover, P3 amplitude was correlated with measures of musical experience in musicians. In our discussion of these results, we propose that music practice may have conferred an executive control advantage for musicians in later life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Attention, memory, visuoconstructive, and executive task performance in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a case-control community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Behs Jarros

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess children and adolescents with mild and severe anxiety disorders for their performance in attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, executive functions, and cognitive global functioning and conduct comparative analyses with the performance of children free from anxiety disorders. Methods: Our sample comprised 68 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years (41 with current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and 27 controls selected from a larger cross-sectional community sample of adolescents. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders were categorized into two groups on the basis of anxiety severity (mild or severe. All participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery to evaluate attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, and executive and cognitive functions. Results: No differences were found in any neuropsychological tests, with the single exception that the group with mild anxiety had better performance on the Digit Span backward test compared to subjects with severe anxiety and to controls (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.11. Conclusions: Not only might anxiety disorders spare main cognitive functions during adolescence, they may even enhance certain working memory processes.

  20. Attention, memory, visuoconstructive, and executive task performance in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a case-control community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarros, Rafaela Behs; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Silva, Cristiano Tschiedel Belem da; Toazza, Rudineia; Becker, Natália; Agranonik, Marilyn; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess children and adolescents with mild and severe anxiety disorders for their performance in attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, executive functions, and cognitive global functioning and conduct comparative analyses with the performance of children free from anxiety disorders. Our sample comprised 68 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years (41 with current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and 27 controls) selected from a larger cross-sectional community sample of adolescents. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders were categorized into two groups on the basis of anxiety severity (mild or severe). All participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery to evaluate attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, and executive and cognitive functions. No differences were found in any neuropsychological tests, with the single exception that the group with mild anxiety had better performance on the Digit Span backward test compared to subjects with severe anxiety and to controls (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.11). Not only might anxiety disorders spare main cognitive functions during adolescence, they may even enhance certain working memory processes.

  1. Anatomical substrates of the alerting, orienting and executive control components of attention: focus on the posterior parietal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuntao Yin

    Full Text Available Both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies have identified that the posterior parietal lobe (PPL is critical for the attention function. However, the unique role of distinct parietal cortical subregions and their underlying white matter (WM remains in question. In this study, we collected both magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data in normal participants, and evaluated their attention performance using attention network test (ANT, which could isolate three different attention components: alerting, orienting and executive control. Cortical thickness, surface area and DTI parameters were extracted from predefined PPL subregions and correlated with behavioural performance. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used for the voxel-wise statistical analysis. Results indicated structure-behaviour relationships on multiple levels. First, a link between the cortical thickness and WM integrity of the right inferior parietal regions and orienting performance was observed. Specifically, probabilistic tractography demonstrated that the integrity of WM connectivity between the bilateral inferior parietal lobules mediated the orienting performance. Second, the scores of executive control were significantly associated with the WM diffusion metrics of the right supramarginal gyrus. Finally, TBSS analysis revealed that alerting performance was significant correlated with the fractional anisotropy of local WM connecting the right thalamus and supplementary motor area. We conclude that distinct areas and features within PPL are associated with different components of attention. These findings could yield a more complete understanding of the nature of the PPL contribution to visuospatial attention.

  2. Execution of a participatory supportive return to work program within the Dutch social security sector: a qualitative evaluation of stakeholders’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke Lammerts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A process evaluation of a participatory supportive return to work program, aimed at workers without a (permanent employment contract who are sick-listed due to a common mental disorder, revealed that this program was executed less successfully than similar programs evaluated in earlier studies. The program consisted of a participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in competitive employment. Aim of this study was to get a better understanding of the execution of the program by evaluating stakeholders’ perceptions. In the absence of an employer, the program was applied by the Dutch Social Security Agency, in collaboration with vocational rehabilitation agencies. Together with the sick-listed workers, these were the main stakeholders. Our research questions involved stakeholders’ perceptions of the function(s of the program, and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators for a successful execution of the program within the Dutch social security sector. Methods Semi-structured interviews were held with five sick-listed workers, eight professionals of the Social Security Agency, and two case managers of vocational rehabilitation agencies. Interview topics were related to experiences with different components of the program. Selection of respondents was based on purposive sampling and continued until data saturation was reached. Content analysis was applied to identify patterns in the data. Two researchers developed a coding system, based on predefined topics and themes emerging from the data. Results Although perceived functions of some components of the program were as intended, all stakeholders stressed that the program often had not resulted in return to work. Perceived barriers for a successful execution were related to a poor collaboration between the Dutch Social Security Agency, vocational rehabilitation agencies and healthcare providers, the type of experienced (health problems, time constraints

  3. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  4. Strategy difficulty effects in young and older adults' episodic memory are modulated by inter-stimulus intervals and executive control processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Lucile; Uittenhove, Kim; Lemaire, Patrick; Taconnat, Laurence

    2017-04-01

    Efficient execution of strategies is crucial to memory performance and to age-related differences in this performance. Relative strategy complexity influences memory performance and aging effects on memory. Here, we aimed to further our understanding of the effects of relative strategy complexity by looking at the role of cognitive control functions and the time-course of the effects of relative strategy complexity. Thus, we manipulated inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) and assessed executive functions. Results showed that (a) performance as a function of the relative strategy difficulty of the current and previous trial was modulated by ISI, (b) these effects were modulated by inhibition capacities, and (c) significant age differences were found in the way ISI modulates relative strategy difficulty. These findings have important implications for understanding the relationships between aging, executive control, and strategy execution in episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Building oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks by composition: unmanned vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, J. T.; Pinto, J.; Martins, R.; Costa, M.; Ferreira, F.; Gomes, R.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of developing mobile oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks (MOAO) with coordinated air and ocean vehicles is discussed in the framework of the communications and control software tool chain developed at Underwater Systems and Technologies Laboratory (LSTS) from Porto University. This is done with reference to field experiments to illustrate key capabilities and to assess future MOAO operations. First, the motivation for building MOAO by "composition" of air and ocean vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks is discussed - in networked vehicle systems information and commands are exchanged among multiple vehicles and operators, and the roles, relative positions, and dependencies of these vehicles and operators change during operations. Second, the planning and execution control framework developed at LSTS for multi-vehicle systems is discussed with reference to key concepts such as autonomy, mixed-initiative interactions, and layered organization. Third, the LSTS tool software tool chain is presented to show how to develop MOAO by composition. The tool chain comprises the Neptus command and control framework for mixed initiative interactions, the underlying IMC messaging protocol, and the DUNE on-board software. Fourth, selected LSTS operational deployments illustrate MOAO capability building. In 2012 we demonstrated the use of UAS to "ferry" data from UUVs located beyond line of sight (BLOS). In 2013 we demonstrated coordinated observations of coastal fronts with small UAS and UUVs, "bent" BLOS through the use of UAS as communication relays, and UAS tracking of juvenile hammer-head sharks. In 2014 we demonstrated UUV adaptive sampling with the closed loop controller of the UUV residing on a UAS; this was done with the help of a Wave Glider ASV with a communications gateway. The results from these experiments provide a background for assessing potential future UAS operations in a compositional MOAO.

  6. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...... for a control task, exemplified by a steam boiler.The same formalism is used to refine requirements to a functional design.Through a suitable transformation this is taken to an event andaction based formalism. Finally components in this design for a distributedarchitecture are transformed to occam-like programs....

  7. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Göbel, Silke M.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3-4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4-5 years, and ...

  8. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: Why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Quin eYow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-year-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching and n-back task that measure the executive function components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only, indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related executive functions such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global

  9. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618.

  10. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age and a popular puzzle game (Tetris. Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the healthy young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields

  11. Relationship between increase in flexibility and improvement in the execution of daily actions by adults participating in supervised exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to relate flexibility improvements from a supervised exercise program (SEP attendance, to possible improvements in the execution of daily actions by adults. The sample consisted of 20 subjects, the majority of them cardiac patients, with an average age of 58 ± 9 years, actively participating in an SEP, selected intentionally. The Flexitest, was used to determine flexibility. In addition, the subjects answered an 11-question questionnaire, aiming to assess relative difficulty in daily actions. The questionnaire was completed between three and 18 months after beginning the program and assessed the subjects’ opinion on their improvements in daily actions since starting on the SEP. After the SEP, improvements were observed in the execution of 11 daily actions, global flexibility, and six individual movements on the Flexitest (p RESUMO Este estudo objetivou relacionar ganhos de flexibilidade decorrentes da participa��ão em programa de exercício supervisionado (PES com eventuais facilitações na execução de ações cotidianas em adultos. Vinte indivíduos, a maioria coronariopatas, com idade de 58 ± 9 anos, que estavam freqüentando um PES, foram selecionados intencionalmente. Para a avaliação da flexibilidade utilizou-se o Flexiteste. Em adendo, os indivíduos responderam um questionário com 11 perguntas para avaliar subjetivamente, a facilidade e/ou dificuldade de realizar ações cotidianas, no início do PES e no momento em que estavam respondendo o questionário. Após o PES, houve ganhos na facilidade de execução das 11 ações, na flexibilidade global passiva e em seis movimentos individuais do Flexiteste (p<0,05. Há correlação significativa entre as diferenças das respostas ao questionário e as variações na flexibilidade global (r=0,45; p<0,04. Existe relação inversa entre as variações de peso e de flexibilidade (r=-0,66; p<0,05. Concluiu-se que a facilitação na realização de a

  12. Executive functions in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; van Driel, Joram; Knip, Koen; Richard Ridderinkhof, K

    2013-03-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were obtained between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in classic executive control paradigms. Furthermore, classic executive control effects did not interact with synesthetic behavioral effects. Third, we found support for our hypothesis that inhibition of a synesthetic color takes effort and time. Finally, individual differences analyses showed no relationship between the two skills; performance on a 'normal' Stroop task does not predict performance on a synesthetic Stroop task. Across four studies, the current results consistently show no clear relationship between executive control functions and synesthetic behavioral effects. This raises the question of which mechanisms are at play in synesthetic 'management' during the presence of two conflicting (real and synesthetic) sensations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Army Command and Control Study - 82 (ACCS-82). Volume I. Executive Summary and Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    OCAFF head- quarters and a contract was arranged with Johns Hopkins University to establish a group of scientific advisors, the Combat Operations Research...major role in both testing and evaluation passed to the AMC. The major innovation of the MacNamara regime was the introduction of the Program Package...basic steps in the Army budget cycle remained much the same through the seventies as they had been since MacNamara introduced the Planning, Programming

  14. On the Execution Control of HLA Federations using the SISO Space Reference FOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Bjorn; Garro, Alfredo; Falcone, Alberto; Crues, Edwin Z.; Dexter, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    In the Space domain the High Level Architecture (HLA) is one of the reference standard for Distributed Simulation. However, for the different organizations involved in the Space domain (e.g. NASA, ESA, Roscosmos, and JAXA) and their industrial partners, it is difficult to implement HLA simulators (called Federates) able to interact and interoperate in the context of a distributed HLA simulation (called Federation). The lack of a common FOM (Federation Object Model) for the Space domain is one of the main reasons that precludes a-priori interoperability between heterogeneous federates. To fill this lack a Product Development Group (PDG) has been recently activated in the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) with the aim to provide a Space Reference FOM (SRFOM) for international collaboration on Space systems simulations. Members of the PDG come from several countries and contribute experiences from projects within NASA, ESA and other organizations. Participants represent government, academia and industry. The paper presents an overview of the ongoing Space Reference FOM standardization initiative by focusing on the solution provided for managing the execution of an SRFOM-based Federation.

  15. The benefits of executive control training and the implications for language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Hussey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent psycholinguistics research suggests that the executive function (EF skill known as conflict resolution—the ability to adjust behavior in the service of resolving among incompatible representations—is important for several language processing tasks such as lexical and syntactic ambiguity resolution, verbal fluency, and common-ground assessment. Here, we discuss work showing that various EF skills can be enhanced through consistent practice with working memory tasks that tap these EFs, and, moreover, that improvements on the training tasks transfer across domains to novel tasks that may rely on shared underlying EFs. These findings have implications for language processing and could launch new research exploring if EF training, within a process-specific framework, could be used as a remediation tool for improving general language use. Indeed, work in our lab demonstrates that EF training that increases conflict-resolution processes has selective benefits on an untrained sentence-processing task requiring syntactic ambiguity resolution, which relies on shared conflict-resolution functions. Given claims that conflict-resolution abilities contribute to a range of linguistic skills, EF training targeting this process could theoretically yield wider performance gains beyond garden-path recovery. We offer some hypotheses on the potential benefits of EF training as a component of interventions to mitigate general difficulties in language processing. However, there are caveats to consider as well, which we also address.

  16. Robust Control Design via Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, L. H.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of synthesizing or designing a feedback controller of fixed dynamic order. The closed loop specifications considered here are given in terms of a target performance vector representing a desired set of closed loop transfer functions connecting various signals. In general these point targets are unattainable with a fixed order controller. By enlarging the target from a fixed point set to an interval set the solvability conditions with a fixed order controller are relaxed and a solution is more easily enabled. Results from the parametric robust control literature can be used to design the interval target family so that the performance deterioration is acceptable, even when plant uncertainty is present. It is shown that it is possible to devise a computationally simple linear programming approach that attempts to meet the desired closed loop specifications.

  17. Ease: a real-time multitasking executive

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, David

    1996-01-01

    Ease the real time multitasking executive described m this thesis is designed for embedded systems with particular emphasis on DSP motor control applications. Ease provides an application software interface to the underlying hardware and encourages an object oriented programming approach which inherently enhances software integrity, maintainability and dependability in the potentially chaotic real time environment. Its focus is to tackle the undesirable aspects of real time programming an...

  18. High-performing physician executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Larson, S R; McCool, B P

    1988-01-01

    Physician leadership extends beyond traditional clinical disciplines to hospital administration, group practice management, health policy making, management of managed care programs, and many business positions. What kind of person makes a good physician executive? What stands out as the most important motivations, attributes, and interests of high-performing physician executives? How does this compare with non-physician health care executives? Such questions have long been high on the agenda of executives in other industries. This article builds on existing formal assessments of leadership attributes of high-performing business, government, and educational executives and on closer examination of health care executives. Previous studies looked at the need for innovative, entrepreneurial, energetic, community-oriented leaders for positions throughout health care. Traits that distinguish excellence and leadership were described by Brown and McCool.* That study characterized successful leaders in terms of physical strengths (high energy, good health, and propensity for hard work), mental strengths (creativity, intuition, and innovation), and organizational strengths (mission orientation, vision, and entrepreneurial spirit). In this investigation, a subset of health care executives, including physician executives, was examined more closely. It was initially assumed that successful physician executives exhibit many of the same positive traits as do nonphysician executives. This assumption was tested with physician leaders in a range of administrative and managerial positions. We also set out to identify key differences between physician and nonphysician executives. Even with our limited exploration, it seems to us that physician executives probably do differ from nonphysician executives.

  19. 78 FR 79454 - Information Collection; OMB Control No. 3090-0292; FFATA Subaward and Executive Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Stephen Berry, Program Analyst, Office of the Integrated Award Environment, GSA, at telephone number 703-605-2984; or via email at stephen[email protected] 18, 2013. Casey Coleman, Chief Information Officer. BILLING CODE 6820-WY-P ...

  20. Controller design approach based on linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Shibasaki, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa

    2013-11-01

    This study explains and demonstrates the design method for a control system with a load disturbance observer. Observer gains are determined by linear programming (LP) in terms of the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and the final-value theorem. In addition, the control model has a feedback structure, and feedback gains are determined to be the linear quadratic regulator. The simulation results confirmed that compared with the conventional method, the output estimated by our proposed method converges to a reference input faster when a load disturbance is added to a control system. In addition, we also confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing an experiment with a DC motor. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  1. Facilitating goal-oriented behaviour in the Stroop task: when executive control is influenced by automatic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Bate, Sarah; Brown, Scott D; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2012-01-01

    A portion of Stroop interference is thought to arise from a failure to maintain goal-oriented behaviour (or goal neglect). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether goal- relevant primes could enhance goal maintenance and reduce the Stroop interference effect. Here it is shown that primes related to the goal of responding quickly in the Stroop task (e.g. fast, quick, hurry) substantially reduced Stroop interference by reducing reaction times to incongruent trials but increasing reaction times to congruent and neutral trials. No effects of the primes were observed on errors. The effects on incongruent, congruent and neutral trials are explained in terms of the influence of the primes on goal maintenance. The results show that goal priming can facilitate goal-oriented behaviour and indicate that automatic processing can modulate executive control.

  2. HELP! Problems in executing a pragmatic, randomized, stepped wedge trial on the Hospital Elder Life Program to prevent delirium in older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Noor; van Stel, Henk F; Ettema, Roelof G; van der Mast, Roos C; Inouye, Sharon K; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2017-05-17

    A pragmatic, stepped wedge trial design can be an appealing design to evaluate complex interventions in real-life settings. However, there are certain pitfalls that need to be considered. This paper reports on the experiences and lessons learned from the conduct of a cluster randomized, stepped wedge trial evaluating the effect of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) in a Dutch hospital setting to prevent older patients from developing delirium. We evaluated our trial which was conducted in eight departments in two hospitals in hospitalized patients aged 70 years or older who were at risk for delirium by reflecting on the assumptions that we had and on what we intended to accomplish when we started, as compared to what we actually realized in the different phases of our study. Lessons learned on the design, the timeline, the enrollment of eligible patients and the use of routinely collected data are provided accompanied by recommendations to address challenges. The start of the trial was delayed which caused subsequent time schedule problems. The requirement for individual informed consent for a quality improvement project made the inclusion more prone to selection bias. Most units experienced major difficulties in including patients, leading to excluding two of the eight units from participation. This resulted in failing to include a similar number of patients in the control condition versus the intervention condition. Data on outcomes routinely collected in the electronic patient records were not accessible during the study, and appeared to be often missing during analyses. The stepped wedge, cluster randomized trial poses specific risks in the design and execution of research in real-life settings of which researchers should be aware to prevent negative consequences impacting the validity of their results. Valid conclusions on the effectiveness of the HELP in the Dutch hospital setting are hampered by the limited quantity and quality of routine clinical data

  3. New command centre of the Lech Power Works. Planning and execution of command and control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschall, J.

    1985-10-28

    On February 25, 1985 the Lech Electricity Works in Augsburg took into service their new control centre for the operational control of the entire maximum, high and low voltage networks. As the replacement for the now outpaced old control centre it was installed along the most modern lines under retention of the remote control substations. The total of eight combined operation process computer AEG 80-30 charaterise the scope of the network command technology, whereby in several subsectors completely new paths were trodden for the first time. So for example the design of light technology, the monitor display illumination and the graphical system Gradas which controls the medium voltage network, operation using digitizer and the operation telecommunications system. (orig.).

  4. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Caselli

    Full Text Available The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b, in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  5. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-12-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attentional control and executive functioning in school-aged children: Linking self-regulation and parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Andrea M; Dekker, Marielle C; Ziermans, Tim B; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-10-09

    Good parenting strategies can shape children's neurocognitive development, yet little is known about the nature of this relation in school-aged children and whether this association shifts with age. We aimed to investigate the relation between parenting strategies observed during a home visit and children's performance-based attentional control and executive functioning (N=98, aged 4-8years). Linear and curvilinear regression analyses showed that children of parents who were more supportive, were less intrusive, and asked more open-ended questions displayed better inhibitory control. In addition, children of parents who asked relatively more open-ended than closed-ended questions showed better performance on inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility tasks. Curvilinear relations indicated the presence of an optimal amount of closed-ended and elaborative questions by parents-that is, not too few and not too many-which is linked to increased performance on attentional and inhibitory control in children. Higher parental intrusiveness and more frequent elaborative questioning were associated with decreased inhibitory control in younger children, whereas no such negative associations were present in older children. These results suggest that susceptibility to certain parenting strategies may shift with age. Our findings underscore the importance of adaptive parenting strategies to both the age and needs of school-aged children, which may positively affect their self-regulation skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Determinants of Control of Commission’s Executive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franchino

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is twofold. First, I review the political science literature on delegation and control and apply the control side of agency theory to the activities of the Commission. Second, I test McCubbins and Page’s (1987 propositions on the determinants of control. I then conclude with some comments on the impact of these procedures on Commission’s autonomy, with reference to other works on the subject. Hypothesis: McCubbins and Page suggest that the stringency of ex post control is positively correlated with 1 conflict among legislators and 2 uncertainty about the benefits and costs of the policy. Methods: I use logistic regression and a cumulative logit model that test the hypotheses on a stratified sample of non amending secondary legislation adopted from 1987 to 1998. Results: Unanimity rule, conflict between Community institutions and uncertainty about the costs and benefits are key determinants for the establishment of ex post procedural control of Commission’s implementation activities. Conflict and uncertainty are also important factors affecting the degree of stringency in control.

  8. 5 CFR 412.301 - Obtaining approval to conduct a Senior Executive Service candidate development program (SESCDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE... must seek OPM approval every five years thereafter, and must also consult OPM before implementing a... should be mindful of merit principles in carrying out their functions under this subpart. ...

  9. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over the course of the preschool period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Ann Campbell Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early executive control (EC predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: 1 examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and 2 determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5 and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5 and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively

  10. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caron A C; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Wiebe, Sandra A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  11. Executive control deficits as a prodrome to falls in healthy older adults: a prospective study linking thinking, walking, and falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Talia; Mirelman, Anat; Giladi, Nir; Schweiger, Avraham; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2010-10-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits may increase fall risk, even among older adults with no overt cognitive impairment. Indeed, the effects of dual tasking (DT) on gait, a challenge to executive control, are more exaggerated in persons with a history of falls. Prospective evidence is, however, lacking. We prospectively evaluated whether EF predicts falls over a 2-year period among 262 community-living, healthy, and well-functioning older adults, focusing on the 201 who reported no falls during the previous year. At baseline, participants completed a computerized cognitive battery that generated an index of EF and other cognitive domains. Gait was assessed using performance-based tests and by quantifying walking during single- and dual-task conditions. The 262 participants (mean age: 76.3 ± 4.3 years, 60.3% women) had intact cognitive function on testing, a low comorbidity index, and good mobility. The EF index predicted future falls. Among those who reported no previous falls, participants in the worst EF quartile were three times more likely to fall during the 2 years of follow-up, and they were more likely to transition from nonfaller to faller sooner. DT gait variability also predicted future falls and multiple falls, whereas other measures of cognitive function, gait, and mobility did not. Among healthy older adults, individuals with poorer EF are more prone to falls. Higher-level cognitive functions such as those regulated by the frontal lobes are apparently needed for safe everyday navigation that demands multitasking. Optimal screening, early detection, and treatment of falls should, apparently, also target this cognitive domain.

  12. Physical Activity and Executive Control: Implications for Increased Cognitive Health during Older Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Charles H.; Belopolsky, Artem V.; Snook, Erin M.; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Electrocortical and behavioral responses of low, moderate, and high physically active older adults where compared with a younger control group on neutral and incompatible conditions of a flankers task. Compared to younger adults, high and moderate active older adults exhibited increased event-related potentials component P3 amplitude for the…

  13. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: third status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    This Status Report contains contributions from all contractors currently participating in the DOE Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LG) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program and is presented in two principal sections. Section I is an Executive Summary of work done by all program participants. Section II is a presentation of fourteen individual reports (A through N) on specific LGF Program activities. The emphasis of Section II is on research conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Reports A through M). Report N, an annotated bibliography of literature related to LNG safety and environmental control, was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of its LGF Safety Studies Project. Other organizations who contributed to this Status Report are Aerojet Energy Conversion Company; Applied Technology Corporation; Arthur D. Little, Incorporated; C/sub v/ International, Incorporated; Institute of Gas Technology; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for Reports A through N for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. System architectures for PROLOG execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooley, Markian M.; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1988-01-01

    The principal features of PROLOG are reviewed with particular reference to the use of the language in the development of expert systems. Attention is given to the language syntax, data structures and recursion, constructs that alter control, predicates that modify the database, predicates for input and output, and metalogical predicates. The parts of the Warren Abstract Machine are then described, and it is shown how it executes programs. Parallel architectures proposed for expert systems are examined, and the principal varieties of parallelism available in PROLOG and examples of architectures exploiting them are discussed.

  15. Multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in children with an autism spectrum disorder: "weak" central coherence and its relationship to theory of mind and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Maybery, Murray; Durkin, Kevin; Maley, Alana

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the validity of "weak" central coherence (CC) in the context of multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in autism. Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and matched typically developing children were administered tasks tapping visuospatial coherence, false-belief understanding and aspects of executive control. Significant group differences were found in all three cognitive domains. Evidence of local processing on coherence tasks was widespread in the ASD group, but difficulties in attributing false beliefs and in components of executive functioning were present in fewer of the children with ASD. This cognitive profile was generally similar for younger and older children with ASD. Furthermore, weak CC was unrelated to false-belief understanding, but aspects of coherence (related to integration) were associated with aspects of executive control. Few associations were found between cognitive variables and indices of autistic symptomatology. Implications for CC theory are discussed.

  16. Evolution of equine infection control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradford P

    2004-12-01

    The science of control of infectious diseases in hospitals was born in 1847 when Semmelweis, a physician, ordered his medical students to scrub their hands in chlorinated lime water between patients and demonstrated that this simple procedure resulted ina dramatic decline in patient morbidity and mortality. In the late nineteenth century came huge breakthroughs in the understanding that microorganisms cause many disorders, and methods to eliminate and control these microorganisms were attempted. By 1910, sterile instruments, gowns, masks, and gloves had become standard for surgical procedures in large university human hospitals, and isolation of human and veterinary patients with contagious diseases became standard. With the advent of vaccines, many epidemic viral diseases could be controlled, and antimicrobial drugs allowed many previously devastating bacterial diseases to be treated effectively. Before long, however, bacterial resistance became an important issue and remains so today, particularly for Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in horses. Vaccination has decreased the number of animals susceptible to equine influenza and equine herpesvirus 1, yet these contagious diseases still pose a serious issue in large equine veterinary hospitals. The development of equine isolation facilities and improved methods of barn cleaning; mandatory application of procedures, such as handwashing or use of disinfectant hand wipes, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases; and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and use of restricted antimicrobial drugs were driven by recognition and necessity and have given rise to current equine infection control programs.

  17. Information Technology Management: Global Command and Control System Joint Operation Planning and Execution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-15

    Information Technology Management Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General April 15, 2003 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality Global Command...Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Information Technology Management : Global Command and Control System Joint Operation Planning and...September 7, 1999; “GCCS Strategic Plan 1999-2002,” December 27, 1999; “JOPES Strategic Plan,” April 2000; “Information Technology Management Reform Act

  18. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting.

  19. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English–Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number–letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number–letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting. PMID:25767451

  20. Maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkisson, B P

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedures for the maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program for the Maintenance Management Department of the ORNL Instrumentation and Controls Division.

  1. Executive control deficits in substance-dependent individuals: a comparison of alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine and of men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, E.A.A.; Crone, E.A.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Tranel, D.; Bechara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Substance dependence is associated with executive function deficits, but the nature of these executive defects and the effect that different drugs and sex have on these defects have not been fully clarified. Therefore, we compared the performance of alcohol- (n = 33; 18 women), cocaine- (n = 27; 14

  2. Personality, Executive Control, and Neurobiological Characteristics Associated with Different Forms of Risky Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Brown

    Full Text Available Road crashes represent a huge burden on global health. Some drivers are prone to repeated episodes of risky driving (RD and are over-represented in crashes and related morbidity. However, their characteristics are heterogeneous, hampering development of targeted intervention strategies. This study hypothesized that distinct personality, cognitive, and neurobiological processes are associated with the type of RD behaviours these drivers predominantly engage in.Four age-matched groups of adult (19-39 years males were recruited: 1 driving while impaired recidivists (DWI, n = 36; 2 non-alcohol reckless drivers (SPEED, n = 28; 3 drivers with a mixed RD profile (MIXED, n = 27; and 4 low-risk control drivers (CTL, n = 47. Their sociodemographic, criminal history, driving behaviour (by questionnaire and simulation performance, personality (Big Five traits, impulsivity, reward sensitivity, cognitive (disinhibition, decision making, behavioural risk taking, and neurobiological (cortisol stress response characteristics were gathered and contrasted.Compared to controls, group SPEED showed greater sensation seeking, disinhibition, disadvantageous decision making, and risk taking. Group MIXED exhibited more substance misuse, and antisocial, sensation seeking and reward sensitive personality features. Group DWI showed greater disinhibition and more severe alcohol misuse, and compared to the other RD groups, the lowest level of risk taking when sober. All RD groups exhibited less cortisol increase in response to stress compared to controls.Each RD group exhibited a distinct personality and cognitive profile, which was consistent with stimulation seeking in group SPEED, fearlessness in group MIXED, and poor behavioural regulation associated with alcohol in group DWI. As these group differences were uniformly accompanied by blunted cortisol stress responses, they may reflect the disparate behavioural consequences of dysregulation of the stress system. In sum, RD

  3. 15 CFR 752.11 - Internal Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal Control Programs. 752.11... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.11 Internal Control Programs. (a) Scope—(1) Introduction. It is through Internal Control Programs (ICPs) that the SCL holder and the consignee assure that exports and reexports are not...

  4. Executive Control in Depressive Rumination: Backward Inhibition and Non-inhibitory Switching Performance in a Modified Mixed Antisaccade Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Barbara C Y; Liu, Jeffrey C C

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines backward inhibition (BI) and non-inhibitory switching performance among depressed and healthy participants in a modified mixed antisaccade task. Specifically, sad and neutral faces were incorporated in the design to examine executive control difficulties associated with brooding trait. Thirty-nine participants took part in the study, including 19 depressed patients and 20 healthy control subjects. Participants completed a diagnostic interview and self-report questionnaires, including the Beck Depression Inventory and Ruminative Response Scale-Brooding Subscale. They were then instructed to complete prosaccade and antisaccade trials in the pure and mixed blocks whereby eye gazes were tracked to assess inhibition and switching efficiency. For the switching effects, a significant group × brooding × task type interaction was found as hypothesized when multilevel modeling analysis was employed. Switching deficits associated with brooding was found to be greatest when sad faces were presented to depressed group. No significant results in BI or error rates were observed. The patterns observed suggest that as opposed to BI, set shifting difficulty associated with brooding trait may be modulated by negative mood and cognition. In future research, emotional faces other than sad faces may be used to further explore if the observations could be generalized to other affective conditions.

  5. Using confirmatory factor analysis to understand executive control in preschool children: sources of variation in emergent mathematic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize

    2011-07-01

    Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and battery of laboratory tasks described in Wiebe, Espy and Charak (2008), latent EC was related strongly to emergent mathematics achievement in preschool, and was robust after controlling for crystallized intellectual skills. The relation between crystallized skills and emergent mathematics differed between girls and boys, although the predictive association between EC and mathematics did not. Two dimensions of the child 's social environment contributed to mathematics achievement: social network support through its relation to EC and environmental stressors through its relation with crystallized skills. These findings underscore the need to examine the dimensions, mechanisms, and individual pathways that influence the development of early competence in basic cognitive processes that underpin early academic achievement. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Executive summary. [modeling spacecraft environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of studies conducted to establish the requirements for advanced subsystem analytical tools is presented. Modifications are defined for updating current computer programs used to analyze environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems so that consumables for future advanced spacecraft may be managed.

  7. Co-Segregation of Social Cognition, Executive Function and Local Processing Style in Children with ASD, Their Siblings and Normal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Droste, Katharina; van Steijn, Daphne J.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive research proposes that social cognition (SC), executive functions (EF) and local processing style (weak CC) may be fruitful areas for research into the familial-genetic underpinnings of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The performance of 140 children with ASD, 172 siblings and 127 controls on tasks measuring SC (face recognition,…

  8. Towards a Better Understanding of the Relationship between Executive Control and Theory of Mind: An Intra-Cultural Comparison of Three Diverse Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Henry, Julie D.; Razmjoee, Maryam; Teymoori, Ali; Wang, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently indicated that theory of mind (ToM) is associated with executive control in the preschool years. However, interpretation of this literature is limited by the fact that most studies have focused exclusively on urbanized Western cultural samples. Consequently, it is not clear whether the association between ToM and…

  9. A short fuse after alcohol: implicit power associations predict aggressiveness after alcohol consumption in young heavy drinkers with limited executive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.; Beckers, L.; Houben, K.; Hofmann, W.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a hypothesis derived from recent dual-process models, which conceptualize behavior as the interplay of associative and Executive Control (EC) processes. This general logic was applied here to the phenomenon of aggressiveness after drinking alcohol. Specifically, we predicted that

  10. Callous-Unemotional Traits Trajectories Interact with Earlier Conduct Problems and Executive Control to Predict Violence and Substance Use Among High Risk Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Waller, Rebecca; Fish, Ari M; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, conduct problems (CP), and deficits in executive control are all linked to the development of more severe antisocial behavior, including violence and substance use. Though previous research has examined the impact of these factors on antisocial outcomes, little work has examined trajectories of CU traits across adolescence and how these trajectories predict greater antisocial behavior in adulthood. Moreover, no study has assessed how severity of early CP and executive control may exacerbate these pathways and increase risk for later violence and substance use. The current study (a) identified trajectories of CU traits among a large, high-risk sample of adolescent males, (b) examined the relationship between CU traits trajectories and future violence and substance use, and (c) examined whether early CP and executive control moderated the effects of a high CU traits trajectory membership and high CP on violence and substance use. Results indicated that: (a) CU traits could be grouped into three stable trajectories across adolescence, (b) the 'high' CU traits trajectory, particularly in the presence of 'elevated' CP, was related to higher violence and substance use, over and above a variety of environmental risk factors, and (c) the effects the 'high' CU traits trajectory on both violence and substance and in the presence of 'elevated' CP was stronger among youth with high executive control. These findings highlight the utility of identifying subgroups of youth who differ on trajectories of CU traits for understanding the development and maintenance of severe antisocial behavior.

  11. Family leader empowerment program using participatory learning process for dengue vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengvanich, Veerapong

    2011-02-01

    Assess the performance of the empowerment program using participatory learning process for the control of Dengue vector The program focuses on using the leaders of families as the main executer of the vector control protocol. This quasi-experimental research utilized the two-group pretest-posttest design. The sample group consisted of 120 family leaders from two communities in Mueang Municipality, Chachoengsao Province. The research was conducted during an 8-week period between April and June 2010. The data were collected and analyzed based on frequency, percentage, mean, paired t-test, and independent t-test. The result was evaluated by comparing the difference between the mean prevalence index of mosquito larvae before and after the process implementation in terms of the container index (CI) and the house index (HI). After spending eight weeks in the empowerment program, the family leader's behavior in the aspect of Dengue vector control has improved. The Container Index and the House Index were found to decrease with p = 0.05 statistical significance. The reduction of CI and HI suggested that the program worked well in the selected communities. The success of the Dengue vector control program depended on cooperation and participation of many groups, especially the families in the community When the family leaders have good attitude and are capable of carrying out the vector control protocol, the risk factor leading to the incidence of Dengue rims infection can be reduced.

  12. China's SOE Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Hubbard, Paul; Cai, Guilong

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on a database tracking the career of 1,250 top Chinese executives from 1,084 publicly-listed state-owned enterprises (SOEs), this article analyzes differences in career incentives for subsidiaries controlled by the central government compared to those controlled by local governments...

  13. A GO intervention program for enhancing elementary school children's cognitive functions and control abilities of emotion and behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachibana Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Executive function is critical for children's healthy development. We propose an intervention program to enhance children's executive function using the game, GO. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed that playing GO is related to executive function. In addition, previous studies also revealed that executive function can be enhanced by training. We will perform a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a GO intervention group and a control group without intervention. Methods/Design 35 elementary school children aged 8 to 10 were recruited from Edogawa elementary school in Tokyo, Japan. They will be randomized into two groups; either the 5-week GO intervention group or no-intervention control group. We will ask the participants of the intervention group to join the GO course which will be held once every week for five weeks (total: six times. In the GO course, the children will be taught GO by the GO masters of the Nihon Ki-in and enjoy it for an hour. Besides the course, the participants will perform GO problems about twenty minutes a day, three times a week during the intervention period. We will use the Stroop task, the digit span, the Raven's colored progressive matrices, the Span-board task, and the Behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation scale for the outcome measures. Outcomes will be measured at a baseline (Assessment 1 and 5 weeks after the intervention program started (Assessment 2. The intervention group will be compared with the control group using one-way analyses of covariance with the difference between Assessment 1 and Assessment 2 measures as dependent variables and pretest scores as covariates. Discussion To our knowledge, this study will be the first RCT to investigate the efficacy of a GO intervention program for elementary school children. If this intervention is effective, we will be able to take the next steps in making an educational program to enhance children's executive

  14. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    Final report for “Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function” Principal Investigator: Christina D. Smolke...SUBTITLE Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18   2 Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function Task 1

  15. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve

  16. Seniors' Program for Injury Control and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, M C; Stevens, V J; Wingfield, D J

    1993-03-01

    The Seniors' Program for Injury Control and Education (SPICE) examines the effects of exercise and physical fitness on falls and related injuries among older persons. The design is a two-group, randomized trial with 2 years of follow-up. The study is at Northwest Region of Kaiser Permanente (NWKP), a large hospital-based prepaid group practice HMO in Portland, OR. The participants are 1,323 community-living persons 65 years or older who are enrolled in NWKP and are at moderate risk of falling. A multifaceted intervention strategy uses a group approach to falls and injury prevention which includes moderate intensity endurance-building exercise (walking), strength and balance training, home safety improvements, and mental practice. Sessions of 20-25 participants are led by two nurses. Participants set their own realistic goals for exercising to accommodate to differing functional abilities and baseline conditioning. The control group receives usual care from the HMO. Participants report all falls for 2 years after randomization. Outcome measures include health status, physical functioning, falls, and fall-related medical care use and cost. If SPICE is effective, cost-effectiveness analysis will examine the relative efficiency of SPICE versus other successful FICSIT interventions. Thus far, recruitment and intervention compliance goals have been met from a population of frail elderly HMO members.

  17. Atomoxetine effects on executive function as measured by the BRIEF--a in young adults with ADHD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard A Adler

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine treatment on executive functions in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.In this Phase 4, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, young adults (18-30 years with ADHD were randomized to receive atomoxetine (20-50 mg BID, N = 220 or placebo (N = 225 for 12 weeks. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A consists of 75 self-report items within 9 nonoverlapping clinical scales measuring various aspects of executive functioning. Mean changes from baseline to 12-week endpoint on the BRIEF-A were analyzed using an ANCOVA model (terms: baseline score, treatment, and investigator.At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the percentage of patients with BRIEF-A composite or index T-scores ≥60 (p>.5, with over 92% of patients having composite scores ≥60 (≥60 deemed clinically meaningful for these analyses. At endpoint, statistically significantly greater mean reductions were seen in the atomoxetine versus placebo group for the BRIEF-A Global Executive Composite (GEC, Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI, and Metacognitive Index (MI scores, as well as the Inhibit, Self-Monitor, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Task Monitor subscale scores (p<.05, with decreases in scores signifying improvements in executive functioning. Changes in the BRIEF-A Initiate (p = .051, Organization of Materials (p = .051, Shift (p = .090, and Emotional Control (p = .219 subscale scores were not statistically significant. In addition, the validity scales: Inconsistency (p = .644, Infrequency (p = .097, and Negativity (p = .456 were not statistically significant, showing scale validity.Statistically significantly greater improvement in executive function was observed in young adults with ADHD in the atomoxetine versus placebo group as measured by changes in the BRIEF-A scales.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00510276.

  18. A distributed implementation of a mode switching control program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdgaard, Michael; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Ravn, Anders P.

    1995-01-01

    A distributed implementation of a mode switched control program for a robot is described. The design of the control program is given by a set of real-time automatons. One of them plans a schedule for switching between a fixed set of control functions, another dispatches the control functions...

  19. A tweaking principle for executive control: neuronal circuit mechanism for rule-based task switching and conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardid, Salva; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2013-12-11

    A hallmark of executive control is the brain's agility to shift between different tasks depending on the behavioral rule currently in play. In this work, we propose a "tweaking hypothesis" for task switching: a weak rule signal provides a small bias that is dramatically amplified by reverberating attractor dynamics in neural circuits for stimulus categorization and action selection, leading to an all-or-none reconfiguration of sensory-motor mapping. Based on this principle, we developed a biologically realistic model with multiple modules for task switching. We found that the model quantitatively accounts for complex task switching behavior: switch cost, congruency effect, and task-response interaction; as well as monkey's single-neuron activity associated with task switching. The model yields several testable predictions, in particular, that category-selective neurons play a key role in resolving sensory-motor conflict. This work represents a neural circuit model for task switching and sheds insights in the brain mechanism of a fundamental cognitive capability.

  20. Executive information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitullo, M.; Winter, C.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    The Executive Information System (EIS) is a computer-based information handling system. The system has been designed and implemented for Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies to allow program managers easy access and tracking of certain types of reporting at various levels of management interaction, to simplify the handling of program-related data, and to streamline the preparation of reporting documents and responses to requests for information from the program. The EIS is especially useful in assisting DOE program managers in the routine dissemination of reports and information. The characteristics of each component of the EIS are discussed. A user's guide to the EIS is included in this report.

  1. Improving executive function deficits by playing interactive video-games: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial for individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental-Iluz, Clara; Zeilig, Gabi; Weingarden, Harold; Rand, Debbie

    2016-08-01

    Executive function deficits negatively impact independence and participation in everyday life of individuals with chronic stroke. Therefore, it is important to explore therapeutic interventions to improve executive functions. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 3-month interactive video-game group intervention compared to a traditional motor group intervention for improving executive functions in individuals with chronic stroke. This study is a secondary analysis of a single-blind randomized controlled trial for improving factors related to physical activity of individuals with chronic stroke. Assessments were administered pre and post the intervention and at 3-month follow-up by assessors blind to treatment allocation. Thirty-nine individuals with chronic stroke with executive function deficits participated in an interactive video-game group intervention (N.=20) or a traditional group intervention (N.=19). The intervention included two 1-hour group sessions per week for three months, either playing video-games or performing traditional exercises/activities. Executive function deficits were assessed using The Trail Making Test (Parts A and B) and by two performance-based assessments; the Bill Paying Task from the Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) and the Executive Function Route-Finding Task (EFRT). Following intervention, scores for the Bill Paying Task (EFPT) decreased by 27.5% and 36.6% for the participants in the video-game and traditional intervention, respectively (F=17.3, Pvideo-game group with small effect sizes. Effect size was small to medium for the TMT-B (F=0.003, P=0.954) and EFRT (F=1.2, P=0.28), without any statistical significance difference. Interactive video-games provide combined cognitive-motor stimulation and therefore have potential to improve executive functioning of individuals with chronic stroke. Further research is needed. These findings highlight the potential of utilizing interactive video-games in a

  2. Centralized Command, Distributed Control, and Decentralized Execution - a Command and Control Solution to US Air Force A2/AD Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    1 Introduction US airpower has a history of innovation to solve the challenges of Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD...Control is not required since cyber solutions and AOC bandwidth management are sufficient to ensure that the Internet Protocol will always get through

  3. Challenges of Tobacco Control Program in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Mohammadi, Younes; Mahmoodi, Azam

    2017-04-01

    This study assessed the status of cigarette marketing in Iran as well as the attitude of smokers toward smoking and the policies and tobacco control programs in the country. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 3480 volunteer smokers in six provinces, using a stratified cluster random sampling method. The study population consisted of smokers who used at least one cigarette per day. The data collection tool was an anonymous self-administered questionnaire including basic information and 20 five-choice questions related to participants' attitude toward smoking habits (Cronbach's alpha; 79.73%.). The majority (66.9%) of participants started smoking at the age of 10 to 19 years and 61.1% used foreign cigarettes. Of 160 marketed brands, 38 (23.8%) were domestic and 122 (76.2%) were foreign, including 63 (39.3%) imported and 59 (36.9%) smuggled brands. Being tempted (25.0%), getting nervous (24.1%), and seeking euphoria (24.1%) were the most common reasons for restarting cigarette smoking after cessation. The majority of participants believed that smoking in public places was a violation of the rights of others and smoking should be avoided in such places. Smoking prevention programs should focus on adolescents as the most vulnerable age group. Raising the retail price of tobacco products through increasing taxes can reduce consumption, particularly among first starters and youth. However, increasing taxes and prices of tobacco products may be effective when simultaneous effective measures are implemented to eliminate all kinds of illicit trade in all forms of tobacco products.

  4. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of an Arts Education Program on Executive Function, Behavior, and Brain Structure in a Sample of Nonclinical School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Jong-Min; Baik, Young; Kim, Kihyun; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Kwon, Hunki; Jung, Yeon-Kyung; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2015-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of arts education on cognition, behavior, and brain of children. Twenty-nine nonclinical children participated in a 15-week arts education program that was composed of either creative movement or musical arts. Children completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, clinical scales, and brain magnetic resonance imaging before and after the intervention. Following program completion, performances on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Children's Depression Inventory scores, and conduct disorder scores were significantly improved. Furthermore, cortical thickness in the left postcentral gyrus and superior parietal lobule were increased, and the mean diffusivity values in the right posterior corona radiate and superior longitudinal fasciculus were decreased. Positive correlations between changes in cognitive measurements and changes in cortical thickness were observed. This preliminary study suggests a positive effect of arts education on executive functions in association with brain changes. However, these findings must be interpreted with caution due to the noncomparative study design. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. [The new Tuberculosis Control Program of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toru

    2006-07-01

    The 1951 Tuberculosis Control Law of Japan was amended extensively and has been in effect since April, 2005. The revision of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is to respond to the tremendous changes that have occurred during the last 50 years in tuberculosis epidemiology and in the environment in tuberculosis control implementation. In this review, the main points and framework of the revisions were summarized and the perspective of the development of new technical innovations relevant to each area of the revised TB control legislation is discussed. Also, challenges of Japan's NTP in the recent future are discussed, including the controversies over the proposed abolishment of the Tuberculosis Control Law. 1. IMMUNIZATION: In the revision of NTP, the BCG vaccination of elementary school and junior-high school entrants was discontinued. In order to strengthen the early primary vaccination for infants, the new Law has adopted the direct vaccination scheme omitting tuberculin testing prior to immunization. This program is implemented to young babies, i.e., less than six months old, as defined by the decree. It is a heavy responsibility for the municipalities to ensure the high coverage of immunization when the period of legal vaccination is rather strictly limited practically to the fourth to sixth months after birth. The safe direct vaccination is another new challenge where appropriate management of the Koch's phenomenon or similar reactions should be warranted. 2. CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS: Though unfortunately suspended for some legal reason currently, the expansion and improvement of chemoprophylaxis, or treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, to cover anyone with higher risk of clinical development of TB would have a tremendous effect in Japan, especially since 90% of patients who developed TB were infected tens of years ago. The technical innovations in diagnosis of TB infection such as QuantiFERON will be very helpful. Development of new drugs or drug regimens

  6. [A new program-controlled telemetry technology for pacemakers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Huang, Xin-ming; Fang, Zu-xinag

    2002-09-01

    This thesis is about a new technology of program-controlled telemetry for pacemakers. The system utilizes digital logic circuit design, and the program-controlled part uses single chip to control for display and debug. PWM and reflectance telemetry may improve the preciseness and correctness of signal transmission, and reduce the power consumption of pacemakers and prolong the lifetime.

  7. Essentials and guidelines for clinical medical physics residency training programs: executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, Joann I; Willis, Charles E; Burmeister, Jay W; Clarke, Geoffrey D; Das, Rupak K; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Gerbi, Bruce J; Harkness, Beth A; Patton, James A; Peck, Donald J; Pizzutiello, Robert J; Sandison, George A; White, Sharon L; Wichman, Brian D; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Both, Stefan

    2014-05-08

    There is a clear need for established standards for medical physics residency training. The complexity of techniques in imaging, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology continues to increase with each passing year. It is therefore imperative that training requirements and competencies are routinely reviewed and updated to reflect the changing environment in hospitals and clinics across the country. In 2010, the AAPM Work Group on Periodic Review of Medical Physics Residency Training was formed and charged with updating AAPM Report Number 90. This work group includes AAPM members with extensive experience in clinical, professional, and educational aspects of medical physics. The resulting report, AAPM Report Number 249, concentrates on the clinical and professional knowledge needed to function independently as a practicing medical physicist in the areas of radiation oncology, imaging, and nuclear medicine, and constitutes a revision to AAPM Report Number 90. This manuscript presents an executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249.

  8. Carving Executive Control At Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, But Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and two different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (SR) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC’s relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict), response-selection processes (captured by S-R conflict), or both. In Experiment 1, subjects completed a single task presenting both S-S and S-R conflict trials, plus trials that combined the two conflict types. We limited ostensible goal-maintenance contributions to performance by requiring the same goal for all trial types and by presenting frequent conflict trials that reinforced the goal. WMC predicted resolution of S-S conflict as expected: Higher-WMC subjects showed reduced response time interference. Although WMC also predicted S-R interference, here, higher-WMC subjects showed increased error interference. Experiment 2A replicated these results in a version of the conflict task without combined S-S/S-R trials. Experiment 2B increased the proportion of congruent (non-conflict) trials to promote reliance on goal-maintenance processes. Here, higher-WMC subjects resolved both S-S and S-R conflict more successfully than did lower-WMC subjects. The results were consistent with Kane and Engle’s (2003) two-factor theory of cognitive control, according to which WMC predicts executive-task performance through goal-maintenance and conflict-resolution processes. However, the present results add specificity to the account by suggesting that higher-WMC subjects better resolve cognitive conflict because they more efficiently select relevant stimulus features against irrelevant, distracting ones. PMID:26120774

  9. 5 CFR 412.401 - Continuing executive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing executive development. 412.401... SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Executive Development § 412.401 Continuing executive development. (a) Each agency must establish a program or programs for the continuing development of its senior...

  10. Intelligence, creativity, and cognitive control: The common and differential involvement of executive functions in intelligence and creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Sommer, Markus; Arendasy, Martin; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence and creativity are known to be correlated constructs suggesting that they share a common cognitive basis. The present study assessed three specific executive abilities – updating, shifting, and inhibition – and examined their common and differential relations to fluid intelligence and creativity (i.e., divergent thinking ability) within a latent variable model approach. Additionally, it was tested whether the correlation of fluid intelligence and creativity can be explained by a common executive involvement. As expected, fluid intelligence was strongly predicted by updating, but not by shifting or inhibition. Creativity was predicted by updating and inhibition, but not by shifting. Moreover, updating (and the personality factor openness) was found to explain a relevant part of the shared variance between intelligence and creativity. The findings provide direct support for the executive involvement in creative thought and shed further light on the functional relationship between intelligence and creativity. PMID:25278640

  11. Getting Ready for College: An Implementation and Early Impacts Study of Eight Texas Developmental Summer Bridge Programs. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathington, Heather D.; Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Weissman, Evan; Teres, Jedediah; Pretlow, Joshua; Nakanishi, Aki

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) funded 22 colleges to establish developmental summer bridge programs. Aimed at providing an alternative to traditional developmental education, these programs involve intensive remedial instruction in math, reading, and/or writing and college preparation content for students entering…

  12. Kids on the Move: Afterschool Programs Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. America After 3PM Special Report. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs continue to make advances when it comes to providing students with nutritious foods, keeping them physically fit and promoting health. Such programs have great potential to help prevent obesity and instill lifelong healthy habits, serving more than 10 million children and youth across America, with more than 19 million more…

  13. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Göbel, Silke M; Hulme, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3-4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4-5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder.

  14. Executive functions in synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; van Driel, J.; Knip, K.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were

  15. A Paradigm for Investigating Executive Control Mechanisms in Word Retrieval in Language-Impaired and Neurotypical Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Middleton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An unresolved question in research on executive control in language production is whether the processes responsible for inhibiting a dominant, prepotent response in order to comply with task goals is the same or different from control processes that bias intrinsic competition during lexical selection. Heretofore, these processes have been studied with different paradigms, such as the Stroop task and semantic blocking paradigm [1], respectively. The present study introduces a new paradigm to study both mechanisms as they impact word retrieval in neuropsychological and neurotypical populations. The task included several blocks of trials, where within a block two pictures were named repeatedly in random order. Two manipulated factors were: (1 relatedness of the pair of names, which bore either a semantic (duck/pig or phonological relationship (ball/bag; or were unrelated (map/gun; (2 canonicity, where participants named each picture either with the canonical name (e.g., say “pig” for pig, “duck” for duck or reversed the labels (e.g., say “duck” for pig, “pig” for duck. The names were closely matched for length, frequency, and other variables. Crossing the factors created six conditions (semantic-canonical, semantic-reverse, phonological-canonical, phonological-reverse, unrelated-canonical, unrelated-reverse, with each condition administered in one block of 16 trials (8 trials per picture. The task was administered to 12 participants with aphasia (PWA with mild to severe naming impairment and 25 neurotypical controls. The dependent variables were naming latency (calculated for correct naming trials only and naming accuracy, defined as a binary variable (correct versus error, which were analyzed with mixed linear and logistic regression analysis, respectively. For each dependent variable in each participant group, contrasting each related condition with the unrelated condition permitted measurement of three effects--a main effect of

  16. A Computer Program to Calculate Two-Stage Short-Run Control Chart Factors for (X,MR Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Elam

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second in a series of two papers that fully develops two-stage short-run (X, MR control charts. This paper describes the development and execution of a computer program that accurately calculates first- and second-stage short-run control chart factors for (X, MR charts using the equations derived in the first paper. The software used is Mathcad. The program accepts values for number of subgroups, α for the X chart, and α for the MR chart both above the upper control limit and below the lower control limit. Tables are generated for specific values of these inputs and the implications of the results are discussed. A numerical example illustrates the use of the program.

  17. Outplacement service for the nurse executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangery, R; Freund, C M

    1984-01-01

    Outplacement service (OPS) is a human resource service provided by organizations to terminated executives. In addition to assisting organizations with the mechanics of the termination process, OPS helps terminated executives cope with the trauma of job loss and find new employment. Given the frequent involvement of nurse executives in termination decisions and the risk of termination inherent in their own positions, nurse executives have a vested interest in OPS policies and programs.

  18. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  19. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  20. Executive Control Over Cognition: Stronger and Earlier Rule-Based Modulation of Spatial Category Signals in Prefrontal Cortex Relative to Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Shikha J.; Blackman, Rachael K.; Sakellaridi, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Human cognition is characterized by flexibility, the ability to select not only which action but which cognitive process to engage to best achieve the current behavioral objective. The ability to tailor information processing in the brain to rules, goals, or context is typically referred to as executive control, and although there is consensus that prefrontal cortex is importantly involved, at present we have an incomplete understanding of how computational flexibility is implemented at the level of prefrontal neurons and networks. To better understand the neural mechanisms of computational flexibility, we simultaneously recorded the electrical activity of groups of single neurons within prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex of monkeys performing a task that required executive control of spatial cognitive processing. In this task, monkeys applied different spatial categorization rules to reassign the same set of visual stimuli to alternative categories on a trial-by-trial basis. We found that single neurons were activated to represent spatially defined categories in a manner that was rule dependent, providing a physiological signature of a cognitive process that was implemented under executive control. We found also that neural signals coding rule-dependent categories were distributed between the parietal and prefrontal cortex—however, not equally. Rule-dependent category signals were stronger, more powerfully modulated by the rule, and earlier to emerge in prefrontal cortex relative to parietal cortex. This suggests that prefrontal cortex may initiate the switch in neural representation at a network level that is important for computational flexibility. PMID:22399773

  1. Briefing Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    in order to move forward. You have to report some bad news. Or maybe it is just an information brief to someone with a reputation for asking hard...face value . He or she will undoubtedly have many questions for you to answer and clarify, and, in the end, the executive may decide on a different...misunderstanding, and we were able to move on. Getting up the nerve to push back wasn’t easy—Meyer had a reputation for gruffness and great technical

  2. Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Each day, between 12 to 13 U.S. workers die as a result of a traumatic injury on the job. Investigations conducted through the FACE program allow the identification...

  3. Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

  4. Executive attention control and emotional responding in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder — A functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonjo Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study demonstrated disrupted recruitment of regions implicated in executive function and impaired connectivity within those regions in children/adolescents with ADHD. There were also indications of heightened representation of emotional stimuli in patients with ADHD. However, as the findings were specific for positive stimuli, the suggestion of a general failure in emotion regulation in ADHD was not supported.

  5. Cognitive control and motivation in children with ADHD: How reinforcement interacts with the assessment and training of executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the interaction between two neuropsychological processes that are proposed to play a pivotal role in explaining the problems of children with ADHD: executive functioning (EF) and motivation. We examined the effects of reinforcement on assessment and training of EF in

  6. Extending Brain-Training to the Affective Domain: Increasing Cognitive and Affective Executive Control through Emotional Working Memory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Susanne; Hampshire, Adam; Dalgleish, Tim

    2011-01-01

    So-called ‘brain-training’ programs are a huge commercial success. However, empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness and generalizability remains equivocal. This study investigated whether brain-training (working memory [WM] training) improves cognitive functions beyond the training task (transfer effects), especially regarding the control of emotional material since it constitutes much of the information we process daily. Forty-five participants received WM training using either emotional or neutral material, or an undemanding control task. WM training, regardless of training material, led to transfer gains on another WM task and in fluid intelligence. However, only brain-training with emotional material yielded transferable gains to improved control over affective information on an emotional Stroop task. The data support the reality of transferable benefits of demanding WM training and suggest that transferable gains across to affective contexts require training with material congruent to those contexts. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that intensive cognitively demanding brain-training can improve not only our abstract problem-solving capacity, but also ameliorate cognitive control processes (e.g. decision-making) in our daily emotive environments. PMID:21949712

  7. Transmission Control Protocol, DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    particular a source or destination of messages from the point of view of the communicatio network. identification An Internet Protocol field. This...15-( RFC- 793 "* •TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL ’-v DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION September 1981 S... INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION 1. INTRODUCTION The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is intended for use as a highly reliable host-to-host

  8. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  9. Age-related wayfinding differences in real large-scale environments: detrimental motor control effects during spatial learning are mediated by executive decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Taillade

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate motor control activity (active vs. passive condition with regards to wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties in large-scale spaces for older adults. We compared virtual reality (VR-based wayfinding and spatial memory (survey and route knowledge performances between 30 younger and 30 older adults. A significant effect of age was obtained on the wayfinding performances but not on the spatial memory performances. Specifically, the active condition deteriorated the survey measure in all of the participants and increased the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances. Importantly, the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances, after an active condition, were further mediated by the executive measures. All of the results relative to a detrimental effect of motor activity are discussed in terms of a dual task effect as well as executive decline associated with aging.

  10. Veterinary herd health management programs on dairy farms in the Netherlands: Use, execution, and relations on farmers characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.; Werven, van T.; Hogeveen, H.; Kremer, W.D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programs are of growing importance to the dairy industry; they support farmers in the shift from curative to preventive health management, caused by increased herd sizes and quality standards in dairy farming. Farmers participating in VHHM are visited every 4

  11. Preparing School Leaders for a Changing World: Lessons from Exemplary Leadership Development Programs. School Leadership Study. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda; LaPointe, Michelle; Meyerson, Debra; Orr, Margaret Terry

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary school administrators play a daunting array of roles. They must be educational visionaries and change agents, instructional leaders, curriculum and assessment experts, budget analysts, facility managers, special program administrators, and community builders. New expectations for schools--that they successfully teach a broad range of…

  12. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

  13. Does programmed CTL proliferation optimize virus control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    CD8 T-cell or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses develop through an antigen-independent proliferation and differentiation program. This is in contrast to the previous thinking, which was that continuous antigenic stimulation was required. This Opinion discusses why nature has chosen the proliferati...

  14. Executing Liveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2018-01-01

    -actions this thesis examines the complexity of our current computational environment as evident in the increasing use of data queries, the instantaneous transmission of data streams and the seamless running of automated agents. By drawing together the methods of reflexive practice, close reading, iterative trials...... implications of the reading, writing, running and execution of code, which I refer to as ‘reflexive coding practice.’ This methodology provides an applied approach to computational processes, invisible architectures and a means to reflect on cultural issues through experimentation and practice. A materialist...... scales. The analysis and discussion contributes to a widening of critical attention to software (art) studies primarily in terms of its distinct focus on the live dimension of code. Furthermore, it expands the debate in media and performance studies, providing technical description and analysis...

  15. Problem-Based Learning in a Programming Context-Planning and Executing a Pilot Survey on Database Access in a Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellström, Peter; Kilbrink, Nina

    In this chapter we describe a pilot survey on applying problem-based learning (PBL) in an undergraduate programming course. During the course the students have applied PBL as a complement to traditional teaching and learning techniques. The PBL problem in this survey combines both knowledge about programming and knowledge about databases. We argue that to handle programming the students have to learn programming according to the deep approach to learning in order to be able to apply their knowledge in new programming situations and contexts. The result from this pilot survey indicates from both a tutor and a student perspective that PBL could be one method to reach a deeper understanding on how to access databases in a programming language.

  16. Energy engineering analysis program Europe, Hohenfels Military Subcommunity Seventh Army Training Command, West Germany. Volume 1: Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-02-01

    The objectives of this contract, as explained in detail in Schedule of Title I Services for Energy Engineering Analysis Program, Europe dated September 18, 1981, are as follows: (a) Develop a systematic plan of projects that will result in the reduction of energy consumption in compliance with the objectives set forth in the Army Facilities Energy Plan. (b) Use and incorporate applicable data and results of related studies, past and current, as feasible. (c) Develop a coordinated basewide energy study. (d) Prepare Program Development Brochures (PDB), DD Forms 1391, and supporting documentation for feasible energy conservation projects. (e) Include all methods of energy conservation which are practical (in so far as the state-of-the-art is reasonably firm) and economically feasible in accordance with guidance given. (f) List and prioritize all recommended energy conservation projects.

  17. Coordinating "Execute" Data for ISS and Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Greg; Melendrez, David; Hadlock, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Joint Execute Package Development and Integration tool is a Web utility program that provides an integrated capability to generate and manage messages and execute package data for members of a space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). (An execute package consists of flight plans, short-term plans, procedure updates, data needed to operate the space-shuttle and ISS systems, in-flight maintenance procedures, inventory-stowage data, software upgrades, flight notes, scripts for publicized events, and other instructions.) This program is a third-generation "execute"-package Web tool, built on experience gained from two programs used previously to support realtime operations. This program provides integration and synchronization between the space-shuttle and ISS teams during joint operations. Hundreds of messages per week must be uplinked as "joint" messages; that is, messages for crewmembers of both spacecraft. The program includes configuration-management components that ensure that the same message goes to both crews and spacecraft, effectively eliminating the potential for error in manual direction of messages. The program also controls the format and layout of the crews Web pages, ensuring consistency between uplinks. If the crews Web pages were edited manually, hyperlink and formatting errors would be common.

  18. Energy engineering analysis program Europe, Vilseck Military Subcommunity Seventh Army Training Command, West Germany. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, A.; Advani, C.; North, R.; Pritkin, L.; Chiao, S.P.

    1983-02-01

    The Energy Engineering Analysis Program for the three U. S. Military Subcommunities of Vilseck, Hohenfels and Vilseck in West Germany, has been authorized by the Department of the Army European Division, Corps of Engineers under Contract No. DACA9O-80-C-0093 dated September 29, 1980, and subsequent Modifications: P00001 dated April 27, 1981, P00002 dated September 29, 1981, and P00003 dated September 30, 1981. The objectives of this contract, as explained in detail in Schedule of Title I Services for Energy Engineering Analysis Program, Europe dated September 18, 1981, are as follows: (a) Develop a systematic plan of projects that will result in the reduction of energy consumption in compliance with the objectives set forth in the Army Facilities Energy Plan. (b) Use and incorporate applicable data and results of related studies, past and current, as feasible. (c) Develop a coordinated basewide energy study. (d) Prepare Program Development Brochures (PDB), DD Forms 1391, and supporting documentation for feasible energy conservation projects. (e) Include all methods of energy conservation which are practical (in so far as the state-of-the-art is reasonably firm) and economically feasible in accordance with guidance given. (f) List and prioritize all recommended energy conservation projects.

  19. Interventions to improve executive functioning and working memory in school-aged children with AD(HD: a randomised controlled trial and stepped-care approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Donk Marthe LA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficits in executive functioning are of great significance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. One of these executive functions, working memory, plays an important role in academic performance and is often seen as the core deficit of this disorder. There are indications that working memory problems and academic performance can be improved by school-oriented interventions but this has not yet been studied systematically. In this study we will determine the short- and long-term effects of a working memory - and an executive function training applied in a school situation for children with AD(HD, taking individual characteristics, the level of impairment and costs (stepped-care approach into account. Methods/design The study consists of two parts: the first part is a randomised controlled trial with school-aged children (8–12 yrs with AD(HD. Two groups (each n = 50 will be randomly assigned to a well studied computerized working memory training ‘Cogmed’, or to the ‘Paying attention in class’ intervention which is an experimental school-based executive function training. Children will be selected from regular -and special education primary schools in the region of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The second part of the study will determine which specific characteristics are related to non-response of the ‘Paying attention in class’ intervention. School-aged children (8–12 yrs with AD(HD will follow the experimental school-based executive function training ‘Paying attention in class’ (n = 175. Academic performance and neurocognitive functioning (primary outcomes are assessed before, directly after and 6 months after training. Secondary outcome measures are: behaviour in class, behaviour problems and quality of life. Discussion So far, there is limited but promising evidence that working memory – and other executive function interventions can improve academic performance. Little is know about the

  20. Interventions to improve executive functioning and working memory in school-aged children with AD(H)D: a randomised controlled trial and stepped-care approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Donk, Marthe L A; Hiemstra-Beernink, Anne-Claire; Tjeenk-Kalff, Ariane C; van der Leij, Aryan V; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2013-01-11

    Deficits in executive functioning are of great significance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One of these executive functions, working memory, plays an important role in academic performance and is often seen as the core deficit of this disorder. There are indications that working memory problems and academic performance can be improved by school-oriented interventions but this has not yet been studied systematically. In this study we will determine the short- and long-term effects of a working memory--and an executive function training applied in a school situation for children with AD(H)D, taking individual characteristics, the level of impairment and costs (stepped-care approach) into account. The study consists of two parts: the first part is a randomised controlled trial with school-aged children (8-12 yrs) with AD(H)D. Two groups (each n = 50) will be randomly assigned to a well studied computerized working memory training 'Cogmed', or to the 'Paying attention in class' intervention which is an experimental school-based executive function training. Children will be selected from regular -and special education primary schools in the region of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The second part of the study will determine which specific characteristics are related to non-response of the 'Paying attention in class' intervention. School-aged children (8-12 yrs) with AD(H)D will follow the experimental school-based executive function training 'Paying attention in class' (n = 175). Academic performance and neurocognitive functioning (primary outcomes) are assessed before, directly after and 6 months after training. Secondary outcome measures are: behaviour in class, behaviour problems and quality of life. So far, there is limited but promising evidence that working memory - and other executive function interventions can improve academic performance. Little is know about the applicability and generalization effects of these interventions in a classroom

  1. Event-Related Potentials in a Cued Go-NoGo Task Associated with Executive Functions in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder; A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. Høyland

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions are often affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The underlying biology is however not well known. In the DSM-5, ASD is characterized by difficulties in two domains: Social Interaction and Repetitive and Restricted Behavior, RRB. Insistence of Sameness is part of RRB and has been reported related to executive functions. We aimed to identify differences between ASD and typically developing (TD adolescents in Event Related Potentials (ERPs associated with response preparation, conflict monitoring and response inhibition using a cued Go-NoGo paradigm. We also studied the effect of age and emotional content of paradigm related to these ERPs. We investigated 49 individuals with ASD and 49 TD aged 12–21 years, split into two groups below (young and above (old 16 years of age. ASD characteristics were quantified by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ and executive functions were assessed with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, both parent-rated. Behavioral performance and ERPs were recorded during a cued visual Go-NoGo task which included neutral pictures (VCPT and pictures of emotional faces (ECPT. The amplitudes of ERPs associated with response preparation, conflict monitoring, and response inhibition were analyzed. The ASD group showed markedly higher scores than TD in both SCQ and BRIEF. Behavioral data showed no case-control differences in either the VCPT or ECPT in the whole group. While there were no significant case-control differences in ERPs from the combined VCPT and ECPT in the whole sample, the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV was significantly enhanced in the old ASD group (p = 0.017. When excluding ASD with comorbid ADHD we found a significantly increased N2 NoGo (p = 0.016 and N2-effect (p = 0.023 for the whole group. We found no case-control differences in the P3-components. Our findings suggest increased response preparation in adolescents with ASD older than 16 years and

  2. Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

  3. Pilot Mentorship Program for Tobacco Control Researchers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will do so by offering expanded capacity-building opportunities for tobacco control researchers through a parallel mentorship program. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) has identified an initial cadre of awardees who possess excellent tobacco control leadership potential. The idea is to enhance the ...

  4. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  5. Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism. Volume 1, Executive Summary, Addendum to 2011 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    nuclear, radiological, and fissile material detection, standoff detection technologies, and prototype systems. ·~ • Building space-based sensors...International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). • Strengthen other countries ’ export and border-security controls to detect and in- terdict the illicit...nuclear materials . • Aid partner countries in the cooperative development and adoption of best practices and baseline performance requirements that

  6. Flight School in the Virtual Environment: Capabilities and Risks of Executing a Simulations-Based Flight Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    such as assessing hazards, troubleshooting situations, prioritizing tasks, and assessing and responding to emergencies. Finally, psychomotor skills include...to focus predominately on developing psychomotor skills . Regardless, pilots rely heavily on cognitive skills such as problem solving, workload...aviators learn psychomotor skills by repetition when physically manipulating the flight controls, switches, and other aircraft systems.96 Learning

  7. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile; Jet Grouting. Control de parametros de ejecucion y de resultados. Campos de prueba-Experiencia en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-07-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  8. Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carls, D.R.

    1995-09-28

    Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it`s inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention

  9. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kilduff Liam P; Crewther Blair T; Cook Christian J; Drawer Scott; Gaviglio Chris M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We investigated the effects of sleep deprivation with or without acute supplementation of caffeine or creatine on the execution of a repeated rugby passing skill. Method Ten elite rugby players completed 10 trials on a simple rugby passing skill test (20 repeats per trial), following a period of familiarisation. The players had between 7-9 h sleep on 5 of these trials and between 3-5 h sleep (deprivation) on the other 5. At a time of 1.5 h before each trial, they undertook...

  10. Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Laus, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in hospital institutions regarding structure and process indicators. this is a descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study conducted in 2013. The study population comprised 13 Nosocomial Infection Control Programs of health services in a Brazilian city of the state of São Paulo. Public domain instruments available in the Manual of Evaluation Indicators of Nosocomial Infection Control Practices were used. The indicators with the highest average compliance were "Evaluation of the Structure of the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs" (75%) and "Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Nosocomial Infection" (82%) and those with the lowest mean compliance scores were "Evaluation of Operational Guidelines" (58.97%) and "Evaluation of Activities of Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection" (60.29%). The use of indicators identified that, despite having produced knowledge about prevention and control of nosocomial infections, there is still a large gap between the practice and the recommendations.

  11. The first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Howard K.; Judge, Christine M.; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K.; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of M...

  12. Programs for control of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Bittencourt, Laura Helena França de Barros; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2011-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause miscarriage and neurological and/or eye damage to the fetus. Since Austria and France established the prenatal screening, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis has declined from 50% to 35% and 84% to 44%, respectively. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, have educational practices to reduce the risk of infection in seronegative pregnant women. In Brazil, prenatal screening is carried out in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Minas Gerais and the cities of Curitiba and Porto Alegre. In Londrina, state of Parana, the "Health Surveillance Program for Toxoplasmosis Acquired during Pregnancy and Congenital Toxoplasmosis" was established, which is based on serological screening, advising on prevention measures and quarterly serological monitoring in pregnant women that are initially seronegative, in addition to the monitoring of pregnant women and children with acute infection and case notification. In the first four years of implementation, the program evaluation showed a 63% reduction in the number of pregnant women and 42% in the number of children referred to reference services, resulting in the opening of vacancies for the care of patients with other diseases. As for medications, there was a 62% reduction in consumption of folic acid and 67% of sulfadiazine. Moreover, the definition of the protocols resulted in the standardization of care and safety for the decision-making by physicians. Therefore, as there are several protocols individualized in various departments and regions, the establishment of an ideal, consensual conduct with technical support, will result in implementing measures that will certainly save public resources, with the decrease in congenital toxoplasmosis.

  13. Improving bovine udder health: a national mastitis control program in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J G M; van den Borne, B H P; Jansen, J; Huijps, K; van Veersen, J C L; van Schaik, G; Hogeveen, H

    2013-02-01

    Because of increasing bulk milk somatic cell counts and continuous clinical mastitis problems in a substantial number of herds, a national mastitis control program was started in 2005 to improve udder health in the Netherlands. The program started with founding the Dutch Udder Health Centre (UGCN), which had the task to coordinate the program. The program consisted of 2 parts: a research part and a knowledge-transfer part, which were integrated as much as possible. The knowledge-transfer part comprised 2 communication strategies: a central and a peripheral approach. The central approach was based on educating farmers using comprehensive science-based and rational argumentation about mastitis prevention and included on-farm study group meetings. Comprehensive education materials were developed for farmers that were internally motivated to improve udder health. In the peripheral approach it was tried to motivate farmers to implement certain management measures using nontechnical arguments. Mass media campaigns were used that focused on one single aspect of mastitis prevention. These communication strategies, as well as an integrated approach between various stakeholders and different scientific disciplines were used to reach as many farmers as possible. It should be noted that, because this intervention took place at a national level, no control group was available, as it would be impossible to isolate farmers from all forms of communication for 5 years. Based on several studies executed during and after the program, however, the results suggest that udder health seemed to have improved on a national level during the course of the program from 2005 to 2010. Within a cohort of dairy herds monitored during the program, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis did not change significantly (23.0 in 2004 vs. 22.2 in 2009). The incidence rate of clinical mastitis, however, decreased significantly, from 33.5 to 28.1 quarter cases per 100 cow years at risk. The most important

  14. A Formal Verification Methodology for DDD Mode Pacemaker Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Shuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacemakers are safety-critical devices whose faulty behaviors can cause harm or even death. Often these faulty behaviors are caused due to bugs in programs used for digital control of pacemakers. We present a formal verification methodology that can be used to check the correctness of object code programs that implement the safety-critical control functions of DDD mode pacemakers. Our methodology is based on the theory of Well-Founded Equivalence Bisimulation (WEB refinement, where both formal specifications and implementation are treated as transition systems. We develop a simple and general formal specification for DDD mode pacemakers. We also develop correctness proof obligations that can be applied to validate object code programs used for pacemaker control. Using our methodology, we were able to verify a control program with millions of transitions against the simple specification with only 10 transitions. Our method also found several bugs during the verification process.

  15. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Volume A-00-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirk, James

    2000-01-01

    ... at the Waterways Experiment Station. It is principally intended to be a forum whereby information pertaining to and resulting from the Corps of Engineers' nationwide Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP...

  16. Adipocyte lipid synthesis coupled to neuronal control of thermogenic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: These results demonstrate that downregulation of fatty acid synthesis via FASN depletion in white adipocytes of mature mice can stimulate neuronal signaling to control thermogenic programming in iWAT.

  17. Derivation of sequential, real-time, process-control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Budhiraja, Navin

    1991-01-01

    The use of weakest-precondition predicate transformers in the derivation of sequential, process-control software is discussed. Only one extension to Dijkstra's calculus for deriving ordinary sequential programs was found to be necessary: function-valued auxiliary variables. These auxiliary variables are needed for reasoning about states of a physical process that exists during program transitions.

  18. Food and Nutrition Services Quality Control Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt-Fraim, Teresa S.

    A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…

  19. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  20. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  1. Quality control program: the radiology technician approach

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Alexandra Soares Macedo; Vitor Manuel Costa Pereira Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Pretendeu-se averiguar que importância os técnicos de radiologia atribuem à implementação de um programa de controle de qualidade em radiologia, e conhecer a importância da existência de critérios de proteção. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo e transversal. Os dados foram recolhidos por meio de um questionário (quatro partes), tendo sido garantido o anonimato e a confidencialidade dos dados. Participaram neste estudo 48 técnicos de radiologia que exercem funções em instituiçõe...

  2. Gener: a minimal programming module for chemical controllers based on DNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahramanoğulları, Ozan; Cardelli, Luca

    2015-09-01

    : Gener is a development module for programming chemical controllers based on DNA strand displacement. Gener is developed with the aim of providing a simple interface that minimizes the opportunities for programming errors: Gener allows the user to test the computations of the DNA programs based on a simple two-domain strand displacement algebra, the minimal available so far. The tool allows the user to perform stepwise computations with respect to the rules of the algebra as well as exhaustive search of the computation space with different options for exploration and visualization. Gener can be used in combination with existing tools, and in particular, its programs can be exported to Microsoft Research's DSD tool as well as to LaTeX. Gener is available for download at the Cosbi website at http://www.cosbi.eu/research/prototypes/gener as a windows executable that can be run on Mac OS X and Linux by using Mono. ozan@cosbi.eu. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Why do people fail to turn good intentions into action? The role of executive control processes in the translation of healthy eating intentions into action in young Scottish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Julia L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant health benefits associated with eating healthily, diet is extremely difficult to change, with the majority of people who intend to eat more healthily failing to do so. Recent evidence has suggested that the ability to turn intentions into actions may be related to individual differences in one facet of executive control – cognitive inhibition (i.e. the ability to inhibit irrelevant information and suppress prepotent responses. The present study investigates the role of this and other executive processes (inhibition, task switching, planning and cognitive flexibility in the translation of dietary intentions into action. In addition, as the literature suggests that weak executive control may be associated with hyper-responsivity to cues to action, the role of executive processes in susceptibility to environmental food cues and responses to If-Then plans designed to cue intended behaviour are investigated. Methods Future intentions about consumption of fruits and vegetables and snack foods will be measured in a sample of young adults. Actual consumption of the target foods will be recorded with computerised diaries over a subsequent 3-day period. Performance on a battery of established executive control tasks (Go-NoGo, Tower task, Verbal Fluency task and Trail-Making will be used to predict the discrepancy between intended and actual dietary behaviour. In addition, executive control scores will be used to predict reported susceptibility to environmental food cues and benefit derived from the use of 'If-Then plans' designed to cue intended behaviour. Discussion Our findings will add to understanding about the role of executive control in translating intentions into actions and may demonstrate potential for future public health interventions. If participants with weak executive control are found to be less likely to eat as they intend than those with strong executive control, then interventions that

  4. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Backlund; Anthony Janetos; David Schimel; J. Hatfield; M. Ryan; S. Archer; D. Lettenmaier

    2008-01-01

    This report is an assessment of the effects of climate change on U.S. land resources, water resources, agriculture, and biodiversity. It is one of a series of 21 Synthesis and Assessment Products being produced under the auspices of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), which coordinates the climate change research activities of U.S. government agencies. The...

  5. The first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Howard K; Judge, Christine M; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of MTCP in the current climate of national and state fiscal crises. The first decade of the MTCP offers many lessons learned for the future of tobacco control.

  6. ADAMS executive and operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The ADAMS Executive and Operating System, a multitasking environment under which a variety of data reduction, display and utility programs are executed, a system which provides a high level of isolation between programs allowing them to be developed and modified independently, is described. The Airborne Data Analysis/Monitor System (ADAMS) was developed to provide a real time data monitoring and analysis capability onboard Boeing commercial airplanes during flight testing. It inputs sensor data from an airplane performance data by applying transforms to the collected sensor data, and presents this data to test personnel via various display media. Current utilization and future development are addressed.

  7. A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. Kahende

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die of smoking-related diseases in the United States. Cigarette smoking results in more than $193 billion in medical costs and productivity losses annually.In an effort to reduce this burden, many states, the federal government, and several national organizations fund tobacco control programs and policies. For this report we reviewed existing literature on economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions. We found that smoking cessation therapies, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and self-help are most commonly studied. There are far fewer studies on other important interventions, such as price and tax increases, media campaigns, smoke free air laws and workplace smoking interventions, quitlines, youth access enforcement, school-based programs, and community-based programs. Although there are obvious gaps in the literature, the existing studies show in almost every case that tobacco control programs and policies are either cost-saving or highly cost-effective.

  8. Programming the execution of drillings for capturing ground water for use in supplying drinking water to urban areas as a planning tool (a case study of the PERT method); Programacion en la ejecucion de sondeos para la captacion de aguas subterraneas destinadas al abastecimiento de agua potable en nucleos urbanos como herramienta de planificacion (caso practio real : metodo PERT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Marquez, F. J.

    2005-07-01

    A great number of soundings of under ground water pick up for supplying to urban nuclei presents/displays serious deficiencies, as much in their constructive initial phase like later an their operation, since many of the facilities badly are determine the proportions and, consequently, originate very low yields in quality and/or amount of the extracted water. In this article one sets out, to the companies and the technicians in charge to write up and to carry out projects of execution of soundings, the application of a methodology based on an elaboration technique and control of performance programs, as effective and necessary tool for the adjustment at any moment of each one of the operations implied in the execution of the sounding, obtaining itself thus, from this initial phase, an suitable construction of the sounding. This methodology is exposed by means of its practical application in a sounding made in the province of Jaen. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Environmental control program creates nature habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharitz, K.N.

    1996-09-01

    Environmental control efforts at a chemical company`s Santa Rosa plant in Milton, Fla., have turned the grounds surrounding the plant into a refuge for wildlife, a home for nature lovers and a laboratory for the University of Florida. The Santa Rosa facility, situated on 2,200 acres of forest lands, produces acrylic fiber. The plant opened in 1958 and its initial wastewater treatment system consisted of a primary treatment lagoon and direct discharge into Escambia Bay, which borders the property. Additional lagoons were added in 1966 and 1977. In 1958, both primary treated domestic and industrial wastewater were discharged into the Bay. As the area`s population grew, the Pensacola Bay system became overloaded, and undesirable levels of carbonaceous, nitrogenous, oxygen-demanding compounds were detected in the Bay. To reduce these materials from the plant`s discharge, wastewaters were characterized and treatment and disposal systems designed and piloted. Strong and weak wastewater streams, each with its own treatment and disposal method, were isolated in 1975. With the new systems in place, discharge quality for five-day biochemical demand, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, cyanide and orthophosphate achieved the average monthly permitted limitations in pounds per day.

  10. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  11. [Life style and metabolic control in DiabetIMSS program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Suárez, María Eugenia; Cruz-Toledo, Jairo Enoc; Ortiz-Aguirre, Alma Rosa; Lagunes-Espinosa, Alma Luisa; Jiménez-Luna, Jorge; Rodríguez-Moctezuma, José Raymundo

    2014-01-01

    To compare the lifestyle and metabolic control of diabetes patients included and not included in the DiabetIMSS program. Subjects with diabetes in the DiabetIMSS program and the general clinic were divided into three groups: group 1 first attended the program, group 2 were enrolled during the study, and group 3 had not been included the program. Demographic and clinical aspects were measured and the IMEVID instrument was applied. We included 539 type-2 diabetes patients, predominantly females (73.3%), mainly of primary school level, and more frequently on double-drug therapy. There were clinical differences between the three groups for program leavers in terms of weight, waist, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, and IMEVID qualification, all p DiabetIMSS program.

  12. Purwarupa Sistem Kontrol Elevator Berbasis Programable Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathahillah Fathahillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods / types of controls developed in accordance with industry needs one of them in the field of building automation system. One of the controls in the field of building automation system is the elevator control system (elevator. Early elevator control systems that transport humans or goods as vertical transportation vehicles are still conventional using human power, then evolved using steam engines, until now the elevators use AC motors equipped with control systems. The purpose of this research is to design the prototype of elevator control system using programmable logic control (PLC. The type of PLC controller used in the study using Omron PLC. The results show the design of prototype of elevator control system using PLC successfully and can control eleveator in accordance with its function, besides its programming form can be more simple.

  13. Evaluation of the Navy Plaque Control Program, at Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    I 0 Individual clinicians who practice plaque control with their patients receive great reward and sense of accomplishment when dental caries is...Navy Dental Corps (43). The program requirements included plaque control instruction given through individual or small group sessions. The sessions... plaque removal techniques; demonstration of sulcular methods of tooth cleansing with the toothbrush ; and instruction in the use of plaque disclosing

  14. Programming Real-Time Motion Control Robot Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Medina-Santiago

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This item presents the real-time programming of a prototype robot to control its movement from one moment to another without showing response delays. Contributing to this is the communication protocol developed in our laboratories and feasibility of being implemented in the future with wireless control via radio frequency, and to present the progress to date have been obtained.

  15. Cognitive intervention through a training program for picture book reading in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kuraoka, Masataka; Yasunaga, Masashi; Nonaka, Kumiko; Sakurai, Ryota; Takeuchi, Rumi; Murayama, Yoh; Ohba, Hiromi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2014-11-21

    Non-pharmacological interventions are expected to be important strategies for reducing the age-adjusted prevalence of senile dementia, considering that complete medical treatment for cognitive decline has not yet been developed. From the viewpoint of long-term continuity of activity, it is necessary to develop various cognitive stimulating programs. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive intervention through a training program for picture book reading for community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-eight Japanese older participants were divided into the intervention and control groups using simple randomization (n =29 vs 29). In the intervention group, participants took part in a program aimed at learning and mastering methods of picture book reading as a form of cognitive training intervention. The control group listened to lectures about elderly health maintenance. Cognitive tests were conducted individually before and after the programs. The rate of memory retention, computed by dividing Logical Memory delayed recall by immediate recall, showed a significant interaction (p < .05) in analysis of covariance. Simple main effects showed that the rate of memory retention of the intervention group improved after the program completion (p < .05). In the participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) examined by Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) (n =14 vs 15), significant interactions were seen in Trail Making Test-A (p < .01), Trail Making Test-B (p < .05), Kana pick-out test (p < .05) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (p < .05). The intervention effect was found in delayed verbal memory. This program is also effective for improving attention and executive function in those with MCI. The short-term interventional findings suggest that this program might contribute to preventing a decline in memory and executive function. UMIN000014712 (Date of ICMJE and WHO compliant trial information

  16. Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control Algorithms and Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Huaguang; Luo, Yanhong; Wang, Ding

    2013-01-01

    There are many methods of stable controller design for nonlinear systems. In seeking to go beyond the minimum requirement of stability, Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control approaches the challenging topic of optimal control for nonlinear systems using the tools of  adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). The range of systems treated is extensive; affine, switched, singularly perturbed and time-delay nonlinear systems are discussed as are the uses of neural networks and techniques of value and policy iteration. The text features three main aspects of ADP in which the methods proposed for stabilization and for tracking and games benefit from the incorporation of optimal control methods: • infinite-horizon control for which the difficulty of solving partial differential Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations directly is overcome, and  proof provided that the iterative value function updating sequence converges to the infimum of all the value functions obtained by admissible control law sequences; • finite-...

  17. [Costa Rica: control program of sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, O; Blum, E; Freer, E

    1979-02-01

    Programming activities for the control of venereal diseases implies certain difficulties in Latin American countries owing to the lack of basic information and resources. It is perhaps for this reason that such programs have so far failed to achieve an adequate epidemiological impact. In late 1975, a new program was set up in Costa Rica with the following objectives: 1) reducing the incidence of venereal diseases; 2) detecting cases at an early stage in order to begin treatment; 3) developing a far-reaching hygiene education program; 4) establishing appropriate epidemiological surveillance machinery, including border-area programs; 5) integrating control activities with the general health services; 6) training personnel; and 7) carrying out research. Among the activities planned for the attainment of the aforementioned objectives was the detection of cases by means of voluntary presentation; surveillance of contacts; serological testing of pregnant women, blood donors, and applicants for health care identity cards, and other types of examination. Outpatient treatment was planned for all cases detected. Where epidemiological surveillance was concerned, it was proposed that improvements be made in morbidity report procedures, data analysis, and border-area programs. Plans were also made for integrating control activities into the basic health services and for reviewing the existing legislation with a view to expediting the implementation of the program. Steps taken to that end included the establishment of a more effective coordination of such activities with the Costa Rican Social Security Institute, an entity which attends the health needs of 80% of the population; a follow-up program for cases detected in the hospitals included in the program, and preparation of a flow diagram to be used for that purpose by such institutions. Other aspects considered were the distribution of treatment manuals, and information on epidemiological interview methods and laboratory

  18. A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-06-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200 mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (p<0.001). Gabapentin was also associated with significantly greater improvement in overall performance on tests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal.

  19. Applied Research of Enterprise Cost Control Based on Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This paper researches the enterprise cost control through the linear programming model, and analyzes the restriction factors of the labor of enterprise production, raw materials, processing equipment, sales price, and other factors affecting the enterprise income, so as to obtain an enterprise cost control model based on the linear programming. This model can calculate rational production mode in the case of limited resources, and acquire optimal enterprise income. The production guiding program and scheduling arrangement of the enterprise can be obtained through calculation results, so as to provide scientific and effective guidance for the enterprise production. This paper adds the sensitivity analysis in the linear programming model, so as to learn about the stability of the enterprise cost control model based on linear programming through the sensitivity analysis, and verify the rationality of the model, and indicate the direction for the enterprise cost control. The calculation results of the model can provide a certain reference for the enterprise planning in the market economy environment, which have strong reference and practical significance in terms of the enterprise cost control.

  20. Coordinating the activities of a planner and an execution agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Austin

    1989-01-01

    A research program was defined that will explore the link between planning and execution systems. A simple scenario was defined in which a very capable off-line planning system interacts with the user and a smaller, less capable, on-line real-time system executing plans and reacting to faults. However, the on-line execution system may have a more flexible representation of the plans it is executing. This imbalance in the capabilities of the two agents involved should clarify some of the research objectives and give an experimental framework for the work. The task is to investigate the knowledge representations and communication protocols needed to link a user stating some requirements for a task to be carried out through a planning system to the (remote) execution agent that can carry out the user's wishes. The notion that a single representation can encapsulate the expression of the user's requirements, the capabilities for action, the communication to the execution agent, the successful or faulty response from the execution agent and the means of keeping the user informed, is examined. Methods of creating plan patches to update the plans separately held by each of the parties involved to keep them in step as they each react to changing circumstances in real-time is investigated. This involves the specification of plan patch attachment points that can be understood by the recipient. Transaction based methods are also investigated for coordinating the activities of the planner with those of the execution agent and user. The trial application area for the research is in the command and control of an advanced Earth Observation Space Platform.

  1. Conclusions about interventions, programs, and approaches for improving executive functions that appear justified and those that, despite much hype, do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Adele; Ling, Daphne S

    2016-04-01

    The 'Executive Functions' (EFs) of inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility enable us to think before we act, resist temptations or impulsive reactions, stay focused, reason, problem-solve, flexibly adjust to changed demands or priorities, and see things from new and different perspectives. These skills are critical for success in all life's aspects and are sometimes more predictive than even IQ or socioeconomic status. Understandably, there is great interest in improving EFs. It's now clear they can be improved at any age through training and practice, much as physical exercise hones physical fitness. However, despite claims to the contrary, wide transfer does not seem to occur and 'mindless' aerobic exercise does little to improve EFs. Important questions remain: How much can EFs be improved (are benefits only superficial) and how long can benefits be sustained? What are the best methods for improving EFs? What about an approach accounts for its success? Do the answers to these differ by individual characteristics such as age or gender? Since stress, sadness, loneliness, or poor health impair EFs, and the reverse enhances EFs, we predict that besides directly train EFs, the most successful approaches for improving EFs will also address emotional, social, and physical needs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilduff Liam P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of sleep deprivation with or without acute supplementation of caffeine or creatine on the execution of a repeated rugby passing skill. Method Ten elite rugby players completed 10 trials on a simple rugby passing skill test (20 repeats per trial, following a period of familiarisation. The players had between 7-9 h sleep on 5 of these trials and between 3-5 h sleep (deprivation on the other 5. At a time of 1.5 h before each trial, they undertook administration of either: placebo tablets, 50 or 100 mg/kg creatine, 1 or 5 mg/kg caffeine. Saliva was collected before each trial and assayed for salivary free cortisol and testosterone. Results Sleep deprivation with placebo application resulted in a significant fall in skill performance accuracy on both the dominant and non-dominant passing sides (p Conclusion Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.

  3. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gonçalves Dutra de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects.METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons.RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases.CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts – external and political-organizational dimensions – simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons.

  4. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luisa Gonçalves Dutra; Natal, Sonia; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects.METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons.RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases.CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts - external and political-organizational dimensions - simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Linear Programming and Quadratic Programming Algorithms for Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc; Acosta, Diana M.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation (NextGen) transport aircraft configurations being investigated as part of the NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project have more control surfaces, or control effectors, than existing transport aircraft configurations. Conventional flight control is achieved through two symmetric elevators, two antisymmetric ailerons, and a rudder. The five effectors, reduced to three command variables, produce moments along the three main axes of the aircraft and enable the pilot to control the attitude and flight path of the aircraft. The NextGen aircraft will have additional redundant control effectors to control the three moments, creating a situation where the aircraft is over-actuated and where a simple relationship does not exist anymore between the required effector deflections and the desired moments. NextGen flight controllers will incorporate control allocation algorithms to determine the optimal effector commands and attain the desired moments, taking into account the effector limits. Approaches to solving the problem using linear programming and quadratic programming algorithms have been proposed and tested. It is of great interest to understand their relative advantages and disadvantages and how design parameters may affect their properties. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the effector commands with respect to the desired moments and show on some examples that the solutions provided using the l2 norm of quadratic programming are less sensitive than those using the l1 norm of linear programming.

  6. 76 FR 11313 - Designation of Two Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13553

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Designation of Two Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13553 AGENCY... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the names of two individuals newly-designated as persons... individuals are already blocked pursuant to another OFAC sanctions program. DATES: The designation by the...

  7. A Study and Analysis of the Attitudes and Perceptions of Marketing Executives and Training Managers Toward Public Two-Year College Marketing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, John C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the skills and knowledge that two groups of employers, marketing executives and training managers, felt two-year college marketing graduates should possess for initial employment. (Author/CT)

  8. Delay of gratification and executive performance in individuals with schizophrenia: putative role for eating behavior and body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle-Veentjer, Silja; Huth, Verena; Ferstl, Roman; Aldenhoff, Josef Bernd; Hinze-Selch, Dunja

    2008-01-01

    Impairment in executive functions and disturbed weight regulation are common features in individuals with schizophrenia on antipsychotics. Still, the clinical management of weight gain, including educational programs, is insufficient. Therefore, we hypothesized that distinct executive impairment is associated with the inability to self-control food intake. In the present study we investigated the performance in a paradigm analyzing the executive subfunction "delay of gratification" in individuals with schizophrenia (n=29) compared with controls (n=23) and the interrelationship between delay of gratification, overall executive functioning, reported eating behavior and the BMI. We applied a board-game paradigm to operationalize delay of gratification: on designated fields individuals need to decide about a small amount of immediate reinforcement versus double the amount in the end. Appetite and eating behavior were assessed by self-report scales, executive functioning by BADS. We found that the patients performed significantly worse in our paradigm and that this is associated with lower executive functioning. However, the interrelationship between all parameters is complex: there is a significant positive correlation between the reported perceived appetite and executive functioning whereas the reported restrained eating behavior, significantly more frequent in patients, is correlated with low executive functioning and high disinhibition in eating situations. We conclude that executive functions are necessary to successfully manage eating behavior. Thus, better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms might help to support the patients more efficiently in their tough job to keep control.

  9. Promoting Corporate Enterprise: Marketing the Executive MBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Doris C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    More than 100 Executive Masters of Business Administration programs exist, and new ones are being developed. How these programs operate and where they fit in with the growth in business education are discussed. Program practices, screening applications, promotion, programs structure, understanding market changes, and providing a quality faculty…

  10. NIPER Lab WARDEN -- Description and LabVIEW{reg_sign} executable code of a general-purpose laboratory-automation program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, S.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1994-04-01

    This report is Volume 1 (the description) of a two volume series that describes a general purpose, automation computer program developed by NIPER for data acquisition/control/analysis/presentation. This software was developed to provide interactive computer control of a variety of instruments typically found in laboratories and pilot plants in order to improve efficiency in operation and safe handling of potentially hazardous operations. For example, it is easily adaptable for operating a laboratory that conducts experiments at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature, such as those found in a steamflooding laboratory. The software was developed in an object-oriented graphical language around National Instruments` LabVIEW{reg_sign} which is the future trend in automation programming.

  11. Aging Ebbs the Flow of Thought: Adult Age Differences in Mind Wandering, Executive Control, and Self-Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Meier, Matthew E.; Touron, Dayna R.; Kane, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among adult aging, mind wandering, and executive-task performance, following from surprising laboratory findings that older adults report fewer task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) than do younger adults (e.g., Giambra, 1989; Jackson & Balota, 2011). Because older adults may experience more ability- and performance-related worry during cognitive tasks in the laboratory, and because these evaluative thoughts (known as task-related interference, “TRI”) might be sometimes misclassified by subjects as task-related, we asked subjects to distinguish task-related thoughts from TRI and TUTs when probed during ongoing tasks. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed either a go/no-go or a vigilance version of a sustained attention to response task (SART). Older adults reported more TRI and fewer TUTs than did younger adults while also performing more accurately. In Experiment 2, subjects completed either a 1- or 2-back version of the n-back task. Older adults again reported more TRI and fewer TUTs than younger adults in both versions, while performing better than younger adults in the 1-back and worse in the 2-back. Across experiments, older adults’ reduced TUT rates were independent of performance relative to younger adults. And, although older adults consistently reported more TRI and less mind wandering than did younger adults, overall they reported more on-task thoughts. TRI cannot, therefore, account completely for prior reports of decreasing TUTs with aging. We discuss the implications of these results for various theoretical approaches to mind-wandering. PMID:23261422

  12. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott; Gaviglio, Chris M

    2011-02-16

    We investigated the effects of sleep deprivation with or without acute supplementation of caffeine or creatine on the execution of a repeated rugby passing skill. Ten elite rugby players completed 10 trials on a simple rugby passing skill test (20 repeats per trial), following a period of familiarisation. The players had between 7-9 h sleep on 5 of these trials and between 3-5 h sleep (deprivation) on the other 5. At a time of 1.5 h before each trial, they undertook administration of either: placebo tablets, 50 or 100 mg/kg creatine, 1 or 5 mg/kg caffeine. Saliva was collected before each trial and assayed for salivary free cortisol and testosterone. Sleep deprivation with placebo application resulted in a significant fall in skill performance accuracy on both the dominant and non-dominant passing sides (p sleep deprivation, but trended higher with the 100 mg/kg creatine dose, compared to the placebo treatment (p = 0.067). Salivary cortisol was elevated (p = 0.001) with the 5 mg/kg dose of caffeine (vs. placebo). Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.

  13. Aging ebbs the flow of thought: adult age differences in mind wandering, executive control, and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C; Meier, Matthew E; Touron, Dayna R; Kane, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among adult aging, mind wandering, and executive-task performance, following from surprising laboratory findings that older adults report fewer task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) than do younger adults (e.g., Giambra, 1989; Jackson & Balota, 2012). Because older adults may experience more ability- and performance-related worry during cognitive tasks in the laboratory, and because these evaluative thoughts (known as task-related interference, "TRI") might be sometimes misclassified by subjects as task-related, we asked subjects to distinguish task-related thoughts from TRI and TUTs when probed during ongoing tasks. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed either a go/no-go or a vigilance version of a sustained attention to response task (SART). Older adults reported more TRI and fewer TUTs than did younger adults while also performing more accurately. In Experiment 2, subjects completed either a 1- or a 2-back version of the n-back task. Older adults again reported more TRI and fewer TUTs than younger adults in both versions, while performing better than younger adults in the 1-back and worse in the 2-back. Across experiments, older adults' reduced TUT rates were independent of performance relative to younger adults. And, although older adults consistently reported more TRI and less mind wandering than did younger adults, overall they reported more on-task thoughts. TRI cannot, therefore, account completely for prior reports of decreasing TUTs with aging. We discuss the implications of these results for various theoretical approaches to mind-wandering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The health Oriented pedagogical project (HOPP - a controlled longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Morten Fredriksen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. Methods The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545 with two control schools (n = 752; all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL, mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. Discussion HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. Trial registration The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 as of June 20th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.

  15. Commentary: What's in a word (or words) - on the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology - reflections on Nigg (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    In Nigg's excellent article, he deals with a variety of complex conceptual issues related to the constructs of self-regulation and executive functioning (EF). Overall, I agree that the terminology proposed by Nigg should be adopted; moreover, the conceptual distinctions he provides should help the field to move forward with regard to the understanding of varied constructs related to self-regulation. In the spirit of further clarification, I questioned Nigg's suggestions that (a) working memory should be considered as part of the construct of top-down regulation and (b) planning is a higher level component of EF but not part of effortful control. In addition, I discussed my perspective on the role of automaticity in defining top-down versus bottom-up self-regulatory processes and the role of flexibility in top-down self-regulatory processes and their relation to personality resiliency. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Approximate Dynamic Programming in Tracking Control of a Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the implementation of an approximate dynamic programming algorithm in the discrete tracking control system of the three-degrees of freedom Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator. The controlled system is included in an articulated robots group which uses rotary joints to access their work space. The main part of the control system is a dual heuristic dynamic programming algorithm that consists of two structures designed in the form of neural networks: an actor and a critic. The actor generates the suboptimal control law while the critic approximates the difference of the value function from Bellman's equation with respect to the state. The residual elements of the control system are the PD controller, the supervisory term and an additional control signal. The structure of the supervisory term derives from the stability analysis performed using the Lyapunov stability theorem. The control system works online, the neural networks' weights-adaptation procedure is performed in every iteration step, and the neural networks' preliminary learning process is not required. The performance of the control system was verified by a series of computer simulations and experiments performed using the Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator.

  17. Validation of a proposal for evaluating hospital infection control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2011-02-01

    To validate the construct and discriminant properties of a hospital infection prevention and control program. The program consisted of four indicators: technical-operational structure; operational prevention and control guidelines; epidemiological surveillance system; and prevention and control activities. These indicators, with previously validated content, were applied to 50 healthcare institutions in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the hospitals and indicator scores, and Cronbach's α coefficient was used to evaluate the internal consistency. The discriminant validity was analyzed by comparing indicator scores between groups of hospitals: with versus without quality certification. The construct validity analysis was based on exploratory factor analysis with a tetrachoric correlation matrix. The indicators for the technical-operational structure and epidemiological surveillance presented almost 100% conformity in the whole sample. The indicators for the operational prevention and control guidelines and the prevention and control activities presented internal consistency ranging from 0.67 to 0.80. The discriminant validity of these indicators indicated higher and statistically significant mean conformity scores among the group of institutions with healthcare certification or accreditation processes. In the construct validation, two dimensions were identified for the operational prevention and control guidelines: recommendations for preventing hospital infection and recommendations for standardizing prophylaxis procedures, with good correlation between the analysis units that formed the guidelines. The same was found for the prevention and control activities: interfaces with treatment units and support units were identified. Validation of the measurement properties of the hospital infection prevention and control program indicators made it possible to develop a tool for evaluating these programs

  18. External quality control program: Experience in the department of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To share experiences and lessons learned from 2002 National External Quality Assessment Schemes for Leukocyte Immunophenotyping (UK NEQAS) and College of American Pathologists (CAP) proficiency testing (PT) panels received and tested as part of External Quality Control Program Setting: Department ...

  19. Slim Chance: A Weight Control Program for the Learning Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotatori, Anthony J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A school-based diet program for learning disabled children stresses modifying eating behavior by learning alternative ways of interacting with the environment. Techniques stress the importance of self regulation, strategies for self monitoring, the establishment of realistic weight goals, use of stimulus control procedures, increased physical…

  20. Evaluation of resources for an interactive infection control instructional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Kandis V

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate educational resources used in developing and implementing an interactive infection control instructional program for first year (n=26) and second year (n=26) dental hygiene students in a baccalaureate program. An educator's toolkit was used to develop online and interactive learning modalities for teaching infection control content. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate responses on a post instruction opinion survey on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Following the instructional program, most students reported on an opinion survey that they understood infection control principles (92% first year, 100% second year), felt prepared to work safely in clinic (96% first year, 100% second year) and liked working at their own pace (88% first year, 100% second year). First year students valued the online learning components and were less favorable toward supplemental textbook readings and the limited time to complete all 10 modules. Most second year students valued the interactive workshop but did not take the time to complete the online videos and did not watch all of them. Seventy-nine percent of second year students (n=20) preferred the interactive workshop method over traditional lecture instruction completed during their first year. This paper describes 1 institution's process of developing and implementing an infection control instructional program utilizing an educator's toolkit.

  1. A RCT Comparing Daily Mindfulness Meditations, Biofeedback Exercises, and Daily Physical Exercise on Attention Control, Executive Functioning, Mindful Awareness, Self-Compassion, and Worrying in Stressed Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Esther I; van der Zwan, J Esi; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Our Western society is characterized by multitasking, competition, and constant time pressure. Negative effects of stress for the individual (anxiety, depression, somatic complaints) and for organizations and society (costs due to work absence) are very high. Thus, time-efficient self-help interventions to address these issues are necessary. This study assessed the effects of daily mindfulness meditations (MM) versus daily heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) and daily physical exercise (PE) on attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying. Young adults (n = 75, age range 18 to 40) with elevated stress levels were randomized to MM, HRV-BF, or PE, and measurements were taken at pre-test, post-test, and follow-up. Interventions in all three groups were self-guided and lasted for 5 weeks. Generalized estimating equation analyses showed that overall, all three interventions were effective and did not differ from each other. However, practice time differed between groups, with participants in the PE group practicing much more than participants in the other two groups. Therefore, additional analyses were carried out in two subsamples. The optimal dose sample included only those participants who practiced for at least 70 % of the total prescribed time. In the equal dose sample, home practice intensity was equal for all three groups. Again, the effects of the three interventions did not differ. In conclusion, MM, HRV-BF, and PE are all effective self-help methods to improve attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying, and mindfulness meditation was not found to be more effective than HRV-biofeedback or physical exercise for these cognitive processes.

  2. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.

  3. Investigating the role of executive attentional control to self-harm in a non-clinical cohort with borderline personality features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Jennifer; Bowles, David P.; Barker, Lynne Ann

    2014-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (or self-harm) is a frequently reported maladaptive behavior in the general population and a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Poor affect regulation is strongly linked to a propensity to self-harm, is a core component of BPD, and is linked with reduced attentional control abilities. The idea that attentional control difficulties may provide a link between BPD, negative affect and self-harm has yet to be established, however. The present study explored the putative relationship between levels of BPD features, three aspects of attentional/executive control, affect, and self-harm history in a sample of 340 non-clinical participants recruited online from self-harm forums and social networking sites. Analyses showed that self-reported levels of BPD features and attentional focusing predicted self-harm incidence, and high attentional focusing increased the likelihood of a prior self-harm history in those with high BPD features. Ability to shift attention was associated with a reduced likelihood of self-harm, suggesting that good attentional switching ability may provide a protective buffer against self-harm behavior for some individuals. These attentional control differences mediated the association between negative affect and self-harm, but the relationship between BPD and self-harm appears independent. PMID:25191235

  4. Investigating the role of executive attentional control to self-harm in a non-clinical cohort with borderline personality features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eDrabble

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-injurious behavior (or self-harm is a frequently reported maladaptive behavior in the general population and a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Poor affect regulation is strongly linked to a propensity to self-harm, is a core component of BPD, and is linked with reduced attentional control abilities. The idea that attentional control difficulties may provide a link between BPD, negative affect and self-harm has yet to be established, however. The present study explored the putative relationship between levels of BPD features, three aspects of attentional/executive control, affect, and self-harm history in a sample of 340 non-clinical participants recruited online from self-harm forums and social networking sites. Analyses showed that self-reported levels of BPD features and attentional focusing predicted self-harm incidence, and high attentional focusing increased the likelihood of a prior self-harm history in those with high BPD features. Ability to shift attention was associated with a reduced likelihood of self-harm, suggesting that good attentional switching ability may provide a protective buffer against self-harm behavior for some individuals. These attentional control differences mediated the association between negative affect and self-harm, but the relationship between BPD and self-harm appears independent.

  5. A 12-Week Physical and Cognitive Exercise Program Can Improve Cognitive Function and Neural Efficiency in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Tanigawa, Takanori; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Aoyama, Tomoki; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether a 12-week physical and cognitive exercise program can improve cognitive function and brain activation efficiency in community-dwelling older adults. Randomized controlled trial. Kyoto, Japan. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 48) were randomized into an exercise group (n = 24) and a control group (n = 24). Exercise group participants received a weekly dual task-based multimodal exercise class in combination with pedometer-based daily walking exercise during the 12-week intervention phase. Control group participants did not receive any intervention and were instructed to spend their time as usual during the intervention phase. The outcome measures were global cognitive function, memory function, executive function, and brain activation (measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging) associated with visual short-term memory. Exercise group participants had significantly greater postintervention improvement in memory and executive functions than the control group (P brain regions associated with visual short-term memory, including the prefrontal cortex, in the exercise group (P physical and cognitive exercise program can improve the efficiency of brain activation during cognitive tasks in older adults, which is associated with improvements in memory and executive function. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Sand Fly Surveillance and Control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as Part of a Leishmaniasis Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Vol. 38, no. 2 Journal of Vector Ecology 411 Scientific Note Sand fly surveillance and control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as part of a leishmaniasis ...following the 2003 invasion experienced serious risk of infection by several vector-borne pathogens, specifically cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis ...as part of a leishmaniasis control program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  7. Evaluating the Maturity of Cybersecurity Programs for Building Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Mylrea, Michael E.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-08-29

    The cyber-physical security threat to buildings is complex, non-linear, and rapidly evolving as operational and information technologies converge and connect buildings to cyberspace. Cyberattacks on buildings can exploit smart building controls and breach corporate networks, causing financial and reputational damage. This may result in the loss of sensitive building information or the disruption of, or damage to, the systems necessary for the safe and efficient operation of buildings. For the buildings and facility infrastructure, there is a need for a robust national cybersecurity strategy for buildings, guidance on the selection and implementation of appropriate cybersecurity controls for buildings, an approach to evaluate the maturity and adequacy of the cybersecurity programs. To provide an approach for evaluating the maturity of the cybersecurity programs for building control systems, the US Department of Energy’s widely used Cybersecurity Capability and Maturity Model (C2M2) has been adapted into a building control systems version. The revised model, the Buildings-C2M2 (B-C2M2) provides maturity level indicators for cybersecurity programmatic domains. A “B-C2M2 Lite” version allows facility managers and building control system engineers, or information technology personnel to perform rapid self-assessments of their cybersecurity program. Both tools have been pilot tested on several facilities. This paper outlines the concept of a maturity model, describes the B-C2M2 tools, presents results and observations from the pilot assessments, and lays out plans for future work.

  8. Executive functioning and dietary intake: Neurocognitive correlates of fruit, vegetable, and saturated fat intake in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Emily P; Evans, Brittney C; Manasse, Stephanie M; Butryn, Meghan L; Forman, Evan M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue, and is associated with poor diet. Evidence suggests that eating behavior is related to individual differences in executive functioning. Poor executive functioning is associated with poorer diet (few fruits and vegetables and high saturated fat) in normal weight samples; however, the relationship between these specific dietary behaviors and executive functioning have not been investigated in adults with obesity. The current study examined the association between executive functioning and intake of saturated fat, fruits, and vegetables in an overweight/obese sample using behavioral measures of executive function and dietary recall. One-hundred-ninety overweight and obese adults completed neuropsychological assessments measuring intelligence, planning ability, and inhibitory control followed by three dietary recall assessments within a month prior to beginning a behavioral weight loss treatment program. Inhibitory control and two of the three indices of planning each independently significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption such that those with better inhibition and planning ability consumed more fruits and vegetables. No relationship was found between executive functioning and saturated fat intake. Results increase understanding of how executive functioning influences eating behavior in overweight and obese adults, and suggest the importance of including executive functioning training components in dietary interventions for those with obesity. Further research is needed to determine causality as diet and executive functioning may bidirectionally influence each other. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental control of a fluidic pinball using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibaudo, Cedric; Zhong, Peng; Noack, Bernd R.; Martinuzzi, Robert J.

    2017-11-01

    The wake stabilization of a triangular cluster of three rotating cylinders was investigated in the present study. Experiments were performed at Reynolds number Re 6000, and compared with URANS-2D simulations at same flow conditions. 2D2C PIV measurements and constant temperature anemometry were used to characterize the flow without and with actuation. Open-loop actuation was first considered for the identification of particular control strategies. Machine learning control was also implemented for the experimental study. Linear genetic programming has been used for the optimization of open-loop parameters and closed-loop controllers. Considering a cost function J based on the fluctuations of the velocity measured by the hot-wire sensor, significant performances were achieved using the machine learning approach. The present work is supported by the senior author's (R. J. Martinuzzi) NSERC discovery Grant. C. Raibaudo acknowledges the financial support of the University of Calgary Eyes-High PDF program.

  10. 40 CFR 68.155 - Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.155 Executive summary. The owner or... prevention program and chemical-specific prevention steps; (d) The five-year accident history; (e) The...

  11. State recovery and lockstep execution restart in a system with multiprocessor pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-01-21

    System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). Each paired microprocessor or processor cores that provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability connect with a system components such as a memory "nest" (or memory hierarchy), an optional system controller, and optional interrupt controller, optional I/O or peripheral devices, etc. The memory nest is attached to a selective pairing facility via a switch or a bus. Each selectively paired processor core is includes a transactional execution facility, whereing the system is configured to enable processor rollback to a previous state and reinitialize lockstep execution in order to recover from an incorrect execution when an incorrect execution has been detected by the selective pairing facility.

  12. Executive control, ERP and pro-inflammatory activity in emotionally exhausted middle-aged employees. Comparison between subclinical burnout and mild to moderate depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Boden, Sylvia; Freude, Gabriele; Potter, Guy G; Claus, Maren; Bröde, Peter; Watzl, Carsten; Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Burnout is a syndrome occurring mainly in individuals with long-term stressful work. The main complaints are emotional exhaustion and reduced performance. Burnout also largely overlaps with depression. Both are characterized by increased incidence of infections due to dysregulation of the immune system, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cognitive deficits, particularly related to executive functions. To distinguish between burnout and depression already at the pre-clinical stage, the present double-blinded study compared immunological and cognitive parameters in seventy-six employees from emotionally demanding occupations who were post-hoc subdivided into two groups scoring low (EE-) and high (EE+) in emotional exhaustion and low (DE-) and high (DE+) in depression. Immunological parameters were measured from blood samples. Executive functions were studied by analyzing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and performance during a task switching paradigm. Psychosocial job parameters were measured with standardized questionnaires. Burnout and mild to moderate depression largely overlapped. However, several subjects showed burnout without depressive symptoms. Higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 were correlated with burnout severity and depressive symptoms in male individuals. In the switch task a trend for lower performance in the EE+ vs. EE- group and no difference between DE+ and DE- groups were found. In the ERPs, however, differences were observed which distinguished between subclinical burnout and depression: the terminal contingent negative variation (CNV), indicating preparatory activity and the P3b, related to allocation of cognitive resources were generally reduced in EE+ vs. EE-, whereas no differences were found in the DE+ vs. DE- groups. The frontal P3a was selectively reduced in switch trials in the EE+ vs. EE- group and showed only a trend in DE+ vs. DE-, indicating impairment of executive control in subclinical

  13. Simplified programming and control of automated radiosynthesizers through unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claggett, Shane B; Quinn, Kevin M; Lazari, Mark; Moore, Melissa D; van Dam, R Michael

    2013-07-15

    Many automated radiosynthesizers for producing positron emission tomography (PET) probes provide a means for the operator to create custom synthesis programs. The programming interfaces are typically designed with the engineer rather than the radiochemist in mind, requiring lengthy programs to be created from sequences of low-level, non-intuitive hardware operations. In some cases, the user is even responsible for adding steps to update the graphical representation of the system. In light of these unnecessarily complex approaches, we have created software to perform radiochemistry on the ELIXYS radiosynthesizer with the goal of being intuitive and easy to use. Radiochemists were consulted, and a wide range of radiosyntheses were analyzed to determine a comprehensive set of basic chemistry unit operations. Based around these operations, we created a software control system with a client-server architecture. In an attempt to maximize flexibility, the client software was designed to run on a variety of portable multi-touch devices. The software was used to create programs for the synthesis of several 18F-labeled probes on the ELIXYS radiosynthesizer, with [18F]FDG detailed here. To gauge the user-friendliness of the software, program lengths were compared to those from other systems. A small sample group with no prior radiosynthesizer experience was tasked with creating and running a simple protocol. The software was successfully used to synthesize several 18F-labeled PET probes, including [18F]FDG, with synthesis times and yields comparable to literature reports. The resulting programs were significantly shorter and easier to debug than programs from other systems. The sample group of naive users created and ran a simple protocol within a couple of hours, revealing a very short learning curve. The client-server architecture provided reliability, enabling continuity of the synthesis run even if the computer running the client software failed. The architecture enabled

  14. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  15. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  16. The Relationship Between Working Memory Capacity and Executive Functioning: Evidence for a Common Executive Attention Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Balota, David A.; Hambrick, David Z.

    2010-01-01

    Attentional control has been conceptualized as executive functioning by neuropsychologists and as working memory capacity by experimental psychologists. We examined the relationship between these constructs using a factor analytic approach in an adult lifespan sample. Several tests of working memory capacity and executive function were administered to over 200 subjects between the ages of 18-90 years old, along with tests of processing speed and episodic memory. The correlation between working memory capacity and executive functioning constructs was very strong (r = .97), but correlations between these constructs and processing speed were considerably weaker (r's ≈ .79). Controlling for working memory capacity or executive function eliminated age effects on episodic memory, and working memory capacity or executive function accounted for variance in episodic memory beyond that accounted for by processing speed. We conclude that tests of working memory capacity and executive function share a common underlying executive attention component that is strongly predictive of higher-level cognition. PMID:20230116

  17. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  18. Executive Functions and Inhibitory Control in Multilingual Children: Evidence from Second-Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German…

  19. Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

  20. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: Evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German–English bilinguals, German–English–Language