WorldWideScience

Sample records for program energy supply

  1. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  2. 76 FR 57897 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power... exclude external power supplies used in specific applications from certain energy conservation standards prescribed under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). Congress enacted this exclusion, which...

  3. 77 FR 22472 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J... and Renewable Energy. For the reasons set forth in the preamble, DOE corrects 10 CFR part 430 as set... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR...

  4. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  5. 75 FR 16957 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... External Power Supplies.'' May 2009. Available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance... 12, 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/appliances/2008rulemaking/2008-AAER-1B/2008-11-19_BATTERY_CHARGER... cellular telephones and portable media players that frequently receive power and data from a personal...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Uninterruptible Power Supplies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Uninterruptible Power Supplies that are...

  8. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  9. Synergies between energy supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jianzhnog; Yan, Jinyue; Desideri, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national lev...... and integration of local renewables including solar energy wind geothermal waste heat and biomass is presented.......Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national level...... objectives to be understood and optimally coordinated. The latest research on the network coupling technologies analysis of synergies between energy supply networks and optimal use of synergies in network operation is discussed. A diagram on the possible interactions between different energy networks...

  10. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  11. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  12. Energy supply and energy saving in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ilchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main problems and solutions of energy saving and energy supply in Ukraine. Low energy efficiency has become one of the main factors of the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. The most relevant scientific and methodical approaches to assessment of the level of energy consumption and saving are indicated. The comparative analysis of annual energy use has been made. A potential to solve energy supply problems is strongly correlated with the ability to ensure the innovative development of economy for efficient and economical use of existing and imported energy resources. The ways for reducing of energy resource consumption have been suggested. Creation of technological conditions for the use of alternative energy sources is considered to be rational also. The development of renewable sources of energy (alternative and renewable energy sources will provide a significant effect in reducing the use of traditional energy sources, harmful emissions and greenhouse gas. Under these conditions, increasing of energy efficiency of economy and its competitiveness can be real. Improvement of environmental and social conditions of citizens of the country will mark a positive step towards the EU, and also will cancel some problems of the future generation.

  13. Analysis of Energy Resources and Programs of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Appendix A: Framework of Energy Supply and Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    Internal Consumption of USSR Electric Power by End Use Sectors Consumption of Steam/Hot Water from Thermal Power Stations by End Use Sectors...Steam and Hot Water Versus Electric Power in USSR Thermal Power Stations Net Internal Consumption of Electric Energy by Country Net Internal... Supplu in Czechoslovakia 117 A-48 Coal Supply in East Germany 120 A-49 Coal Supply in Hungary 123 A-50 Coal Supply in Poland 126 viii A-51 Coal

  14. A proposed national wind power R and D program. [offshore wind power system for electric energy supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heronemus, W.

    1973-01-01

    An offshore wind power system is described that consists of wind driven electrical dc generators mounted on floating towers in offshore waters. The output from the generators supplies underwater electrolyzer stations in which water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is piped to shore for conversion to electricity in fuel cell stations. It is estimated that this system can produce 159 x 10 to the ninth power kilowatt-hours per year. It is concluded that solar energy - and that includes wind energy - is the only way out of the US energy dilemma in the not too distant future.

  15. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  16. Overview of the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market - The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mock, John E.; Budraja, Vikram; Jaros, Richard; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Hinrichs, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    This overview at the Geothermal Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Technology Advancements to Support Growth in Geothermal Power Sales in a Dynamic Utility Market'' by John E. Mock; ''Geothermal Energy Market in Southern California: Past, Present and Future'' by Vikram Budraja; ''Taking the High Ground: Geothermal's Place in the Revolving Energy Market'' by Richard Jaros; ''Recent Developments in Japan's Hot Dry Rock Program'' by Tsutomu Yamaguchi; and ''Options in the Eleventh Year for Interim Standard Offer Number Four Contracts'' by Thomas C. Hinrichs.

  17. 76 FR 67721 - PNE Energy Supply, LLC;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PNE Energy Supply, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of PNE Energy Supply, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  19. Energy Efficient Supply Boosted Comparator Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat U. Ay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new mixed-signal design technique called supply boosting technique (SBT and the design of an energy efficient, sub-1 V supply boosted comparator (SBC in a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The selected CMOS process does not allow sub-1 V operation with a wide input range due to high threshold voltage (high-VTH of MOS transistors (+0.8 V/−0.9 V. Despite this, the proposed comparator operates sub-1 V supply voltages with input common mode voltage larger than 60% of supply voltage by utilizing a supply boosting technique. The measured power consumption of the supply boosted comparator for 1 V supply was 90 nW and speed was 6500 conversions per second, resulting in 14 pJ per conversion energy efficiency.

  20. Survey and analysis of energy consumption and supply for PFE (Program for energy efficiency); Kartlaeggning och analys av energianvaendning inom skogsindustrin infoer Programmet foer energieffektivisering (PFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvidsson, Jonas; Carlsson, Ann-Mari; Tarantino, Nicklas; Wiberg, Rolf [AaF Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    The 1st of January 2005 the law 'Program for energy efficiency (PFE)' came into force. The aim of the programme is to promote efficient use of energy in energy intensive industry. Companies joining the 5-years programme do not have to pay the power tax, which was introduced for the industry sector from 1st of July 2004 as a result of the EU energy tax directive. In exchange the companies have to improve the efficiency in electric power consumption. This report is made as a handbook for the pulp- and paper industry and describes methods and working procedures in energy surveying and analysing according to the PFE-programme. The report also brings forth ideas of energy conservation for heat as well as electric power. The main focus is on energy conservation of electric power. The handbook gives general guidelines for the management of the principal action steps according to the program: Description of the mill; Surveying of energy usage in the mill; The energy usage of the mill in a short-term period, i.e. to the end of the program; The energy usage of the mill in a long-term period, for about 10 years ahead; The search for measures of electric power conservation, with pay-off time less than three years. The report shows applied examples of the steps above for two different model mills: A chemical pulp mill for market pulp and for production of carton board and fine paper; and A newsprint mill based on thermo-mechanical pulp and deinked pulp.

  1. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient......Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  2. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... that the increasing world population and the increasing demand for resource intensive food and life style will require a strategy for the future food supply system centred on energy reduction.......Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...

  3. Technologies for building integrated energy supply; Teknologier for bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katic, I.

    2011-07-15

    The current report is part of the deliverables from the project ''Building Integrated Energy Supply'' supported by the Danish Energy Authority R and D program. It describes a range of technologies for individual supply of heat and/or electricity to dwellings with respect to their stage of development and possible application in the near future. Energy supply of buildings is becoming more and more complex, partly as a result of increasing demands for comfort, efficiency and reduced emissions, partly as a result of rising oil prices and improved competitiveness of alternative energy sources. The days where ordinary boilers were the dominant source of individual supply of dwellings are becoming past these years. The challenge of the new range of technologies lies to a high extent in the fluctuating nature of their energy conversion and their interaction with the supply grids for heat and electricity. There is thus an increasing demand to understand the nature of the different supply technologies, besides a regular update of their economical key figures. The technologies briefly described in this study are: Solar heating, passive solar energy, biofuel boilers, heat pumps, micro CHP, solar photovoltaic and energy storage systems. The selected technologies are all assessed to play an important role in future's mix of supply technologies in Denmark, especially heat pumps and solar. (Author)

  4. Estimating Supplies Program: Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-24

    actually treat those patients. (U) It is also important to remember that ESP is estimation software. Keep in mind that the number and variety of...will not be indicative of the supplies needed to actually treat those patients. (U) It is also important to remember that ESP is estimation software

  5. Sustainable energy supply; Baerekraftig energioppdekning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kr.; Rosenberg, Eva [Institutt for energiteknikk, Kjeller(Norway); Kubberud Trond ECON, Oslo (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    This report discusses the potential for reducing the use of energy and quantifies the environmental disadvantages and estimated environmental costs of various energy carriers in Norway. The MARKAL model is used to work out three scenarios for a more sustainable use of energy. It is found that the environmental impact of NOx emissions are much greater than that of sulfur emissions. The damage caused by CO2 and NOx are of the same order of magnitude. The studies indicate that if the damage to the environment is internalized into the energy system, then it will lead to increased use of gas in the industry and transport sectors. The results are sensitive with respect to the cost development for the cleaning technology of conventional energy carriers and for storage and transport of gas. Internalizing the external costs is not enough to eliminate the environmental damage, at least not as this is valued today and with the technology supposed to be available for the next 30-40 years.

  6. Financial Situation in Regional Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Viktorovna Chaika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to monitor the financial condition of energy supply organizations in regional management and development of energy infrastructure. This condition depends on economic factors, tariff regulation and budget subsidies. The article presents indicators of aggregated financial statistics on energy supply in the regions of Russia’s European North. For the purpose of comparative analysis, the author formed a comprehensive indicator of financial stability and evaluated trends in the dynamics of past due debt and profitability. The analysis shows the following sectoral and regional characteristics: the financial situation in the electric power sector is relatively stable, but it is unsatisfactory in heat supply; the increase in negative trends, such as the decrease in repayment ability, low and negative profitability, and the accumulation of considerable arrears. Financial instability becomes a system-wide characteristic of heat supply. It is necessary to introduce a multi-step process of financial recovery of the industry as a whole. In the first place, external factors such as poor repayment discipline, inefficient tariff regulation and insufficient provision of budget subsidies for tariff misbalances must be resolved; otherwise, they will further aggravate financial instability. Strategically, a stable financial situation in energy supply can be achieved only through technological modernization. Specific features of heat supply in northern regions make it impossible to rely only on tariff sources of investment; large-scale renovation requires governmental financial support and the creation of conditions for attracting private investment

  7. Energy trading and pricing in microgrids with uncertain energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Shubing; Yang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE) generation (wind power) determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profit......, and then the consumers determine their energy demands to maximize their payoffs. The hierarchical game is established between the energy provider and the consumers. The energy provider is the leader and the consumers are the followers in the hierarchical game. We consider two types of consumers according....... In particular, the uncertainty of the energy supply from the energy provider is considered. Simulation results show that the energy provider can obtain more profit using the proposed decision-making scheme....

  8. LEAST COST ENERGY SUPPLY OPTIONS FOR INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Umeshkannan. P*1, Dr. K.G.Muthurajan2

    2016-01-01

    At the time of independence, India had a very poor infrastructure in terms of energy production and supply, total installed electricity generation capacity was 1363 MWe. Electricity is the most important component of the primary energy. The average growth rate over the entire period thus has been an impressive. The economics of various modes of power generation depends on local conditions, discount rates and availability of cheap fuels. India is importing coal hydrocarbons as well as enriched...

  9. Proposal for Supply Chain Concentration in the Traditional MBA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop and implement a concentration in Supply Chain Management in the existing traditional MBA program effective fall 2012. Houston is the hub for many multinational oil and energy companies, large healthcare systems, wholesale/retail businesses, engineering and construction companies, and is a major city along…

  10. Photovoltaic energy supply in communities of the Xingo program: Case study: Gualte community-Brazilian Northeast Methodology for natural climatization of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Elielza M. de S; Tiba, Chigueru [Universidad Federal de Pernambuco-UFPE (Brazil); Silva Junior, Ramiro; Ferreira, Fabiana M; Carvalho, Maria A. P [Xingo Program (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The Xingo Program is a multidisciplinary initiative, developed jointly by the CNPq-Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and CHESF- Hydroelectric Power Company of the Sao Francisco River. Its main objective is to promote the development of a semi-arid region through actions undertaken in different areas; more specifically, to seek energetic solutions on suitable techniques in the region and at the same time identify local demands and business opportunities that may lead to the introduction of enterprises in the region, principally focusing social and citizenship development. Eight rural communities located in the perimeter of Xingo program were selected for implementing the first pilot projects. This paper describes a technical and social diagnosis, and a conceptual project that were made for each community, considering the resources and the local available potentialities, prioritizing energy supply to schools, health centers and the supply of drinking water. In particular, the case study describes the process of energy supply to Guatle community, an old farm without any education/health infrastructure and water is supplied by means of trucks, in which there was a significant increase in the number of families after being occupied by activists of the Landless movement. In this community a school unit was built and electrified (school and park illuminated, TV, refrigerator), a 12 m{sup 3}/day water supply system was installed in and old and abandoned well, the water of which showed an excellent quality and quantity, 6 m{sup 3}/h, a very rare occurrence in that region. Later, literacy courses were given to young people and adults, the natural aptitude of the inhabitants. With the arrival of water, the first conflicts for the management of these resources emerged. The experience in Gualte, in spite of the successes and failures, could be considered as a lesson that should be learned. The feeling of citizenship of the needy community

  11. Energy Program annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    The national economy is particularly dependent on efficient electrical generation and transportation. Electrical demand continues to grow and will increasingly rely on coal and nuclear fuels. The nuclear power industry still has not found a solution to the problem of disposing of the waste produced by nuclear reactors. Although coal is in ample supply and the infrastructure is in place for its utilization, environmental problems and improved conversion processes remain technical challenges. In the case of transportation, the nation depends almost exclusively on liquid fuels with attendant reliance on imported oil. Economic alternates---synfuels from coal, natural gas, and oil shale, or fuel cells and batteries---have yet to be developed or perfected so as to impact the marketplace. Inefficiencies in energy conversion in almost all phases of resource utilization remain. These collective problems are the focus of the Energy Program.

  12. Army Programs: Army Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-03

    the Energy Program. o Expands the responsibilities of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (para 1-4). o Includes ridesharing as...not been highlighted. Summary. This regulation establishes poli- cies, procedures, and responsibilities for the Army Energy Program. Applicability ...Energy Technology Service (FETS) • 3–13, page 6 Energy Surveys • 3–14, page 6 Army Energy Awareness Seminars • 3–15, page 6 Army ridesharing • 3–16

  13. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy systems in general. The proposed framework comprises four stages including identification of input variables for energy generation, establishment of models of energy generation by individual sources, development of artificial intelligence, and finally summation of selected sources. A case study of a solar, wind, and hydro hybrid system was undertaken with a linear programming approach. Substantial results were obtained with regard to how load requests were constantly satisfied while minimizing the cost of electricity. The developed framework gained its originality from the fact that it has included models of individual sources of energy that even make the optimization problem more complex. This paper also has impacts on the development of policies which will encourage the integration and development of renewable energies.

  14. Fossil energy program. Summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

  15. Market penetration of energy supply technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condap, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Techniques to incorporate the concepts of profit-induced growth and risk aversion into policy-oriented optimization models of the domestic energy sector are examined. After reviewing the pertinent market penetration literature, simple mathematical programs in which the introduction of new energy technologies is constrained primarily by the reinvestment of profits are formulated. The main results involve the convergence behavior of technology production levels under various assumptions about the form of the energy demand function. Next, profitability growth constraints are embedded in a full-scale model of U.S. energy-economy interactions. A rapidly convergent algorithm is developed to utilize optimal shadow prices in the computation of profitability for individual technologies. Allowance is made for additional policy variables such as government funding and taxation. The result is an optimal deployment schedule for current and future energy technologies which is consistent with the sector's ability to finance capacity expansion.

  16. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES is also highly significant for water and energy development programs in the long-term. The objectives of this paper were to provide an estimation of the blue component of WFEP and WFES in China for the period from 2001 to 2014, and to evaluate the impact on water resources from energy production, the contribution of internal and external WFES, and water-energy related issues of the international energy trade by applying water footprint analysis based on the bottom-up approach. The results indicate that generally, the WFEP and WFES in China both maintained steady growth before 2013, with the WFEP increasing from approximately 3900 million m3/year to 10,400 million m3/year, while the WFES grew from 3900 million m3/year to 11,600 million m3/year. The fossil energy production caps of the 13th Five Year Plan can bring the water consumed for fossil energy production back to a sustainable level. Over the long-term, China’s energy trade plan should also consider the water and energy resources of the countries from which fossil energy is imported.

  17. 78 FR 51192 - Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program AGENCY: Food and Drug... the start of the Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program (SSCPP). The SSCPP is intended to assist FDA in its... Supply Chain Pilot Program Requirements To be selected to participate in the SSCPP, an applicant must...

  18. Energy supply systems engineering tool (ESSE). Energy infura keikaku shien system (ESSE) ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaya, T. (Shimizu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    The paper introduces the computer program software (ESSE: Eenrgy Supply Systems Engineering tool) whic can evaluate and work out comprehensivly and rapidly plans and basic programs for energy related infrastructure of districr cooling and heating facilities using municipal waste heat, cogeneration system, refuse incineration facilities, etc., in the initial stage of planning/ programming for the regiomal develpment. The program is composed roughly of two parts by function: Phase 1 and Phase 2. In the phase 1, calculated are cooling and heating load in the subject rehion of the plan, demands for electric power, gas and watre/ sewage, and municipal were heat in the areas where refuse incineration exhaust heat is utilized In Phase 2, the facility system supplying energy to the region is evaluated based of the result obtained in phase 1, in terms of annual energy consumption, degree of environmental effect and economic efficiency. Image samples of Phase 1 and Phase 2 are shown. 11 figs.

  19. Pollution-free energy supply system. Mukogai energy kyokyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Tsukamoto, M.; Hayashibara, M. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-19

    This invention aims to solve the problems of stable supply of natural energy and the construction cost, enhancing the power output per unit area, producing a hydrogen gas which is free from pollution, thus stably supplying power and hydrogen fuel. In this invention, integration is made of the systems such as a light/heat collection system wherein the solar light is collected and converted into heat, a thermal power generating system which converts the heat into electricity, a wind power generating system wherein a wind receiving blade is rotated by the wind power and the rotation force is converted into electricity and a wave power generating system which converts the tidal force into electricity and a current power generating system. By this arrangement, the take out of electric energy per unit area was increased. In addition, hydrogen is produced by an electrolysis of water by utilizing this electric power. 3 figs.

  20. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Lin; Dong Jiang; Rui Duan; Jingying Fu; Mengmeng Hao

    2017-01-01

    Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP) in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES) is also highly significant for water...

  1. Geothermal energy program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  2. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  3. ENergy and Power Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    In the late 1970s, national and international attention began to focus on energy issues. Efforts were initiated to design and test analytical tools that could be used to assist energy planners in evaluating energy systems, particularly in developing countries. In 1984, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory`s Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) to incorporate a set of analytical tools into a personal computer-based package for distribution in developing countries. The package developed by DIS staff, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), covers the range of issues that energy planners must face: economic development, energy demand projections, supply-and-demand balancing, energy system expansion, and environmental impact analysis. Following the original DOE-supported development effort, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the assistance from the US Department of State (DOS) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), provided ENPEP training, distribution, and technical support to many countries. ENPEP is now in use in over 60 countries and is an international standard for energy planning tools. More than 500 energy experts have been trained in the use of the entire ENPEP package or some of its modules during the international training courses organized by the IAEA in collaboration with Argonne`s Decision and Information Sciences (DIS) Division and the Division of Educational Programs (DEP). This report contains the ENPEP program which can be download from the internet. Described in this report is the description of ENPEP Program, news, forums, online support and contacts.

  4. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-07-29

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  5. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  6. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy...

  7. 78 FR 59706 - Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program; Correction AGENCY: Food...). The document announced the start of the Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program (SSCPP). The document was...

  8. Integration of Building energy and energy supply simulations for low-energy district heating supply to energy-efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    of the human behaviour regarding the building and link the results to the simulation program for DH networks. The results show that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher peak loads than expected according to reference values in standardized calculation of energy demand....... The analysis also shows that the connection of low-energy buildings to DH networks is potentially a good solution in Denmark for reaching the climatic goals, but a high degree of connection must be reached, especially for detached houses, where most of the buildings in a typical community must be connected......The future will demand implementation of C02 neutral communities, the consequences being a far more complex design of the whole energy system, since the future energy infrastructures will be dynamic and climate responsive systems. Software able to work with such level of complexity is at present...

  9. World energy supply and demand outlook to the year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International Energy Agency

    1989-09-01

    The long-term outlook for world energy demand and supply presented here by the International Energy Agency is intended to be only indicative of the possible evolution of worldwide energy trends, given that considerable uncertainty affects every energy forecast. The analysis, through two crude oil price scenarios and certain assumptions about world economic activity over the period to 2005, shows an estimate of both world oil demand and supply by area and total world primary energy requirements, by fuel and by area, for the projection period.

  10. Wind Energy: A Maturing Power Supply Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Erik Lundtang; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that wind energy for electrification will prove to be an appropriate technology with very positive socioeconomic benefits, especially in developing countries. Provides examples of projects conducted by a Danish wind research laboratory. (TW)

  11. Energy supply options for climate change mitigation and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobran, Flavio

    2010-09-15

    Modern society is dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs, but their combustion is producing emissions of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. If these emissions remain unconstrained they risk of producing significant impacts on humanity and ecosystems. Replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources can stabilize anthropogenic global warming and thus reduce the climate change impacts. The deployment of alternative energy supply technologies should be based on objectives that are consistent with sustainability indicators and incorporate quantitative risk assessment multiattribute utility decision methodologies capable of ascertaining effective future energy supply options.

  12. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  13. Sustainable Supply Chain Management Programs in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neureuther, Brian D.; O'Neill, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges for an undergraduate supply chain management program at smaller universities is to create an environment of sustainability. Supply chain management is not at the tip of tongue for many graduating high school students and few undergraduate curriculums require a course in the content area. This research addresses…

  14. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  15. Concept Development of Optimal Mine Site Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on early work and concept development for Optimal Mine Site Energy Supply, where the specific energy supply requirements and constraints for mineral production operations are considered against methodologies that have been applied for other sectors and in other energy policy regimes. The primary motivation for this research is to help ensure that Canadian mineral producers will achieve reduced production costs through improvements in the efficiency with which they consume energy resources. Heat has not yet been considered for the mining sector in an integrated manner, which makes polygeneration of great interest. The methodology that optimizes configuration of polygeneration systems for mine sites has not been reported before. The variety of mining circumstances, temporal variations in energy prices, institutional inertia, and conservatism in design for mines are some of the reasons for this. This paper reviews some aspects of precedent energy management practice in mineral operations, which highlights energy challenges characteristic of the sector and sets out the initial formulation of optimal mine site energy supply. The review indicates the additional benefits of energy supply systems for mine sites that concurrently meet all utilities.

  16. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  17. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, ``Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,`` part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program`s researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

  18. Optimizing energy for a 'green' vaccine supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the 'net zero energy' (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7-10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  19. Energy Innovation Acceleration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfson, Johanna [Fraunhofer USA Inc., Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Energy Innovation Acceleration Program (IAP) – also called U-Launch – has had a significant impact on early stage clean energy companies in the Northeast and on the clean energy economy in the Northeast, not only during program execution (2010-2014), but continuing into the future. Key results include: Leverage ratio of 105:1; $105M in follow-on funding (upon $1M investment by EERE); At least 19 commercial products launched; At least 17 new industry partnerships formed; At least $6.5M in revenue generated; >140 jobs created; 60% of assisted companies received follow-on funding within 1 year of program completion; In addition to the direct measurable program results summarized above, two primary lessons emerged from our work executing Energy IAP:; Validation and demonstration awards have an outsized, ‘tipping-point’ effect for startups looking to secure investments and strategic partnerships. An ecosystem approach is valuable, but an approach that evaluates the needs of individual companies and then draws from diverse ecosystem resources to fill them, is most valuable of all.

  20. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  1. Optimizing energy for a ‘green’ vaccine supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the ‘net zero energy’ (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7–10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. PMID:25444811

  2. New concepts of energy supply for sustainable agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Frerichs

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of future agricultural production systems requires innovative approaches. For creating a more productive, resource-efficient and low-emission agriculture the systemic development of the agricultural processes, the operating conditions and the organizational processes is necessary. Fundamentally new approaches can be found by defining scenarios. Such a hypothetic concept does field operation without using internal combustion engines. Instead of this the power supply of performant machines can be done by electric direct supply systems or for small machines by battery systems with charging points. However, all this requires the electrical energy supply of agricultural fields. A direct electric energy supply utilizing the Center Pivot approach via rotating structures enables new production systems. Using innovative technologies new solutions with great potential for automation and a productive precision agriculture can be designed. This paper highlights an unconventional approach stimulating the discussion about future developments in agricultural engineering.

  3. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,'' part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program's researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

  4. Supply Chain Management for Improved Energy Efficiency: Review and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Marchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency represents a key resource for economic and social development, providing substantial benefits to different stakeholders, ranging from the entities which develop energy efficient measures to everyone in society. In addition to cost savings, multiple benefits can be achieved by supporting a better alignment between energy issues and strategic business priorities: e.g., improved competitiveness, profitability, quality, etc. Thus, energy efficiency can be a strategic advantage, not just a marginal issue, for companies. However, most firms, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs, face many problems and, in some cases, hostility when trying to effectively implement energy efficiency actions. The most dominant barriers are the access to capital and the lack of awareness (especially in terms of life cycle cost effects. The supply chain viewpoint represents one of the main opportunities for overcoming those barriers and improving energy performance even for weaker companies. Since the current literature on energy efficiency and practical approaches to ensure energy efficiency mainly focus on energy performance on a single-firm basis, this paper aims to provide a systematic review of papers on the integration of energy efficiency in supply chain design and management published in academic journal, thereby defining potential research streams to close the gaps in the literature. A number of literature reviews have been published focusing on specific aspects of sustainable or on green supply chain management; however, to the best of our knowledge, no review has focused on the energy efficiency issue. Firstly, the present paper shows how considering energy consumption in supply chain management can contribute to more energy-efficient processes from a systemic point of view. Then, the review methodology used is defined and the sampled papers are analyzed and categorized based on the different approaches they propose. From these

  5. State Energy Program Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs

    1999-03-17

    The State Energy Program Operations Manual is a reference tool for the states and the program officials at the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and Regional Support Offices as well as State Energy Offices. The Manual contains information needed to apply for and administer the State Energy Program, including program history, application rules and requirements, and program administration and monitoring requirements.

  6. Energy Technology Programs: program summaries for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Energy Technology Programs in the BNL Department of Energy and Environment cover a broad range of activities, namely: electrochemical research, chemical energy storage, chemical heat pumps, solar technology, fossil technology, catalytic systems development, space-conditioning technology, and technical support/program management. Summaries of the individual tasks associated with these activities along with publications, significant accomplishments, and program funding levels are presented.

  7. Optimization of energy cost in water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimoch, Izabela; Bartkiewicz, Ewelina

    2017-11-01

    The decreasing amount of fossil fuels and deteriorating air quality forces the governments to introduce a rational energy management in all sectors of economy. At the beginning of the twenty-first century many water supply systems (WSSs) were oversized because of the reduction of water consumption, especially in industry. This resulted in high energy consumption in the pumping stations. Improving pumps operation will decrease energy consumption and also the water prices. The purpose of this paper is to present a method of energy optimization in WSSs. This paper presents an analysis of energy consumption in a selected water supply system. In this study pumps located in water treatment plants and pumping station cooperating with the tanks are analyzed. The study used hydraulic model of the WSS created in MOSKAN-W, which defines pumpś parameters such as flow, head, and efficiency. Using optimization options of calculation software several scenarios of energy costs were prepared.

  8. Visualising the Global Shift in Energy Demand and Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Isma'il

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global energy demand depends on supplies from fossil fuels responsible for climate change. The supply of the fossil fuels required to meet the global energy demand depends on production from the available proved reserves of oil, coal and gas unevenly distributed around the world. On the other hand, the energy demand of a country is determined by its economic growth and population dynamics. The industrialised nations accounted for the rising demand in global primary energy. However, a global shift is underway with the developing economies being responsible for most of the increase in global energy demand. Moreover, statistics suggest that the global energy production and consumption vary spatially and temporally. This study utilised cartograms to visualise the global shift in production and consumption of fossil fuels; because of its implication on global energy security and climate change. We observed that cartograms which are rarely used in energy visualisations provide informative and intuitive picture of the global shift in energy demand and supply.

  9. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. S. Cullis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing

  10. Renewable Energy Certificate Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwendolyn S. Andersen

    2012-07-17

    This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

  11. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Nienhaus, Kristina [German Aerospace Center e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Klessmann, Corinna; Capone, Carolin; Stricker, Eva [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Graus, Wina; Hoogwijk, Monique [Ecofys Netherlands BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Winterfeld, Uta von; Samadi, Sascha [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The analysis of different global energy scenarios in part I of the report confirms that the exploitation of energy efficiency potentials and the use of renewable energies play a key role in reaching global CO2 reduction targets. An assessment on the basis of a broad literature research in part II shows that the technical potentials of renewable energy technologies are a multiple of today's global final energy consumption. The analysis of cost estimates for renewable electricity generation technologies and even long term cost projections across the key studies in part III demonstrates that assumptions are in reasonable agreement. In part IV it is shown that by implementing technical potentials for energy efficiency improvements in demand and supply sectors by 2050 can be limited to 48% of primary energy supply in IEA's ''Energy Technology Perspectives'' baseline scenario. It was found that a large potential for cost-effective measures exists, equivalent to around 55-60% of energy savings of all included efficiency measures (part V). The results of the analysis on behavioural changes in part VI show that behavioural dimensions are not sufficiently included in energy scenarios. Accordingly major research challenges are revealed. (orig.)

  12. A cost optimization model for 100% renewable residential energy supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2012-01-01

    The concept of net zero energy buildings (Net ZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of these buildings. To achieve this, a holistic approach is needed which accounts for the i......The concept of net zero energy buildings (Net ZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of these buildings. To achieve this, a holistic approach is needed which accounts......'s involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system costs. It has been successfully applied...

  13. New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES): a method of efficiently supplying energy to a community of industrial users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES) concept allows the use of coal by small as well as large industrial users. The NIPES concept consists of a system of Energy Supply Stations groups of cogeneration plants) and steam transmission lines that supplies process heat and electricity to multiple existing and/or new users in an industrial park(s) setting. The Energy Supply Stations grow along with the industrial park(s) as new industries are attracted by a reliable reasonably priced energy source. The growth of the Energy Supply Stations over a period of years allows the introduction of new energy sources and technologies as they become established. This report describes the generic NIPES concept and the results of the evaluation of a specific NIPES system for the Lake Charles, Louisiana, area. A ten-year process steam load growth scenario is developed including both new and existing industrial users. During the initial years of the growth scenario, process steam is supplied to the industrial users by several coal-fired plants. Later, as the process steam load develops, a two-unit nuclear plant is integrated into the specific NIPES system. An evaluation is also performed for a NIPES system consisting of all coal-fired plants. The specific NIPES system is compared to: (1) individual user owned oil-fired facilities for existing industrial users; and (2) individual user owned coal-fired facilities for new industrial plants. A financial analysis is performed to determine the total economic advantages associated with the NIPES system: savings in a steam costs for industrial users, potential return on investment for investors.

  14. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  15. Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    -runner in the development of future sustainable energy systems in general. A strict distinction is made between, on the one hand, marginal capacities, i.e. the long-term change in power plant capacities, and on the other, marginal supply, i.e. the changes in production given the combination of power plants...... to operate as an integrated part of the total energy system. Consequently, it does not necessarily represent the marginal change in electricity supply, which is likely to involve a mixture of different production technologies. Especially when planning future sustainable energy systems involving combined heat...... and their individual marginal production costs. Detailed energy system analysis (ESA) simulation is used to identify the affected technologies, considering the fact that the marginal technology will change from one hour to another, depending on the size of electricity demand compared to, among others, wind power...

  16. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that these...

  17. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory Revisions...

  18. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon AGENCY... that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term...

  19. Research on energy supply, demand and economy forecasting in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Tsuyoshi; Kamezaki, Hiroshi; Yuyama, Tomonori; Suzuki, Atsushi [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    This project aims to do research on forecasts of energy demand structure and electricity generation cost in each power plant in Japan in the 21st century, considering constructing successful FBR scenario. During the process of doing research on forecasts of energy demand structure in Japan, documents published from organizations in inside and outside of Japan were collected. These documents include prospects of economic growth rate, forecasts of amount for energy supply and demand, the maximum amount of introducing new energy resources, CO2 regulation, and evaluation of energy best mixture. Organizations in Japan such as Economic Council and Japan Energy Economic Research Institute have provided long-term forecasts until the early 21st century. Meanwhile, organizations overseas have provided forecasts of economic structure, and demand and supply for energy in OECD and East Asia including Japan. In connection with forecasts of electricity generation cost in each power plant, views on the ultimate reserves and cost of resources are reviewed in this report. According to some views on oil reserves, making assumptions based on reserves/production ratio, the maximum length of the time that oil reserves will last is 150 years. In addition, this report provides summaries of cost and potential role of various resources, including solar energy and wind energy; and views on waste, safety, energy security-related externality cost, and the price of transferring CO2 emission right. (author)

  20. Supply-side collaboration for energy-efficient renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.; Mlecnik, E.

    2015-01-01

    The supply side for nearly zero energy building (nZEB) renovation of owner-occupied single-family houses in Europe is suffering from a severe image problem of lack of knowledge and trust, inefficient construction processes, insufficient quality assurance and communication difficulties with

  1. The economics of promoting security of energy supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Zwart, Gijsbert; ten Cate, Arie

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the welfare effects of two policies directed at the security of energy supply: investments in strategic petroleum reserves and a cap on the production of gas from the largest Dutch gas field. Market failures can justify such policies, in particular failure of individual consumers

  2. Base Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2008-06-30

    The main objective of the Base Research Program was to conduct both fundamental and applied research that will assist industry in developing, deploying, and commercializing efficient, nonpolluting fossil energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting the energy requirements of the Nation. In that regard, tasks proposed under the WRI research areas were aligned with DOE objectives of secure and reliable energy; clean power generation; development of hydrogen resources; energy efficiency and development of innovative fuels from low and no-cost sources. The goal of the Base Research Program was to develop innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources--coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the overall Base Program. This document represents a stand-alone Final Report for the entire Program. It should be noted that an interim report describing the Program achievements was prepared in 2003 covering the progress made under various tasks completed during the first five years of this Program.

  3. Design of energy-efficient buildings using interaction between Building Simulation Programme and Energy Supply Simulations for District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Nagla, Inese

    demand density for which the connection to low-energy district heating networks is cost-effective and energy efficient. By using a dynamic energy simulation program for buildings it is possible to analyze the influence of the human behaviour for the building and link the results to the simulation program...... for district heating networks. The results show that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher peak loads than expected according to reference values in standardized calculation of energy demand pattern in energy-efficient buildings. The consequence is that in order to get the full...... that there is a large potential for distributing energy in areas with energy efficient buildings. As a measure for the feasibility of district heating, the linear heat density can be used as a representative value, and the results show that it is possible to supply heat with low-energy district heating networks...

  4. An integer linear programming for a comprehensive reverse supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse supply chain is a cycle of recovery for the products and materials used by the customers but can be returned to the chain performing some operations. Due to significance of reverse supply chain in the content of environmental and economical aspects, we formulate a mathematical model of reverse multi-layer multi-product supply chain for minimizing the total costs including returning, disassembly, processing, recycling, remanufacturing, and distribution centers. The presented model is an integer linear programming model being solved using Lingo 9 software. Numerical experiments are conducted to gain insight into the proposed model. The solutions provide a decision aid stream strengthening the concept of reverse supply network design and analysis for profit-making organization.

  5. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Alternative Energy Supply Solutions to Public Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes energy supply alternatives for modernised public nearly zero energy buildings. The paper examines alternative energy production systems such as heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, adsorption cooling, biomass boiler, solar photovoltaic, wind turbines and combinations of these systems. The simulation of the analysed building energy demand for different energy production alternatives has been performed using TRNSYS modelling software. In order to determine an optimal energy supply variant, the estimated results of energy, environmental, and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi-criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Supply structures of energy-efficient cities; Versorgungsstrukturen energieeffizienter Staedte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Heat supply to older buildings is a field with considerable potential for energy conservation and emission reduction. About one fifth of the primary energy consumed world-wide is used for heating of buildings. In order to make use of this potential, the following points are proposed: 1. An exergetic evalution which permits combined assessment of energy volume and energy quality (conversion efficiency); 2. A balance of the whole energy conversion chain: Production, power generation, transort, distribution, use; 3. An overall assessment of the supply area of a city including all demands on heat supply by industry, trade, and households. This publication, Vol. 12 in the series ''Aus Forschung und Entwicklung'', presents an in-depth introduction to the subject, followed by an outline of the funding concept for enhancement of district heating. It also presents the findings of studies with an integral apporach, which explain the markets, fields of action and chances of cogeneration systems and district heating from different points of view. (orig.)

  7. Impacts of Large Scale Wind Penetration on Energy Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kabouris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs, Distribution System Operators (DSOs and Wind Turbine Generators (WTG constructors. This paper aims to present in a thorough and coherent way the redrawn picture for Energy Systems under these conditions. Topics related to emergent technical challenges, technical solutions required and finally the impact on ESI due to large wind power penetration, are analyzed. Finally, general conclusions are extracted about the ESI current and future state and general directions are recommended.

  8. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00 a.m...

  9. Application of Multimodal PSO to Energy Supply Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Shoichi; Mori, Kazuyuki; Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Izui, Yoshio

    In many engineering applications, it is necessary to find more than one solution to an optimization problem with complex multi dimensional objective function. For example, energy supply systems require the most attractive solution in cost but also a solution near to the actual regime among multiple solutions. Metaheuristics is paid to attention as a method for solving such a problem. The parallel searching Niche PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm can find multiple solutions in multi dimensional problems in an acceptable time limit. In this paper, we propose the repetitive searching Multi PSO algorithm which is based on PSO and detects more precise solutions in the same time. Furthermore, we show the results of applying Multi PSO and Niche PSO to energy supply systems, and evaluate the validities of these methods.

  10. Federal Wind Energy Program. Program summary. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the Federal Wind Energy Program is to accelerate the development of reliable and economically viable wind energy systems and enable the earliest possible commercialization of wind power. To achieve this objective for small and large wind systems requires advancing the technology, developing a sound industrial technology base, and addressing the non-technological issues which could deter the use of wind energy. This summary report outlines the projects being supported by the program through FY 1977 toward the achievement of these goals. It also outlines the program's general organization and specific program elements.

  11. Energy contracting. Energy-related services and decentral energy supply. 2. ed.; Energie-Contracting. Energiedienstleistungen und dezentrale Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Martin

    2012-11-01

    According to the author, the intended German energy turnaround cannot be achieved solely on the basis of power from renewables and by constructing new passive buildings. Also required are decentral energy services if the energy saving and efficiency goals are to be achieved. In spite of many variations, the basic structure of these is the following: A contractor providing energy services does not only supply energy but also carries the risk and responsibility for efficient supply. This will relieve energy users, whether industrial or trade enterprises, public administration or home owners from this task; also, this integrated approach will open up undeveloped efficiency potentials. The book discusses current legal issues in a clear and practice-oriented manner and also provides a check list for energy contracting and an exemplary contract. (orig./RHM)

  12. Logistics Applications on Energy Supply Chain Management: Turkey Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Finding necessary resources for energy production geographically, determining the amount of reserve to be found, digging them up, determining distance to market, solutions to transportation issues, creating distribution channels and observing supply demand equilibrium are tasks that are done by supply chain professionals. Many different countries along with multinational corporations create a union of forces to overcome while planning these. Every corporation in the system is responsible for overcoming a certain stage of these tasks, however delivering these resources and goods happen with the collaboration of logistic sector creating a solution partnership. Logistics provide energy supply chains all the required resources, distributing these to a location of function and deliver all these produced goods to required places. In this article, Turkey’s involvement to these energy delivery systems is discussed. Difficulties of being part of an existing system can only be overcome with mutual agreement for all parties, coming up with alternative solutions. By evaluating its location as a crossing route for petroleum and natural gas market, Turkey can take a determinant role in this market while providing sellers with certain benefits.

  13. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  14. State Energy Program in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-05-01

    The Hawaii Strategic Industry Division administers DOE's State Energy Program in Hawaii. The division's current accomplishments include establishing a Model Energy Code for the state, instituting a successful solar program, and making energy performance contracts available for government facilities.

  15. Microbial substrate preference dictated by energy demand rather than supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenabar, Maximiliano J.; Shock, Everett L.; Roden, Eric E.; Peters, John W.; Boyd, Eric S.

    2017-08-01

    Growth substrates that maximize energy yield are widely thought to be utilized preferentially by microorganisms. However, observed distributions of microorganisms and their activities often deviate from predictions based solely on thermodynamic considerations of substrate energy supply. Here we present observations of the bioenergetics and growth yields of a metabolically flexible, thermophilic strain of the archaeon Acidianus when grown autotrophically on minimal medium with hydrogen (H2) or elemental sulfur (S°) as an electron donor, and S° or ferric iron (Fe3+) as an electron acceptor. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that S°/Fe3+ and H2/Fe3+ yield three- and fourfold more energy per mole of electrons transferred, respectively, than the H2/S° couple. However, biomass yields in Acidianus cultures provided with H2/S° were eightfold greater than when provided S°/Fe3+ or H2/Fe3+, indicating that the H2/S° redox couple is preferred. Indeed, cells provided with all three growth substrates (H2, Fe3+ and S°) grew preferentially by reduction of S° with H2. We conclude that substrate preference is dictated by differences in the energy demand of electron transfer reactions in Acidianus when grown with different substrates, rather than substrate energy supply.

  16. Life Cycle Energy and CO2 Emission Optimization for Biofuel Supply Chain Planning under Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; An, Da; Liang, Hanwei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for the decision-makers/stakeholders to design biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Life cycle energy and CO2 emission of biofuel supply chain are employed as the objective functions, multiple feedstocks, multiple transportation modes, multiple...... sites for building biofuel plants, multiple technologies for biofuel production, and multiple markets for biofuel distribution are considered, and the amount of feedstocks in agricultural system, transportation capacities, yields of crops, and market demands are considered as uncertainty variables...... in this study. A bi-objective interval mix integer programming model has been developed for biofuel supply chain design under uncertainties, and the bio-objective interval programming method has been developed to solve this model. An illustrative case of a multiple-feedstock-bioethanol system has been studied...

  17. Energy analysis program, FY 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Energy analysis attempts to understand the volitional choices of energy use and supply available to human society, and the multi-faceted consequences of choosing any one of them. Topics deal with economic impacts; assessments of regional issues and impacts; air quality evaluation; institutional and political issues in California power plant siting; assessment of environmental standards; water issues; characterization of aquatic systems dissolved oxygen profiles; modeling; computer-generated interactive graphics; energy assessment in Hawaii; solar energy in communities; utilities solar financial data; population impacts of geothermal development; energy conservation in colleges and residential sectors; energy policy; decision making; building energy performance standards; standards for residential appliances; and impact of energy performance standards on demand for peak electrical energy.

  18. Security of energy supply: Account of the security of supply in Denmark; Energiforsyningssikkerhed. Redegoerelse om forsyningssikkerheden i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-15

    A secure and stable energy supply is a prerequisite for a society like the Danish. Through many years of active energy policy we in Denmark have developed an efficient energy system with a very high security of supply. In coming decades it is necessary to implement a major transformation of our energy supplies to more renewable energy and phase out fossil fuels. The Government's vision is that we must have a Denmark that is independent of fossil fuels. With such a fundamental transformation of our energy supply and energy system it becomes a challenge to maintain the high security of supply, as we know it today. Conversely, it is not a long term solution to continue to allow society to be dependent on fossil fuels. And it is against this background, the Danish Minister for Climate and Energy submit this account on security of energy supplies in Denmark. The account shows that we in Denmark have a high security of supply. There is still access to sufficient energy resources, we have a well-functioning infrastructure, and we have good access to the exchange of energy within the EU and other countries. This places Denmark in a good situation. Today, Denmark has a significant import of especially petroleum and coal and export of petroleum and gas. The future declining production of oil and gas in the North Sea means an increasing need for imported fuels from fewer and fewer countries and regions, and at the same time there will be an increased international demand for the same fuels. This brings Denmark in the same situation as the other EU countries. Thus we have the basis for reducing consumption of fossil fuels and instead accommodate increasing amounts of renewable energy in our energy supply, but it requires a further development of the system to be possible to store energy and manage energy consumption. It will be necessary if the growing parts of our energy must come from fluctuating sources like wind and solar energy. Efficiency in energy supply has

  19. The Linkages between Energy Efficiency and Security of Energy Supply in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Bigano; Ramon Arigoni Ortiz; Anil Markandya; Emanuela Menichetti; Roberta Pierfederici

    2010-01-01

    It can be argued that one way to reduce the dependence from external energy sources, is simply to reduce the demand for energy. Energy savings may thus be considered a policy priority when concerns for energy security are particularly strong. Drawing on an original econometric approach, we check whether policies and measures that affect indicators of energy efficiency performance have an analogous effect on security of supply indicators, both at the whole economy level and within the main sec...

  20. Federal Energy Management Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-05

    Brochure offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  1. Modelling of Sudan’s Energy Supply, Transformation, and Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Rabah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop energy flow diagram (Sankey diagram of Sudan for the base year 2014. The developed Sankey diagram is the first of its kind in Sudan. The available energy balance for the base year 2012 is a simple line draw and did not count the energy supply by private and mixed sectors such as sugar and oil industries and marine and civil aviation. The private and mixed sectors account for about 7% of the national grid electric power. Four energy modules are developed: resources, transformation, demand, and export and import modules. The data are obtained from relevant Sudanese ministries and directorates and Sudan Central Bank. “e!Sankey 4 pro” software is used to develop the Sankey diagram. The main primary types of energy in Sudan are oil, hydro, biomass, and renewable energy. Sudan has a surplus of gasoline, petroleum coke, and biomass and deficit in electric power, gasoil, jet oil, and LPG. The surplus of gasoline is exported; however, the petroleum coke is kept as reserve. The deficit is covered by import. The overall useful energy is 76% and the loss is 24%. The useful energy is distributed among residential (38%, transportation (33%, industry (12%, services (16%, and agriculture (1% sectors.

  2. Demand and Supply Side Management Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Hajizadeh, Amin; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    operational scenarios. Afterwards, the SSM strategy based on adaptive fuzzy control is proposed to control of power flow between hybrid renewable sources and PEVs of the main building for a short time interval. Moreover, an fuzzy sliding power control strategy for the controlling of battery energy storage......This paper proposes simultaneous Demand Side Management (DSM) and Supply Side Management (SSM) Strategies for smart Zero Energy Building (ZEB). The proposed DSM algorithm based upon game theory determines the optimal reference power of each power units during time interval of 5 min under three...... is introduced to keep the balance between the requested power from building, PEV and output power of hybrid power generation resources. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the capability of the proposed power and energy flow control strategy....

  3. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically.

  4. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political...... risks of the supplying country, risk associated with energy transit, and the economic impact of a supply disruption. We construct separate indexes for three primary energy types, oil, gas and coal, and demonstrate that Member States’ levels of supply risk exposure differ across energies. Most other...

  5. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  6. Synthesis of regional networks for the supply of energy and bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucek, Lidija [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification - CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary); Lam, Hon Loong [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification - CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary); Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); Klemes, Jiri J.; Varbanov, Petar S. [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification - CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary); Kravanja, Zdravko [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2010-12-15

    This article presents a method for the synthesis of regional renewable energy supply chains, based on Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP). This method addresses the challenges presented by biomass resources. The main challenges are the distributive and varied availabilities regarding both location and time. This work also aims to maximise the economically viable utilisation of resources, accounting for the competition between energy and food production. A four-layer supply chain superstructure has been developed, which includes the harvesting, preparation, core processing and distribution of products. This considered system's boundaries involve a region, which is then divided into zones for optimising conversion operations and transportation flows. An MILP model has been formulated with profit maximisation as the optimisation criterion. The environmental impact is evaluated by the carbon footprint. The sensitivity of the optimal solutions is analysed for different regions' sizes, transportation costs, pre-processing alternatives and the co-production of food and energy. (orig.)

  7. Module power plant. An isle energy supply; Modulkraftwerk. Eine Inselenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, Christian; Luschtinetz, Thomas [Fachhochschule Stralsund (Germany). IRES

    2012-07-01

    The main project intention is the development of an autarkic power plant which can supply energy according to miscellaneous base- or peak load profiles. Possible application could be rural industries, public institutions, research stations or off-grid areas. The basic system is mounted in a shipping container which offers a wide range of transportation flexibility. The main advantage of the system is the intelligent and efficient coupling of the components. Due to the modular character of the components the power plant can be adjusted to specific energy profiles of the user. The system is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC) whereby the user can adjust the system by a touch panel. (orig.)

  8. Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources. A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies, including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution, was developed and applied to a water supply system. The methodology developed includes three solutions: (1 the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed, (2 the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand, and (3 the use of other renewable energy sources, including a wind turbine, to supply energy to the pumping station, with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid. The use of an integrated solution (water and energy proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power, and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations, as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  9. Hawaii Energy Sustainable Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Griffin, James [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Maskrey, Arthur [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Antal, Jr., Michael [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Busquet, Severine [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Cooney, Michael [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Cole, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Dubarry, Matthieu [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ewan, James [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Liaw, Bor Yann [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Matthews, Dax [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Coffman, Makena [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2016-12-31

    The objective of HESP was to support the development and deployment of distributed energy resource (DER) technologies to facilitate increased penetration of renewable energy resources and reduced use of fossil fuels in Hawaii’s power grids. All deliverables, publications and other public releases have been submitted to the DOE in accordance with the award and subsequent award modifications.

  10. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental

  11. Wind energy for the electricity supply; Energie eolienne pour la fourniture d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, J.M

    2009-01-15

    This document deals with the today implementing of the wind energy for the supply of electricity in the electric power distribution network. It is based on the technologies developed to prepare the wind turbines installation, build the turbines of these power plants and plan the non continuous and weakly forecasting supply of the wind electricity with the current operating of the networks. (A.L.B.)

  12. Technologies of Selective Energy Supply at Evaporation of Food Solutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to create innovative evaporating equipment that can produce concentrates with a high content of solids, with a low level of thermal effects on raw materials. The significance of the solution of technological problems of the key process of food technologies - concentration of liquid solutions (juices, extracts, etc. is shown. Problems and scientific contradictions are formulated and the hypothesis on using of electromagnetic energy sources for direct energy transfer to solution’s moisture has been offered. The prospects of such an energy effect are proved by the energy management methods. The schemes of fuel energy conversion for the conventional thermal concentration technology and the innovative plant based on the electromagnetic energy generators are presented. By means of the similarity theory the obtained model is transformed to the criterial one depicted kinetic of evaporation process at the electromagnetic field action. The dimensionless capacity of the plant is expressed by the dependence between the Energetic effect number and relative moisture content. The scheme of automated experimental system for study of the evaporation process in the microwave field is shown. The experimental results of juice evaporation are presented. It has been demonstrated that the technologies of selective energy supply represent an effective tool for improvement of juice concentration evaporative plants. The main result of the research is design of the evaporator that allows reaching juice concentrates with °brix 95 at the temperature as low as 35 °С, i.e. 2…3 times superior than traditional technologies.

  13. Optimization of operation of energy supply systems with co-generation and absorption refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Mirko M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-generation systems, together with absorption refrigeration and thermal storage, can result in substantial benefits from the economic, energy and environmental point of view. Optimization of operation of such systems is important as a component of the entire optimization process in pre-construction phases, but also for short-term energy production planning and system control. This paper proposes an approach for operational optimization of energy supply systems with small or medium scale co-generation, additional boilers and heat pumps, absorption and compression refrigeration, thermal energy storage and interconnection to the electric utility grid. In this case, the objective is to minimize annual costs related to the plant operation. The optimization problem is defined as mixed integer nonlinear and solved combining modern stochastic techniques: genetic algorithms and simulated annealing with linear programming using the object oriented “ESO-MS” software solution for simulation and optimization of energy supply systems, developed as a part of this research. This approach is applied to optimize a hypothetical plant that might be used to supply a real residential settlement in Niš, Serbia. Results are compared to the ones obtained after transforming the problem to mixed 0-1 linear and applying the branch and bound method.

  14. Utilisation of biomass for the supply of energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Sijtsma, L.; Weusthuis, R.A. [Institute of Agrotechnological Research (ATO-DLO), Wageningen (NL). Industrial (Agro) biotechnology Subdiv.; Lier, J.B. van [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (WAU) (Netherlands). Environmental Technology Subdept.; Niel, E.W.J. van; Stams, A.J.M. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (WAU) (Netherlands). Environmental Technology Subdiv.; Vries, S.S. de [Development of Bioethanol from Agricultural Resources (OBL), The Hague (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    Because biomass is a widely available, renewable resource, its utilisation for the production of energy has great potential for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions and thereby preventing global warming. In this mini-review the 'state of the art' of several fermentation processes is discussed, starting with the most advanced process of ethanol production. This is followed by methane production, an established process for waste water purification which is gaining more attention because of the inherent energy production. Subsequently ABE fermentation is discussed and finally the biological production of hydrogen. The last section proposes a new way to assess and compare the different processes by relating their merit to 'work content' values and 'lost work' instead of the combustion values of their products. It is argued that, especially when dealing with energy from biomass, the application of this methodology will provide a uniform valuation for different processes and products. The described fermentation processes enable the supply of pure energy carriers, either gaseous or liquid, from biomass, yet the introduction of these processes is hampered by two major problems. The first is related to technological shortcomings in the mobilisation of fermentable components from the biomass. The second, having a much greater impact, is linked with socio-economics: until full externality costs are attributed to fossil fuels, accounting for their role in pollution and global warming, the competitiveness of the processes described here will hardly stand a chance. (orig.)

  15. Energy Cost Minimization in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Hybrid Energy Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing data demand has led to the significant increase of energy consumption in cellular mobile networks. Recent advancements in heterogeneous cellular networks and green energy supplied base stations provide promising solutions for cellular communications industry. In this article, we first review the motivations and challenges as well as approaches to address the energy cost minimization problem for such green heterogeneous networks. Owing to the diversities of mobile traffic and renewable energy, the energy cost minimization problem involves both temporal and spatial optimization of resource allocation. We next present a new solution to illustrate how to combine the optimization of the temporal green energy allocation and spatial mobile traffic distribution. The whole optimization problem is decomposed into four subproblems, and correspondingly our proposed solution is divided into four parts: energy consumption estimation, green energy allocation, user association, and green energy reallocation. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the total energy cost.

  16. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial water...

  17. Net-Zero Energy Buildings: A Classification System Based on Renewable Energy Supply Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-06-01

    A net-zero energy building (NZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs. In such a building, efficiency gains have been made such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable energy technologies. Past work has developed a common NZEB definition system, consisting of four well-documented definitions, to improve the understanding of what net-zero energy means. For this paper, we created a classification system for NZEBs based on the renewable sources a building uses.

  18. Geothermal energy. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Brief descriptions of geothermal projects funded through the Department of Energy during FY 1978 are presented. Each summary gives the project title, contractor name, contract number, funding level, dates, location, and name of the principal investigator, together with project highlights, which provide informaion such as objectives, strategies, and a brief project description. (MHR)

  19. The USGS World Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The world has recently experienced rapid change to market-driven economies and increasing reliance on petroleum supplies from areas of political instability. The interplay of unprecedented growth of the global population, increasing worldwide energy demand, and political instability in two major petroleum exporting regions (the former Soviet Union and the Middle East) requires that the United States maintains a current, reliable, objective assessment of the world's energy resources. The need is compounded by the environmental implications of rapid increases in coal use in the Far East and international pressure on consumption of fossil fuels.

  20. Energy supply technologies. Hydro, ocean, wave and tidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenhann, J.; Larsen, Hans [Risoe National Lab. - DTU (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    This chapter presents an overview of current hydro, ocean, wave and tidal initiatives. Large hydro remains one of the lowest-cost generating technologies, although environmental constraints, resettlement impacts and the limited availability of sites have restricted further growth in many countries. Large hydro supplied 16 % of global electricity in 2004, down from 19 % a decade ago. Large hydro capacity totalled about 720 GW worldwide in 2004 and has grown historically at slightly more than 2 % annually. China installed nearly 8 GW of large hydro in 2004, taking the country to number one in terms of installed capacity (74 GW). With the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, China will add some 18.2 GW of hydro capacity in 2009. The socio-economic benefits of hydro include improved flood control and water supply. The socio-economic benefits of hydro include improved flood control and water supply. The socio-economic cost of hydro includes displacements and submergence. Further hydro can improve peak-capacity management. Ocean currents, some of which runs close to European coasts, carry a lot of kinetic energy. Part of this energy can be captured by sub-marine windmills and converted into electricity. These are more compact than the wind turbines used on land, simply because water is much denser than air. The main European countries with useful current power potential are France and the UK. Ocean tides are driven by the gravitational pull of the moon. With one high tide every 12 hours, a tidal power plant can operate for only four or five hours per cycle, so power from a single plant is intermittent. A suitably-designed tidal plant can, however, operate as a pimped storage system, using electricity during periods of low demand to store energy that can be recovered later. The only large, modern example of a tidal power plant is the 240 MW La Rance plant, built in France in the 1960s, which represents 91 % of the world tidal power capacity. Wave energy can be seen as

  1. The savings of energy saving: quantifying interactions between energy supply and demand side policies for Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Sofia; Seixas, Julia; Cleto, Joao; Fortes, Patricia (DCEA, New Univ. of Lisbon, GASA DCEA, FCT/UNL (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    Defendants of energy efficiency have argued that policy-makers focus excessively on the 'trendier' energy supply and not enough on end-use energy efficiency. Focusing on supply side energy policies, as is the case of supporting large renewable electricity generation plants, without looking at the same time for the opportunities in the demand-side, may generate avoidable costs. This paper addresses the interactions between energy supply and demand side policies, by estimating the gains of end-use energy-efficiency and renewable applications in terms of (i) avoided electricity generation installed capacity, (ii) final energy consumption, (iii) share of renewables in final energy, as defined in the EU 'Climate action and renewable energy package', and also, (iv) reductions of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The Portuguese energy system is used as a case-study, and the linear optimization technology TIMES{sub PT} model is used to generate four scenarios up to 2020 corresponding to different levels of penetration of efficient equipment, particularly in the commercial and residential sectors. In the two business-as-usual scenarios, the replacement of equipments from 2005 to 2020 follows the 2000-2005 trends and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan targets. In the efficient scenarios all equipments can be replaced with more efficient ones. Results show that aggressive industry, residential and commercial demand-side measures can make unnecessary to increase the renewable electricity installed capacity in approximately 4.7GW as currently discussed by policy-makers, in order to meet the 31% target of share of renewables. These measures lead to a reduction of only 0-2% of total final energy, but this represents reduction of 11-14% in the commercial sector, and 1-4% in industry, with savings in total energy system costs of approximately 3000 M Euro - roughly the equivalent to 2% of the 2005 GDP.

  2. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-12-02

    In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient

  3. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an

  4. Effects of risk on prices and quantities of energy supplies. Volume 3. Surveys of the effects of risk on energy supply. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.J.; Stiglitz, J.E.

    1978-05-01

    This volume is a collection of surveys that describe the application of the economics of uncertainty to the analysis of risk in particular components of the market for energy supplies. The first survey deals with geological uncertainty--uncertainty in the total amount, location, and cost of resource deposits; it examines in some detail the distinction between the social and private value of exploration information. Two surveys deal with the extraction of an exhaustible resource under uncertainty: one is concerned with the effects of risk--in the size and timing of discoveries and in the introduction of substitute sources of supply--on the optimal rate of extraction in an idealized economy; the other examines the effects of risk on the rate of extraction for different structures of the market, e.g., competition versus monopoly. Two surveys are included on the economics of technical change with exhaustible resources: one is a macroeconomic analysis of the determinants of a research program; the other looks more carefully at the organization of research activity and the effects of market structure on the pace of research. An important source of market risk is uncertainty about future policy actions of the many government agencies affecting the energy industry: included is a survey of policy uncertainty, concentrating on the role of expectations in the formation of energy prices and the use of standards versus taxes as regulatory devices. Finally, there is a separate survey of resource allocation during periods of shortages and the benefit/cost tradeoffs associated with assured supplies.

  5. Effect of energy saving lights on power supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timens, R.B.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Weak power supply networks are very sensitive to non-linear low power loads. Electronics in low power loads are non-linear, very basic, and consisting of a rectifier bridge and bulk capacitor, consuming current only in the peak of the supplied voltage. Due to the relative high power supply network

  6. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Energy Programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.

    1999-05-11

    Energy availability in a country is of great importance to its economy and to raising and maintaining its standard of living. In 1994, the United States consumed more than 88 quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy and spent about $500 billion on fuels and electricity. Fortunately, the United States is well endowed with energy sources, notably fossil fuels, and possesses a considerable nuclear power industry. The United States also has significant renewable energy resources and already exploits much of its hydropower resources, which represent 10% of electricity production. Nevertheless, in 1994, the United States imported about 45% of the petroleum products it consumed, equivalent to about 17 quads of energy. This dependence on imported oil puts the country at risk of energy supply disruptions and oil price shocks. Previous oil shocks may have cost the country as much as $4 billion (in 1993 dollars) between 1973 and 1990. Moreover, the production and use of energy from fossil fuels are major sources of environmental damage. The corresponding situation in many parts of the world is more challenging. Developing countries are experiencing rapid growth in population, energy demand, and the environmental degradation that often results from industrial development. The near-term depletion of energy resources in response to this rapid growth runs counter to the concept of ''sustainable development''--development that meets the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Energy research and development (R&D) to improve efficiency and to develop and deploy energy alternatives may be viewed, therefore, as an insurance policy to combat the dangers of oil shocks and environmental pollution and as a means of supporting sustainable development. These considerations guide the energy policy of the United States and of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In its strategic plan, DOE identifies the fostering of &apos

  8. RE-SUPPLY: Securing the supply chains of wind power and solar PV Securing the supply chain for renewable energy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Franz; Vuille, Francois; Ziem, Sabine [E4tech UK Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Rastogi, Ankur; Sengupta, Subhabrata [Avalon Consulting, Mumbai (India)

    2012-11-15

    The RE-SUPPLY project aimed to provide insight into the elements of the supply chains which are presently or can in the future evolve as critical constraints in further large-scale deployment of on- and offshore wind and solar photovoltaic energy. The objectives of the study were twofold: Risk assessment: identify potential bottlenecks in the supply chains of wind and PV and assess their criticality and timeline for occurrence; and, Risk management: identify suitable mitigation strategies and recommend specific actions at policy and industry level.

  9. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  10. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  11. Program summaries for 1979: energy sciences programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the objectives of the various research programs being conducted by the Chemical Sciences, Metallurgy and Materials Science, and Process Science divisions of the BNL Dept. of Energy and Environment. Some of the more significant accomplishments during 1979 are also reported along with plans for 1980. Some of the topics under study include porphyrins, combustion, coal utilization, superconductors, semiconductors, coal, conversion, fluidized-bed combustion, polymers, etc. (DLC)

  12. Assessment of Political Vulnerabilities on Security of Energy Supply in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Česnakas Giedrius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that despite the evident link between political environment and security of energy supply, political elements are not sufficiently represented in contemporary scientific literature, namely in indexes that are designed for the assessment of security of energy supply. In an attempt to fill this gap, the article presents an innovative methodology for quantitative assessment of the political vulnerabilities on security of energy supply and applies it to the analysis of the Baltic States.

  13. Photovoltaic energy systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the Photovoltaics Program are highlighted and each of the US Department of Energy's current photovoltaics projects initiated or renewed during fiscal year 1981 is described, including its title, directing organization, project engineer, contractor, principal investigator, contract period, funding, and objectives. The Photovoltaics Program is briefly summarized, including the history and organization and highlights of the research and development and of planning, assessment, and integration. Also summarized is the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program. An exhaustive bibliography is included. (LEW)

  14. Wind Energy Career Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwen Andersen

    2012-03-29

    Saint Francis University has developed curriculum in engineering and in business that is meeting the needs of students and employers (Task 1) as well as integrating wind energy throughout the curriculum. Through a variety of approaches, the University engaged in public outreach and education that reached over 2,000 people annually (Task 2). We have demonstrated, through the success of these programs, that students are eager to prepare for emerging jobs in alternative energy, that employers are willing to assist in developing employees who understand the broader business and policy context of the industry, and that people want to learn about wind energy.

  15. Energy Supply In A Building Via A Photovoltaic-Thermal Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Yilmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fact that a PV-thermal energy system can supply energy for hot water and heating in a building is of vital importance for the proliferation of renewable energy sources. Central heating boilers are used in case of insufficient solar energy. This study mainly focuses on the planning of a PV-thermal power system for optimal energy supply in a building and a simulated performance analysis.

  16. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  17. 77 FR 1649 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed determination... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW... benefits on energy supply, distribution, and use. DOE has concluded that today's regulatory action...

  18. Energy Industry Powers CTE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

  19. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  1. Wind energy: Program overview, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The DOE Wind Energy Program assists utilities and industry in developing advanced wind turbine technology to be economically competitive as an energy source in the marketplace and in developing new markets and applications for wind systems. This program overview describes the commercial development of wind power, wind turbine development, utility programs, industry programs, wind resources, applied research in wind energy, and the program structure.

  2. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to...

  3. ARE. Regional energy supplies - progress report 2000-2001; ARE. Regionale Energieversorgung 2000-2001. Taetigkeitsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    The ARE progress report discusses the following issues: Economic development and its effects on power supply; Deregulation of the electricity and gas market; Competition between regional utilities; Energy policy of the new German government; European regulations; Legislation on energy supply; Energy supply and cartel law; Regional supply in the East German states. [German] Der Taetigkeitsbericht der ARE befasst sich mit folgenden Themen: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung und ihre Auswirkung auf die Energiewirtschaft, Oeffnung des Monopoles fuer Strom und Gas, Wettbewerb der regionalen Energieversorger, Energiepolitik der neuen Bundesregierung, Europaeische Richtlininen, energiewirtschaftsrecht, Versorgungswirtschaft und Kartellrecht und der Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern.

  4. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens (Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    comes to the purchase costs and the railroad and large-scale sea transport costs. It is also worth noticing that the cost estimation models used in this study sometimes contain large steps for the different cost situations. This is the case for small-scale/base-load ships, purchase cost for Norwegian/Algerian LNG and wagon transport/system trains. The results are hence sometimes less accurate. As a side assignment, the costs for peak-shaving by the use of LNG is looked into. 20-30 MW for 24 hours per year need to be cut at Oeresundskraft's combined power and heat plant in Helsingborg. Here, the possibility of utilising portable LNG containers (as used by the Norwegian company Liquiline) is studied. In order to indicate the extent to which some key parameters affect the final cost, sensitivity analysis is carried out on the purchase price and the terminal costs. The results show that the Norwegian LNG costs 560-608 SEK/MWh (road), 570-689 SEK/MWh (railroad) and 537-555 SEK/MWh (sea). Algerian LNG costs 315-324 SEK/MWh (sea). The large difference between Norwegian and Algerian LNG is caused primarily by the much lower purchase costs of Algerian LNG, and also due to the difference in sea shipping costs. The purchase cost is about 80 % of the total cost for all cases. The transport cost is between 3 and 6 % and the terminal costs the balance, making it a larger component in the cases of Algerian than Norwegian LNG. It is shown that LNG could be an alternative to secure the Natural Gas supply after the Danish supply has run out. It has proven safe and the market is getting more and more mature. The fate of base-load LNG is largely determined by the other Natural Gas projects in the Nordic countries. The Natural Gas market price largely follows the oil price and as a consequence from this, LNG prices are also linked to the source of energy which it is primarily supposed to replace. The question is whether the market price is reduced - or at least less increased - due to

  5. Description of the global petroleum supply and demand outlook updated for the 1993 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand, December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1992-12-01

    Strategic planning of the research and development program carried out by Gas Research Institute (GRI) is supported by an annual GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand. Because petroleum products compete in a wide variety of energy uses, oil prices serve as a market clearing force for the entire energy system. A significant portion of the U.S. petroleum supply is imported, and the price of crude oil to U.S. refiners is determined by the international oil trade. Any projection of the U.S. energy situation, therefore, requires the evaluation of the global oil market and the impact of oil price changes on the supply/demand balances of market participants. The 1992 edition of the projection completed in August 1991 assumed that in the aftermath of the war in the Middle East the fundamentals of oil trade would reassert their influence. This did indeed occur and with astonishing speed. In the face of this outlook, GRI has revised its 1993 oil price track downward.

  6. Energy Trading and Pricing in Microgrids with Uncertain Energy Supply: A Three-Stage Hierarchical Game Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Ma; Shubing Hu; Jie Yang; Chunxia Dou; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE) generation (wind power) determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profit, and then the consumers determine their energy demands to maximize their payoffs. The hierarchical game is established between the energy provider and the consumers. The energy provider is the leade...

  7. The role of wind energy in the programme of power supply of northern Russia territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezroukikh, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    In this article examined technical, management and economic problems has been arising during working out of above mentioned Power Supply Programm based on the renewable energy sources usage and proved the leading role of wind energy in this Programm. (author)

  8. Global energy trends and their effects on energy supply in Germany; Globale Energietrends und deren Auswirkungen auf die deutsche Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandis, Ruprecht [BP Europa SE, Berlin (Germany). External Affairs Deutschland

    2012-10-15

    Starting from an outline of the key issues of the German energy turnaround policy in the context of international perspectives, the author presents ten central trends of global energy supply. All of these trends are reviewed in detail and are then grouped in different categories as a basis for further discussion in Germany of the future of the national power supply system.

  9. Export growth, energy costs, and sustainable supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The report examines sustainable supply chains in North America and the role played by rail intermodal : operations in lowering ten-mile fuel and emission costs. It examines whether current systems favor imports : over exports a current complaint ...

  10. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  11. Projective synchronization of chaotic fractional-order energy resources demand-supply systems via linear control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Baogui; Chen, Tong; Liu, Yanqin

    2011-11-01

    A fractional-order energy resources demand-supply system is proposed. A projective synchronization scheme is proposed as an extension on the synchronization scheme of Odibat et al. (2010). The scheme is applied to achieve projective synchronization of the chaotic fractional-order energy resource demand-supply systems. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  12. Supply reliability and dynamic safety analysis of an alternative energy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Markert, Frank; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    by utilizing Dis-crete Event Simulation (DES). The industrial implication of this work is to provide practitioners with an anal-ysis framework for improved decision support. The novelty of this paper is the approach to model a supply chain together with a dynamically modelled event tree-based approach...

  13. Circuit for supplying energy from a battery to an energy-using device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullersman, F.H.; Mc Clelland, M.E.

    1987-10-06

    A circuit is described for supplying energy to the load of an energy-using device having a minimum operating voltage below which the device is not fully operable. The circuit comprises: a battery comprised of electrochemical cells connected in series with respect to each other and with respect to the load. The cells comprise a first portion of cells and a second portion of cells. Each cell in the first portion has a deliverable energy capacity in excess of the deliverable energy capacity of each cell in the second portion. The circuit is operable in a first mode to deliver energy to the load simultaneously from each cell and operable in a second mode to deliver energy to the load from only the first portion of cells. The number of cells in the first portion is less than the number of cells in the second portion and the voltage delivered by the first portion of cells is less than the voltage delivered by the second portion of cells; means disposed in the circuit for sensing a characteristic of the battery during the first mode of operation. The characteristic indicative of the energy remaining in the second portion of cells during the first mode of operation; and means for switching the circuit from the first mode to the second mode in response to the sensed characteristic indicating near depletion of deliverable energy from the second portion of cells.

  14. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  15. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  16. Emergency and backup power supplies at Department of Energy facilities: Augmented Evaluation Team -- Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Defense Programs (DP) Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) review of emergency and backup power supplies (i.e., generator, uninterruptible power supply, and battery systems) at DP facilities. The review was conducted in response to concerns expressed by former Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins over the number of incidents where backup power sources failed to provide electrical power during tests or actual demands. The AET conducted a series of on-site reviews for the purpose of understanding the design, operation, maintenance, and safety significance of emergency and backup power (E&BP) supplies. The AET found that the quality of programs related to maintenance of backup power systems varies greatly among the sites visited, and often among facilities at the same site. No major safety issues were identified. However, there are areas where the AET believes the reliability of emergency and backup power systems can and should be improved. Recommendations for improving the performance of E&BP systems are provided in this report. The report also discusses progress made by Management and Operating (M&O) contractors to improve the reliability of backup sources used in safety significant applications. One area that requires further attention is the analysis and understanding of the safety implications of backup power equipment. This understanding is needed for proper graded-approach implementation of Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, and to help ensure that equipment important to the safety of DOE workers, the public, and the environment is identified, classified, recognized, and treated as such by designers, users, and maintainers. Another area considered important for improving E&BP system performance is the assignment of overall ownership responsibility and authority for ensuring that E&BP equipment performs adequately and that reliability and availability are maintained at acceptable levels.

  17. Perspective on the energy future of the Northeast United States. [Reduce demand and develop diversified supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, J.; Davitian, H.; Goettle, R. IV; Palmedo, P.F.

    1976-06-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the implications of alternative energy futures for the northeastern U.S. First, the past and present energy supply and demand patterns for the U.S. and the northeast region are reviewed. Then, on the basis of detailed analyses of present and possible future supply and demand activities, scenarios for the years 1985 and 2000 are constructed and compared to examine the implications of various policies that will affect future supply and demand activities. Economic and environmental consequences are also discussed. The principal findings of the study are these: (1) conservation measures can reduce fuel and resource requirements in the northeast by over 30 percent; (2) oil imports are likely to continue to be a major energy resource for the northeast since only if strong conservation measures are combined with large increases in U.S. energy supplies is there apt to be a substantial decline in oil imports to the region; (3) a shift to coal and other alternate energy supplies, coupled with increased conservation, could compensate for a curtailment in the use of nuclear power in the region; (4) new resource technologies are capable of supplying up to 20 percent of the region's energy requirements in 2000; (5) no single supply technology or single conservation strategy taken alone can reduce the region's increasing dependence on foreign oil. Rather, the creation of an acceptable energy system for the region will require efforts in many directions in terms both of reducing demand and developing reliable, diversified supplies.

  18. Siting studies for an asymptotic U. S. energy supply system based primarily on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear energy center (NEC) concept is an approach to siting wherein nuclear facilities would be clustered in and delimited to a relatively small number of locations throughout the United States. These designated centers would be concurrently developed to their full capability over several decades, at which time, they would be several times larger than the largest nuclear power stations in existence today. The centers would be permanently dedicated to nuclear operations including the future decommissioning of functionally obsolescent facilities as well as the commissioning of their replacements. The criteria for and characteristics of an acceptable nuclear energy system that could supply most of the U.S. energy requirements in the distant future are discussed. The time period is unspecified but occurs when fossil-fuel resources are depleted to such an extent that their use is economic only in special situations, and is not economic, in general, for use as fuel.

  19. Changing Strategies in Global Wind Energy Shipping, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    , the paper reviews different wind energy markets globally. Subsequently, a number of supply chain set-ups serviced by the shipping, logistics, and supply chain management industry are reviewed. Finally, winning business models and strategies of current as well as emerging supply chain constituencies......Within the global wind energy market, a number of derived industries support the continued expansion of the ever larger onshore and offshore wind farms. One such derived industry is that of shipping, logistics, and supply chain management. Based on extensive case study work performed since 2009...

  20. The role of supply chain action programs in achieving operational performance excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Sami; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Boer, Harry

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of five individual supply chain action programs on cost and speed aspects of procurement and manufacturing performance. The study is based on the IMSS-IV database. As should be expected, supply chain action programs have stronger effects on externally oriented ...

  1. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  2. Challenges in energy supply and infrastructural development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the overall, developing countries must address the eminent energy challenges and invest more towards energy security as the key to industrialization and economic development. National energy mix must also be diversified to cover alternative fuels and renewable energy sources to ensure sustainability. Keywords: ...

  3. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-03-01

    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  4. Status summary of chemical processing development in plutonium-238 supply program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wham, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DePaoli, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sherman, Steven R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This document summarizes the status of development of chemical processing in the Plutonium-238 Supply Program (PSP) near the end of Demonstration 1. The objective of the PSP is “to develop, demonstrate, and document a production process that meets program objectives and to prepare for its operation” (Frazier et al. 2016). Success in the effort includes establishing capability using the current infrastructure to produce Np targets for irradiation in Department of Energy research reactors, chemically processing the irradiated targets to separate and purify the produced Pu and transferring the PuO2 product to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at an average rate of 1.5 kg/y.

  5. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  6. Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on model approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs. It describes several standard approaches that can be used in order to make these programs more efficient.

  7. Low Carbon Energy Supply for South East Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Ćosić, B.

    2015-01-01

    -neutral. Smart energy systems’ approach has been used in planning of 100% RES, which considers significant integration of the electrical, heating and gas sectors. Many technologies have been employed in the year 2050, but the major share is put on photovoltaics and wind energy, followed by geothermal, solar......South East Europe consists of several smaller countries in terms of energy systems and thus,integrating energy systems of the whole region has significant benefits for all the countries included. However, as there are large differences between energy mixes of the countries included, careful energy...... planning needs to be carried out in order to satisfy energy needs of all the countries of the region.Due to the significant differences in geography and the climate of different parts of the region, many different technologies need to be introduced in order to have optimal, low-carbon energy mix...

  8. Evaluating the environmental impacts of the energy system: The ENPEP (ENergy and Power Evaluation Program) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, B.P.; Sapinski, P.F.; Cirillo, R.R.; Buehring, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), a PC-based energy planning package intended for energy/environmental analysis in developing countries. The IMPACTS module of ENPEP examines environmental implications of overall energy and electricity supply strategies that can be developed with other ENPEP modules, including ELECTRIC, the International Atomic Energy Agency's Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III). The paper presents the status and characteristics of a new IMPACTS module that is now under development at ANL. 3 figs.

  9. The Outlook for Energy Supply and Demand (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    These lectures will review the challenges facing energy policy, the outlook for different sources of primary energy (fossil and renewable), how energy is used, and prospects for improved energy efficiency. A colloquium ‘Can Future Energy Needs be Met Sustainably?’, that I will be giving on Tuesday 15 September at 16:30, is part of this course – see separate Abstract for a summary. The lectures will provide more details and address topics that will only be mentioned in passing in the colloquium.

  10. Optimal combination of energy storages for prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Siemer, Lars; Agert, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources require measures to balance power generation and load at all times. The utilisation of storage devices and backup power plants is widely suggested for this purpose, whereas the best combination is still to be found. In this work, we present a modelling approach to systematically study scenarios of future power supply systems with a high share of electricity originating from wind and solar resources. By considering backup as a subordinate source of electricity with energy-only costs, the approach is independent of the actual full-load hours of the backup power plants. Applying the approach to multi-year meteorological data for Germany, cost-optimised combinations of storage devices and backup power are identified. We find that even in scenarios with significant excess generation capacities there is a need for storage devices or backup power plants with discharging power on the same order as the average load to balance the system at all times. F...

  11. Energy-Saving Optimization of Water Supply Pumping Station Life Cycle Based on BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Miao; Wang, Jiayuan; Liu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    In the urban water supply system, pump station is the main unit of energy consumption. In the background of pushing forward the informatization in China, using BIM technology in design, construction and operations of water supply pumping station, can break through the limitations of the traditional model and effectively achieve the goal of energy conservation and emissions reduction. This work researches the way to solve energy-saving optimization problems in the process of whole life cycle of water supply pumping station based on BIM technology, and put forward the feasible strategies of BIM application in order to realize the healthy and sustainable development goals by establishing the BIM model of water supply pumping station of Qingdao Guzhenkou water supply project.

  12. Management Methods by Development of Objects of Energy Supply Taking into Account the Combined Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillova Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the methods of choice of optimal administrative decisions are examined on the development of objects energy supplies of housing and communal services. That would take into account nascent risks related to investment-building activity of energy supplying enterprises. It is shown that the basic condition of housing and utilities on an energy supply is the building of objects with a subsequent production, distribution and realization of electric energy, that allows at their reproduction to provide quality and reliability of energy supply to the consumers. Also the questions of decline of risks and exposure of factors, influencing on the processes of management development of objects of energy supply in the field of housing and utilities, estimation of organizationally-economic reliability and combined risks, estimation of possibility of the use of innovative energy technologies, alternative sources of energy supply, are investigated in the article. It is fixed, that risk indexes must be appraised not only on the investment stage of building object, but also on his operating stage (after commissioning on the basis of account of the great number of risks characterizing the combined risk.

  13. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  14. Increasing RES Penetration and Security of Energy Supply by Use of Energy Storages and Heat Pumps in Croatian Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajačić, Goran; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duić, Neven

    2010-01-01

    electricity, heat and transport demands, and including renewable energy, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating. Using the 2007 energy system the wind power share is increased by two energy storage options: Pumped hydro and heat pumps in combination with heat storages......In this paper integration of wind power generation into the Croatian electricity supply is analysed using available technologies. The starting point is a model of the energy system in Croatia in 2007. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting....... The results show that such options can enable an increased penetration of wind power. Using pumped hydro storage (PHS) may increase wind power penetration from 0.5 TWh, for existing PHS installations and up to 6 TWh for very large installations. Using large heat pumps and heat storages in combination...

  15. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  16. Results. Building integrated energy supply; Resultater. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations of which the best combinations were selected. The final result takes form of a single top-50 list with the best combinations of energy systems according to CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. The present report contains the conclusions of and comments on the project's results. (ln)

  17. A Queuing Approach for Energy Supply in Manufacturing Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zavanella, Lucio; Ferretti, Ivan; Zanoni, Simone; Bettoni, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Sustainable Production; International audience; Nowadays increasing energy efficiency is one of the main objectives of manufacturing systems so as to remain competitive despite of the foreseen increase in energy prices for the next years. We propose a novel queuing-based model for the appreciation of the energy consumption on a company base, so as to optimize the total energy costs due to electricity utilization.We propose an analytical model based on the extension of the M[x]/M/∞ mod...

  18. Analysis of the Possible Use of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in Urban Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Đurin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of water supply for the sustainability of urban areas, and due to the significant consumption of energy with prices increasing every day, an alternative solution for sustainable energy supply should be sought in the field of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. An innovative solution as presented in this paper has until now not been comprehensively analyzed. This work presents the solution with the application of a (Photovoltaic PV generator. The main technological features, in addition to the designing methodology and case study are presented in this paper. The critical period approach has been used for the first time for system sizing. The application of this sizing method provides a high reliability of the proposed system. The obtained results confirm the assumption that the PV generator is a promising energy sustainable solution for urban water supply systems. The service reservoir, which acts as water and energy storage for the proposed system, provides the basis for a sustainable solution of water and energy supply. In accordance with the proposed, the reliability of such system is high. This concept of energy supply operation does not generate any atmospheric emission of greenhouse gases, which contributes significantly to the reduction of the impacts of climate changes. The proposed solution and designing methodology are widely applicable and in accordance with the characteristics of the water supply system and climate.

  19. Analysis of the Robustness of Australia Economy and Energy Supply/Demand Fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslani Alireza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy has a strategic role in social and economic development of the countries. Due to the high dependency of energy supply to fossil fuels, fluctuations in prices and supply have macro/micro-economics effects for both energy exporters and importers. Therefore, understanding economic stability based on energy market changes is an important subject for policy makers and researchers. As the competitiveness of Australia products/services has high dependency on energy prices, analyzing the relationships of economics robustness with fossil fuel fluctuations is important for the policy makers and researchers. In this paper, the researchers investigate the effects of energy changes on Australian economics. In this regard, first, the impact of oil price on macro-economic parameters is discussed. After that, the main issues related to energy economics including resilience of the energy sector, energy policies, economics analysis of the energy sector, electricity markets are discussed.

  20. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B; Dragutinović Nataša G

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES) for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system...

  1. Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes a modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to the supply chain energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of goods and services purchased by U.S. consumers. The framework couples an input-output supply chain modeling approach with"bottom-up" fuel end use models for individual IO sectors. This fuel end use modeling detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the supply chain energy and GHG"footprints" of goods and services. To illustrate the policy-relevance of thisapproach, a case study was conducted to estimate achievable household GHG footprint reductions associated with the adoption of best practice energy-efficient supply chain technologies.

  2. Modelling a sector undergoing structural change: The case of Danish energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    emphasises that the large reduction potential of emissions from the energy supply sector is a one-time gain. Fuel switching and increasing use of wind power cannot be repeated. Scenarios carried out with the combined model show that emission reduction in the energy supply sector will decrease the share......This paper examines structural change in the power and heat producing sector (energy supply) and its implications for the economy. An integrated approach is used to describe the interactions between this sector and the rest of the economy. Thus, a very detailed model of the sector for Denmark has...... been linked to a macroeconometric model of the Danish economy. It is argued that analysing sectors that undergo radical changes, for example, the energy supply sector should be undertaken by using a model that describes the technological and organisational changes in production along with implications...

  3. Analysis of rural household energy supplies in Sri Lanka: energy efficiency, fuel switching and barriers to expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Attalage, Rahula A. [Moratuwa Univ., Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2003-05-01

    A majority of the households in Sri Lanka, as in the case of many developing countries, is concentrated in the rural areas of the country. Unfortunately, very little attention has been paid until recently to analyse and address various issues associated with rural energy supplies, particularly those issues regarding barriers to penetration of clean and convenient sources of energy. This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted through a sample study on domestic energy supplies in rural Sri Lanka with emphasis on cooking and lighting energy requirements. The paper has attempted to highlight policy issues associated with rural energy supplies and possible solutions to them in the context of the country's overall picture of the energy sector. (Author)

  4. Noise propagation effects in power supply distribution systems for high-energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.; Iglesias, M.; Echeverria, I.; Pradas, A.; Arcega, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    High-energy physics experiments are supplied by thousands of power supply units placed in distant areas from the front-end electronics. The power supply units and the front-end electronics are connected through long power cables that propagate the output noise from the power supplies to the detector. This paper addresses the effect of long cables on the noise propagation and the impact that those cables have on the conducted emission levels required for the power supplies and the selection of EMI filters for the front-end electronic low-voltage input. This analysis is part of the electromagnetic compatibility based design focused on functional safety to define the type of cable, shield connections, EMI filters and power supply specifications required to ensure the successful integration of the detector and, specifically, to achieve the designed performance of the front-end electronics.

  5. Regenerative energy engineering. Overview of selected technologies to sustainable energy supply; Regenerative Energietechnik. Ueberblick ueber ausgewaehlte Technologien zur nachhaltigen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, Gerhard; Reppich, Marcus [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik

    2013-08-01

    Taking into account the aspects of security of supply, economic efficiency and climate protection as well as environmental protection, the energy industry is characterized by important modifications in the next decades. The textbook under consideration describes the basics of selected technologies of renewable energy sources which will have the greatest potential globally and long-term. The conversion and the use of solar radiation as well as wind energy are the focus of this textbook. Both technologies are essential components of a sustainable energy supply. Furthermore, types and applications of fuel cells are discussed. Examples of tasks and exercises facilitate and deepen the understanding.

  6. Energy storage in remote area power supply (RAPS) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    Preliminary cost analyses indicate that hybrid RAPS systems are more economically attractive as a means to provide electricity to remote villages than are alternatives such as 24 h diesel generation. A hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) system is being deployed to provide 24 h electricity to villages in the Amazon region of Peru. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kWh per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA gelled electrolyte batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an inverter. Despite early difficulties, the system in the first village has now commenced operation and the promise of RAPS schemes as a means for providing sustainable remote electrification appears to be bright.

  7. On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    five technologies, i.e., two on-site options: (1) photovoltaic, (2) micro combined heat and power, and three off-site options: (1) off-site windmill, (2) share of a windmill farm and (3) purchase of green energy from the 100% renewable utility grid. The results indicate that in case of the on......-site renewable supply options, the energy efficiency should be the first priority in order to design a cost-optimal Net ZEB. However, the results are opposite for the off-site renewable supply options, and thus it is more costeffective to invest in renewable energy technologies than in energy efficiency....

  8. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability AGENCY: Bureau... for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply projects intended to serve... helps rural communities assess their potable water needs and identify options to address those needs...

  9. RUSSIA'S STRATEGIC INTERESTS IN THE AREA OF SECURITY OF ENERGY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Lomakina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern world with linked and interpenetrating processes more and more often raises pressing issues of security and stability. However, in the past the term "security" was used in a broad strategic sense of the word (for example when describing country's border safety or territorial integrity, etc., nowadays this term is infl uenced by economic factors such as an important issue of security of energy supply. This issue should not be underestimated, even though it does not seem to play an important role in the country's security. The oil crises of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries have proved how much the global economy depends on the price of energy resources, an increase in which might provoke a dramatic recession not only in any given country but throughout the world.The traditional view holds that Russia could not be aff ected or infl uenced by any energy issues, since it has some of the richest energy resources in the world, hence the rising issues of security of energy supply were mostly neglected. However, the last few years have revealed the fl aws and shortsightedness of this approach. Irregularities in energy supply, the increasing shortages of natural gas and problems related to its transit to Europe are the first signs of forthcoming problems. If these problems are persistently ignored, it might lead to a full-scale energy crisis within the next few years. All of the above highlights the relevancy of the present article.The purpose of this article is to determine Russia's strategic interests in the area of global security of energy supply.With this in view the following objectives have been accomplished: The term of "security of energy supply" was defined in relation to the Russian Federation; Russia's energy policy was examined and analyzed; Priority tasks and objectives for Russia in the field of security of energy supply were defined.

  10. Fossil-energy program. Progress report for June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    This report - the eighty-third of series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, flue gas desulfurization, coal preparation waste utilization, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, TVA FBC demonstration plant program technical support, PFBC systems analysis, fossil fuel applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international energy technology assessment, generalized equilibrium models for liquid and gaseous fuel supplies, analyses of coal production goals, and fossil energy information center.

  11. Calculation steps. Building integrated energy supply; Beregningsgang. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations. The present report describes the applied simulation models, and explains the results and computer codes. The parameter variations are described for each house as well as the common calculation steps for each house. The results are presented in case sheets, as performance graphs, and top-50 lists for the best cases regarding CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. (ln)

  12. Combined Energy Supply System for Meat Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the development of technological schemes of energy production for this industry in terms of energy efficiency. Technical solution that can reduce cost of the final production of meat production plant has been presented. The main idea of the tehnical solution is the use of turboexpander, which must be installed on gas reduction station near meat processing plant in the packet with the „air-water” gas – driven heat pump, which gas cooler serves as gas heating unit for the first stage of turboexpander. The thermal exit of gas engine serves as gas heating unit for the second stage of turboexpander and as heat energy generator for the plant and source of the heat for one of the evaporators of heat pump, as well. The second evaporator of heat pump is connected with the cold consuming equipment of the plant. The electric energy, which is produced by gas engine is consumed by heat pump compressor and electric equipment of the plant. Electric energy, which is produced by turbo expander is transmitted to the electric grid. The proposed technical solution can be used to reduce natural gas consumption on meat processing plants and the cost of production of electricity, heat and cold.

  13. Security of energy supply. Facts and possibilities for action; Energiesicherheit. Fakten und Handlungsmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Juergen-Friedrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung (IEK), Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEK-STE); Rath-Nagel, Stefan

    2015-04-15

    The energy infrastructure of a country has a decisive influence on the standard of living there, the competitiveness of its economy and its inner political stability. In the debate about the energy transition in Germany attention is primarily being focused on the future energy mix and how it might change, but in particular on the technical challenges involved as well as the costs of the transition as a whole. Given the growing instability that will arise in the electricity networks in the process of transition, as well as the problems that could occur with the supply of natural gas as a result of the Ukraine crisis, the issue of security of energy supply in Germany (as well as Europe) needs to be addressed anew: Is the energy supply at risk? What sources are available at home and abroad, and what leeway is there for changing the procurement mix?.

  14. Sustainable energy development and water supply security in Kamojang Geothermal Field: The Energy-Water Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Kamojang Geothermal Field (KGF) is a typical vapor dominated hydrothermal system in West Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is the oldest exploited geothermal field in Indonesia. From 1983 to 2005, more than 160 million tons of steam have been exploited from the KGF and more than 30 million tons of water were injected into the reservoir system. The injected water come from condensed water, local river and ground water. Sustainable production in the geothermal energy development is the ability of the production system applied to sustain the stable production level over long times and to manage the mass balance between production, injection and natural recharge in the geothermal reservoir during exploitation. Mass balance in the reservoir system can be monitored by using time lapse gravity monitoring. Mass variation of hydrodynamic in the reservoir of KGF from 1999 to 2005 is about -3.34 Mt/year while is about -3.78 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Another period between 2009 and 2010, mass variation decreased about -8.24 Mt. According to the history of production and injection, natural recharge to the KGF's reservoir is estimated at about 2.77 Mt/year from 1999 to 2005 and 2.75 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Between 2009 and 2010, KGF has a bigger mass deficiency rate throughout 200 MWe maintain production. Large amount of fresh water is needed for sustainable geothermal energy production, while the domestic water supply need is also increased. Natural recharge, about 50% of injected water, cooling system, drilling and other production activities in KGF spend large amounts of fresh water. Water consumption for local people around KGF is about 1.46 MT/year. The water volume around KGF of total runoff is the range between dry season 0.07 MT/month and rainy season 4.4 MT/month. The water demands for sustainable geothermal production of KGF and for local people's consumption will increase in the future. Integrated planning between the energy and water sectors in KGF

  15. Techniques for Improving Energy Efficiency at Water Supply Pumping Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Research Program. The technical monitors for this program in the Office, Chief of Engineers, were Mr. James Ballif (DAEN-ECE-B) and Mr. Robert Daniel (DAEN...7. Procedures for generating operation rule curves have been developed y DeMoyer and Horwitz (1975), Sterling and Coulbeck (1975a, b), and Sabet ...information, contact Dr. Thomas M. Walski (WESEE-R), Comm 601-634-3931 or FTS 542-3931. II. References. a. Sabet , H. H., and 0. J. Helweg, 1985, "Cost

  16. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Energy Supply for Pasvalys Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Siniak

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the current heating system in Pasvalys. To improve the efficiency of the system, three alternatives are investigated. The paper presents the calculations of the need for annual heat demand in the town. Based on the available information and data about the systems and their elements, life cycle analysis and multi-criteria analysis were made displaying the obtained results in the article. Currently, environmental protection is closely related to the energy field, and therefore the system is analyzed in respect of energy and ecological aspects, including an economic point of view.Article in Lithuanian

  17. The impact of environmental supply chain sustainability programs on shareholder wealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, Lammertjan; Petkova, Boyana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Multinationals are increasingly pressured by stakeholders to commit to environmental sustainability that exceeds their own firm borders. As a result, multinationals have started to commit to environmental supply chain sustainability programs (ESCSPs). However, little is known about whether

  18. Supply Inventory Management: Industrial Prime Vendor Program at the Air Force Air Logistics Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... in maintenance, repair, and overhaul facilities. The IPV Program is a customer-oriented, supply-chain management initiative that transfers complete responsibility for bench-stock material to a third-party vendor...

  19. Policy Instruments for an Increased Supply of Energy Crops; Styrmedel foer ett utoekat utbud av biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Widmark, Annika; Wiklund, Sven-Erik; Liljeblad, Anna

    2009-05-15

    At present, energy crops are not commonly used as fuel for heat and power production in Sweden, but as a result of increased competition for biomass, the interest for agricultural fuels such as willow, straw, reed canary grass and hemp increases. The purpose of this study is through a qualitative study that includes a literature study as well as case studies carried out by interviews, with respondents in the agriculture- and energy sectors highlight the conditions for increased production and use of energy crops. The main objective is to propose relevant policy instruments that could increase the production and use of energy crops. The purpose with the proposed policy instruments is that they should serve as a basis for discussions with politicians and authorities regarding the supply of bio fuels through the use of energy crops. The result of the study indicates that the main obstacle for increasing the production and use of energy crops is that the cultivation of energy crops today is unprofitable. To reduce the production costs it is necessary to improve the competitiveness of energy crops, primarily in relation to wood chips. The study shows that there is a potential for reduction of production costs through development of the logistics chain. Policy measures promoting the use of bio fuels exists today, but are not fully used to increase the share of energy crops in the bio fuel energy mix. The reason for this is that they are generally not as cost efficient as alternative bio fuels. It is important that competition issues are addressed, both regarding competition issues between different bio fuels, but also competition issues between various energy crops that exists today. Further obstacles to accelerate the introduction of energy crops at the market are high investment costs for establishment of some of the energy crops. From the analysis in this study, the following policy instruments are suggested in order to increase the production and the use of energy

  20. Foreign Direct Investment and Energy Supply in the Middle East and North Africa: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghali, Siddig

    Middle East and North Africa countries have been criticized for failing to utilize foreign direct investment energy resources efficiently. The changing of energy resources environment of the past decades with its growing emphasis on the importance of imminent energy supply challenges require strategists to consider different types of energy resources investment to improve energy supply. One type of energy investment will show effectiveness and efficiency in utilizing foreign direct investment in exposing RE, fossil fuels, natural gas, and reducing CO2 emissions. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to utilize foreign direct investment to predict total primary energy supply in the Middle East and North Africa region between 1971 and 2013. The study was conducted using a sample size of 43 years of energy supply resources and foreign direct investment from 1971 to 2013, which includes all of the years for which FDI is available. RE potential may equip Middle East and North Africa countries with sustainable and clean electricity for centuries to come, as non-renewable energy resources may not meet the demands globally and domestically or environmentally. As demands for fossil fuels grow, carbon emissions will increase. RE may be a better option of CO 2 emissions sequestration and will increase electricity to rural areas without government subsidies and complex decision-making policies. RE infrastructure will reduce water desalinization costs, cooling systems, and be useful in heating. Establishing concentrated solar power may be useful for the region cooperation, negotiations, and integration to share this energy. The alternative sought to fossil fuels was nuclear power. However, nuclear power depends on depleting, non-renewable uranium resources. The cost of uranium will increase if widely used and the presence of a nuclear plant in an unstable region is unsafe. Thus, renewable energy as a long-term option is efficient. A nonlinear regression

  1. Integrating strategic and tactical decisions in livestock supply chain using bi-level programming, case study: Iran poultry supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimoury, Ebrahim; Jabbarzadeh, Armin; Babaei, Mohammadhosein

    2017-01-01

    Inventory management has frequently been targeted by researchers as one of the most pivotal problems in supply chain management. With the expansion of research studies on inventory management in supply chains, perishable inventory has been introduced and its fundamental differences from non-perishable inventory have been emphasized. This article presents livestock as a type of inventory that has been less studied in the literature. Differences between different inventory types, affect various levels of strategic, tactical and operational decision-making. In most articles, different levels of decision-making are discussed independently and sequentially. In this paper, not only is the livestock inventory introduced, but also a model has been developed to integrate decisions across different levels of decision-making using bi-level programming. Computational results indicate that the proposed bi-level approach is more efficient than the sequential decision-making approach.

  2. Influence of spatially varying costs on structure and operation of energy storages and supply facilities in a local energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmaier, A.; Eggers, J.; Herkel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal and Electrical Energy Storage (TES and EES) systems can balance the fluctuating energy supply of renewable energy sources for satisfying the energy demands. The extension of central TES systems is an appropriate measure for buffering surplus heat which can be produced by Combined Heat and Power Plants (CHP) or Heat Pumps (HP) for acting optimally on the electricity market. In addition, EES systems installed in combination with roof-top photovoltaic (PV) power plants can increase the s...

  3. Energy Choices. Global Energy Trends and Problems to Supply the Energy Demand; Vaegval Energi. Globala energitrender och problem att tillgodose energibehoven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Although the use of renewable fuels is increasing, oil and other fossil fuels still dominate the global energy supply the next decades, as shown by a review of energy sector development from 1990 to today and projections up to 2030. Nothing indicates that the supplies of oil or any other fossil fuel will be depleted during the coming decades. Resource Nationalism has long characterized the oil market. OPEC has since 1970 successfully controlled the supply and price of oil for its producing member countries. The cartel's grip on the oil market has been strengthened in the 2000s commodity boom, not least as a result of improved production discipline among member countries. At the same time, the long-term trend in the world's great centers of consumption is towards a lower degree of self-sufficiency in energy. The EU dependence on import of oil is expected to rise to over ninety per cent by year 2030. In order to secure a stable energy supply, clear strategies in the oil-importing countries are needed. Tools include diversified import, storage and securing supplies through futures trading on commodity exchanges. Energy policy has long been focused on supply. But the environmental aspects of energy production and use has grown in importance and now the climate issue dominates the energy policy. So far, however, the policy measures to curb the effects of climate change has been both limited and cost-ineffective. The cost to seriously limit emissions of greenhouse gases will be high. To carry out serious climate measures will annually take at least one percent of global GDP, according to an estimate by the British economist Nicholas Stern. This can be compared to the additional cost of approximately five percent of global GDP as energy consumers had to absorb between 2005 and 2008 because of rising prices for fossil fuels

  4. Fission energy program of the U. S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The document describes programs managed by the Program Director for Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy, and under the cognizance of the Committee on Science and Technology, United States House of Representatives. The major portion of the document is concerned with civilian nuclear power development, the policy for which has been established by the National Energy Plan of April 1977, but it also includes descriptions of the space applications and naval reactor programs.

  5. Solar energy for self-contained power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobov Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy relevance in self-contained utility system as well as economic feasibility for each class of consumers considered. The article will outline utilising features of self-contained photovoltaic stations in Middle East and Northern Africa.

  6. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  7. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe; Kernenergie im Kontext einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung fuer Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilden, W. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  8. Life-cycle energy impacts for adapting an urban water supply system to droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad; Lane, Joe L; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, cities in some water stressed regions have explored alternative water sources such as seawater desalination and potable water recycling in spite of concerns over increasing energy consumption. In this study, we evaluate the current and future life-cycle energy impacts of four alternative water supply strategies introduced during a decade-long drought in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. These strategies were: seawater desalination, indirect potable water recycling, network integration, and rainwater tanks. Our work highlights the energy burden of alternative water supply strategies which added approximately 24% life-cycle energy use to the existing supply system (with surface water sources) in SEQ even for a current post-drought low utilisation status. Over half of this additional life-cycle energy use was from the centralised alternative supply strategies. Rainwater tanks contributed an estimated 3% to regional water supply, but added over 10% life-cycle energy use to the existing system. In the future scenario analysis, we compare the life-cycle energy use between "Normal", "Dry", "High water demand" and "Design capacity" scenarios. In the "Normal" scenario, a long-term low utilisation of the desalination system and the water recycling system has greatly reduced the energy burden of these centralised strategies to only 13%. In contrast, higher utilisation in the unlikely "Dry" and "Design capacity" scenarios add 86% and 140% to life-cycle energy use of the existing system respectively. In the "High water demand" scenario, a 20% increase in per capita water use over 20 years "consumes" more energy than is used by the four alternative strategies in the "Normal" scenario. This research provides insight for developing more realistic long-term scenarios to evaluate and compare life-cycle energy impacts of drought-adaptation infrastructure and regional decentralised water sources. Scenario building for life-cycle assessments of water supply

  9. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Supply Chain Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the working of the Supplier Assessment Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The program supports many GSFC projects to ensure suppliers are aware of and are following the contractual requirements, to provide an independent assessment of the suppliers' processes, and provide suppliers' safety and mission assurance organizations information to make the changes within their organization.

  10. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  12. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program. Bibliography, 1993 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1993-06-01

    The Bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of Bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.

  13. Environmental and energy performance of the biomass to synthetic natural gas supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan Hessels; Moll, Henri; Benders, Reinerus

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of the total primary energy demand in the European Union is met by natural gas. Synthetic natural gas produced through biomass gasification can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply system. A chain analysis of the energetic performance of synthetic natural gas where the upstream,

  14. Energy for freshwater supply, use and disposal in the Netherlands: a case study of Dutch households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    This study presents energy requirements for Dutch household water: 10.2 GJ per capita per year, which includes 9.3 GJ (92%) for heating water, 0.6 GJ (6%) for water supply, and 0.2 GJ for wastewater treatment (2%). The top three energy consumers include shower water (58%), dishwasher water (9%) and

  15. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  16. About economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotov, P. V.; Sivukhin, A. A.; Zhukov, D. A.; Zhukova, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The assessment of the power efficiency realized in the current of heat supply system of technology of regulation of loading of the hot water supply system, considering unevenness consumption of hot water is executed. For the purpose of definition the applicability boundary of realized technology comparative analysis of indicators of the effectiveness of its work within the possible range of the parameters of regulations. Developed a software application “The calculation of the total economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system when you change of the parameters of regulations”, which allows on the basis of multivariate calculations analyses of their results, to choose the optimum mode of operation heat supply system and to assess the effectiveness of load regulation in the hot water supply system.

  17. Operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.

    2012-06-15

    Ambitious international efforts to combat climate change have lead to a large interest about the use of forest biomass for energy in many countries. In order to meet the expected growing demand in the future, it will be necessary to improve operational efficiency of existing forest energy supply chains and support the establishment of efficient supply chains in new operational environments. The thesis applied a three-dimensional approach which examines forest energy supply chains from a technical, social and economic viewpoint. Four case studies in different operational environments have been carried out to investigate the applicability of the three dimensional approach to improve operational efficiency. The technical dimension was investigated in Paper 1 and 2. In Paper 1, the effects of climatic conditions, covering of piles, and partial debarking on drying of roundwood were studied in four experimental trials located in Scotland, Finland and Italy. In Paper 2, the chipping of forest biomass was studied in two different operational environments. The investigation of the social dimension in Paper 3 provides insights into the setup of two different supply chains through business process mapping and simulation. Finally, in paper 4, which investigated the economic dimension, an analysis of the effect of the operational environment on technology selection and design of supply chains, is presented. The thesis demonstrates that the chosen approach was practical to investigate the complex relationships between the chosen technologies and different supply chain actors and stakeholders thereby contributing to maintain or improve operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains. Due to its applicability in different operational environments, the approach is also suitable in a more global context. Furthermore, it captures the effect of different aspects and characteristics of the various operational environments on the setup and organization of supply chains. This will

  18. Fusion Energy Sciences Program at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeper, Ramon J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-15

    This presentation provides a strategic plan and description of investment areas; LANL vision for existing programs; FES portfolio and other specifics related to the Fusion Energy Sciences program at LANL.

  19. Mathematical Programming Model of Biodiesel Supply Chain in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Alexander Aranda Pinilla

    2014-06-01

    in order to coordinate a structured way fl ow of resources between the links in the chain starting with “harvesting” going through the middle steps of “extraction” and “conversion” until the fi nal step “mixture “, which are involved in the supply network. The goal of the model is to determine a distribution plan of palm, oil, biodiesel and diesel throughout the chain, along with a production and inventory plan, and a capacity increase plan for biorefi neries in a way that minimizes the total cost of the production chain over a predefi ned planning horizon. The application of the model results in a projection to the year 2043 showing the behavior of the chain, specifi cally soil requirements for such production levels.

  20. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  1. Edible energy: balancing inputs and waste in food supply chain and biofuels from algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Gianluca; Brambilla, Riccardo; Pileci, Rosaria; Romano, Riccardo; Rosa, Francesca; Spinicci, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Energy is life. Without it there is no water, there is no nutrition. Man's ability to live, grow, produce wealth is closely linked to the energy availability and use. Fire has been the first energy conversion technology; since that moment, the link between energy and progress has been indissoluble. Nowadays, a much greater energy input into the food supply chain has made a much higher food production possible. This might have an impact on the water availability. Algae are a promising solution for the energy-food-water nexus.

  2. Voltage balancing in modular energy storage of power supply for micro resistance welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhushko Yu. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro resistance welding is one of the most effective ways to obtain permanent joints of metal parts. The quality of welded joints strongly depends on the characteristics of the power supply of welding equipment. The power supplies for micro resistance welding based on Energy Storage topology have a softer impact on the network than the ones based on Direct Energy topology. The use of supercapacitors for Energy Storage type power supplies makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of welding equipment and to improve its technical parameters. However, the feature of the supercapacitors is low value of the nominal voltage, which usually does not exceed 3 V. To provide higher voltage, the modules of supercapacitors connected in series are designed. In order to extend the life time of such modules, a voltage balancing system is required. A circuit for balancing the voltage of a modular supercapacitor energy storage of a power supply for micro resistance welding is proposed. The fragments of calculation of control units of a supercapacitor module cell are given. The simulation of the balancing circuit operation is carried out and time charts of the supercapacitor charge process are obtained. The operability and effectiveness of the proposed solution is confirmed. The advantage of the proposed circuit is the possibility of obtaining the high efficiency because of returning the excessive energy of the module cell back into the power supply.

  3. Center for Advanced Energy Studies Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kostelnik

    2005-09-01

    The world is facing critical energy-related challenges regarding world and national energy demands, advanced science and energy technology delivery, nuclear engineering educational shortfalls, and adequately trained technical staff. Resolution of these issues is important for the United States to ensure a secure and affordable energy supply, which is essential for maintaining U.S. national security, continued economic prosperity, and future sustainable development. One way that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is addressing these challenges is by tasking the Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) with developing the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). By 2015, CAES will be a self-sustaining, world-class, academic and research institution where the INL; DOE; Idaho, regional, and other national universities; and the international community will cooperate to conduct critical energy-related research, classroom instruction, technical training, policy conceptualization, public dialogue, and other events.

  4. Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boellinghaus, Thomas; Lexow, Juergen (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Kishi, Teruo [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kitagawa, Masaki [Isobe Mihamaku, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO{sub 2} and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of {sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron

  5. A Power Supply System with ZVS and Current-Doubler Features for Hybrid Renewable Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye-Chau Su

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power supply system for hybrid renewable energy conversion is proposed, which can process PV (photovoltaic power and wind-turbine energy simultaneously for step-down voltage and high current applications. It is a dual-input converter and mainly contains a PV energy source, a wind turbine energy source, a zero-voltage-switching (ZVS forward converter, and a current-doubler rectifier. The proposed power supply system has the following advantages: (1 PV-arrays and wind-energy sources can alternatively deliver power to the load during climate or season alteration; (2 maximum power point tracking (MPPT can be accomplished for both different kinds of renewable-energy sources; (3 ZVS and synchronous rectification techniques for the active switches of the forward converter are embedded so as to reduce switching and conducting losses; and (4 electricity isolation is naturally obtained. To achieve an optimally dynamic response and to increase control flexibility, a digital signal processor (DSP is investigated and presented to implement MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. Finally, a 240 W prototype power supply system with ZVS and current-doubler features to deal with PV power and wind energy is built and implemented. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance and the feasibility of the proposed power supply system.

  6. FORMING OF THE SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINS BASED ON INCREASING OF THEIR INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHVETS V. J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Key challenges and barriers of mining machinery enterprises in the context of forming sustainable supply chains in the mining industry are specified. Methodology. The algorithm of forming the industrial relations, which are carried out by the enterprises of mining machinery in order to increase the sustainable development of a mining industry, is offered. Conclusions.. Modern supply chains are confronted with dynamic trends and developments that are hard to predict. In order to respond to these changes and remain competitive advantage, companies should be able to identify and understand new sustainability issues in their branches. It is established that in the conditions of globalization of the market and the general orientation of Ukraine’s economy to the European principles of development, for mining machinery enterprises a proof of the commitment and observance of requirements of energy efficiency, i.e. energy saving, energy safety and social energy responsibility are very important. Supply channels should increase not only energy efficiency, economic and production stability of the company, but also strengthen the stability of all participants in the production chain, as well as other stakeholders (business partners, customers, investors, local communities, etc.. Originality. The interrelation of an indicator of energy efficiency in forming sustainable supply chain in a mining industry is established. Practical value. Using the principles of sustainable development in the forming of value chains will improve energy efficiency of industry in general; provide a competitive advantage to entry into the global production chains in terms of European integration of Ukraine.

  7. Regional industrial ecology: examples from regional economic systems of forest industry and energy supply in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, J

    2001-12-01

    Industrial ecology (IE) promotes the development of industrial systems based on recycling of matter and cascading of energy through cooperation. In this paper, the local/regional industrial ecosystem approach is reflected in two examples from Finland. The local forest industry system is based on renewable resources, waste materials and energy utilisation between forestry companies, a saw-mill, a pulp mill, a paper mill and a forest industry power plant. Waste energy from electricity production is used for production of heat and process steam. Regional city energy supply systems in Finland are also to a large extent arranged around power plants that utilise waste energy. The potential of combining the forest industry system with the energy supply systems of cities is considered and the conditions for success in the Finnish case are discussed.

  8. The Kyoto protocol - a victim of supply security? or: if Maslow were in energy politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Christoph W. E-mail: christoph.frei@weforum.org

    2004-07-01

    History suggests that energy policy priorities can be stratified, similar to the way Maslow structured his famous pyramid of human needs. The essay below claims that access to energy, supply security, energy costs, environmental issues and social acceptance are not subject to trade-off, but to a hierarchy that underlies the importance of satisfying lower-order needs before addressing the higher-order needs. The essay demonstrates the hierarchy with an 'energy policy needs pyramid' based on historical evidence. The pyramid is used to analyze the viability of current items of the energy policy agenda. Conclusions indicate that the Kyoto protocol might be a victim of supply insecurity, that OPEC is good for the environment and that environmentalists should make the fight against energy poverty their first priority in order to achieve their overall goals.

  9. Estimates for the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany by 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flath, K.

    1981-01-01

    An essential statement of the forecasting is the continuous trend towards an economical and efficient use of energy, which is shown by the progressing decoupling of the growth of energy consumption and economic growth being expected by the 'Institutes'. The second remarkable development is the change in the field of mineral oil consumption which according to analyses will not only fall off quantitatively but will also reduce its share of energy consumption. In the mid-nineties energy supply might show a far more balanced structure as far as the securing of consumption is concerned: coal (hard coal and brown coal), petroleum and other energy sources could each make up a third of the consumption. Thus, in the foreseeable future, the continuing risks of our energy supply being dependent on imports could be reduced.

  10. Reducing supply chain energy use in next-generation vehicle lightweighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Das, Sujit; Carpenter, Alberta

    2016-09-29

    Vehicle lightweighting reduces the amount of fuel consumed in a vehicle's use phase, but depending on what lightweight materials replace the conventional materials, and in what amounts, the manufacturing energy may increase or decrease. For carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), a next-generation lightweighting material, the increase in vehicle manufacturing energy is greater than the fuel savings, resulting in a net increase in energy consumption over a vehicle's manufacturing and use relative to a standard non-lightweighted car. [1] This work explores ways to reduce the supply chain energy of CFRP lightweighted vehicles through alternative production technologies and energy efficiency improvements. The objective is to determine if CFRP can offer energy savings comparable to or greater than aluminum, a conventional lightweighting material. Results of this analysis can be used to inform additional research and development efforts in CFRP production and future directions in lightweight vehicle production. The CFRP supply chain is modeled using the Material Flows through Industry (MFI) scenario modeling tool, which calculates 'mine to materials' energy consumption, material inventories and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial supply chains. In this analysis, the MFI tool is used to model the supply chains of two lightweighted vehicles, an aluminum intensive vehicle (AIV) and a carbon fiber intensive vehicle (CFV), under several manufacturing scenarios. Vehicle specifications are given in [1]. Scenarios investigated cover alternative carbon fiber (CF) feedstocks and energy efficiency improvements at various points in the vehicle supply chains. The alternative CF feedstocks are polyacrylonitrile, lignin and petroleum-derived mesophase pitch. Scenarios in which the energy efficiency of CF and CFRP production increases are explored using sector efficiency potential values, which quantify the reduction in energy consumption achievable when process

  11. Developing Supply Chain Management Program: A Competency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Matthew H.; McSurely, Hugh B.; Tummala, V. M. Rao

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to show the process of designing and measuring learning competencies in program development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes cross-sectoral comparisons to draw on programmatic and pedagogical strategies, more commonly utilized in vocational education, and transfer the application of these strategies into…

  12. Biomass energy systems program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  13. Mimicking bipolar sextupole power supplies for low-energy operations at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag, C.; Bruno, D.; Jain, A.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2011-03-28

    RHIC operated at energies below the nominal ion injection energy of E=9.8 GeV/u in 2010. Earlier test runs and magnet measurements indicated that all defocusing sextupole unipolar power supplies should be reversed to provide the proper sign of chromaticity. However, vertical chromaticity at E=3.85 GeV/u with this power supply configuration was still not optimal. This uncertainty inspired a new machine configuration where only half of the defocusing sextupole power supplies were reversed, taking advantage of the flexibility of the RHIC nonlinear chromaticity correction system to mimic bipolar sextupoles. This configuration resulted in a 30 percent luminosity gain and eliminated the need for further polarity changes for later 2010 low energy physics operations. Here we describe the background to this problem, operational experience, and RHIC online model changes to implement this solution.

  14. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of microwave freeze drying on quality and energy supply in drying of barley grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2017-08-22

    Young barley grass leaves are well-known for containing the antioxidant substances flavonoid and chlorophyll. However, low product quality and energy efficiency exist with respect to the dehydration of barley grass leaves. To improve energy supply and the quality of barley grass, microwave heating instead of contact heat was applied for the freeze drying of barley grass at a pilot scale at 1, 1.5 and 2 W g-1 , respectively; After drying, energy supply and quality parameters of color, moisture content, chlorophyll, flavonoids, odors of dried barley grass were determined to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Microwave freeze drying (MFD) allowed a low energy supply and high contents of chlorophyll and flavonoids. A lightness value of 60.0, a green value of -11.5 and an energy supply of 0.61 kW h-1  g-1 were observed in 1.5 W g-1 MFD; whereas drying time (7 h) decreased by 42% compared to contact heating. Maximum content of flavonoid and chlorophyll was 11.7 and 12.8 g kg-1 barley grass. Microwave heating leads to an odor change larger than that for contact heating observed for the freeze drying of barley grass. MFD retains chlorophyll and flavonoids, as well as colors and odors of samples, and also decreases energy consumption in the freeze drying of barley grass. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. EVOLUTION OF THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN ENERGY RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestru MAXIMILIAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and political development of human society in recent decades put to the fore the issue of natural resources available to the earth; scientists are asking ever more seriously the question to what extent these resources can support the economic development in the future, can provide food and survival of a growing population and will be able to contribute to the eradication of underdevelopment. The emphasis of major events – the population explosion, the trend of depletion of natural resources, environmental deterioration, underdevelopment etc. – was and it is still discussed with increasing responsibility by specialists, being drafted a large number of forecasts for a variable duration perspective. The trend of depletion of natural resources is another phenomenon of the contemporary world and that will become, certainly, even more pronounced in the near future. Harnessing the increasing exhaustible natural resources with low reserves and a slow recovery of renewable resources raises acutely the issue regarding the conservation of these resources. In recent decades, there is a tendency to waste energy and raw materials in the society. There are produced goods without an absolute utility, being imposed artificially by advertising or fashion swings and many products are designed in such a way that it takes little to compel the buyer to replace them. The "consumption" civilization is characterized as a "society that throws" the population of developed countries (18% of world population dispelling waste form 20 to 25% of the material production of the world. Excessive consumption of raw materials and fuel was favoured by their relatively low prices, maintained under the pressure of interests of transnational companies, prices that disfavoured, however, the developing countries. Consequently, consumption of raw materials and fuel turned to the easily accessible resources that have been heavily exploited, partially abandoning some

  17. Conceptual adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turski Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibility of reducing the demand for nonrenewable primary energy for buildings using a new conceptual adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy. Moreover, the aim of this study is to shorten the payback time of investment in the standard adsorption cooling system through its integration with the heating system. Research has been carried out for an energy-efficient medium-sized single-family building with a floor area of 140 m2 and a heat load of 4.2 kW and cold load of 4.41 kW. It has been shown that the use of an adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy decreased the demand for nonrenewable primary energy by about 66% compared to the standard building that meets the current requirements.

  18. [Optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Ji, J; Qian, S Y

    2018-01-02

    Objective: To analyze the resting energy expenditure and optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Patients on mechanical ventilation hospitalized in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled prospectively. Resting energy expenditure of patients was calculated by US Med Graphic company critical care management (CCM) energy metabolism test system after mechanical ventilation. Patients were divided into three groups:10 years. The relationship between the measured and predictive resting energy expenditure was analyzed with correlation analysis; while the metabolism status and the optimal energy supply in different age groups were analyzed with chi square test and variance analysis. Results: A total of 102 patients were enrolled, the measured resting energy expenditure all correlated with predictive resting energy expenditure in different age groups (10 years ( r= 0.5, P= 0.0) ) . A total of 40 cases in 10 years group, including: 12 cases of low metabolism (71%), 4 cases of normal metabolism (23%), 1 case of high metabolism (6%). Metabolism status showed significant differences between different age groups ( χ (2)=11.30, P energy requirement was (210±84) kJ/ (kg⋅d) . There were significant differences in actual energy requirement between age groups ( F= 46.57, P 10 years group. Conclusion: The resting energy metabolism of the critically ill children on mechanical ventilation is negatively related to the age. The actual energy requirement should be calculated according to different ages.

  19. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  20. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  1. A BIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING ANALYSIS OF THE SEASONAL SUPPLY RESPONSE BY FLORIDA DAIRY PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaoming; Thomas H. Spreen; DeLorenzo, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal price premiums have been proposed as a means of dampening the highly seasonal patterns of milk production in Florida. A Markov decision bio-economic model of the breeding and replacement decisions was solved via stochastic dynamic programming and used to analyze the potential supply response to seasonal price premiums. The results of the analysis suggest that the seasonal milk supply in Florida is highly price inelastic.

  2. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  3. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Multi-Year Technical Plan 2003-2007 and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This publication charts a 5-year planning cycle for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program. The document includes anticipated technical plans for the next 5 years for photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, solar water and space heating, solar hybrid lighting, and other new concepts that can take advantage of the solar resource. Solar energy is described as a clean, abundant, renewable energy resource that can benefit the nation by diversifying our energy supply.

  4. Energy Trading and Pricing in Microgrids with Uncertain Energy Supply: A Three-Stage Hierarchical Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE generation (wind power determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profit, and then the consumers determine their energy demands to maximize their payoffs. The hierarchical game is established between the energy provider and the consumers. The energy provider is the leader and the consumers are the followers in the hierarchical game. We consider two types of consumers according to their response to the price, i.e., the price-taking consumers and the price-anticipating consumers. We derive the equilibrium point of the hierarchical game through the backward induction method. Comparing the two types of consumers, we study the influence of the types of consumers on the equilibrium point. In particular, the uncertainty of the energy supply from the energy provider is considered. Simulation results show that the energy provider can obtain more profit using the proposed decision-making scheme.

  5. Energy supply for the town of the future; Energieversorgung fuer die Stadt der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leithner, R. [ed.

    1998-06-01

    Thanks to the development of new energy systems which combine environmentally benign, heavily insulated buildings with renewable energy sources it is possible today to use energy in a responsible manner. This article presents concepts of urban planning and architecture which make use of integral energy systems, techniques for using renewable energy resources such as solar installations, energy supply through biomass and biogas, and the integration of renewable energy resources such as wind power in municipal supply systems and hydrogen as a clean energy source. Ten papers have been abstracted individually for the Energy Database. [Deutsch] Die Entwicklung neuer Energiesysteme, in denen oekologische, hochwaermegedaemmte Baukonstruktionen mit regenerativen Energiequellen kombiniert werden laesst einen verantwortungsvollen Umgang mit Energie zu. Im Folgenden werden dazu Stadtplanung und Architektur im Kontext integraler Energiekonzepte, Techniken zur Nutzung von regenerativen Energietraegern, wie Solaranlagen, Energiebereitstellung durch Biomasse und Biogas, sowie die Integration von regenerativen Energietraegern, z.B. Windenergienutzung im staedtischen Verbund und Wasserstoff als sauberer Energietraeger vorgestellt. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden zehn Beitraege einzeln aufgenommen.

  6. Micro perspectives for decentralized energy supply. Proceedings of the international conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Martina; Kebir, Noara; Philipp, Daniel (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    . Pillarisetti); (33) Energy Access for climate change mitigation and adaptation: The 'micro renewable' solution (A. Kumar); (34) Solar lighting systems delivery models for rural areas in developing countries (B.P. Koirola); (35) Energy delivery model tool for understanding and scaling up decentralised energy supply (E. Bloomfield); (36) A sustainable solar market package to increase electricity access in disadvantaged regions (E. Wulandari); (37) Technical monitoring and economical assessment of the micro-financed solar program in Bangladesh (R. Wiese); (38) Implementation of triple helix clusters procedure in the sub-Sahara Africa energy sector (I. Da Silva); (39) Waste to energy - making charcoal fines useable (V. Tumwesige).

  7. Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    Numerous efforts have been done for achieving the maximum penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the autonomous grids of Greek islands, which never exceeded 10%, despite the exceptional wind and solar potential. Large fluctuations on demand during summer, winter, and 24-h period...... in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind farms (WFs), to use WF as the basic energy source and diesel generators as stand-by system changed in fact...... the stochastic behavior of wind energy to the demand, to provide the system with guaranteed power. This Wind–Hydro Plants in combination with the most adequate RES forming an Renewable Energy Supply System (RESS), increase further the economical penetration of RES into autonomous grids up to 90% or even 100...

  8. The Concept of Autonomous Power Supply System Fed with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Fedak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development requires the use of renewable energy sources in a rational and thoughtful way. In Polish conditions the use of several types of renewable energy sources on a single setup is a new issue. In particular, hybrid devices in conjunction with intelligent energy systems, such as lighting systems are generally not used. Therefore, the Polish energy production still relies on the burning of coal. Despite their advantages, renewable energy sources are characterized by seasonality and considerable instability. Access to renewable energy varies daily and seasonally, hence activities promoting the use of autonomous, hybrid power systems must be intensified. The presented research aims at the development of the Autonomous Power Supply (APS system based on the so-called energy mix. Such a system works in an isolated arrangement and serves to reliably supply electricity from renewable sources for small residential or public utility devices in an urban area. Systems with up to 3 kW power consist of modules, whose modular design allows the combination of various power configurations and types of renewable energy used. The basic system consists of a primary power source, additional power source, emergency power source, energy storage device, weather station and controller. The energy mix depends on the geographical location of the system. The emergency source can be implemented as an on-grid connector or fuel power generator with the participation of 100% until the primary or accessory power source failure is removed. The energy storage system consists of batteries or supercapacitors. The proposed system can be combined to create a local network that automatically responds to energy shortages in various network nodes by adjusting the supply of electricity within the network depending on its needs. For Poland realistic solutions in this article are the new and modern answer to these requirements.

  9. Effects of boosting the supply temperature on pipe dimensions of low-energy district heating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the dimensioning of the low-energy District Heating (DH) piping networks operating with a control philosophy of supplying heat in low-temperature such as 55 °C in supply and 25°C in return regularly while the supply temperature levels are being boosted in cold...... winter periods. The performance of the existing radiators that were formerly sized with over-dimensions was analyzed, its results being used as input data for the performance evaluation of the piping network of the low-energy DH system operating with the control philosophy in question. The optimization...... from the DH network. Sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to evaluate the area of applicability of the proposed method. Hence varied values of the original capacity and the current capacity of the existing radiators were evaluated with the design temperature values that were defined by two...

  10. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 1: Overview Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a here-and-now technology for use with dry steam resources and high-quality hydrothermal liquids. These resources are supplying about 6 percent of all electricity used in California. However, the competitiveness of power generation using lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma still depends on the technology improvements sought by the DOE Geothermal Energy R and D Program. The successful outcome of the R and D initiatives will serve to benefit the U.S. public in a number of ways. First, if a substantial portion of our geothermal resources can be used economically, they will add a very large source of secure, indigenous energy to the nation's energy supply. In addition, geothermal plants can be brought on line quickly in case of a national energy emergency. Geothermal energy is also a highly reliable resource, with very high plant availability. For example, new dry steam plants at The Geysers are operable over 99 percent of the time, and the small flash plant in Hawaii, only the second in the United States, has an availability factor of 98 percent. Geothermal plants also offer a viable baseload alternative to fossil and nuclear plants -- they are on line 24 hours a day, unaffected by diurnal or seasonal variations. The hydrothermal power plants with modern emission control technology have proved to have minimal environmental impact. The results to date with geopressured and hot dry rock resources suggest that they, too, can be operated so as to reduce environmental effects to well within the limits of acceptability. Preliminary studies on magma are also encouraging. In summary, the character and potential of geothermal energy, together with the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal R and D Program, ensure that this huge energy resource will play a major role in future U.S. energy markets.

  11. The security of energy infrastructure and supply in North Africa: Hydrocarbons and renewable energies in comparative perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacher, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.lacher@swp-berlin.org [Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik/German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), Berlin (Germany); Kumetat, Dennis, E-mail: d.kumetat@lse.ac.uk [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    While security risks to energy infrastructure and supply are frequently cited as a source of concern in the public debate on Europe's energy relationships with North Africa, few academic publications have addressed the issue to date. This article focuses on two potential threats to energy security in the North African context: first, intenational disruption of energy supplies by governments; second, attacks by non-state actors on energy infrastructure. Based on an analysis of North African security and energy geopolitics, the article provides an assessment of these threats as they have materialized with regard to existing energy industries, particularly oil and gas. The article then seeks to apply the findings to renewable energy schemes that are currently being discussed and developed, gauging the likelihood and impact of such threats materializing in respect to various technologies, and differentiating between different states of the region. Finally, the article provides recommendations for policy and further research needs for a successful common European-North African energy future. - Research Highlights: >Interest for investments into renewable energy projects in North Africa is growing. >Perceptions of political/security risks to renewables in North Africa are exaggerated. >Investment in renewables would boost interdependencies between Europe, North Africa. >Terrorist attacks unlikely to pose a major threat to renewables projects in North Africa.

  12. ENERGY RECOVERY POTENTIAL FROM EXCESS PRESSURE in WATER SUPPLY and DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Ethem Karadirek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of water supply systems has started to become an important issue besides continuous and hygienic supply of water. Sustainable water supply systems require improvement of energy efficiency, reduction of energy and water losses in water distribution systems and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Pressure is one of the main design parameters for gravity water supply systems and water distribution networks. Therefore, pressure has to be between certain limits. An excess pressure occurs during water transmission from high elevations of water resources to low elevations. By use of break pressure tanks, water storage tanks or pressure reducing valves (PRV excess pressure is reduced and damages on transmission pipes are prevented. However, energy recovery from excess pressure is possible at this stage by using turbines. Similarly, PRVs are used at certain locations of water distribution networks to control excess water pressure and to reduce it down to optimum operational levels. Energy recovery from excess pressure is also possible at this stage although energy recovery will be low. High pressure at water supply systems causes both energy and water losses. In Turkey, allowable water pressure at water distribution networks is between 20-60 m water column but excess pressure is commonly observed. At low pressure levels, water cannot reach water subscribers and this causes customer dissatisfaction. On the other side, at high pressure levels, water losses and pipe bursts increase which causes indirect increase in energy losses. For sustainable operation of water distribution networks, it is recommended to divide the network into smaller and independent subzones (District Metered Area, DMA. By placing a flow meter and a pressure meter at the entrance of a DMA, flow rate and pressure could be monitored on-line. However, in order to monitor spatial and temporal variations of flow rate and pressure at all pipes in the network, a hydraulic

  13. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Carbon capture and storage as central modules of a strategy toward a sustainable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm

    2010-09-15

    Sustainable energy supply must do justice to the equal-ranking goals of economic, environmental and social compatibility. A balance must be sought between the degrees of achievement for these aims. In climate protection, approaches must be pursued that promise achievement at the lowest cost. An approximation of energy-management development to climate-policy necessities is only possible if all cost-efficient options are used. CCS can be regarded as a bridging technology toward an energy sector that is increasingly based almost entirely on electricity from renewables. On the road there, the expansion of renewables and power generation based on fossil energies with CCS complement one another.

  15. Forecasting optimal solar energy supply in Jiangsu Province (China): a systematic approach using hybrid of weather and energy forecast models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Asante Antwi, Henry; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, "least-cost," and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  16. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China): A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  17. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  18. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Mellado, B; Proudfoot, J; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A; Stanek, R

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets (SEU) performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip for switching power supplies. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and present a solution using external circuitry to effectively eliminate the effect.

  19. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  20. Challenges to overcome: energy supply for remote consumers in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunova, M. O.; Solovyev, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper explores challenges of power supply for remote users through the case of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) supportive infrastructure development and specially nature protected areas (NPA) of the Russian Arctic. The study is based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant data of the state of renewable energy in the Russian Arctic. The paper gives policy recommendations on how to extend the use of renewable energy power plants in the region, optimize their input and increase cost-effectiveness and safety.

  1. Feasibility Assessment of Using Power Plant Waste Heat in Large Scale Horticulture Facility Energy Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Min Gyung Yu; Yujin Nam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Korean government has been carrying out projects to construct several large scale horticulture facilities. However, it is difficult for an energy supply to operate stably and economically with only a conventional fossil fuel boiler system. For this reason, several unused energy sources have become attractive and it was found that power plant waste heat has the greatest potential for application in this scenario. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of power plant...

  2. TRANSPETRO gas security of supply program; Programa de confiabilidade de suprimento de gas natural da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Gas Security of Supply Program that is being implemented at TRANSPETRO since 2002. It includes the application of the state of the art techniques and models related to reliability engineering. The main objective of the program is to evaluate and optimize overall gas network performance and to provide gas to different consumers (industrial, residential, thermo-plants and vehicles) in compliance with stated reliability levels. Heavy fines will be applied to PETROBRAS in case of occurrence of shortfalls. We hope that this paper can contribute to a wider discussion about this subject of performance indicators involving security of supply, safety and environment preservation. (author)

  3. Optimizing the supply chain of biomass and biogas for a single plant considering mass and energy losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Münster, Marie; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    plants. In this paper, a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for finding the optimal production and investment plan for a biogas supply chain is presented to ensure better economy for the full chain hopefully stimulating future investments in biogas. The model makes use of step-wise linear functions...... to represent capital and operational expenditures at the biogas plant; considers the chain from the farmer to the end market; and includes changes of mass and energy content along the chain by modeling the losses and gains for all processes in the chain. Biomass inputs are scheduled on a weekly basis whereas...... energy outputs are scheduled on an hourly basis to better capture the changes of energy prices and potentially take advantage of these changes. The model is tested on a case study with co-digestion of straw, sugar beet and manure, considering natural gas, heat, and electricity as end products. The model...

  4. A policy study on energy supply and demand of several countries (China, Indonesia, Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ryeal [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Korea is depending 97% of primary energy consumption on imports. To have a stable supply of energy required for a continuous growth, it is recommended to utilize international energy market actively for short-term while it is required to reinforce resources diplomacy with other countries with full of resources for mid- and long-term. This study reviewed energy supply and demand and major policies of China, Indonesia and Mexico, which give direct or indirect influence on energy supply and demand of Korea. With the geographical adjacency, Korea imports coal from China and exports petroleum products to China. Furthermore, it is very likely to have a trade related to nuclear power plant and natural gas. Indonesia exports coal, crude oil, and LNG to Korea. Especially LNG is occupied 60% of total amount of imports. It is expected to get help from Mexico because there are many similar aspects between Mexico and Korea such as GNP or a conservative idea on energy industry. (author). 49 refs., 6 figs., 42 tabs.

  5. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed Initiative/Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System; ABETI/IWESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Archer; Frederik Betz; Yun Gu; Rong Li; Flore Marion; Sophie Masson; Ming Qu; Viraj Srivastava; Hongxi Yin; Chaoqin Zhai; Rui Zhang; Elisabeth Aslanian; Berangere Lartigue

    2008-05-31

    ABETI/IWESS is a project carried out by Carnegie Mellon's Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, the CBPD, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/EERE, to design, procure, install, operate, and evaluate an energy supply system, an ESS, that will provide power, cooling, heating and ventilation for CBPD's Intelligent Workplace, the IW. The energy sources for this system, the IWESS, are solar radiation and bioDiesel fuel. The components of this overall system are: (1) a solar driven cooling and heating system for the IW comprising solar receivers, an absorption chiller, heat recovery exchanger, and circulation pump; (2) a bioDiesel fueled engine generator with heat recovery exchangers, one on the exhaust to provide steam and the other on the engine coolant to provide heated water; (3) a ventilation system including an enthalpy recovery wheel, an air based heat pump, an active desiccant wheel, and an air circulation fan; and (4) various convective and radiant cooling/heating units and ventilation air diffusers distributed throughout the IW. The goal of the ABETI/IWESS project is to demonstrate an energy supply system for a building space that will provide a healthy, comfortable environment for the occupants and that will reduce the quantity of energy consumed in the operation of a building space by a factor of 2 less than that of a conventional energy supply for power, cooling, heating, and ventilation based on utility power and natural gas fuel for heating.

  6. Trade-offs between Energy Efficiency improvements and additional Renewable Energy supply: A review of international experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    , current issues concerning climate change and fossil fuels depletion has moved attention towards cleaner ways to produce energy. This trend facilitated the breakthrough of renewable technologies. Since then, support policies have promoted the large deployment of renewables, without considering enough...... improvements made in the energy saving field. Indeed, less attention has been paid to implement energy efficiency measures in energy systems modeling, which has resulted in scenarios where expedients for a wise use of energy (e.g. energy savings and renewables’ share) are unbalanced and cost......-savings opportunities are missed. The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate international experiences on finding the optimal trade-off between efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply. A critical review of each technique, focusing on purposes, methodology and outcomes, is provided along...

  7. Basic Energy Sciences Program Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels to provide the foundations for new energy technologies and to support DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research disciplines covered by BES—condensed matter and materials physics, chemistry, geosciences, and aspects of physical biosciences— are those that discover new materials and design new chemical processes. These disciplines touch virtually every aspect of energy resources, production, conversion, transmission, storage, efficiency, and waste mitigation. BES also plans, constructs, and operates world-class scientific user facilities that provide outstanding capabilities for imaging and spectroscopy, characterizing materials of all kinds ranging from hard metals to fragile biological samples, and studying the chemical transformation of matter. These facilities are used to correlate the microscopic structure of materials with their macroscopic properties and to study chemical processes. Such experiments provide critical insights to electronic, atomic, and molecular configurations, often at ultrasmall length and ultrafast time scales.

  8. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  9. Academic training lectures | The outlook for energy supply and demand | 14 - 16 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on the 14, 15 and 16 September. The lectures will be given by by Chris Llewellyn Smith (Director of Energy Research, University of Oxford, President of SESAME Council). The Outlook for Energy Supply and Demand (1/3) on Monday, 14 September from 11.00 a.m. to 12.00 p.m. https://indico.cern.ch/event/388334/ Can Future Energy Needs be Met Sustainably? (2/3) on Tuesday, 15 September from 4.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m.  (CERN Colloquium) https://indico.cern.ch/event/388335/ The Outlook for Energy Supply and Demand (3/3) on Wednesday, 16 September from 11.00 a.m to 12.00 p.m. https://indico.cern.ch/event/388336/ at CERN, Main Auditorium, in Building 500-1-001. Description: These lectures will review the challenges facing energy policy, the outlook for different sources of primary energy (fossil and renewable), how energy is used, and prospects for improved energy efficiency. A colloquium ‘Can Future Energy Needs be Met ...

  10. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed.

  11. Blazing the energy trail: The Municipal Energy Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force pioneers energy and environmental solutions for US cities and counties. When local officials participate in the task force, they open the door to many resources for their communities. The US is entering a period of renewed interest in energy management. Improvements in municipal energy management allow communities to free up energy operating funds to meet other needs. These improvements can even keep energy dollars in the community through the purchase of services and products used to save energy. With this idea in mind, the US Department of Energy Municipal Energy Management Program has funded more than 250 projects that demonstrate innovative energy technologies and management tools in cities and counties through the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF). UCETF helps the US Department of Energy foster municipal energy management through networks with cities and urbanized counties and through links with three national associations of local governments. UCETF provides funding for projects that demonstrate innovative and realistic technologies, strategies, and methods that help urban America become more energy efficient and environmentally responsible. The task force provides technical support to local jurisdictions selected for projects. UCETF also shares information about successful energy management projects with cities and counties throughout the country via technical reports and project papers. The descriptions included here capsulize a sample of UCETF`s demonstration projects around the country.

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ASSESSMENT METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS OF WATER SUPPLY AND WATER DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kapansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods for assessing the energy efficiency of technological systems of water supply and water disposal are examined. The main tool of the existing methods is a settlement-and-analytical method, and, in accordance with the mentioned one, the determining of general and specific electric power consumption is based on actual consumption evaluation, evaluation of pressure and efficiency of the pump unit. However, in practical terms a lot of factors influence on those characteristics therefore affecting the resulting magnitude of energy efficiency and leading to errors in the calculation. These factors include the technical condition of the equipment and piping systems, alterations in the modes of operation of pumping units over time, a significant impact of the ambient temperature on the power consumption, amount of precipitation and the chemical composition of the effluent. As an object of management water supply and water disposal systems are considered as a totality; therefore the assessment of the energy efficiency of pipeline enterprises ought to be based on a systematic approach, whereas the existing methods are mainly based on an analysis of operating modes of individual electrical equipment, not on the whole technological system. The article describes the management system of energy efficiency of pipeline water supply and water disposal systems. The management system is based on information base of statistic data of power, hydraulic and industrial indexes of wastewater management. The original basic mathematical models of common costs and unit costs of electrical power in the water supply and water disposal systems, which are the basis for the solution of the problems of forecasting and the current state assessment of energy efficiency of enterprises, the selection of priority areas of energy efficiency and finding the ways to save energy resources, are presented.

  13. Distributed asynchronous supply coordination for energy producers embedded in the energy grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the congestion control and energy flow allocation of renewable energy producers equipped with local energy storage devices and energy converters. The producers are embedded in the existing energy grids. Based on the producers’ own measurements and some coordination with the grid

  14. The Giant Reed as an energy crop: assessing the energy requirements within its supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodias, Efthymis; Busato, P.; Bochtis, Dionysis

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is one form of renewable energy sources that are in the core of interesting for many researchers. There many different biomass sources that can be exploited for energy production, such as crop residues, waste materials, forestry residues and energy crops. Regarding energy crops......, there are many different types of crops significantly varies in terms of energy potential yields, production and provision methods, etc. To this end, a thoroughly assessment of the energy inputs and outputs of each potential energy crop is necessary. In this paper, the Giant Reed is evaluated energetically...... as a potential energy crop. The assessment regards a 10 year period. The considered energy elements include direct inputs (e.g. fuel consumption) as well as indirect inputs (e.g. embodied energy of materials and machinery). According to the results, the balance between the estimated total energy input...

  15. Summary of Characteristics and Energy Efficiency Demand-side Management Programs in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatt, Sandy [BCS Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This report is the first in a series that seeks to characterize energy supply and industrial sector energy consumption, and summarize successful industrial demand-side management (DSM) programs within each of the eight North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) regions.

  16. Solar energy program evaluation: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    deLeon, P.

    1979-09-01

    The Program Evaluation Methodology provides an overview of the practice and methodology of program evaluation and defines more precisely the evaluation techniques and methodologies that would be most appropriate to government organizations which are actively involved in the research, development, and commercialization of solar energy systems. Formal evaluation cannot be treated as a single methodological approach for assessing a program. There are four basic types of evaluation designs - the pre-experimental design; the quasi-experimental design based on time series; the quasi-experimental design based on comparison groups; and the true experimental design. This report is organized to first introduce the role and issues of evaluation. This is to provide a set of issues to organize the subsequent sections detailing the national solar energy programs. Then, these two themes are integrated by examining the evaluation strategies and methodologies tailored to fit the particular needs of the various individual solar energy programs. (MCW)

  17. Feasibility Assessment of Using Power Plant Waste Heat in Large Scale Horticulture Facility Energy Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Korean government has been carrying out projects to construct several large scale horticulture facilities. However, it is difficult for an energy supply to operate stably and economically with only a conventional fossil fuel boiler system. For this reason, several unused energy sources have become attractive and it was found that power plant waste heat has the greatest potential for application in this scenario. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of power plant waste heat as an energy source for horticulture facilities. As a result, it was confirmed that there was a sufficient amount of energy potential for the use of waste heat to supply energy to the assumed area. In Dangjin, an horticultural area of 500 ha could be constructed by utilizing 20% of the energy reserves. In Hadong, a horticulture facility can be set up to be 260 ha with 7.4% of the energy reserves. In Youngdong, an assumed area of 65 ha could be built utilizing about 19% of the energy reserves. Furthermore, the payback period was calculated in order to evaluate the economic feasibility compared with a conventional system. The initial investment costs can be recovered by the approximately 83% reduction in the annual operating costs.

  18. Green paper. Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This Green Paper is the response to an observable fact: Europe growing future energy dependence. Its aim is to initiate a debate on the security of energy supply, an issue that is still very much alive. Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: the European Union will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; enlargement will not change the situation; based on current forecasts, dependence will reach 70 % in 2030; the European Union has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions (it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector); at present, the European Union is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. In these circumstances, the Commission would like the debate on the future strategy to be structured around the following principal questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without compromising its security of supply and European competitiveness? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on the others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Are tax and State aid policies in the energy sector an obstacle to competitiveness in the European Union or not? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investments be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled, as already done for oils, and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supplies justify more onerous measures for

  19. Optimal trade-offs between energy efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply: A review of international experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    , current issues concerning climate change and fossil fuels depletion has moved attention towards cleaner ways to produce energy. This trend facilitated the breakthrough of renewable technologies. Since then, support policies have promoted the large deployment of renewables, without considering enough...... the improvements made in the energy saving field. Indeed, little attention has been paid to implement energy efficiency measures, which has resulted in scenarios where expedients for a wise use of energy (e.g. energy savings and renewables share) are unbalanced. The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate...... international experiences on finding the optimal trade-off between efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply. A critical review of each technique, focusing on purposes, methodology and outcomes, is provided along with a review of tools adopted for the analyses. The models are categorized...

  20. Dynamic Power Management for Portable Hybrid Power-Supply Systems Utilizing Approximate Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyoung Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the optimization of power flows in portable hybrid power-supply systems (HPSSs has become an important issue with the advent of a variety of mobile systems and hybrid energy technologies. In this paper, a control strategy is considered for dynamically managing power flows in portable HPSSs employing batteries and supercapacitors. Our dynamic power management strategy utilizes the concept of approximate dynamic programming (ADP. ADP methods are important tools in the fields of stochastic control and machine learning, and the utilization of these tools for practical engineering problems is now an active and promising research field. We propose an ADP-based procedure based on optimization under constraints including the iterated Bellman inequalities, which can be solved by convex optimization carried out offline, to find the optimal power management rules for portable HPSSs. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is tested through dynamic simulations for smartphone workload scenarios, and simulation results show that the proposed strategy can successfully cope with uncertain workload demands.

  1. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kailash; Doyle, Edward; Becker, Frederick

    1998-01-01

    Completely integrated thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power sources in the range of 100 to 500 watts are being developed. The technical approach taken in this project focuses on optimizing the integrated performance of the primary subsystems in order to yield high energy conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. An important aspect of the approach is the use of a narrow band fibrous emitter radiating to a bandgap matched photovoltaic array to minimize thermal and optical recuperation requirements, as well as the non-recoverable heat losses. For the prototype system, fibrous ytterbia emitters radiating in a narrow band centered at 980 nm are matched with high efficiency silicon photoconverters. The integrated system includes a dielectric stack filter for optical energy recovery and a ceramic recuperator for thermal energy recovery. The prototype TPV system uses a rapid mix distributed fuel delivery system with controlled feeding of the fuel and heated air into a flame at the surface of the emitter. This makes it possible to operate at air preheat temperatures well above the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel thereby substantially increasing the system efficiency. The system has been operated with air preheat temperatures up to 1367 K and has produced a uniform narrow band radiation over the surface of the emitter with this approach. The design of the system is described and test data for the system and some of the key components are presented. The results from a system model, which show the impact of various parameters on system performance, are also discussed.

  2. Project evaluation for energy supply in rural areas of developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Christensen, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    as regards their inadequacy for assessing energy projects in rural areas.An alternative practical and PC-based approach will be presented in which emphasis is placed on the problem formulation phase, including the socio-economic, cultural and political aspects of the problem. This approach has been prepared......This paper reports the methodological experiences of the project: Energy Supply Technologies in Developing Countries, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Zambia. Existing methods for project evaluation, based on cost-benefit analysis, will be briefly presented, particularly...

  3. Optimizing national immunization program supply chain management in Thailand: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, A; Sooksriwong, C; Chaiyakunapruk, N; Tharmaphornpilas, P; Techathawat, S; Rookkapan, K; Rasdjarmrearnsook, A; Suraratdecha, C

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an economic analysis of the transition of the conventional vaccine supply and logistics systems to the vendor managed inventory (VMI) system in Thailand. Cost analysis of health care program. An ingredients based approach was used to design the survey and collect data for an economic analysis of the immunization supply and logistics systems covering procurement, storage and distribution of vaccines from the central level to the lowest level of vaccine administration facility. Costs were presented in 2010 US dollar. The total cost of the vaccination program including cost of vaccine procured and logistics under the conventional system was US$0.60 per packed volume procured (cm(3)) and US$1.35 per dose procured compared to US$0.66 per packed volume procured (cm(3)) and US$1.43 per dose procured under the VMI system. However, the findings revealed that the transition to the VMI system and outsourcing of the supply chain system reduced the cost of immunization program at US$6.6 million per year because of reduction of un-opened vaccine wastage. The findings demonstrated that the new supply chain system would result in efficiency improvement and potential savings to the immunization program compared to the conventional system. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conditions for a 100% Renewable Energy Supply System in Japan and South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2017-01-01

    renewable energy have proposed the use of photovoltaic power as the main source of electricity supply, in combination with diurnal battery storage and supplemented by other renewable sources such as wind, hydro, and geothermal power. Here, an alternative approach is explored, with wind and derived hydrogen......In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident, alternative energy paths have been discussed for Japan, but except for a few studies the assumption is usually made that Japan is too densely populated to be suited for a near-100% sustainable, indigenous energy provision. The studies emphasizing...... production as the main energy source, but still using solar energy, biofuels, and hydropower in a resilient combination allowing full satisfaction of demands in all sectors of the economy, i.e., for dedicated electricity, transportation energy as well as heat for processes and comfort. Furthermore...

  5. Mapping the Energy Flow from Supply to End Use in three Geographic Regions of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Xiong, Weiming

    and consumption were analysed across China's provincial units. Regional disparities in China's current energy flow are rarely visualised and quantified from a comprehensive, system-wide perspective that is tracing all major fuels and energy carriers in supply, transformation and final end-use in different sectors......China's past economic development policies resulted in different energy infrastructure patterns across China. There is a long tradition in analysing and discussing regional disparities of China's economy. For more than 20 years, regional differences in GDP, industrial outputs, household income....... A few national and provincial energy flow diagrams of China were developed since 2000, althoug with limited detail on major regional disparities and inter-regional fuel flows. No regional energy flow charts are yet available for East-, Central- and West-China. This study maps and quantifies energy...

  6. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities, a...

  7. Green supply chain management using the queuing theory to handle congestion and reduce energy consumption and emissions from supply chain transportation fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin Aziziankohan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, governments and people pay more attention to use green products due to environmental pollution, irreplaceable energy and shortage of resources. Green products are resulted from the application of green supply chain management strategies to the organizations' performance strategies, so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. Methodology:  In this paper, the effect of reducing energy consumption in green supply chain is examined by using queuing theory and transportation models. Data was generated and solved by a commercial optimization epackage. Findings:  The findings indicate that suitable assignment of existing transportation fleet with specified capacity, and using queueing theory in a closed-loop network to reduce the queue length and handle congestion, can cause a reduction in energy consumption by optimizing transportation and waiting times in a green supply chain. Originality/value: Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will yield in many advantages and benefits. This article investigates the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time, optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain, and consequently decreasing pollution.

  8. Determining the primary energy factor of the heating supply; Bestimmung des Primaerenergiefaktors der Waermeversorgung. Fernwaermenetz der Stadtwerke Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M. [Electrowatt-Ekono GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Under new German legislation on saving energy, not only the heating requirement of buildings, but also their total primary energy requirements is regulated and a specific factor determined. This primary energy factor must also be stated for the district heating supply. Under the calculation regulations Electrowatt-Ekono GmbH, Hamburg, has determined a primary energy factor of 0.51 for the Munich municipal utility area. The specific fuel procurement structures of the heat generation plants were taken into consideration. Their primary energy factors, instead of general provisions in accordance with DIN V 4701-10, were determined using special programs. The more accurate consideration of the fuel chains produced a reduction of 13.5% in the primary energy factor. A lower primary energy factor is attractive to potential clients of the network operator, as they can save building insulation costs by taking heat from the network. (orig.) [German] Nach der neuen Energieeinsparverordnung wird nun auch der Gesamtprimaerenergiebedarf reglementiert und ein Primaerenergiefaktor ermittelt. Dieser Faktor ist ebenfalls bei der Bereitstellung von Heizwaerme aus einer Fernwaermeversorgung anzugeben. Die Elektrowatt-Ekono GmbH, Hamburg, wurde von den Stadtwerken Muenchen beauftragt, diesen Primaerenergiefaktor zu errechnen. Der Autor erklaert die Vorgehensweise und einzelnen Schritte der Berechnung. (orig.)

  9. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifailure therapy including spironolactone improves left ventricular energy supply-demand relations in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Susan P; Adkisson, Douglas W; Lawson, Mark A; Wang, Li; Ooi, Henry; Sawyer, Douglas B; Kronenberg, Marvin W

    2014-08-27

    Left ventricular (LV) energy supply-demand imbalance is postulated to cause "energy starvation" and contribute to heart failure (HF) in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and [(11)C] acetate positron emission tomography (PET), we evaluated LV perfusion and oxidative metabolism in NIDCM and the effects of spironolactone on LV supply-demand relations. Twelve patients with NIDCM underwent CMR and PET at baseline and after ≥6 months of spironolactone therapy added to a standard HF regimen. The myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) was calculated after gadolinium injection during adenosine, as compared to rest. The monoexponential clearance rate of [(11)C] acetate (kmono) was used to calculate the work metabolic index (WMI), an index of LV mechanical efficiency, and kmono/RPP (rate-pressure product), an index of energy supply/demand. At baseline, the subendocardium was hypoperfused versus the subepicardium (median MPRI, 1.63 vs. 1.80; Penergy starvation. Antifailure therapy improves parameters of energy starvation and is associated with augmented LV performance. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique identifier: ID NCT00574119. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for October 1991--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics discussed are under the following projects: materials research and developments; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; and fossil fuels supplies modeling and research.

  12. BASIC program calculates flue gas energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Engineers always seek cost-cutting, energy-efficient ways to operate boilers and waste-heat recovery systems. The starting point in the design or performance evaluation of any heat transfer equipment is an energy balance calculation. This easy-to-use BASIC program tackles this problem. Using the gas stream analysis as percent weight or volume, the program calculates inlet and exit temperatures, heat duty, the gas stream's molecular weight, etc. This program is a definite must for the plant engineering notebook.

  13. The key role of nitric oxide in hypoxia: hypoxic vasodilation and energy supply-demand matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Michele; Dyson, Alex; Feelisch, Martin; Singer, Mervyn

    2013-11-10

    A mismatch between energy supply and demand induces tissue hypoxia with the potential to cause cell death and organ failure. Whenever arterial oxygen concentration is reduced, increases in blood flow--hypoxic vasodilation--occur in an attempt to restore oxygen supply. Nitric oxide (NO) is a major signaling and effector molecule mediating the body's response to hypoxia, given its unique characteristics of vasodilation (improving blood flow and oxygen supply) and modulation of energetic metabolism (reducing oxygen consumption and promoting utilization of alternative pathways). This review covers the role of oxygen in metabolism and responses to hypoxia, the hemodynamic and metabolic effects of NO, and mechanisms underlying the involvement of NO in hypoxic vasodilation. Recent insights into NO metabolism will be discussed, including the role for dietary intake of nitrate, endogenous nitrite (NO₂⁻) reductases, and release of NO from storage pools. The processes through which NO levels are elevated during hypoxia are presented, namely, (i) increased synthesis from NO synthases, increased reduction of NO₂⁻ to NO by heme- or pterin-based enzymes and increased release from NO stores, and (ii) reduced deactivation by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. Several reviews covered modulation of energetic metabolism by NO, while here we highlight the crucial role NO plays in achieving cardiocirculatory homeostasis during acute hypoxia through both vasodilation and metabolic suppression. We identify a key position for NO in the body's adaptation to an acute energy supply-demand mismatch.

  14. The Configuration Of Supply Chain Agritourism To Improve The Performance With Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahnaz Ubud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research is to implementation about  the configuration of Supply Chain Agritourism in Mekarsari Tours Garden and result a decision making  which must be done by top level management about their supply chain configuration. Because now Mekarsari, the biggest fruit garden in the world, have a lot of type of fruit which must be supply for the customer depend on the season with on time. So Mekarsari must know about their configuration from supplier to customer to improve their performance. The Respondents  for this research is selected based on the results of supply chain maping from the worker in the garden, the top level management until the end customer. Supply chian network is formed consisting of farm workers to the end customers, especially those located in the tourist are of green land zone.  The type of data is displayed in a supply chain modeling approach is to use the dynamic system. It’s consists of numeric data, the written data and mental models.  That data is collected and processed into a design model. The design model is using system dynamics methodology. In compiling the system dynamics model has been used software Vensim Professional Academic Ventana 5.7. The result of this research is a configuration of Supply Chain Agritourism which is developed from the supplier until the end customer in Mekarsari tours Garden. From the Dynamic Programming, the result is a decision making which must be done by the top level management to improve the supply chain performance, especially in the green land zone.

  15. Assessment of Building Integrated Energy Supply and Energy Saving Schemes on a National Level in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Birkl, Christoph

    Until now buildings are most seen as creating a demand for energy. However, if we want to develop an energy system being independent of fossil fuels in the future, this will require new higher standards for energy efficiency and a radical introduction of new and renewable energy technologies, all...... together implying that buildings in the future might act as prosumers that is both demanding and producing energy. In this report we look at the overall consequences for the energy system of introducing new technologies as photovoltaics and heat pumps in combination with strong energy conservation measures....... A number of energy system scenarios are prepared based on technical simulations for single-family houses carried out by the University of Aalborg....

  16. Options in adapting the energy supply to the climate; Klimaanpassungsoptionen in der Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling-Reisemann, Stefan; Bloethe, Thomas; Stuehrmann, Soenke; Wachsmuth, Jakob [Bremen Univ. (Germany); Biebeler, Hendrik [Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft, Koeln (Germany); Freese, Dirk [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany); Doerdelmann, Oliver [IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wasserforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Hesselbach, Jens [Kassel Univ. (Germany); Dengler, Cindy [GICON - Grossmann Ingenieur Consult GmbH, Rostock (Germany); Herrmann, Andreas [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Germany's energy supply is vulnerable in the long term. The cause behind the potential hazards ahead is the climate change, which will necessitate adaptation measures on a large scale by the second half of the century, if not earlier. This means that the ongoing reorganisation of the energy supply system must take account of long-term climate effects so as to provide the broadest possible defences against existing uncertainties, reduce vulnerabilities and improve the system's resilience. Using insights gained from a promotion campaign entitled ''KLIMZUG - Coping with climate change at a regional level'' as a point of departure this article presents a selection of possible adaptation measures along with an assessment of their realisation potential.

  17. Nitrogen compounds transformation in the biological filter by means of direct energy supply to the biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, M; Debowski, M; Krzemieniewski, M

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the effect that direct energy supply to the biofilm, which was attached to the packing with its temperature raised, exerts on the course of nitric compounds changes. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory scale. A model reactor which allowed smooth regulations of the packing temperature was used in the experiment. The energy supply was based on the emission of thermal radiation through the reactor's packing to the biofilm. On the basis of the conducted tests it has been found that such a technological solution improves the efficiency of wastewater treatment, nitrification processes in particular. The temperature range between 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C appeared to be optimal for nitrification. At temperatures higher than 25 degrees C anoxic spheres were generated in the deeper layers of the biofilm, which is proved by denitrification.

  18. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered.

  19. Supply Inventory Management: Evaluation of the Defense Supply Center Columbus Qualified Products List and Qualified Manufacturers List Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... was transitioned from the Military Departments. The Defense Supply Center Columbus currently has management responsibility for over 300 Qualified Products Lists and 4 Qualified Manufacturers Lists...

  20. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  1. Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controlled Uninterruptible Power Supply Integrating Renewable Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo A. Beltran Jr.; Felicito S. Caluyo

    2014-01-01

    —The control and operation of electronic systems relies and depends on the availability of the power supply. Rechargeable batteries have been more pervasively used as the energy storage and power source for various electrical and electronic systems and devices, such as communication systems, electronic devices, renewable power systems, electric vehicles, etc. However, the rechargeable batteries are subjected to the availability of the external power source when ...

  2. Hybrid Grey Forecasting Model for Iran’s Energy Consumption and Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Mostafaei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Grey theory deals with systems that are characterized by poor information or for which information is lacking. This study presents an improved grey GM (1, 1 model, using a technique that combines residual modification with Markov Chain model. We use energy consumption and supply of Iran to test the accuracy of proposed model. The results show that the Markov Chain residual modification model achieves reliable and precise results.

  3. An Evaluation of State Energy Program Accomplishments: 2002 Program Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    2005-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) State Energy Program (SEP) was established in 1996 by merging the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP) and the Institutional Conservation Program (ICP), both of which had been in existence since 1976 (U.S. DOE 2001a). The SEP provides financial and technical assistance for a wide variety of energy efficiency and renewable energy activities undertaken by the states and territories. SEP provides money to each state and territory according to a formula that accounts for population and energy use. In addition to these ''Formula Grants'', SEP ''Special Project'' funds are made available on a competitive basis to carry out specific types of energy efficiency and renewable energy activities (U.S. DOE 2003c). The resources provided by DOE typically are augmented by money and in-kind assistance from a number of sources, including other federal agencies, state and local governments, and the private sector. The states SEP efforts include several mandatory activities, such as establishing lighting efficiency standards for public buildings, promoting car and vanpools and public transportation, and establishing policies for energy-efficient government procurement practices. The states and territories also engage in a broad range of optional activities, including holding workshops and training sessions on a variety of topics related to energy efficiency and renewable energy, providing energy audits and building retrofit services, offering technical assistance, supporting loan and grant programs, and encouraging the adoption of alternative energy technologies. The scope and variety of activities undertaken by the various states and territories is extremely broad, and this reflects the diversity of conditions and needs found across the country and the efforts of participating states and territories to respond to them. The purpose of this report is to present estimates of the energy and

  4. System Dynamics of Polysilicon for Solar Photovoltaics: A Framework for Investigating the Energy Security of Renewable Energy Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Sandor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy, produced with widely available low-cost energy resources, is often included as a component of national strategies to address energy security and sustainability. Market and political forces cannot disrupt the sun or wind, unlike oil and gas supplies. However, the cost of renewable energy is highly dependent on technologies manufactured through global supply chains in leading manufacturing countries. The countries that contribute to the global supply chains may take actions that, directly or indirectly, influence global access to materials and components. For example, high-purity polysilicon, a key material in solar photovoltaics, has experienced significant price fluctuations, affecting the manufacturing capacity and cost of both polysilicon and solar panels. This study developed and validated an initial system dynamics framework to gain insights into global trade in polysilicon. The model represents an initial framework for exploration. Three regions were modeled—China, the United States, and the rest of the world—for a range of trade scenarios to understand the impacts of import duties and non-price drivers on the relative volumes of imports and domestic supply. The model was validated with the historical case of China imposing an import duty on polysilicon from the United States, the European Union, and South Korea, which altered the regional flows of polysilicon—in terms of imports, exports, and domestic production—to varying degrees. As expected, the model tracked how regional demand shares and influx volumes decrease as a duty on a region increases. Using 2016 as a reference point, in the scenarios examined for U.S. exports to China, each 10% increase in the import duty results in a 40% decrease in import volume. The model also indicates that, under the scenarios investigated, once a duty has been imposed on a region, the demand share from that region declines and does not achieve pre-duty levels, even as global

  5. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  6. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  7. Renewable Energy Supply and Demand for the City of El Gouna, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Wellmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a supply and demand scenario using renewable energy sources for the city El Gouna in Egypt as an example for a self-supplying community. All calculations are based on measured meteorological data and real power demand during the year 2013. The modeled energy system consists of a concentrating solar tower plant with thermal storage and low-temperature seawater desalination unit as well as an integrated photovoltaic plant and a wind turbine. The low-temperature desalination unit has been newly developed in order to enable the utilization of waste heat from power conversion processes by improved thermal efficiency. In the study, special attention is given to the surplus power handling generated by the photovoltaic and wind power plant. Surplus power is converted into heat and stored in the thermal storage system of the solar power plant in order to increase the capacity factor. A brief estimation of investment costs have been conducted as well in order to outline the economic performance of the modeled energy and water supply system.

  8. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... conservation standards for residential water heaters (other than tabletop and electric instantaneous models...

  9. Fossil Energy Materials Program conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. (comp.)

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy has recognized the need for materials research and development to assure the adequacy of materials of construction for advanced fossil energy systems. The principal responsibility for identifying needed materials research and for establishing a program to address these needs resides within the Office of Technical Coordination. That office has established the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Fossil Energy Materials Program to fulfill that responsibility. In addition to the AR and TD Materials Program, which is designed to address in a generic way the materials needs of fossil energy systems, specific materials support activities are also sponsored by the various line organizations such as the Office of Coal Gasification. A conference was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee on May 19-21, 1987, to present and discuss the results of program activities during the past year. The conference program was organized in accordance with the research thrust areas we have established. These research thrust areas include structural ceramics (particularly fiber-reinforced ceramic composites), corrosion and erosion, and alloy development and mechanical properties. Eighty-six people attended the conference. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  10. Effects of risk on prices and quantities of energy supplies. Volume 2. Overview of the economic theory of uncertainty and its implications for energy supply. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.J.; Stiglitz, J.E.

    1978-05-01

    This volume presents a synthesis of developments in the economic theory of uncertainty and a discussion of the implications of the theory for energy supply. Chapter 1 is an overview of the economics of uncertainty with precise definitions of basic concepts such as the meaning of risk, risk aversion, and insurance. Several propositions concerning the efficient spreading of risk and the possible mechanisms for risk-bearing are described. There is also a discussion of the efficiency with which the market provides insurance and other mechanisms for absorbing risks. Detailed applications of the economics of uncertainty to particular areas of energy supply are described in Volume III, but several general applications are suggested in this volume. Chapter 2 examines the effects of uncertainty on decisions of firms and industrial market structure. The results of this analysis cast doubt on several propositions of classical microeconomics. For example, firms may not choose the production technique with minimum cost in the presence of risk. There are many problems that require a wider analysis than a study of an industry in isolation. The desirability of an action taken in one sector of the economy may depend on the response of the rest of the economy. The study of these economic repercussions is the subject of general equilibrium analysis. Chapter 3 surveys the economic analysis of uncertainty within a general equilibrium framework. Chapter 4 is concerned with analyzing what is meant by information and its economic value. The determinants of the value of information are discussed, and a careful distinction is drawn between the value of information for private use and its value to society.

  11. New solutions in energy supply. Business and investment forums for renewable energy. Africa and Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This ENERGIE publication is one of a series highlighting the potential for innovative non-nuclear energy technologies to become widely applied and contribute superior services to the citizen. European Commission strategies aim at influencing the scientific and engineering communities, policy makers and key market actors to create, encourage, acquire and apply cleaner, more efficient and more sustainable energy solutions for their own benefit and that of our wider society. Funded under the European Union's Fifth Framework Programme for Research, technological Development and Demonstration (RTD), ENERGIE's range of supports cover research, development, demonstration, dissemination, replication and market uptake - the full process of converting new ideas into practical solutions to real needs. Its publications, in print and electronic form, disseminate the results of actions carried out under this and previous Framework Programmes, including former JOULE-THERMIE actions. Jointly managed by Directorate-General Energy and Transport and Directorate-General Research, ENERGIE has a total budget of Euro 1042 million over the period 1999 to 2002. Delivery is organised principally around two Key Actions, Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies, and Economic and Efficient Energy for a Competitive Europe, within the theme 'Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development', supplemented by coordination and cooperative activities of a sectoral and cross-sectoral nature. With targets guided by the Kyoto Protocol and associated policies, ENERGIE's integrated activities are focussed on new solutions which yield direct economic and environmental benefits to the energy user, and strengthen European competitive advantage by helping to achieve a position of leadership in the energy technologies of tomorrow. The resulting balanced improvements in energy, environmental and economic performance will help to ensure a sustainable future for Europe

  12. Realisable scenarios for a future electricity supply based 100% on renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czisch, G. [Univ. of Kassel, Inst. for Electrical Engineering - Efficient Energy Conversion (Germany); Giebel, G. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    In view of the resource and climate problems, it seems obvious that we must transform our energy system into one using only renewable energies. But questions arise how such a system should be structured, which techniques should be used and, of course, how costly it might be. These questions were the focus of a study which investigated the cost optimum of a future renewable electricity supply for Europe and its closer Asian and African neighbourhood. The resulting scenarios are based on a broad data basis of the electricity consumption and for renewable energies. A linear optimisation determines the best system configuration and temporal dispatch of all components. The outcome of the scenarios can be considered as being a scientific breakthrough since it proves that a totally renewable electricity supply is possible even with current technology and at the same time is affordable for our national economies. In the conservative base case scenario, wind power would dominate the production spread over the better wind areas within the whole supply area, connected with the demand centres via HVDC transmission. The transmission system, furthermore, powerfully integrates the existing storage hydropower to provide for backup co-equally assisted by biomass power and supported by solar thermal electricity. The main results of the different scenarios can be summarized as follows: 1) A totally renewable electricity supply for Europe and its neighbourhood is possible and affordable. 2) Electricity import from non-European neighbour countries can be a very valuable and substantial component of a future supply. 3) Smoothing effects by the use of sources at locations in different climate zones improve the security of the supply and reduce the costs. 4) A large-scale co-operation of many different countries opens up for the possibility to combine the goals of development policy and climate politics in a multilateral win-win strategy. To aid implementation, an international extension

  13. Energy Analysis Program. 1992 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Program became deeply involved in establishing 4 Washington, D.C., project office diving the last few months of fiscal year 1942. This project office, which reports to the Energy & Environment Division, will receive the majority of its support from the Energy Analysis Program. We anticipate having two staff scientists and support personnel in offices within a few blocks of DOE. Our expectation is that this office will carry out a series of projects that are better managed closer to DOE. We also anticipate that our representation in Washington will improve and we hope to expand the Program, its activities, and impact, in police-relevant analyses. In spite of the growth that we have achieved, the Program continues to emphasize (1) energy efficiency of buildings, (2) appliance energy efficiency standards, (3) energy demand forecasting, (4) utility policy studies, especially integrated resource planning issues, and (5) international energy studies, with considerate emphasis on developing countries and economies in transition. These continuing interests are reflected in the articles that appear in this report.

  14. Fuel from the Sky: Solar Power's Potential for Western Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, A.

    2002-07-01

    A reliable and affordable supply of electricity is essential to protect public health and safety and to sustain a vigorous economy in the West. Renewable energy in the form of wind or solar provides one of the means of meeting the demand for power while minimizing adverse impacts on the environment, increasing fuel diversity, and hedging against fuel price volatility. Concentrating solar power (CSP) is the most efficient and cost-effective way to generate electricity from the sun. Hundreds of megawatts of CSP solar-generating capacity could be brought on-line within a few years and make a meaningful contribution to the energy needs of the West.

  15. Energy efficiency of uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS); Projekt Energieeffizienz von USV-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P.

    2005-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises and presents nine individual reports and documents concerning the topic of uninterruptible power supplies. The documents compiled for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy in earlier projects concerning the quality and energy efficiency of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems dating from 1998 to 2000 have been revised and expanded in collaboration with a UPS Systems 'Trendwatch' group. The central documents such as 'Optimised use of UPS systems', 'Measurement procedures for UPS systems', 'Label for UPS systems' and 'Quality/Energy matrix' have been translated into English. These documents form the basis for the international distribution of the studies and findings relating to the quality and energy efficiency of UPS systems. These results are to be distributed by both European as well as American commissions. A label and codes of conduct are being developed. The nine individual reports are summarised in separate abstracts also recorded in the ETDEWEB database.

  16. HVAC system optimization for energy management by evolutionary programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Division of Building Science and Technology; Hanby, V.I. [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom). Inst. of Energy and Sustainable Development

    2006-03-15

    Energy management of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is a primary concern in building projects, since the energy consumption in electricity has the highest percentage in HVAC among all building services installations and electric appliances. Without sacrifice of thermal comfort, to reset the suitable operating parameters, such as the chilled water temperature and supply air temperature, would have energy saving with immediate effect. For the typical commercial building projects, it is not difficult to acquire the reference settings for efficient operation. However, for some special projects, due to the specific design and control of the HVAC system, conventional settings may not be necessarily energy-efficient in daily operation. In this paper, the simulation-optimization approach was proposed for the effective energy management of HVAC system. Due to the complicated interrelationship of the entire HVAC system, which commonly includes the water side and air side systems, it is necessary to suggest optimum settings for different operations in response to the dynamic cooling loads and changing weather conditions throughout a year. A metaheuristic simulation-EP (evolutionary programming) coupling approach was developed using evolutionary programming, which can effectively handle the discrete, non-linear and highly constrained optimization problems, such as those related to HVAC systems. The effectiveness of this simulation-EP coupling suite was demonstrated through the establishment of a monthly optimum reset scheme for both the chilled water and supply air temperatures of the HVAC installations of a local project. This reset scheme would have a saving potential of about 7% as compared to the existing operational settings, without any extra cost. (author)

  17. SWEEP - Save Water & Energy Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hillman, Tim C.; Hadley, Adam; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Payson, David R.

    2001-05-03

    The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits.

  18. Neural Energy Supply-Consumption Properties Based on Hodgkin-Huxley Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical activity is the foundation of the neural system. Coding theories that describe neural electrical activity by the roles of action potential timing or frequency have been thoroughly studied. However, an alternative method to study coding questions is the energy method, which is more global and economical. In this study, we clearly defined and calculated neural energy supply and consumption based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model, during firing action potentials and subthreshold activities using ion-counting and power-integral model. Furthermore, we analyzed energy properties of each ion channel and found that, under the two circumstances, power synchronization of ion channels and energy utilization ratio have significant differences. This is particularly true of the energy utilization ratio, which can rise to above 100% during subthreshold activity, revealing an overdraft property of energy use. These findings demonstrate the distinct status of the energy properties during neuronal firings and subthreshold activities. Meanwhile, after introducing a synapse energy model, this research can be generalized to energy calculation of a neural network. This is potentially important for understanding the relationship between dynamical network activities and cognitive behaviors.

  19. Neural Energy Supply-Consumption Properties Based on Hodgkin-Huxley Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihong; Wang, Rubin; Xu, Xuying

    2017-01-01

    Electrical activity is the foundation of the neural system. Coding theories that describe neural electrical activity by the roles of action potential timing or frequency have been thoroughly studied. However, an alternative method to study coding questions is the energy method, which is more global and economical. In this study, we clearly defined and calculated neural energy supply and consumption based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model, during firing action potentials and subthreshold activities using ion-counting and power-integral model. Furthermore, we analyzed energy properties of each ion channel and found that, under the two circumstances, power synchronization of ion channels and energy utilization ratio have significant differences. This is particularly true of the energy utilization ratio, which can rise to above 100% during subthreshold activity, revealing an overdraft property of energy use. These findings demonstrate the distinct status of the energy properties during neuronal firings and subthreshold activities. Meanwhile, after introducing a synapse energy model, this research can be generalized to energy calculation of a neural network. This is potentially important for understanding the relationship between dynamical network activities and cognitive behaviors.

  20. Solar energy research and development: program balance. Annex, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    Each of the seven solar energy technologies that have been assessed in the study are treated: photovoltaic devices, solar thermal power systems, wind energy systems, solar heating and cooling systems, agricultural and industrial heat processes, biomass conversion technologies, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. A brief technical overview of storage for solar electric technologies is presented and some principles concerning how different levels of success on electrical storage can affect the commercial viability of solar electric options are discussed. A description is given of the solar penetration model that was developed and applied as an analytical tool in the study. This computer model has served the primary purpose of evaluating the competiveness of the solar energy systems in the markets in which they are expected to compete relative to that of the alternative energy sources. This is done under a variety of energy supply, demand, and price conditions. The seven sections treating the solar energy technologies contain discussions on each of six subject areas: description of the technology; economic projections; the potential contribution of the technology in different marketplaces; environmental considerations; international potential; and the present and possible future emphases within the RD and D program. The priority item for each of the technology sections has been the documentation of the economic projections.

  1. Optimizing energy management of decentralized photovoltaic. Fuel cell - direct storage - power supply units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocklisch, Thilo; Schufft, Wolfgang; Bocklisch, Steffen [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (TUC) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a new optimizing energy management concept for decentralized power supply units. Main goal is the coordinated utilization of dynamically controllable combined-heat-and-power-plants (e.g. fuel cell cogeneration plants) and electrochemical direct storages (e.g. future electric car batteries) for the active balancing of fluctuating renewable energy generation (e.g. building integrated photovoltaics) and fluctuation electricity consumption. The self-utilization and partial storage of renewable energy helps to stabilize the grid in a ''bottom-up'' approach. The new energy mangement concept features a three-layer control structure, which aims for the optimization of the power flows, minimizing the fuel consumption and the dynamic stress imposed onto the fuel cell. (orig.)

  2. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  3. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullenkamp, Patrick H; Holody, Diane S

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the project was to develop a greater understanding of the key factors determining wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and to reduce installed systems cost. Multiple stakeholders including DOE, turbine OEMs, and large component manufactures will all benefit by better understanding the factors determining domestic competitiveness in the emerging offshore and next generation land-based wind industries. Major objectives of this project were to: 1. Carry out global cost and process comparisons for 5MW jacket foundations, blades, towers, and permanent magnet generators; 2. Assess U.S. manufacturers’ competitiveness and potential for cost reduction; 3. Facilitate informed decision-making on investments in U.S. manufacturing; 4. Develop an industry scorecard representing the readiness of the U.S. manufacturers’ to produce components for the next generations of wind turbines, nominally 3MW land-based and 5MW offshore; 5. Disseminate results through the GLWN Wind Supply Chain GIS Map, a free website that is the most comprehensive public database of U.S. wind energy suppliers; 6. Identify areas and develop recommendations to DOE on potential R&D areas to target for increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness, per DOE’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI). Lists of Deliverables 1. Cost Breakdown Competitive Analyses of four product categories: tower, jacket foundation, blade, and permanent magnet (PM) generator. The cost breakdown for each component includes a complete Bill of Materials with net weights; general process steps for labor; and burden adjusted by each manufacturer for their process categories of SGA (sales general and administrative), engineering, logistics cost to a common U.S. port, and profit. 2. Value Stream Map Competitiveness Analysis: A tool that illustrates both information and material flow from the point of getting a

  4. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry [Energy Research Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  6. A Study on stabilization of energy supply and demand using foreign futures market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Won Chul; Lee, Sung Keun [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    This study seeks to minimize financial cost related to the price stabilization and the supply and demand stabilization. In order to accomplish this, it derives a theoretical model of supply hedging to minimize fluctuation risk of price and financial cost intended for crude oil and LNG. Through the positive analysis based on this, it analyzes quantitatively the economic effect of utilizing foreign futures market. It shows the decline of average and divergence of supply cost. Despite the economic effect of utilizing a futures market, the degree of utilizing energy futures market of related firms in Korea appeared to be insufficient. To raise the utilization of trading in futures, the followings were suggested. Firstly, cost reduction and sharing relating information can be designed through the joint participation among allied enterprises. Secondly, energy futures transaction center in Korea can be established or trading linkage based on the existing international trading system can be built. Thirdly, it is possible to subsidize related cost by making a loan from trading in futures. Lastly, the participating directly in a futures market at government level can be considered. (author). 61 refs., 57 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Energy supply for sustainable rural livelihoods. A multi-criteria decision-support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherni, Judith A. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.cherni@imperial.ac.uk; Dyner, Isaac [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 1027 Medellin (Colombia); Henao, Felipe [Office B 1.32, Doctoral Programme Warwick Business School, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Jaramillo, Patricia [Instituto de Sistemas y Ciencias de la Decision Escuela de Sistemas Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Smith, Ricardo [Escuela de Geociencias y Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Font, Raul Olalde [Universidad Central ' Marta Abreu' de Las Villas, Centro de Estudio de Termoenergetica Azucarera, Carretera a Camajuani Km 5.5. CP: 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba)

    2007-03-15

    Energy supply to the rural poor in developing countries is a complex activity that transcends the simple selection of a best technology. This paper explains the outcomes achieved by using a new multi-criteria decision-support system to assist in calculating the most appropriate set of energy options for providing sufficient power to fulfil local demands that improve livelihoods. The elicitation of the priorities of future users, which are subsequently integrated into the energy selection process, is seen as a mechanism for the promotion of energy policies that ensure that technological developments reduce poverty. The sustainable rural energy decision support system (SURE DSS), a methodological package and software designed by the research team RESURL builds upon technical and non-technical features of energy development in remote poor areas, drawing on a sustainable livelihoods approach as part of its rationale. SURE enables simulations and calculation of the disparities that may arise between current and potential livelihoods after specific energy solutions have been installed, as well as measuring potential trade-offs among alternative livelihoods. The paper reports the outcome of an application of SURE to the case of a remote Colombian rural community whose total energy demands are only partly met through a diesel generator.

  8. Decentralised energy supply in 2020 - current situation and perspectives. Congress volume; Dezentrale Energieversorgung 2020 - Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokojski, M. (ed.) [Vattenfall Europe AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    In its study on ''Electric power supply in 2020'', which was published in 2005, the ETG made clear what consequences certain paths of development in the German power economy could have for the achievement of political goals regarding energy saving, environmental relief and the economy at large. One of the more important findings of the study was that the share of renewable energy is expected to grow and that decentralised energy supply systems will make a significant contribution to tomorrow's electricity supply. In autumn 1995 the ETG set up the ''2020 Electric Power Supply Task Force'' to assess this contribution. This working group analysed the possibilities and consequences of a growing decentralised power supply, taking into account all types of electricity and heat production such as cogeneration, wind power, photovoltaic and solar thermal plants. Another technology that fall into this category are thermal or electrical energy storages, which permit dissociating the exigencies of supply and demand. Following the conception of energy supply systems as holistic systems the Task Force also studied IT and telecommunication technologies and outlined possible communication systems for decentralised power supply plants, including even virtual power plants.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF CALCULATION OF TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND ENERGY SYSTEMS FEEDING THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Domanskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the cause deterioration of quality rating of electricity on tire traction substations AC can be either how mode of operation of power systems, industrial loads so and the impact of electric traction. The experience of energy surveys show that the loss from flow potential equalization currents in each the third plot between traction substations AC is amount to not less than 250 thousand kW∙h per year. To select the optimum power and places location of the device longitudinal capacitive of compensation and decision other tasks it is necessary methodology of systems of calculation that takes into account the complex nature of the mutual influence of the quality of the electricity coming from the energy system of and the transportation process. In the paper proposed three options for calculation algorithms modes work of existing and perspective systems, traction power supply AC jointly with power supply their by energy systems, including the algorithm for calculating networks of different nominal voltages using the transformations; decomposition and synthesis of networks with different voltage levels; the iterations and probabilistic assessment of the impact of power mains. Developed the schemes formalization of graphs and the matrices of portions of the outer and traction power supply and method of selecting parameters and places location of the devices longitudinal capacitive of compensation, which are based on direct methods solving systems of linear algebraic equations with a dense banded and profile-sparse the matrix. Are generalized ways of formation and transformation of graphs of schemes traction power supply and feeding them energy systems and proposed the method of calculation the complex the moment of schemes, which increases the accuracy of calculating of flows power on traction networks to 1-2 % and allows you to select the optimal parameters and places location of the devices longitudinal capacitive of compensation

  10. Exergy Analysis of the Supply of Energy and Material Resources in the Swedish Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Gong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exergy is applied to the Swedish energy supply system for the period 1970–2013. Exergy flow diagrams for the systems of electricity and district heating as well as for the total supply system of energy and material resources for 2012 are presented. The share of renewable use has increased in both electricity and district heat production. The resource use is discussed in four sectors: residential and service, transportation, industry and agriculture. The resource use is also analyzed with respect to exergy efficiency and renewable share. The total exergy input of energy and material resources amounts to about 2700 PJ of which about 530 PJ was used for final consumption in 2012. The results are also compared with similar studies. Even though the share of renewable resource use has increased from 42% in 1980 to 47% in 2012, poor efficiency is still occurring in transportation, space heating, and food production. A strong dependence on fossil and nuclear fuels also implies a serious lack of sustainability. A more exergy efficient technology and a higher renewable energy share are needed in order to become a more sustainable society.

  11. Innovative approach for achieving of sustainable urban water supply system by using of solar photovoltaic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Margeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes and analyses new and innovative concept for possible integration of solar photovoltaic (PV energy in urban water supply system (UWSS. Proposed system consists of PV generator and invertor, pump station and water reservoir. System is sized in such a manner that every his part is sized separately and after this integrated into a whole. This integration is desirable for several reasons, where the most important is the achievement of the objectives of sustainable living in urban areas i.e. achieving of sustainable urban water supply system. The biggest technological challenge associated with the use of solar, wind and other intermittent renewable energy sources RES is the realization of economically and environmentally friendly electric energy storage (EES. The paper elaborates the use of water reservoires in UWSS as EES. The proposed solution is still more expensive than the traditional and is economically acceptable today in the cases of isolated urban water system and special situations. Wider application will depend on the future trends of energy prices, construction costs of PV generators and needs for CO2 reduction by urban water infrastructure.

  12. Energy Costs of Urban Water Supply Systems: Evidence from India (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malghan, D.; Mehta, V. K.; Goswami, R.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time in human history more people around the globe now live in urban centres rather than in rural settings. Although India's urban population proportion at 31% is still below the global average, it has been urbanizing rapidly. The population growth rate in urban India is more than two-and-half times that of rural India. The current Indian urban population, of over 370 million people, exceeds that of the total population of every other country on the planet with the exception of China. Supplying water to India's burgeoning urban agglomerations poses a challenge in terms of social equity, biophysical sustainability, and economic efficiency. A typical Indian city relies on both surface and ground water sources. Several Indian cities import surface water from distances that now exceed a hundred kilometres and across gradients of up to three thousand metres. While the depleting groundwater levels as a result of rapidly growing demand from urban India is at least anecdotally understood even when reliable estimates are not available, the energy costs of supplying water to urban India has thus far not received academic or policy attention it deserves. We develop a simple framework to integrate distributed groundwater models with water consumption data to estimate the energy and emissions associated with supplying water to urban centres. We assemble a unique data set from seventy five of the largest urban agglomerations in India and derive estimated values of energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with water provision in urban India. Our analysis shows that in every major city, the energy cost associated with long distance import of surface water significantly exceeds groundwater extraction. However, with rapidly depleting groundwater levels, we estimate inflection points for select cities when energy costs of groundwater extraction will exceed energy required to import surface water into the city. In addition to the national snapshot, we also

  13. Revised congressional budget request, FY 1982. Conservation and renewable energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Programs dealing with conservation and renewable energy are reprinted from the Revised Congressional Budget Request FY 1982. From Volume 7, Energy Conservation, information is presented on: buildings and community systems; industrial programs; transportation programs; state and local programs; inventor's program energy conversion technology; energy impact assistance; and residential/commercial retrofit. From Volume 2, Energy Supply Research and Development, information and data are presented on: solar building applications; solar industrial applications; solar power applications; solar information systems; SERI facility; solar international activities; alcohol fuels; geothermal; and hydropower. From Volume 6, Energy Production, Demonstration, and Distribution, information and data on solar energy production, demonstration, and distribution are presented. From Volume 3, Energy Supply and R and D Appropriation, information and data on electric energy systems and energy storage systems are included. From Volume 4, information and data are included on geothermal resources development fund. In Volume 5, Power Marketing Administrations, information and data are presented on estimates by appropriations, positions and staff years by appropriation, staffing distribution, and power marketing administrations. Recissions and deferrals for FY 1981 are given. (MCW)

  14. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1991 through September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1991, through September 30, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Project discussed are: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supplies modeling and research; evaluations and assessments; and coal structure and chemistry.

  15. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  16. ON IMPROVING THE ENERGY SUPPLY OF BATCH DYEING APPARATUSES IN THE LIGHT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers the results of pinch analysis, thermodynamic analysis based on exergy method that determine the energy-supply efficacy enhancement variants for the processing equipment in the light industry finishing production as exemplified by the apparatuses of batch operation for textile dyeing. Scientifically substantiated improvement feasibility estimation for the Belarusian light industry enterprises thermo-technological production energy supply is of current concern and in demand in the existing economic situation. Exergy method allows obtaining the indicated estimation by the simplest and most logical way as against the other methods of thermodynamic analysis e.g. entropy method or employing the cycle theory. Pinch analysis employment not only allows verifying the estimation results but also points out the problem spots demanding cardinal changes and modernization. This complex approach renders possible outlining simple ways of energy saving in the existing technical systems of substance transformation, which is important under the conditions of operating production for successful handling the problem of lowering production costs. The example of the most widespread thermo-technological production of the light industry illustrates the above stated. For most enterprises of the republic, it remains problematic in many ways. The suggested ways of solving the problem are not exhaustive and offer evolutionary changes that secure economic indicators fitting the dictates of time and the enterprises capabilities. Another critical factor of the presented analysis and ways for thermo-technological energy supply improvement is that the proposed changes can realize on basis of the equipment that established a good reputation during continuous service in different productions and manufactured in the republic in working partnership with foreign design engineers. 

  17. Assessment of building integrated energy supply and energy saving schemes on a national level in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.; Morthorst, P.E.; Birkl, C.

    2011-06-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The results of these analyses were integrated in five scenarios to examine the consequences at national level of implementing insulation together with solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps in single-family houses. The simulations focused on the building period between 1961 and 1972 characterised by high building activity and low energy performance. The five scenarios - a baseline scenario, a maximum savings scenario, a maximum production scenario, and a combination scenario - showed that regardless of scenario, a consequent use of individual heat pumps leads to the greatest energy savings and CO{sub 2} reductions. (ln)

  18. Richland Community College BioEnergy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Douglas C. [Richland Community College, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2012-09-25

    The purpose of this project was to focus on education and community outreach. As such, it reflected anticipated growth in the renewable/alternative energy industry creating a vast need for trained industry professionals, engineers, operations managers, and technicians to operate state-of-the art production facilities. This project's scope leveraged Richland's initial entry in the renewable energy education, which included Associate of Applied Science degrees and certificates in biofuels and bioprocessing. This facilitated establishing a more comprehensive sustainability and renewable energy programs including experiential learning laboratory components needed to support new renewable energy education degree and certificate specialties, as well as community outreach. Renewable energy technologies addressed included: a) biodiesel, c) biomass, d) wind, e) geothermal, and f) solar. The objective is to provide increasingly innovative hands on experiential learning and knowledge transfer opportunities.

  19. A simple metabolic model of glacial-interglacial energy supply to the upper ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrí, J. L.; Olivella, R.; García-Olivares, A.

    2011-03-01

    We use a simple two-state two-box ocean to simulate the CO2 signal during the last four glacial-interglacial transitions in the earth system. The model is inspired by the similarity in spatial organization and temporal transition patterns between the earth and other complex systems, such as mammals. The comparison identifies the earth's metabolic rate with net autotrophic primary production in the upper ocean, sustained through new inorganic carbon and nutrients advected from the deep ocean and organic matter remineralized within the upper ocean. We view the glacial-interglacial transition as a switch of the upper ocean from a basal to an enhanced metabolic state, with energy supply initially relying on the remineralization of the local organic sources and the eventual steady state resulting from the increased advective supply of inorganic deep sources. During the interglacial-glacial transition the opposite occurs, with an initial excess of advective supply and primary production that allows the replenishment of the upper-ocean organic storages. We set the relative change in energy supply from the CO2 signal and use genetic algorithms to explore the sensitivity of the model output to both the basal recirculation rate and the intensity-timing of the maximum recirculation rate. The model is capable of reproducing quite well the long-term oscillations, as shown by correlations with observations typically about 0.8. The dominant time scale for each cycle ranges between about 40 and 45 kyr, close to the 41 kyr average obliquity astronomical period, and the deep-ocean recirculation rate increases between one and two orders of magnitude from glacial to interglacial periods.

  20. [Assessment of energy metabolism and nutritional supply in children with mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian; Qian, Suyun; Yan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To determine the resting energy expenditure on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) by indirect calorimetry, and analyze the distribution of metabolic states. The nutrition supply was assessed according to the resting energy expenditure. An observational study which was held in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from November 2013 to April 2014. Critically ill children with mechanical ventilation were enrolled in this study. The inclusion criteria included the following: (1) pediatric critical illness score 29 days, 24 hours; (4) volume of mechanical ventilation > 60 ml. Resting energy expenditure was determined by US Med Graphic Company CCM/D energy metabolism test system. Predictive resting energy expenditure was calculated for each subject with age-appropriate equation (Schofield-HTWT). According to the actual energy intake records and required energy intake (10% higher than the measured value) to define the nutritional status. The selected subjects were grouped according to gender, age, types of disease and nutritional status, and compared the metabolic status and nutritional supply of different groups. Sixty-eight children were enrolled in this study, 46 were boys and 22 were girls, including 25 cases of pneumonia with respiratory failure, 23 cases of central nervous system diseases complicated with respiratory failure and 20 cases of postoperative tracheal intubation. The ratio of boys and girls was 2:1. The results showed 36 patients in a low metabolic state, accounting for 53%, 23 patients in a high metabolic state, accounting for 34% and 9 patients (13%) in the metabolism of the normal state. In the male children, 12 cases (26%) were in the high metabolism and 26 cases (57%) were in the low metabolism, and 8 cases (17%) were in the normal metabolism. In the female children, 11 cases (50%) were classified into high metabolism; 10 cases (45%) into low metabolism and 1 case (5%) was classified into normal metabolism. There was no

  1. Photovoltaic energy program overview: Fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This is the 1994 overview for the Photovoltaic Energy Program. The topics of this overview include cooperative research projects to improve PV systems and develop pre-commercial prototypes of new PV products, expanding understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing the formation and performance of PV materials, and helping US industry enhance its leadership position in the PV market.

  2. Assessing the quality of energy supplied by small renewable energy systems; Avaliacao da qualidade da energia fornecida por sistemas renovaveis isolados de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, Marcos Andre Barros; Pinho, Joao Tavares [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Energeticas], e-mail: galhardo@ufpa.br, E-mail: jtpinho@ufpa.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper makes an analysis of the power quality supplied by small renewable energy systems with energy storage in a battery bank and its DC/AC conversion by an inverter. It is shown that the power quality supplied by stand-alone renewable systems depends on the used inverter, specially of its voltage waveform, the load supplied and the voltage level in the battery bank, which has a direct influence on the value of the rms output voltage of the inverter. For these analysis, measurements are presented for typical loads used in these systems as illumination, TV, refrigerator, etc., and combinations of these loads, supplied by different waveforms. (author)

  3. Promoting Decentralized Sustainable Energy Systems in Different Supply Scenarios: The Role of Autarky Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Ecker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of decentralized renewable energy systems is of crucial importance for the decarbonization of energy generation worldwide. Purchase decisions regarding innovative energy systems depend to some extent on consumers’ perception of the systems’ degree of autarky. We assumed that, in addition to the energetic perspective, consumers associate other non-energetic facets such as independence, autonomy, self-sufficiency, or control with the concept of autarky. These psychological facets of autarky were expected to contribute to purchase decisions. In Study 1, participants (N = 168 evaluated three future energy supply scenarios. The scenarios varied regarding their range of autarky (household/neighborhood/small town, but the individually realized degree of energetic autarky did not vary. Participants reported a higher willingness to pay in connection with a higher perceived psychological autarky for the Household Scenario. Study 1’s findings were confirmed by Study 2, in which qualitative interviews (N = 13 also revealed that participants favored the Household Scenario on several points. These evaluations were driven by the anticipated psychological facets of autarky that is the subjective perception of being independent, autonomous, self-sufficient, energy secure, and of control. To promote an adoption of renewable energy systems, these psychological autarky facets need to be addressed. Enabling the people to self-determine, control, and secure their energy provision even in complex organizational settings in such a manner is likely to increase their acceptance and therefore foster the required social transition as a whole.

  4. Superconducting magnetic energy storage and superconducting self-supplied electromagnetic launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceron, Jérémie; Badel, Arnaud; Tixador, Pascal

    2017-10-01

    Superconductors can be used to build energy storage systems called Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), which are promising as inductive pulse power source and suitable for powering electromagnetic launchers. The second generation of high critical temperature superconductors is called coated conductors or REBCO (Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide) tapes. Their current carrying capability in high magnetic field and their thermal stability are expanding the SMES application field. The BOSSE (Bobine Supraconductrice pour le Stockage d'Energie) project aims to develop and to master the use of these superconducting tapes through two prototypes. The first one is a SMES with high energy density. Thanks to the performances of REBCO tapes, the volume energy and specific energy of existing SMES systems can be surpassed. A study has been undertaken to make the best use of the REBCO tapes and to determine the most adapted topology in order to reach our objective, which is to beat the world record of mass energy density for a superconducting coil. This objective is conflicting with the classical strategies of superconducting coil protection. A different protection approach is proposed. The second prototype of the BOSSE project is a small-scale demonstrator of a Superconducting Self-Supplied Electromagnetic Launcher (S3EL), in which a SMES is integrated around the launcher which benefits from the generated magnetic field to increase the thrust applied to the projectile. The S3EL principle and its design are presented. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2016)", edited by Adel Razek

  5. On the way towards smart energy supply in cities: The impact of interconnecting geographically distributed district heating grids on the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, D. F.; Bačeković, I.; Sveinbjörnsson, D.

    2017-01-01

    of the future energy supply system with interconnected DH grids and installed industrial waste heat recuperation results in the lowest primary energy demand, emissions and costs. Finally, the benefits of the interconnected DH grid, in terms of system flexibility, CO2 emissions, total costs and energy efficiency...... assessed. Moreover, the impact of industrial waste heat on the DH supply was also assessed. In the reference year (2013) two out of four interconnections proved to be economically viable. The results for the future energy system (2029) showed that interconnecting geographically distributed DH grids reduces...... primary energy supply by 9.5%, CO2 emissions by 11.1% and total system costs by 6.3%. Inclusion of industrial waste heat in the fully interconnected DH grid reduced primary energy supply for an additional 3%, CO2 emissions for an additional 2.2% and total system costs for an additional 1.3%. The case...

  6. Supply security, competitiveness, and sustainability. The global chances of renewable energies; Versorgungssicherheit, Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit und Nachhaltigkeit. Die globalen Chancen erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Fakultaet Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Lehrstuhl fuer Marktorientierte Unternehmensfuehrung; Mehdorn, H. [Deutsche Bahn AG, Berlin (Germany)] (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Within the scope of the 18th forum ''Supply security, competitiveness and sustainability: The global chances of renewable energies'' for entrepreneurs and science, held at October 12th, 2006, at the Technical University of Dresden (Dresden, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Wind energy: Perspectives onshore and offshore (Rainer Heinsohn; Plambeck Neue Energie AG); (b) Solar energy on the advance (Dr. Claus Beneking; Ersol Solar Energy AG); (c) Biogas as a chance for the future power supply in Germany (Markus Meyt; Schmack Biogas AG).

  7. Energy policy between competitiveness, ensured supply and sustainability; Die Energiepolitik zwischen Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit, Versorgungssicherheit und Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, F.; Meran, G.; Petersen, H.G.; Steiner, V.; Wagner, G.G.; Wiegard, W.; Zimmermann, K.F. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Energy policy must meet three goals to be sustainable, i.e. competitiveness, reliability of supply, and environmental compatibility. Europe has committed itself to reduce emissions by 20 percent by 2020. Further, the share of renewables in power supply is to be increased to 20 percent, also by 2020. Apart from the introduction of emission trading, funding of renewables and the creation of a regulation authority for supervision of power and gas grids, also further measures have been taken for meeting these goals. Brussels is demanding further steps, i.e. reduction of energy imports and diversification of supplier countries so as to be less dependent on a single supplier, e.g. Russia. Further, the European internal energy market is to be harmonized and integrated more efficiently. Production, transport and distribution should become separate sectors in order to prevent excessive market power. Further, funding measures for renewables should be harmonized within the EU, and CO2 emissions should be reduced further. This quarterly journal on economic research contains 12 contributions on the subject. (orig.)

  8. On maximizing the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks by optimally assigning energy supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey-Cacheda, Rafael; García-Sánchez, Antonio Javier; García-Sánchez, Felipe; García-Haro, Joan; González-Castano, Francisco Javier

    2013-08-09

    The extension of the network lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is an important issue that has not been appropriately solved yet. This paper addresses this concern and proposes some techniques to plan an arbitrary WSN. To this end, we suggest a hierarchical network architecture, similar to realistic scenarios, where nodes with renewable energy sources (denoted as primary nodes) carry out most message delivery tasks, and nodes equipped with conventional chemical batteries (denoted as secondary nodes) are those with less communication demands. The key design issue of this network architecture is the development of a new optimization framework to calculate the optimal assignment of renewable energy supplies (primary node assignment) to maximize network lifetime, obtaining the minimum number of energy supplies and their node assignment. We also conduct a second optimization step to additionally minimize the number of packet hops between the source and the sink. In this work, we present an algorithm that approaches the results of the optimization framework, but with much faster execution speed, which is a good alternative for large-scale WSN networks. Finally, the network model, the optimization process and the designed algorithm are further evaluated and validated by means of computer simulation under realistic conditions. The results obtained are discussed comparatively.

  9. On Maximizing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks by Optimally Assigning Energy Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier González-Castano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension of the network lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN is an important issue that has not been appropriately solved yet. This paper addresses this concern and proposes some techniques to plan an arbitrary WSN. To this end, we suggest a hierarchical network architecture, similar to realistic scenarios, where nodes with renewable energy sources (denoted as primary nodes carry out most message delivery tasks, and nodes equipped with conventional chemical batteries (denoted as secondary nodes are those with less communication demands. The key design issue of this network architecture is the development of a new optimization framework to calculate the optimal assignment of renewable energy supplies (primary node assignment to maximize network lifetime, obtaining the minimum number of energy supplies and their node assignment. We also conduct a second optimization step to additionally minimize the number of packet hops between the source and the sink. In this work, we present an algorithm that approaches the results of the optimization framework, but with much faster execution speed, which is a good alternative for large-scale WSN networks. Finally, the network model, the optimization process and the designed algorithm are further evaluated and validated by means of computer simulation under realistic conditions. The results obtained are discussed comparatively.

  10. The Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. I. Background and justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Povich, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review 'Dysonian SETI', the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the 'monocultural fallacy'. We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (<10{sup 9} yr), and that many 'sustainability' counter-arguments to Hart's thesis suffer from the monocultural fallacy. We extend Hart's argument to alien energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  11. Trends in energy and nutrient supply in Trinidad and Tobago from 1961 to 2007 using FAO food balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Tony; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-09-01

    Trinidad and Tobago has experienced an epidemiological transition over recent decades characterised by reduced rates of communicable diseases but rapidly increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes in energy and nutrient supply that have taken place in Trinidad and Tobago between 1961 and 2007. Food balance sheets for each year between 1961 and 2007 were downloaded from the FAOSTAT database and daily per capita supply for seventeen food commodity groupings was calculated. After appropriate coding, energy and nutrient supply were determined using dietary analysis software. FAO food balance sheets for Trinidad and Tobago from 1961 to 2007. None. The food supply in 2007 provided an extra 1561 kJ (373 kcal)/capita per d than it did in 1961. Energy from carbohydrate as a percentage of total energy fell from 62% in 1961 to 57% in 2007, whereas energy from fat as a percentage of total energy increased from 26% to over 30% and now lies at the upper end of WHO recommendations. Sugars increased from 20% to over 26% of total energy and are well above WHO recommendations. When expressed on a nutrient density basis, supplies of vitamin A, folate and Ca are lower than WHO recommendations. Nutritional imbalances in the Trinidadian food supply need to be addressed to combat the rise in nutrition-related chronic disease that is projected to cause increased disability and premature death in the country in the coming years.

  12. Energy conservation for a sustainable energy supply; Energiebesparing voor een duurzame energievoorziening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijers, F.; Kampman, B.; Bennink, D.; Bles, M.; Van Lieshout, M.; Schepers, B.

    2013-05-15

    Options available for improving energy efficiency in the Netherlands are listed and discussed. As detailed in this report, there is still substantial scope for reducing energy consumption in the production and use of energy carriers, much of it not only attractive from the perspective of society as a whole but also profitable for the actors concerned. By exploiting these opportunities, sustainability targets can be cost-effectively met. The report examines why so much potential is still not being utilised and how this can be remedied. Following a description of the potential for energy conservation, a package of smart, effective policies is recommended to secure this potential [Dutch] De mogelijkheden van energiebesparing in Nederland zijn in kaart gebracht. In deze notitie wordt aangetoond dat bij energiebesparing bij het gebruik en bij de productie van energiedragers nog veel onbenut, maar maatschappelijk aantrekkelijk potentieel ligt, waarvan een groot deel rendabel is. Benutting daarvan leidt ertoe dat de duurzaamheidsdoelen op een kosteneffectieve manier behaald kunnen worden. We hebben onderzocht waarom veel potentieel nu niet benut wordt en hoe dat wel kan gebeuren. Deze analyse beschrijft het besparingspotentieel en biedt voorstellen voor een pakket aan slimme, effectieve beleidsinstrumenten om dit potentieel te realiseren: door inzet van verplichtingen en door energiebesparing aantrekkelijker te maken.

  13. Creating hourly distributions at national level for various energy demands and renewable energy supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Drysdale, Dave; Hansen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    includes wind, solar (photovoltaic and thermal), and wave power. Distributions are not created for dispatchable plants, such as coal, gas, and nuclear thermal plants, since their output is usually determined by the energy modelling tool rather than by a dependent resource. The methodologies are purposely...

  14. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  15. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Stanek, R; Mellado, B; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip that we are using for a switching power supply design for the Atlas Tile Calorimeter at the LHC. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We compare the results with prediction from theory. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and perform an analysis using Bendel parameters. We also present a solution that we found using external circuitry that eliminates the effect.

  16. Supplying the energy demand in the chicken meat processing poultry with biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Henrique Ferrarez; Delly Oliveira Filho; Adílio Flauzino de Lacerda Filho; José Márcio Costa; Fabrício Segui Aparisi

    2016-01-01

    The main use of electrical energy in the chicken meat processing unit is refrigeration. About 70% of the electricity is consumed in the compressors for the refrigeration system. Through this study, the energetic viability of using biogas from poultry litter in supplying the demand for the refrigeration process was found. The meat processing unit studied has the potential to process about a hundred and sixty thousand chickens a day. The potential biogas production from poultry litter is 60,754...

  17. Motor systems energy efficiency supply curves: A methodology for assessing the energy efficiency potential of industrial motor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee [Industrial Energy Analysis, Energy Analysis Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd. MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali, E-mail: AHasanbeigi@lbl.gov [China Energy Group, Energy Analysis Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd. MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Motor-driven equipment accounts for approximately 60% of manufacturing final electricity use worldwide. A major barrier to effective policymaking, and to more global acceptance of the energy efficiency potential in industrial motor systems, is the lack of a transparent methodology for quantifying the magnitude and cost-effectiveness of these energy savings. This paper presents the results of groundbreaking analyses conducted for five countries and one region to begin to address this barrier. Using a combination of expert opinion and available data from the United States, Canada, the European Union, Thailand, Vietnam, and Brazil, bottom-up energy efficiency supply curve models were constructed to estimate the cost-effective electricity efficiency potentials and CO{sub 2} emission reduction for three types of motor systems (compressed air, pumping, and fan) in industry for the selected countries/region. Based on these analyses, the share of cost-effective electricity saving potential of these systems as compared to the total motor system energy use in the base year varies between 27% and 49% for pumping, 21% and 47% for compressed air, and 14% and 46% for fan systems. The total technical saving potential varies between 43% and 57% for pumping, 29% and 56% for compressed air, and 27% and 46% for fan systems. - Highlights: > Development of conservation supply curves for the industrial motor systems. > An innovative approach combining available aggregate country-level data with expert opinion. > Results show both cost-effective and technical potential for energy saving and their costs. > Policy implication of the results are briefly discussed.

  18. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE PROCESS OF RADIATION-CONVECTIVE DRYING FRUIT AND VEGETA- BLE CHIPS WITH PULSED ENERGY SUPPLY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. N. Ostrikov; E. U. Zheltouhova

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model of combined radiation and convection drying of fruit and vegetable chips with pulsed energy supply is developed, the model describes the change in temperature and moisture content...

  19. Energy Extension Service Program planning manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liersch, Judith M.

    1979-06-01

    The manual is the first revision of the EES Program Planning Manual. At the states' request, there have been a number of changes to the state EES contacts list, and an updated list is included in this package as the revised Appendix D. Part I, Introduction, presents: How to Use the State Program Planning Manual and The Energy Extension Service Program. Part II, Applying for an EES Grant, presents: The Annual State Application for Financial Assistance; State Financial Assistance and Associated Requirements; Preparing the State Plan. Part III, Operating a State EES, presents: Start-Up Considerations; State Program Reporting; Recordkeeping and Financial Management. Part IV, DOE's Role, presents DOE Functions and Responsibilities and Special Cases: Development and Implementation of a State Plan by the EES Director and Administrative Review.

  20. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  1. Variations in Nutrient and Energy Supplies as Foundations for Hydrothermal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Our field work at Yellowstone National Park, and associated analytical and theoretical work, is guided by the hypothesis that the enormous phylogenetic diversity of hot spring microbial communities reflects the metabolic diversity that is allowed by the geochemical diversity of nutrient and energy supplies. Wide-ranging fluid compositions result from differences in fluid sources, host rock compositions, the extent of water-rock reaction progress, phase separation, subsurface mixing with groundwater or soil water, atmospheric exchange, aeolian deposition, and biological activity. In the systems we have studied pH varies from 0.8 to 9.3, and serves as a reference frame for other variations in composition. Major nutrients show several order of magnitude variations (phosphate from 0.0005 to 0.05 millimolal, nitrate from micro to millimolal, ammonia from micro to 0.1 molal). Micronutrients also have highly variable concentrations (Mo and V over 3; Zn, W and Mn over 5; and Fe over 6 orders of magnitude). As a consequence, the combined multi-component compositional diversity presents an enormous array of possible geochemical habitats. Likewise, the supply of chemical energy in hot spring ecosystems varies with composition, with some reactions universally providing similar amounts of energy (oxidation of CO, formate, hydrogen, ammonia, magnetite or methane), while others change dramatically depending on subtleties of fluid composition (ferrous ion oxidation coupled to reduction of oxygen, nitrate, or nitrite; sulfur disproportionation to pyrite and sulfate). Increasing pH amplifies the energy yield from reactions in which sulfur is reduced to pyrite, or in which ferrous ions are oxidized, while at strongly acidic pH, magnetite rivals oxygen in energy yield for oxidation reactions. Chemical affinities for many reactions change sign from one spring to the next, exemplified by the coupling of ferrous ion oxidation to magnetite, hematite or goethite with sulfur reduction to

  2. Balanced contribution of glycolytic and adenylate pool in supply of metabolic energy in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, A J; Mommersteeg, M E; Akkerman, J W

    1985-03-10

    When platelets are treated with H2O2 the metabolic ATP content decreases sharply (Holmsen, H., and Robkin, L. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 1752-1757). Here we report that the loss of metabolic energy is fully recovered in phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates. A mixture of antimycin A/2-deoxy-D-glucose/D-gluconic acid-1,5-lactone blocks mitochondrial ATP resynthesis and prevents the entry of sugars into the glycolytic sequence. The energy-rich phosphates in the adenylate and the glycolytic pool are then consumed in a specific order. First, the glycolytic pool is consumed at a rate of 4.5 mumol of ATP equivalents/min/10(11) cells, and metabolic ATP and ADP are kept stable; then the consumption of the glycolytic pool decreases and metabolic ATP and ADP are consumed, together keeping up with the same rate of energy consumption. Thrombin stimulation increases the energy consumption to about 17 mumol of ATPeq/min/10(11) cells which is now furnished by both the glycolytic and the adenylate pool, again with a preferential consumption of the former. The results show that H2O2 triggers a shift of energy-rich phosphates from the adenylate to the glycolytic pool and that the latter remains rapidly accessible to energy consumption thereby stabilizing the level of metabolic ATP. The adenylate energy charge is independent of the distribution of energy among the two pools, which extends its importance to the regulation of energy supply and demand beyond the adenylate pool.

  3. Environmental Sustainability and Energy-Efficient Supply Chain Management: A Review of Research Trends and Proposed Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Piera Centobelli; Roberto Cerchione; Emilio Esposito

    2018-01-01

    This paper conducts a structured review on the topic of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability in the supply chain management context to define research trends on the topic and identify research gaps. The review is carried out using the largest databases of peer-reviewed literature (Scopus and Web of Science). A sample of 122 papers focusing on the topic of energy-efficient and sustainable supply chain management was selected and analyzed through descriptive and content analysis. ...

  4. Expand the Modeling Capabilities of DOE's EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Shirey

    2008-02-28

    EnergyPlus{trademark} is a new generation computer software analysis tool that has been developed, tested, and commercialized to support DOE's Building Technologies (BT) Program in terms of whole-building, component, and systems R&D (http://www.energyplus.gov). It is also being used to support evaluation and decision making of zero energy building (ZEB) energy efficiency and supply technologies during new building design and existing building retrofits. Version 1.0 of EnergyPlus was released in April 2001, followed by semiannual updated versions over the ensuing seven-year period. This report summarizes work performed by the University of Central Florida's Florida Solar Energy Center (UCF/FSEC) to expand the modeling capabilities of EnergyPlus. The project tasks involved implementing, testing, and documenting the following new features or enhancement of existing features: (1) A model for packaged terminal heat pumps; (2) A model for gas engine-driven heat pumps with waste heat recovery; (3) Proper modeling of window screens; (4) Integrating and streamlining EnergyPlus air flow modeling capabilities; (5) Comfort-based controls for cooling and heating systems; and (6) An improved model for microturbine power generation with heat recovery. UCF/FSEC located existing mathematical models or generated new model for these features and incorporated them into EnergyPlus. The existing or new models were (re)written using Fortran 90/95 programming language and were integrated within EnergyPlus in accordance with the EnergyPlus Programming Standard and Module Developer's Guide. Each model/feature was thoroughly tested and identified errors were repaired. Upon completion of each model implementation, the existing EnergyPlus documentation (e.g., Input Output Reference and Engineering Document) was updated with information describing the new or enhanced feature. Reference data sets were generated for several of the features to aid program users in selecting proper

  5. Energy supplying of the Europe and foreign policy; Approvisionnement energetique de l'Europe et politique etrangere commune. Une problematique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1998-03-01

    This paper aims to answer the question on the impact of the energy supply in Europe on the foreign and safety policy. The geo-political principles of the energy, the european petroleum and gaseous supply and the american policy facing the european energy supply are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  6. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power... Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies'') and provide the appropriate docket number...

  7. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview, Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, P.

    2001-03-02

    This ''annual report'' details the FY 2000 achievements of the U.S. Department of Energy PV Program in the categories of Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. Highlights include development of a record-breaking concentrator solar cell that is 32.4% efficient; fabrication of a record CIGS (copper indium gallium diselenide) cell at 18.8% efficiency; sharing an R and D 100 award with Siemens Solar Industries and the California Energy Commission for development and deployment of commercial CIS thin-film modules; and support for the efforts of the PV Industry Roadmap Workshop.

  8. Manipulation of operating configuration of cool air supply in buildings for reduction of cooling energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Rashid, Mohd Syazwan Ab; Hassan, Ahmad Hadi

    2012-06-01

    The cooling energy in different rooms can be different particularly if there are rooms that are very seldom occupied. With uncertainties in the cost and availability of local and global energy nowadays, it is imperative that a study on the actual cooling load of a building system be performed to reduce the energy consumption. In this paper, the effect of manipulation of the operating configuration of the cool air supply system is studied experimentally and also by computer simulation on selected occupied air-conditioned areas. The study is mainly conducted by re-configuring the damper opening and mode of control depending on the trend of occupancy throughout a typical working day for a selected zone within a campus building. The potential savings in energy as a result of the proposed strategy are estimated based on computer simulation. The results are compared with those of the experiment. The study reveals that there are significant potentials for savings in the cooling energy of the buildings.

  9. 17. Kassel symposium energy systems technology. Structures and grids for the future energy supply; 17. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik. Strukturen und Netze fuer die Energieversorgung von Morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 17th Kassel symposium from 11th to 12th October, 2012, in Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) E-Energy - the art of flexibilization between market and regulation (Michael Wedler); (2) The model region Harz (Florian Schloegl); (3) The role of IKT at the transformation of the energy supply - Chances for new business ideas (Arnold Picot); (4) Standardized connection of plants to IEC 61850 (Martin Winter); (5) Implementation of a IKT infrastructure for a virtual power plant in the model region Harz (Manuel Wickert); (6) OGEMA2.0 - Smart grid meets smart home (David Nestle); (7) Evaluation of the grid stability of a purely regenerative power supply (Kaspar Knorr); (8) Biogas plants and storage for the integration of renewable energies (Patrick Hochloff); (9) moma Architecture and functions in the intelligent energy system (Andreas Kiessling); (10) Power hub - showing the full potential of the VPP technology (Andreas Bjerre); (11) Implementation of electricity grids, heat grids and traffic grids - Potentials, requirements and efficiencies (Wolfram Wellssow); (12) Exploration of the regional distribution grid as a basis for the implementation of smart grids using the RegModHarz project as an example (Christian Roehrig); (13) New design and works management of distribution grids in decentralized supply structures (Martin Braun); (14) Advantages and challenges of the coupling of natural gas distribution systems and power distribution systems (Herbert Bauer); (15) Acceptance of renewable energies in the region Harz (Amelie Fechner); (16) Business models for a future 100 per cent supply of renewable energies (Peer Ritter).

  10. Providing solutions to energy and environmental programs. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goals of WRI`s jointly sponsored research program are to: (1) increase the production of US and western energy resources--low-sulfur coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) enhance the competitiveness of US and western energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) reduce the nation`s dependence upon foreign energy supplies and strengthen the US and regional economies; and (4) minimize the impact of energy production and utilization on the environment. A summary of appropriations, obligations and expenditures is given, then a summary of objectives and accomplishments for the 21 tasks being supported is presented.

  11. Radio tower of V. G. Shukhov in the energy supply system of the Russian capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryadko, Igor

    2017-10-01

    Today, when solving the problems of energy supply of buildings, it is important to turn to past experience, to evaluate the effectiveness of solutions that pertain to the period of the formation of an industrial Russian city of the XX century. In this regard, it is important to preserve those objects of industrial architecture that were intended, among other things, for solving problems of energy supply. Even now the architectural legacy of V.G. Shukhov, an outstanding Russian engineer and inventor, triggers discussions and debates. In particular, an impassionate debate arose over the best procedures for the preservation of his architectural works. In the meantime, while debatorslock their horns, the architectural works, designed by this phenomenal engineer and architect, keep decaying. The mission of this article is to assess the impact of the structures, designed by V.G. Shukhov, produced on the conceptual design of an industrial city, and to understand what particular losses the decay of his projects may involve. Another mission, pursued by the author, is to demonstrate the scale of V.G.Shukhov’s work performed in the capacity of an engineer and an inventor. The subject of this research is limited to the study of the restoration effort applied to the Shukhov radio and television tower, also known as the Shabolovka tower.

  12. Fission energy program of the US Department of Energy, FY 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Robert L.

    1980-03-01

    Information is presented concerning the National Energy Plan and fission energy policy; fission energy program management; converter reactor systems; breeder reactor systems; and special nuclear evaluations and systems.

  13. REDUCING THE BOOSTER STATIONS ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY WAY OF ELIMINATING OVERPRESSURE IN THE WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency improvement of the city housing-and-utilities infrastructure and watersupply and water-disposal systems poses an occurrent problem. The water-supply systems energy consumption sizable share falls on the pump plants. The article deals with the issues of the operating regime management of the existing booster stations equipped with a group of pumping units regulated with frequency converters. One of the optimization directions of their energy consumption is the reduction of over-pressure in the water-distribution network and its sustentation within the regulatory values. The authors offer the structure and methodology of the data collection-and-analysis automated system utilization for revealing and eliminating the overpressure in the water-supply network. This system is designed for the group management of booster-stations operating regimes on the ground of data obtained from the pressure controlling devices at the consumers. The data exchange in the system is realized via GSM.The paper presents results of the tests carried out at the booster stations in some major cities of the Republic of Belarus. The authors analyze dependence of overpressure in the network on the methods of the plant output pressure sustentation (daily graph or constant pressure. The authors study the elimination effect of over-pressure in the water distribution network on changing the booster station pumping units operation regimes. The study shows that eliminating over pressure in the water distributing network leads to lowering the booster station pressure. This in its turn decreases its energy consumption by 15–20 % depending on the over pressure fixed level.

  14. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program. FY 1977 program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    An overview is given of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts. Each of the DOE's Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion projects funded during fiscal year 1977 (October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1977) is described and each project's status as of December 31, 1977 is reflected. These projects are grouped as follows: program support, definition planning, engineering development, engineering test and evaluation, and advanced research and technology. (MHR)

  15. Trend of energy supply and demand in Jilin Province, China; Chugoku Kitsurinsho no energy jukyu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The province is naturally under the influence of the Chinese policy toward energy, which consists of the privatization of state-run businesses, liberalization of prices, reinforcement of transportation, and versification of energy resources. The recoverable coal reserve in Jilin accounts for 0.7% of the whole Chinese reserve. The coal, however, is poor in quality and the province has to rely on sources outside the province for the majority of the amount it needs. Although the coal washing rate and the mechanization rate of the coal mining process are low, yet the Chinese price is competitive in the international market. Coal consumption in Jilin Province has levelled off, but the amount consumed for thermal power generation is on the increase. A total of 4.9-million ton of crude oil was consumed in 1995 within the province but, in 2010, 13.68-million ton (61% out of this tonnage to be purchased from outside the province) will be needed thanks to the popularization of motor vehicles. Jilin in 1995 was capable of producing 3.5-million kW by thermal power generation and 3.7-million kW by hydroelectric power generation. It is supposed that an increase in power consumption will be met primarily by coal-fired power generation. Prediction is that Jilin Province will demand 62.1-billion kWh in 2010 with 20% thereof to be purchased from the outside of the province. 1 fig., 22 tabs.

  16. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's definition... ``Indian country'' as defined by 18 U.S.C. 1151, nor does it intend to limit existing rights of the State...

  17. The role of biosolar technologies in future energy supply making scenarios for the Netherlands: Energy port and energy farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, L.; Vriend, H.; Gremmen, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the possible roles of biosolar energy systems in the Netherlands in the coming years. The appraisal is made in the light of EU Directives on renewable energy and reduction of CO2 emissions, and the new Dutch Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. The assessment is made within

  18. Environmental Sustainability and Energy-Efficient Supply Chain Management: A Review of Research Trends and Proposed Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Centobelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper conducts a structured review on the topic of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability in the supply chain management context to define research trends on the topic and identify research gaps. The review is carried out using the largest databases of peer-reviewed literature (Scopus and Web of Science. A sample of 122 papers focusing on the topic of energy-efficient and sustainable supply chain management was selected and analyzed through descriptive and content analysis. The review highlights that despite there is a growing research trend on the topic, different research gaps remain to be covered. These gaps concern the factors influencing energy efficiency and environmental sustainability initiatives, the classification of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability initiatives, the impact of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability on supply chain performance, the customer perspective in sustainable and energy-efficient supply chain, and the different technologies supporting the energy efficiency and environmental sustainability initiatives. The research gaps and the research questions identified offer the opportunity to identify areas of investigation to design future research directions and propose guidelines in the field of supply chain management.

  19. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and of the operation of DOE facilities. The program is divided into seven general areas of activity; the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 340 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliography is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by laboratory and by year and also summarizes the results from individual authors by journal.

  20. Design and performance of a clean and economic power supply targeting energy independence and operative security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaha, Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    Stand alone wind-diesel power systems address the major issues for the supply of remotely located consumers or the provision of enhanced energy independence. The specific configuration considered here comprises a prior wind turbine driven induction generator and a supplementary synchronous generator driven by a combustion engine, the latter caring for frequency control and reactive power balance. An accumulator-bank and a hydrogen storage path consisting of an electrolyzer and a hydrogen storage tank are added as short-term and long-term storage devices - respectively - in order to adjust volatile wind generation and varying load demand. The hydrogen re-conversion to electricity is achieved by design of the drive of the synchronous generator as a dual-fuel engine, fed with stored hydrogen primarily, and with diesel oil in case of the rare event of hydrogen storage emptiness. An elementary waste heat recovery from engine cooling water and from exhaust gases makes the system even more energy efficient and environment friendly. For proper sizing of the particular system components under minimization of the life cycle cost - which are composed of the initial installation cost, the replacement cost, the operation and maintenance cost as well as the remaining fuel cost - the meta-heuristic computational method of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was applied. The crucial task of intelligently managing the energy storage strategy depending on their actual states of charge and the current excess power under a given load profile was solved by a fuzzy system and a subsequent time scheduler, the latter providing definite set-point steps for definite periods of time to the electrolyzer in order to achieve smooth and conservative operation. The concrete design and performance of the proposed system structure is shown with the two relevant application examples of independent electricity supply of the main hospital in Gaza-Strip, Palestine, and a remotely located dairy farm. For

  1. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  2. Industrial energy-efficiency improvement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies is described. Practices which will improve energy efficiency, encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels, and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams are enumerated. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. A summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix is presented.

  3. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    plants can be economically substituted by low carbon based technologies. Furthermore, the integrated annual load management notably contributes to innovative process integration becoming economic in an energy system affected by low efficiency and flexibility. Further limiting flexibility, the geographic location of this innovative low carbon energy production technology strictly depends on geological boundary conditions, namely the presence of exploitable coal resources, and availability of energy transport networks to supply potential end users with the product. Hereby, feeding upgraded synthesis gas directly into the Bulgarian gas pipeline network avoiding its conversion into electricity is an alternative approach with relevant economic potentials. For that purpose, the proximity and availability of these transport networks as well as the demand of end users are validated by the integrated energy system model. Coupling our techno-economic process model to an energy system-modelling framework allows the determination of the future economical potentials and the limitations for the implementation of a low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system. The obtained results show that the Bulgarian energy system can significantly benefit from the integration of underground coal gasification considering carbon dioxide mitigation technologies potentially initiating a continuous substitution of imported fuels by domestic coal resources.

  4. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  5. Key elements of a sustainable energy system. Energy storage connects supply and demand; Schluesselelemente einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung. Energiespeicher verbinden Angebot und Nachfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Eicke R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The projected transformation of our fossil-nuclear energy system towards a renewable system shows clearly the importance of energy storage. Coal, gas and uranium as treasures of the soil can be stored over a long time without losses. In addition oil and gas facilitate mobility due to their high energy density. We got used to these riches. Now, as we want to bring energy income and expenses to equilibrium, many of us realize how simple energy supply has been until now. (orig.)

  6. Supplying the energy demand in the chicken meat processing poultry with biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique Ferrarez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main use of electrical energy in the chicken meat processing unit is refrigeration. About 70% of the electricity is consumed in the compressors for the refrigeration system. Through this study, the energetic viability of using biogas from poultry litter in supplying the demand for the refrigeration process was found. The meat processing unit studied has the potential to process about a hundred and sixty thousand chickens a day. The potential biogas production from poultry litter is 60,754,298.91 m3.year-1. There will be a surplus of approximately 8,103MWh per month of electric energy generated from biogas. An economic analysis was performed considering a planning horizon of 20 years and the discount rate of 12% per year. The economic analysis was performed considering scenario 1: sale of all electricity generated by the thermoelectric facility, and scenario 2: sale of the surplus electricity generated after complying with the demands of the refrigeration process and all other electrical energy and thermal energy use. Economic indicators obtained for scenarios 1 and 2 were favorable for the project implementation.

  7. Supply and Demand Control of Distributed Generators in a Microgrid for New Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakage, Toyonari; Sumita, Jiro; Uchiyama, Noriyuki; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    We report the operational results of distributed generators (DGs) in a microgrid and present the effects after incorporating photovoltaic power generation (PV) systems into the microgrid for electric power system. The microgrid was constructed at the EXPO 2005 Aichi site as part of a demonstration promoted by NEDO. A solution is needed to problems where instability in the DGs that utilize natural energy such as solar light and wind force negatively influence existing electric power systems. So, we developed energy control system and controlled DGs output to reduce the fluctuation at the grid connected point caused by PV system's instability output. Our microgrid consists of DGs such as PV systems, fuel cells, and NaS batteries, and these DGs are controlled by an energy control system. We verified practical effectiveness of the installing the microgrid as follows. (1) 99.5% of the power imbalance in the supply and demand over 30 minutes was within a range of ±3% under normal operating conditions, (2) the microgrid contributes to the load leveling, (3) energy control system smoothes the power flow fluctuation of PV system output at the grid connected point, (4) in the future, installing a microgrid will help reduce the additional LFC (Load Frequency Control) capacity.

  8. State Energy Program Results: More Projects That Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-12-01

    A Summary of Success stories of the State Energy Programs. The goal of the State Energy Program is to strengthen the capabilities of States to promote energy efficiency and to adopt renewable energy technologies, thereby helping the nation save energy and realize a stronger economy, cleaner environment, and a more secure future.

  9. COMPONENTS OF THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES IN THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS WITH SYMMETRIC SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Zhemerov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Three-phase energy supply system with a symmetrical resistive load operates in mode with the highest possible efficiency in a case of zero instantaneous reactive power and the absence of pulsations instantaneous active power. When load parameters are changed, three-phase energy supply system starts to operate in a mode with additional energy losses. The goal of the paper is to determinate the relations between the components of additional losses and their rezone. Methodology. We have applied the modern theory of instantaneous active and reactive power, the graphical filling complex branched energy supply system of simplified design scheme, the theory of electrical circuits, computer Matlab-simulation. Results. We have developed an universal relation to determine the components of total power loss in the three-phase supply systems with symmetrical three-phase sinusoidal voltage source and any possible load. Further verification of this relation in the Matlab-model of three-phase energy supply system shows its high accuracy. Originality. For the first time, we have carried out relation between RMS reactive and RMS active power instantaneous pulsation and the corresponding components of additional losses. Consequently it becomes possible to offer a unique method of weighting evaluation. Practical value. We have developed position for detecting the causes of additional losses in three-phase supply systems with symmetrical sinusoidal voltage source, as well as to substantiate the correctness of the choice of filter-compensating device. We have developed a Matlab-model which allows to investigate the energy efficiency of three-phase energy supply system and to calculate the components of additional power losses of any possible reasons for their occurrence.

  10. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  11. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1993 through March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1993, through March 31, 1994, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The five areas of research covered in this report are: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis and support; Bioprocessing; Coal combustion; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Revitalization of Energy Supply Systems in the Scale of a Town, a District and an Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juchimiuk Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model actions undertaken in HafenCity and Wilhelmsburg during IBA Hamburg 2006- 13 as well as energy transformation of Danish island of Samsø towards self-sufficiency are examples of the use of energy as one of the key factors in the design of revitalization process in various scales. An important issue is to determine the impact of renewable energy systems on design process, architecture and urbanism of revitalized structures. Article examines the programs and projects related to the processes: renewal of degraded inner-industrial areas (brownfields, ecological restoration of degraded land, the revitalization of port and underdeveloped areas in the aspects of climate protection, the use of energy from renewable sources and improvement of technical conditions of building substance while maintaining the principles of sustainable development.

  13. Revitalization of Energy Supply Systems in the Scale of a Town, a District and an Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchimiuk, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Model actions undertaken in HafenCity and Wilhelmsburg during IBA Hamburg 2006- 13 as well as energy transformation of Danish island of Samsø towards self-sufficiency are examples of the use of energy as one of the key factors in the design of revitalization process in various scales. An important issue is to determine the impact of renewable energy systems on design process, architecture and urbanism of revitalized structures. Article examines the programs and projects related to the processes: renewal of degraded inner-industrial areas (brownfields), ecological restoration of degraded land, the revitalization of port and underdeveloped areas in the aspects of climate protection, the use of energy from renewable sources and improvement of technical conditions of building substance while maintaining the principles of sustainable development.

  14. Re-evaluation of the importance of coal in world energy supplies up to the year 2000. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakisch, R.R.; Hempel, C.

    1982-07-29

    The second part of the series gives trends in world energy supply in the eighties and nineties with a special view to coal. Trends in population and economic growth are presented as influencing factors of future world energy demand on the basis of a prognosis made by the authors. There are structural changes in primary energy supply which will result in a bigger contribution of coal. The coal production is estimated at some 3,000 million tonnes coal equivalent for 1985, 3,500 million tonnes coal equivalent for 1990, and at 3,500 million tonnes coal equivalent for 2000.

  15. Update on DOE's Nuclear Energy University Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambregts, Marsha J.

    2009-08-01

    The Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) Office assists the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) by administering its University Program. To promote accountable relationships between universities and the Technical Integration Offices (TIOs)/Technology Development Offices (TDOs), a process was designed and administered which includes two competitive Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and two Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) in the following areas: (1) Research and Development (R&D) Grants, (2) Infrastructure improvement, and (3) Scholarships and Fellowships. NEUP will also host periodic reviews of university mission-specific R&D that document progress, reinforce accountability, and assess return on investment; sponsor workshops that inform universities of the Department's research needs to facilitate continued alignment of university R&D with NE missions; and conduct communications activities that foster stakeholder trust, serve as a catalyst for accomplishing NEUP objectives, and provide national visibility of NEUP activities and accomplishments. Year to date efforts to achieve these goals will be discussed.

  16. Energy supply system for a freesia business without fossil energy; Energievoorzieningssysteem voor een Freesiabedrijf zonder fossiele energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zwart, H.F.

    2006-02-15

    According to expectations crops with relatively low energy requirements should be able to do without fossil fuels. In this project, conducted for a company growing freesias without assimilation lighting, research has been conducted with respect to the technical adjustments needed to be able to operate completely on sustainable energy. Moreover, the additional costs involved are examined compared to current energy sources as well as the options to lower these costs, for example by means of energy saving. (mk) [Dutch] De verwachting is dat het voor een teelt met een relatief lage energiebehoefte, mogelijk moet zijn om zonder fossiele brandstof te kunnen. In dit project is voor een praktijkbedrijf met freesia's en zonder belichting onderzocht welke technische aanpassingen nodig zijn, om geheel op duurzame energie te kunnen draaien. Tevens is bekeken welke extra kosten dit met zich meebrengt ten opzichte van gangbare energiebronnen en welke mogelijkheden er zijn om deze kosten te verlagen, door bijvoorbeeld energiebesparing.

  17. Managing forest resources to secure wood energy supply for urban centers: the case of Kinshasa, Dermocratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubiez, E.; Vermeulen, C.; Peltier, R.; Ingram, V.; Schure, J.M.; Marien, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    The management of wood energy has become
    a major concern for the international
    community and is the focus of debates in
    Central Africa. The Makala Project, funded by
    the EU, fits within this context with the
    objective of securing the supply of wood
    energy to urban centers.

  18. The Model of Gas Supply Capacity Simulation In Regional Energy Security Framework: Policy Studies PT. X Cirebon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryadin; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The needs of energy are increasing every year. The unavailability of energy will cause economic losses and weaken energy security. To overcome the availability of gas supply in the future, planning are cruacially needed. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the system, so that the process of gas distribution is running properly. In this research, system dynamic method will be used to measure how much supply capacity planning is needed until 2050, with parameters of demand in industrial, household and commercial sectors. From the model obtained PT.X Cirebon area in 2031 was not able to meet the needs of gas customers in the Cirebon region, as well as with Businnes as usual scenario, the ratio of gas fulfillment only until 2027. The implementation of the national energy policy that is the use of NRE as government intervention in the model is produced up to 2035 PT.X Cirebon area is still able to supply the gas needs of its customers.

  19. Overview of the economic theory of uncertainty and its implications for energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.J.; Newbery, D.M.G.; Stiglitz, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    This report is an excerpt from the interim report of a study on the effects of risk on prices and quantities of energy supply. It is an overview of economic theory of uncertainty and summarizes much of the economics literature of the past 10 to 15 years on risk and uncertainty. After a brief introductory section, the second section reviews the economic principles of risk bearing, which include such topics as the measurement of risk, the institutional structures by which risks are shared in the economy, activities that reduce risk, and market mechanisms that provide incentives for risk reduction. The third section examines the effects of uncertainty on the price and quantity decisions of firms. It reviews the sources of risk, the characteristics of risk, the producer's attitudes toward risk, and the effects of market structure and regulation on decision making.

  20. Energy analysis program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This report provides an energy analysis overview. The following topics are described: building energy analysis; urban and energy environmental issues; appliance energy efficiency standards; utility planning and policy; energy efficiency, economics, and policy issues; and international energy and environmental issues.

  1. Energy utilization, nitrogen balance and microbial protein supply in cattle fed Pennisetum purpureum and condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-Vázquez, A T; Canul-Solis, J R; Alayón-Gamboa, J A; Chay-Canul, A J; Ayala-Burgos, A J; Solorio-Sánchez, F J; Aguilar-Pérez, C F; Ku-Vera, J C

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, dry matter digestibility, nitrogen balance, supply of microbial protein to the small intestine and energy utilization in cattle fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass. Five heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with an average live weight of 295 ± 19 kg were allotted to five treatments consisting of increasing levels of CT (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% CT/kg DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (p > 0.05) between treatments containing 0, 1, 2 and 3% of CT/kg DM and it was reduced (p balance, purine derivatives excretion in urine, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency of synthesis of microbial nitrogen in the rumen were not affected (p ≥ 0.05) by the increase in the levels of condensed tannins in the ration. Energy loss as CH4 was on average 2.7% of the gross energy consumed daily. Metabolizable energy intake was 49.06 MJ/day in cattle fed low-quality tropical grass with a DMI of 6.27 kg/day. It is concluded that concentrations of CT between 2 and 3% of DM of ration reduced energy loss as CH4 by 31.3% and 47.6%, respectively, without affecting intakes of dry and organic matter; however, digestibilities of dry and organic matter are negatively affected. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleeter, Sanford [Purdue University

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  3. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW.... Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy...

  4. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  5. Sharing success: State energy program special projects results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-15

    The State Energy Program was created in 1996 by an act of Congress through the consolidation of the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP) and the Institutional Conservation Program (ICP). Formerly, SECP provided funding for a variety of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects, and ICP assisted schools and hospitals with technical analysis and installation of energy conservation measures. Through these programs, more than 8,000 specific State conservation projects have been implemented since 1983 and more than 69,000 buildings have been made more energy efficient since 1979. The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy recognized the value of delivering programs through the States and created Special Projects in 1996. This report is an overview of State Energy Program operations, strategic focus, activities and accomplishments.

  6. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  7. Jointly Sponsored Research Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2013-12-31

    Cooperative Agreements, DE-FC26-08NT43293, DOE-WRI Cooperative Research and Development Program for Fossil Energy-Related Resources began in June 2009. The goal of the Program was to develop, commercialize, and deploy technologies of value to the nation’s fossil and renewable energy industries. To ensure relevancy and early commercialization, the involvement of an industrial partner was encouraged. In that regard, the Program stipulated that a minimum of 20% cost share be achieved in a fiscal year. This allowed WRI to carry a diverse portfolio of technologies and projects at various development technology readiness levels. Depending upon the maturity of the research concept and technology, cost share for a given task ranged from none to as high as 67% (two-thirds). Over the course of the Program, a total of twenty six tasks were proposed for DOE approval. Over the period of performance of the Cooperative agreement, WRI has put in place projects utilizing a total of $7,089,581 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors have committed $7,398,476 in private funds to produce a program valued at $14,488,057. Tables 1 and 2 presented at the end of this section is a compilation of the funding for all the tasks conducted under the program. The goal of the Cooperative Research and Development Program for Fossil Energy-Related Resources was to through collaborative research with the industry, develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: • Increase the production of United States energy resources – coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; • Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; • Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and • Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Success of the Program can be measured by

  8. Measuring the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a case study in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Nasiri, Fuzhan; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zhang, Qiong; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-12-15

    A sustainable supply of both energy and water is critical to long-term national security, effective climate policy, natural resource sustainability, and social wellbeing. These two critical resources are inextricably and reciprocally linked; the production of energy requires large volumes of water, while the treatment and distribution of water is also significantly dependent upon energy. In this paper, a hybrid analysis approach is proposed to estimate embodied energy and to perform a structural path analysis of drinking water supply systems. The applicability of this approach is then tested through a case study of a large municipal water utility (city of Kalamazoo) in the Great Lakes region to provide insights on the issues of water-energy pricing and carbon footprints. Kalamazoo drinking water requires approximately 9.2 MJ/m(3) of energy to produce, 30% of which is associated with indirect inputs such as system construction and treatment chemicals.

  9. Assessment of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-05-01

    An assessment of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) program with guidance for future program strategy. The overall objective of this study is to prepare an independent assessment of the scientific quality of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program at the Department of Energy. The Fusion Science Assessment Committee (FuSAC) has been appointed to conduct this study.

  10. Energy supply for autarkic RF networks in the industrial sector; Energieversorgung fuer autarke Funknetzwerke in der Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, B.; Wallaschek, J. [Heinz Nixdorf Institut, Mechatronik und Dynamik (Germany); Hoeing, M.; Niggemann, E. [Weidmueller Interface GmbH und Co. KG, Detmold (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    The wireless factory requires beside rf transmission of process data also autarkic supply of the transmitter and sensors. Starting from the specifications of autarkic automation systems different principles of energy harvesting in an industrial environment are evaluated due to their respected energy gain. Measurements in the real industrial environment show - beside the theoretical approach - the available energy quantity, which can be transmitted to a converter. (GL)

  11. 75 FR 32459 - National Energy Rating Program for Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy National Energy Rating Program for Homes AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking comments and information from interested parties to assist DOE in developing a...

  12. Medication supply chain management through implementation of a hospital pharmacy computerized inventory program in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Holm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, St. Luke Hospital was built to help manage the mass casualties and subsequent cholera epidemic. A major problem faced by the hospital system was the lack of an available and sustainable supply of medications. Long-term viability of the hospital system depended largely on developing an uninterrupted medication supply chain. Objective: We hypothesized that the implementation of a new Pharmacy Computerized Inventory Program (PCIP would optimize medication availability and decrease medication shortages. Design: We conducted the research by examining how medications were being utilized and distributed before and after the implementation of PCIP. We measured the number of documented medication transactions in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 as well as user logins to determine if a computerized inventory system would be beneficial in providing a sustainable, long-term solution to their medication management needs. Results: The PCIP incorporated drug ordering, filling the drug requests, distribution, and dispensing of the medications in multiple settings; inventory of currently shelved medications; and graphic reporting of ‘real-time’ medication usage. During the PCIP initiation and establishment periods, the number of medication transactions increased from 219.6 to 359.5 (p=0.055, respectively, and the mean logins per day increased from 24.3 to 31.5, p<0.0001, respectively. The PCIP allows the hospital staff to identify and order medications with a critically low supply as well as track usage for future medication needs. The pharmacy and nursing staff found the PCIP to be efficient and a significant improvement in their medication utilization. Conclusions: An efficient, customizable, and cost-sensitive PCIP can improve drug inventory management in a simplified and sustainable manner within a resource-constrained hospital.

  13. Towards energy efficient cities : optimising the energy, energy and resource efficiency of the demand and supply side on settlement and community level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, C.; Negash, D. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Building Physics, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Although many municipalities have set ambitious targets to address climate change, many obstacles stand in their way to fulfilling high expectations. However, communities are still obliged to fulfill the Kyoto-Protocol targets of their countries. The building sector in Germany and many other central European countries accounts for more than one third of the total energy demand followed by the transport and industry sectors. The need for energy efficiency should therefore be an essential interest in municipal policy strategies since may have very a central influence in energy related fields. This paper emphasized that urban planners should not focusing on only 1 single component for energy optimization to improve the overall energy efficiency in community systems. A more promising approach would be to display and analyze a holistic energetic community system. The City of Wolfhagen has developed a GIS-based tool which will enable city planners to optimize their overall energy performance as a complex and interactive system. This includes the analysis of the energy demand side represented mainly by the building stock, the electricity sector and the transportation sector. The heat demand for thermal comfort in buildings accounts for nearly one third of the total energy demand profile of the community. To step forward in the analysis, a heat demand cadastre forms a basic data source for further optimization on the supply infrastructure. This paper presented the approach and preliminary results. The GIS platform was shown to be a suitable tool for processing and checking large amounts of data. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  14. 77 FR 43723 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Conservation programs (EE Programs) undertaken by an eligible utility system to finance demand side management... Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... implementing demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid...

  15. Primacy of wind power. Deliberations on a sustainable renewable energy supply; Primat Wind Energie. Betrachtung einer nachhaltigen regenerativen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Gerd A.

    2008-07-01

    Time and again the author has felt his adrenaline rise on listening to reports or talk shows in the media (radio, television, newspapers) that were based on nothing but misinformation and subjective sentiment. In this publication he has therefore endeavoured to give a popular scientific overview of the advantages of using wind power for the public energy supply. In the introduction he expresses his heart-felt thanks to the diploma'd journalist Anke Baars for her amiable support. The explanatory calculations are given as examples with the intention of clarifying the relationships and orders of magnitude involved. The numerical examples are presented with the intent of explaining target figures and assumptions. All information was collected through scrupulous research. The reader is encouraged to check on the numerical examples given. These have been presented to give a rough idea of the orders of magnitude and global relationships involved. This publication stands somewhat apart from the mainstream. The author hopes that the reader will gain instructive insights into the energy era, find food for thought and feel encouraged to participate and take action.

  16. Communities of the Future: Energy Programs for Livable Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J. G.; Strawn, N.

    1999-04-13

    This document relates how several of the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EERE) programs help communities across the nation deal with the issues of livability and sustainable growth. Highlights include background information on renewable energy technologies, some outstanding program anecdotes, and regional and Internet contact information.

  17. Green paper - towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, technical document; Livret vert sur la securite de l'approvisionnement en energie, document technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Green Paper sets forth a series of questions regarding the security of energy in Europe. It addresses the issue of increased consumption and dependence on oil, and sketches out possible strategies for broadening the energy supply and slowing global warming. It draws an alarming picture of the EU energy situation. If no action is taken, it predicts that the EU energy dependency will climb from 50% in 2000 to 70% in 2030. The particular situation for the main imported fossil fuels is described. This technical paper is particularly devoted to the context, the energy sources, the supply disruption, the energy demand, the fuel balance, the energy technology and the transport of fuel in the EU (transit). (A.L.B.)

  18. Coalmines as Underground Pumped Storage Power Plants (UPP) - A Contribution to a Sustainable Energy Supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luick, H.; Niemann, A.; Perau, E.; Schreiber, U.

    2012-04-01

    In Europe, electrical power generation from renewable energy sources rose by about 50% in the last 20 years. In Germany, renewable electricity is mainly provided by wind power and photovoltaic. Energy output depends on weather conditions like wind speed or solar radiation and may therefore vary considerably. Rapid fluctuations in power generation already require regulation of conventional power plants by the distribution network operators to stabilize and ensure grid frequency and overall system stability. In order to avoid future blackouts caused by intermittent energy sources, it is necessary to increase the storage capacity for electric power. Theoretically, there are many technologies for storing energy, like accumulators, hydrogen storage systems, biomethane facilities (hydrocarbon synthesis) or compressed air storage. Only a few technologies combine sufficient capacity, fast response, high efficiency, low storage loss and long-term application experience. A pumped storage power plant (PSPP) is a state of the art technology which combines all of these aspects. Energy is stored in form of potential energy by pumping water to an upper reservoir in times of energy surplus or low energy costs. In times of insufficient power supply or high energy costs, the water is released through turbines to produce electric energy. The efficiency of state-of-the-art systems is about 70-80%. The total head (geodetic height between upper and lower reservoirs) and the storage capacity of the reservoirs as given in a mountainous terrain, determine the energy storage capacity of a PSPP. An alternative is the use of man-made geodetic height differences as given in ore, coal or open cast lignite mines. In these cases, the lower reservoir of the plant is located in the drifts or at the bottom of the mine. Energieforschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN) has already explored the installation of a PSPP in abandoned ore mines in the Harz-region/Germany (Beck 2011). In 2011/2012 a basic

  19. 10 CFR 205.375 - Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interconnection of Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity to Alleviate An Emergency Shortage of...) Water supplies required for power generation have been reduced to the level where the future adequacy of the power supply may be endangered and no near term improvement in water supplies is projected. The...

  20. Ensuring Security of Supply of Natural Gas in the European Union’s Common Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Teofil Postolachi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The problematic of energy policy is nowadays widely disputed in the European Union community. In a global context characterized by highly and raising dependency of the economic activity on the energetic resources, the European authorities had launched a strategy in this sector which regards the problems of access to secure and affordable energy products. The aim of this paper is linked to the natural gas field of the European energetic concerns, and it assumes the high dependency of internal consumption on imports, more than half of the natural gas that is used in the 27 states comes from abroad. Ensuring a higher level of security in the supply is one of the goals that European Union wants to achieve on medium and long term. In these circumstances, actual measurements take into account different type of actions: stabilize relations with existing partner gas exporters (Russia, Algeria, Norway; diversification of transport routes coming from these countries, especially in the idea of trying to avoid transit countries (mainly Ukraine and Belarus; and finally opening discussions and investing in alternative routes which should transport the gas from new suppliers placed in the Caspian Sea or Central Asia region.

  1. A new stochastic mixed integer programming to design integrated cellular manufacturing system: A supply chain framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Ghezavati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research defines a new application of mathematical modeling to design a cellular manufacturing system integrated with group scheduling and layout aspects in an uncertain decision space under a supply chain characteristics. The aim is to present a mixed integer programming (MIP which optimizes cell formation, scheduling and layout decisions, concurrently where the suppliers are required to operate exceptional products. For this purpose, the time in which parts need to be operated on machines and also products' demand are uncertain and explained by set of scenarios. This model tries to optimize expected holding cost and the costs regarded to the suppliers network in a supply chain in order to outsource exceptional operations. Scheduling decisions in a cellular manufacturing framework is treated as group scheduling problem, which assumes that all parts in a part group are operated in the same cell and no inter-cellular transfer is required. An efficient hybrid method made of genetic algorithm (GA and simulated annealing (SA will be proposed to solve such a complex problem under an optimization rule as a sub-ordinate section. This integrative combination algorithm is compared with global solutions and also, a benchmark heuristic algorithm introduced in the literature. Finally, performance of the algorithm will be verified through some test problems.

  2. Implementation of a shared-savings program for surgical supplies decreases inventory cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiferman, Daniel; Bhakta, Ankur; Khan, Safdar

    2015-10-01

    Management of operating room inventory has substantial cost-saving opportunities if surgeons agree to standardize supplies used to perform procedures; however, there is no incentive for surgeons to participate in these decisions, because the cost-savings are realized only by the hospital, not the practitioner. In an attempt to engage surgeons with the management of the operating room supply chain, a shared-savings programs was instituted that returned 50% of money saved to the surgery divisions. Opportunities for savings in the use of biologic mesh, cranial plating systems, and neurostimulators was identified. Each item was assigned a physician champion responsible for ensuring that there was clinical equipoise between the products being used. Any cost-savings realized during the fiscal year were shared 50-50 between the hospital and the surgery divisions. The total cost-savings was $893,865 with $446,932 being shared across 15 surgery divisions. Standardization of cranial plating systems ($374,805) generated the greatest amounts of savings followed by neurostimulators ($278,404) and biologic mesh ($240,655). Aligning hospital and surgeon incentives led to dramatic cost-savings and standardization of the operative inventory used. Quality of care is not compromised by this approach, and no conflicts of interest are created. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Comprehensive Mathematical Programming Model for Minimizing Costs in A Multiple-Item Reverse Supply Chain with Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Hoda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for IFAC conferences. A reverse supply chain is configured by a sequence of elements forming a continuous process to treat return-products until they are properly recovered or disposed. The activities in a reverse supply chain include collection, cleaning, disassembly, test and sorting, storage, transport, and recovery operations. This paper presents a mathematical programming model with the objective of minimizing the total costs of reverse supply chain including transportation, fixed opening, operation, maintenance and remanufacturing costs of centers. The proposed model considers the design of a multi-layer, multi-product reverse supply chain that consists of returning, disassembly, processing, recycling, remanufacturing, materials and distribution centers. This integer linear programming model is solved by using Lingo 9 software and the results are reported. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the proposed model is also presented.

  4. Stochastic programming of drilling rigs supplies; Programacao estocastica de suprimentos de sondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Bruno Ferreira; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this work is to use techniques of stochastic programming to reduce logistic costs regarding offshore drilling rigs. This theme is of great interest to Brazilian oil industry since there is an increasing number of wells that need to be perforated so that Brazilian oil production can reach its expected growth over the next ten years (PETROBRAS in particular has an ambitious strategy in this respect). Proper treatment of the uncertainties involved in the deliveries of supplies to offshore drilling rigs is essential, namely, these uncertainties need to be included in the models used in logistic models. Delays in the deliveries of products such as chemicals, perforation fluids and tubes may force drilling rigs to stop their operations what highly increases costs. The daily hiring rates of drilling rigs represent the highest cost in the perforation and completion of a well. (author)

  5. Energy law. The legal boundary conditions of power supply; Grundriss zum Energierecht. Der rechtliche Rahmen fuer die Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlmacher, Gerd [E.ON Energy Trading SE, Duesseldorf (Germany); Stappert, Holger; Jansen, Guido (eds.) [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schoon, Heike [BDEW Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The book presents a comprehensive overview of the legal regulations governing the power supply sector; it contains a wealth of practical information on the interpretation and application of the legal regulations. The following aspects are discussed: Deregulation of power grid operation; Access to electricity and gas grids and stores; Reimbursement and regulation by incentives; Power supply contracts; Cartel law and the power industry; Energy trading OTC and stock exchange; Regulatory law and energy trading; Legal regulations governing power generation; Climate protection legislation; Investment protection.

  6. The transition of the energy supply system with regenerative sources and safety of supply and system stability; Versorgungssicherheit und Systemstabilitaet beim Uebergang zur regenerativen elektrischen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Harald [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Elektrische Energieversorgung

    2014-10-01

    The transition of the energy supply system to regenerative sources emerges some questions concerning the stability of the system because conventional power plants will be shut down: power balance stability, voltage stability, primary control stability and inter area oscillations. With the disappearance of conventional power sources, power system stabilisers will also disappear but the existing power flows in the network remain. This will result in increased occurrence of inter area oscillations in the system which can only be avoided by installing these devices in the new regenerative sources.

  7. A mixed integer linear programming model for operational planning of a biodiesel supply chain network from used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonrinaldi, Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh; Salastino, Rades

    2017-11-01

    Environmental consciousness has paid many attention nowadays. It is not only about how to recycle, remanufacture or reuse used end products but it is also how to optimize the operations of the reverse system. A previous research has proposed a design of reverse supply chain of biodiesel network from used cooking oil. However, the research focused on the design of the supply chain strategy not the operations of the supply chain. It only decided how to design the structure of the supply chain in the next few years, and the process of each stage will be conducted in the supply chain system in general. The supply chain system has not considered operational policies to be conducted by the companies in the supply chain. Companies need a policy for each stage of the supply chain operations to be conducted so as to produce the optimal supply chain system, including how to use all the resources that have been designed in order to achieve the objectives of the supply chain system. Therefore, this paper proposes a model to optimize the operational planning of a biodiesel supply chain network from used cooking oil. A mixed integer linear programming is developed to model the operational planning of biodiesel supply chain in order to minimize the total operational cost of the supply chain. Based on the implementation of the model developed, the total operational cost of the biodiesel supply chain incurred by the system is less than the total operational cost of supply chain based on the previous research during seven days of operational planning about amount of 2,743,470.00 or 0.186%. Production costs contributed to 74.6 % of total operational cost and the cost of purchasing the used cooking oil contributed to 24.1 % of total operational cost. So, the system should pay more attention to these two aspects as changes in the value of these aspects will cause significant effects to the change in the total operational cost of the supply chain.

  8. 75 FR 34656 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Perkins, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed rule.... Postal Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J...

  9. 76 FR 39245 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Direct final rule; correction. SUMMARY... Technology Development, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P ...

  10. 77 FR 13026 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standard for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    .... Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Commercial Ice Makers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION..., U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Preliminary TSD for...

  11. 76 FR 69122 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585...: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule; correction.... Kathleen B. Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  12. Investments in Fossil Energy Technology: How the Government's Fossil Energy R&D Program Has Made a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

  13. Vendor Selection and Supply Quotas Determination by Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process and a New Multi-objective Programming Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a new methodology for solving the vendor selection and the supply quotas determination problem. The proposed methodology combines the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP for determining the coefficients of the objective functions and a new multiple objective programming method based on the cooperative game theory for vendor selection and supply quotas determination. The proposed methodology is tested on the problem of flour purchase by a company that manufactures bakery products. For vendor selection and supply quotas determination we use three complex criteria: (1 purchasing costs, (2 product quality, and (3 vendor reliability.

  14. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a Renewable Stand-Alone Energy Supply System Using Multi-objective Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dohyun; Han, Seulki; Kim, Jiyong Kim [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study aims to propose a new optimization-based approach for design and analysis of the stand-alone hybrid energy supply system using renewable energy sources (RES). In the energy supply system, we include multiple energy production technologies such as Photovoltaics (PV), Wind turbine, and fossil-fuel-based AC generator along with different types of energy storage and conversion technologies such as battery and inverter. We then select six different regions of Korea to represent various characteristics of different RES potentials and demand profiles. We finally designed and analyzed the optimal RES stand-alone energy supply system in the selected regions using multiobjective optimization (MOOP) technique, which includes two objective functions: the minimum cost and the minimum CO{sub 2} emission. In addition, we discussed the feasibility and expecting benefits of the systems by comparing to conventional systems of Korea. As a result, the region of the highest RES potential showed the possibility to remarkably reduce CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the conventional system. Besides, the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of the RES-based energy system is identified to be slightly higher than conventional energy system: 0.35 and 0.46 $/kWh, respectively. However, the total life-cycle emission of CO{sub 2} (LCECO{sub 2}) can be reduced up to 470 gCO{sub 2}/kWh from 490 gCO{sub 2}/kWh of the conventional systems.

  15. Electricity decision-making: New techniques for calculating statewide economic impacts from new power supply and demand-side management programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegen, Suzanne Isabel Helmholz

    This dissertation introduces new techniques for calculating and comparing statewide economic impacts from new coal, natural gas and wind power plants, as well as from demand-side management programs. The impetus for this work was two-fold. First, reviews of current literature and projects revealed that there was no standard way to estimate statewide economic impacts from new supply- and demand-side electricity options. Second, decision-makers who were interviewed stated that they were overwhelmed with data in general, but also lacked enough specific information about economic development impacts to their states from electricity, to make informed choices. This dissertation includes chapters on electricity decision-making and on economic impacts from supply and demand. The supply chapter compares different electricity options in three states which vary in natural resource content: Arizona, Colorado and Michigan. To account for differing capacity factors, resources are compared on a per-megawatt-hour basis. The calculations of economic impacts from new supply include: materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, fuel transport, as well as property tax, financing and landowner revenues. The demand-side chapter compares residential, commercial and industrial programs in Iowa. Impact calculations include: incremental labor and materials for program planning, installation and operations, as well as sales taxes and electricity saved. Results from supply-side calculations in the three states analyzed indicate that adding new wind power can have a greater impact to a state's economy than adding new gas or coal power due to resource location, taxes and infrastructure. Additionally, demand-side management programs have a higher relative percentage of in-state dollar flow than supply-side solutions, though demand-side programs typically involve fewer MWh and dollars than supply-side generation. Methods for this dissertation include researching

  16. EINSTEIN - Expert system for an Intelligent Supply of Thermal Energy in Industry. Audit methodology and software tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweiger, Hans; Danov, Stoyan (energyXperts.NET (Spain)); Vannoni, Claudia; Facci, Enrico (Sapienza Univ. of Rome, Dept. of Mechanics and Aeronautics, Rome (Italy)); Brunner, Christoph; Slawitsch, Bettina (Joanneum Research, Inst. of Sustainable Techniques and Systems - JOINTS, Graz (Austria))

    2009-07-01

    For optimising thermal energy supply in industry, a holistic integral approach is required that includes possibilities of demand reduction by heat recovery and process integration, and by an intelligent combination of efficient heat and cold supply technologies. EINSTEIN is a tool-kit for fast and high quality thermal energy audits in industry, composed by an audit guide describing the methodology and by a software tool that guides the auditor through all the audit steps. The main features of EINSTEIN are: (1) a basic questionnaire helps for systematic collection of the necessary information with the possibility to acquire data by distance; (2) special tools allow for fast consistency checking and estimation of missing data, so that already with very few data some first predictions can be made; (3) the data processing is based on standardised models for industrial processes and industrial heat supply systems; (4) semi-automatization: the software tool gives support to decision making for the generation of alternative heat and cold supply proposals, carries out automatically all the necessary calculations, including dynamic simulation of the heat supply system, and creates a standard audit report. The software tool includes modules for benchmarking, automatic design of heat exchanger networks, and design assistants for the heat and cold supply system. The core of the expert system software tool is available for free, as an open source software project. This type of software development has shown to be very efficient for dissemination of knowledge and for the continuous maintenance and improvement thanks to user contributions.

  17. Wind Energy's New Role in Supplying the World's Energy: What Role Will Structural Health Monitoring Play?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterfield, S.; Sheng, S.; Oyague, F.

    2009-12-01

    Wind energy installations are leading all other forms of new energy installations in the United States and Europe. In Europe, large wind plants are supplying as much as 25% of Denmark's energy needs and 8% of the electric needs for Germany and Spain, who have more ambitious goals on the horizon. Although wind energy only produces about 2% of the current electricity demand in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with wind industry experts, has drafted a plan that would bring the U.S. installed wind capacity up to 20% of the nation's total electrical supply. To meet these expectations, wind energy must be extremely reliable. Structural health monitoring will play a critical role in making this goal successful.

  18. Policies and programs for sustainable energy innovations renewable energy and energy efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jisun; Iskin, Ibrahim; Taha, Rimal; Blommestein, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This volume features research and case studies across a variety of industries to showcase technological innovations and policy initiatives designed to promote renewable energy and sustainable economic development. The first section focuses on policies for the adoption of renewable energy technologies, the second section covers the evaluation of energy efficiency programs, and the final section provides evaluations of energy technology innovations. Environmental concerns, energy availability, and political pressure have prompted governments to look for alternative energy resources that can minimize the undesirable effects for current energy systems.  For example, shifting away from conventional fuel resources and increasing the percentage of electricity generated from renewable resources, such as solar and wind power, is an opportunity to guarantee lower CO2 emissions and to create better economic opportunities for citizens in the long run.  Including discussions of such of timely topics and issues as global...

  19. Colostrum production in ewes: a review of regulation mechanisms and of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchero, G E; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R; Martin, G B; Quintans, G

    2015-05-01

    In sheep production systems based on extensive grazing, neonatal mortality often reaches 15% to 20% of lambs born, and the mortality rate can be doubled in the case of multiple births. An important contributing factor is the nutrition of the mother because it affects the amount of colostrum available at birth. Ewes carrying multiple lambs have higher energy requirements than ewes carrying a single lamb and this problem is compounded by limitations to voluntary feed intake as the gravid uterus compresses the rumen. This combination of factors means that the nutritional requirements of the ewe carrying multiple lambs can rarely be met by the supply of pasture alone. This problem can overcome by supplementation with energy during the last week of pregnancy, a treatment that increases colostrum production and also reduces colostrum viscosity, making it easier for the neonatal lamb to suck. In addition, litter size and nutrition both accelerate the decline in concentration of circulating progesterone that, in turn, triggers the onsets of both birth and lactogenesis, and thus ensures the synchrony of these two events. Furthermore, the presence of colostrum in the gut of the lamb increases its ability to recognize its mother, and thus improves mother-young bonding. Most cereal grains that are rich in energy in the form of starch, when used as supplements in late pregnancy will increase colostrum production by 90% to 185% above control (unsupplemented) values. Variation among types of cereal grain in the response they induce may be due to differences in the amount of starch digested post-ruminally. As a percentage of grain dry matter intake, the amount of starch entering the lower digestive tract is 14% for maize, 8.5% for barley and 2% for oats. Supplements of high quality protein from legumes and oleiferous seeds can also increase colostrum production but they are less effective than cereal grains. In conclusion, short-term supplementation before parturition

  20. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  1. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  2. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  3. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The... becoming more energy efficient, understanding the cost savings from improved energy efficiency, and...

  4. Effect of Cracow program elimination of low emission sources upon the energy management system in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedberg, J. [Deputy Mayor of Cracow (Poland); Goerlich, K. [Deputy Mayor of Cracow (Poland); Glowacki, K. [Office of the City of Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    At the end of the 1980s, the energy management at the local level-like the whole set of such utility services-was based upon respective enterprises subject to a certain supervision of the establishing body and to a control of the District Inspectorate of Energy Management. Those enterprises that deal with generation and supply of heat energy to the local market, with distribution of heat, natural gas and electricity, operated as state companies; the last two branches made a part of either regional or national companies. Irrespective of the aforesaid, the co-generation power plants existed usually outside the heat generation and supply system. The business economics of these enterprises was not subject to any market rules whatsoever, the prices were controlled and the customers had no right of choice of the energy supplier. From the very beginning the low emission elimination program assumed to have commercial rules introduced in the energy management. Thus, it turned out necessary to prepare the market - to draw up inventory of the conditions and needs related with heat supply and to take up market solutions as well. The management system, and in particular the items specified below, is discussed. The co-operation of energy distribution enterprises has been based upon a voluntary agreement (The Team for Energy Suppliers) so as to agree upon the basic actions of the respective partners; joint actions have been taken up more and more willingly.

  5. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Study of behavior incentive mechanism of energy conservation and emission reduction for China freshwater live fish supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper investigates the subject behavior of Energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER based on structured classification of the organization types of FLF supply chain, and explores reasonable behavior incentive mechanism for ECER of FLF supply chain in China. Design/methodology/approach: This paper classifies the organization subjects of FLF supply chain, and different characteristics of organization subjects are compared in detail. ECER behavior incentive mechanism modeling of FLF supply chain is explored by taking advantage of principal-agent model in view of asymmetry information. Incentives issue of different operating subjects is discussed as enlightenment of the model. Findings: Three types of the organization subjects of FLF supply chain in China have been identified as: loose organization, semi-compact organization and compact organization.Subjects of different types have different abilities to conduct ECER work. Government needs to propose differentiation polices of incentive compensation for different operating subjects, widen the gap of differentiated subsidies/rewards for different investment levels on ECER conducted by different operating subjects of FLF supply chain. Research limitations/implications: It will take long-term unremitting efforts to achieve the target of ECER work for FLF supply chain in China, the dynamic issues and simulation modeling on behavior incentive mechanism of ECER should be developed in future research. Practical implications: Clear understanding of structured classification of the organization subject types of FLF supply chain and the behavior incentive mechanism for ECER, will help government to improve the ECER work in an efficient and effective way. Originality/value: Research to behavior incentive mechanism of ECER has important theoretical value and practical significance. This paper contributes to distinguish three types of operating subjects of FLF supply chain in

  7. The Influence on Population Weight Gain and Obesity of the Macronutrient Composition and Energy Density of the Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Michelle; Sacks, Gary; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd; Neal, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Rates of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in all regions of the world over the last few decades. Almost all of the world's population now has ubiquitous access to low-cost, but highly-processed, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food products. These changes in the food supply, rather than decreases in physical activity, are most likely the primary driver of population weight gain and obesity. To-date, the majority of prevention efforts focus on personalised approaches targeting individuals. Population-wide food supply interventions addressing sodium and trans fat reduction have proven highly effective and comparable efforts are now required to target obesity. The evidence suggests that strategies focusing upon reducing the energy density and portion size of foods will be more effective than those targeting specific macronutrients. Government leadership, clearly specified targets, accountability and transparency will be the key to achieving the food supply changes required to address the global obesity epidemic.

  8. Renewable energy systems no more expensive than fossil energy supply. Autarkic renewable full supply is possible and financially affordable; Erneuerbares Energiesystem nicht teurer als fossile Energieversorgung. Autarke erneuerbare Vollversorgung ist moeglich und finanzierbar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Hans-Martin; Palzer, Andreas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    In view of the recent increase in the price of electricity, many consumers ask the question: Can we afford the energy policy turnaround at all? Thus, at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) simulated the relationship between the electricity sector and heat sector in a detailed energy system with production, conversion, storage and consumption. In order to optimize costs, an energy model for a whole year was calculated by means of several million simulation runs. In addition to the recognition that a renewable energy system following the implementation of the energy policy turnaround is no more expensive than the largely fossil energy supply today, the model provides answers to other questions.

  9. An Environmental Analysis of the Effect of Energy Saving, Production and Recovery Measures on Water Supply Systems under Scarcity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Puleo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the primary resources provided for maintaining quality of life and social status in urban areas. As potable water is considered to be a primary need, water service has usually been managed without examining the economic and environmental sustainability of supply processes. Currently, due to increases in energy costs and the growth of environment preservation policies, reducing water leakage, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG production have become primary objectives in reducing the environmental footprint of water service. The present paper suggests the implementation of some performance indicators that show the interdependence of water loss, energy consumption and GHG emission. These indicators are used to compare a few possible mitigation scenarios involving water loss reduction and increasing the system’s energy efficiency. The proposed indicators were applied to a complex urban water supply system serving the city of Palermo (Italy.

  10. How inventory consignment programs can improve supply chain performance: a process oriented perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K. Malhotra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inventory Consignment (IC has largely been viewed as a method of shifting the ownership and cost burden of inventory from buyer to supplier to benefit the buyer. This primarily accounting based viewpoint has largely ignored process changes that can occur for both the buyer and supplier. This study addresses this gap in the extant literature by examining IC from a process perspective by specifically addressing: (1 the implementation issues in an IC program for both buyers and suppliers and (2 the financial and operational benefits from IC for both buyers and suppliers. Using the case study methodology, we examined three firms that had varying degrees of involvement and roles in IC programs. Based on our detailed work with these three firms and their supply chain linkages, we offer a series of propositions to demonstrate that IC is not just an accounting issue, but also a management practice that requires a series of process changes in order to be successful. These process changes in turn provide operational benefits for both buyers and suppliers via the mechanism of increased demand visibility to suppliers. Through this approach, this study makes a contribution beyond what has been examined in the prior literature which has mostly dealt with IC as an accounting based inventory management issue.

  11. Energy storage systems program report for FY1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1997-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

  12. Effects of risk on prices and quantities of energy supplies. Volume 4. Technical reports. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.J.; Stiglitz, J.E.

    1978-05-01

    This volume is a collection of technical reports written in the course of the research program. The technical reports describe new results in a particular area of research. Two of the reports deal with the theory of contracting for research and development, and address questions such as contractual incentives and the distribution of gains between the contractor and contractee. Another report addresses the economic incentives for vertical integration, i.e., the replacement of a market for an intermediate factor by an internal-transfer mechanism. The fourth report deals with the effect of potential competition on the profit-maximizing pricing policy of a resource monopolist. The fifth report examines the degree of flexibility in response to uncertain input prices afforded by the choice of production technology by firms, and the effects of this flexibility on the distribution of prices. The sixth and final report concerns the efficiency of the stock market as an institution for sharing the risk associated with the total supply of exhaustible resources.

  13. The climatological relationships between wind and solar energy supply in Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Bett, Philip E

    2016-01-01

    We use reanalysis data to investigate the daily co-variability of wind and solar irradiance in Britain, and its implications for renewable energy supply balancing. The joint distribution of daily-mean wind speeds and irradiances shows that irradiance has a much stronger seasonal cycle than wind, due to the rotational tilt of the Earth. Irradiance is weakly anticorrelated with wind speed throughout the year ($-0.4 \\lesssim \\rho \\lesssim -0.2$): there is a weak tendency for windy days to be cloudier. This is particularly true in Atlantic-facing regions (western Scotland, south-west England). The east coast of Britain has the weakest anticorrelation, particularly in winter, primarily associated with a relative increase in the frequency of clear-but-windy days. We also consider the variability in total power output from onshore wind turbines and solar photovoltaic panels. In all months, daily variability in total power is always reduced by incorporating solar capacity. The scenario with the least seasonal variabi...

  14. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. I. Background and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review "Dysonian SETI," the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the "monocultural fallacy." We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  15. Towards smart grids: Identifying the risks that arise from the integration of energy and transport supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, J.W.; van Ona, T.; Alkemade, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies the risks for the functionality and reliability of the grid that arise from the integration of the transport and supply chain. The electrification of transport is a promising option for the transition to a low carbon energy and transport system. But on the short term, the

  16. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE PROCESS OF RADIATION-CONVECTIVE DRYING FRUIT AND VEGETA- BLE CHIPS WITH PULSED ENERGY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of combined radiation and convection drying of fruit and vegetable chips with pulsed energy supply is developed, the model describes the change in temperature and moisture content during the period of constant and periods of decreasing drying rate.

  17. Commercial Midstream Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs: Guidelines for Future Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milostan, Catharina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Muehleisen, Ralph T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guzowski, Leah Bellah B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Many electric utilities operate energy efficiency incentive programs that encourage increased dissemination and use of energy-efficient (EE) products in their service territories. The programs can be segmented into three broad categories—downstream incentive programs target product end users, midstream programs target product distributors, and upstream programs target product manufacturers. Traditional downstream programs have had difficulty engaging Small Business/Small Portfolio (SBSP) audiences, and an opportunity exists to expand Commercial Midstream Incentive Programs (CMIPs) to reach this market segment instead.

  18. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  19. Medication supply chain management through implementation of a hospital pharmacy computerized inventory program in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Michelle R; Rudis, Maria I; Wilson, John W

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, St. Luke Hospital was built to help manage the mass casualties and subsequent cholera epidemic. A major problem faced by the hospital system was the lack of an available and sustainable supply of medications. Long-term viability of the hospital system depended largely on developing an uninterrupted medication supply chain. We hypothesized that the implementation of a new Pharmacy Computerized Inventory Program (PCIP) would optimize medication availability and decrease medication shortages. We conducted the research by examining how medications were being utilized and distributed before and after the implementation of PCIP. We measured the number of documented medication transactions in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 as well as user logins to determine if a computerized inventory system would be beneficial in providing a sustainable, long-term solution to their medication management needs. The PCIP incorporated drug ordering, filling the drug requests, distribution, and dispensing of the medications in multiple settings; inventory of currently shelved medications; and graphic reporting of 'real-time' medication usage. During the PCIP initiation and establishment periods, the number of medication transactions increased from 219.6 to 359.5 (p=0.055), respectively, and the mean logins per day increased from 24.3 to 31.5, psupply as well as track usage for future medication needs. The pharmacy and nursing staff found the PCIP to be efficient and a significant improvement in their medication utilization. An efficient, customizable, and cost-sensitive PCIP can improve drug inventory management in a simplified and sustainable manner within a resource-constrained hospital.

  20. Optimization Design of an Inductive Energy Harvesting Device for Wireless Power Supply System Overhead High-Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Overhead high voltage power line (HVPL online monitoring equipment is playing an increasingly important role in smart grids, but the power supply is an obstacle to such systems’ stable and safe operation, so in this work a hybrid wireless power supply system, integrated with inductive energy harvesting and wireless power transmitting, is proposed. The energy harvesting device extracts energy from the HVPL and transfers that from the power line to monitoring equipment on transmission towers by transmitting and receiving coils, which are in a magnetically coupled resonant configuration. In this paper, the optimization design of online energy harvesting devices is analyzed emphatically by taking both HVPL insulation distance and wireless power supply efficiency into account. It is found that essential parameters contributing to more extracted energy include large core inner radius, core radial thickness, core height and small core gap within the threshold constraints. In addition, there is an optimal secondary coil turn that can maximize extracted energy when other parameters remain fixed. A simple and flexible control strategy is then introduced to limit power fluctuations caused by current variations. The optimization methods are finally verified experimentally.

  1. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    .... Lucy deButts, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.... Postal Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J...

  2. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and availability of...

  3. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, ] Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000... Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and availability of the Framework....gov/buildings/appliance_standards/rulemaking.aspx/ruleid/65 and http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings...

  4. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards... establish energy conservation standards for the use of electricity for purposes of circulating air through... (DOE) initiated a rulemaking to consider establishing new energy conservation standards or energy use...

  5. Security of energy supply under the laws of the European Union / European Community; Energieversorgungssicherheit im Recht der Europaeischen Union, Europaeischen Gemeinschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Security of supply is defined as the availability and reliability of energy supply at acceptable prices. By security of energy supply we mean a globally large supply of reliable, affordable, clean energy. By virtue of its nature security of supply in the energy sector primarily requires making provisions for the future through exploration, innovation, research, diversification and investments in technology. Energy politics takes place in a tension field defined by the goals of economic efficiency, sustainability and security of supply. In the past there have been repeated shifts within this triad of goals. The task for a rational energy policy is to reconciliate these goals in a meaningful way. European energy policy is understood to comprise all sovereign measures taken by the European Union in the energy sector, in particular measures that impact on the supply and demand for energy resources. Energy law serves, or should serve, to bring energy policy to realisation and therefore presupposes the existence of the latter. Energy policy means the figuration of an economy's energy sector in such a manner that the present and future demand of the economic region is covered.

  6. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model for the Design of Remanufacturing Closed–loop Supply Chain Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbarek Elbounjimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop supply chain network design is a critical issue due to its impact on both economic and environmental performances of the supply chain. In this paper, we address the problem of designing a multi-echelon, multi-product and capacitated closed-loop supply chain network. First, a mixed-integer linear programming formulation is developed to maximize the total profit. The main contribution of the proposed model is addressing two economic viability issues of closed-loop supply chain. The first issue is the collection of sufficient quantity of end-of-life products are assured by retailers against an acquisition price. The second issue is exploiting the benefits of colocation of forward facilities and reverse facilities. The presented model is solved by LINGO for some test problems. Computational results and sensitivity analysis are conducted to show the performance of the proposed model.

  7. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585... Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.../Courier: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 950 L'Enfant Plaza...

  8. 76 FR 70865 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... / Wednesday, November 16, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AB79 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

  9. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-graph Framework under Cost Constraints and Sustainability Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  10. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  11. Study of behavior incentive mechanism of energy conservation and emission reduction for China freshwater live fish supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming, C.; Fengjun, L.; Xiaohong, L.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper investigates the subject behavior of Energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) based on structured classification of the organization types of FLF supply chain, and explores reasonable behavior incentive mechanism for ECER of FLF supply chain in China. Design/methodology/approach: This paper classifies the organization subjects of FLF supply chain, and different characteristics of organization subjects are compared in detail. ECER behavior incentive mechanism modeling of FLF supply chain is explored by taking advantage of principal-agent model in view of asymmetry information. Incentives issue of different operating subjects is discussed as enlightenment of the model. Findings: Three types of the organization subjects of FLF supply chain in China have been identified as: loose organization, semi-compact organization and compact organization.Subjects of different types have different abilities to conduct ECER work. Government needs to propose differentiation polices of incentive compensation for different operating subjects, widen the gap of differentiated subsidies/rewards for different investment levels on ECER conducted by different operating subjects of FLF supply chain. Research limitations/implications: It will take long-term unremitting efforts to achieve the target of ECER work for FLF supply chain in China, the dynamic issues and simulation modeling on behavior incentive mechanism of ECER should be developed in future research. Practical implications: Clear understanding of structured classification of the organization subject types of FLF supply chain and the behavior incentive mechanism for ECER, will help government to improve the ECER work in an efficient and effective way... (Author)

  12. Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.

  13. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security; Recueil des interventions. Securite d'approvisionnement energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch

    2000-07-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  14. Transportation energy strategy: Project {number_sign}5 of the Hawaii Energy Strategy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This study was prepared for the State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) as part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy program. Authority and responsibility for energy planning activities, such as the Hawaii Energy Strategy, rests with the State Energy Resources Coordinator, who is the Director of DBEDT. Hawaii Energy Strategy Study No. 5, Transportation Energy Strategy Development, was prepared to: collect and synthesize information on the present and future use of energy in Hawaii`s transportation sector, examine the potential of energy conservation to affect future energy demand; analyze the possibility of satisfying a portion of the state`s future transportation energy demand through alternative fuels; and recommend a program targeting energy use in the state`s transportation sector to help achieve state goals. The analyses and conclusions of this report should be assessed in relation to the other Hawaii Energy Strategy Studies in developing a comprehensive state energy program. 56 figs., 87 tabs.

  15. Interactions in the energy supply system. Mechanisms - interactions - examples. An analysis; Wechselwirkungen im Energiesystem. Mechanismen - Interaktionen - Beispiele. Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausfelder, Florian; Wagemann, Kurt [DECHEMA Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Drake, Frank-Detlef [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Paschke, Marian [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Schueth, Ferdi [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Themann, Michael [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Essen (Germany); Wagner, Hermann-Josef [Bochum Univ. (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In embarking on the energy turnaround Germany has taken upon itself one of the greatest self-chosen challenges of the future, namely to transform the energy supply system from being predominantly dependent on fossil fuels to relying almost entirely on renewable energy resources. The driving goal behind this project, which has wide public acceptance, is to ensure that our energy supply remains sustainable, safe and affordable. This transformation process by a successful industrial nation is being followed abroad with great interest. The present document does not undertake a political assessment of the energy turnaround or its goals. It rather focuses on an analysis of effects brought about by individual measures on the system as a whole. This systemic view opens up a new perspective on the ''engine room'' of the energy turnaround. It allows one to inquire whether a given measure actually fulfils the expectations that have been placed in it for the system as a whole - expectations that are often born from too narrow a perspective - or whether it is having unexpected, undesirable effects. These can impact on the effectiveness of a specific measure in realising the goals of the energy turnaround. The authors believe that having as precise knowledge as possible of these systemic interactions is a fundamental prerequisite to managing the energy turnaround in such a way that its goals are achieved as effectively and efficiently as possible.

  16. Energy siting in Utah: a programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, D.L.; Keith, J.E.; Glover, T.F.; Wooldridge, G.L.

    1981-06-01

    Using a conceptual model of a multiple-product firm, the necessary conditions for an optimal input and output allocation were determined for a region constrained by resource availabilities and/or policy constraints. A linear-programing model was developed to determine the optimal allocation of water between agricultural and coal-fired electrical generating entities as well as the trade offs which could occur if electrical generation were increased. Other areas of potential trade offs such as coal source restrictions and air quality regulations were also examined. Coal mining and transportation costs were included as were SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and particulate emission rates on a coal and plant basis. Few trade-offs between electrical power generation and irrigated agriculture were noted. However, substantial changes within the energy sector were discovered as coal capacities and air-quality standards were changed. Net revenues declined sharply as air costs after and/or pollution and coal-capacity restrictions were imposed and/or increased. It was determined that substantial changes in regional economic activity occurred as a result of these restrictions on development.

  17. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-05-01

    A non-technical overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, including sections on photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power, and solar heating and lighting R&D.

  18. Analysis of energy wood supply chain in thinning operations: a case study in a pine stand of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldini S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thinning is an essential practice in Mediterranean pine forests management but is rarely applied because of the high harvesting costs. The new market of bioenergy products could give a profit to wood biomass harvesting activities, though the drawbacks of elevated supply chain costs, related to technical problems and lack of knowledge about the wood quality have to be overcome in advance. This study analyzed technical, economic, energy and environmental factors of a pine stand thinning in Central Italy, where collected biomass was directed to energy, in order to give a decisional support to reach economical profitability and environmental sustainability in thinning practices. The introduction of Full Tree System maximized the recovery of available biomass, full tree chipping produced material with Heating Value superior than single tree components. The use of a felling frame in motor-manual felling in comparison with the traditional chainsaw reduced operator effort, increasing the number of felled trees per hour, when the stump diameter remained under 15 cm. The energy wood supply chain is not sustainable from an economic point of view, the profitability could be reached only acting on suggested technical levers and particularly reducing costs of hauling operation. The estimation of output/input energy ratio in the supply chain underlined the feasibility of thinning practices for energy. The assessment of CO2 emissions confirmed the environmental sustainability of biomass supply chain in energy when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Study conclusions provide the guidelines for thinning treatment in Mediterranean pine stands, in order to reach environmental and economic sustainability of these practices.

  19. The Navy Supply Corps Newsletter. Contracting Innovations: Navy Electronic Commerce Online Navy Afloat Purchase Card Program. Volume 62, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    tf • lovy Electronic Commerce Online m Afloat Purchase Card Program4 % y5.ll ’ ’"’#K5&. ifekj 1IÜN AB iräri.1 . ■■-■ 11...Contracting Innovations NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners 8 The Afloat Purchase Card Program: Decentralizing Purchasing for...there. J- May/June NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners By Matt Nielsen, NECO Project Manager, Naval Supply Systems Command M he

  20. Preliminary results of the large experimental wind turbine phase of the national wind energy program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. L.; Sholes, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A major phase of the wind energy program is the development of reliable wind turbines for supplying cost-competitive electrical energy. This paper discusses the preliminary results of two projects in this phase of the program. First an experimental 100 kW wind turbine design and its status are reviewed. Also discussed are the results of two parallel design studies for determining the configurations and power levels for wind turbines with minimum energy costs. These studies show wind energy costs of 7 to 1.5 c/kWH for wind turbines produced in quantities of 100 to 1000 a year and located at sites having average winds of 12 to 18 mph.

  1. Utility investments in low-income energy-efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    In the increasingly competitive utility industry, it is imperative that equity programs be as cost-effective as possible. In some cases, this is accomplished by working in partnership with government programs such as the US Department of Energy`s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This paper provides an overview of the DSM and conservation programs being operated by utilities for low-income customers and describes the types of utility-government partnerships that exist.

  2. Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Gregory K; Sanchez, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-11-15

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates from the use ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2009, annual forecasts for 2010 and 2011, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2009 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2010 through 2015. Through 2009 the program saved 9.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 170 million metric tons carbon (MMTC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 11.5 Quads or primary energy saved and 202 MMTC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 110 MMTC and 231 MMTC (1993 to 2009) and between 130 MMTC and 285 MMTC (2010 to 2015).

  3. Global environment assessment survey by advancing the energy demand and supply structure. 4; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the energy demand and supply structure in Japan, the international trend of approaches to global warming problems and the mitigation options to global warming in the energy related sectors have been surveyed. For the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an Ad-hoc Group has discussed relevant topics after the 1st conference of the Parties. Meetings of the Group primarily focused on what objectives to set for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in and in and after 2000. IPCC completed their Technical Paper in November 1996 in which technologies and measures to reduce GHG emissions and to enhance GHG sinks were analyzed and evaluated in various aspects. This Paper discusses about each sector of institutional buildings sector, transport sector, industrial sector, and energy supply sector. Especially, in the energy supply sector, promising approaches to reduce future emission include more efficient conversion of fossil fuels, switching to low-carbon fossil fuels, decarbonization of flue gas and fuels, CO2 storage, switching to nuclear energy, and switching to renewable sources of energy. 5 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Preparing students for careers in food-supply veterinary medicine: a review of educational programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, R Daniel; Hoffsis, Glen F; Cullor, James S; Naylor, Jonathan M; Chaddock, Michael; Ames, Trevor R

    2012-01-01

    The real and/or perceived shortage of veterinarians serving food-supply veterinary medicine has been a topic of considerable discussion for decades. Regardless of this debate, there are issues still facing colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) about the best process of educating future food-supply veterinarians. Over the past several years, there have been increasing concerns by some that the needs of food-supply veterinary medicine have not adequately been met through veterinary educational institutions. The food-supply veterinary medical curriculum offered by individual CVMs varies depending on individual curricular design, available resident animal population, available food-animal caseload, faculty, and individual teaching efforts of faculty. All of the institutional members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) were requested to share their Food Animal Veterinary Career Incentives Programs. The AAVMC asked all member institutions what incentives they used to attract and educate students interested in, or possibly considering, a career in food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). The problem arises as to how we continue to educate veterinary students with ever shrinking budgets and how to recruit and retain faculty with expertise to address the needs of society. Several CVMs use innovative training initiatives to help build successful FSVM programs. This article focuses on dairy, beef, and swine food-animal education and does not characterize colleges' educational efforts in poultry and aquaculture. This review highlights the individual strategies used by the CVMs in the United States.

  5. 78 FR 73737 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence... Conservation Standards for General Service Lamps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/product.aspx?productid=82 . DATES...

  6. 75 FR 5544 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of extension of... Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., 6th Floor... background documents or comments received, visit the U.S. Department of Energy, Resource Room of the Building...

  7. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  8. Wind power today: 1999 Wind Energy program highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, Pat

    2000-04-06

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview for the Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy for the 21st century. Content objectives include: Educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain DOE wind energy program objectives and goals; describe program accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  9. Energy Systems Studies Program annual report, fiscal year 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, M. (ed.)

    1976-06-01

    This is the fourth annual progress report of the Energy Systems Studies Program supported at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), Office of the Assistant Administrator for Planning and Analysis. The program is coordinated under the designation of a National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems (NCAES). Five working groups with specific program responsibilities are: policy analysis, economic analysis, biomedical and environmental assessment, technology assessment, and energy data and models. Future scenarios of the implementation of groups of technologies and new resources are developed. The socio-economic and environmental consequences are analyzed in detail and impact analyses are performed. Progress during FY 1976 is summarized in the following areas: energy system model development; energy-economic model development; technology assessments and support; economic analyses; and energy model data base activities. The program plan for FY 1977 is presented. (MCW)

  10. Tribal Energy Program for California Indian Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-10

    A strategic plan is needed to catalyze clean energy in the more than 100 California Indian tribal communities with varying needs and energy resources. We propose to conduct a scoping study to identify tribal lands with clean energy potential, as well as communities with lack of grid-tied energy and communications access. The research focus would evaluate the energy mixture and alternatives available to these tribal communities, and evaluate greenhouse gas emissions associated with accessing fossil fuel used for heat and power. Understanding the baseline of energy consumption and emissions of communities is needed to evaluate improvements and advances from technology. Based on this study, we will develop a strategic plan that assesses solutions to address high energy fuel costs due to lack of electricity access and inform actions to improve economic opportunities for tribes. This could include technical support for tribes to access clean energy technologies and supporting collaboration for on-site demonstrations.

  11. Energy analysis program. 1995 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.

    1996-05-01

    This year the role of energy technology research and analysis supporting governmental and public interests is again being challenged at high levels of government. This situation is not unlike that of the early 1980s, when the Administration questioned the relevance of a federal commitment to applied energy research, especially for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Then Congress continued to support such activities, deeming them important to the nation`s interest. Today, Congress itself is challenging many facets of the federal role in energy. The Administration is also selectively reducing its support, primarily for the pragmatic objective of reducing federal expenditures, rather than because of principles opposing a public role in energy. this report is divided into three sections: International Energy and the global environment; Energy, economics, markets, and policy; and Buildings and their environment.

  12. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered...... model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties...

  13. Regionalized LCA-based optimization of building energy supply: method and case study for a Swiss municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Dominik; Vadenbo, Carl; Steubing, Bernhard; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a regionalized LCA-based multiobjective optimization model of building energy demand and supply for the case of a Swiss municipality for the minimization of greenhouse gas emissions and particulate matter formation. The results show that the environmental improvement potential is very large: in the optimal case, greenhouse gas emissions from energy supply could be reduced by more than 75% and particulate emissions by over 50% in the municipality. This scenario supposes a drastic shift of heat supply systems from a fossil fuel dominated portfolio to a portfolio consisting of mainly heat pump and woodchip incineration systems. In addition to a change in heat supply technologies, roofs, windows and walls would need to be refurbished in more than 65% of the municipality's buildings. The full potential of the environmental impact reductions will hardly be achieved in reality, particularly in the short term, for example, because of financial constraints and social acceptance, which were not taken into account in this study. Nevertheless, the results of the optimization model can help policy makers to identify the most effective measures for improvement at the decision making level, for example, at the building level for refurbishment and selection of heating systems or at the municipal level for designing district heating networks. Therefore, this work represents a starting point for designing effective incentives to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. While the results of the optimization model are specific to the municipality studied, the model could readily be adapted to other regions.

  14. University of Arizona High Energy Physics Program at the Cosmic Frontier 2014-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    abate, alex [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); cheu, elliott [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-24

    This is the final technical report from the University of Arizona High Energy Physics program at the Cosmic Frontier covering the period 2014-2016. The work aims to advance the understanding of dark energy using the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Progress on the engineering design of the power supplies for the LSST camera is discussed. A variety of contributions to photometric redshift measurement uncertainties were studied. The effect of the intergalactic medium on the photometric redshift of very distant galaxies was evaluated. Computer code was developed realizing the full chain of calculations needed to accurately and efficiently run large-scale simulations.

  15. Springfield/L-COG Energy Plan Implementation Program, Internal Energy Management Project: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane Council of Governments (Or.); Tumidaj, Les

    1985-09-01

    The Internal Energy Management Project was developed as a component of the Springfield/L-COG Energy Plan Implementation Program. The project also took advantage of the ground work laid by the Lane Council of Governments through the Lane County Electric Energy Planning Program. This program, conducted in 1982 and 1983, developed detailed recommendations for Lane County cities concerning energy management and planning. Based on these recommendations, many jurisdictions committed themselves to implement energy management programs. Initially, the participating cities included Springfield, Veneta, Oakridge, Creswell, and Lowell. Two other local governments - Florence and Lane County - requested assistance once the project commenced.

  16. Perspectives of Feedstock Supply for Biomass-Based Energy Plant Development in India: Views from an Expert Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of renewable energy resources is imperative due to energy access, energy security, and energy sustainability coupled with the rising environmental concern. India is one of the largest land mass countries in the world and amply bestowed with biomass resources. Investigations on biomass supply potential, socio-economic challenges, local people attitudes, current bioenergy markets, and technologies are prerequisite while seeking to develop sustainable energy plants. The study aimed to assess expert attitudes on wood-based energy development in India. This assessment was based on the opinions of Indian Forest Service (IFS officers who are involved in managing wood-based biomass resources in different parts of the country. The study gave emphasis to the advantages, problems, and directions of the biomass based energy development in the country. The results showed that the development of biomass-based energy plants involves a number of challenges both locally and nationally. In addition, the study also highlighted the possible benefits of developing biomass based energy plants at local and national levels. The outcomes of this study provide useful information to the policy decision makers, energy entrepreneurs, and other stakeholders in the development of biomass based energy in India.

  17. Renewable energy for professional applications: a guide to implementing off-grid power supplies in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paish, O.; Oldach, R.

    2002-09-01

    These guidelines are intended to help those considering renewable energy systems to supply power to off-grid applications without access to the UK mains electricity network. The guidelines consider: examples of renewable energy systems used applications with a low power demand in the UK; renewable energy technologies relevant to off-grid applications (solar photovoltaics, wind generators, micro-hydro turbines and hybrid systems); nine steps for project implementation; defining and optimising the load application; estimating energy resources when using solar energy, wind power and hydro power; general rules of thumb when choosing a power source; system components such as batteries, inverters, support structure and civil works; basic system sizing calculations; developing a specification and contacting suppliers; checking equipment, installation and commissioning; legal and other non-technical issues; operating issues such as maintenance and safety; and selected case studies from the UK.

  18. NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDING OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM (NZEBOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizendine, Anthony; Byars, Nan; Sleiti, Ahmad; Gehrig, Bruce; Lu, Na

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Net-Zero Energy Building Operator Training Program (NZEBOT) was to develop certificate level training programs for commercial building owners, managers and operators, principally in the areas of energy / sustainability management. The expected outcome of the project was a multi-faceted mechanism for developing the skill-based competency of building operators, owners, architects/engineers, construction professionals, tenants, brokers and other interested groups in energy efficient building technologies and best practices. The training program draws heavily on DOE supported and developed materials available in the existing literature, as well as existing, modified, and newly developed curricula from the Department of Engineering Technology & Construction Management (ETCM) at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNC-Charlotte). The project goal is to develop a certificate level training curriculum for commercial energy and sustainability managers and building operators that: 1) Increases the skill-based competency of building professionals in energy efficient building technologies and best practices, and 2) Increases the workforce pool of expertise in energy management and conservation techniques. The curriculum developed in this project can subsequently be used to establish a sustainable energy training program that can contribute to the creation of new “green” job opportunities in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast region, and workforce training that leads to overall reductions in commercial building energy consumption. Three energy training / education programs were developed to achieve the stated goal, namely: 1. Building Energy/Sustainability Management (BESM) Certificate Program for Building Managers and Operators (40 hours); 2. Energy Efficient Building Technologies (EEBT) Certificate Program (16 hours); and 3. Energy Efficent Buildings (EEB) Seminar (4 hours). Training Program 1 incorporates the following

  19. Operation Strategy for a Power Grid Supplied by 100% Renewable Energy at a Cold Region in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an operation strategy for a power system supplied from 100% renewable energy generation in Kitami City, a cold region in Japan. The main goal of this work is the complete elimination of the CO2 emissions of the city while keeping the power frequency within prescribed limits. Currently, the main energy related issue in Japan is the reduction of CO2 emissions without depending on nuclear generation. Also, there is a need for the adoption of distributed generation architecture in order to permit local autonomous operation of the system by the local generation of power. As a solution, this paper proposes a strategy to eliminate CO2 emissions that considers digital simulations using past hourly meteorological data and demand for one year. Results shows that Kitami City can be supplied entirely by renewable generation, reducing its CO2 emission to zero while keeping the quality of its power grid frequency within permitted limits.

  20. Energy supply structures and strategies for the reduction of emissions in selected Central and Eastern European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jattke, A.; Haasis, H.-D.; Oder, C.; Russ, P.; Rentz, O. (University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Industrial Production)

    1993-01-01

    This article sets out to analyse strategies for the reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions applied by a selection of Central and Eastern European countries, together with the impact of these strategies upon national energy supply structure. Hungary, Lithuania and the European sector of Russia are used as representative examples of the wide variety of energy industry structures and future developments in Eastern Europe. Current energy supply, transformation and consumer demand conditions in the various economic sectors (industry, transport, the domestic sector, etc.) have been used as a basis for the establishment of the national cost of emission reduction strategies, together with preferred national structure for emission reduction measures. Calculated cost functions are based upon a technical and economic assessment of available energy transformation and emission reduction technologies. The potential of various options for emission reduction, such as the substitution of fuels or technologies, secondary emission reduction techniques and energy conservation measures have also been quantified. This process has been used as a means of identifying and assessing the interdependence of strategies for the reduction of various atmospheric pollutants. The EFOM-ENV Energy/Emission Model has been used as a methodological tool. 15 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.