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Sample records for program em-60 turnover

  1. Efektifitas Penerapan Program Penanganan Turnover Karyawan Staf Manajemen PT. BEHAESTEX Group

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    Ratna Juita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research are to recognize turnover management program implementation effectiveness of management staffs of PT. BEHAESTEX Group and know the causes aspect the employee who leave out then program that given is the target precise. This research used qualitative method with qualitative descriptive research type. Information digging by in depth interview, observation, and documentation taken from HRD data. Research subjects as 18 respondents obtained from staff employee who already terminated from PT. BEHAESTEX Group since 2010 until 2012 and represented each department. The result of the research indicates that effective turnover management program only one program that is employee training. While three other programs that are induction and orientation, coaching and counseling, building and brainstorming ineffective. The causes are the aim does not appropriate, human resources development qualification as program implementer is lack of competence and inconsistency program implementation. Beside found that the causes aspect which result employee terminated could be classified with work term under two years namely unable to adjustment with corporate culture, high idealism and accepted as civil servant. While work term over two years the causes are injustice pay, superior mind pattern still departmental and career stage is unobvious.

  2. Nurse turnover in substance abuse treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Abraham, Amanda J; Roman, Paul M; Studts, Jamie L

    2011-04-01

    Voluntary nurse turnover, which is costly and disrupts patient care, has not been studied as an organizational phenomenon within substance abuse treatment organizations. In this exploratory study, we examined the frequency and correlates of nurse turnover within treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. During face-to-face interviews conducted in 2005-2006, 215 program administrators reported the number of nurses currently employed. Leaders of programs with nursing staff then described the number of nurses who had voluntarily quit in the past year, the degree to which filling vacant nursing positions was difficult, and the average number of days to fill a vacant position. About two thirds of these programs had at least one nurse on staff. In programs with nurses, the average rate of voluntary turnover was 15.0%. Turnover was significantly lower in hospital-based programs and programs offering adolescent treatment but higher in facilities offering residential treatment. Most of the administrators indicated that filling vacant nurse positions was difficult and took more than 2 months to complete. These findings suggest that nurse turnover is a significant issue facing many substance abuse treatment facilities. Efforts to improve retention of the addiction treatment workforce should be expanded to include nursing professionals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapist turnover and new program sustainability in mental health clinics as a function of organizational culture, climate, and service structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Schoenwald, Sonja K; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Mayberg, Stephen; Green, Philip

    2008-03-01

    The present study incorporates organizational theory and organizational characteristics in examining issues related to the successful implementation of mental health services. Following the theoretical foundations of socio-technical and cultural models of organizational effectiveness, organizational climate, culture, legal and service structures, and workforce characteristics are examined as correlates of therapist turnover and new program sustainability in a nationwide sample of mental health clinics. Results of General Linear Modeling (GLM) with the organization as the unit of analysis revealed that organizations with the best climates as measured by the Organizational Social Context (OSC) profiling system, had annual turnover rates (10%) that were less than half the rates found in organizations with the worst climates (22%). In addition, organizations with the best culture profiles sustained new treatment or service programs over twice as long (50 vs. 24 months) as organizations with the worst cultures. Finally, clinics with separate children's services units had higher turnover rates than clinics that served adults and children within the same unit. The findings suggest that strategies to support the implementation of new mental health treatments and services should attend to organizational culture and climate, and to the compatibility of organizational service structures with the demand characteristics of treatments.

  4. Exploring the Causal Impact of the McREL Balanced Leadership Program on Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Instructional Climate, Educator Turnover, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung; Miller, Robert; Goddard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a randomized design to assess the impact of the Balanced Leadership program on principal leadership, instructional climate, principal efficacy, staff turnover, and student achievement in a sample of rural northern Michigan schools. Participating principals report feeling more efficacious, using more effective leadership practices,…

  5. Effects of a Cognitive Rehearsal Program on Interpersonal Relationships, Workplace Bullying, Symptom Experience, and Turnover Intention among Nurses: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon; Kim, Jeung Im; Yun, Seonyoung

    2017-10-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effects of a cognitive rehearsal program (CRP) on workplace bullying among nurses. A randomized controlled trial was performed. Participants were 40 nurses working in different university hospitals in B city, South Korea. The experimental group was provided with a 20-hour CRP comprising scenarios on bullying situations, standard communication, and role-playing. To evaluate effects of the CRP, we measured interpersonal relationships, workplace bullying, symptom experience, and turnover intention at preand post-intervention. Follow-up effect was measured in the experimental group only at 4 weeks after the intervention. After the intervention, there were significant differences in interpersonal relationships (F=6.21, p=.022) and turnover intention (F=5.55, p=.024) between experimental and wait-list groups. However, there was no significant difference in workplace bullying or symptom experience between the 2 groups. The beneficial effects on interpersonal relationships and turnover intention lasted at least up to 4 weeks after CRP. The CRP for workplace bullying improves interpersonal relationships and decreases turnover intention. So it can be utilized as one of the personal coping strategies to reduce the the turnover among nurses. Further studies on the effects of unit- or hospital-based CRP and on the long-term effects of CRP are necessary.

  6. KECENDERUNGAN KEPUASAN KERJA SEBAGAI TRIGGER TURNOVER

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    Raditya Adi Saputra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are: (1 To determine the effect of job satisfaction on turnover intention; (2 To determine the effect of work stress on turnover intention; (3 To determine the effect of compensation on turnover intention; (4 To determine the effect of organizational climate on turnover intention; and (5 To determine the stress of work, compensation, organizational climate and job satisfaction effect on turnover intention. The population in this study are employees of the Cooperative KOKAPURA AVIA totaling 180 people, while employees who have worked more than three years as many as 128 people. Samples were taken 97 people. The technique of collecting data using questionnaires. The analysis used is multiple regression analysis and path analysis using PLS 3.0 Smart program. Based on the results of the study concluded that: (1 Job satisfaction significantly influence employee turnover intention; (2 Work stress significantly influence employee turnover intention; (3 Compensation incentives significantly influence employee turnover intention; (4 organizational climate significantly influence employee turnover intention; and (5 Work stress, incentive compensation, organizational climate and job satisfaction simultaneously significantly influence employee turnover intention.

  7. Description, field test and data analysis of a controlled-source EM system (EM-60). [Leach Hot Springs, Grass Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H.F.; Goldstein, N.E.; Hoversten, M.; Oppliger, G.; Riveros, C.

    1978-10-01

    The three sections describe the transmitter, the receiver, and data interpretations and indicate the advances made toward the development of a large moment electromagnetic (EM) system employing a magnetic dipole source. A brief description is given of the EM-60 transmitter, its general design, and the consideration involved in the selection of a practical coil size and weight for routine field operations. A programmable, multichannel, multi-frequency, phase-sensitive receiver is described. A field test of the EM-60, the data analysis and interpretation procedures, and a comparison between the survey results and the results obtained using other electrical techniques are presented. The Leach Hot Springs area in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, was chosen for the first field site at which the entire system would be tested. The field tests showed the system capable of obtaining well-defined sounding curves (amplitude and phase of magnetic fields) from 1 kHz down to 0.1 Hz. (MHR)

  8. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

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    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  9. Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools

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    Kacey Guin

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of elementary schools that experience chronic teacher turnover and the impacts of turnover on a school’s working climate and ability to effectively function. Based on evidence from staff climate surveys and case studies, it is clear that high turnover schools face significant organizational challenges. Schools with high teacher turnover rates have difficulty planning and implementing a coherent curriculum and sustaining positive working relationships among teachers. The reality of these organizational challenges is particularly alarming, given that high turnover schools are more likely to serve low-income and minority students. The negative relationship between teacher turnover and school functioning, and the fact that turbulent schools are disproportionately likely to serve lowincome and minority students have important implications for both district and school-level policies. Specifically: Teacher turnover rates are one indicator of school health, which school districts should consider when focusing on school improvements. Districts need to begin by developing the means to identify individual schools that experience high levels of teacher turnover. Current district policies in implementing professional development for teachers in low-performing schools are inefficient when teachers do not remain in the schools in which they are trained. In order for low-performing schools to improve, districts need to consider providing incentive programs so that high quality teachers apply for, and remain in, these schools. Future research is needed to address the causal link between turnover, organizational functioning and student outcomes. Additionally, there is a need for research examining district policies that may facilitate teacher turnover within a district, including how districts place and transfer teachers, as well as how teachers’ salaries are budgeted.

  10. MANAGEMENT OF PERSONNEL TURNOVER

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    Vyara Slavyanska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Personnel turnover is a problem of great importance and increasing actuality for the business practice both on a world scale and in Bulgaria. This provokes a search of effective instruments for its management. The paper presents a summary of a monograph examining the specificity of personnel turnover management.

  11. Managing teacher turnover

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    ticular those students who have also done well in Mathematics and. Physical Science ... ". This plea, in part, does address a concern over one of the consequences of teacher turnover, that is, teacher shortages. However, the situation regarding teacher turnover and attrition in. South Africa seems complex due a variety of ...

  12. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of An Aged Care Specific Leadership and Management Program to Improve Work Environment, Staff Turnover, and Care Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Simpson, Judy M; Li, Zhicheng; Cunich, Michelle M; Thomas, Tamsin H; Chenoweth, Lynn; Kendig, Hal L

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a leadership and management program in aged care. Double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve residential and community-aged care sites in Australia. All care staff employed for 6 months or longer at the aged care sites were invited to participate in the surveys at 3 time points: baseline (time 1), 9 months from baseline (time 2), and 9 months after completion of time 2 (time 3) from 2011 to 2013. At each time point, at least 500 care staff completed a survey. At baseline (N = 503) the largest age group was 45 to 54 years (37%), and the majority of care staff were born in Australia (70%), spoke English (94%), and had at least completed secondary education (57%). A 12-month Clinical Leadership in Aged Care (CLiAC) program for middle managers, which aimed to further develop their leadership and management skills in creating positive workplace relationships and in enabling person-centered, evidence-based care. The primary outcomes were care staff ratings of the work environment, care quality and safety, and staff turnover rates. Secondary outcomes were care staff's intention to leave their employer and profession, workplace stress, job satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness of implementing the program. Absenteeism was excluded due to difficulty in obtaining reliable data. Managers' self-rated knowledge and skills in leadership and management are not included in this article, which focuses on care staff perceptions only. At 6 months after its completion, the CLiAC program was effective in improving care staff's perception of management support [mean difference 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-1.18; P = .04]. Compared with the control sites, care staff at the intervention sites perceived their managers' leadership styles as more transformational (mean difference 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.51; P = .005), transactional (mean difference 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-0.39; P = .01), and less passive avoidant (mean difference 0.30, 95% CI 0

  13. PERAN STRES KERJA DAN KEPUASAN KERJA UNTUK MENGURANGI TURNOVER INTENTION

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    Syarifah Nazenin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menguji pengaruh variabel stres kerja dan kepuasan kerja pada turnover intention karyawan tetap bagian produksi. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 86 responden, menggunakan metode Slovin dengan teknik probability sampling dengan jenis proportionate random sampling. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, menunjukkan bahwa stres kerja berpengaruh positif signifikan pada turnover intention. Kemudian, kepuasan kerja berpengaruh negatif signifikan. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan, bahwa stres kerja berpengaruh positif dan signifikan pada turnover intention karyawan dan kepuasan kerja berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap turnover intention karyawan. Implikasi manajerial yang bisa dilakukan adalah dengan pengurangan tingkat stres karyawan dan membuat program untuk tujuan menekan turnover intention, seperti kesempatan promosi dan meningkatkan reward karyawan. The purpose of this study conducted to examine the effect of work stress and job satisfaction on turnover intention of employee in production department. The sample was 86 respondent, using Slovin method with proportionate random sampling technique. The result showed that job stress has a positive effect on turnover intention while job satisfaction has a negative effect on turnover intention. This study conclude that job stress has positive and significant impact on employee turnover intention and job satisfaction significantly and negatively related to turnover intention of employees. Therefore, it is recommended to managerial level people to reduce stress levels in employees and to create a program for pressing turnover intention, such as promotional opportunities and improve employee rewards.

  14. Costs of employee turnover

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    Jiří Duda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish a general methodology for calculating the costs incurred by employee turnover. This paper deals with identification of costs incurred by the departure of an employee, and does not deal with the cost of recruitment of a new employee. Economic calculations are adjusted to the tax policy in the Czech Republic. The costs of employee turnover (according to Bliss, 2012 include the costs of substitution of the unoccupied position, costs of conducting the exit interview and termination of the contract. The cost of an executive’s time to understand the causes of leaving and costs of the leaving employee’s training were also determined. Important factors in the costs of employee turnover also include the loss of knowledge and possibly also a loss of customers. Costs of lost employee and department productiveness represent an important part of the costs of employee turnover, as well. For all of these costs there have been proposed general calculations formulas.

  15. Home Visitor Job Satisfaction and Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Duggan, Anne K.; Young, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Sia, Cal

    This paper summarizes findings of a 3-year study of the job satisfaction and turnover of home visitors, both professional and paraprofessional, in programs which link families-at-risk for impaired functioning to medical home care and other resources. Specifically, the study examined: (1) home visitor personal characteristics that influence…

  16. Explaining turnover intention in Korean public community hospitals: occupational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Chang, Hyejung

    2008-01-01

    Personnel in public hospitals had relatively low job satisfaction despite of tenure employment. High turnover rates degrade hospital image and incur additional costs related to recruitment and training. The purposes of this study were to describe the occupational differences and to identify factors affecting turnover intention among public hospital personnel. A questionnaire survey was conducted as part of Administrative Services Quality Evaluation Program by Seoul metropolitan municipality from 1 November to 1 December in 2003. The subjects were 1251 entire hospital personnel in four hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to measure job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing turnover intention. There were significant differences in job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention according to the occupations. The turnover intention rates were highest among physicians, followed by paramedicals and nursing staffs and then administrators. The significant factors affecting turnover intention were involvement and loyalty among physicians, hospital type, satisfaction with systems and loyalty among nursing staffs, satisfaction with relationship and loyalty among administrators, and loyalty among paramedicals. There were different moderators that influence turnover intentions of hospital personnel. Loyalty had the most important effect upon turnover intention in all occupations. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  17. Agglomeration and Firm Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Nasir

    2013-01-01

    The geographic and industrial concentration of firms affects firm turnover, as highlighted in research on industrial organization. This study conducts a firm-level analysis to determine the impact of agglomeration on firm entry and exit in domestic industries in Punjab, Pakistan. The study also illustrates how some industries exist in clusters while others are highly dispersed. The results suggest that firm entry and exit is higher in highly agglomerated industries.

  18. Seasonal groundwater turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Nordell, Bo; Engström, Maria

    2006-01-01

      Seasonal air temperature variations and corresponding changes in groundwater temperature cause convective movements in groundwater similar to the seasonal turnover in lakes. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the natural conditions for thermally driven groundwater convection to take place. Thermally driven convection could be triggered by a horizontal groundwater flow, Convection then starts at a considerably lower Rayleigh number (Ra) than the general critical Rayleigh ...

  19. Satisfação no trabalho e rotatividade dos médicos do Programa de Saúde da Família Job satisfaction and physician turnover in the Family Health Program

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    Claudia Valentina de Arruda Campos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Um dos problemas mais graves identificados na implantação do Programa de Saúde da Família no Brasil é a rotatividade do médico generalista. Já que o modelo se fundamenta no vínculo entre profissionais da equipe e população, a alta rotatividade dos médicos pode comprometer a efetividade do modelo. Pesquisa realizada no município de São Paulo para verificar a existência de correlação entre satisfação no trabalho dos médicos do programa e a rotatividade desses profissionais confirmou a hipótese da existência de correlação negativa. O prestígio da instituição parceira do município na implantação do programa foi o fator mais importante na determinação da rotatividade dos médicos. Outros fatores de satisfação no trabalho que apresentaram correlação com a rotatividade foram: capacitação, distância das unidades de saúde e disponibilidade de materiais e equipamentos para realização das atividades profissionais.One of the greatest problems of the Family Health Program in Brazil is the high turnover of its physicians. Given that the program is based on the relationship between health professionals and citizens, these high rates affect the model's effectiveness. A survey to identify the correlation between job satisfaction and physician turnover in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, confirmed the hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between these indicators. The prestige of the partner institutions is the most important factor in determining the program's physician turnover in São Paulo. Other job satisfaction factors that showed correlation with physician turnover were: training, commuting time, and lack of adequate equipment and materials.

  20. Report: Remedial Project Manager Turnover at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2001-M-000015, June 15, 2001. We determined that EPA Region III did not have formal procedures in place to mitigate continuity problems caused by turnover of EPA personnel in the Superfund program.

  1. How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Bo

    Research on employee turnover suggests that turnover results in negative organization-level outcomes. This paper provides a firm-level analysis of the impact of the in- and outflows of human resources on productivity and how the presence of organizational slack resources moderates the effects...... of employee turnover. Drawing on a unique longitudinal dataset of 2,926 Danish manufacturing firms that combine individual-level data with firm-level data, the paper shows that job turnover has a substantial negative effect on total productivity but that the firm’s size, its capital intensity, and its age...

  2. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  3. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  4. Work and Career considerations in Understanding Employee Turnover Intentions and Turnover: Development of the Turnover Diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    researchers have noted that organizations perceived not to link rewards to performance had higher turnover ( Hellriegel & White, 1973; Hulln, 1966, 1968...Telly, French, & Scott, 1971). Similarly, some company policy and administrative Issues related to pay and promotion ( Hellriegel & White, 1973...practices are a strong correlate of turnover (Dansereau, Cashman, & Graen, 1973; Fleishman & Harris, 1962; Graen & Ginsburgh, 1977; Hellriegel & White

  5. Can transformational managers control turnover intention?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Massad A Alatawi

    2017-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to measure the correlation between transformational leadership style and turnover intention to control the employee turnover rate in organisations. Research method...

  6. Pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes e achado colonoscópico em 60 pacientes Fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy diagnosis in 60 patients

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    Miriam Piratininga Jatobá

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma colo-retal ocorre em alta porcentagem, e é causa comum de morte. A maior incidência se dá nas mais altas faixas etárias, e tanto homens como mulheres são igualmente afetados. Há diferenças no risco para desenvolver carcinoma. Exames preventivos são importantes para reduzir a mortalidade. A pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes é um método antigo, mais simples que os demais e se baseia na idéia que os pólipos e os carcinomas sangram intermitentemente, e nos últimos anos houve maior interesse nessa técnica. OBJETIVO: avaliar as vantagens da pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes como método de triagem na detecção de lesões pré-malignas e malignas em nossa população sintomática, correlacionando-a com os resultados da colonoscopia. MÉTODO: realizou-se estudo em 60 pacientes da Santa Casa de São Paulo, sintomáticos e com indicação de colonoscopia, que haviam antes realizado pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes com o método da benzidina. RESULTADOS: A média das idades foi de 54,2 anos, variando de 12 a 92 anos, sendo 31 mulheres e 28 homens. Os resultados dos exames de sangue oculto foram positivos em 25 e negativos em 34. Várias lesões causadoras de sangramento foram diagnosticadas, e observamos que nos cálculos aritméticos sobre os resultados, a pesquisa do sangue oculto revelou sensibilidade de 63,7%, especificidade de 81%, valor preditivo positivo de 28% e negativo de 88%. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados da aplicação de um método de triagem mostra que a pesquisa do sangue oculto fecal pela benzidina, é exame de eleição para ser aplicado em programas sociais de prevenção de carcinoma colo-retal para pacientes sintomáticos.BACKGROUND: colon and rectal carcinoma are frequent occurrences and common causes of death. The elderly, both male and female, are the most affected group and preventive exams are essential to reduce mortality rates. The fecal occult blood tests are long-established and

  7. Collagen turnover after tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Krogsgaard, M; Wilbek, H

    1994-01-01

    Collagen turnover after tibial fractures was examined in 16 patients with fracture of the tibial diaphysis and in 8 patients with fracture in the tibial condyle area by measuring sequential changes in serological markers of turnover of types I and III collagen for up to 26 weeks after fracture....... The markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the amino-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and the pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP). The latter is a new serum marker of degradation of type I...... collagen. A group comparison showed characteristic sequential changes in the turnover of types I and III collagen in fractures of the tibial diaphysis and tibial condyles. The turnover of type III collagen reached a maximum after 2 weeks in both groups. The synthesis of type I collagen reached a maximum...

  8. [Turnover Experience of Male Nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Lee, Jeongseop

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify turnover experiences of men in nursing and to derive a substantive theory on the turnover experience of men who are nurses. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 men who had worked as a nurse for 1 year or more, and had a turnover experience during that period. Collected data were analyzed on the basis of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory. The core category in the turnover experiences of the respondents was 'seeking a stable place for me'. In the analysis of the core category, types of 'contentment', 'seeking', 'survival' and 'confusion' were identified. The sequential stages of these nurses' turnover experience were 'confrontation', 'incertitude', 'retrying' and 'realization'. However, when a problem arose in the process, they returned to the stage of confusion. Thus, these stages could occur in a circular fashion. These findings provide a deep understanding of the turnover experience of men in nursing and offers new information about how they adapt to nursing practice. The findings should be useful as foundational data for men who hope to become nurses and also for managers responsible for nurses who are men.

  9. Job turnover and labor turnover : a taxonomy of employment dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Wolter H.J.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an organized set of stylized facts on the relations among flows of workers,changes in employment and changes in the numer of jobs at the firm level. Job turnover isusually measured by comparing stocks of employment in each firm at two points in time andadding up the absolute employment

  10. Employee Turnover in MFIs: Reasons & Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Sk. Mahmudul Alam, Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    At present day’s employee turnover is one of the challenging issues in microfinance sector of Bangladesh. Excessive turnover is not only pricey, but it can create a bad reputation in the MFI sector and among the job seekers. Excessive turnover may be harmful to an MFI's productivity if experienced and efficient employees are often departing and the employee encompasses a high percentage of beginners. The impact of turnover has received substantial attention by the senior management and human ...

  11. Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the association between job satisfaction and turnover intentions among lecturers in three public universities in Tanzania. It had three objectives: (1) to determine the level of perceived job satisfaction among lecturers; (2) to determine the association between job satisfaction and turnover intention; and (3) ...

  12. The Impact of Staff Turnover on Workplace Demands and Coworker Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K.; Becan, Jennifer E.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    Turnover among clinical staff can have detrimental effects on service provision and organizational efficiency. But how does it affect staff who remain employed at the agency? Researchers at the Institute of Behavioral Research at Texas Christian University sought to answer this question by examining the impact of staff turnover on perceptions of workplace demands and support among 353 clinical staff members from 63 outpatient substance abuse treatment programs. Study results documented that counselors in high-turnover programs reported higher demands (job stress, inadequate staffing) and lower support (communication, collaboration) within their organization, even after controlling for other factors such as decreasing budgets, increasing census, and individual measures of workload. Findings underscore the need to intentionally promote workplace communication and collaboration among staff following the departure of a coworker in order to reduce stress and minimize subsequent turnover among remaining clinical staff. PMID:27540331

  13. Can transformational managers control turnover intention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massad A. Alatawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation and research purpose: Employee turnover is a complex phenomenon that has negative consequences for organisations. The purpose of this study was to measure the correlation between transformational leadership style and turnover intention to control the employee turnover rate in organisations.Research method: This study utilised a two-stage clustering method and web-based survey research with a correlational design to collect the data. A total of 356 responses were collected from 14 clusters in Southern California; however, the final selected data for analysis came from 210 subjects with a cluster-sampling design of (14 × 15.Main findings and managerial implications: This study concluded that the transformational leadership style has a negative correlation with turnover intention. Managers who adopt this style of leadership can expect lower rates of turnover; thus, they can stay competitive in an unstable economy and achieve enhanced productivity, improved performance and reduction in expenses.

  14. The island-mainland species turnover relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

    2012-10-07

    Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.

  15. Empirical Prediction of Turnovers in NFL Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Turnovers in the National Football League (NFL occur whenever a team loses possession of the ball due to a fumble, or an interception. Turnovers disrupt momentum of the offensive team, and represent lost opportunities to advance downfield and score. Teams with a positive differential turnover margin in a given game win 70 % of the time. Turnovers are statistically rare events, occurring apparently randomly. These characteristics make them difficult to predict. This investigation advances the hypothesis that turnovers are predictable in NFL football. Machine learning models are developed to learn the concept: At any point within a football game, what is the likelihood that a turnover will be observed on the next play from scrimmage? NFL play-by-play data for 32 teams spanning seven full seasons were used to train the models. Results presented suggest evidence to support the working hypothesis. Under certain conditions, both fumbles and interceptions can be anticipated at low false discovery rates (less than 15 % . When a turnover is predicted on the impending play from scrimmage, a high degree of confidence is associated with that prediction. The ability to anticipate catastrophic in-game events may lead to their management and control, ultimately improving the performance of individual athletes and their teams. This investigation contributes to the sports science literature by demonstrating the predictability of in-game events often considered to be essentially random in their occurrence. To the author’s knowledge, direct prediction of turnovers has not previously appeared in the literature, which has focused on retrospective statistical analyses of turnover margin in football games.

  16. The validation of the turnover intention scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris F.C. Bothma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Turnover intention as a construct has attracted increased research attention in the recent past, but there are seemingly not many valid and reliable scales around to measure turnover intention.Research purpose: This study focused on the validation of a shortened, six-item version of the turnover intention scale (TIS-6.Motivation for the study: The research question of whether the TIS-6 is a reliable and a valid scale for measuring turnover intention and for predicting actual turnover was addressed in this study.Research design, approach and method: The study was based on a census-based sample (n= 2429 of employees in an information, communication and technology (ICT sector company (N= 23 134 where the TIS-6 was used as one of the criterion variables. The leavers (those who left the company in this sample were compared with the stayers (those who remained in the employ of the company in this sample in respect of different variables used in the study.Main findings: It was established that the TIS-6 could measure turnover intentions reliably (α= 0.80. The TIS-6 could significantly distinguish between leavers and stayers (actual turnover, thereby confirming its criterion-predictive validity. The scale also established statistically significant differences between leavers and stayers in respect of a number of the remaining theoretical variables used in the study, thereby also confirming its differential validity. These comparisons were conducted for both the 4-month and the 4-year period after the survey was conducted.Practical/managerial implications: Turnover intention is related to a number of variables in the study which necessitates a reappraisal and a reconceptualisation of existing turnover intention models.Contribution/value-add: The TIS-6 can be used as a reliable and valid scale to assess turnover intentions and can therefore be used in research to validly and reliably assess turnover intentions or to

  17. Turnover intentions in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.

  18. Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated organisational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intentions among records management personnel in Ondo State Civil Service, Akure, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw 240 subjects from a population size of 275 records management personnel.

  19. KEAHLIAN AUDITOR DAN TURNOVER INTENTION SEBAGAI MEDIASI DETERMINAN KINERJA AUDITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceacilia Srimindarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effect of locus of control and organizational commitment on auditors’ performance as well as to examine whether auditors’ expertise and turnover intention mediate the effect of locus of control and organizational commitment on auditors’ performance. Samples of this study were auditors who worked at audit firms in Semarang. Samples were selected using the purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed using SEM with AMOS program. This study found that locus of control had a negative effect on auditors’ performance, organizational commitment had a positive effect on auditors’ performance, and auditors’ expertise and turnover intention had no effect on auditors’ performance. Furthermore, locus of control had a negative effect on auditors’ expertise, and organizational commitment had a negative effect on turnover intention. Based on this result, managers of public accounting firm (partners should provide some trainings to the auditors who had the external locus of control so that they can achieve the standardized performances. They should also confirm the company’s values to the auditor to increase emotional attachment to the company as well as try to comply to the demands of the company thus its performance will be in accordance with company’s expectations.

  20. Retaining Educational Fundraisers: Reducing Turnover by Investing in Human Capital Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christy

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines an approach to reducing gift officer turnover during comprehensive campaigns by investing in the human capital management (HCM) program. While many universities have begun to create HCM programs, I suggest creating a position specifically focused on the retention of gift offices to ensure that universities and non-profits can…

  1. Addressing employee turnover and retention: keeping your valued performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee turnover and employee retention are inextricably linked; to control turnover is to enhance retention. Turnover is a relatively simple concept; however, considerable confusion often results when addressing turnover because of differences in how it is defined; that is, what is counted, how it is counted, and how the turnover rates are expressed. Turnover is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to its cost because so much of it is indirect and thus not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of turnover, some that can be corrected and some that cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling turnover requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to turnover is an essential part of the department manager's role; every improvement in turnover is a direct improvement in retention, with eventual positive effects on the bottom line.

  2. Characterization monitoring & sensor technology crosscutting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to deliver appropriate characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) to the OFfice of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60).

  3. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=-0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement.

  4. Nurse turnover: the mediating role of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Maslach, Christina

    2009-04-01

    This study tested whether the mediation model of burnout could predict nurses' turnover intentions. A better understanding of what factors support a commitment to a nursing career could inform both policies and workplace practices. The mediation model of burnout provides a way of linking the quality of a nurse's worklife to various outcomes, such as turnover. Data on areas of worklife, burnout, and turnover intentions were collected by surveying 667 Canadian nurses in the Atlantic Provinces. The findings supported the mediation model of burnout, in which areas of worklife predicted burnout, which in turn predicted turnover intentions. Cynicism was the key burnout dimension for turnover, and the most critical areas of worklife were value conflicts and inadequate rewards. The results of this study provide some new insights into how the intention of nurses to leave their job is related to particular aspects of their worklife and to burnout. These results suggest what may be the most appropriate areas to target for interventions to reduce the risk of nurses exiting early from their chosen career.

  5. A structural equation model of turnover for a longitudinal survey among early career registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Carol S; Chao, Ying-Yu; Colder, Craig R; Kovner, Christine T; Chacko, Thomas P

    2015-11-01

    because of its costs and related outcomes. The relevant strength and relationships of these key turnover predictors will be informative to employers for prioritizing strategies to retain their registered nurse workforce. We need more research on programs that implement changes in the work environment that impact these two outcomes, as well as research that focuses on the relevant strength or impact to help administrators prioritize translation of results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does Judge Turnover Affect Judicial Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Tagliapietra, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    office to another after three years of mandate, and the law prescribes their transfer after ten years to guarantee their independence. Flaws in the process managing the backlog of outbound judges and the existence of asynchrony between outbound and inbound transfers produce a chain of delays...... to the disposition of court cases. Using a novel dataset on Court of Appeal Districts in Italy (2008–2012), we provide evidence of a strong negative relation between high turnover rates and judicial performance. We find that marginal increases in judge turnover rates lead to a statistically significant decrease...... in judicial performance over two years of time...

  7. Quantification of isotopic turnover in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic turnover, which is a proxy for the metabolic rate, is gaining scientific importance. It is quantified for an increasing range of organisms, from microorganisms over plants to animals including agricultural livestock. Additionally, the isotopic turnover is analyzed on different scales, from organs to organisms to ecosystems and even to the biosphere. In particular, the quantification of the isotopic turnover of specific tissues within the same organism, e.g. organs like liver and muscle and products like milk and faeces, has brought new insights to improve understanding of nutrient cycles and fluxes, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of isotopic turnover is important in many areas, including physiology, e.g. milk synthesis, ecology, e.g. soil retention time of water, and medical science, e.g. cancer diagnosis. So far, the isotopic turnover is quantified by applying time, cost and expertise intensive tracer experiments. Usually, this comprises two isotopic equilibration periods. A first equilibration period with a constant isotopic input signal is followed by a second equilibration period with a distinct constant isotopic input signal. This yields a smooth signal change from the first to the second signal in the object under consideration. This approach reveals at least three major problems. (i) The input signals must be controlled isotopically, which is almost impossible in many realistic cases like free ranging animals. (ii) Both equilibration periods may be very long, especially when the turnover rate of the object under consideration is very slow, which aggravates the first problem. (iii) The detection of small or slow pools is improved by large isotopic signal changes, but large isotopic changes also involve a considerable change in the input material; e.g. animal studies are usually carried out as diet-switch experiments, where the diet is switched between C3 and C4 plants, since C3 and C4 plants differ strongly in their isotopic signal. The

  8. The Effect of Primary Care Provider Turnover on Patient Experience of Care and Ambulatory Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashok; Pollack, Craig E; Asch, David A; Canamucio, Anne; Werner, Rachel M

    2015-07-01

    Primary care provider (PCP) turnover is common and can disrupt patient continuity of care. Little is known about the effect of PCP turnover on patient care experience and quality of care. To measure the effect of PCP turnover on patient experiences of care and ambulatory care quality. Observational, retrospective cohort study of a nationwide sample of primary care patients in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). We included all patients enrolled in primary care at the VHA between 2010 and 2012 included in 1 of 2 national data sets used to measure our outcome variables: 326,374 patients in the Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP; used to measure patient experience of care) associated with 8441 PCPs and 184,501 patients in the External Peer Review Program (EPRP; used to measure ambulatory care quality) associated with 6973 PCPs. Whether a patient experienced PCP turnover, defined as a patient whose provider (physician, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant) had left the VHA (ie, had no patient encounters for 12 months). Five patient care experience measures (from SHEP) and 11 measures of quality of ambulatory care (from EPRP). Nine percent of patients experienced a PCP turnover in our study sample. Primary care provider turnover was associated with a worse rating in each domain of patient care experience. Turnover was associated with a reduced likelihood of having a positive rating of their personal physician of 68.2% vs 74.6% (adjusted percentage point difference, -5.3; 95% CI, -6.0 to -4.7) and a reduced likelihood of getting care quickly of 36.5% vs 38.5% (adjusted percentage point difference, -1.1; 95% CI, -2.1 to -0.1). In contrast, PCP turnover was not associated with lower quality of ambulatory care except for a lower likelihood of controlling blood pressure of 78.7% vs 80.4% (adjusted percentage point difference, -1.44; 95% CI, -2.2 to -0.7). In 9 measures of ambulatory care quality, the difference between patients who experienced no

  9. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  10. A Turnover Model for the Mexican Maquiladoras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P.; Stevens, Michael J.; Campion, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    From interviews with 47 Mexican maquiladora workers, a model of voluntary turnover was created and compared with models from the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. Despite similarities, the cultural and economic environment affected the precise content of antecedents in the Mexican model. (Contains 63 references.) (SK)

  11. Health care workplace discrimination and physician turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    To examine the association between physician race/ ethnicity, workplace discrimination, and physician job turnover. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007 of practicing physicians (n = 529) randomly identified via the American Medical Association Masterfile and the National Medical Association membership roster. We assessed the relationships between career racial/ethnic discrimination at work and several career-related dependent variables, including 2 measures of physician turnover, career satisfaction, and contemplation of career change. We used standard frequency analyses, odds ratios and chi2 statistics, and multivariate logistic regression modeling to evaluate these associations. Physicians who self-identified as nonmajority were significantly more likely to have left at least 1 job because of workplace discrimination (black, 29%; Asian, 24%; other race, 21%; Hispanic/Latino, 20%; white, 9%). In multivariate models, having experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at work was associated with high job turnover (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-4.9). Among physicians who experienced workplace discrimination, only 45% of physicians were satisfied with their careers (vs 88% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value workplace discrimination, p value Workplace discrimination is associated with physician job turnover, career dissatisfaction, and contemplation of career change. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring for workplace discrimination and responding when opportunities for intervention and retention still exist.

  12. University Lecturers' Professional Empowerment and Turnover in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hitherto, attention has not been paid to whether professional empowerment of the lecturers explains this phenomenon and whether it can help to curb it. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyse the level of professional empowerment provided to the lecturers and the way it relates to their turnover. Data was collected ...

  13. Serum concentration of biochemical bone turnover markers in vegetarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Klemarczyk, W; Gajewska, J; Chełchowska, M; Laskowska-Klita, T

    2007-01-01

    In general, most children on well-planed vegetarian diets can achieve normal growth and development. However, elimination of animal products from the diet decreases the intake of some essential nutrients, such as calcium and vitamin D, and may influence bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentrations of biochemical bone turnover markers in prepubertal vegetarian children. We examined 50 children on vegetarian and 50 on omnivorous diets aged 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional program. Serum bone formation (OC, BALP) and resorption (CTX) markers were determined by specific enzyme immunoassays (ELISA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method (CLIA). The average daily energetic value and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets were similar in both groups of children and were within the recommended range. The vegetarian children showed about a two-fold lower daily intake of calcium and vitamin D than their omnivorous counterparts. The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the serum of vegetarian children was also nearly 2-fold lower compared with omnivores. In vegetarians, as compared to non-vegetarians, mean serum concentrations of OC, BALP and CTX were lower by about 20%, 10% and 15%, respectively. Our preliminary results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair bone turnover rate in vegetarian children. The parameters of bone metabolism should be monitored in these children in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  14. Fat Cell and Fatty Acid Turnover in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    The ratio of free fatty acid (FFA) turnover decreases significantly with the expansion of white adipose tissue. Adipose tissue and dietary saturated fatty acid levels significantly correlate with an increase in fat cell size and number. Inhibition of adipose triglyceride lipase leads to an accumulation of triglyceride, whereas inhibition of hormone-sensitive lipase leads to the accumulation of diacylglycerol. The G0/G1 switch gene 2 increases lipid content in adipocytes and promotes adipocyte hypertrophy through the restriction of triglyceride turnover. Excess triacylglycerols (TAGs), sterols and sterol esters are surrounded by the phospholipid monolayer surface and form lipid droplets. Following the release of lipid droplets from endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasmic lipid droplets increase their volume either by local TAG synthesis or by homotypic fusion. The number and the size of lipid droplet distribution is correlated with obesity. Obesity-associated adipocyte death exhibits feature of necrosis-like programmed cell death. NOD-like receptors family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent caspase-1 activation in hypertrophic adipocytes induces obese adipocyte death by pyroptosis. Actually adipocyte death may be a prerequisite for the transition from hypertrophic to hyperplastic obesity. Major transcriptional factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins beta and delta, play a central role in the subsequent induction of critical regulators, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis in obesity.Collectively, in this chapter the concept of adipose tissue remodeling in response to adipocyte death or adipogenesis, and the complexity of lipid droplet interactions with the other cellular organelles are reviewed. Furthermore, in addition to lipid droplet growth, the functional link between the adipocyte-specific lipid

  15. Training and turnover in organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Glance, N S; Huberman, B A; Natalie S Glance; Tad Hogg; Bernardo A Huberman

    1994-01-01

    We present a two-level model of organizational training and agent production. Managers decide whether or not to train based on both the costs of training compared to the benefits and on their expectations and observations of the number of other firms that also train. Managers also take into account the sum of their employees' contributions and the average tenure length within their organization. Employees decide whether or not to contribute to production based on their expectations as to how other employees will act. Trained workers learn over time and fold their increased productivity into their decision whether or not to contribute. We find that the dynamical behavior at the two levels is closely coupled: the evolution of the industry over time depends not only on the characteristics of training programs, learning curves, and cost-benefit analyses, but on the vagaries of chance as well. For example, in one case, the double dilemma can be resolved for the industry as a whole and productivity then increases s...

  16. Accelerated extracellular matrix turnover during exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Jannie M B; Knox, Alan J; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    progression. Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover reflects activity in tissues and consequently assessment of ECM turnover may serve as biomarkers of disease activity. We hypothesized that the turnover of lung ECM proteins were altered during exacerbations of COPD. METHODS: 69 patients with COPD hospitalised...

  17. Library infrastructure as predictor of turnover intentions of librarians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result revealed that library infrastructure is a predictor of turnover intentions of librarians (r = 0.647, p < 0.05) which indicates that an improvement in library infrastructure will reduce turnover intentions of librarians. The result showed that inadequate/unavailability of library infrastructure increase turnover intentions of ...

  18. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found in lum.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  19. Rapid turnover of glycogen in memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Marie E; Hutchinson, Dana S

    2012-11-01

    The influence of noradrenaline acting at α(2)-AR and β(2)-ARs on the turnover of glycogen after learning has been investigated. The role of glycogen turnover in memory formation was examined using weakly-reinforced, single trial bead discrimination training in day-old domestic chickens. This study follows our previous work that focused on the need for glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis) during learning. Inhibition of glycogenolysis by 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB) prevented the consolidation of strongly-reinforced learning and inhibited memory. The action of DAB could be prevented by stimulating glycogenolysis with the selective β(2)-AR agonist, zinterol. Stimulation of α(2)-ARs has been shown to lead to an increase in the turnover and synthesis of glycogen. In the present study, we examined the effect of inhibition of α(2)-AR stimulated glycogen turnover (measured as(14)C-glucose incorporation into glycogen) on the ability of zinterol to promote the consolidation of weakly reinforced memory. In astrocytes, the selective α(2)-AR agonist clonidine stimulated (14)C-glucose incorporation into glycogen in chick astrocytes and this was inhibited by the selective α(2)-AR antagonist, ARC239. The critical importance of the timing of ARC239 injection relative to training and intracerebral administration of zinterol was examined. It is concluded that our data provides evidence for a readily accessible labile pool of glycogen in brain astrocytes. If glycogen synthesis is inhibited, the can be depleted within 10 min, thus preventing zinterol from promoting consolidation.

  20. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  1. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  2. TURNOVER AND JOB EMBEDDEDNESS IN TIJUANA MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Rosa García Rivera; Peter W Hom; Ignacio Alejandro Mendoza Martínez; Sonia Elizabeth Maldonado Radillo; Concepción Ramírez Barón

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the relationship between family and community links and future intentions to quit from employees at the export processing zone (EPZ) in Tijuana, Mexico. With survey data gathered in an organization belonging to a Tijuana EPZ, we applied the theory of embededdness to identify the causes behind turnover. A questionnaire with 125 items using a 4-points Likert scale was developed to assess job embeddedness, family embeddedness, satisfaction with benefits, and affective co...

  3. Differential turnover of tyrosinated and detyrosinated microtubules.

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, D. R.; Gundersen, G G; Bulinski, J C; Borisy, G G

    1987-01-01

    Turnover of tyrosinated and detyrosinated microtubules ([Tyr]MTs and [Glu]MTs, respectively) was analyzed by the combined use of hapten-mediated immunocytochemistry and peptide-specific antibodies. Cells were microinjected with hapten-labeled tubulin and then processed for triple-label immunofluorescence to determine the pattern of incorporation of the injected subunits into [Tyr]- and [Glu]-MTs. Within 2 min of microinjection, hapten-labeled domains were present at the ends of virtually all ...

  4. Generational differences in registered nurse turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVasseur, Sandra A; Wang, Chen-Yen; Mathews, Barbara; Boland, Mary

    2009-08-01

    The chronic nature of the nursing workforce shortage in the United States is a continuing concern. As the nationwide gap between supply and demand grows, it remains unknown what impact turnover will have on nursing, access to care, and efforts to improve quality and safety of health care. It also remains unclear whether the recent turnover trends among new graduate registered nurses differ from past generational cohorts of new nurses. The aims of this study were to identify the reasons why registered nurses turnover by generational cohort (Veterans, Baby Boomers, and GenXMs) and to compare the length of time nurses were employed in their first five nursing positions by generational cohort. The findings suggest the three generational cohorts displayed similar reasons for leaving nursing positions with relocation, career advancement, and personal/family reasons reported most frequently. Except for the first nursing position, significant generational effects were found in the length of time Veterans, Baby Boomer, and GenXMs stayed employed in their nursing positions. It remains unknown why the GenXMs displayed a significantly shorter length of employment time in their second, third, fourth, and fifth nursing positions. The decline in length of employment time displayed in both the Baby Boomers and GenXMs may be an issue of concern requiring future research.

  5. Quantitative analysis of protein turnover in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Clark J; Li, Lei; Millar, A Harvey

    2014-03-01

    Proteins are constantly being synthesised and degraded as plant cells age and as plants grow, develop and adapt the proteome. Given that plants develop through a series of events from germination to fruiting and even undertake whole organ senescence, an understanding of protein turnover as a fundamental part of this process in plants is essential. Both synthesis and degradation processes are spatially separated in a cell across its compartmented structure. The majority of protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, while synthesis of specific components occurs inside plastids and mitochondria. Degradation of proteins occurs in both the cytosol, through the action of the plant proteasome, and in organelles and lytic structures through different protease classes. Tracking the specific synthesis and degradation rate of individual proteins can be undertaken using stable isotope feeding and the ability of peptide MS to track labelled peptide fractions over time. Mathematical modelling can be used to follow the isotope signature of newly synthesised protein as it accumulates and natural abundance proteins as they are lost through degradation. Different technical and biological constraints govern the potential for the use of (13)C, (15)N, (2)H and (18)O for these experiments in complete labelling and partial labelling strategies. Future development of quantitative protein turnover analysis will involve analysis of protein populations in complexes and subcellular compartments, assessing the effect of PTMs and integrating turnover studies into wider system biology study of plants. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Turnover and organizational performance: a comparative analysis of the effects of voluntary, involuntary, and reduction-in-force turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J C; Morrow, P C; Rude, S N

    2001-12-01

    Data were collected from 31 regional subunits of a national financial services company to examine differential effects of 3 types of turnover (voluntary, involuntary, and reduction-in-force) on measures of organizational subunit performance. Although each form of turnover exhibited adverse effects on subunit performance when examined separately, partial correlation results revealed greater and more pervasive adverse effects for reduction-in-force turnover (i.e., downsizing) in comparison with the effects of voluntary and involuntary turnover. The results confirm the negative effects of downsizing, suggesting the need to move beyond the traditional voluntary-involuntary classification scheme used in turnover research.

  7. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 degrees....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller......C). A sandy loam soil for the experiment was either stored at 6 degreesC or planted with the respective grain legume in pots. Legumes were in situ N-15 stem labelled during growth and visible roots were removed at maturity. The remaining plant-derived N in soil was defined as N rhizodeposition...

  8. Turnover in health care: the mediating effects of employee engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collini, Stevie A; Guidroz, Ashley M; Perez, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the interaction between interpersonal respect, diversity climate, mission fulfilment and engagement to better predict turnover in health care. Registered nurse turnover has averaged 14% and current nursing shortages are expected to spread. Few studies have studied employee engagement as a mediator between organisational context and turnover. Study participants were employees working within 185 departments across ten hospitals within a large healthcare organisation in the USA. Although a total of 5443 employees work in these departments, employee opinion survey responses were aggregated by department before being linked to turnover rates gathered from company records. Engagement fully mediated the relationship between respect and turnover and the relationship between mission fulfilment and turnover. Diversity climate was not related to turnover. Turnover in health care poses a significant threat to the mission of creating a healing environment for patients and these results demonstrate that workplace respect and connection to the mission affect turnover by decreasing engagement. The findings demonstrated that to increase engagement, and improve turnover rates in health care, it would be beneficial for organisations, and nurse management to focus on improving mission fulfilment and interpersonal relationships. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Endogenous Turnover of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picmanova, Martina

    with noncyanogenic compounds glaringly resembling their structures. In order to examine the spatial as well as temporal presence and abundance of the putative turnover products of CNglcs, comparative metabolic profiling using LC-MS/MS was performed in three cyanogenic crops – cassava, almond and sorghum. This work...... of the proposed catabolic route, even though the enzymes involved remain elusive. Testing of heterologously expressed and purified nitrilases and nitrilase-related enzymes from cassava and almond, including NIT4s, glutamine-dependent NAD+ synthetase (QNS) and a newly discovered nucleus-localized nitrilase...

  10. Nitrogen turnover in soil and global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Julien; Töwe, Stefanie; Bannert, Andrea; Hai, Brigitte; Kastl, Eva-Maria; Meyer, Annabel; Su, Ming Xia; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Nitrogen management in soils has been considered as key to the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems and a protection of major ecosystem services. However, the microorganisms driving processes like nitrification, denitrification, N-fixation and mineralization are highly influenced by changing climatic conditions, intensification of agriculture and the application of new chemicals to a so far unknown extent. In this review, the current knowledge concerning the influence of selected scenarios of global change on the abundance, diversity and activity of microorganisms involved in nitrogen turnover, notably in agricultural and grassland soils, is summarized and linked to the corresponding processes. In this context, data are presented on nitrogen-cycling processes and the corresponding microbial key players during ecosystem development and changes in functional diversity patterns during shifts in land use. Furthermore, the impact of increased temperature, carbon dioxide and changes in precipitation regimes on microbial nitrogen turnover is discussed. Finally, some examples of the effects of pesticides and antibiotics after application to soil for selected processes of nitrogen transformation are also shown. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships between Bone Turnover and Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia A. P. Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that diabetes can be detrimental to bone health, and its chronic complications have been associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. However, there is growing evidence that the skeleton plays a key role in a whole-organism approach to physiology. The hypothesis that bone may be involved in the regulation of physiological functions, such as insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism, has been suggested. Given the roles of insulin, adipokines, and osteocalcin in these pathways, the need for a more integrative conceptual approach to physiology is emphasized. Recent findings suggest that bone plays an important role in regulating intermediary metabolism, being possibly both a target of diabetic complications and a potential pathophysiologic factor in the disease itself. Understanding the relationships between bone turnover and glucose metabolism is important in order to develop treatments that might reestablish energy metabolism and bone health. This review describes new insights relating bone turnover and energy metabolism that have been reported in the literature.

  12. Dynamics of Adipocyte Turnover in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, K; Arner, E; Westermark, P; Bernard, S; Buchholz, B; Bergmann, O; Blomqvist, L; Hoffstedt, J; Naslund, E; Britton, T; Concha, H; Hassan, M; Ryden, M; Frisen, J; Arner, P

    2007-07-16

    Obesity is increasing in an epidemic fashion in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining fat mass in adult humans are not fully understood, but increased lipid storage in already developed fat cells is thought to be most important. We show that adipocyte number is a major determinant for the fat mass in adults. However, the number of fat cells stays constant in adulthood in lean and obese and even under extreme conditions, indicating that the number of adipocytes is set during childhood and adolescence. To establish the dynamics within the stable population of adipocytes in adults, we have measured adipocyte turnover by analyzing the integration of {sup 14}C derived from nuclear bomb tests in genomic DNA. Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index. Neither adipocyte death nor generation rate is altered in obesity, suggesting a tight regulation of fat cell number that is independent of metabolic profile in adulthood. The high turnover of adipocytes establishes a new therapeutic target for pharmacological intervention in obesity.

  13. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found...... in lumbar bone mineral density, femoral neck bone mineral density, serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, ionized calcium and phosphate. The urinary excretion of both hydroxyproline and calcium relative to urinary creatinine excretion was significantly higher in patients with fibromyalgia, p = 0.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  14. Organizational commitment and turnover intentions in humanitarian organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such

  15. How Multiple Interventions Influenced Employee Turnover: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    A 3-year study of 46 textile industry workers identified causes of employee turnover (supervision, training, organizational communication) using performance analysis. A study of multiple interventions based on the analysis resulted in changes in orientation procedures, organizational leadership, and climate, reducing turnover by 24%. (SK)

  16. Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in selected business organisations in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Social Sciences ... The study was an attempt at investigating the relatedness of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in business organizations in Lagos Nigeria.

  17. Glucose turnover during pregnancy in anaesthetized post-absorptive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leturque, Armelle; Gilbert, Marc; Girard, Jean

    1981-01-01

    During pregnancy the decline in blood [glucose] does not result from the increased distribution space of glucose. The absolute rate of glucose turnover increases in late pregnancy in parallel with the rise in the mass of the conceptus. Nevertheless, glucose turnover per kg body wt. is not increased in late pregnancy, since the lower blood [glucose] decreases glucose utilization by maternal tissues.

  18. Performance and turnover intentions: a social exchange perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biron, M.; Boon, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - Prior research has yielded mixed results regarding the relationship between performance and turnover intentions. Drawing from social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to propose that the performance-turnover intentions association may be contingent upon individuals' exchange

  19. Health workforce acquisition, retention and turnover in southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skill mix of health professionals, staff acquisition and turnover rate are among the major challenges for the delivery of quality health care. This study assessed the health workforce acquisition, retention, turnover rate and their intention to leave. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with quantitative and qualitative ...

  20. Managing teacher turnover | Xaba | South African Journal of Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns about educator turnover and attrition are reported widely as a global phenomenon. Turnover translates, amongst other things, into shortages in educator supply, costs in recruitment, training and mentoring, poor learner performance due to disruption of planning programmes and continuity, as well as overcrowded ...

  1. Below the Surface of Special Education Administrator Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The field of special education administration has experienced a shortage of high quality special education leadership candidates for several decades. If school districts are to effectively address the turnover of educational leaders, they must know what is happening that affects turnover of their leadership team. The intent of this study was to…

  2. The Link between Training Satisfaction, Work Engagement and Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mumtaz Ali; Salleh, Rohani; Baharom, Mohamed Noor Rosli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the casual relationship between training satisfaction, work engagement (WE) and turnover intention and the mediating role of WE between training satisfaction and turnover intention. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 409 oil and gas professionals using an email survey…

  3. Regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle protein turnover is a relatively slow metabolic process that is altered by various physiological stimuli such as feeding/fasting and exercise. During exercise, catabolism of amino acids contributes very little to ATP turnover in working muscle. With regards to protein turnover......, there is now consistent data from tracer studies in rodents and humans showing that global protein synthesis is blunted in working skeletal muscle. Whether there is altered skeletal muscle protein breakdown during exercise remains unclear. The blunting of protein synthesis is believed to be mediated...... downstream of changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and energy turnover. In particular, a signaling cascade involving Ca(2+)-calmodulin-eEF2 kinase-eEF2 is implicated. The possible functional significance of altered protein turnover in working skeletal muscle during exercise is discussed. Further work...

  4. Pitfalls in quantifying species turnover: the residency effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Chase Burns

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of ecological communities changes continuously through time and space. Understanding this turnover in species composition is a central goal in biogeography, but quantifying species turnover can be problematic. Here, I describe an underappreciated source of bias in quantifying species turnover, namely ‘the residency effect’, which occurs when the contiguous distributions of species across sampling domains are small relative to census intervals. I present the results of a simulation model that illustrates the problem theoretically and then I demonstrate the problem empirically using a long-term dataset of plant species turnover on islands. Results from both exercises indicate that empirical estimates of species turnover may be susceptible to significant observer bias, which may potentially cloud a better understanding of how the composition of ecological communities changes through time.

  5. Turnover intention among intensive care unit nurses in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallam, Rasha; Hamidi, Samer; Elrefaay, Manal

    2015-06-01

    Given the difficulty in recruiting new nurses, it is imperative to retain those already in the profession. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship of demographic and work-related factors, burnout, conflict management and relationship between nurses and physicians on turnover intentions among ICU nurses in eight major hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. Data on burnout, conflict management, nurse-physician communication, and turnover intention were collected by surveying 100 nurses in eight hospitals in Alexandria governorate. All nurses at the ICU of selected hospitals were approached (n=100) and a 47-item Likert scale questionnaire was administered to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of ICU nurses in Alexandria. ICU nurses exhibited a mean score for turnover intention of 3.23 (mean score percentage 65.0%). There was a moderately positive statistically significant correlation between turnover intention and emotional exhaustion (r=0.29, P<0.05), nurse-physician communication (r=0.25, P<0.05), and age (r=0.21, P<0.05). The predicting factors for turnover intention were emotional exhaustion and age. Nurses turnover intention at the ICU of the selected hospitals is high and is significantly associated with nurses' emotional exhaustion, poor nurse-physician communication, and nurses age.

  6. Employee turnover and productivity among small business entities in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the problems of employee turnover on productivity among small business entities in Nigeria, and recommend remedial actions. Employee turnover is the separation of employees from employers and replacement with other employees. Productive manpower is a critical element for the economic survival of any small business entity. The survey research design was used for the study. The sample comprised of 320 respondents. Data generated were analyzed by using descriptive, and Z-test statistical techniques. It was found that employee turnover adversely affects productivity in small business entities.

  7. Higher Dissatisfaction Higher Turnover in the Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat; Ahmad Puad Mat Som; Abdullah Saleh Helalat

    2014-01-01

    Turnover crisis reducing has been highlighted as a remarkable research theme in the hospitality industry. Regardless of the significant number of studies on employee turnover, it remains a vague issue and requires further research, It is well known that the service industry is highly dependent on the “human factor” which has become a major part of the hospitality product. The aim of this study is to give a clearer idea of enhancing employment factors to reduce the turnover crisis, Mobley`s mo...

  8. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  9. Achilles tendinosis - Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mos, Marieke; van El, Benno; DeGroot, Jeroen; Jahr, Holger; van Schie, Hans T. M.; van Arkel, Ewoud R.; Tol, Hans; Heijboer, Rien; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design:

  10. Job turnover and regional attrition among physiotherapists in northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S; Beggs, C E

    1993-01-01

    Results of an initial study indicated that the most significant factor affecting retention for Physiotherapists in Northern Ontario was perceived opportunity for career development. A follow-up study was completed two years later to determine: 1) actual job turnover and regional attrition among physiotherapists in Northern Ontario; and 2) the predictive validity of variables identified in the first study regarding job turnover and regional attrition. Job turnover occurred in 29.5% of those sampled and the regional attrition rate was 12%. Discriminant function analysis revealed factors affecting job turnover and regional attrition including professional experience, practice location, opportunity for career development and size of community of residence. Based on previous intention, indicated by participants, follow-up revealed that the initial study correctly predicted 77.5% of those who changed their jobs and 74.1% of those who left Northern Ontario. Identified factors provide direction for the development of strategies for recruitment and retention of physiotherapists.

  11. Global Distribution of Root Turnover in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Estimates of root turnover rates were calculated from measurements of live root standing crop and belowground net primary production (BNPP) compiled from...

  12. Achilles tendinosis: Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos, M. de; El, B. van; Groot, J. de; Jahr, H.; Schie, H.T.M. van; Arkel, E.R. van; Tol, H.; Heijboer, R.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Verhaar, J.A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design:

  13. Corporate governance mechanisms in family firms: Evidence from CEO turnovers

    OpenAIRE

    González, Maximiliano; Guzmán, Alexander; Pombo, Carlos; Trujillo, María Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Research Question/Issue: How sensitive is CEO turnover to firm performance in the context of family firms? Research Findings/Insights: Using a detailed database of mostly non-listed Colombian firms, we found that family ownership (direct and indirect through pyramidal structures) reduces the probability of CEO turnover when financial performance has been poor; however, we found that the opposite effect is true when families participate actively on the board of directors. These results hold tr...

  14. Predicted Relative Metabolomic Turnover (PRMT): determining metabolic turnover from a coastal marine metagenomic dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Peter E; Collart, Frank R; Field, Dawn; Meyer, Folker; Keegan, Kevin P; Henry, Christopher S; McGrath, John; Quinn, John; Gilbert, Jack A

    2011-06-14

    The world's oceans are home to a diverse array of microbial life whose metabolic activity helps to drive the earth's biogeochemical cycles. Metagenomic analysis has revolutionized our access to these communities, providing a system-scale perspective of microbial community interactions. However, while metagenome sequencing can provide useful estimates of the relative change in abundance of specific genes and taxa between environments or over time, this does not investigate the relative changes in the production or consumption of different metabolites. We propose a methodology, Predicted Relative Metabolic Turnover (PRMT) that defines and enables exploration of metabolite-space inferred from the metagenome. Our analysis of metagenomic data from a time-series study in the Western English Channel demonstrated considerable correlations between predicted relative metabolic turnover and seasonal changes in abundance of measured environmental parameters as well as with observed seasonal changes in bacterial population structure. The PRMT method was successfully applied to metagenomic data to explore the Western English Channel microbial metabalome to generate specific, biologically testable hypotheses. Generated hypotheses linked organic phosphate utilization to Gammaproteobactaria, Plantcomycetes, and Betaproteobacteria, chitin degradation to Actinomycetes, and potential small molecule biosynthesis pathways for Lentisphaerae, Chlamydiae, and Crenarchaeota. The PRMT method can be applied as a general tool for the analysis of additional metagenomic or transcriptomic datasets.

  15. Telaah Hubungan Kepuasan Kerja Dan Komitmen Organisasional Terhadap Turnover Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amran

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT       Employees are the most important resources of company. They are human resources to do and move all of the activities of company. Therefore, company needs to keep and maintain their job satisfaction and organizational commitment in order to reduce the intention to leave the company (turnover intention. It is necessary to study the relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. This will give benefit to determine the important values of employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment and its influences on turnover intention. The research methods are descriptive survey and verificative survey that is used to assess the performance of independent variables: those are job satisfaction and organizational commitment,  and dependent variable: that is turnover intention with doing observation to employees of PT. Alexindo Bekasi. The result of this research is there is influence of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on turnover intention. This research is the improvement of existing researches which can be applied in the other companies specially for the human resource or employee behavior field.   Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention

  16. Reviewing Employee Turnover: Focusing on Proximal Withdrawal States and an Expanded Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Peter W.; Mitchell, Terence R.; Lee, Thomas W.; Griffeth, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    We reconceptualize employee turnover to promote researchers' understanding and prediction of why employees quit or stay in employing institutions. A literature review identifies shortcomings with prevailing turnover dimensions. In response, we expand the conceptual domain of the turnover criterion to include multiple types of turnover (notably,…

  17. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  18. Determinants of CEO Turnover in Publicand Private Firms in Denmark - CEO and Firm Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sponholtz, Carina

    turnover across a variety of firm types that di¤er with re-spect to the corporate governance issues they face. Our simple methodol-ogy to define CEO turnover results in turnover rates similar to those foundpreviously. Our results indicate that CEO characteristics are an important factor in explaining CEO...... governance issues they face. Our simple methodology to define CEO turnover results in turnover rates similar to those foundpreviously. Our results indicate that CEO characteristics are an important factor in explaining CEO turnover. Finally, the inverse relationshipbetween firm performance and CEO turnover......-employee data to study CEO turnover. Using this data we contribute tothe existing literature by examining the effect of previously unstudied individual characteristics on CEO turnover. Additionally, we are able toexamine CEO turnover across a variety of firm types that di¤er with respect to the corporate...

  19. Protein turnover methods in single-celled organisms: dynamic SILAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, Amy J; Beynon, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Early achievements in proteomics were qualitative, typified by the identification of very small quantities of proteins. However, as the subject has developed, there has been a pressure to develop approaches to define the amounts of each protein--whether in a relative or an absolute sense. A further dimension to quantitative proteomics embeds the behavior of each protein in terms of its turnover. Virtually every protein in the cell is in a dynamic state, subject to continuous synthesis and degradation, the relative rates of which control the expansion or the contraction of the protein pool, and the absolute values of which dictate the temporal responsiveness of the protein pool. Strategies must therefore be developed to assess the turnover of individual proteins in the proteome. Because a protein can be turning over rapidly even when the protein pool is in steady state, the only acceptable approach to measure turnover is to use metabolic labels that are incorporated or lost from the protein pool as it is replaced. Using metabolic labeling on a proteome-wide scale in turn requires metabolic labels that contain stable isotopes, the incorporation or loss of which can be assessed by mass spectrometry. A typical turnover experiment is complex. The choice of metabolic label is dictated by several factors, including abundance in the proteome, metabolic redistribution of the label in the precursor pool, and the downstream mass spectrometric analytical protocols. Key issues include the need to control and understand the relative isotope abundance of the precursor, the optimization of label flux into and out of the protein pool, and a sampling strategy that ensures the coverage of the greatest range of turnover rates. Finally, the informatics approaches to data analysis will not be as straightforward as in other areas of proteomics. In this chapter, we will discuss the principles and practice of workflow development for turnover analysis, exemplified by the development of

  20. Health insurance, cost expectations, and adverse job turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Albert Ma, Ching-To

    2011-01-01

    Because less healthy employees value health insurance more than the healthy ones, when health insurance is newly offered job turnover rates for healthier employees decline less than turnover rates for the less healthy. We call this adverse job turnover, and it implies that a firm's expected health costs will increase when health insurance is first offered. Health insurance premiums may fail to adjust sufficiently fast because state regulations restrict annual premium changes, or insurers are reluctant to change premiums rapidly. Even with premiums set at the long run expected costs, some firms may be charged premiums higher than their current expected costs and choose not to offer insurance. High administrative costs at small firms exacerbate this dynamic selection problem. Using 1998-1999 MEDSTAT MarketScan and 1997 Employer Health Insurance Survey data, we find that expected employee health expenditures at firms that offer insurance have lower within-firm and higher between-firm variance than at firms that do not. Turnover rates are systematically higher in industries in which firms are less likely to offer insurance. Simulations of the offer decision capturing between-firm health-cost heterogeneity and expected turnover rates match the observed pattern across firm sizes well. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The rapid yet uneven turnover of Earth's groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Jasechko, Scott; Luijendijk, Elco; Gleeson, Tom; Bayani Cardenas, M.

    2017-06-01

    The turnover of groundwater through recharge drives many processes throughout Earth's surface and subsurface. Yet groundwater turnover rates and their relationship to regional climate and geology remain largely unknown. We estimated that over 200 × 106 km3 of groundwater has recharged since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is 10 times the volume of global groundwater storage. However, flushing is very unevenly distributed throughout Earth's one million watersheds, with some aquifers turned over thousands of times to others with global groundwater turnover of 5 ± 3 times since the LGM highlights groundwater's active role in Earth system processes. Incomplete groundwater turnover since the LGM beneath a third of land areas reveals the imprint of relict climate conditions on modern-day groundwater resources. The bulk groundwater turnover calculated here enables better quantification of groundwater's impact in dynamic global water budgets and the transport of nutrients, contaminants, and geologic weathering products.Plain Language SummaryThe duration groundwater spends in an aquifer sets how long it is sequestered from the rest of the hydrologic cycle, where it can interact with the surrounding matrix and transport dissolved chemicals to and from the land surface. Over geologic timescales, these interactions transform landscapes, affect global climate, and regulate water resource sustainability and quality. We present how much groundwater has recharged since the Last Glacial Maximum and where groundwater on Earth is associated with previous climate conditions.

  2. Investigating the adequacy of the Competence-Turnover Intention Model: how does nursing competence affect nurses' turnover intention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Teraoka, Sachiko; Kousuke, Yabase

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the adequacy of the Competence-Turnover Intention Model, which was developed to identify how nursing competence could affect nurses' turnover intention (nurses' intention to voluntarily leave an organisation). Recent studies have suggested that the level of nursing competence is negatively related to nurses' intention to leave their jobs, suggesting that a lack of competence threatens both the quality and quantity of the nursing workforce. However, the mechanism of how nursing competence affects nurses' turnover intention has not been explored previously. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Surveys were distributed to 1337 Japanese registered nurses/midwives in October, 2013. The adequacy of the model was analysed using structural equation modelling. In total, 766 questionnaires were returned, with a return rate of 57%. The model fitted well with the data. The results showed that the level of nursing competence was related positively to the quantity of organisational rewards they felt they had received, and negatively related to the level of exhaustion they experienced. Moreover, the perceived organisational rewards and exhaustion were correlated with nurses' turnover intention through affective commitment. The Competence-Turnover Intention Model is useful for explaining how nursing competence impacts on their turnover intention. Clinical implications derived from the findings are that: promoting nursing competence is key to improving not only the quality of care provided by nurses, but also to retaining the nursing workforce, and the model can be used to develop strategies that would mitigate their turnover intention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mediating role of work engagement in the relationship between job resources and personal resources with turnover intention among female nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahpouri, Samira; Namdari, Kourosh; Abedi, Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    One of the latest models proposed with regard to work engagement is the detailed model put forward by Bakker and Demerouti (2007). The present study aims at investigating the effect of job resources and personal resources on turnover intention with the mediator role of work engagement among female nurses at Isfahan Alzahra Hospital. In the current study, job and personal resources were considered as the predictors of job turnover and work engagement was considered as the mediator variable among predictive and criterion variables. The data of the present study were collected from 208 female nurses who were selected by systematic random sampling. As for the analysis of the collected data, structural equations model, normal distribution method, and Bootstrap method in Macro, Preacher and Hayes, (2004) program were deployed. The findings showed that the personal resources affect the turnover intention both directly and indirectly (through work engagement); however, job resources are just associated with turnover intention with the mediating role of work engagement. The results of the study have important implications for organizations' managers about improving work engagement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PENGARUH JOB SATISFACTION TERHADAP OCB DAN TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febru Rida Ningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide the impact of job satisfaction to OCB and turnover intention. This study used a quantitative method with a statistical analysis. Simple analysis regression used to test each hypotheses. The object of this research is a branch of national bank. Population in this research are entire employees of a brach of national bank that is e non frontliner employees. Non-probability sampling is used of this reseach. The measurement of job satiafaction and turnover intention variables used likert scale that developed by Rinaldi (2008 and measurement of OCB variable adopted from  Organ (1988.  The result of this research has shown that hypotheses one is rejected and hypotheses two is accepted. Eventually, through this article, an understanding that job satisfaction does not significantly influence to OCB but job satisfaction has significant influence to turnover intention.

  5. Estimation of Employee Turnover with Competing Risks Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzenda Wioletta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Employee turnover accompanies every business organization, regardless of the industry and size. Nowadays, many companies struggle with problems related to the lack of sufficient information about the nature of employee turnover processes. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of these processes is necessary. This article aims to examine the turnover of employees from a big manufacturing company using competing risks models with covariates and without covariates. This technique allows to incorporate the information about the type of employment contract termination. Moreover, Cox proportional hazard model enables the researcher to analyse simultaneously multiple factors that affect employment duration. One of the major observations is that employee remuneration level differentiates most strongly the risk of job resignation.

  6. Taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled in European peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robroek, Bjorn J M; Jassey, Vincent E J; Payne, Richard J; Martí, Magalí; Bragazza, Luca; Bleeker, Albert; Buttler, Alexandre; Caporn, Simon J M; Dise, Nancy B; Kattge, Jens; Zając, Katarzyna; Svensson, Bo H; van Ruijven, Jasper; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2017-10-27

    In peatland ecosystems, plant communities mediate a globally significant carbon store. The effects of global environmental change on plant assemblages are expected to be a factor in determining how ecosystem functions such as carbon uptake will respond. Using vegetation data from 56 Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs across Europe, we show that in these ecosystems plant species aggregate into two major clusters that are each defined by shared response to environmental conditions. Across environmental gradients, we find significant taxonomic turnover in both clusters. However, functional identity and functional redundancy of the community as a whole remain unchanged. This strongly suggests that in peat bogs, species turnover across environmental gradients is restricted to functionally similar species. Our results demonstrate that plant taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled, which may allow these peat bogs to maintain ecosystem functioning when subject to future environmental change.

  7. The relationship between bone turnover and insulin sensitivity and secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Balkau, Beverley; Hatunic, Mensud

    2018-01-01

    Bone metabolism appears to influence insulin secretion and sensitivity, and insulin promotes bone formation in animals, but similar evidence in humans is limited. The objectives of this study are to explore if bone turnover markers were associated with insulin secretion and sensitivity...... and to determine if bone turnover markers predict changes in insulin secretion and sensitivity. The study population encompassed 576 non-diabetic adult men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=503) or impaired glucose regulation (IGR; n=73). Baseline markers of bone resorption (CTX) and formation (P1NP) were......, baseline bone turnover markers were neither associated with insulin sensitivity (assessed using hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp and OGTT) nor with insulin secretion capacity (based on IVGTT and OGTT) at baseline or at follow-up. Although inverse associations between fasting glucose and markers of bone...

  8. Changes of Protein Turnover in Aging Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondt, Ineke; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Bauer, Sophie; Brewer, Heather M.; Smith, Richard D.; Depuydt, Geert; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2017-07-05

    Protein turnover rates severely decline in aging organisms, including C. elegans. However, limited information is available on turnover dynamics at the individual protein level during aging. We followed changes in protein turnover at one-day resolution using a multiple-pulse 15Nlabeling and accurate mass spectrometry approach. Forty percent of the proteome shows gradual slowdown in turnover with age, whereas only few proteins show increased turnover. Decrease in protein turnover was consistent for only a minority of functionally related protein subsets, including tubulins and vitellogenins, whereas randomly diverging turnover patterns with age were the norm. Our data suggests increased heterogeneity of protein turnover of the translation machinery, whereas protein turnover of ubiquitin-proteasome and antioxidant systems are well-preserved over time. Hence, we presume that maintenance of quality control mechanisms is a protective strategy in aging worms, although the ultimate proteome collapse is inescapable.

  9. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: Statistical behavior and its modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  10. 'Memory and molecular turnover,' 30 years after inception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    In 1984 Sir Francis Crick hypothesized that memory is recorded in the brain as reversible modifications to DNA and protein, but acknowledged that most biomolecules turn over too rapidly to account for long-term memories. To accommodate this possible paradox he modeled an enzymatic mechanism to maintain modifications on hemi-modified multimeric symmetrical molecules. While studies on the turnover of chromatin modifications that may be involved in memory are in their infancy, an exploration of his model in the light of modern epigenetics produced somewhat surprising results. The molecular turnover rates for two classes of chromatin modifications believed to record and store durable memories were approximated from experiments using diverse approaches and were found to be remarkably short. The half-lives of DNA cytosine methylation and post-translationally modified nucleosomal histones are measured in hours and minutes, respectively, for a subset of sites on chromatin controlling gene expression. It appears likely that the turnover of DNA methylation in the brain and in neurons, in particular, is even more rapid than in other cell types and organs, perhaps accommodating neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory. The machinery responsible for the rapid turnover of DNA methylation and nucleosomal histone modifications is highly complex, partially redundant, and appears to act in a sequence specific manner. Molecular symmetry plays an important part in maintaining site-specific turnover, but its particular role in memory maintenance is unknown. Elucidating Crick's paradox, the contradiction between rapid molecular turnover of modified biomolecules and long-term memory storage, appears fundamental to understanding cognitive function and neurodegenerative disease.

  11. Problematics of high employee turnover in hotel Thermal

    OpenAIRE

    Gistinger, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor´s thesis is focused on high employee turnover in a specific company. Thesis is divided into two parts. The first part consists of definitions, theoretical starting-points and methods connected with employee turnover. In the beginning of the second part the hotel is briefly introduced. In the main body of second part I have analysed the situation in the hotel based on internal documents, hotel´s official web page, official statistics and an interview with company´s manager. Using the ...

  12. Nonlicensed employee turnover in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, T; Bechtel, G A

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze nonlicensed employee turnover in a long-term care facility using Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a framework. During exit interviews, a convenience sample of 34 employees completed an attitudes and beliefs survey regarding their work environment. Findings were mixed; 39.6 percent of the employees stated positive personal relationships were a strength of the organization, although 24.3 percent resigned because of personal/staff conflicts. Financial concerns were not a major factor in their resignations. The study suggests that decreasing nonlicensed employee stress and increasing their personal satisfaction with patient care may decrease employee turnover.

  13. A Model of Aircraft Maintenance Officer Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force gas*, Ohio 5 09 JoaYnne _./FaiaLpan USAF Lauenc J.R. Littl Captain, USAF 6~ l -LSSR -20 -80 ’ Okra , The contents of...condensed into a concise set of factors. The particular program was extracted from the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The factor...step new variables were defined as exact mathematical trans- formations of the original data. This method of extracting initial factors is known as

  14. Firm-level innovation activity, employee turnover and HRM practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Qin, Zhihua; Wang, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between employee turnover, HRM practices and innovation in Chinese firms in five high technology sectors. We estimate hurdle negative binomial models for count data on survey data allowing for analyses of the extensive as well as intensive margins of firms...

  15. Work-life balance, job satisfaction and turnover intention amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talent retention is of particular concern in the information technology (IT) sector owing to globalisation, the skills shortage and rapidly advancing technology. Employee turnover has signifi cant costs and negative consequences for organisations. The objective of this study was to explore the association between employees' ...

  16. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  17. Oxidative Criteria And Somebone Turnover Markers In Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone disease in beta-thalassemic patients has multifactorial etiology; increased iron stores and per-oxidative stress are involved factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between some bone turnover markers and some oxidants, antioxidants parameters of betathalassemic patients. The study included 50 ...

  18. Organisational culture of hospitals to predict turnover intentions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine if organisational culture predicts turnover intentions of professional nurses. A predictive model with organisational culture and various proposed mediating variables, namely knowledge sharing, organisational commitment, organisational citisenship behaviour and job satisfaction, ...

  19. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores inventory....5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... ratio of 2.0, shall be established for each stores using activity. It is recognized, however, that...

  20. Effects of ractopamine and gender on protein turnover in skeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of the β-agonist, ractopamine-HCl (ractopamine), on skeletal muscle protein turnover were evaluated in 16 steers (512 kg) and 16 heifers (473 kg). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design and included gender (steer vs. heifer) and ractopamine (0 or 200 mg/d). Steers were implanted with 120 mg ...

  1. The Effects of Turnover: What We Know about Teacher Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Karen

    2012-01-01

    School business officials are likely to know better than anyone else about the financial costs to districts and schools associated with teacher attrition. Perhaps less well-known, though, is what else has been learned about this issue in recent years--information that may affect how one thinks about teacher turnover. Here is some of that research:…

  2. Bone turnover biomarkers in obese postmenopausal Saudi women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. Subjects and Methods: The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese ...

  3. Prediction of Military Turnover Using Intentions, Satisfaction, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deirdre J.; And Others

    Although researchers have examined the link between job attitudes and turnover, some studies claim that civilian samples may not be generalizable to military personnel. This paper addresses two central questions: (1) To what extent does job satisfaction, job performance, and reenlistment intentions predict reenlistment behavior?; (2) To what…

  4. Influence of Religiosity on Turnover Intention: Empirical Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the influence of employees' religiosity on their turnover intentions. The ex-post facto research design and the convenient sampling technique were employed in this study. A hundred and forty-nine (149) employees in Lagos and Ogun States of Nigeria were sampled as the study participants.

  5. Turnover of nursing employees in a Gauteng hospital group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japie Greyling

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The South African nursing profession is in a crisis as professional nurses leave the country in search of lucrative work overseas.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate individual determinants of voluntary turnover to identify a risk-group profile.Motivation for the study: Nursing employers should have a clearer understanding of the dynamics around nurses’ turnover behaviour and embark on strategies to retain their talent.Research design, approach and method: A survey measuring voluntary turnover was conducted among 262 professional and assistant nurses in three selected hospitals in Gauteng province using the McCarthy, Tyrrell and Cronin (2002 instrument. Pearson’s chi square with Yates’s continuity correction tested the relationship among the variables presented in a contingency table, in other words the risk group and each of the individual determinants.Main findings: Discontent with salaries was the major determinant of the nurses’ resignation. Organisational causes were nursing practices, the work environment, physical-emotional costs and employment opportunities after resignation.Practical/managerial implications: Hospital management could indeed establish a good rapport with nursing staff while facilitating respectful and ethical conduct by doctors towards nursing staff. Putting into place effective labour practices and business strategies could improve job satisfaction in the workplace.Contribution/value-add: This study contributed to a greater understanding of the personal and organisational determinants of the turnover of nurses in South African hospitals.

  6. Resilience, job satisfaction and anticipated turnover in nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Tracy Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to identify relationships between resilience, job satisfaction and anticipated turnover among nurse leaders. Despite the reported value of resilience, there is a lack of research on resilience in nurse leaders. This study examined how nurse leaders describe their resilience and the relationship it has with job satisfaction and anticipated turnover. This quantitative study used a sample of 89 nurse leaders (bedside, department, division and organisational) from a multi-hospital health-care system in southwestern Virginia. There are significant relationships between resilience, job satisfaction and anticipated turnover. Additionally, it was found that the variables of job satisfaction and anticipated turnover significantly overlapped in their meaning and created a new construct of intent to remain (ITR) that has a statistically significant relationship with resilience. A stable nursing team has a positive impact on improving patient outcomes. To mitigate the impact of a nursing shortage, nurse leaders can enhance their own resilience and then recruit, hire and retain resilient staff nurses in an effort to improve nurses' ITR. With higher resilience, nurse leaders are more likely to intend to remain in their leadership positions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Chinese Teachers' Work Stress and Their Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    This survey study employed qualitative dominant mixed research to explore the sources of teacher stress in China and the possible reasons for Chinese teachers' turnover intention. The data were collected in Jilin Province of China, and 510 teachers participated in the survey. Quantitatively, 40.4% of the surveyed teachers reported that they…

  8. Effects of ractopamine and gender on protein turnover in skeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Effects of the β-agonist, ractopamine-HCl (ractopamine), on skeletal muscle protein turnover were evaluated in ... The increase in shear force of m. longissimus from cattle fed β-agonists suggests that muscle protein degradation is ..... Cimaterol-induced muscle hypertrophy and altered endocrine status in lambs. J. Anim. Sci.

  9. Teacher Turnover: An Issue of Workgroup Racial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2009-01-01

    One neglected aspect of the teacher labor supply is a recent increase in the proportion of minority teachers. Using the Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-up Survey, one can estimate the relationship between workgroup racial diversity and the turnover of White teachers. This approach finds that young White teachers are more likely…

  10. Employees as Customers: Exploring Service Climate, Employee Patronage, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abston, Kristie A.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2011-01-01

    The role of retail employees as customers was explored by quantitatively examining the influence of service climate and employee patronage on employee turnover intentions. Employees representing all shifts in two stores of a national retailer participated. Results indicated that employee patronage partially mediates the effects of service climate…

  11. Biotic turnover rates during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivrins, Normunds; Soininen, Janne; Amon, Leeli; Fontana, Sonia L.; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heikkilä, Maija; Heiri, Oliver; Kisielienė, Dalia; Reitalu, Triin; Stančikaitė, Miglė; Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki

    2016-11-01

    The Northern Hemisphere is currently warming at the rate which is unprecedented during the Holocene. Quantitative palaeoclimatic records show that the most recent time in the geological history with comparable warming rates was during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) about 14,000 to 11,000 years ago. To better understand the biotic response to rapid temperature change, we explore the community turnover rates during the PHT by focusing on the Baltic region in the southeastern sector of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, where an exceptionally dense network on microfossil and macrofossil data that reflect the biotic community history are available. We further use a composite chironomid-based summer temperature reconstruction compiled specifically for our study region to calculate the rate of temperature change during the PHT. The fastest biotic turnover in the terrestrial and aquatic communities occurred during the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift at 11,700 years ago. This general shift in species composition was accompanied by regional extinctions, including disappearance of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and many arctic-alpine plant taxa, such as Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris and Saxifraga aizoides, from the region. This rapid biotic turnover rate occurred when the rate of warming was 0.17 °C/decade, thus slightly lower than the current Northern Hemisphere warming of 0.2 °C/decade. We therefore conclude that the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift with its rapid turnover rates and associated regional extinctions represents an important palaeoanalogue to the current high latitude warming and gives insights about the probable future turnover rates and patterns of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem change.

  12. A Social Network Perspective on Turnover Intentions : The Role of Distributive Justice and Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltis, Scott M.; Agneessens, Filip; Sasovova, Zuzana; Labianca, Giuseppe (Joe)

    Organizations are increasingly concerned about retaining human talent, particularly within knowledge-based industries where turnover is expensive. Our study employs a social network perspective to explore the influence of employees' formal and informal workplace relationships on their turnover

  13. Prostate Cancer Metastases to Bone: Role of High Bone Turnover Induced by Androgen Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padalecki, Susan

    2002-01-01

    .... Treatment with androgen deprivation therapy leads to an increase in bone turnover as indicated by the loss of bone mineral density and the increase in markers of bone turnover in patients on treatment...

  14. Survey the Process of Collection and Turnover of Receivables, Yearly Budget Laws in Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rahbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study:  The evaluation of financial performance is one of the main tasks of the manager that is very important. Any decision-making and rational planning in order to increase the productivity and survey the effect of adopted decision on the organization performance is in relation to the accurate assessment of financial performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of collection and turnover of receivables and rules of hospital budget in Qom University of medical sciences during the fourth and fifth development plans. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study. It was used from researcher-made forms for collecting data. The data after collection from financial filing unit entered to the excel software and then the period of receivables collection, circulation of receivables,average daily sales and average intake accounts were analyzed,using activity ratios formula. Results: Our findings show that during the fourth and fifth development programs, the turnover of receivables decreased from four times to three times in the year and it is less than the least standard that is five times in the year. The period of receivables collection increased from 72 days to 147 days and it is more than the maximum standard that is 67 days. This issue is the indication of bad situations of insurance companies of under-contract with hospitals in paying of their obligations during study period. Conclusion: The period of collection and turnover of receivables of selected hospitals takes distance from the standard amount that needs to intervention at the macro level of decision-making. This study showed that resorting to legal leverage over the fourth and fifth development plan have not any impact on the improvement of reimbursement process. Therefore, the practical action of politicians about reformation of insurance’s structure and review of the ways of financing can be effective.

  15. Hubungan Stres Kerja dengan Intensi Turnover Pada Karyawan Bank di Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    Human is important resources in industry or organizational sector. Human resources become one of the most important successors in an organization. Number of turnovers that are increasing from time to time show that turnover intention between workers has increased too. The sector with higher turnover is financial sectors. Turnover intention is caused by work related stress that happened to the bank workers. The aim of this research is to see whether there is correlation betwe...

  16. Is high employee turnover really harmful?: An empirical test using company records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, A.C.; Bax, E.H.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that employee turnover and firm performance have an inverted U-shaped relationship: overly high or low turnover is harmful. Our analysis was based on economic performance data from 110 offices of a temporary employment agency. These offices had high variation in turnover but

  17. When the Going Gets Tough: Direct, Buffering and Indirect Effects of Social Support on Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaki, Georgia; DeLongis, Anita; Frey, Daniela; Short, Kathy; Woehrle, Trish

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of social support in turnover intention among new teachers. First, we tested and found evidence for a direct negative relationship between social support and turnover intention. Second, we tested the social support buffer hypothesis, and found that teachers with higher social support had lower turnover intention in the face of…

  18. To leave or not to leave : When receiving interpersonal citizenship behavior influences an employee's turnover intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regts, Gerdien; Molleman, Eric

    Given that few studies have examined relational bases for voluntary employee turnover, the purpose of the article is to examine whether work relationships explain employee turnover intention. Adopting a social relational perspective on employee turnover, we investigated the effect of receiving

  19. Predicting TUrnover Intentions of Hotel Employees: The Influence of Employee Development Human Resource Management Practices and Trust in Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Abdullah Hemdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the variables that may be predictive of hotel employees’ turnover intentions. The influence of trust in organization as a mediator in the proposed relationship is also examined. A total of 380 operational employees from 5-star rated hotels completed the questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the relationships hypothesized in the model. Most of the hypotheses were supported. It is suggested that to enhance employees’ trust in organization and subsequently to reduce turnover intentions, hotels need to continue to provide training and development programs to their employees, conduct fair and formal appraisal system, and provide ample and clear career advancement to their employees. Limitations and suggestions for future studies are forwarded.

  20. Segregation and rapid turnover of EDEM1 by an autophagy-like mechanism modulates standard ERAD and folding activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Tito; Galli, Carmela; Olivari, Silvia; Molinari, Maurizio

    2008-07-04

    EDEM1 is a crucial regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) that extracts non-native glycopolypeptides from the calnexin chaperone system. Under normal growth conditions, the intralumenal level of EDEM1 must be low to prevent premature interruption of ongoing folding programs. We report that in unstressed cells, EDEM1 is segregated from the bulk ER into LC3-I-coated vesicles and is rapidly degraded. The rapid turnover of EDEM1 is regulated by a novel mechanism that shows similarities but is clearly distinct from macroautophagy. Cells with defective EDEM1 turnover contain unphysiologically high levels of EDEM1, show enhanced ERAD activity and are characterized by impaired capacity to efficiently complete maturation of model glycopolypeptides. We define as ERAD tuning the mechanisms operating in the mammalian ER at steady state to offer kinetic advantage to folding over disposal of unstructured nascent chains by selective and rapid degradation of ERAD regulators.

  1. Microbial carbon turnover in the plant-rhizosphere-soil continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ashish; Dannert, Helena; Griffiths, Robert; Thomson, Bruce; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Soil microbial biomass contributes significantly to maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM). It is well known that biochemical fractions of soil microorganisms have varying turnover and therefore contribute differentially to soil C storage. Here we compare the turnover rates of different microbial biochemical fractions using a pulse chase 13CO2 plant labelling experiment. The isotope signal was temporally traced into rhizosphere soil microorganisms using the following biomarkers: DNA, RNA, fatty acids and chloroform fumigation extraction derived microbial biomass size classes. C flow into soil microbial functional groups was assessed through phospholipid and neutral lipid fatty acid (PLFA/NLFA) analyses. Highest 13C enrichment was seen in the low molecular weight (LMW) size class of microbial biomass (Δδ13C =151) and in nucleic acids (DNA: 38o RNA: 66) immediately after the pulse followed by a sharp drop. The amount of 13C in the high molecular weight (HMW) microbial biomass (17-81) and total fatty acids (32-54) was lower initially and stayed relatively steady over the 4 weeks experimental period. We found significant differences in turnover rates of different microbial biochemical and size fractions. We infer that LMW cytosolic soluble compounds are rapidly metabolized and linked to respiratory C fluxes, whereas mid-sized products of microbial degradation and HMW polymeric compounds have lower renewal rate in that order. The turnover of cell wall fatty acids was also very slow. DNA and RNA showed faster turnover rate; and as expected RNA renewal was the fastest due to its rapid production by active microorganisms independent of cell replication. 13C incorporation into different functional groups confirmed that mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi rely on root C and are important in the initial plant C flux. We substantiated through measurements of isotope incorporation into bacterial RNA that rhizosphere bacteria are also important in the initial C conduit

  2. Fleeing the Ivory Tower: Gender Differences in the Turnover Experiences of Women Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Larry R; O'Brien, Katharine R; Hebl, Michelle R

    2017-05-01

    Prior research has established that women and men faculty have different experiences in their professional and personal lives and that academic turnover can be costly and disruptive to home institutions. However, relatively little research has examined gender differences in the antecedent events that contributed to faculty members' voluntary turnover decisions. This study aims to fill this gap. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained in two ways: by directly contacting faculty members who had voluntarily left their positions through the human resource departments at six institutions and through more wide-scale snowball sampling. The surveys, administered via paper or web based, measured the extent to which participants' experiences with harassment/discrimination, family-related issues, and recruitment/retention offers impacted their decisions to leave. Qualitative data were coded by raters into numerical values, and mean differences based on gender were assessed for these and the quantitative data. Both the qualitative and quantitative data suggest that female academicians reported experiencing significantly more gender-based harassment/discrimination, were much more likely to cite family-related reasons for leaving, and reported receiving significantly fewer external job offers and internal retention offers than their male counterparts. Academic science departments should be keenly aware of and strive to reduce instances of harassment/discrimination against female academicians, offer more support for family-related issues and encourage faculty to take advantage of these programs, and conduct search and retention efforts fairly regardless of faculty gender.

  3. Nursing assistant turnover in nursing homes and need satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, M; Patrick, M

    1989-06-01

    1. Level of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is basic physiological needs measured by salary, adequate housing, and food. Attainment of these needs increased the length of stay of nursing assistants in nursing homes. 2. Safety and security (level 2) influenced length of stay of nursing assistants. Those with benefits of retirement, vacation, and holiday pay tended to have less turnover. 3. Praise by the patient and family was most important to nursing assistants. Belonging to a peer group and praise by charge nurse also decreased turnover of nursing assistants (level 3). 4. Level 4, self-esteem measured by input into decisions and being able to criticize, increased length of stay of nursing assistants.

  4. Keratin dynamics: modeling the interplay between turnover and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portet, Stéphanie; Madzvamuse, Anotida; Chung, Andy; Leube, Rudolf E; Windoffer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Keratin are among the most abundant proteins in epithelial cells. Functions of the keratin network in cells are shaped by their dynamical organization. Using a collection of experimentally-driven mathematical models, different hypotheses for the turnover and transport of the keratin material in epithelial cells are tested. The interplay between turnover and transport and their effects on the keratin organization in cells are hence investigated by combining mathematical modeling and experimental data. Amongst the collection of mathematical models considered, a best model strongly supported by experimental data is identified. Fundamental to this approach is the fact that optimal parameter values associated with the best fit for each model are established. The best candidate among the best fits is characterized by the disassembly of the assembled keratin material in the perinuclear region and an active transport of the assembled keratin. Our study shows that an active transport of the assembled keratin is required to explain the experimentally observed keratin organization.

  5. Bone turnover markers: Emerging tool in the management of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes constant remodeling throughout the life span. Bone turnover is balanced with coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates leading to continuous remodeling of bone. A study of bone turnover markers (BTMs provides an insight of the dynamics of bone turnover in many metabolic bone disorders. An increase in bone turnover seen with aging and pathological states such as osteoporosis leads to deterioration of bone microarchitecture and thus contributes to an increase in the risk of fracture independent of low bone mineral density (BMD. These microarchitectural alterations affecting the bone quality can be assessed by BTMs and thus may serve as a complementary tool to BMD in the assessment of fracture risk. A systematic search of literature regarding BTMs was carried out using the PubMed database for the purpose of this review. Various reliable, rapid, and cost-effective automated assays of BTMs with good sensitivity are available for the management of osteoporosis. However, BTMs are subjected to various preanalytical and analytical variations necessitating strict sample collection and assays methods along with utilizing ethnicity-based reference standards for different populations. Estimation of fracture risk and monitoring the adherence and response to therapy, which is a challenge in a chronic, asymptomatic disease such as osteoporosis, are the most important applications of measuring BTMs. This review describes the physiology of bone remodeling, various conventional and novel BTMs, and BTM assays and their role in the assessment of fracture risk and monitoring response to treatment with antiresorptive or anabolic agents.

  6. Matrix metalloproteinases in fish biology and matrix turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Vuong, Tram T; Rønning, Sissel B; Kolset, Svein O

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases have important functions for tissue turnover in fish, with relevance both for the fish industry and molecular and cellular research on embryology, inflammation and tissue repair. These metalloproteinases have been studied in different fish types, subjected to both aquaculture and experimental conditions. This review highlights studies on these metalloproteinases in relation to both fish quality and health and further, the future importance of fish for basic research studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effects of carbon turnover time on terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaner; Zhou, Xuhui; Jiang, Lifeng; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-12-01

    Carbon (C) turnover time is a key factor in determining C storage capacity in various plant and soil pools as well as terrestrial C sink in a changing climate. However, the effects of C turnover time on ecosystem C storage have not been well explored. In this study, we compared mean C turnover times (MTTs) of ecosystem and soil, examined their variability to climate, and then quantified the spatial variation in ecosystem C storage over time from changes in C turnover time and/or net primary production (NPP). Our results showed that mean ecosystem MTT based on gross primary production (GPP; MTTEC_GPP = Cpool/GPP, 25.0 ± 2.7 years) was shorter than soil MTT (MTTsoil = Csoil/NPP, 35.5 ± 1.2 years) and NPP-based ecosystem MTT (MTTEC_NPP = Cpool/NPP, 50.8 ± 3 years; Cpool and Csoil referred to ecosystem or soil C storage, respectively). On the biome scale, temperature is the best predictor for MTTEC (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.001) and MTTsoil (R2 = 0.68, p < 0.001), while the inclusion of precipitation in the model did not improve the performance of MTTEC (R2 = 0.76, p < 0.001). Ecosystem MTT decreased by approximately 4 years from 1901 to 2011 when only temperature was considered, resulting in a large C release from terrestrial ecosystems. The resultant terrestrial C release caused by the decrease in MTT only accounted for about 13.5 % of that due to the change in NPP uptake (159.3 ± 1.45 vs. 1215.4 ± 11.0 Pg C). However, the larger uncertainties in the spatial variation of MTT than temporal changes could lead to a greater impact on ecosystem C storage, which deserves further study in the future.

  8. Kinetics of corneal epithelium turnover in vivo. Studies of lovastatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Fleschner, C.R. (Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, MO (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The authors developed a direct chemical approach for estimating the rate of turnover of the corneal epithelium in vivo. The method was used to examine the effects of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, on proliferation and turnover of the epithelium. Corneal DNA was labeled by pulse injection (IP) of the rat with 3H-thymidine, and 3H-labeled DNA was recovered from peripheral and central corneas over the next 15 days. Only the epithelium became labeled, and the loss of label by cell desquamation began 3 days after injection. The loss of 3H-DNA from the cornea (peripheral plus central region) followed first-order kinetics. The half-life of the disappearance was about 3 days. The peripheral cornea became more highly labeled than the central cornea and began to lose 3H-DNA before the central cornea. These observations support the possibility of a higher mitotic rate in the peripheral region and the centripetal movement of a population of peripheral epithelial cells in the normal cornea. The half-lives of the disappearance of 3H-DNA from peripheral and central corneas measured between days 5 and 15 postinjection were identical, both at 3 days. Complete turnover of the corneal epithelium would, therefore, require about 2 weeks (4-5 half-lives). Treatment of the rat with lovastatin had no obvious effects upon the proliferation or turnover of the corneal epithelium. Although lovastatin inhibited corneal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the key regulatory enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, the cornea compensated by induction of this enzyme so that there was no net inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the cornea.

  9. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, O L; Baker, T R; Arroyo, L; Higuchi, N; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Malhi, Y; Monteagudo, A; Neill, D A; Vargas, P Núñez; Silva, J N M; Terborgh, J; Martínez, R Vásquez; Alexiades, M; Almeida, S; Brown, S; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Czimczik, C I; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T; Kuebler, C; Laurance, S G; Nascimento, H E M; Olivier, J; Palacios, W; Patiño, S; Pitman, N C A; Quesada, C A; Saldias, M; Lezama, A Torres; Vinceti, B

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has shown that tree turnover, tree biomass and large liana densities have increased in mature tropical forest plots in the late twentieth century. These results point to a concerted shift in forest ecological processes that may already be having significant impacts on terrestrial carbon stocks, fluxes and biodiversity. However, the findings have proved controversial, partly because a rather limited number of permanent plots have been monitored for rather short periods. The aim of this paper is to characterize regional-scale patterns of 'tree turnover' (the rate with which trees die and recruit into a population) by using improved datasets now available for Amazonia that span the past 25 years. Specifically, we assess whether concerted changes in turnover are occurring, and if so whether they are general throughout the Amazon or restricted to one region or environmental zone. In addition, we ask whether they are driven by changes in recruitment, mortality or both. We find that: (i) trees 10 cm or more in diameter recruit and die twice as fast on the richer soils of southern and western Amazonia than on the poorer soils of eastern and central Amazonia; (ii) turnover rates have increased throughout Amazonia over the past two decades; (iii) mortality and recruitment rates have both increased significantly in every region and environmental zone, with the exception of mortality in eastern Amazonia; (iv) recruitment rates have consistently exceeded mortality rates; (v) absolute increases in recruitment and mortality rates are greatest in western Amazonian sites; and (vi) mortality appears to be lagging recruitment at regional scales. These spatial patterns and temporal trends are not caused by obvious artefacts in the data or the analyses. The trends cannot be directly driven by a mortality driver (such as increased drought or fragmentation-related death) because the biomass in these forests has simultaneously increased. Our findings therefore indicate that

  10. Stoichiometry and Turnover of the Stator and Rotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yusuke V; Minamino, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging techniques using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and related fluorescent proteins are utilized to monitor and analyze a wide range of biological processes in living cells. Stepwise photobleaching experiments can determine the stoichiometry of protein complexes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments can reveal in vivo dynamics of biomolecules. In this chapter, we describe methods to detect the subcellular localization, stoichiometry, and turnovers of stator and rotor components of the Salmonella flagellar motor.

  11. Mechanisms in intracellular turnover of stable and labile enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, F. T.; Pomato, N.; Lee, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    We have focused on two proteins of rat liver, one representative of the stable class and probably of reaction mechanisms operative in degradation of all proteins, the other unusually labile and possibly subject to uncommon as well as common mechanisms in turnover. The proteins chosen, tyrosine aminotransferase (E.C. 2.6.1.5) and alanine aminotransferase (E.C. 2.6.1.2) are similar in many respects. They catalyze similar reactions and share a substrate pair (glutamic acid and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate). Both are located in the soluble fraction of liver cytoplasm. Molecular weights are comparable (tyrosine aminotransferase, 100,000; alanine aminotransferase, 115,000) and both enzymes are structurally dimers of apparently identical subunits each of which binds one molecule of the common coenzyme, pyridoxal phosphate. Metabolically both are inducible by glucocorticoid hormones. But there the resemblance ends, for on the other, degradative side of the metabolic coin the two enzymes are sharply divergent. Tyrosine aminotransferase is among the most labile of liver enzymes, undergoing turnover with a half-life of 1.5 h, while turnover of alanine aminotransferase (half-life about 3 days) is virtually identical to that of the bulk of soluble liver proteins. Recent experimentation designed to determine the mechanistic basis for this difference in metabolism of otherwise quite similar enzymes is reviewed.

  12. Bone turnover markers in epileptic patients under chronic valproate therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of chronic valproic acid administration on bone health have been a matter of concern and controversy. In this study, the bone status following valproate intake was assessed by using several bone-related biochemical markers. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 62 epileptic patients and 40 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled. The patients had been under chronic valproate therapy (758 ± 29 mg/day for at least the past 6 months, without any vitamin D/or calcium supplementation. Serum markers of bone turnover (carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase [BALP], calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were measured in both groups. Results: The markers of bone turnover as well as other measured bone biochemical parameters did not statistically differ between the two groups. Conclusion: Valproate therapy at the mentioned doses does not seem to change bone turnover in adult epileptic patients.

  13. New Insights into the Protein Turnover Regulation in Ethylene Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gyeong Mee

    2015-07-01

    Biosynthesis of the phytohormone ethylene is under tight regulation to satisfy the need for appropriate levels of ethylene in plants in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ethylene biosynthesis, plays a central role to regulate ethylene production through changes in ACS gene expression levels and the activity of the enzyme. Together with molecular genetic studies suggesting the roles of post-translational modification of the ACS, newly emerging evidence strongly suggests that the regulation of ACS protein stability is an alternative mechanism that controls ethylene production, in addition to the transcriptional regulation of ACS genes. In this review, recent new insight into the regulation of ACS protein turnover is highlighted, with a special focus on the roles of phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and novel components that regulate the turnover of ACS proteins. The prospect of cross-talk between ethylene biosynthesis and other signaling pathways to control turnover of the ACS protein is also considered.

  14. Examining the temporal relationship between psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D

    2013-02-01

    Relative to the broader industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology field, research on the turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff is in its infancy. Despite its long and rich history, recent reviews of the turnover literature within I-O psychology have noted that there remains considerable room for improvement. In particular, recommendations have been made for research that considers time in the turnover process and explores more distal causes of staff turnover. Addressing these gaps, this article examined the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover. Using data from 95 SUD treatment staff clustered within 29 treatment organizations, multilevel discrete-time survival analyses revealed that a latent measure of work attitude (e.g., job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, turnover intentions) fully mediated the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate (e.g., supervisor support, coworker support, role conflict) and subsequent staff turnover. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relation of Compassionate Competence to Burnout, Job Stress, Turnover Intention, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment for Oncology Nurses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-A; Ahn, Seung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Nursing focuses on the development of an empathic relationship between the nurse and the patients. Compassionate competence, in particular, is a very important trait for oncology nurses. The current study sought to determine the degree of compassionate competence in oncology nurses, as well as to determine the relationships between compassionate competence, burnout, job stress, turnover intention, degrees of job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in oncology nurses. A descriptive correlational study evaluating the relationships between compassionate competence, burnout, job stress, turnover intention, degrees of job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in 419 oncology nurses was conducted between January 30 and February 20, 2015. The average score of compassionate competence for oncology nurses in the current study was higher than for clinical nurses. The correlational analysis between compassionate competence and organizational commitment, burnout, job stress, turnover intention, and degree of job satisfaction revealed a high correlation between compassionate competence and positive job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Compassionate competence was higher in oncology nurses than in nurses investigated in previous studies and positively correlated with work experience. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment in nurses may be improved through compassionate competence enhancement programs that employ a variety of experiences.

  16. Soil microbial carbon turnover decreases with increasing molecular size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ashish; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    It is well established that soil microorganisms play an important role in respiration of newly fixed plant carbon. Recent results show that they also contribute significantly to soil organic matter (SOM) formation. We hypothesized that different molecular size classes of compounds in soil microbial biomass (SMB) have variable turnover time and in consequence influence SOM formation differentially. Here we used natural differences in carbon stable isotope signatures (δ13C values) after C3-C4 vegetation change to track newly fixed C4 plant carbon into SMB molecular size classes. SMB was obtained by chloroform fumigation extraction and δ13C values of its size classes were measured using size exclusion chromatography coupled online to liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (SEC-LC-IRMS). Resolved SMB was assigned to 5 size classes: 1800-9800 Da, 800-1800 Da, 380-800 Da, 180-380 Da and 50-180 Da. The contribution of recent C4 plant carbon to size classes of SMB decreased with increasing molecular weight (MW). It ranged from 77±19% in the lowest MW size class size class to 41±14% in the 1800-9800 Da size class in 'Sandy' soil and from 59±18% in the lowest MW size class to 8±15% in the highest MW size class in 'Clayey' soil. A decreasing carbon turnover of compounds in SMB extracts along a continuum of molecular size from small to large implies that low molecular weight microbial compounds are rapidly metabolized products that link to fast respiratory carbon fluxes, whereas high molecular weight ones could be products of microbial synthesis like structural compounds that have slower turnover rates and link to slower SOM formation.

  17. Growth rate correlates negatively with protein turnover in Arabidopsis accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hirofumi; Moraes, Thiago Alexandre; Pyl, Eva-Theresa; Schulze, Waltraud X; Obata, Toshihiro; Scheffel, André; Fernie, Alisdair R; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies with Arabidopsis accessions revealed that biomass correlates negatively to dusk starch content and total protein, and positively to the maximum activities of enzymes in photosynthesis. We hypothesized that large accessions have lower ribosome abundance and lower rates of protein synthesis, and that this is compensated by lower rates of protein degradation. This would increase growth efficiency and allow more investment in photosynthetic machinery. We analysed ribosome abundance and polysome loading in 19 accessions, modelled the rates of protein synthesis and compared them with the observed rate of growth. Large accessions contained less ribosomes than small accessions, due mainly to cytosolic ribosome abundance falling at night in large accessions. The modelled rates of protein synthesis resembled those required for growth in large accessions, but were up to 30% in excess in small accessions. We then employed 13 CO2 pulse-chase labelling to measure the rates of protein synthesis and degradation in 13 accessions. Small accessions had a slightly higher rate of protein synthesis and much higher rates of protein degradation than large accessions. Protein turnover was negligible in large accessions but equivalent to up to 30% of synthesised protein day-1 in small accessions. We discuss to what extent the decrease in growth in small accessions can be quantitatively explained by known costs of protein turnover and what factors may lead to the altered diurnal dynamics and increase of ribosome abundance in small accessions, and propose that there is a trade-off between protein turnover and maximisation of growth rate. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  19. Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Women with Bone Loss - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Paker

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by decrease in bone strength due to decreased bone mass and disruption of bone microstructure and eventually increase in fracture risk. Increased bone turnover in postmenopausal period results in bone loss and osteoporosis. Aim of our study was to investigate the rate of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were included in this study. Dual energy X ray absorbtiometry( Dexa was used for the measurement of BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Serum osteocalcin and type 1 collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (Ctx levels were measured in blood. 32 postmenopausal women with bone loss were included in our study. The mean age was 61,5 ± 9,6 years, mean menopause duration 14,7± 9,5 years. The mean value of L2- L4 BMD was 0,910 ±0,143 gr/cm2 , femur neck BMD 0,734± 0,134 gr/cm2. Mean blood osteocalcin level was 23,34± 10,9 ng/ml(normal range <20, Ctx level was 0,70± 0,27 (normal range <0.75 ng/ml. There was statistically significant negative relationship between the menopause duration and serum Ctx levels (R =0,382, p<0,05. Mean serum Ctx level was 0,83 ±0,11 ng/ml in the patients whose menopause duration was less than 5 years and was 0,7 ±0,3 ng/ml in the patients whose menopause duration was more than 5 years. There was no relationship between serum osteocalcin and Ctx levels with age, body mass index(BMI, menopause duration, L2- L4 and femur neck BMD values. There was statistically significant relation between BMI(body mass index and L2 - L4 and femur neck BMD values( p < 0.05. There was no relationship between regular walking activity with BMD, serum osteocalcin and Ctx levels. In this study increased bone turnover rate in early postmenopausal period has been shown. It was known that bone loss increases due to the estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal period. Therefore, bone turnover markers of postmenopausal women should be measured in addition to bone mineral density who had bone

  20. Influence of orlistat on bone turnover and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the pancreas lipase inhibitor orlistat (OLS) on calcium metabolism, bone turnover, bone mass, bone density and body composition when given for obesity as adjuvant to an energy- and fat-restricted diet. DESIGN: Randomized controlled double-blinded trial...... of treatment with OLS 120 mg three times daily or placebo for 1 y. SUBJECTS: Thirty obese subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.9+/-3.7 kg/m(2) and a mean age of 41+/-11 y. Sixteen patients were assigned to OLS and 14 to placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements...

  1. High triacylglycerol turnover rate in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, Massimo; Saltin, Bengt; Olsen, David B

    2004-01-01

    could be due to the observed decline in plasma insulin concentration (-74%, P skeletal muscle in post-absorptive healthy individuals is esterified into IMTAG, due to its high turnover rate (29 h pool(-1)). An increase in FA level...... into IMTAG in vastus lateralis muscle was determined during two consecutive 4-h periods (2-6 h and 6-10 h). Fifty to sixty per cent of the FA taken up from the circulation were esterified into IMTAG, whereas 32 and 42% were oxidized between 2-6 and 6-10 h, respectively. IMTAG fractional synthesis rate was 3...

  2. Clinical usefulness of bone turnover marker concentrations in osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, H A; Eastell, R; Rye Jørgensen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Current evidence continues to support the potential for bone turnover markers (BTM) to provide clinically useful information particularly for monitoring the efficacy of osteoporosis treatment. Many of the limitations identified earlier remain, principally in regard to the relationship between BTM...... of combining such data for meta-analyses. Harmonization of units for reporting serum/plasma CTX (ng/L) and PINP (μg/L) is recommended. The development of international collaborations continues with an important initiative to combine BTM results from clinical trials in osteoporosis in a meta...

  3. Unsteady Flows Control Hydrologic Turnover Rates in Antarctic Hyporheic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; McKnight, D. M.; Lyons, W. B.; Saelens, E.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrologic turnover of the hyporheic zone (HZ) is the process of HZ flowpaths receiving water and solutes from the stream channel while simultaneously contributing water and solutes from the HZ back to the stream channel. The influence of hydrologic turnover on HZ solute storage depends on the relative magnitude of hyporheic exchange rates (i.e. physical transport) and biogeochemical reaction rates. Because both exchange rates and reaction rates are unsteady in natural systems, the availability of solutes in the HZ is controlled by the legacy of hydraulic and biological conditions. In this study, we quantify the influence of unsteady flows on hydrologic turnover of the HZ. We study a glacial melt stream in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (MDVs). The MDVs provide an ideal setting for investigating hydrologic and chemical storage characteristics of HZs, because nearly all streamflow is generated from glacier melt and the HZ is vertically bounded by continuous permafrost. A dense network of shallow groundwater wells and piezometers was installed along a 60-meter reach of Von Guerard Stream. 12 days of continuous water level data in each well was used to compute the magnitude and direction of 2D hydraulic gradients between the stream channel and lateral hyporheic aquifer. Piezometers were sampled daily for stable isotope abundances. The direction and magnitude of the cross-valley (CV), perpendicular to the thalweg, component of hydraulic gradients is sensitive to daily flood events and exhibits significant spatial heterogeneity. CV gradients are consistently oriented from the hyporheic aquifer towards the stream channel on 2 sections of the study reach, whereas CV gradients are consistently oriented from the stream channel towards the hyporheic aquifer on 1 section. Three sections show diel changes in orientation of CV gradients, coincident with the passage of daily flood events. During a 4-day period of low flows, the HZ is isotopically distinct from the stream

  4. Bilateral Anterior Rectus Sheath Turnover Flap for Abdominal Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The management of abdominal wall hernias with tissue loss is a difficult subject.Several surgical techniques have been used in the treatment. Sometimes closure of the abdomen with primary sutures may be impossible. Dual meshes, component separation technique, usculofascial flaps can be used for closure of the abdomen.In this case report a patient with complex abdominal wall hernia was presented.The abdomen was successfully closed with anterior rectus sheath turnover flap.We discussed this surgical technique with literature review.

  5. Species turnover and geographic distance in an urban river network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouquette, James R.; Dallimer, Martin; Armsworth, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    of the habitat or topographic features of the landscape and the means of dispersal of the organism. River networks, in particular in human-modified landscapes, are a striking example of such a situation. Here, we use data for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms across an urban river network to examine...... patterns of species turnover and to determine whether these patterns differ between different taxonomic groups. LocationSheffield area, UK. MethodsAquatic (macroinvertebrates, diatoms) and terrestrial (birds, plants, butterflies) organisms were surveyed at 41 sites across an urban river network. We...

  6. Employee Turnover and Organizational Performance: a Study of the Brazilian Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between employee turnover and performance in retailing. To achieve this aim, we used data from a single company with several comparable branches and tested whether stores with lower employee turnover have better financial and organizational results (sales and workplace accidents, respectively. This study also analyzes whether Human resources practices, such as rewards, recognition and training, affect employee turnover. The empirical results indicate a strong relationship between employee turnover and sales, supporting results from previous studies. However, the additional relationships were not confirmed. The results do not rule out some hypotheses about the relationship between employee turnover and labor accidents, and further suggest that human resources management practices may increase employee turnover, depending on their motivation and strategic alignment.

  7. Transformational leadership moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among community mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Miller, Elizabeth A; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively related to turnover intention, and transformational leadership was negatively related to both emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, indicating that having a transformational leader may buffer the effects of providers' emotional exhaustion on turnover intention. Investing in transformational leadership development for supervisors could reduce emotional exhaustion and turnover among public sector mental health providers.

  8. Transformational Leadership Moderates the Relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention among Community Mental Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively related to turnover intention, and transformational leadership was negatively related to both emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, indicating that having a transformational leader may buffer the effects of providers’ emotional exhaustion on turnover intention. Investing in transformational leadership development for supervisors could reduce emotional exhaustion and turnover among public sector mental health providers. PMID:22052429

  9. Hospital Mergers in Norway: Employee Health and Turnover to Three Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Holm Ingelsrud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the probability of turnover to three destinations following hospital merg- ers: within the hospital sector, out of the hospital sector, and out of work. It is hypothesized that mergers increase turnover to nonemployment among employees with poor health and increase turnover to employment outside of the hospital sector among healthy employees. Discrete-time survival analyses show that mergers increase turnover within the hospital sector for all employ- ees, regardless of health. Turnover to other sectors and out of work does not increase. Possible explanations for the limited turnover out of the sector associated with mergers are aspects of the Norwegian labor market such as the institution of employee participation, low unemployment, and labor shortages within hospitals.

  10. Organizational turnover as endogenous precursor of industry dynamics and organizational dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Cattani, Gino; Johannes M. Pennings; Wezel, Filippo Carlo

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of organizational turnover on firm survival within the Dutch accounting service industry during the period 1880-1986. We address three issues: (1) estimating the effect of organizational turnover on organizational dissolution; (2) showing the significance of propinquity in isolating that effect; (3) exposing population dynamics through different levels of analysis. The results of our analysis confirm that turnover is an important endogenous force shaping the evol...

  11. Employee Turnover and Organizational Performance: a Study of the Brazilian Retail Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira; Ciro Barbosa de Aquino Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between employee turnover and performance in retailing. To achieve this aim, we used data from a single company with several comparable branches and tested whether stores with lower employee turnover have better financial and organizational results (sales and workplace accidents, respectively). This study also analyzes whether Human resources practices, such as rewards, recognition and training, affect employee turnover. The empirical results indic...

  12. Organizational Demography and Turnover: An Examination of Multiform and Non-Linear Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander,Jeffrey; Nuchols, Beverly; Bloom, Joan; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    1993-01-01

    This paper advances the study of organizational demography and its relationship to organizational turnover by examining two of Blau's concepts of social structure: non-linear and multiform heterogeneity. In a sample of 383 community hospitals, nursing turnover was examined in relation to four dimensions of demographic heterogeneity among nursing staff in those hospitals. The form of the relationships between turnover and heterogeneity was specified to test whether heterogeneity relates to hig...

  13. Factors Involved in Extracellular Matrix Turnover in Human Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregori Casals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The molecular mechanisms by which myocardial ischemia translates into ventricular remodeling remain unclear. Methods: We investigated whether hypoxia and proinflammatory cytokines are specific inducers of remodeling signals in an in vitro model of cultured adult human ventricular myocytes (AC16 cells. Results:Hypoxia modified the ratio of matrix remodeling factors by increasing the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP and reducing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase type 1 (TIMP-1 secretion in AC16 cells. These effects, however, were not associated with either modifications in expression of matrix metalloproteinase type 2, collagen-I or metalloproteinase activity. Hypoxia does, actually increase the production of the cardiac antifibrogenic growth factors, Apelin and VEGF, through an Hypoxia Inducible Factor type 1-dependent mechanism. Concerning proinflammatory signaling pathways, IL1β emerged as a powerful inducer of matrix turnover, since it significantly enhanced PIIINP, TIMP-1 and hyaluronic acid production and increased metalloproteinase activity. In contrast, TNFα did not modify matrix turnover but markedly induced the production of Apelin and VEGF. Conclusion: Hypoxia and increased TNFα activity likely exert cardioprotective actions by activating the cardiac antifibrogenic factors Apelin and VEGF. In contrast, IL1β is a strong promoter of interstitial collagen remodeling that may contribute to ventricular dilation and heart failure in the ischemic myocardium.

  14. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Musashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.

  15. Blood Lead, Bone Turnover, and Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Peters, Tracy L; Beard, John D; Umbach, David M; Keller, Jean; Mariosa, Daniela; Allen, Kelli D; Ye, Weimin; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2017-11-01

    Blood lead and bone turnover may be associated with the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to assess whether these factors were also associated with time from ALS diagnosis to death through a survival analysis of 145 ALS patients enrolled during 2007 in the National Registry of Veterans with ALS. Associations of survival time with blood lead and plasma biomarkers of bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX)) and bone formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age at diagnosis, diagnostic certainty, diagnostic delay, site of onset, and score on the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale. Hazard ratios were calculated for each doubling of biomarker concentration. Blood lead, plasma CTX, and plasma PINP were mutually adjusted for one another. Increased lead (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.84) and CTX (HR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.89) were both associated with shorter survival, whereas higher PINP was associated with longer survival (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.83), after ALS diagnosis. No interactions were observed between lead or bone turnover and other prognostic indicators. Lead toxicity and bone metabolism may be involved in ALS pathophysiology. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. How to reduce turnover by creating a positive work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushell, R E

    1979-08-01

    Despite company attempts to reduce employee turnover by offering attractive salaries and benefits, Kushell notes that attrition continues at an alarming rate. He states that more than one of every three employees will change jobs over the next five years, a transition that will take its toll on company morale and productivity. The underlying factor, according to the author, is the quality of the working environment. A 1969 University of Michigan survey of 1,533 workers, at every occupation level, reported that all respondents ranked interesting work and authority to get the job done far ahead of good pay and job security. Sources of employee frustration include a stifling bureaucracy, excessive job expectations, and unsuitable jobs. The author suggests that top managers ask themselves whether they are missing out on or losing talented employees. If this is the case, there are several guidelines management should follow: improve communication between employees and top management; define expectations of the employee; and promote candor in the job interview. Kushell concludes that top executives can have an impact on turnover by paying attention to what employees really want rather than what management thinks they want.

  17. The Natural Resource Management Implications of Rural Property Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Mendham

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of recent rural change is in-migration, which is challenging the traditional dominance of production values in some areas. We explored the natural resource management implications of property turnover in two Australian regions. Our mixed-methods approach combined analysis of property sales records and spatially referenced landholder survey data with data from key informant interviews. Close to 50% of rural properties are expected to change hands between 2006 and 2016, double the change in the previous decade. This change is linked to the transformation of these rural areas, including the influx of non-farming rural landholders seeking amenity values. Our research suggests that property turnover of this scale has important implications for natural resource management. Newer and longer term owners were very different in terms of their values, attitudes, knowledge, land use, and management practices. A substantial proportion of these new property owners are absentees, which further complicates natural resource management, and our view is that a "business as usual" approach to the engagement of the new cohort of rural land managers is unlikely to be effective.

  18. Nurse Knowledge, Work Environment, and Turnover in Highly Specialized Pediatric End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Cozad, Melanie J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the relationship between nurse knowledge, work environment, and registered nurse (RN) turnover in perinatal hospice and palliative care organizations. Using nurse intellectual capital theory, a multivariate analysis was conducted with 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey data. Perinatal hospice and palliative care organizations experienced a 5% turnover rate. The professional experience of advanced practice nurses (APNs) was significantly related to turnover among RNs (β = -.032, P < .05). Compared to organizations with no APNs professional experience, clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners significantly reduced RN turnover by 3 percentage points. No other nurse knowledge or work environment variables were associated with RN turnover. Several of the control variables were also associated with RN turnover in the study; Organizations serving micropolitan (β = -.041, P < .05) and rural areas (β = -.037, P < .05) had lower RN turnover compared to urban areas. Organizations with a technology climate where nurses used electronic medical records had a higher turnover rate than those without (β = .036, P < .05). The findings revealed that advanced professional experience in the form of APNs was associated with reductions in RN turnover. This suggests that having a clinical nurse specialist or nurse practitioner on staff may provide knowledge and experience to other RNs, creating stability within the organization.

  19. HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES AS DETERMINANTS OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aminu Bawa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume of literature on the causes of employee turnover continues to grow. In spite of this, attempts to distinguish between the causes of voluntary and involuntary turnover in organizations, though recognized for quite some time, receive little attention from researchers. The two phenomena seem to be influenced by a different set of factors. There are clear-cut theoretical and empirical reasons for this assertion. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between human resource (HR practices and employee turnover in Malaysia where companies are generally experiencing labour shortage and labour turnover. Using data collected from a census of managers, the study utilized Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and simple regression and tested hypotheses developed to investigate the relationship between HR practices and employee voluntary and involuntary turnover. The results show that (1 staffing process and employee monitoring were effective in reducing involuntary turnover, and (2 none of the HR practices were effective in reducing voluntary turnover. In other words, workers continue to leave or quit irrespective of the type of HR practices implemented. The paper concludes that economic factors such as availability of alternative jobs are most likely relevant in explaining the turnover process. Based on these findings, various strategies were suggested which have wider managerial and policy implications for the management of turnover in similar settings.

  20. Measuring worker turnover in long-term care: lessons from the better jobs better care demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Theresa Teta; Kemper, Peter; Brannon, S Diane

    2008-06-01

    Turnover among direct-care workers (DCWs) continues to be a challenge in long-term care. Both policy makers and provider organizations recognize this issue as a major concern and are designing efforts to reduce turnover among these workers. However, there is currently no standardized method of measuring turnover to define the scope of the problem or to assess the effectiveness of interventions. This article draws on our experience of the Better Jobs Better Care Demonstration (BJBC) to explicate some important issues in measuring and interpreting turnover related to interventions designed to improve DCW jobs. We used turnover data from a selected group of BJBC providers (N = 9) to demonstrate some of the measurement issues we uncovered in developing a turnover tracking system for BJBC. We also illustrate how the data elements collected in the tracking system make it possible to construct measures that are useful at both policy and practice levels. Differences in definitions of turnover and the data elements used to construct the measure can have large effects on turn over rates, how they are used, and what they mean. Policy makers, researchers, and managers who need comparative turnover information to address the impending demand for DCWs should be aware that turnover measures differ, and they should take steps to ensure that measures they use have common definitions and data elements.

  1. On-call work and physicians' turnover intention: the moderating effect of job strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Presseau, Justin; Elovainio, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Physician shortage and turnover are major problems worldwide. On-call duties may be among the risk factors of high turnover rates among physicians. We investigated whether having on-call duties is associated with physicians' turnover intention and whether job strain variables moderate this association. The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 3324 (61.6% women) Finnish physicians. The analyses were conducted using analyses of covariance adjusted for age, gender, response format, specialization status and employment sector. The results showed that job strain moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention. The highest levels of turnover intention were among those who had on-call duties and high level of job strain characterized by high demands and low control opportunities. The lowest levels of turnover intention were among those who were not on-call and who had low strain involving low demands and high control. Also, job demands moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention; turnover intention levels were higher among those with on-call duties and high demands than those being on-call and low demands. To conclude, working on-call was related to physicians' turnover intention particularly in those with high job strain. Health care organizations should focus more attention on working arrangements and scheduling of on-call work, provide a suitable working pace and implement means to increase physicians' participation and control over their job.

  2. Workplace Bullying and Turnover Intention: Exploring Work Engagement as a Potential Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Melinde; van Dyk, Jeannette

    2017-01-01

    Employees' turnover intentions may entail expensive consequences for companies. The study examined the mediating effect of work engagement in the relationship between workplace bullying and turnover intention. Using a cross-sectional sample of 373 employees, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis showed that perceptions of work- and person-related bullying were linked to low levels of vigor and dedication which in turn were associated with high turnover intention. Work engagement partially mediated the effect of high workplace bullying on high turnover intention. The results were interpreted from a social cognitive perspective and recommendations for practice were made.

  3. Effects of breeder turnover and harvest on group composition and recruitment in a social carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2017-01-01

    Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition and recruitment.Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding grey wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758).We used noninvasive genetic sampling at wolf rendezvous sites to construct pedigrees and estimate recruitment in groups of wolves before and after harvest in Idaho, USA.Turnover of breeding females increased polygamy and potential recruits per group by providing breeding opportunities for subordinates although resultant group size was unaffected 1 year after the turnover. Breeder turnover had no effect on the number of nonbreeding helpers per group. After breeding male turnover, fewer female pups were recruited in the new males’ litters. Harvest had no effect on the frequency of breeder turnover.We found that breeder turnover led to shifts in the reproductive hierarchies within groups and the resulting changes to group composition were quite variable and depended on the sex of the breeder lost. We hypothesize that nonbreeding females direct help away from non-kin female pups to preserve future breeding opportunities for themselves. Breeder turnover had marked effects on the breeding opportunities of subordinates and the number and sex ratios of subsequent litters of pups. Seemingly subtle changes to groups, such as the loss of one individual, can greatly affect group composition, genetic content, and short-term population growth when the individual lost is a breeder.

  4. Effects of breeder turnover and harvest on group composition and recruitment in a social carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E; Mitchell, Michael S; Waits, Lisette P

    2017-09-01

    Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition and recruitment. Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding grey wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758). We used noninvasive genetic sampling at wolf rendezvous sites to construct pedigrees and estimate recruitment in groups of wolves before and after harvest in Idaho, USA. Turnover of breeding females increased polygamy and potential recruits per group by providing breeding opportunities for subordinates although resultant group size was unaffected 1 year after the turnover. Breeder turnover had no effect on the number of nonbreeding helpers per group. After breeding male turnover, fewer female pups were recruited in the new males' litters. Harvest had no effect on the frequency of breeder turnover. We found that breeder turnover led to shifts in the reproductive hierarchies within groups and the resulting changes to group composition were quite variable and depended on the sex of the breeder lost. We hypothesize that nonbreeding females direct help away from non-kin female pups to preserve future breeding opportunities for themselves. Breeder turnover had marked effects on the breeding opportunities of subordinates and the number and sex ratios of subsequent litters of pups. Seemingly subtle changes to groups, such as the loss of one individual, can greatly affect group composition, genetic content, and short-term population growth when the individual lost is a breeder. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  5. Carbon turnover and sequestration potential of fodder radish cover crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutegi, James; Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2013-01-01

    We studied fodder radish carbon turnover as affected by soil tillage in Foulum, Denmark. Actively growing fodder radish monoliths from direct-drilled (DD) and conventionally tilled (CT) plots were extracted and labelled regularly with 14C isotope across their entire growth period. At the end...... of the fodder radish growth cycle, labelled biomass was harvested and incorporated into the same monolith. These monoliths were destructively sampled at biomass incorporation, 4, 8 and 18 months after incorporation. For each sampling period, soil and root samples were taken at 0- to 10-, 10- to 25-, and 25......-SIM model forecast, we estimated that over a 30-yr period of continuous autumn fodder radish establishment, at least 4.9 t C/ha fodder radish C with a residence time of more than 20 yr could be stored in the soil....

  6. System wide cofactor turnovers can propagate metabolic stability between pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Y.; Guan, Y.H.; Villadsen, John

    2016-01-01

    the metabolic networks studied were invariably associated with living cells. Nowadays, there are needs to reconstruct metabolic networks, and so metabolic homeostasis cannot be taken for granted. For metabolic steady state, enzyme feedback control has been known to explain why metabolites in metabolic pathways......Metabolic homeostasis, or low-level metabolic steady state, has long been taken for granted in metabolic engineering, and research priority has always been given to understand metabolic flux control and regulation of the reaction network. In the past, this has not caused concerns because....... Furthermore, we elaborated the criteria to tell if a multi-enzyme over-all reaction path is of in vivo nature or not at the metabolic level. As new findings, we discovered that there are interactions between the enzyme feedback inhibition and the CI turnover, and such interactions may well lead to metabolic...

  7. Evaluating nurse turnover: comparing attitude surveys and exit interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, M D; Crawford, M A; Quintana, J B; White, J B

    1995-01-01

    High turnover rates among hospital nurses demand rigorous and valid processes of research to determine the reasons motivating such attrition. In most hospitals, the exit interview often provides the only relevant data. The case study reported here examines the relative effectiveness of exit interviews and an employee attitude survey in generating data that are useful in managing nurse retention. The conclusion reached is that the attitude survey generates more data and higher-quality data. Further, the study shows that the use of open-ended questions can provide useful information and probably should be the starting point in developing or supplementing an attitude survey for nurses. Recommendations for improving the usefulness and validity of nurse attitude surveys and exit interviews in managing nurse retention are provided.

  8. Serum leptin is correlated to high turnover in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipmair, Gunter; Böhler, Nikolaus; Maschek, Wilma; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Pichler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Clinical data have suggested that obesity protects against osteoporosis. Leptin, mainly secreted by white adipose tissue, might be involved by mediating an effect on bone metabolism. This study was conducted to investigate a possible relationship of leptin and bone turn-over in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), serum leptin levels and markers of bone metabolism, including osteocalcin and cross-laps in 44 patients with osteoporosis. The main group consisted of 32 postmenopausal women. Mean serum leptin was 13.1 microg/L and showed no statistically significant difference to the levels measured in a collective of normal persons adjusted for age and BMI. When related to serum cross-laps as markers of bone resorption, a positive correlation (posteoporosis.

  9. Protein turnover during in vitro tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyao; Chang, Zhen; Oliveira, Gisele; Xiong, Maiyer; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2016-03-01

    Repopulating acellular biological scaffolds with phenotypically appropriate cells is a promising approach for regenerating functional tissues and organs. Under this tissue engineering paradigm, reseeded cells are expected to remodel the scaffold by active protein synthesis and degradation; however, the rate and extent of this remodeling remain largely unknown. Here, we present a technique to measure dynamic proteome changes during in vitro remodeling of decellularized tissue by reseeded cells, using vocal fold mucosa as the model system. Decellularization and recellularization were optimized, and a stable isotope labeling strategy was developed to differentiate remnant proteins constituting the original scaffold from proteins newly synthesized by reseeded cells. Turnover of matrix and cellular proteins and the effects of cell-scaffold interaction were elucidated. This technique sheds new light on in vitro tissue remodeling and the process of tissue regeneration, and is readily applicable to other tissue and organ systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Feasibility of protein turnover studies in prototroph Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Perez, Miguel; Villén, Judit

    2015-04-07

    Quantitative proteomics studies of yeast that use metabolic labeling with amino acids rely on auxotrophic mutations of one or more genes on the amino acid biosynthesis pathways. These mutations affect yeast metabolism and preclude the study of some biological processes. Overcoming this limitation, it has recently been described that proteins in a yeast prototrophic strain can also be metabolically labeled with heavy amino acids. However, the temporal profiles of label incorporation under the different phases of the prototroph's growth have not been examined. Labeling trajectories are important in the study of protein turnover and dynamics, in which label incorporation into proteins is monitored across many time points. Here we monitored protein labeling trajectories for 48 h after a pulse with heavy lysine in a yeast prototrophic strain and compared them with those of a lysine auxotrophic yeast. Labeling was successful in prototroph yeast during exponential growth phase but not in stationary phase. Furthermore, we were able to determine the half-lives of more than 1700 proteins during exponential phase of growth with high accuracy and reproducibility. We found a median half-life of 2 h in both strains, which corresponds with the cellular doubling time. Nucleolar and ribosomal proteins showed short half-lives, whereas mitochondrial proteins and other energy production enzymes presented longer half-lives. Except for some proteins involved in lysine biosynthesis, we observed a high correlation in protein half-lives between prototroph and auxotroph strains. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of using prototrophs for proteomic turnover studies and provide a reliable data set of protein half-lives in exponentially growing yeast.

  11. Cereal aphid colony turnover and persistence in winter wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linton Winder

    Full Text Available An understanding of spatial and temporal processes in agricultural ecosystems provides a basis for rational decision-making with regards to the management and husbandry of crops, supporting the implementation of integrated farming strategies. In this study we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of aphid pests (Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum within winter wheat fields. Using an intensive sampling programme we investigated distributions at both the small (single shoot and large (field scales. Within two fields, a grid with 82 locations was established (area 120 m by 168 m. At each location, 25 shoots were individually marked and aphid counts by observation conducted on 21 and 22 occasions as the crop matured, resulting in 43,050 and 45,100 counts being conducted in the two fields respectively. We quantified field scale spatial distributions, demonstrating that spatial pattern generally emerged, with temporal stability being both species- and field- dependent. We then measured turnover of colonies at the small (individual shoot and large (field scales by comparing consecutive pairs of sampling occasions. Four turnover categories were defined: Empty (no aphids recorded on either occasion; Colonised (aphids recorded on the second occasion but not the first; Extinction (aphids recorded on the first occasion but not the second; Stable (aphids recorded on both occasions. At the field scale, population stability soon established, but, at the small scale there was a consistently high proportion of unoccupied shoots with considerable colonisation and extinction and low stability. The redistribution of aphids within the crop at the local scale is a vulnerability which could be used to disrupt population development--by mediating exposure to ground-active natural enemies and by incurring a metabolic cost caused by the physiological demands to re-establish on a nearby host plant.

  12. Sclerostin as a novel marker of bone turnover in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zagrodna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sclerostin is a protein secreted by osteocytes that acts as an inhibitor of bone formation. It has been shown that physical activity affects sclerostin concentration and thus bone remodelling. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum concentrations of sclerostin, selected bone turnover markers (PTH, P1NP, 25(OH D3 and the intake of calcium and vitamin D in physically active versus sedentary men. A total of 59 healthy men aged 17-37 were enrolled in the study (43 athletes and 16 non-athletes. The mean sclerostin concentration in the group of athletes (A was significantly higher than in non-athletes (NA (35.3±8.9 vs 28.0±5.6 pmol• l-1, p= 0.004. A compared with NA had higher concentrations of P1NP (145.6±77.5 vs 61.2±22.3 ng• ml-1, p= <0.0001 and 25(OHD3 (16.9±8.4 vs 10.3±4.3 ng • ml-1, p= 0.004 and lower concentrations of PTH (25.8±8.3 vs 38.2±11.5 pg• ml-1, p= <0.0001. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 77% of A and 100% of NA. A and NA had similar daily energy intake. They did not differ as to the intake of calcium and vitamin D. We observed a negative correlation between the serum concentrations of sclerostin and calcium in the studied subjects. Our results suggest that regular, long-lasting physical training may be associated with higher concentration of sclerostin. It seems that increased sclerostin is not related to other bone turnover markers (PTH, P1NP.

  13. Turnover of sex chromosomes in the stickleback fishes (gasterosteidae.

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    Joseph A Ross

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diverse sex-chromosome systems are found in vertebrates, particularly in teleost fishes, where different systems can be found in closely related species. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex-determination gene, the appearance of a new sex-determination gene on an autosome, and fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. To better understand these evolutionary transitions, a detailed comparison of sex chromosomes between closely related species is essential. Here, we used genetic mapping and molecular cytogenetics to characterize the sex-chromosome systems of multiple stickleback species (Gasterosteidae. Previously, we demonstrated that male threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus have a heteromorphic XY pair corresponding to linkage group (LG 19. In this study, we found that the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius has a heteromorphic XY pair corresponding to LG12. In black-spotted stickleback (G. wheatlandi males, one copy of LG12 has fused to the LG19-derived Y chromosome, giving rise to an X(1X(2Y sex-determination system. In contrast, neither LG12 nor LG19 is linked to sex in two other species: the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans and the fourspine stickleback (Apeltes quadracus. However, we confirmed the existence of a previously reported heteromorphic ZW sex-chromosome pair in the fourspine stickleback. The sex-chromosome diversity that we have uncovered in sticklebacks provides a rich comparative resource for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the rapid turnover of sex-chromosome systems.

  14. The need for power, brain norepinephrine turnover and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, D C; Davidson, R; Saron, C; Floor, E

    1980-03-01

    This experiment was designed to explore whether brain norepinephrine (NE) serves as a specific reward system for the power drive. Previous research has indicated that 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol (MHPG), a urinary metabolite reflecting central NE turnover, is positively correlated with features of assertiveness which one might expect of a person high in the need for power (n power) or in a state of aroused power motivation. Twenty-seven male undergraduates, 13 of whom were high and 14 of whom were low in n power as assessed by a TAT measure, were recruited as subjects. Before and after the laboratory session, subjects voided all urine and concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine and MHPG were obtained from samples. The laboratory task consisted of 20 picture-word pairs in which the subject had to learn to anticipate the word associated with each picture before the word was presented. Five pairs of stimuli in each of the following picture-word combinations were presented 12 times: neutral-neutral, neutral-power, power-neutral and power-power. The results revealed that, as predicted, subjects high in n power learn most power-related material faster than subjects low in n power. The need for achievement is unrelated to the learning of any picture-word pairs. The neurochemical data indicated that subjects maintaining a relatively high MHPG excretion rate during the experiment who were also high in n power showed the greatest mastery of power related compared with neutral picture-word pairs. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that brain NE turnover is specifically related to the learning of power-related responses in subjects high in n power.

  15. Modelling nitrate transport and turnover in a lowland catchment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriedt, Gunter; Rode, Michael

    2006-08-01

    SummaryNitrate transport in groundwater dominated lowland catchment systems is influenced by complex and spatially distributed physical and chemical interactions. A modelling approach was developed combining a distributed soil nitrogen model with a three-dimensional groundwater model and a reactive transport model linking nitrate turnover and availability of reaction partners such as pyrite and organic matter. The modelling approach was applied to a hypothetical case study based on data from the pleistocene lowland catchment "Schaugraben" (20 km 2) in the North of Saxony-Anhalt, with focus on the investigation of interactions of spatially distributed transport and chemical processes. The modelling approach could successfully simulate transport and turnover of nitrate in a groundwater dominated catchment. The advancement of the nitrate front and the corresponding depletion of pyrite as well as the distribution of seepage fluxes and nitrate concentrations in seepage water in the channel system showed distinct spatial variation. Surface water nitrate concentrations corresponding to the average soil leachate concentrations were not completely reached after a simulation period of 200 years for a conservative transport simulation. Under reactive conditions, about 80% of the nitrate was lost due to denitrification. Given a uniformly distributed input of nitrate, drain loads developed in a sigmoidal curve defined only by travel time distribution. The average travel time was 93 years. A distributed input of nitrate resulted in reduction of travel time to 80 years due to the different arrangement of source areas and flow. The modelling approach is a step towards bridging the gap between simple large scale models and detailed small scale studies, maintaining process orientation while allowing to consider landscape heterogeneity.

  16. Functional divergence and evolutionary turnover in mammalian phosphoproteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Freschi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism to regulate protein functions. However, the contribution of this protein modification to species divergence is still largely unknown. Here, we studied the evolution of mammalian phosphoregulation by comparing the human and mouse phosphoproteomes. We found that 84% of the positions that are phosphorylated in one species or the other are conserved at the residue level. Twenty percent of these conserved sites are phosphorylated in both species. This proportion is 2.5 times more than expected by chance alone, suggesting that purifying selection is preserving phosphoregulation. However, we show that the majority of the sites that are conserved at the residue level are differentially phosphorylated between species. These sites likely result from false-negative identifications due to incomplete experimental coverage, false-positive identifications and non-functional sites. In addition, our results suggest that at least 5% of them are likely to be true differentially phosphorylated sites and may thus contribute to the divergence in phosphorylation networks between mouse and humans and this, despite residue conservation between orthologous proteins. We also showed that evolutionary turnover of phosphosites at adjacent positions (in a distance range of up to 40 amino acids in human or mouse leads to an over estimation of the divergence in phosphoregulation between these two species. These sites tend to be phosphorylated by the same kinases, supporting the hypothesis that they are functionally redundant. Our results support the hypothesis that the evolutionary turnover of phosphorylation sites contributes to the divergence in phosphorylation profiles while preserving phosphoregulation. Overall, our study provides advanced analyses of mammalian phosphoproteomes and a framework for the study of their contribution to phenotypic evolution.

  17. Single Turnover Autophosphorylation Cycle of the PKA RIIβ Holoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Knape, Matthias J; Ahuja, Lalima G; Keshwani, Malik M; King, Charles C; Sastri, Mira; Herberg, Friedrich W; Taylor, Susan S

    2015-07-01

    To provide tight spatiotemporal signaling control, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) holoenzyme typically nucleates a macromolecular complex or a "PKA signalosome." Using the RIIβ holoenzyme as a prototype, we show how autophosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the RIIβ subunit, as well as cAMP and metal ions, contribute to the dynamics of PKA signaling. While we showed previously that the RIIβ holoenzyme could undergo a single turnover autophosphorylation with adenosine triphosphate and magnesium (MgATP) and trap both products in the crystal lattice, we asked here whether calcium could trap an ATP:RIIβ holoenzyme since the RIIβ holoenzyme is located close to ion channels. The 2.8Å structure of an RIIβp2:C2:(Ca2ADP)2 holoenzyme, supported by biochemical and biophysical data, reveals a trapped single phosphorylation event similar to MgATP. Thus, calcium can mediate a single turnover event with either ATP or adenosine-5'-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate (AMP-PNP), even though it cannot support steady-state catalysis efficiently. The holoenzyme serves as a "product trap" because of the slow off-rate of the pRIIβ subunit, which is controlled by cAMP, not by phosphorylation of the inhibitor site. By quantitatively defining the RIIβ signaling cycle, we show that release of pRIIβ in the presence of cAMP is reduced by calcium, whereas autophosphorylation at the phosphorylation site (P-site) inhibits holoenzyme reassociation with the catalytic subunit. Adding a single phosphoryl group to the preformed RIIβ holoenzyme thus creates a signaling cycle in which phosphatases become an essential partner. This previously unappreciated molecular mechanism is an integral part of PKA signaling for type II holoenzymes.

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Role of Human Resource Management in Models of Employee Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolina-Ozola, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the study results of the human resource management role in the voluntary employee turnover models. The mixed methods design was applied. On the basis of the results of the search and evaluation of publications, the 16 models of employee turnover were selected. Applying the method of content analysis, the…

  19. Team turnover and task conflict: A longitudinal study on the moderating effects of collective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuypers, A.P.A.; Günter, H.; van Emmerik, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Team turnover can be harmful to a team in many ways. This study examined whether a team’s collective experience (team organizational tenure) attenuates the association between team turnover and task conflict changes. Differing from prior research, our study used a longitudinal design to assess the

  20. Labour turnover and its effects on performance : an empirical test using firm data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, A.C.; Bax, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we test the hypothesis that the relationship between labour turnover and the economic performance of the firm is bell-shaped: a turnover level too low has a negative effect and likewise does a level too high. Our analysis is based on economic performance data of 110 offices of a temp

  1. Academic Staff Turnover Intention in Madda Walabu University, Bale Zone, South-East Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Ibrahim; Nega, Rahel; Ganfure, Gemechu

    2017-01-01

    Turnover is a voluntary cessation of membership of an organization by an employee. Employee retention is one of the challenges facing several organizations in both the developed and developing countries of the world. It is profitable to proactively react for possible staff turnover intentions. This research was carried out to determine the…

  2. Why turnover matters in self-managing work teams : Learning, social integration, and task flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, G.S.; Bunderson, S.; Kuipers, B.

    This study considers how turnover in self-managing work teams influences the team interaction processes that promote effective task accomplishment. Drawing from research on self-managing work teams and group process, the authors propose that team turnover affects performance in self-managing teams

  3. Nursing Home Staff Turnover: Impact on Nursing Home Compare Quality Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas G.; Engberg, John; Men, Aiju

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We used data from a large sample of nursing homes to examine the association between staff turnover and quality. Design and Methods: The staff turnover measures came from primary data collected from 2,840 nursing homes in 2004 (representing a 71% response rate). Data collection included measures for nurse aides, licensed practical nurses,…

  4. Impact of transamination reactions and protein turnover on labeling dynamics in C-13-labeling experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Thomas; Åkesson, M.; Christensen, Bjarke

    2004-01-01

    that carbon exchange due to transamination and protein turnover can significantly increase the required time needed for metabolites in the TCA cycle to reach isotopic steady state, which is in agreement with published experimental observations. On the other hand, transamination and protein turnover will speed...

  5. An Unfolding Model of Voluntary Turnover of Air Force Reservists and Air National Guard Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    variables and turnover intentions. Journal of Managerial Issues , 15, 175-190. Cohen, A. (1995). An examination of the relationship between work...organizational commitment, intention to leave and voluntary turnover. Journal of Managerial Issues , 11, 493-513. Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (1994

  6. An Analysis of Turnover Intentions: A Reexamination of Air Force Civil Engineering Company Grade Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Approved: ________//SIGNED//_________________ _2-Mar-2012_ Alfred E. Thal, Jr., PhD (Chairman) Date ________//SIGNED...OPTEMPO) and turnover intentions might have a curvilinear relationship (Castro & Adler , 1999). This curvilinear relationship could change the...home deployment cycle. Additionally, OPTEMPO and turnover intentions might have a curvilinear relationship (Castro & Adler , 1999). The curvilinear

  7. Organizational turnover as endogenous precursor of industry dynamics and organizational dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cattani, Gino; Pennings, Johannes M.; Wezel, Filippo Carlo

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of organizational turnover on firm survival within the Dutch accounting service industry during the period 1880-1986. We address three issues: (1) estimating the effect of organizational turnover on organizational dissolution; (2) showing the significance of propinquity

  8. Dynamic Effects of Teacher Turnover on the Quality of Instruction. Working Paper 170

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.; Schiman, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that teacher turnover adversely affects the quality of instruction in urban schools serving predominantly disadvantaged children, and a growing body of research investigates various components of turnover effects. The evidence at first seems contradictory, as the quality of instruction appears to decline following turnover…

  9. The Teacher Labour Market, Teacher Turnover and Disadvantaged Schools: New Evidence for England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rebecca; Burgess, Simon; Mayo, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    We study the market for teachers in England, in particular teacher turnover. We show that there is a positive raw association between the level of school disadvantage and the turnover rate of its teachers. This association diminishes as we control for school, pupil and local teacher labour market characteristics, but is not eliminated. The…

  10. Toward a Theoretical Model of Employee Turnover: A Human Resource Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shari L.

    2004-01-01

    This article sets forth the Organizational Model of Employee Persistence, influenced by traditional turnover models and a student attrition model. The model was developed to clarify the impact of organizational practices on employee turnover from a human resource development (HRD) perspective and provide a theoretical foundation for research on…

  11. A Study on the Employee Turnover Antecedents in ITES/BPO Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree Rekha, K. R.; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at testing a conceptual model connecting variables of the internal and external work environment to ITES/BPO employee turnover. Based on the gaps identified from the literature that no single model explains in a comprehensive way as to why, people choose to leave and the lack of turnover studies on call centers located in India.…

  12. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  13. Impact of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on employee turnover in animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelberg, Steven G; Reeve, Charlie L; Spitzmüller, Christiane; DiGiacomo, Natalie; Clark, Olga L; Teeter, Lisa; Walker, Alan G; Starling, Paula G; Carter, Nathan T

    2007-03-01

    To examine the effects of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on the turnover rate among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters. Cross-sectional original study. 36 shelters across the United States that employed at least 5 full-time employees and performed euthanasia on site. By mail, 1 survey was sent to each shelter. Surveys were completed by a senior member of management and were returned by mail. Questions assessed characteristics (eg, euthanasia rates) and practices of the animal shelter, along with employee turnover rates. By use of correlation coefficients and stepwise regression analyses, key predictors of turnover rates among employees with euthanasia responsibilities were investigated. Employee turnover rates were positively related to euthanasia rate. Practices that were associated with decreased turnover rates included provision of a designated euthanasia room, exclusion of other live animals from vicinity during euthanasia, and removal of euthanized animals from a room prior to entry of another animal to be euthanized. Making decisions regarding euthanasia of animals on the basis of factors other than behavior and health reasons was related to increased personnel turnover. With regard to human resources practices, shelters that used a systematic personnel selection procedure (eg, standardized testing) had comparatively lower employee turnover. Data obtained may suggest several specific avenues that can be pursued to mitigate turnover among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters and animal control or veterinary medical organizations.

  14. Why Agriculture Teachers Leave: A National Examination of Turnover Intentions and Work-Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Tyson J.; McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a random sample of secondary school agriculture teachers in the United States, this study explored the work-family conflict and turnover intentions of agriculture teachers. Additionally, this study sought to determine the relationship between work-family conflict and turnover intentions among agriculture teachers. Work-family…

  15. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity versus turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-09-01

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into four categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), of both the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for five models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. For dead carbon pools, the situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This response arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully coupled, biogeochemically coupled, and radiatively coupled 1 % yr-1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, initial productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in productivity. For both the live and dead carbon pools, inter-model spread in

  16. Numbers of simultaneous turnovers calculated from anesthesia or operating room information management system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Marcon, Eric; Aker, John; Epstein, Richard H

    2009-09-01

    More personnel are needed to turn over operating rooms (ORs) promptly when there are more simultaneous turnovers. Anesthesia and/or OR information management system data can be analyzed statistically to quantify simultaneous turnovers to evaluate whether to add an additional turnover team. Data collected for each case at a six OR facility were room, date of surgery, time of patient entry into the OR, and time of patient exit from the OR. The number of simultaneous turnovers was calculated for each 1 min of 122 4-wk periods. Our end point was the reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the number of teams caused by the addition of a team. Increasing from two turnover teams to three teams reduced the mean daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the numbers of teams by 19 min. The ratio of 19 min to 8 h valued the time of extra personnel as 4.0% of the time of OR staff, surgeons, and anesthesia providers. Validity was suggested by other methods of analyses also suggesting staffing for three simultaneous turnovers. Discrete-event simulation showed that the reduction in daily minutes of turnover times from the addition of a team would likely match or exceed the reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the numbers of teams. Confidence intervals for daily minutes of turnover times achieved by increasing from two to three teams were calculated using successive 4-wk periods. The distribution was sufficiently close to normal that accurate confidence intervals could be calculated using Student's t distribution (Lilliefors' test P = 0.58). Analysis generally should use 13 4-wk periods as increasing the number of periods from 6 to 13 significantly reduced the coefficient of variation of the averages but not increasing the number of periods from 6 to 9 or from 9 to 13. The number of simultaneous turnovers can be calculated for each 1 min over 1 yr. The reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers

  17. The right friends in the right places: Understanding network structure as a predictor of voluntary turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Gary A; Cross, Rob; Holtom, Brooks C

    2016-04-01

    Research examining the relationship between social networks and employee retention has focused almost exclusively on the number of direct links and generally found that having more ties decreases the likelihood of turnover. The present research moves beyond simple measures of network centrality to investigate the relationship between 2 additional, and theoretically distinct, facets of social capital and voluntary turnover. In 2 organizations, we found consistent evidence of a negative relationship between reputation, as measured by relationships with highly sought-out others (incoming eigenvector centrality) and voluntary turnover. Further, we found that the negative relationship between brokerage (structural holes) and turnover is significant, but only for higher-level employees. The theoretical and practical implications of expanding the suite of social capital measures to understand voluntary turnover are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Roles of perceived exchange quality and organisational identification in predicting turnover intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether the perceived quality of the leader–member exchange and the general environment of exchange could predict turnover intention. It further examines the role of organisational identification as an explanatory variable mediating between exchange relationships and turnover intention. The authors used three-step hierarchical linear regressions on a data set collected in two time waves. The results supported the mediating role of organisational identification for the leader–member exchange and turnover intention relationship as well as the general environment of exchange and turnover intention relationship. Moreover, as was expected, the general exchange quality had a greater impact on organisational identification compared to the leader–member exchange quality. However, the findings did not confirm the expected trend in the case of two exchange variables predicting turnover intention.

  19. The effects of autonomy and empowerment on employee turnover: test of a multilevel model in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lei; Lee, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    Extending research on voluntary turnover in the team setting, this study adopts a multilevel self-determination theoretical approach to examine the unique roles of individual and social-contextual motivational precursors, autonomy orientation and autonomy support, in reducing team member voluntary turnover. Analysis of multilevel time-lagged data collected from 817 employees on 115 teams indicates that psychological empowerment mediates the main effect of autonomy orientation and the interactive effect of autonomy support and its differentiation on a team member's voluntary turnover. The findings have meaningful implications for the turnover and self-determination literatures as well as for managers who endeavor to prevent voluntary turnover in teams. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between family-to-work conflict of employee and co-workers' turnover intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakol Sharafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work conflict (FWC experienced by the employee also affects the turnover intention of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWC has an effect on the co-worker's turnover intention through the crossover of positive and negative work attitudes. Using a sample of 154 co-worker dyads, we found that the employee FWC was positively related to co-worker turnover intention through the crossover of (reduced work engagement. Results show that family matters at work, affecting employee. In addition, employee's job engagement was positively related to his (her co-worker job engagement and it was negatively related co-worker turnover intention and employee's FWC was not positively related to co-worker turnover intention trough the crossover of (reduced feelings of engagement.

  1. Antecedents and consequence of employee turnover intention: Empirical evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gyensare

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the theory of reasoned action, this study found support for the hypothesized inverse relationship between work-related factors and employee turnover intention on the one hand, and turnover intention and perceptions of accountable absence legitimacy on the other hand. Specifically, the higher employees’ turnover intent, the lower their perceptions about the accountability of their absence behavior and vice versa. The findings highlight the need to consider turnover intention as a salient construct that plays a dual role, first as a consequence variable to job satisfaction, affective and normative commitments, and next as an antecedent to accountable absence legitimacy in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion on the significance of lessening employee turnover intent as a means of mitigating the perceptions of absence legitimacy in the workplace.

  2. Hybrid mathematical model of cardiomyocyte turnover in the adult human heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A Elser

    Full Text Available The capacity for cardiomyocyte regeneration in the healthy adult human heart is fundamentally relevant for both myocardial homeostasis and cardiomyopathy therapeutics. However, estimates of cardiomyocyte turnover rates conflict greatly, with a study employing C14 pulse-chase methodology concluding 1% annual turnover in youth declining to 0.5% with aging and another using cell population dynamics indicating substantial, age-increasing turnover (4% increasing to 20%.Create a hybrid mathematical model to critically examine rates of cardiomyocyte turnover derived from alternative methodologies.Examined in isolation, the cell population analysis exhibited severe sensitivity to a stem cell expansion exponent (20% variation causing 2-fold turnover change and apoptosis rate. Similarly, the pulse-chase model was acutely sensitive to assumptions of instantaneous incorporation of atmospheric C14 into the body (4-fold impact on turnover in young subjects while numerical restrictions precluded otherwise viable solutions. Incorporating considerations of primary variable sensitivity and controversial model assumptions, an unbiased numerical solver identified a scenario of significant, age-increasing turnover (4-6% increasing to 15-22% with age that was compatible with data from both studies, provided that successive generations of cardiomyocytes experienced higher attrition rates than predecessors.Assignment of histologically-observed stem/progenitor cells into discrete regenerative phenotypes in the cell population model strongly influenced turnover dynamics without being directly testable. Alternatively, C14 trafficking assumptions and restrictive models in the pulse-chase model artificially eliminated high-turnover solutions. Nevertheless, discrepancies among recent cell turnover estimates can be explained and reconciled. The hybrid mathematical model provided herein permits further examination of these and forthcoming datasets.

  3. Timescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomo, Lesego; Trumbore, Susan; Bern, Carleton R.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter-mineral associations stabilize much of the carbon (C) stored globally in soils. Metastable short-range-order (SRO) minerals such as allophane and ferrihydrite provide one mechanism for long-term stabilization of organic matter in young soil. However, in soils with few SRO minerals and a predominance of crystalline aluminosilicate or Fe (and Al) oxyhydroxide, C turnover should be governed by chemisorption with those minerals. Here, we correlate mineral composition from soils containing small amounts of SRO minerals with mean turnover time (TT) of C estimated from radiocarbon (14C) in bulk soil, free light fraction and mineral-associated organic matter. We varied the mineral amount and composition by sampling ancient soils formed on different lithologies in arid to subhumid climates in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Mineral contents in bulk soils were assessed using chemical extractions to quantify Fe oxyhydroxides and SRO minerals. Because of our interest in the role of silicate clay mineralogy, particularly smectite (2 : 1) and kaolinite (1 : 1), we separately quantified the mineralogy of the clay-sized fraction using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and measured 14C on the same fraction. Density separation demonstrated that mineral associated C accounted for 40-70 % of bulk soil organic C in A and B1 horizons for granite, nephelinite and arid-zone gabbro soils, and > 80 % in other soils. Organic matter strongly associated with the isolated clay-sized fraction represented only 9-47 % of the bulk soil C. The mean TT of C strongly associated with the clay-sized fraction increased with the amount of smectite (2 : 1 clays); in samples with > 40 % smectite it averaged 1020 ± 460 years. The C not strongly associated with clay-sized minerals, including a combination of low-density C, the C associated with minerals of sizes between 2 µm and 2 cm (including Fe oxyhydroxides as coatings), and C removed from clay-sized material by 2 % hydrogen peroxide had

  4. Timescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomo, Lesego; Trumbore, Susan E.; Bern, Carleton R.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter–mineral associations stabilize much of the carbon (C) stored globally in soils. Metastable short-range-order (SRO) minerals such as allophane and ferrihydrite provide one mechanism for long-term stabilization of organic matter in young soil. However, in soils with few SRO minerals and a predominance of crystalline aluminosilicate or Fe (and Al) oxyhydroxide, C turnover should be governed by chemisorption with those minerals. Here, we correlate mineral composition from soils containing small amounts of SRO minerals with mean turnover time (TT) of C estimated from radiocarbon (14C) in bulk soil, free light fraction and mineral-associated organic matter. We varied the mineral amount and composition by sampling ancient soils formed on different lithologies in arid to subhumid climates in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Mineral contents in bulk soils were assessed using chemical extractions to quantify Fe oxyhydroxides and SRO minerals. Because of our interest in the role of silicate clay mineralogy, particularly smectite (2 : 1) and kaolinite (1 : 1), we separately quantified the mineralogy of the clay-sized fraction using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and measured 14C on the same fraction. Density separation demonstrated that mineral associated C accounted for 40–70 % of bulk soil organic C in A and B1 horizons for granite, nephelinite and arid-zone gabbro soils, and > 80 % in other soils. Organic matter strongly associated with the isolated clay-sized fraction represented only 9–47 % of the bulk soil C. The mean TT of C strongly associated with the clay-sized fraction increased with the amount of smectite (2 : 1 clays); in samples with > 40 % smectite it averaged 1020 ± 460 years. The C not strongly associated with clay-sized minerals, including a combination of low-density C, the C associated with minerals of sizes between 2 µm and 2 cm (including Fe oxyhydroxides as coatings), and C removed from clay

  5. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torn, M.S.; Swanston, C.W.; Castanha, C.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2008-07-15

    Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and turnover of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and turnover are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which affect plant productivity and soil development. More locally, factors such as plant tissue quality and soil mineralogy affect

  6. Further Clarifying Proximal Withdrawal States and the Turnover Criterion Space: Comment on Hom, Mitchell, Lee, and Griffeth (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In "Reviewing Employee Turnover: Focusing on Proximal Withdrawal States and an Expanded Criterion," Hom, Mitchell, Lee, and Griffeth (2012) brought together many of the most important content and process factors in the employee turnover literature. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the true contributions of this framework for the turnover area…

  7. Listening to the Voices of Children in Foster Care: Youths Speak out about Child Welfare Workforce Turnover and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Kollar, Sharon; Trinkle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare workforce turnover rates across private and public child welfare agencies are concerning. Although research about the causes of child welfare workforce turnover has been plentiful, empirical studies on the effects of turnover on child outcomes are sparse. Furthermore, the voices and experiences of youths within the system have been…

  8. Microbial communities mediating algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Morrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Algae encompass a wide array of photosynthetic organisms that are ubiquitously distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Algal species often bloom in aquatic ecosystems, providing a significant autochthonous carbon input to the deeper anoxic layers in stratified water bodies. In addition, various algal species have been touted as promising candidates for anaerobic biogas production from biomass. Surprisingly, in spite of its ecological and economic relevance, the microbial community involved in algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions remains largely unexplored. Results Here, we characterized the microbial communities mediating the degradation of Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta, Chara sp. strain IWP1 (Charophyceae, and kelp Ascophyllum nodosum (phylum Phaeophyceae, using sediments from an anaerobic spring (Zodlteone spring, OK; ZDT, sludge from a secondary digester in a local wastewater treatment plant (Stillwater, OK; WWT, and deeper anoxic layers from a seasonally stratified lake (Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees, OK; GL as inoculum sources. Within all enrichments, the majority of algal biomass was metabolized within 13–16 weeks, and the process was accompanied by an increase in cell numbers and a decrease in community diversity. Community surveys based on the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene identified different lineages belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria (alpha, delta, gamma, and epsilon classes, Spirochaetes, and Firmicutes that were selectively abundant under various substrate and inoculum conditions. Within all kelp enrichments, the microbial communities structures at the conclusion of the experiment were highly similar regardless of the enrichment source, and were dominated by the genus Clostridium, or family Veillonellaceae within the Firmicutes. In all other enrichments the final microbial community was dependent on the inoculum source, rather than the type of algae utilized as substrate

  9. Microbial communities mediating algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jessica M.; Murphy, Chelsea L.; Baker, Kristina; Zamor, Richard M.; Nikolai, Steve J.; Wilder, Shawn; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Algae encompass a wide array of photosynthetic organisms that are ubiquitously distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Algal species often bloom in aquatic ecosystems, providing a significant autochthonous carbon input to the deeper anoxic layers in stratified water bodies. In addition, various algal species have been touted as promising candidates for anaerobic biogas production from biomass. Surprisingly, in spite of its ecological and economic relevance, the microbial community involved in algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions remains largely unexplored. Results Here, we characterized the microbial communities mediating the degradation of Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta), Chara sp. strain IWP1 (Charophyceae), and kelp Ascophyllum nodosum (phylum Phaeophyceae), using sediments from an anaerobic spring (Zodlteone spring, OK; ZDT), sludge from a secondary digester in a local wastewater treatment plant (Stillwater, OK; WWT), and deeper anoxic layers from a seasonally stratified lake (Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees, OK; GL) as inoculum sources. Within all enrichments, the majority of algal biomass was metabolized within 13–16 weeks, and the process was accompanied by an increase in cell numbers and a decrease in community diversity. Community surveys based on the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene identified different lineages belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria (alpha, delta, gamma, and epsilon classes), Spirochaetes, and Firmicutes that were selectively abundant under various substrate and inoculum conditions. Within all kelp enrichments, the microbial communities structures at the conclusion of the experiment were highly similar regardless of the enrichment source, and were dominated by the genus Clostridium, or family Veillonellaceae within the Firmicutes. In all other enrichments the final microbial community was dependent on the inoculum source, rather than the type of algae utilized as substrate. Lineages enriched

  10. On the controlling mechanism of the upper turnover states in the NTC regime

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Weiqi

    2015-12-18

    Using n-butane, n-heptane and iso-octane as representative fuels exhibiting NTC (negative temperature coefficient) behavior, comprehensive computational studies with detailed mechanisms and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the upper stationary point, denoted as turnover states, on the NTC curve near the higher temperature regime, where the ignition delay τ exhibits a local maximum. It is found that the global behavior of the turnover states exhibits distinctive thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics under different pressures, in that the ignition delay at the turnover states shows an Arrhenius dependence on the temperature T and an approximate inverse quadratic power law dependence on the pressure P. These global behaviors imply that the temperature and pressure of the turnover states are not independent and can be correlated by Arrhenius dependence, as ln P ∝ 1/T. Further theoretical analyses demonstrate that such turnover states result from the competition between the low-temperature chain branching reactions and the decomposition of the intermediate species, and therefore correspond to a critical value, α, of the ratio of OH production from low-temperature chemistry. In addition, the ignition delay at the turnover state can be well correlated by the analytical expression derived by Peters et al., with the further demonstration that the pressure dependence of the turnover ignition delay mainly result from the H2O2 decomposition reaction. Comparison of the present results with the literature experimental data of n-heptane ignition delay time shows very good agreement.

  11. The mediating effect of emotional intelligence between emotional labour, job stress, burnout and nurses' turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunyoung; Lee, Young Sook

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to construct and test the structural equation modelling on nurses' turnover intention including emotional labour, job stress, emotional intelligence and burnout in order to identify the mediating effect of emotional intelligence between those variables. Emotional labour, job stress and burnout increase turnover intention of nurses. However, emotional intelligence is negatively correlated with emotional labour and reduces job stress, burnout and turnover intention. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the goodness of fit of the hypothetical model of nurses' turnover intention. Research data were collected via questionnaires from 4 to 22 August 2014 and analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 20.0. The model fit indices for the hypothetical model were suitable for recommended. Emotional intelligence has decreasing effect on turnover intention through burnout, although its direct effect on turnover intention is not significant. Emotional intelligence has mediation effect between emotional labour and burnout. This study's results suggest that increasing emotional intelligence might critically decrease nurses' turnover intention by reducing the effect of emotional labour on burnout. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Effects of role stress on nurses' turnover intentions: The mediating effects of organizational commitment and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Sook; Han, Jeong-Won; An, Young-Suk; Lim, So-Hee

    2015-10-01

    This paper was designed to extend the extant research regarding factors related to nurses' turnover intentions. This survey-based study was based on a path analysis designed to verify a hypothesized causal model involving nurses' role stress, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and burnout. This study distributed 500 questionnaires to nurses in general hospitals with more than 500 beds located in Seoul, Korea, during 16-30 April 2012. Role conflict, an underlying factor in role stress, had no significant effect on role stress, but the results showed that role ambiguity reduced organizational commitment. On the other hand, role conflict and role ambiguity increased the level of burnout. Organizational commitment reduced turnover intentions, and burnout increased turnover intentions. Role conflict and role ambiguity had no direct effect on turnover intentions, but they had indirect effects on organizational commitment and burnout. To reduce nurses' turnover rate, this study recommends developing plans to improve their organizational commitment because it mediates role stress and turnover intention. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  13. Turnover of nonessential fatty acids in cardiolipin from the rat heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahjudi, Paulin N.; K. Yee, Jennifer; Martinez, Steven R.; Zhang, Jin; Teitell, Michael; Nikolaenko, Liana; Swerdloff, Ronald; Wang, Christina; Lee, W. N. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique phospholipid (PL) found in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. CL remodeling is accompanied by turnover of its fatty acid acyl groups. Abnormalities in CL remodeling have been found in Barth's syndrome, diabetes, and obesity. The objective of this study was to determine nonessential fatty acid turnover in CL and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the rat heart in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a regular chow or a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, and consumed 6% deuterium-enriched drinking water as a tracer for 14 days. CL and PE were extracted from cardiac tissue and isolated by TLC. Fatty acids from CL, PE, and plasma were analyzed by GC/MS for deuterium incorporation. Results showed oleate and vaccenate turnover were the highest in CL whereas palmitate and stearate turnover were low. Among the nonessential fatty acids in PE, turnover of stearate and vaccenate were the highest. The high turnover rate in vaccenate was unexpected, because vaccenate previously had no known metabolic or physiologic function. In conclusion, the similarly high turnover rates of both oleate and vaccenate readily suggest that remodeling is an important functional aspect of PL metabolism in CL. PMID:21957203

  14. MHC class II protein turnover in vivo and its relevance for autoimmunity in nonobese diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBusch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MHCII proteins are loaded with endosomal peptides and reside at the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs for a time before being degraded. In vitro, MHCII protein levels and turnover are affected by peptide loading and by rates of ubiquitin-dependent internalization from the cell surface, which is in turn affected by APC type and activation state. Prior work suggested that fast turnover of disease-associated MHCII alleles may contribute to autoimmunity. We recently developed novel stable isotope tracer techniques to test this hypothesis in vivo. In nonobese diabetic (NOD mice, a model of type 1 diabetes (T1D, MHCII turnover was affected by APC type, but unaffected by disease-associated structural polymorphism. Differences in MHCII turnover were observed between NOD colonies with high and low T1D incidence, but fast turnover was dispensable for autoimmunity. Moreover, NOD mice with gene knockouts of peptide loading cofactors do not develop T1D. Thus, fast turnover does not appear pathogenic, and conventional antigen presentation is critical for autoimmunity in NOD mice. However, shared environmental factors may underpin colony differences in MHCII protein turnover, immune regulation, and pathogenesis.

  15. Use of ABC–XYZ–analysis in cost management of the cargo turnover in transport logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chukurna O.; Davydova A.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the relevance of the use of ABC–XYZ–analysis in the management of cargo turnover costs in the implementation of transport and logistics operations. It proposed by using the ABC analysis to rank suppliers or customers of freight turnover and the cost of each logistics operation (or profitability of the logistics services). On the basis of the received data to optimise logistics costs. It is proposed to use the XYZ–analysis to predict the volume of cargo turnover and a l...

  16. The collagen turnover profile is altered in patients with inguinal and incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Mortensen, Joachim H; Sorensen, Lars T

    2015-01-01

    in the interstitial matrix (types I, III, and V collagens) and in the basement membrane (type IV collagen). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with 3 different types of hernias were included: Primary unilateral inguinal hernia (n = 17), multiple hernias defined as ≥3 hernias (n = 21), and incisional hernia (n = 25......, and C4M) were measured in serum by validated, solid-phase competitive assays. RESULTS: In inguinal hernia patients, the turnover of the interstitial matrix collagens type III (P ... turnover profile of type IV collagens may predict the presence of inguinal and incisional hernia. Regulation of type IV collagen turnover may be crucial for hernia development....

  17. The Relationship between Managerial Satisfaction and Job Turnover Intention: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüveyda Öztürk Basol

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of service sector in Turkey occurs faster than the other sectors and the number of shopping malls increases correspondingly. The rapid growth of the number of shopping malls has necessitated the measurement of the attitudes of the employees in this sector. This study demonstrated that the gender, marital status and age were not the significant variables on job satisfaction, managerial satisfaction and job turnover intention; however, education status and income status were found to be significant variables on job satisfaction and job turnover intention. In addition, job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between managerial satisfaction and job turnover intention.

  18. Radiocarbon dating reveals minimal collagen turnover in both healthy and osteoarthritic human cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja M; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The poor regenerative capacity of articular cartilage presents a major clinical challenge and may relate to a limited turnover of the cartilage collagen matrix. However, the collagen turnover rate during life is not clear, and it is debated whether osteoarthritis (OA) can influence it. Using......, no replacement of the collagen matrix happened after skeletal maturity and that neither OA nor tissue damage, per se, influenced collagen turnover. Regional differences in (14)C content across the joint surface showed that cartilage collagen located centrally on the joint surface is formed several years earlier...

  19. Menguji Konsistensi Korelasi Job Satisfaction dengan Intensi Turnover: Studi Meta-Analisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand - Hindiarto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the correlation between job satisfaction and turnover intention from various studies in 2009-2016, with meta-analysis method. The used samples consist of 25 studies from 21 research journal which is found by searching on online database: ProQuest, EBSCO and EmeraldInsight via www.lib.ugm.ac.id. Analysis conduct on 2 artefacts, correction on error sampling and on error measuring. Result of the study shows that correlation between job satisfaction and turnover intention in 1st artefact is -0,46 and in 2nd artefact is -0,56. Keyword: meta-analysis, job satisfaction, turnover intention

  20. THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON IT EMPLOYEES TURNOVER INTENTION IN ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladelsky Limor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Employee voluntary turnover is very costly for companies, particularly for the Hi-Tech sector, where the costs of their IT labor force is expensive. Employees\\' voluntary turnover has substantial negative impacts on the companies especially costs, potential loss of valuable knowledge, skills and organizational knowledge.That is why it becomes a critical issue to take address. Studies have been carried out on the reasons which lead to this tendency, however the ability to explain and predict it remains restricted.The objective of this paper is to present the reasons for voluntary turnover of employees in the IT sector in Israel from the IT employees` perspective. A broad analysis of the field literature led to the following groups of causes affecting voluntary turnover: organizational causes: Human Resource Management (HRM related, organizational culture, job related, leadership and internal marketing related; extra organizational causes: individual and, respectively, labor market related causes. This could be approached as n light of this review this article will focus on one of the extra organizational causes of voluntary turnover, i.e. the effect of job satisfaction on voluntary turnover intention among IT employees in Hi-Tech companies in Israel. This correlation was researched in an extensive empirical study among two population groups: IT employees and IT managers and by using mixed method research (combination of quantitative and qualitative research.The findings that supported the literature show job satisfaction has a negative effect on voluntary turnover intention among IT employees in Hi-Tech companies in Israel. Additionally, it was found that job satisfaction indirectly affects voluntary turnover intentions and that emotional variables such as commitment, motivation and loyalty mediate voluntary turnover intention.This finding is supported partially in the literature which only pointed out commitment as a mediating factor in the

  1. Improving operating room turnover time: a systems based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ankeet S; Carlson, Grant W; Deckers, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Operating room (OR) turnover time (TT) has a broad and significant impact on hospital administrators, providers, staff and patients. Our objective was to identify current problems in TT management and implement a consistent, reproducible process to reduce average TT and process variability. Initial observations of TT were made to document the existing process at a 511 bed, 24 OR, academic medical center. Three control groups, including one consisting of Orthopedic and Vascular Surgery, were used to limit potential confounders such as case acuity/duration and equipment needs. A redesigned process based on observed issues, focusing on a horizontally structured, systems-based approach has three major interventions: developing consistent criteria for OR readiness, utilizing parallel processing for patient and room readiness, and enhancing perioperative communication. Process redesign was implemented in Orthopedics and Vascular Surgery. Comparisons of mean and standard deviation of TT were made using an independent 2-tailed t-test. Using all surgical specialties as controls (n = 237), mean TT (hh:mm:ss) was reduced by 0:20:48 min (95 % CI, 0:10:46-0:30:50), from 0:44:23 to 0:23:25, a 46.9 % reduction. Standard deviation of TT was reduced by 0:10:32 min, from 0:16:24 to 0:05:52 and frequency of TT≥30 min was reduced from 72.5to 11.7 %. P systems-based focus should drive OR TT design.

  2. Degradation of asialoprothrombin and its relevance to prothrombin turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vostal, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    As a part of their turnover, serum glycoproteins have been thought to be cleared from plasma and degraded after an initial conversion to an asialogylcoprotein intermediate. The authors have examined this possibility with the plasma protein prothrombin. Bovine prothrombin and its asialo derivative were prepared and radioiodinated by conventional methods. In vivo plasma half lives of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitable radioactivity were estimated in heparinized and anesthetized rats following and injection of the individual proteins into the femoral vein. For prothrombin, the half life was 3.2 hours with very little plasma TCA soluble radioactive products formed over 3 hours. Asialo-prothrombin's half life was only 1.1 minutes with soluble radioactive material increasing greatly during the initial 30 minutes. Simultaneous administration of competing doses of asialofetuin greatly increased the apparent half life of asialoprothrombin. The uptake and the release of TCA soluble radioactivity from liver was also delayed. Studies with isolated hepatocytes further demonstrated that asialoprothrombin was taken up by the cells and eventually degraded in the lysosomes. However, single or multiple injections of the highest dose of asialofetuin had no effect on /sup 125/I-prothrombin half life plasma soluble radioactivity or accumulation in the liver. The data indicate that while exogenously administered asialoprothrombin is apparently cleared from circulation by a hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor, prothrombin, even though accumulated by the liver, is not.

  3. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  4. Employee Turnover and Knowledge Management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vnoučková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy regards employee knowledge as a most important asset. It is a priority task to ensure systematic knowledge continuity of those employees who are the holders of critical knowledge. The aim of the article is to analyse the causes of mobility of knowledge workers and categorise types of employees and mobility according to the future development of an employee’s career. The research areas, i.e. ensuring knowledge continuity and employee turnover were analysed based on the premise of significant relation between those two areas. The data were collected in organizations in the Czech Republic. Surveys were drawn across sectors to ensure representativeness of the outcomes. The outputs revealed two basic approaches to maintaining knowledge inside organizations. Employees can be divided into knowledge workers and remainder, who seek only security. A knowledge worker who decides to transfer is not motivated by the amount of salary (they do not mind a lower level of remuneration; on the contrary they suffer due to an unclear vision on the part of the organization, where they used to work; they cannot stay in conditions where there is no possibility to participate on personal growth. Future research in this area should focus on the return of investments in the knowledge and employee learning, training and retention.

  5. Kindlin-1 regulates integrin dynamics and adhesion turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margadant, Coert; Kreft, Maaike; Zambruno, Giovanna; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the integrin co-activator kindlin-1 cause Kindler syndrome. We report a novel kindlin-1-deficient keratinocyte cell line derived from a Kindler syndrome patient. Despite the expression of kindlin-2, the patient's cells display several hallmarks related to reduced function of β1 integrins, including abnormal cell morphology, cell adhesion, cell spreading, focal adhesion assembly, and cell migration. Defective cell adhesion was aggravated by kindlin-2 depletion, indicating that kindlin-2 can compensate to a certain extent for the loss of kindlin-1. Intriguingly, β1 at the cell-surface was aberrantly glycosylated in the patient's cells, and its expression was considerably reduced, both in cells in vitro and in the patient's epidermis. Reconstitution with wild-type kindlin-1 but not with a β1-binding defective mutant restored the aberrant β1 expression and glycosylation, and normalized cell morphology, adhesion, spreading, and migration. Furthermore, the expression of wild-type kindlin-1, but not of the integrin-binding-defective mutant, increased the stability of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and enhanced the redistribution of internalized integrins to the cell surface. Thus, these data uncover a role for kindlin-1 in the regulation of integrin trafficking and adhesion turnover.

  6. Kindlin-1 regulates integrin dynamics and adhesion turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coert Margadant

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the integrin co-activator kindlin-1 cause Kindler syndrome. We report a novel kindlin-1-deficient keratinocyte cell line derived from a Kindler syndrome patient. Despite the expression of kindlin-2, the patient's cells display several hallmarks related to reduced function of β1 integrins, including abnormal cell morphology, cell adhesion, cell spreading, focal adhesion assembly, and cell migration. Defective cell adhesion was aggravated by kindlin-2 depletion, indicating that kindlin-2 can compensate to a certain extent for the loss of kindlin-1. Intriguingly, β1 at the cell-surface was aberrantly glycosylated in the patient's cells, and its expression was considerably reduced, both in cells in vitro and in the patient's epidermis. Reconstitution with wild-type kindlin-1 but not with a β1-binding defective mutant restored the aberrant β1 expression and glycosylation, and normalized cell morphology, adhesion, spreading, and migration. Furthermore, the expression of wild-type kindlin-1, but not of the integrin-binding-defective mutant, increased the stability of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and enhanced the redistribution of internalized integrins to the cell surface. Thus, these data uncover a role for kindlin-1 in the regulation of integrin trafficking and adhesion turnover.

  7. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  8. Increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover in inflammation-induced anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkasing, J T; Witkamp, R F; Boekschoten, M V; Ter Laak, M C; Heins, M S; van Norren, K

    2016-05-20

    Anorexia can occur as a serious complication of disease. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a major role, along with a hypothalamic dysregulation characterized by locally elevated serotonin levels. The present study was undertaken to further explore the connections between peripheral inflammation, anorexia and hypothalamic serotonin metabolism and signaling pathways. First, we investigated the response of two hypothalamic neuronal cell lines to TNFα, IL-6 and LPS. Next, we studied transcriptomic changes and serotonergic activity in the hypothalamus of mice after intraperitoneal injection with TNFα, IL-6 or a combination of TNFα and IL-6. In vitro, we showed that hypothalamic neurons responded to inflammatory mediators by releasing cytokines. This inflammatory response was associated with an increased serotonin release. Mice injected with TNFα and IL-6 showed decreased food intake, associated with altered expression of inflammation-related genes in the hypothalamus. In addition, hypothalamic serotonin turnover showed to be elevated in treated mice. Overall, our results underline that peripheral inflammation reaches the hypothalamus where it affects hypothalamic serotoninergic metabolism. These hypothalamic changes in serotonin pathways are associated with decreased food intake, providing evidence for a role of serotonin in inflammation-induced anorexia.

  9. Pancreatic enzyme synthesis and turnover in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, S J; Bennet, W M; Zinsmeister, A R; Haymond, M W

    1994-05-01

    Animal studies have shown that pancreatic enzyme secretion is independent of enzyme synthesis. To investigate this relationship in humans, we have coinfused 14C-labeled leucine tracer with cholecystokinin octapeptide in nine healthy adults for 4 h and measured the rate of appearance of secreted and newly labeled enzymes in the duodenum. Enzyme secretion was well maintained throughout, but newly labeled enzymes only appeared in juice between 75 and 101 min (median time, 86 min), indicating that initial secretion was dependent on the release of zymogen stores and that the median production time for new enzymes was 86 min. Between 85 and 225 min there was a curvilinear increase in the enrichment of secreted enzymes with newly synthesized enzymes, suggesting a median turnover rate of zymogen stores of 29%/h (range 12-47%/h). In conclusion, our results suggest that in healthy humans, postprandial pancreatic enzyme secretion is maintained by the export of a large stored pool and is not rate limited by enzyme synthesis, since it takes approximately 86 min for newly synthesized enzymes to take part in the digestive process.

  10. Geographical variation in mutualistic networks: similarity, turnover and partner fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Jordano, Pedro; Carstensen, Daniel W; Olesen, Jens M

    2015-03-07

    Although species and their interactions in unison represent biodiversity and all the ecological and evolutionary processes associated with life, biotic interactions have, contrary to species, rarely been integrated into the concepts of spatial β-diversity. Here, we examine β-diversity of ecological networks by using pollination networks sampled across the Canary Islands. We show that adjacent and distant communities are more and less similar, respectively, in their composition of plants, pollinators and interactions than expected from random distributions. We further show that replacement of species is the major driver of interaction turnover and that this contribution increases with distance. Finally, we quantify that species-specific partner compositions (here called partner fidelity) deviate from random partner use, but vary as a result of ecological and geographical variables. In particular, breakdown of partner fidelity was facilitated by increasing geographical distance, changing abundances and changing linkage levels, but was not related to the geographical distribution of the species. This highlights the importance of space when comparing communities of interacting species and may stimulate a rethinking of the spatial interpretation of interaction networks. Moreover, geographical interaction dynamics and its causes are important in our efforts to anticipate effects of large-scale changes, such as anthropogenic disturbances. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. TRENDS OF THE FACTORING TURNOVER IN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva DARABOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The factoring scheme was developed by the competition between the market operators and the need for the most favourable conditions of sale. The seller is constrained to provide loans on a broad scale therefore the seller may have liquidity problems. In cases of this kind, the seller can apply to a factoring company in order to access sources, instead of a bank loan. The factoring service has a price. Decision of the financial managers can largely contribute to choosing the appropriate funding form to retain the continuous liquidity situation of an enterprise. Aim of the article is to present the main tendencies of the factoring turnover in international comparisons, highlighting the characteristics of the financial service by its direction, sectorial distribution and customer size in Hungary. It has been estimated that the factoring financing approaches 10% of the short-term loan stocks of SMEs required from banks which indicates that the factoring is now far beyond the marginal financial service but it is an essential element of the short-term financing toolkit.

  12. Roles of stem cells in tissue turnover and radiation carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    2010-12-01

    Radiation research has its foundation on the target and hit theories, which assume that the initial stochastic deposition of energy on a sensitive target in a cell determines the final biological outcome. This assumption is rather static in nature but forms the foundation of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis. The stochastic treatment of radiation carcinogenesis by the LNT model enables easy calculation of radiation risk, and this has made the LNT model an indispensable tool for radiation protection. However, the LNT model sometimes fails to explain some of the biological and epidemiological data, and this suggests the need for insight into the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Recent studies have identified unique characteristics of the tissue stem cells and their roles in tissue turnover. In the present report, some important issues of radiation protection such as the risk of low-dose-rate exposures and in utero exposures are discussed in light of the recent advances of stem cell biology.

  13. A model of voluntary turnover among hospital CEOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P A; Kimball, P A

    1995-01-01

    This study examines factors contributing to hospital CEOs' voluntary decisions to leave their positions in 1990. Using a longitudinal design, we contrast 49 leavers with 1,362 stayers. We view turnover as influenced by both "push" factors that promote leaving (dissatisfaction with the position) and "hump" factors that need to be overcome (the cost of job change). Push factors giving rise to dissatisfaction include lower compensation, the predecessor's termination, and value incongruity between the CEO and the hospital. Testing the impact of key variables from Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership, we show that task-oriented leaders are relatively less satisfied when compared with relationship-oriented leaders. CEOs also express less satisfaction in low-situational control settings, a measure heavily influenced by perceived inadequate support from medical staff and subordinates. "Hump" factors that deterred leaving included family-related obstacles such as spouse's work or children's school, features mentioned most often by younger CEOs. The study suggests that boards should structure competitively paid positions with opportunities to generate support from the medical staff and subordinates. Recruiters for CEO positions are apprised of the importance of nonwork features in CEOs' willingness to consider new positions.

  14. Estimating rates of local species extinction, colonization and turnover in animal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Boulinier, T.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Species richness has been identified as a useful state variable for conservation and management purposes. Changes in richness over time provide a basis for predicting and evaluating community responses to management, to natural disturbance, and to changes in factors such as community composition (e.g., the removal of a keystone species). Probabilistic capture-recapture models have been used recently to estimate species richness from species count and presence-absence data. These models do not require the common assumption that all species are detected in sampling efforts. We extend this approach to the development of estimators useful for studying the vital rates responsible for changes in animal communities over time; rates of local species extinction, turnover, and colonization. Our approach to estimation is based on capture-recapture models for closed animal populations that permit heterogeneity in detection probabilities among the different species in the sampled community. We have developed a computer program, COMDYN, to compute many of these estimators and associated bootstrap variances. Analyses using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) suggested that the estimators performed reasonably well. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modeling for future work on community responses to management efforts as well as on basic questions about community dynamics.

  15. Physical activity and bone turnover markers: a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide; Viapiana, Ombretta; Fiore, Carmelo Erio; Nuti, Ranuccio; Luisetto, Giovanni; Ponte, Marco; Rossini, Maurizio

    2008-12-01

    Strenuous physical activity in young individuals has an important effect on both bone mass and bone turnover but the effect of moderate physical activity in adults remains uncertain. In a large cohort (N = 530) of healthy premenopausal women, bone formation markers (osteocalcin and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen [P1NP]), but not serum C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (sCTX), were found to be significantly associated with the level of physical activity, and this association remained significant after adjusting the data (ANCOVA) by age and body mass index. Mean spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) values were positively associated with physical activity but this was statistically significant (P = 0.050) only for adjusted values of spine BMD. Twenty-four healthy sedentary premenopausal women, subscribing to participate in a community exercise program lasting a month, and 18 age-matched controls were included in the longitudinal study. Serum osteocalcin and P1NP, but not sCTX, rose significantly, by ca. 25%, only in the active group after a month of exercise. The changes in the two bone formation markers remained statistically significant for values adjusted for body weight, which fell significantly in the exercise group. In conclusion, both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal parts of our study demonstrate that even minor changes in physical activity are associated with a clear effect on bone formation markers.

  16. Norepinephrine turnover in heart and spleen of 7-, 22-, and 34 C-acclimated hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. B.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of norepinephrine (NE) concentration and endogenous turnover rates in both myocardial and spleen tissues in the golden hamster is examined as a function of chronic exposure to either high or low ambient temperatures. Changes in myocardial and spleen NE turnover values are discussed in terms of functional alterations in sympathetic nerve activity and the importance of such changes in temperature acclimation. It is found that acclimation of hamsters to 7 C for 7-10 weeks results in decreased myocardial NE concentration and an apparent increase in myocardial NE turnover. In contrast, exposure to 34 C for 6-8 weeks results in increased myocardial NE concentration and an apparent decrease in NE turnover in both myocardial and spleen tissues. The implication of altered NE synthesis is that sympathetic nerve activity is reduced with heat acclimation and is enhanced with cold acclimation.

  17. Soil respiration and rates of soil carbon turnover differ among six common European tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Elberling, Bo; Christiansen, Jesper Riis

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of tree species effects on soil organic carbon (C) turnover based on rigorous experimental designs is limited for common European deciduous tree species. We assessed soil respiration, and rates of C turnover in six tree species in a more than 30-year-old common garden experiment...... of C turnover were estimated by (i) the ratio of estimated soil heterotrophic respiration (R h) to C stock in forest floor and top mineral soil, (ii) the ratio of litterfall C to forest floor C, (iii) foliar mass loss in litterbags, and (iv) mineral soil C turnover assessed by laboratory incubation....... Soil respiration differed significantly among several species and increased in the order beechSoil respiration was temperature limited with no significant species difference in Q10. Norway spruce soils were significantly driest, and soil respiration was also limited by soil...

  18. A methodology to measure the effectiveness of academic recruitment and turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    of effectiveness used, and between the indicators andthe universities’ overall research performance. In countries that conduct regular nationalassessment exercises, the evaluation of effectiveness in recruitment and turnover couldcomplement the overall research assessments. In particular, monitoring...

  19. ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE, COUNTERPRODUCTIVE WORK BEHAVIOR AND TURNOVER INTENTIONS RELATION: MEDIATION BY DEHUMANIZATION AND MODERATION BY GENDER

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ishfaq Ahmed; Muhammad Khalid Khan

    2016-01-01

      The core aim of this study is to find the effects of organizational justice on employees' counter productive work behavior and turnover intentions considering the explanatory and moderating roles...

  20. Effects of meclofenoxate on the level and turnover of biogenic monoamines in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, V V; Grahovska, T; Petkov, V D; Konstantinova, E

    1985-01-01

    The level and turnover of biogenic monoamines in some rat brain structures were determined after treatment with meclofenoxate at a dose of 50 mg/kg administered i.p. two times a day (9 a.m. and 5 p.m.) for 5 days. Meclofenoxate decreased dopamine (DA) turnover in the frontal cortex and striatum and highly increased it in the hypothalamus. The DA level significantly declined in the striatum, tended to decline in the cortex and significantly rose in the hypothalamus. The noradrenaline (NA) turnover and level in the cortex and striatum were decreased. Meclofenoxate decreased serotonin (5-HT) turnover in the cortex, striatum and hypothalamus and increased it in the pons. At the same time, the 5-HT level rose in the cortex, striatum and pons and declined in the hypothalamus. These results suggest the neurochemical basis of the psychotropic and neuroendocrine effects of meclofenoxate.

  1. The Role Of LMX In Employees Job Motivation, Satisfaction, Empowerment, Stress And Turnover: Cross Country Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Malik; Difang Wan; Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad; Muhammad Akram Naseem; Ramiz ur Rehman

    2015-01-01

      We investigated the effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) quality relationship on employee motivation, stress, turnover, satisfaction and Psychological Empowerment with a sample of 1500 employees across four countries...

  2. Dynamics of psychological contracts with work engagement and turnover intention: the influence of organizational tenure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; de Cooman, R.; Mol, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the interrelations of the psychological contract with work engagement and turnover intention, which has hitherto been a largely overlooked topic in psychological contract research. Although previous research has mainly focused on how psychological contracts influence job

  3. Using Absenteeism and Performance To Predict Employee Turnover: Early Detection through Company Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Paula C.; McElroy, James C.; Laczniak, Kathleen S.; Fenton, James B.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a comparison of 113 insurance company employees who left voluntarily with 113 who stayed supported a relationship between absenteeism, performance ratings, and voluntary turnover. There was no significant interaction effect. (SK)

  4. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    .... It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them...

  5. Factors affecting employee turnover and sound retention strategies in business organization: a conceptual view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Abdullah Al Mamun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available “Employee turnover” as an expression is broadly used in business organization. Despite the fact that several studies have been performed on this topic, little research has been conducted on examining the causes and leading factors of turnover as well, as advising some feasible approaches, which can be applied by bosses to ensure that employees will continue in their respective organizations to enhance organizational effectiveness and productivity. The main purpose of this study is to determine the reasons and key factors in the perspectives of the relevant literature and identify to the intention of employee turnover. This conceptual paper also suggests various possible strategies on how to minimize the turnover and retain employees in the organizations. Hence, the paper has proposed a conceptual framework that shows the major variables in explaining the phenomenon of employee turnover and addressing sound retention strategies to handle these issues.

  6. The Effect of Organizational Justice on Accountants’ Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÖZER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how the accounting profession members’ who work dependently in accounting firms (vocational trainees, CAs and CPAs perception of organizational justice effect the formation of job satisfaction and turnover intention in order to understand and put forward the phenomenon of turnover among accountants. Organizational justice has been investigated under the sub-dimensions as distributive and procedurel justice. According to the findings attained as a result of the analysis of the data obtained from the survey that was carried out with 240 accountants working in different regions of Turkey and who were chosen randomly for this study; 1 as procedural justice perception increase accountants’ job satisfaction increase as well but their turnover intention decrease 2 as job satisfaction increase accountant’ turnover intention decrease

  7. WORK OVERLOAD AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF JUNIOR AUDITORS IN GREATER JAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increas- ing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  8. Phagocytosis and intracellular digestion of collagen, its role in turnover and remodelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, V.; van der Zee, E.; Creemers, L.; Beertsen, W.

    1996-01-01

    Collagens of most connective tissues are subject to continuous remodelling and turnover, a phenomenon which occurs under both physiological and pathological conditions. Degradation of these proteins involves participation of a variety of proteolytic enzymes including members of the following

  9. Effects of immobilization and whole-body vibration on rat serum Type I collagen turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan Dönmez

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Although 1 week of WBV had a positive effect on type I collagen turnover in controls, it is not an efficient method for repairing tissue damage in the early stage following immobilization.

  10. Predicting voluntary turnover in employees using demographic characteristics: A South African case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton F. Schlechter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Employee turnover presents arguably the biggest threat to business sustainability and is a dynamic challenge faced by businesses globally. In South Africa, organisations compete to attract and retain skilled employees in an environment characterised by a burgeoning skills deficit. Turnover risk management is becoming an important strategy to ensure organisational stability and promote the effective retention of employees. The purpose of this research was to contribute to the practice of turnover risk management by proposing an approach and constructing a model to predict employee turnover based on demographic characteristics readily available in a human resource information system.Design: An exploratory research design was employed. Secondary quantitative data were extracted from an existing human resources database and analysed. Data obtained for 2592 employees in a general insurance company based in South Africa and Namibia formed the basis for the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was employed to predict employee turnover using various demographic characteristics available within the database. A likelihood ratio test was used to build a predictive model and the Akaike information criterion and Schwarz criterion were used to test how much value each variable added to the model and if its inclusion was warranted. The model was tested by conducting statistical tests of the significance of the coefficients. Deviance and Pearson goodness-of-fit statistics as well as the R-square test of significance were used. The overall goodness-of-fit of the model was also tested using the Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test.Findings: The current findings provide partial support for a predictive model explaining employee turnover. The model tested 14 demographic variables and the following five variables were found to have statistically significant predictive value: age, years of service, cost centre, performance score and the interaction

  11. Job Demand and Job Satisfaction in Latent Groups of Turnover Intention Among Licensed Nurses in Taiwan Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Hui; Brown, Roger; Bowers, Barbara J; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2015-10-01

    Nurses' turnover intention is not dichotomous; it may reflect intent to leave the profession, intent to leave a type of facility, or intent to leave a specific workplace. In a latent class analysis (LCA) of data from 186 licensed nurses (RNs and LPNs) recruited from 25 nursing homes (NHs) in Taiwan, we classified nurses into turnover intention subgroups based on seven questionnaire items and used a multilevel contrast analysis to characterize the subgroups according to demographic and facility factors, job demand, and job satisfaction. A multilevel probit model was used to examine how job demand and job satisfaction influenced subgroup membership. Three turnover subgroups were identified: high turnover intention (12%), middle turnover intention (57%), and low turnover intention (31%). The high turnover intention subgroup comprised the youngest nurses and had the lowest percentage of registered nurses (RNs); nurses in this subgroup had worked the longest at the current NH and had the greatest likelihood of working at a for-profit facility. Nurses in the middle turnover intention subgroup had the lowest likelihood of working at a for-profit facility. Nurses in the low turnover intention subgroup were primarily RNs and had the shortest work experience in the current facility. Nurses in the high and middle turnover intention subgroups reported lower intrinsic job satisfaction than those with low turnover intention. Extrinsic job satisfaction mediated the relationship between job demand and turnover intention subgroup assignment. The results of this LCA can help target interventions to address heterogeneity of turnover intention and ultimately lessen turnover. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Intention to leave and employee turnover: expanding understanding of key antecedents in the modern workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Emily Anne

    2017-01-01

    This research expanded understanding of the key antecedents of intention to leave and employee turnover in a sample of retail banking employees from a large Australian-based financial institution. In three empirical studies, this research provided unique insights into today‘s workforce and deepened understanding of how work related factors influence intention to leave and turnover. The first study compared the relationships between work attitudes and intention to leave for part-time and f...

  13. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... training had no effect. The anabolic response may be due to increased bone turnover, especially improved bone formation....

  14. Work–family climate, organizational commitment, and turnover: Multilevel contagion effects of leaders ⋆

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neill, John W.; Harrison, Michelle M.; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work–family climate (operationalized in terms of three work–family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using multilevel modeling, we found significant associations between work–family climate, and both organizational commitment and turnover intent, both within and b...

  15. Roles of perceived exchange quality and organisational identification in predicting turnover intention

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Manish; Singh, Shailendra

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores whether the perceived quality of the leader–member exchange and the general environment of exchange could predict turnover intention. It further examines the role of organisational identification as an explanatory variable mediating between exchange relationships and turnover intention. The authors used three-step hierarchical linear regressions on a data set collected in two time waves. The results supported the mediating role of organisational identification for the lead...

  16. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on t...

  17. A multistudy examination of organizational stressors, emotional labor, burnout, and turnover in sport organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, R J; Wagstaff, C R D; Thelwell, R C; Corbett, J

    2017-12-01

    While a growing body of research has examined the types of organizational stressors encountered by individuals and their allied responses, little is known about how such individuals manage their emotional responses to these stressors or the consequences of such behaviors. This article presents novel findings from two studies examining the moderating role that emotional labor plays in the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressor experience, burnout, turnover intentions, and actual turnover in sport. In study 1, participants (n=487) completed measures of organizational stressors (OSI-SP), emotional labor (ELS), burnout (ABQ), and turnover intentions. In study 2, a 6-month longitudinal design was used to examine measures of organizational stressors (OSI-SP), emotional labor (ELS), turnover intentions, and actual turnover. Study 1 showed that surface acting moderated the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressors and burnout in sport. Further, surface acting acted as an important mechanism through which burnout mediated the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressors and turnover intentions. Study 2 showed that surface acting moderated the relationship between the organizational stressor frequency and turnover intentions-but not actual turnover-over time. These results highlight the importance of surface acting in understanding how individuals respond to organizational stressors encountered in sport, expanding our understanding of the positive and negative responses component of the meta-model of stress, emotions, and performance. These findings also highlight potentially deleterious emotion-management behaviors that practitioners might consider when aiming to support individuals encountering organizational stressors in sport. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Effect of Organizational Justice on Accountants’ Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan ÖZER; Mehmet GÜNLÜK

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the accounting profession members’ who work dependently in accounting firms (vocational trainees, CAs and CPAs) perception of organizational justice effect the formation of job satisfaction and turnover intention in order to understand and put forward the phenomenon of turnover among accountants. Organizational justice has been investigated under the sub-dimensions as distributive and procedurel justice. According to the findings attained as a r...

  19. Rest break organization in geriatric care and turnover: a multimethod cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Schrod, Nadine; Roitzsch, Katharina; Tomaschek, Anne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Various determinants of nurses' work motivation and turnover behavior have been examined in previous studies. In this research, we extend this work by investigating the impact of care setting (nursing homes vs. home care services) and the important role of rest break organization. We aimed to identify direct and indirect linkages between geriatric care setting, rest break organization, and registered nurses' turnover assessed over a period of one year. We designed a multimethod cross-sectional study. 80 nursing units (n=45 nursing homes, n=35 home care) in 51 German geriatric care services employing 597 registered nurses. We gathered documentary, interview, and observational data about the organization of rest breaks, registered nurses' turnover, and additional organizational characteristics (type of ownership, location, nursing staff, clients, and client-to-staff-ratio). The findings show that the rest break system in geriatric nursing home units is more regularly as well as collectively organized and causes less unauthorized rest breaks than in home care units. Moreover, the feasibility of collective rest breaks was, as predicted, negatively associated with registered nurses' turnover and affected indirectly the relation between care setting and registered nurses' turnover. Care setting, however, had no direct impact on turnover. Furthermore, registered nurses' turnover was higher in for-profit care units than in public or non-profit units. This study reveals significant differences in rest break organization as a function of geriatric care setting and highlights the role of collective rest breaks for nursing staff retention. Our study underlines the integration of organizational context variables and features of rest break organization for the analysis of nursing turnover. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON IT EMPLOYEES TURNOVER INTENTION IN ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Ladelsky Limor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Employee voluntary turnover is very expensive from the point of view of the organization, has significant negative effects on the organization and hence remains a critical issue for organizations.Most of the causes discussed in the literature are classic causes coming from conservative theories such as psychological and sociological organizational behavior etc. Field literature review shows that these general causes affecting voluntary turnover intention could be grouped in the following broad categories: 1 organizational causes, related to: Human Resource Management (HRM, organizational culture, job structure and content, leadership style and internal marketing strategies, policies and practices; 2 extra organizational causes, related to: individual characteristics and labor market aspects. One of the classical causes of voluntary turnover that has been researched but still needing attention is organizational culture. The purpose of this paper is to present a new explanation of the phenomenon of voluntary turnover of IT employees in the IT sector in Israel, i.e. from the corporate culture perspective. It focuses on the correlations between organizational culture and voluntary turnover intention among IT employees in Hi-Tech companies in Israel. This correlation was researched in an extensive empirical study among two population groups: IT employees and IT managers and by means of mixed methods research (combination of quantitative and qualitative research.The findings show that only one type of organizational culture influences voluntary turnover intention:Type C Marketing culture, which focuses on results and objectives. It is also shown that this type of organizational culture has a positive effect on voluntary turnover intention among IT employees in Hi-Tech companies in Israel. This finding has to be adopted by IT organizations and management who have to develop a way to prevent voluntary turnover among IT employees and have to develop an

  1. A new method for calculating the average period of current assets turnover in the analyzed period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakova Julija Nikolaevna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a new method for calculating the average period of current assets turnover during the analyzed period without using of financial results (revenue, cost, etc.. To prove the advantages of the proposed method in comparison with the traditional method of calculating turnover the example of estimating the mean residence time in the analyzed period of working capital in the form of receivables is developed.

  2. Dynamic structure of stock communities: a comparative study between stock returns and turnover rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Ling; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhong, Li-Xin; Ren, Fei

    2017-07-01

    The detection of community structure in stock market is of theoretical and practical significance for the study of financial dynamics and portfolio risk estimation. We here study the community structures in Chinese stock markets from the aspects of both price returns and turnover rates, by using a combination of the PMFG and infomap methods based on a distance matrix. An empirical study using the overall data set shows that for both returns and turnover rates the largest communities are composed of specific industrial or conceptional sectors and the correlation inside a sector is generally larger than the correlation between different sectors. However, the community structure for turnover rates is more complex than that for returns, which indicates that the interactions between stocks revealed by turnover rates may contain more information. This conclusion is further confirmed by the analysis of the changes in the dynamics of community structures over five sub-periods. Sectors like banks, real estate, health care and New Shanghai take turns to comprise a few of the largest communities in different sub-periods, and more interestingly several specific sectors appear in the communities with different rank orders for returns and turnover rates even in the same sub-period. To better understand their differences, a comparison between the evolution of the returns and turnover rates of the stocks from these sectors is conducted. We find that stock prices only had large changes around important events while turnover rates surged after each of these events relevant to specific sectors, which shows strong evidence that the turnover rates are more susceptible to exogenous shocks than returns and its measurement for community detection may contain more useful information about market structure.

  3. Statistical testing of the association between annual turnover and marketing activities in SMEs using χ2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Liana; Miclea, Şerban; Izvercian, Monica

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers the impact of SMEs' annual turnover upon its marketing activities (in terms of marketing responsibility, strategic planning and budgeting). Empirical results and literature reviews unveil that SMEs managers incline to partake in planned and profitable marketing activities, depending on their turnover's level. Thus, using the collected data form 131 Romanian SMEs managers, we have applied the Chi-Square Test in order to validate or invalidate three research assumptions (hypotheses), created starting from the empirical and literature findings.

  4. A methodology to measure the effectiveness of academic recruitment and turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to measure the effectiveness of the recruitment and turnover of professors, in terms of their research performance. The method presented is applied tothe case of Italian universities over the period 2008–2012. The work then analyses thecorrelation between the indicators...... of effectiveness used, and between the indicators andthe universities’ overall research performance. In countries that conduct regular nationalassessment exercises, the evaluation of effectiveness in recruitment and turnover couldcomplement the overall research assessments. In particular, monitoring...

  5. Exploring factors influencing voluntary turnover intent of Generation X public servants: A South African case

    OpenAIRE

    Hester Nienaber; Vhusthilo Masibigiri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report on the factors perceived to influence the turnover intent of Generation X public servants. The problem: The researcher investigated the factors that Generation X public servants in South Africa perceive as influencing their turnover intent. Design: The problem was studied by way of a case study. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. A total of eight purposively selected Generation X public servants participated ...

  6. Cultural turnover among Galápagos sperm whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Mauricio; Whitehead, Hal; Gero, Shane; Rendell, Luke

    2016-10-01

    While populations may wax and wane, it is rare for an entire population to be replaced by a completely different set of individuals. We document the large-scale relocation of cultural groups of sperm whale off the Galápagos Islands, in which two sympatric vocal clans were entirely replaced by two different ones. Between 1985 and 1999, whales from two clans (called Regular and Plus-One) defined by cultural dialects in coda vocalizations were repeatedly photo-identified off Galápagos. Their occurrence in the area declined through the 1990s; by 2000, none remained. We reassessed Galápagos sperm whales in 2013-2014, identifying 463 new females. However, re-sighting rates were low, with no matches with the Galápagos 1985-1999 population, suggesting an eastward shift to coastal areas. Their vocal repertoires matched those of two other clans (called Short and Four-Plus) found across the Pacific but previously rare or absent around Galápagos. The mechanisms behind this cultural turnover may include large-scale environmental regime shifts favouring clan-specific foraging strategies, and a response to heavy whaling in the region involving redistribution of surviving whales into high-quality habitats. The fall and rise of sperm whale cultures off Galápagos reflect the structuring of the Pacific population into large, enduring clans with dynamic ranges. Long-lasting clan membership illustrates how culture can be bound up in the structure and dynamics of animal populations and so how tracking cultural traits can reveal large-scale population shifts.

  7. Modelling carbon and nitrogen turnover in variably saturated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle-Aguilar, J.; Brovelli, A.; Porporato, A.; Barry, D. A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural ecosystems provide services such as ameliorating the impacts of deleterious human activities on both surface and groundwater. For example, several studies have shown that a healthy riparian ecosystem can reduce the nutrient loading of agricultural wastewater, thus protecting the receiving surface water body. As a result, in order to develop better protection strategies and/or restore natural conditions, there is a growing interest in understanding ecosystem functioning, including feedbacks and nonlinearities. Biogeochemical transformations in soils are heavily influenced by microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon and nutrient cycles are in turn strongly sensitive to environmental conditions, and primarily to soil moisture and temperature. These two physical variables affect the reaction rates of almost all soil biogeochemical transformations, including microbial and fungal activity, nutrient uptake and release from plants, etc. Soil water saturation and temperature are not constants, but vary both in space and time, thus further complicating the picture. In order to interpret field experiments and elucidate the different mechanisms taking place, numerical tools are beneficial. In this work we developed a 3D numerical reactive-transport model as an aid in the investigation the complex physical, chemical and biological interactions occurring in soils. The new code couples the USGS models (MODFLOW 2000-VSF, MT3DMS and PHREEQC) using an operator-splitting algorithm, and is a further development an existing reactive/density-dependent flow model PHWAT. The model was tested using simplified test cases. Following verification, a process-based biogeochemical reaction network describing the turnover of carbon and nitrogen in soils was implemented. Using this tool, we investigated the coupled effect of moisture content and temperature fluctuations on nitrogen and organic matter cycling in the riparian zone, in order to help understand the relative

  8. Health promotion funding, workforce recruitment and turnover in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sarah A; Egan, Richard; Robertson, Lindsay; Hicks, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Almost a decade on from the New Zealand Primary Health Care Strategy and amidst concerns about funding of health promotion, we undertook a nationwide survey of health promotion providers. To identify trends in recruitment and turnover in New Zealand's health promotion workforce. Surveys were sent to 160 organisations identified as having a health focus and employing one or more health promoter. Respondents, primarily health promotion managers, were asked to report budget, retention and hiring data for 1 July 2009 through 1 July 2010. Responses were received from 53% of organisations. Among respondents, government funding for health promotion declined by 6.3% in the year ended July 2010 and health promoter positions decreased by 7.5% (equalling 36.6 full-time equivalent positions). Among staff who left their roles, 79% also left the field of health promotion. Forty-two organisations (52%) reported employing health promoters on time-limited contracts of three years or less; this employment arrangement was particularly common in public health units (80%) and primary health organisations (57%). Among new hires, 46% (n=55) were identified as Maori. Low retention of health promoters may reflect the common use of limited-term employment contracts, which allow employers to alter staffing levels as funding changes. More than half the surveyed primary health organisations reported using fixed-term employment contracts. This may compromise health promotion understanding, culture and institutional memory in these organisations. New Zealand's commitment to addressing ethnic inequalities in health outcomes was evident in the high proportion of Maori who made up new hires.

  9. Mechanism of ATP turnover inhibition in the EJC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Klaus H.; Chamieh, Hala; Andersen, Christian B.F.; Fredslund, Folmer; Hamborg, Kristiane; Le Hir, Hervé; Andersen, Gregers R.

    2009-01-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is deposited onto spliced mRNAs and is involved in many aspects of mRNA function. We have recently reconstituted and solved the crystal structure of the EJC core made of MAGOH, Y14, the most conserved portion of MLN51, and the DEAD-box ATPase eIF4AIII bound to RNA in the presence of an ATP analog. The heterodimer MAGOH/Y14 inhibits ATP turnover by eIF4AIII, thereby trapping the EJC core onto RNA, but the exact mechanism behind this remains unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the EJC core bound to ADP-AIF3, the first structure of a DEAD-box helicase in the transition-mimicking state during ATP hydrolysis. It reveals a dissociative transition state geometry and suggests that the locking of the EJC onto the RNA by MAGOH/Y14 is not caused by preventing ATP hydrolysis. We further show that ATP can be hydrolyzed inside the EJC, demonstrating that MAGOH/Y14 acts by locking the conformation of the EJC, so that the release of inorganic phosphate, ADP, and RNA is prevented. Unifying features of ATP hydrolysis are revealed by comparison of our structure with the EJC–ADPNP structure and other helicases. The reconstitution of a transition state mimicking complex is not limited to the EJC and eIF4AIII as we were also able to reconstitute the complex Dbp5–RNA–ADP–AlF3, suggesting that the use of ADP–AlF3 may be a valuable tool for examining DEAD-box ATPases in general. PMID:19033377

  10. The efficiency of a dedicated staff on operating room turnover time in hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Daniel M; Matullo, Kristofer S

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of orthopedic and nonorthopedic operating room (OR) staff on the efficiency of turnover time in a hand surgery practice. A total of 621 sequential hand surgery cases were retrospectively reviewed. Turnover times for sequential cases were calculated and analyzed with regard to the characteristics of the OR staff being primarily orthopedic or nonorthopedic. A total of 227 turnover times were analyzed. The average turnover time with all nonorthopedic staff was 31 minutes, for having only an orthopedic surgical technician was 32 minutes, for having only an orthopedic circulator was 25 minutes, and for having both an orthopedic surgical technician and a circulator was 20 minutes. Statistical significance was seen when comparing only an orthopedic surgical technician versus both an orthopedic circulator and a surgical technician and when comparing both nonorthopedic staff versus both an orthopedic circulator and a surgical technician. OR efficiency is being increasingly evaluated for its effect on hospital revenue and OR staff costs. Reducing turnover time is one aspect of a multifaceted solution in increasing efficiency. Our study showed that, for hand surgery, orthopedic-specific staff can reduce turnover time. Economic/Decision Analysis III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations between serum leptin level and bone turnover in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Molnar, Miklos Z; Czira, Maria E; Rudas, Anna; Ujszaszi, Akos; Rosivall, Laszlo; Szathmari, Miklos; Covic, Adrian; Keszei, Andras; Beko, Gabriella; Lakatos, Peter; Kosa, Janos; Mucsi, Istvan

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is associated with increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A direct effect of adipose tissue on bone turnover through leptin production has been suggested, but such an association has not been explored in kidney transplant recipients. This study examined associations of serum leptin with PTH and with biomarkers of bone turnover (serum beta crosslaps [CTX, a marker of bone resorption] and osteocalcin [OC, a marker of bone formation]) in 978 kidney transplant recipients. Associations were examined in multivariable regression models. Path analyses were used to determine if the association of leptin with bone turnover is independent of PTH. Higher leptin levels were associated with higher PTH and lower vitamin D levels, and adjustment for vitamin D attenuated the association between leptin and PTH. However, higher leptin was also significantly associated with lower levels of the bone turnover markers: 1 SD higher leptin was associated with 0.13 lower log-OC (-0.17, -0.08, P leptin with PTH was mostly mediated through vitamin D, and that the association between leptin and bone turnover was independent of PTH and vitamin D. Elevated leptin level is associated with lower bone turnover independent of its effects on serum PTH in kidney transplant recipients.

  12. The mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guohong Helen; Jekel, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether job satisfaction mediates between leader-member exchange and nurse turnover intentions. Limited knowledge is available on the mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions in the nursing field. This is a cross-sectional survey study. Data were collected in a US hospital. Higher leader-member exchange was associated with lower turnover intentions (β=-0.41, Pmember exchange was positively related to one's job satisfaction (β=0.50, Pmember exchange and job satisfaction were both controlled for, the link between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions was no longer significant (β=-0.12, P>0.05). Job satisfaction mediates the link between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions. The present study reinforces the significant role of managers. Nurse managers can try to cultivate a good relationship with the nurses. This can enhance nurses' job satisfaction and in turn lower their turnover intentions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Leadership styles of nursing home administrators and their association with staff turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Christopher; Castle, Nicholas G

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between nursing home administrator (NHA) leadership style and staff turnover. We analyzed primary data from a survey of 2,900 NHAs conducted in 2005. The Online Survey Certification and Reporting database and the Area Resource File were utilized to extract organizational and local economic characteristics of the facilities. A general linear model (GLM) was used to estimate the effects of NHA leadership style, organizational characteristics, and local economic characteristics on nursing home staff turnover for registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), and nurse's aides (NAs). The complete model estimates indicate that NHAs who are consensus managers (leaders who solicit, and act upon, the most input from their staff) are associated with the lowest turnover levels, 7% for RNs, 3% for LPNs, and 44% for NAs. Shareholder managers (leaders who neither solicit input when making a decision nor provide their staffs with relevant information for making decisions on their own) are associated with the highest turnover levels, 32% for RNs, 56% for LPNs, and 168% for NAs. The findings indicate that NHA leadership style is associated with staff turnover, even when the effects of organizational and local economic conditions are held constant. Because leadership strategies are amenable to change, the findings of this study may be used to develop policies for lowering staff turnover.

  14. Job embeddedness factors as a predictor of turnover intention among infection control nurses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Sil; Kim, Kyung Mi

    2015-11-01

    Job embeddedness indicates the degree to which an employee of an organization intends to remain in his or her position at that organization. This study examined how job embeddedness affects infection control nurses' turnover intention along with general characteristics, job satisfaction, and perceived job alternatives. We collected data from a total of 133 infection control nurses using self-reporting questionnaire methods. All questions were answered on a 5-point Likert scale. The average turnover intention was 3.01 ± 0.72 (100-point conversion, 60.2%), and average job satisfaction was 3.48 ± 0.79 (100-point conversion, 69.6%). The average perceived availability of job alternatives was 3.02 ± 0.78 (100-point conversion, 60.4%), and average job embeddedness was 3.33 ± 0.57 (100-point conversion, 66.6%). Predictors of turnover intention were monthly income, perceived availability of job alternatives, and job embeddedness. Job embeddedness among predictors has high explanatory power as a predictor of infection control nurses' turnover intention. Through this study we identified predictors of turnover intention and found that job embeddedness among predictors has high explanatory power as a predictor of infection control nurses' turnover intention. Strategies to enhance infection control nurses' job embeddedness are needed. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring factors influencing voluntary turnover intent of Generation X public servants: A South African case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Nienaber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report on the factors perceived to influence the turnover intent of Generation X public servants. The problem: The researcher investigated the factors that Generation X public servants in South Africa perceive as influencing their turnover intent. Design: The problem was studied by way of a case study. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. A total of eight purposively selected Generation X public servants participated in this study. Findings: The findings of the study show that the factors influencing the turnover intent of the Generation X public servants correspond to some of those proposed in the literature, including the nature of the job, traditional attitudes, and organisational context, both on the macro- and the micro-levels. Furthermore, these factors are also congruent with the drivers of engagement as set out in the literature, specifically content, coping, compensation, community and career. One of the implications of the findings of this study is that although the value of employees to organisations were established as long ago as the Renaissance, organisations still do not capitalise on their most important asset. It is in particular the direct (line manager that plays a crucial role in optimising the value-add of employees. Value: This study is original as it was the first to investigate the turnover intentions of Generation X public servants. Generation X employees are important as they are deemed to be the knowledge repositories of organisations and they are next in line to support the organisation when the Baby Boomers retire. The perceived turnover intentions correspond to some of the components of the generic turnover model proposed by Holtom et al. (2008. The question that arises is whether the turnover intentions of Generation X are any different from other generations. Conclusions: Given their unique characteristics, Generation X is a turnover risk, which

  16. The Soft Underbelly of System Change: The Role of Leadership and Organizational Climate in Turnover during Statewide Behavioral Health Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sommerfeld, David H; Willging, Cathleen E

    2011-01-01

    This study examined leadership, organizational climate, staff turnover intentions, and voluntary turnover during a large-scale statewide behavioral health system reform. The initial data collection occurred nine months after initiation of the reform with a follow-up round of data collected 18 months later. A self-administered structured assessment was completed by 190 participants (administrators, support staff, providers) employed by 14 agencies. Key variables included leadership, organizational climate, turnover intentions, turnover, and reform-related financial stress ("low" versus "high") experienced by the agencies. Analyses revealed that positive leadership was related to a stronger empowering climate in both high and low stress agencies. However, the association between more positive leadership and lower demoralizing climate was evident only in high stress agencies. For both types of agencies empowering climate was negatively associated with turnover intentions, and demoralizing climate was associated with stronger turnover intentions. Turnover intentions were positively associated with voluntary turnover. Results suggest that strong leadership is particularly important in times of system and organizational change and may reduce poor climate associated with turnover intentions and turnover. Leadership and organizational context should be addressed to retain staff during these periods of systemic change.

  17. The Soft Underbelly of System Change: The Role of Leadership and Organizational Climate in Turnover during Statewide Behavioral Health Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Willging, Cathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined leadership, organizational climate, staff turnover intentions, and voluntary turnover during a large-scale statewide behavioral health system reform. The initial data collection occurred nine months after initiation of the reform with a follow-up round of data collected 18 months later. A self-administered structured assessment was completed by 190 participants (administrators, support staff, providers) employed by 14 agencies. Key variables included leadership, organizational climate, turnover intentions, turnover, and reform-related financial stress (“low” versus “high”) experienced by the agencies. Analyses revealed that positive leadership was related to a stronger empowering climate in both high and low stress agencies. However, the association between more positive leadership and lower demoralizing climate was evident only in high stress agencies. For both types of agencies empowering climate was negatively associated with turnover intentions, and demoralizing climate was associated with stronger turnover intentions. Turnover intentions were positively associated with voluntary turnover. Results suggest that strong leadership is particularly important in times of system and organizational change and may reduce poor climate associated with turnover intentions and turnover. Leadership and organizational context should be addressed to retain staff during these periods of systemic change. PMID:22229021

  18. Platelet turnover in stable coronary artery disease - influence of thrombopoietin and low-grade inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Bøjet Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Newly formed platelets are associated with increased aggregation and adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of platelet turnover in patients with CAD are largely unknown. AIM: To investigate associations between platelet turnover parameters, thrombopoietin and markers of low-grade inflammation in patients with stable CAD. Furthermore, to explore the relationship between platelet turnover parameters and type 2 diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, smoking, age, gender and renal insufficiency. METHODS: We studied 581 stable CAD patients. Platelet turnover parameters (immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell-ratio were determined using automated flow cytometry (Sysmex XE-2100. Furthermore, we measured thrombopoietin and evaluated low-grade inflammation by measurement of high-sensitive CRP and interleukin-6. RESULTS: We found strong associations between the immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell ratio (r = 0.61-0.99, p<0.0001. Thrombopoietin levels were inversely related to all of the platelet turnover parameters (r = -0.17--0.25, p<0.0001. Moreover, thrombopoietin levels were significantly increased in patients with diabetes (p = 0.03 and in smokers (p = 0.003. Low-grade inflammation evaluated by high-sensitive CRP correlated significantly, yet weakly, with immature platelet count (r = 0.10, p = 0.03 and thrombopoietin (r = 0.16, p<0.001. Also interleukin-6 correlated with thrombopoietin (r = 0.10, p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: In stable CAD patients, thrombopoietin was inversely associated with platelet turnover parameters. Furthermore, thrombopoietin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and in smokers. However, low-grade inflammation did not seem to have a

  19. Emergency room nurses' pathway to turnover intention: a moderated serial mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyneel, Luk; Thoelen, Tom; Adriaenssens, Jef; Sermeus, Walter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between the quality of the work environment, job characteristics, demographic characteristics and a pathway of job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among nurses in emergency departments and perform subgroup analyses. Turnover intention among nurses is high. Multiple causes have been described, mostly in large studies of nurses working on general wards, often without considering complementarity of conceptual models and showing scant interest in the consistency of associations across subgroups of nurses. Cross-sectional multicentre survey. Convenience sample of 294 nurses in 11 Belgian emergency departments during 2014-2015. Indirect effects in the form of mediation and serial mediation were estimated to assess the association between work environment (Magnet model), job characteristics (Job Demand Control Support model) and turnover intention via job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Consistency of these indirect effects across subgroups of nurses was examined using moderated mediation analysis (conditional indirect effects). Several Magnet and Job Demand Control Support dimensions were related to turnover intention, either via job dissatisfaction (mediation) or via job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion (serial mediation). In the case of social support from supervisor, these indirect effects were only significant for female nurses, among whom turnover intention was higher. Last, nurses with more years of experience were less likely to indicate turnover intention. To maximize prevention of turnover intention at emergency departments, interventions could target early career nurses, work environment and job characteristics. Female nurses in particular may also benefit from improved social support from their supervisor. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Work engagement, burnout and related constructs as predictors of turnover intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine du Plooy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The focus of the study was to investigate the predictive relationship between the work engagement-burnout continuum and turnover intentions.Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to determine whether work engagement, burnout, organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB and work alienation are predictors of turnover intentions.Motivation for the study: Organisations operating within the 21st century face significant challenges in the management of talent and human capital. One in particular is voluntary employee turnover and the lack of appropriate business models to track this process.Research design, approach and method: A secondary data analysis (SDA was performed in a quantitative research tradition on the cross-sectional survey data collected from a large South African Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector company (n = 2429.Main findings: The results of the study confirmed the predictive model (work engagement, burnout, OCB and work alienation of turnover intention. Specifically, work engagement and OCBs were significantly negatively related to turnover intention; whilst burnout and work alienation were significantly positively related to turnover intention. Several third-variable relationships, such as biographic and demographic variables, indicated statistical significance.Practical/managerial implications: Practical implications of the study could impact on human resource (HR value-chain activities in the form of evidence-based and improved recruitment and selection procedures, employee retention strategies and training and development interventions. Issues concerning talent management could also be addressed.Contribution/value-add: The study described in this article took Industrial/Organisational (I/O psychological concepts and linked them in unique combinations to establish better predictive validity of a new turnover intentions model.

  1. Investigating the turnover of middle and senior managers in the pharmaceutical industry in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abofele Khoele

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Today, knowledge is a commodity and thus skilled knowledge workers, particularly in management positions, are vital for organisations’ success; their increased turnover has an adverse effect on productivity and profitability. High staff turnover is a cause for alarm, not only because of the costs associated with recruitment, selection and training, but also due to the increasing scarcity of experienced talent.Research purpose: This research investigates the reasons for the turnover of middle and senior managers in the pharmaceutical industry in South Africa in order to identify the possible reasons and formulate solutions to address the issue.Motivation for the study: In South Africa, employment, retention and turnover occur against the backdrop of a history of discrimination and inequality and attempts by government and organisations at redress. The significance of this background cannot be underestimated.Research approach, design and method: This study was qualitative and inductive to allow dominant themes to emerge from the raw data. Data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured one-on-one interviews as well as a review of company turnover reports and employment equity reports.Main findings: The study found that in the sampled organisations, employee turnover averaged almost 22% per annum between 2007 and 2010. Reasons for the turnover include a range of industry, company and personal factors.Practical/managerial implications: The overall turnover rate remains high, particularly amongst black knowledge workers, the attraction, recruitment and retention of whom is as important for addressing historical inequities in the local industry as it is for ensuring the diversity that companies need to reach a bigger market and gain a competitive edge. Further, as government is a significant purchaser of pharmaceutical goods and services, companies must ensure that the required Black Economic Empowerment (BEE rating level is

  2. Estimates of grassland biomass and turnover time on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangzhou; Ma, Minna; Liang, Tiangang; Wu, Chaoyang; Yang, Yuanhe; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yangjian; Yuan, Wenping

    2018-01-01

    The grassland of the Tibetan Plateau forms a globally significant biome, which represents 6% of the world’s grasslands and 44% of China’s grasslands. However, large uncertainties remain concerning the vegetation carbon storage and turnover time in this biome. In this study, we quantified the pool size of both the aboveground and belowground biomass and turnover time of belowground biomass across the Tibetan Plateau by combining systematic measurements taken from a substantial number of surveys (i.e. 1689 sites for aboveground biomass, 174 sites for belowground biomass) with a machine learning technique (i.e. random forest, RF). Our study demonstrated that the RF model is effective tool for upscaling local biomass observations to the regional scale, and for producing continuous biomass estimates of the Tibetan Plateau. On average, the models estimated 46.57 Tg (1 Tg = 1012g) C of aboveground biomass and 363.71 Tg C of belowground biomass in the Tibetan grasslands covering an area of 1.32 × 106 km2. The turnover time of belowground biomass demonstrated large spatial heterogeneity, with a median turnover time of 4.25 years. Our results also demonstrated large differences in the biomass simulations among the major ecosystem models used for the Tibetan Plateau, largely because of inadequate model parameterization and validation. This study provides a spatially continuous measure of vegetation carbon storage and turnover time, and provides useful information for advancing ecosystem models and improving their performance.

  3. Development of hydraulic properties and nitrate turnover processes in minerotrophic fen soil on differnet scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleimeier, Christian; Lennartz, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Generally, it is recommended to remove the uppermost highly degraded peat layer from fens prior to rewetting to eliminate a potential source of organic pollutants for downstream water bodies. We investigated this material as a potential medium for denitrifying filters to further use the organic material. We are aiming to remove nitrate from tile drainage runoff at the outlet drainage dominated catchments to fullfill the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive. In a lysimeter scale long term mesocosm experiments we were aiming to reveal the peats behavior after disturbing and rewetting under constant flow conditions. Tracer experiments revealed a restructuring of the peat ending up at 20/80 percentage of mobile immobile pore volume. Additionally we observed the nitrate turnover. The turnover rate was determined by the hydraulic load. Absolute turnover rates were equal at lower and higher concentrations as well as flow rates, whereas the turnover reached higher percentages at lower concentrations. To further reveal the nitrate turnover processes flow through rector experiments were conducted in an anaerobic environment. We found that strongly reducing conditions can be created in peat even at the presence of nitrate. Thus we can conclude that the minerotrophic peat with its high iron and sulfur concentrations also enables autotrophic denitrification oxidizing iron and sulfur. While the conditions are favorable to re-reduce iron and sulfur,thus an electron shuttling system developed transporting electrons from the organic material as initial e- donor to nitrate as terminal e- acceptor.

  4. Duodenal juice total protein and pancreatic enzyme synthesis, turnover, and secretion in patients after acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, J M; O'Keefe, S J; Louw, J A; Adams, G; Marks, I N

    1993-09-01

    It is controversial whether acute pancreatitis has longterm effects on pancreatic function. Pancreatic enzyme synthesis, turnover, and secretion were measured in 10 patients in clinical remission who had had one or more (one to six) attacks of acute alcoholic pancreatitis. The studies were done between two and 29 months after the most recent attack. A control group included five patients with no evidence of pancreatic disease. A four hour primed/continuous intravenous infusion of [14C]L-leucine tracer was given with secretin (2 U/kg/h) and cholecystokinin (0.5 U/kg/h) and secreted duodenal juice aspirated. Amylase and trypsin were extracted from duodenal juice by affinity chromatography, permitting measurement of the rate of isotope incorporation into total protein, amylase, and trypsin. The results showed non-parallel changes in enzyme synthesis and turnover with decreases in total enzyme protein and amylase synthesis and turnover but preservation of trypsin synthesis and turnover. The low turnover rates may be ascribed to continuing pancreatic cell malfunction after recovery from acute alcoholic pancreatitis and suggest that the decreased amylase secretion rates are partly a consequence of impaired amylase synthesis and not simply because of loss of pancreatic tissue.

  5. MT1-MMP regulates the turnover and endocytosis of extracellular matrix fibronectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Sottile, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is dynamically remodeled by cells during development, normal tissue homeostasis and in a variety of disease processes. We previously showed that fibronectin is an important regulator of ECM remodeling. The deposition and/or polymerization of fibronectin into the ECM controls the deposition and stability of other ECM molecules. In addition, agents that inhibit fibronectin polymerization promote the turnover of fibronectin fibrils and enhance ECM fibronectin endocytosis and intracellular degradation. Endocytosis of ECM fibronectin is regulated by β1 integrins, including α5β1 integrin. We have examined the role of extracellular proteases in regulating ECM fibronectin turnover. Our data show that membrane type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP; also known as MMP14) is a crucial regulator of fibronectin turnover. Cells lacking MT1-MMP show reduced turnover and endocytosis of ECM fibronectin. MT1-MMP regulates ECM fibronectin remodeling by promoting extracellular cleavage of fibronectin and by regulating α5β1-integrin endocytosis. Our data also show that fibronectin polymerization stabilizes fibronectin fibrils and inhibits ECM fibronectin endocytosis by inhibiting α5β1-integrin endocytosis. These data are the first to show that an ECM protein and its modifying enzyme can regulate integrin endocytosis. These data also show that integrin trafficking plays a major role in modulating ECM fibronectin remodeling. The dual dependence of ECM fibronectin turnover on extracellular proteolysis and endocytosis highlights the complex regulatory mechanisms that control ECM remodeling to ensure maintenance of proper tissue function. PMID:22159414

  6. Supervisory communication, burnout, and turnover intention among social workers in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Lee, Sun Young

    2009-01-01

    The current study tests the effects of different types of supervisory communication on burnout and turnover intention among health social workers. The study proposed a conceptual model of supervisory communication and tested it empirically using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques with a random sample of 211 California state-registered social workers working in health or mental health care settings. The results of the present study provide empirical evidence of the unique roles that different types of supervisory communication play as antecedents of burnout and turnover intention. Specifically, supportive relationship communication had an indirect effect on burnout and turnover intention through its effect on perceived stress, whereas job-relevant communication had not only an indirect effect on burnout and turnover intention through its effect on stress, but also a direct effect on turnover intention. In addition, the results showed that upward communication moderated the relationship between stress and burnout. Implications for social work administration and possible elaboration of the theoretical framework are discussed.

  7. Turnover Frequency in Solar Microwave Bursts with an Extremely Flat Optically Thin Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q. W.; Nakajima, H.; Huang, G. L.; Tan, B. L.; Huang, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Four microwave bursts have been selected from the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeter (NoRP) observations with an extremely flat spectrum in the optically thin part and a very hard spectral index between 0 and -1 in the maximum phase of all bursts. It is found that the time evolution of the turnover frequency is inversely proportional to the time profiles of the radio flux in all bursts. Based on the nonthermal gyrosynchrotron theory of Ramaty ( Astrophys. J. 158, 753, 1969), the local magnetic field strength and the electron spectral index are calculated uniquely from the observed radio spectral index and the turnover frequency. We found that the electron energy spectrum is very hard (spectral index 1 - 2), and the time variation of the magnetic field strength is also inversely proportional to the radio flux as a function of time in all bursts. Hence, the time evolution of the turnover frequency can be explained directly by its dependence on the local magnetic field strength. The high turnover frequency (several tens of GHz) is mainly caused by a strong magnetic field of up to several hundred gauss, and probably by the Razin effect under a high plasma density over 10^{10} cm^{-3} in the maximum phase of these bursts. Therefore, the extremely flat microwave spectrum can be well understood by the observed high turnover frequency and the calculated hard electron spectral index.

  8. Parametric study of effects of collagen turnover on the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J S; Baek, S; Humphrey, J D

    2013-02-08

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by significant changes in the architecture of the aortic wall, notably, loss of functional elastin and smooth muscle. Because collagen is the principal remaining load-bearing constituent of the aneurysmal wall, its turnover must play a fundamental role in the natural history of the lesion. Nevertheless, detailed investigations of the effects of different aspects of collagen turnover on AAA development are lacking. A finite-element membrane model of the growth and remodelling of idealized AAAs was thus used to investigate parametrically four of the primary aspects of collagen turnover: rates of production, half-life, deposition stretch (prestretch) and material stiffness. The predicted rates of aneurysmal expansion and spatio-temporal changes in wall thickness, biaxial stresses and maximum collagen fibre stretch at the apex of the lesion depended strongly on all four factors, as did the predicted clinical endpoints (i.e. arrest, progressive expansion or rupture). Collagen turnover also affected the axial expansion, largely due to mechanical changes within the shoulder region of the lesion. We submit, therefore, that assessment of rupture risk could be improved by future experiments that delineate and quantify different aspects of patient-specific collagen turnover and that such understanding could lead to new targeted therapeutics.

  9. Does value congruence between nurses and supervisors effect job satisfaction and turnover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Deborah

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of congruency of leadership support and value of patient outcomes between nurses and nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction and turnover intent. Turnover most often has a negative effect on an organization. Leadership support and patient outcomes have been identified as important factors, but congruency has not been studied in great detail. This quantitative non-experimental study included registered nurses (92) and nurse managers (21) in five non-magnet hospitals in the United States. Value congruence on leadership support was correlated with job satisfaction: Satisfaction in Nursing Scale (SINs)-Workload Barriers (r = 0.327, Administrative Support r = 0.544 and Collegiality = 0.920, P leadership support (Leadership Practices Inventory, LPI) was negatively correlated with turnover intent (r = 0.317, P 0.05) was noted. Value congruence of leadership support is related to job satisfaction and may be a factor in turnover intent. Nurse Administrators can use these results to develop policies to address the turnover especially in the area of leadership support. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Constituent attachment and voluntary turnover in low-wage/low-skill service work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Jill E; Tews, Michael J; Dachner, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on life stage theory, ethnographic research conducted in the service sector, and evidence for secondary segmentation within the low-wage/low-skill labor force to offer evidence that social bond development with coworkers can help reduce the high rate of turnover observed in low-wage/low-skill service work. Contrary to the belief that these employees will leave before social ties can develop, constituent attachment was found to be the only significant predictor of turnover in 2 samples of front-line service workers in a casual dining, national restaurant chain after controlling for other aspects of work that can create a sense of attachment to a job, and other job attitudes, such as satisfaction and commitment. However, the effect was dependent on developmental life stage. Constituent attachment reduced turnover among workers classified as emerging adults, whereas constituent attachment did little to affect turnover among nonemerging adults. Implications of the results are discussed with respect to the value of considering segmentation in future research on turnover in the service sector and the use of life stage theory for understanding the leaving behavior of workers in different stages of adulthood. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effects of work environment and job characteristics on the turnover intention of experienced nurses: The mediating role of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qiaoqin; Li, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Weijiao; Shang, Shaomei

    2018-01-19

    To assess turnover intention among experienced nurses and explore the effects of work environment, job characteristics and work engagement on turnover intention. The nursing shortage is an urgent concern in China. A high turnover rate of experienced nurses could have serious effects on the quality of care, costs and the efficiency of hospitals. It is crucial to explore the predictors of turnover intention and develop strategies tailored to experienced nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design. A total of 778 experienced nurses from 7 hospitals was surveyed on their work engagement, job characteristics, work environment and turnover intention in March-May 2017. Structural equation modelling was used to test a theoretical model and the hypotheses. The results showed 35.9% of experienced nurses had high-level turnover intention. The final model explained 50% of the variance in experienced nurses' turnover intention and demonstrated that: (1) work environment was positively associated with higher work engagement and lower turnover intention and work engagement partially mediated the relationship between work environment and turnover intention; and (2) job characteristics were positively related to higher work engagement and lower turnover intention and work engagement fully mediated the relationship between job characteristics and turnover intention. The study confirms the intrinsic and extrinsic motivators on work engagement posited by job demands-resources model. Theory-driven strategies to improve work environment, enhance job characteristics and promote wok engagement are needed to address the nursing shortage and high turnover intention among experienced nurses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Paleocommunity turnover in an Early Pliocene seamount from southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego Antonio; Zuschin, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Seamounts are topographic elevations under the sea, regardless of their size and relief. They support rich living communities and are important biodiversity hotspots, but many of the fundamental ecological processes that maintain seamount communities remain poorly understood. In contrast to snapshot observations conducted on extant seamounts, fossil examples may provide the opportunity to assess how temporal changes in physico-chemical parameters relate to paleocommunity turnovers in these particular biotopes. Here we deal with an Early Pliocene (Zanclean) small seamount in southeastern Spain. This classic locality is extremely rich in fossil macroinvertebrates and was subject to studies of some taxonomic groups in the late seventies. However, the detailed stratigraphy is herein outlined for the first time. The overall feature is a shallowing upward succession about 35 m thick which onlaps a Miocene volcanic ridge. The occurrence of the planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia margaritae and G. puncticulata allow attribution to the MPl3 biozone of the Mediterranean Pliocene. We measured two sections that can be divided in a lower interval of fine-grained bryozoan-rich deposits and a upper interval of biocalcarenite increasingly rich in rhodoliths upsection. The whole series is bioturbated, with Thalassinoides traces being more common upsection. Biofabrics comprise mostly densely-packed suites of disarticulated and fragmented shells of calcitic fauna (large oysters are often bioeroded by clionid sponges), suggesting relatively low sedimentation rates and reworking by storms (e.g., channelized shell-beds, tubular tempestites). The prevailing taxonomic groups are cheilostome bryozoans, oysters, brachiopods, pectinids, echinoderms, cirripedes and corals. The lower interval contains octocoral internodes (Isididae) (only recorded at the base of the section). Scleratinians like Balanophyllia? decrease in abundance upsection. Bryozoans are extremely abundant and diverse, with

  13. Mentoring, Career Plateau Tendencies, Turnover Intentions And Implications For Narrowing Pay And Position Gaps Due To Gender - Structural Equations Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjamin P Foster; Subhash Lonial; Trimbak Shastri

    2011-01-01

    ...), relative experts in the field of management accounting, to address how mentoring affects turnover intentions and career plateau tendency of male and female accounting professionals in industry...

  14. Workplace violence and its effect on burnout and turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiying; Lin, Shaowei; Ruan, Qishuang; Li, Huangyuan; Wu, Siying

    2016-11-01

    The present study was to evaluate workplace violence and examine its effect on job burnout and turnover attempt among medical staff in China. A total of 2,020 medical employees were selected from Fujian province by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of the Workplace Violence Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey were used to measure the workplace violence and job burnout, respectively. Other potential influencing factors for job burnout and turnover attempt were collected using a structured questionnaire. The incidence of workplace violence among medical staff was 48.0%. Workplace violence had a positive correlation with emotional exhaustion and cynicism and a negative correlation with professional efficacy. Workplace violence, marital status, employment type, working time (≥ 10 h/day), performance recognition, and life satisfaction were significant predictors for turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff.

  15. Capture the fracture - use of bone turnover markers in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Miljanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is a living tissue, metabolically very active, with the level of turnover of about 10% per year. Bone remodeling is a well-balanced process of bone resorption, induced by osteoclasts and bone formation maintained osteoblasts. Loss of bone remodeling balance, with increased bone resorption, leads to osteoporosis. Bone turnover markers are classified as markers of bone formation and of bone resorption. During the growth and development of skeleton, bone turnover markers show higher levels of activity than in the adult period. The increase in biochemical markers peaks again in the postmenopausal period, indicating accelerated bone remodeling. Bone mineral density is an important predictor of an osteoporotic fracture. Timely assessment of risk factors of osteoporosis and bone markers can detect subjects with accelerated bone remodeling and osteoporosis. This may introduce adequate therapy and prevent fracture.

  16. Organizational nostalgia lowers turnover intentions by increasing work meaning: The moderating role of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunissen, Joost M; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cohen, Taya R

    2018-01-01

    We report 3 studies addressing the relevance of organizational nostalgia for the meaning that employees ascribe to their work (work meaning). We hypothesized, and found, that organizational nostalgia enhances work meaning and thereby reduces turnover intentions. In Study 1, an employee survey, spontaneously experienced organizational nostalgia was associated with higher work meaning. In Study 2, an organizational-nostalgia induction increased work meaning, which subsequently predicted lowered turnover intentions. In Study 3, an organizational-nostalgia induction increased work meaning and thereby lowered turnover intentions, especially among employees who reported relatively high levels of burnout. When burnout is high, organizational nostalgia functions as a rich source of meaning that benefits employees' work experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Survival analysis to measure turnover of the medical education workforce in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Tsion; Haile Mariam, Damen; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Derbew, Miliard

    2017-03-14

    Until recently, there were only a few medical schools in Ethiopia. However, currently, in response to the apparent shortage in physician workforce, the country has made huge progress with respect to the expansion of medical schools, by adopting the so-called flooding strategy. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the intended strategy also relies on physician accessibility and turnover. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physicians in the medical schools of Ethiopia and to quantify the magnitude and identify factors associated with physician turnover. This organizational faculty physician workforce survey was conducted in seven government-owned medical schools in Ethiopia. Longitudinal medical workforce data set of about 6 years (between September 2009 and June 2015) were retrospectively collected from each of the medical schools. The observation time begins with the date of employment (time zero) and ends at the date on which the physician leaves the appointment/or the data collection date. Kaplan-Meier survival method was used to describe the duration of stay of physicians in the academic health care settings. A Cox proportional hazards (CPH) model was fitted to identify the risk factors for physician turnover. In this study, a total of 1258 faculty physicians were observed in seven medical schools which resulted in 6670.5 physician-years. Of the total, there were 198 (15.7%) turnover events and the remaining 1060 (84.3%) were censored. The average turnover rate is about 29.7 per 1000 physician-years of observations. Multivariate modeling revealed no statistical significant difference in the rate of turnover between males and females (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 1.12; 95%CI, 0.71, 1.80). However, a lower rate of physician turnover was observed among those who were born before 1975 (AHR, 0.37; 95%CI, 0.20, 0.69) compared with those who were born after 1985. Physicians with the academic rank of associate professor and above had a

  18. Developmental Climate: A Cross-level Analysis of Voluntary Turnover and Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, Hannah B; Eby, Lillian T; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    This research investigates the influence of shared perceptions of developmental climate on individual-level perceptions of organizational commitment, engagement, and perceived competence, and whether these attitudes mediate the relationship between developmental climate and both individual voluntary turnover and supervisor-rated job performance. Survey data were collected from 361 intact employee-supervisory mentoring dyads and matched with employee turnover data collected one year later to test the proposed framework using multilevel modeling techniques. As expected, shared perceptions of developmental climate were significantly and positively related to all three individual work attitudes. In addition, both organizational commitment and perceived competence were significant mediators of the positive relationship between shared perceptions of developmental climate and voluntary turnover, as well as shared perceptions of developmental climate and supervisor-rated job performance. By contrast, no significant mediating effects were found for engagement. Theoretical implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.

  19. Developmental Climate: A Cross-level Analysis of Voluntary Turnover and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, Hannah B.; Eby, Lillian T.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence of shared perceptions of developmental climate on individual-level perceptions of organizational commitment, engagement, and perceived competence, and whether these attitudes mediate the relationship between developmental climate and both individual voluntary turnover and supervisor-rated job performance. Survey data were collected from 361 intact employee-supervisory mentoring dyads and matched with employee turnover data collected one year later to test the proposed framework using multilevel modeling techniques. As expected, shared perceptions of developmental climate were significantly and positively related to all three individual work attitudes. In addition, both organizational commitment and perceived competence were significant mediators of the positive relationship between shared perceptions of developmental climate and voluntary turnover, as well as shared perceptions of developmental climate and supervisor-rated job performance. By contrast, no significant mediating effects were found for engagement. Theoretical implications, limitations, and future research are discussed. PMID:24748681

  20. Do Employees Leave Just Because They Can? Examining the Perceived Employability-Turnover Intentions Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz, Yalcin; Sumer, H Canan; Sumer, Nebi

    2016-07-03

    The relationship between perceived employability and turnover intentions seems much more complicated than what the common sense would suggest. Based on the reviewed literature, it was expected that job satisfaction, affective commitment, and perceived job security would moderate this relationship. Using a sample of working individuals from different occupations and sectors (N = 721), it was found that employees who perceived themselves as highly employable were more likely to have turnover intentions when their affective commitment was low and perceived job security was high; and the relationship was negative for employees with shorter tenures. Understanding the conditions under which perceived employability is associated with turnover intentions may help organizations design human resource policies that allow them to retain an educated and competent workforce.

  1. Measure Guideline. Five Steps to Implement the Public Housing Authority Energy-Efficient Unit Turnover Checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, Christine [Building American Research Alliance, Kent, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    Five Steps to Implementing the PHA Energy Efficient Unit Turnover Package (ARIES, 2014) is a guide to prepare for the installation of energy efficient measures during a typical public housing authority unit turnover. While a PHA is cleaning, painting and readying a unit for a new resident, there is an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures to further improve the unit's performance. The measures on the list are simple enough to be implemented by in-house maintenance personnel, inexpensive enough to be folded into operating expenses without needing capital budget, and fast enough to implement without substantially changing the number of days between occupancies, a critical factor for organizations where the demand for dwelling units far outweighs the supply. The following guide lays out a five step plan to implement the EE Unit Turnover Package in your PHA, from an initial Self-Assessment through to Package Implementation.

  2. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3). We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  3. Job satisfaction, burnout and turnover intention in occupational therapists working in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Still, Megan

    2013-10-01

    Employee wellbeing is an important issue for mental health services. Poor employee wellbeing (i.e., high levels of burnout or low job satisfaction) is associated with poorer consumer outcomes and higher staff turnover. This study set out to examine factors related to job satisfaction, turnover intention and burnout in a group of occupational therapists in mental health. Thirty-four occupational therapists (response rate approximately 60%) in a metropolitan public mental health service participated in a whole-of-service workforce survey. The survey included measures of job satisfaction, turnover intention, burnout, job hindrances, job challenges and job resources and questions about positive and negative aspects of positions and factors that attracted employees to their current position. Burnout was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher turnover intention. Higher job satisfaction was associated with rewards (remuneration and recognition) as well as cognitively challenging work. The variables most significantly associated with poorer wellbeing (higher turnover intention and burnout) were recipient contact demands (perception that contact with service users or families was demanding), and feelings of stress or fatigue. This study provides a detailed analysis of factors associated with job satisfaction, turnover intention and burnout in a group of occupational therapists working in mental health. To promote workforce wellbeing and enhanced retention, interventions to minimise burnout should be implemented and evaluated. These strategies should focus on enhancing job resources such as supervisor support, feedback and participation in decision making as well as building the personal resilience of occupational therapists working in mental health. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  4. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schlüter

    Full Text Available Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3. We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  5. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for two case studies: (1) soil compaction of a silty loam soil in steps of 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 g/cm3 and (2) wetting/drying cycles at different bulk densities in the same soil. We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  6. Relationship between ICU nurses' moral distress with burnout and anticipated turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorideh, Foroozan Atashzadeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress is one of intensive care unit nurses' major problems, which may happen due to various reasons, and has several consequences. Due to various moral distress outcomes in intensive care unit nurses, and their impact on nurses' personal and professional practice, recognizing moral distress is very important. The aim of this study was to determine correlation between moral distress with burnout and anticipated turnover in intensive care unit nurses. This study is a descriptive-correlation research. A total of 159 intensive care unit nurses were selected from medical sciences universities in Iran. Data collection instruments included "demographic questionnaire," "ICU Nurses' Moral Distress Scale," "Copenhagen Burnout Inventory" and "Hinshaw and Atwood Turnover Scale." Data analysis was done by using SPSS19. Informed consent from samples and research approval was obtained from Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences University Research Ethics Board in Tehran. The findings showed intensive care unit nurses' moral distress and anticipated turnover was high, but burnout was moderate. The results revealed that there was a positive statistical correlation between intensive care unit nurses' age, their work experience and the fraction of nurses' number to number of intensive care unit beds with their moral distress and burnout. However, there were no correlation between gender, marriage status, educational degree and work shift and moral distress. Some of the findings of this research are consistent with other studies and some of them are inconsistent. Similarly, moral distress with burnout and anticipated turnover did not have statistical correlation. However, a positive correlation was found between burnout and anticipated turnover. The results showed that increase in the recruitment of young nurses, and nursing personnel, and diminishing intensive care unit nurses' moral distress, burnout and their turnover intention are essential. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Factors influencing turnover intention among primary care doctors: a cross-sectional study in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xue; Tang, Guo

    2018-02-13

    The intention to leave a job, known as turnover intention, among primary care doctors has a significant impact on primary health care service delivery. We investigated primary care doctors' turnover intention and analysed associated factors involved in primary health facilities in Chongqing, China. A total of 440 doctors were interviewed, they were selected using a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. The survey instrument was a self-administered questionnaire which assessed socio-demographic and work-related characteristics, job satisfaction and turnover intention. The data were analysed using χ 2 test, one-way analysis of variance, exploratory factor analysis and linear regression analysis. Our study found that 42.3% of the primary care doctors we sampled in Chongqing, China, intended to resign. Location, age, job title, doctor's position level, work pressure and job satisfaction were associated with turnover intention. Job satisfaction included both employment-related job satisfaction (including "your chance of promotion", "your rate of pay" and two other items) and satisfaction with the job itself (including "the freedom to choose your own method of working", "your job safety" and two other items). Improving job satisfaction, in terms of salary, promotion and job safety, is crucial for reducing turnover intention among primary care doctors. Therefore, we suggest that the government increase its financial investment in primary care facilities, especially in less-developed areas, and reform incentive mechanisms to improve the job satisfaction of primary care doctors. The government should consider policies such as establishing a social pension programme for village-level doctors and providing more opportunities for job promotion among primary care doctors, especially township-level doctors. Attention should also be paid to the impact of rapid urbanization, which could lead to increased workload or increased opportunities for career development, thus

  8. The relationships between organisational citizenship behaviour, job satisfaction and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yafang; Wu, Shih-Wang

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to explore the relationships between organisational citizenship behaviour, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Because of the changing health policies landscape, Taiwan's hospital administrators are facing major cost reduction challenges. Specifically, the high turnover rate of nurses represents a hindrance and a human resource cost. This study focuses on ways of reducing the employee turnover rate through enhanced organisational citizenship behaviour and job satisfaction. A cross-sectional study. This study focuses on hospital nurses in Taiwan. Our research samples were obtained from one medical centre, three regional hospitals and seven district hospitals. Out of 300 questionnaires distributed among samples, 237 were completed and returned. Pearson's correlation was used to test for relationships among the main variables. One-way analysis of variance and Scheffé's post hoc analysis were employed to test the influence of demographic data on the main variables. The results reveal that the nurses' job satisfaction has a significantly positive correlation with organisational citizenship behaviour and a negative correlation with turnover intention. This study has proven that the turnover intention of clinical nurses is related to their organisational citizenship behaviour and job satisfaction. Hospital administrators can reduce the turnover intention by meeting nurses' needs and by promoting their organisational citizenship behaviour. Organisational citizenship behaviour involves behaviour that encourages staff to endeavour to voluntarily improve organisational performance without lobbying for compensation. Employees' job satisfaction includes satisfaction with the working environment or welfare programme in the context of human resource initiatives. Similarly, human resource protocols may serve as the starting point for promoting staff organisational citizenship behaviour. Administrators in clinical healthcare are encouraged to meet their

  9. Turnover of Stable Isotopes Due to Growth and Metabolism in Zebrafish, Danio Rerio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboush, R.; MacAvoy, S.; Macko, S.; Connaughton, V.

    2002-05-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (13C/12C), nitrogen (15 N/14N) and sulfur (34S/32S) in animal tissues can be used as tracers of the nutrient sources of organisms' diets and determining trophic interactions in ecosystems. The isotopic turnover of these elements in a predator's tissues reflects the isotopic signature of the predator's diet (the prey). The rate at which an organism takes up the isotopic signature of its food is correlated with its growth rate and/or metabolism. Hence unless baseline isotopic turnover rates are known, the isotopic signature of a consumer may lead to misinterpretation of predator-prey relationships. Laboratory studies provide isotopic turnover rates of organisms under controlled conditions, which serve as models for understanding the rates at which organisms in the field isotopically incorporate new diets. This study examines the isotopic turnover rates of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in response to a dietary switch in young zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish, raised on commercial fish food (8.2 ñ 0.5%, d34S; were fed a new, isotopically distinct diet (2.9 ñ 0.5%, d34S) and the rate at which zebra fish muscle tissues changed towards the isotopic signature of their new food was monitored. Preliminary results show a change in the fish sulfur isotope composition of roughly 0.03% per day towards the sulfur isotope ratio of the new food. At the observed turnover rate, approximately 180 days would be required for the zebrafish muscle tissue to resemble a new food. The study is also investigating the importance of growth versus metabolism as a predictor of isotope turnover rate in zebra fish tissues.

  10. Bone turnover markers do not predict stress fracture in elite combat recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovich, Ran; Evans, Rachel K; Friedman, Eitan; Moran, Daniel S

    2013-04-01

    With bone resorption rates greater than formation, stress fracture pathogenesis plausibly involves bone remodeling imbalance. If this is the case, one would anticipate serum levels of bone turnover markers would be higher in patients with stress fractures than in those without. We therefore asked whether: (1) bone turnover markers differ between soldiers who will or will not have stress fractures during basic training; (2) bone turnover markers change during basic training; and (3) serial bone formation or bone resorption markers differ between subjects with and without stress fractures during basic training? We performed serial determinations of serum bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase [BAP] and procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide [PINP]), and resorption (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP5b] and cross-linked collagen telopeptide [CTx]) biomarkers, measured at 2- to 4-week intervals (during 18 weeks) in 69 male soldiers in the Israeli Defense Forces during elite basic training. Twenty-two soldiers (32%) were diagnosed with stress fractures. The mean training week at diagnosis was 8.0±2.0 weeks. We observed no differences in bone turnover markers between soldiers with and without stress fractures. During basic training, the mean values of all subjects for bone turnover markers (BAP, PINP, and CTx) changed in comparison to their mean levels at induction (43.9 versus 37.3 μg/L, 110.4 versus 78.0 μg/L, 1.4 versus 1.1 ng/mL, respectively). We found no changes in bone formation and resorption markers between subjects with and without stress fractures. These specific bone turnover markers cannot be considered as either diagnostic or predictive tools for stress fracture detection in young male military recruits. Level II prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Relationship of workplace incivility, stress, and burnout on nurses' turnover intentions and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeleye, Olubunmi; Hanson, Patricia; O'Connor, Nancy; Dunn, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the relationships among perceived workplace incivility, stress, burnout, perceived turnover intentions, and perceived level of psychological empowerment among acute care nurses (medical-surgical and critical care) in community and tertiary hospitals through the lens of complexity science. An exploratory study was conducted, and findings demonstrate significant relationships among workplace incivility, stress, burnout, turnover intentions, total years of nursing experience, and RN education levels. Creating targeted retention strategies and policies that will be sensitive to the needs and interests of nurses at high risk for leaving their organizations is imperative for nurse executives.

  12. Emotional exhaustion, absenteeism, and turnover intentions in childcare teachers: examining the impact of physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L; Baumgartner, Jennifer J; Matthews, Russell A; Tsouloupas, Costas N

    2010-09-01

    Drawing on Salmon's (2001) unifying theory of the beneficial effects of physical exercise, we examined physical activity behaviors as an important, but understudied, buffer against experiences of emotional exhaustion, absenteeism, and turnover intentions in 189 childcare teachers. Structural equation modeling revealed that workplace and leisure-time physical activity were negatively related to emotional exhaustion, which in turn, was positively related to teacher migration and attrition intentions. Post-hoc analyses revealed indirect (mediated) effects between physical activity behaviors and teacher turnover intentions via emotional exhaustion. This theoretically driven model fit the data better than an alternative model whereby emotional exhaustion predicts physical activity behaviors.

  13. Turnover do carbono (δ13c) em linhagens de frangos de corte tipo colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Priscila Cavalca [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o turnover do carbono-13 no músculo peitoral e quilha de três linhagens de frango tipo colonial Máster Griss, Vermelhão Pesado e Label Rouge, em diferentes fases de crescimento. Foram alojados 768 pintos de um dia de idade, divididos em 6 grupos (G). Para avaliar o turnover nos tecidos, o grupo G0-21 recebeu dieta composta predominantemente por plantas do ciclo C3, os demais grupos tiveram a dieta C4 substituída pela dieta C3 aos 7 (G7-35), 14(G14-49);...

  14. Accelerated collagen turnover in women with angina pectoris without obstructive coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe H; Mygind, Naja D; Michelsen, Marie M

    2018-01-01

    Aim Collagens are major cardiac extracellular matrix components, known to be actively remodelled and accumulated during diffuse myocardial fibrosis. We evaluated whether accelerated collagen turnover described by neo-epitope biomarkers reflecting collagen formation and degradation separates......, but without significant obstructive coronary artery disease, showed an imbalanced collagen turnover compared to asymptomatic controls. The examined biomarkers are tools to monitor active collagen remodelling in patients with angina pectoris, in risk of developing myocardial fibrosis....... patients with diffuse myocardial fibrosis from asymptomatic controls. Methods and results Seventy-one women with angina pectoris without significant coronary artery disease assessed by invasive coronary angiogram were included. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) measuring circulating...

  15. Cesium-134 and strontium-85 turnover rates in the centipede Scolopocryptops nigridia McNeill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, L R; Crossley, Jr, D A

    1979-07-01

    Radioactive tracers are providing significant information about the ecology of food chains, including such phenomena as accumulation of radioactive fission products, movement of materials along food chains, assimilation and ingestion rates, and nutrient accumulation and turnover. In this study the ingestion, assimilation and turnover to two radioactive tracers were investigated for Scolopocryptops nigridia, an abundant species in forests of the southeastern United States. The two tracers utilized, cesium-134 and strontium-85, are metabolic analogs of potassium and calcium, respectively. The research was performed as part of a larger investigation on the population ecology of the centipede species, emphasizing its relations to nutrient cycling and energy flow in a forest floor system.

  16. Do inclusive leaders help to reduce turnover in diverse groups? The moderating role of leader-member exchange in the diversity to turnover relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Lisa H; Mayer, David M

    2009-11-01

    This research examines leader-member exchange (LMX) at the group level as a moderator of the relationships between demographic (i.e., race, age, gender) and tenure diversity and group turnover. Drawing primarily from LMX, social categorization, and expectation states theories, we hypothesized that through the pattern of LMX relationships that they develop with followers, group managers influence inclusion and status differentials within groups such that the positive relationship between diversity and group turnover will be weaker when the group mean on LMX is high or when group differentiation on LMX is low. Results from a sample of supermarket departments (N = 348) yielded general support for the study hypotheses. We also found evidence for a 3-way interaction involving demographic diversity, LMX mean, and LMX differentiation such that the interaction between demographic diversity and LMX differentiation was only significant when LMX mean was high. These findings highlight the important role that leaders play in influencing the relationship between diversity and turnover through the patterns of inclusion that they create in their units.

  17. Plasma Protein Turnover Rates in Rats Using Stable Isotope Labeling, Global Proteomics, and Activity-Based Protein Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Tyrrell, Kimberly J.; Hansen, Joshua R.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Murphree, Taylor A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Luders, Teresa; Madden, James M.; Li, Yunying; Wright, Aaron T.; Piehowski, Paul D.

    2017-12-06

    Protein turnover is important for general health on cellular and organism scales providing a strategy to replace old, damaged, or dysfunctional proteins. Protein turnover also informs of biomarker kinetics, as a better understanding of synthesis and degradation of proteins increases the clinical utility of biomarkers. Here, turnover rates of plasma proteins in rats were measured in vivo using a pulse-chase stable isotope labeling experiment. During the pulse, rats (n=5) were fed 13C6-labeled lysine (“heavy”) feed for 23 days to label proteins. During the chase, feed was changed to an unlabeled equivalent feed (“light”), and blood was repeatedly sampled from rats over 10 time points for 28 days. Plasma samples were digested with trypsin, and analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). MaxQuant was used to identify peptides and proteins, and quantify heavy:light lysine ratios. A system of ordinary differential equations was used to calculate protein turnover rates. Using this approach, 273 proteins were identified, and turnover rates were quantified for 157 plasma proteins with half-lives ranging 0.3-103 days. For the ~70 most abundant proteins, variability in turnover rates among rats was low (median coefficient of variation: 0.09). Activity-based protein profiling was applied to pooled plasma samples to enrich serine hydrolases using a fluorophosphonate (FP2) activity-based probe. This enrichment resulted in turnover rates for an additional 17 proteins. This study is the first to measure global plasma protein turnover rates in rats in vivo, measure variability of protein turnover rates in any animal model, and utilize activity-based protein profiling for enhancing measurements of targeted, low-abundant proteins, such as those commonly used as biomarkers. Measured protein turnover rates will be important for understanding of the role of protein turnover in cellular and organism health as well as increasing the utility of protein

  18. Effects of Environment and Space on Species Turnover of Woody Plants across Multiple Forest Dynamic Plots in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yuan, Zhiliang; Li, Peikun; Cao, Ruofan; Jia, Hongru; Ye, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Species turnover is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms that influence large-scale species richness patterns. However, few studies have described and interpreted large-scale spatial variation in plant species turnover, and the causes of this variation remain elusive. In addition, the determinants of species turnover depend on the dispersal ability of growth forms. In this study, we explored the large-scale patterns of woody species turnover across the latitude gradient based on eight large stem-mapping plots (covering 184 ha forest) in East Asia. The patterns of woody species turnover increased significantly with increasing latitude differences in East Asia. For overall woody species, environment explained 36.30, 37.20, and 48.48% of the total variance in Jaccard's (β j ), Sorenson's, (β s ), and Simpson's dissimilarity (β sim ). Spatial factors explained 47.92, 48.39, and 41.38% of the total variance in β j , β s , and β sim , respectively. The effects of pure spatial and spatially structured environments were stronger than pure environmental effects for overall woody species. Our results support the hypothesis that the effect of neutral processes on woody species turnover is more important than the effect of the environment. Neutral processes explained more variation for turnover of tree species, and environmental factors explained more variation for the turnover of shrub species on a large scale. Therefore, trees and shrubs should be subjected to different protection strategies in future biodiversity conservation efforts.

  19. Turnover rates of B cells, T cells, and NK cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Mohri, H.; Ho, D.D.; Perelson, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    We determined average cellular turnover rates by fitting mathematical models to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine measurements in SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques. The daily turnover rates of CD4(+) T cells, CD4(-) T cells, CD20(+) B cells, and CD16(+) NK cells in normal uninfected rhesus macaques

  20. Collagen turnover in normal and degenerate human intervertebral discs as determined by the racemization of aspartic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivan, S.-S.; Wachtel, E.; Tsitron, E.; Sakkee, N.; Ham, F. van der; Groot, J.de; Roberts, S.; Maroudas, A.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of rates of protein turnover is important for a quantitative understanding of tissue synthesis and catabolism. In this work, we have used the racemization of aspartic acid as a marker for the turnover of collagen obtained from healthy and pathological human intervertebral disc matrices. We

  1. The relationships between psychological strain, organizational support, affective commitment and turnover intentions of highly educated hospitality employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, D.M.; Rheede, van A.; Blomme, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of highly educated employees in the hospitality industry is growing rapidly. A predictor of turnover in the hospitality industry recently put forward, but not yet fully researched, is psychological strain. This chapter investigates the role of psychological strain and organizational support

  2. A novel biomarker of laminin turnover is associated with mortality and disease progression in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Holm; Guldager Kring Rasmussen, Daniel; Fenton, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    matrix (ECM) remodeling. The laminin γ1 (LAMC1) chain is a constituent of the laminin types present in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and its turnover may be altered in CKD. Fragments of LAMC1 could quantify GBM turnover in human CKD and reflect pathological tissue changes. We developed...

  3. Surgical team turnover and operative time: An evaluation of operating room efficiency during pulmonary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Alain Joe; Shah, Karan; Seely, Andrew; Villeneuve, James Patrick; Sundaresan, Sudhir R; Shamji, Farid M; Maziak, Donna E; Gilbert, Sebastien

    2016-05-01

    Health care resources are costly and should be used judiciously and efficiently. Predicting the duration of surgical procedures is key to optimizing operating room resources. Our objective was to identify factors influencing operative time, particularly surgical team turnover. We performed a single-institution, retrospective review of lobectomy operations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of different factors on surgical time (skin-to-skin) and total procedure time. Staff turnover within the nursing component of the surgical team was defined as the number of instances any nurse had to leave the operating room over the total number of nurses involved in the operation. A total of 235 lobectomies were performed by 5 surgeons, most commonly for lung cancer (95%). On multivariate analysis, percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second, surgical approach, and lesion size had a significant effect on surgical time. Nursing turnover was associated with a significant increase in surgical time (53.7 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 6.4-101; P = .026) and total procedure time (83.2 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 30.1-136.2; P = .002). Active management of surgical team turnover may be an opportunity to improve operating room efficiency when the surgical team is engaged in a major pulmonary resection. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Causes and Effects of English Teachers' Turnover: A Case from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawary, Omidullah; Ali, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenging issues that educational organizations in developing countries face in staffing classrooms with qualified teachers is the high rate of teachers' turnover. It creates problems for schools, which eventually leads to substandard instruction and low student achievement. This research explores the causes of English teachers'…

  5. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Employees Turnover Rate in FMCG Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Sultan Siddiqui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study has been designed to determine the impact of emotional intelligence on turnover rate of first line managers of FMCG organizations in Karachi. It is generally believed that low emotional intelligence is a determinant of high turnover rate in first line managers of the FMCG organization. A sample of 40 employees from different FMCG organizations of Karachi who are performing their duties at first line management level falling within the age range of 20–40 years, with education level from Intermediate to Masters has been drawn randomly. Personal information of the participants is collected through demographic information sheet. TEIQue (Petrides and Furnhm, 2003 questionnaire is used to measure the variables of employees’ turnover and trait emotional intelligence. All participants have to respond on a seven point Likert scale. A higher score on this scale indicates higher level of emotional intelligence. In order to analyze the data, Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, V, 12 is applied. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation is applied to study the sample characteristics and linear regression analysis and Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation (Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient is calculated. This analysis shows strong relation of low emotional intelligence with increased employee job turnover rate.

  6. Workplace Incivility and Conflict Management Styles: Predicting Job Performance, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Trudel, Jeannie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among conflict management styles and target and instigator incivility and job performance, organizational commitment, and turnover intent. Data from 270 employees suggested that experiencing and instigating uncivil behavior occurred frequently. Using an integrative conflict management style…

  7. The Unfolding Impact of Leader Identity Entrepreneurship on Burnout, Work Engagement, and Turnover Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Niklas K; Yang, Jie; Jetten, Jolanda; Haslam, S Alexander; Lipponen, Jukka

    2017-07-27

    The present research expands upon previous theory and empirical work concerning the leadership-health link by examining the lagged effects of leader identity entrepreneurship (i.e., leaders' creation of a sense of "we" and "us" among team members) on team members' burnout, work engagementi and turnover intentions. We report results from a 2-wave field study with employees from a large solar panel producing organization in China conducted over a 10-month period. Findings indicate that perceived leader identity entrepreneurship predicted greater subsequent work engagement among team members, as well as lower subsequent burnout and turnover intentions. Moreover, effects on reduced turnover intentions were mediated by reduced burnout and increased work engagement. These findings are the first to examine how leader identity entrepreneurship impacts subsequent employee health and turnover intentions and suggest that leaders help to promote health and well-being in the workplace by creating and developing a sense of shared identity among those they lead. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The impact of organisational factors on horizontal bullying and turnover intentions in the nursing workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Sheila; Harlos, Karen; Macleod, Martha L P; Hardy, Cindy L

    2015-11-01

    To examine the impact of organisational factors on bullying among peers (i.e. horizontal) and its effect on turnover intentions among Canadian registered nurses (RNs). Bullying among nurses is an international problem. Few studies have examined factors specific to nursing work environments that may increase exposure to bullying. An Australian model of nurse bullying was tested among Canadian registered nurse coworkers using a web-based survey (n = 103). Three factors - misuse of organisational processes/procedures, organisational tolerance and reward of bullying, and informal organisational alliances - were examined as predictors of horizontal bullying, which in turn was examined as a predictor of turnover intentions. The construct validity of model measures was explored. Informal organisational alliances and misuse of organisational processes/procedures predicted increased horizontal bullying that, in turn, predicted increased turnover intentions. Construct validity of model measures was supported. Negative informal alliances and misuse of organisational processes are antecedents to bullying, which adversely affects employment relationship stability. The results suggest that reforming flawed organisational processes that contribute to registered nurses' bullying experiences may help to reduce chronically high turnover. Nurse leaders and managers need to create workplace processes that foster positive networks, fairness and respect through more transparent and accountable practices. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. When Teaching Gets Tough--Professional Community Inhibitors of Teacher-Targeted Bullying and Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Bullying in school has become an international concern in recent decades. Yet, we know surprisingly little about inhibitors of teacher-targeted bullying. The study focused on exploring the interrelation between the teacher-working environment fit, bullying, experienced exhaustion and turnover intentions. Altogether 2310 comprehensive school…

  10. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention of Online Teachers in the K-12 Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Ingle M.; Brantley-Dias, Laurie; Lokey-Vega, Anissa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and explore factors influencing K-12 online teachers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions. Using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (1954), Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Satisfaction (1959, 1968), Meyer and Allen's measure of Organizational Commitment (1997), and Fishbein and…

  11. Biographical and demographical variables as moderators in the prediction of turnover intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine du Plooy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The aim of the study was to explore the possible moderation effects of biographical and demographical variables on a prediction model of turnover intention (TI.Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to determine how biographical and demographical variables have an impact on predictors of turnover intentions.Motivation for the study: Twenty-first century organisations face significant challenges in the management of talent and human capital. One in particular is voluntary employee turnover and the lack of appropriate business models to track this process.Research design, approach, and method: A secondary data analysis (SDA was performed in a quantitative research tradition on the cross-sectional survey sample (n = 2429. Data were collected from a large South African Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector company (N = 23 134.Main findings: The results of the study confirmed significant moderation effects regarding race, age, and marital status in the prediction equations of TIs.Practical and managerial implications: Practical implications of the study suggested increased understanding of workforce diversity effects within the human resource (HR value chain, with resultant evidence-based, employee retention strategies and interventions. Issues concerning talent management could also be addressed.Contribution and value-add: The study described in this article took Industrial/Organisational (I/O psychological concepts and linked them in unique combinations to establish better predictive validity of a more comprehensive turnover intentions model.

  12. An application of Six Sigma methodology to turnover intentions in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show how the principles of Six Sigma can be applied to the high turnover problem of doctors in medical emergency services and paramedic backup. Six Sigma's define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC) is applied for reducing the turnover rate of doctors in an organisation operating in emergency services. Variables of the model are determined. Explanatory factor analysis, multiple regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Gage R&R are employed for the analysis. Personal burnout/stress and dissatisfaction from salary were found to be the "vital few" variables. The organisation took a new approach by improving its initiatives to doctors' working conditions. Sigma level of the process is increased. New policy and process changes have been found to effectively decrease the incidence of turnover intentions. The improved process is gained, standardised and institutionalised. This study is one of the few papers in the literature that elaborates the turnover problem of doctors working in the emergency and paramedic backup services.

  13. Naval Air Station Cubi Point: A ’Hot Turnover’? A Management Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    others. Her ineptness at appointing a coalition government spokesperson set off a power struggle within the Philippine political system that lost...enabled early joint development of a turnover plan and schedule. Inordinate delay in identifying the new custodian would have adversely impacted the ability

  14. Investigating the low-mass slope and possible turnover in the LMC IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We propose to derive the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the field population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) down to 0.2 solar masses, probing the mass regime where the characteristic IMF turnover is observed in our Galaxy. The power of the HST, using the WFC3 IR channel, is necessary to obtain photometric mass estimates for the faint, cool, dwarf stars with masses below the expected IMF turnover point. Only by probing the IMF down to such masses, it will be possible to clearly distinguish between a bottom-heavy or bottom-light IMF in the LMC. Recent studies, using the deepest available observations for the Small Magellanic Cloud, cannot find clear evidence of a turnover in the IMF for this galaxy, suggesting a bottom-heavy IMF in contrast to the Milky Way. A similar study of the LMC is needed to confirm a possible dependence of the low-mass IMF with galactic environment. Studies of giant ellipticals have recently challenged the picture of a universal IMF, and suggest an enviromental dependence of the IMF, with the most massive galaxies having a larger fraction of low mass stars and no IMF turnover. A study of possible IMF variations from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies is of great importance in sheding light on this issue. Our simple approach, using direct evidence from basic star counts, is much less prone to systematic errors with respect to studies of more distant objects which have to rely on the observations of integrated properties.

  15. Signal-dependent turnover of the bacterial flagellar switch protein FliM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delalez, Nicolas J; Wadhams, George H; Rosser, Gabriel; Xue, Quan; Brown, Mostyn T; Dobbie, Ian M; Berry, Richard M; Leake, Mark C; Armitage, Judith P

    2010-06-22

    Most biological processes are performed by multiprotein complexes. Traditionally described as static entities, evidence is now emerging that their components can be highly dynamic, exchanging constantly with cellular pools. The bacterial flagellar motor contains approximately 13 different proteins and provides an ideal system to study functional molecular complexes. It is powered by transmembrane ion flux through a ring of stator complexes that push on a central rotor. The Escherichia coli motor switches direction stochastically in response to binding of the response regulator CheY to the rotor switch component FliM. Much is known of the static motor structure, but we are just beginning to understand the dynamics of its individual components. Here we measure the stoichiometry and turnover of FliM in functioning flagellar motors, by using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of E. coli expressing genomically encoded YPet derivatives of FliM at physiological levels. We show that the approximately 30 FliM molecules per motor exist in two discrete populations, one tightly associated with the motor and the other undergoing stochastic turnover. This turnover of FliM molecules depends on the presence of active CheY, suggesting a potential role in the process of motor switching. In many ways the bacterial flagellar motor is as an archetype macromolecular assembly, and our results may have further implications for the functional relevance of protein turnover in other large molecular complexes.

  16. Accelerated microbial turnover but constant growth efficiency with warming in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon B. Hagerty; Kees Jan van Groenigen; Steven D. Allison; Bruce A. Hungate; Egbert Schwartz; George W. Koch; Randall K. Kolka; Paul. Dijkstra

    2014-01-01

    Rising temperatures are expected to reduce global soil carbon (C) stocks, driving a positive feedback to climate change1-3. However, the mechanisms underlying this prediction are not well understood, including how temperature affects microbial enzyme kinetics, growth effiency (MGE), and turnover4,5. Here, in a laboratory...

  17. School Organizational Contexts, Teacher Turnover, and Student Achievement: Evidence from Panel Data. Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Matthew A.; Marinell, William H.; Yee, Darrick

    2016-01-01

    We study the relationship between school organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement in New York City (NYC) middle schools. Using factor analysis, we construct measures of four distinct dimensions of school contexts captured on the annual NYC School Survey. We identify credible estimates by isolating variation in…

  18. School Organizational Contexts, Teacher Turnover, and Student Achievement: Evidence From Panel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Matthew A.; Marinell, William H.; Shen-Wei Yee, Darrick

    2016-01-01

    We study the relationship between school organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement in New York City (NYC) middle schools. Using factor analysis, we construct measures of four distinct dimensions of school climate captured on the annual NYC School Survey. We identify credible estimates by isolating variation in…

  19. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beavan, L A; Davies, M; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defi...

  20. Leadership Styles of Nursing Home Administrators and Their Association with Staff Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Christopher; Castle, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between nursing home administrator (NHA) leadership style and staff turnover. Design and Methods: We analyzed primary data from a survey of 2,900 NHAs conducted in 2005. The Online Survey Certification and Reporting database and the Area Resource File were utilized to extract…

  1. Chemical and mineral control of soil carbon turnover in abandoned tropical pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika Marín-Spiotta; Christopher W. Swanston; Margaret S. Torn; Whendee L. Silver; Sarah D. Burton

    2007-01-01

    We investigated changes in soil carbon (C) cycling with reforestation across a long-term, replicated chronosequence of tropical secondary forests regrowing on abandoned pastures. We applied CP MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and radiocarbon modeling to soil density fractions from the top 10 cm to track changes in C chemistry and turnover during secondary forest establishment...

  2. Coupled Model of Artificial Neural Network and Grey Model for Tendency Prediction of Labor Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueru Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of labor turnover in the Chinese enterprise shows the characteristics of seasonal fluctuations and irregular distribution of various factors, especially the Chinese traditional social and cultural characteristics. In this paper, we present a coupled model for the tendency prediction of labor turnover. In the model, a time series of tendency prediction of labor turnover was expressed as trend item and its random item. Trend item of tendency prediction of labor turnover is predicted using Grey theory. Random item of trend item is calculated by artificial neural network model (ANN. A case study is presented by the data of 24 months in a Chinese matured enterprise. The model uses the advantages of “accumulative generation” of a Grey prediction method, which weakens the original sequence of random disturbance factors and increases the regularity of data. It also takes full advantage of the ANN model approximation performance, which has a capacity to solve economic problems rapidly, describes the nonlinear relationship easily, and avoids the defects of Grey theory.

  3. Employee Engagement and Turnover Intent: An Analysis of the Thai Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanthasith, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Organizations these days are facing a number of challenges that affect their performance and productivity. As workplaces become more challenging to employees, employee engagement and turnover become critical concerns for management. Drawing on insights from the Job Demand-Resource model, this study explores the relationships between key…

  4. The Magnitude, Destinations and Determinants of Mathematics and Science Teacher Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Richard; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to use nationally representative data to examine the rates, destinations and sources of math and science teacher turnover. There are four sets of research questions the authors address concerning the departure of mathematics and science teachers from their schools: (1) At what rates do mathematics/science teachers…

  5. Influence of Sex and Estrogen on Musculotendinous Protein Turnover at Rest and After Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjær, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Women differ from men with regard to muscle and tendon, most likely because of sex differences in estrogen. The present experimental findings suggest the hypothesis that estrogen has an anabolic effect on muscle primarily by lowering the protein turnover and enhancing sensitivity to resistance tr...

  6. Work-Family Climate, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover: Multilevel Contagion Effects of Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, John W.; Harrison, Michelle M.; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work-family climate (operationalized in terms of three work-family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using…

  7. Physical fitness influences water turnover and body water changes during trekking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, C; Gfrörer, W; Dickhuth, H H; Moeller, H

    1998-05-01

    This study was performed to assess water turnover and changes of body water during a trekking tour at moderate altitude. Fifteen healthy normally trained adults participated in a 7-d backpack trek tour in the Swiss Alps (total walking distance: 120.5 km; cumulated altitude difference: 6990 m (uphill) and 7550 m downhill; lowest point: 1285 m; highest point: 3317 m). Total body water and water turnover were measured using deuterium dilution and elimination (oral load of 0.33 g 99.8% D2O per kg body weight, overnight equilibration period, pre- and postdose saliva samples immediately before and after sleep, analysis of D2O concentrations in saliva using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, CV cycle ergometer. Body water decreased from the evening of day 0 to the evening of day 4 (from 45.3 +/- 7.3 L to 43.4 +/- 7.6 L, P < 0.05), and did not significantly decrease (43.5 +/- 7.9 L) until the evening of day 5 (maximum of trekking exercise intensity). Mean daily water turnover was 5.7 +/- 1.8 L x d(-1) corresponding to 78.7 +/- 17.5 mL x kg(-1) x d(-1). Body water changes and water turnover were significantly related to the exercise intensity obtained at the lactate threshold as well as at the level of 4 mM lactate. This correlation may be in part explained by differing glycogen content of muscle tissue.

  8. Is This Work Sustainable? Teacher Turnover and Perceptions of Workload in Charter Management Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. Chris

    2016-01-01

    An unsustainable workload is considered the primary cause of teacher turnover at Charter Management Organizations (CMOs), yet most reports provide anecdotal evidence to support this claim. This study uses 2010-2011 survey data from one large CMO and finds that teachers' perceptions of workload are significantly associated with decisions to leave…

  9. Polarized membrane traffic and cell polarity development is dependent on dihydroceramide synthase-regulated sphinganine turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ijzendoorn, SCD; van der Wouden, JM; Liebisch, G; Schmitz, G; Hoekstra, D

    Sphingoid bases have been implicated in various cellular processes including cell growth, apoptosis and cell differentiation. Here, we show that the regulated turnover of sphingoid bases is crucial for cell polarity development, i.e., the biogenesis of apical plasma membrane domains, in

  10. The importance of career insecurity for turnover intentions in the Dutch military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eetveldt, M.W.; van de Ven, N.; van den Tooren, M.; Versteeg, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two dimensions of job insecurity (job loss insecurity and career insecurity) on turnover intentions were tested in a sample from the Dutch armed forces (N = 3,580) after a major downsizing operation was announced. Results suggested that especially perceptions of career insecurity

  11. Turnover time of Leydig cells and other interstitial cells in testes of adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K. J.; de rooij, D. G.; Rommerts, F. F.; van der Tweel, I.; Wensing, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the turnover of Leydig cells and other interstitial cells in the adult rat testis. Normal adult rats received injections of [3H]thymidine at 9:00 and 21:00 for 2, 5, or 8 days. The percentage of labeled Leydig cells, which was initially low (0.8% +/- 0.2%),

  12. Effect of collagen turnover and matrix metalloproteinase activity on healing of venous leg ulcers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, F.J.; Burnand, K.G.; Abisi, S.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Els, B. van; Smith, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The presence of fibrous tissue in poorly healing venous leg ulcers suggests abnormal collagen metabolism. The aim was to determine whether there were differences in collagen turnover and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity between ulcers that healed, those that did not heal and

  13. The Impact of Employee Engagement Factors and Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mary Lynn; Morris, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    The current literature review examined a proposed relationship between the antecedent-employee engagement factors--and the outcome variable turnover intent mediated by job satisfaction. Kahn's Personal Engagement Theory, Equity Theory, and Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction were used as the theoretical underpinnings for the review.…

  14. The Impact of Board of Directors’ Turnover on the Association Between Financial Restatements and Audit Fees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Kalantonis, P.; Boufounou, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between financial restatements and audit fees, and the effect of board of directors turnover on this relationship. Restatements are seen as a financial reporting failure, increasing risk for the auditor resulting in a higher audit fee. Regression analysis using

  15. [Effects of nurses' mentoring on turnover intention: focused on the mediating effects role stress and burnout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangsook; Kim, Ohsook; Joo, Yunsu; Choi, Eunduck; Han, Jeongwon

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the casual relationship between nurses' mentoring and turnover intention and to verify the goodness of fit between a hypothetical model and actual data in order to suggest an adequate model. The survey was conducted with 434 nurses working in general hospitals in Seoul. Data were collected during February 2013, and analyzed with SPSS Windows 18.0 and AMOS 7.0. Mentoring was found to have a direct effect on decrease in role stress. Role stress had a direct effect on increase in burnout and mentoring, with role stress as a mediator, there was an indirect effect on burnout. Burnout had a direct effect on increase in turnover intention, and role stress, with burnout as a mediator, and mentoring, through role stress and burnout, an indirect effect was found on increase in turnover intention. The results of this study indicate that nursing managers should put effort into reducing role stress and burnout, while seeking to establish a more efficient mentoring system so that for nurses, there will be a lowering of turnover intention.

  16. Turnover capacity of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase for phenol and monosubstituted phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, M.D.; Heck, P.E. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and other peroxidases are susceptible to mechanism-based inactivation during the oxidation of phenolic substrates. The turnover capacity of CIP was quantified for phenol and 11 monosubstituted phenols under conditions in which enzyme inactivation by mechanisms involving hydrogen peroxide alone were minimized. Turnover capacities varied by nearly 2 orders of magnitude, depending on the substituent. On a mass basis, the enzyme consumption corresponding to the lowest turnover capacities is considerable and may influence the economic feasibility of proposed industrial applications of peroxidases. Within a range of substituent electronegativity values, molar turnover capacities correlated well (r{sup 2} = 0.89) with substituent effects quantified by radical {sigma} values and semiquantitatively with homolytic O-H bond dissociation energies of the phenolic substrates, suggesting that phenoxyl radical intermediates are probably involved in the suicide inactivation of CIP. The correlation range in each case did not include phenols with highly electron-withdrawing (nitro and cyano) substituents because they are not oxidized by CIP, nor phenols with highly electron-donating (hydroxy and amino) substituents because they led to virtually complete inactivation of the enzyme with minimal substrate removal.

  17. Longitudinal Analysis of Personal and Work-Related Factors Associated With Turnover Among Nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estryn-Behar, Madeleine; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Fry, Clementine; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2010-01-01

    AB Background: Although many scholars have acknowledged the relationship between personal and work-related factors associated with job search and actual turnover, there is a lack of longitudinal designs that test this relationship empirically. Objectives: This longitudinal study examines specific

  18. Signal-dependent turnover of the bacterial flagellar switch protein FliM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delalez, Nicolas J.; Wadhams, George H.; Rosser, Gabriel; Xue, Quan; Brown, Mostyn T.; Dobbie, Ian M.; Berry, Richard M.; Leake, Mark C.; Armitage, Judith P.

    2010-01-01

    Most biological processes are performed by multiprotein complexes. Traditionally described as static entities, evidence is now emerging that their components can be highly dynamic, exchanging constantly with cellular pools. The bacterial flagellar motor contains ∼13 different proteins and provides an ideal system to study functional molecular complexes. It is powered by transmembrane ion flux through a ring of stator complexes that push on a central rotor. The Escherichia coli motor switches direction stochastically in response to binding of the response regulator CheY to the rotor switch component FliM. Much is known of the static motor structure, but we are just beginning to understand the dynamics of its individual components. Here we measure the stoichiometry and turnover of FliM in functioning flagellar motors, by using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of E. coli expressing genomically encoded YPet derivatives of FliM at physiological levels. We show that the ∼30 FliM molecules per motor exist in two discrete populations, one tightly associated with the motor and the other undergoing stochastic turnover. This turnover of FliM molecules depends on the presence of active CheY, suggesting a potential role in the process of motor switching. In many ways the bacterial flagellar motor is as an archetype macromolecular assembly, and our results may have further implications for the functional relevance of protein turnover in other large molecular complexes. PMID:20498085

  19. Comparing antecedents of voluntary job turnover among majority and minority employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, J.; van der Zee, K.I.; Otten, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cultural minority employees often display higher rates of voluntary turnover than majority employees, which reduces organizations’ ability to benefit from diversity in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to identify specific job domains which are responsible for this difference.

  20. Two-color fluorescent analysis of connexin 36 turnover: relationship to functional plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen Yanran; Lin, Ya-Ping; Mitchell, Cheryl K; Ram, Sripad; O'Brien, John

    2015-11-01

    Gap junctions formed of connexin 36 (Cx36, also known as Gjd2) show tremendous functional plasticity on several time scales. Changes in connexin phosphorylation modify coupling in minutes through an order of magnitude, but recent studies also imply involvement of connexin turnover in regulating cell-cell communication. We utilized Cx36 with an internal HaloTag to study Cx36 turnover and trafficking in cultured cells. Irreversible, covalent pulse-chase labeling with fluorescent HaloTag ligands allowed clear discrimination of newly formed and pre-existing Cx36. Cx36 in junctional plaques turned over with a half-life of 3.1 h, and the turnover rate was unchanged by manipulations of protein kinase A (PKA) activity. In contrast, changes in PKA activity altered coupling within 20 min. New Cx36 in cargo vesicles was added directly to existing gap junctions and newly made Cx36 was not confined to points of addition, but diffused throughout existing gap junctions. Existing connexins also diffused into photobleached areas with a half-time of less than 2 s. In conclusion, studies of Cx36-HaloTag revealed novel features of connexin trafficking and demonstrated that phosphorylation-based changes in coupling occur on a different time scale than turnover. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Denitrification, nitrate turnover, and aerobic respiration by benthic foraminiferans in the oxygen minimum zone off Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgslund, Signe; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Population density, nitrate turnover, and oxygen respiration of benthic foraminiferans were investigated in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off the Chilean coast. Live foraminiferans were found predominantly in the upper 3 mm of the sediment, and the nitrate accumulating species Nonionella cf. stel...

  2. Suboptimal provision of preventive healthcare due to expected enrollee turnover among private insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    Many preventive healthcare procedures are widely recognized as cost-effective but have relatively low utilization rates in the US. Because preventive care is a present-period investment with a future-period expected financial return, enrollee turnover among private insurers lowers the expected return of this investment. In this paper, I present a simple theoretical model to illustrate the suboptimal provision of preventive healthcare that results from insurers 'free riding' off of the provision from others. I also provide an empirical test of this hypothesis using data from the Community Tracking Study's Household Survey. I use lagged market-level measures of employment-induced insurer turnover to identify variation in insurers' expectations and test for the effect of turnover on several different measures of medical utilization. As expected, I find that turnover has a significantly negative effect on the utilization of preventive services and has no effect on the utilization of acute services used as a control. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Predictors of turnover intentions of highly educated employees in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.; Rheede, van A.

    2008-01-01

    As management-level turnover is increasing rapidly, one of the major challenges for the hospitality industry is to retain highly educated and highly skilled employees. As the psychological contract approach to the employment relationship had not been investigated with regard to the hospitality

  4. Estimating soil turnover rate from tree uprooting during hurricanes in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie T. Lenart; D.A. Falk; F.N. Scatena; W.R. Osterkamp

    2010-01-01

    Soil turnover by tree uprooting in primary and secondary forests on the island of Puerto Rico was measured in 42 study plots in the months immediately after the passage of a Category 3 hurricane. Trunk basal area explained 61% of the variability of mound volume and 53% of the variability of mound area. The proportion of uprooted trees, the number of uprooted trees, or...

  5. Work-Family conflict as a cause for e turnover intentions in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Rheede, van A.; Tromp, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the work-family conflict approach to the turnover intentions of highly educated employees within the hospitality industry. The purpose was to investigate the relation between workplace flexibility, organizational support, work-family conflict and the intention to leave among

  6. Metabolic activity and collagen turnover in human tendon in response to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, H; Miller, B F

    2005-01-01

    Connective tissue of the human tendon plays an important role in force transmission. The extracellular matrix turnover of tendon is influenced by physical activity. Blood flow, oxygen demand, and the level of collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinases increase with mechanical loading. Gene ...

  7. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, T.R.; McCarthy, D.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of season on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 51-to 75-year-old Irish women and to investigate whether such changes are related to vitamin D status. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Setting: Cork, Ireland (52 degrees N). Subjects: 76 apparently he...

  8. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: A 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, Einar M.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Blonk, Roland W. B.; Broersen, Jake P. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological

  9. Cellular Mechanisms in Regulating Mammary Cell Turnover During Lactation and Dry Period in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Theil, P K; Sørensen, M T

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in regulating mammary cell turnover during the pregnancy-lactaion cycle in dairy cows are unclear. The objective of present experiment was to describe expression of genes encoding proteins known to be involved in pathways regulating mammary cell proliferation, apoptosis, d...

  10. Teacher's Turnover Intentions: Examining the Impact of Motivation and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Rabia; Allil, Kamaal; Mahmoud, Ali Bassam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the path of motivation leading to organizational commitment resulting in reduced turnover intentions (TIs). It examines the relationship between dimensions of motivation (amotivation, introjected regulations (IRs) and intrinsic motivation (IM)) with dimensions of commitment (affective, normative and…

  11. Work-Family Conflict, Job Satisfaction and Labour Turnover Intentions among State University Lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oredein, Afolakemi Olasumbo; Alao, Foluso Toyin

    2010-01-01

    Examining the extent at which work-family conflict and job satisfaction could predict the labour turnover intentions among lecturers, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria, as a case study, is the purpose of this study. 229 (95%) respondents out of 240 returned their copies of the questionnaire for data analysis. The results reveal that there was a…

  12. Citizenship behavior and turnover intention : The role of public service motivation and career commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birhane, Lakew Alemu

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation sought to examine the mechanisms for how public service motivation (PSM) in general, individual PSM dimensions, and career commitments influence organizational citizenship behavior, which, in turn, is shown to be related to the turnover intention of public employees. The

  13. Does Gender Diversity in the Workplace Affect Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mikkel Bo; Nielsen, Vibeke Lehmann

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we explore the contextual meanings and consequences of workplace diversity. We focus on gender diversity in the workplace and explore its relationship with job satisfaction and turnover intentions among male and female employees. We perform our analyses in a survey data set ...

  14. USP21 regulates Hippo pathway activity by mediating MARK protein turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Loya, Anand Chainsukh

    2017-01-01

    observed in cancer and often correlates with worse survival. The activity and stability of Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, AMOT and LATS1/2, are regulated by ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Aberrant expression of ubiquitin ligase complexes that regulate the turnover of Hippo components...

  15. The relationship between South Korean clinical nurses' attitudes toward organizations and voluntary turnover intention: A path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Kyung; Chang, Sun Ju

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between attitudes toward their organizations and voluntary turnover intention among South Korean clinical nurses. Data from a total of 312 clinical nurses in six hospitals in South Korea were collected for the study. Both hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis were used to analyse the data. The overall fit of the hypothetical model was good. Voluntary turnover intention was found to have significant direct pathways to job embeddedness and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment and satisfaction with organizational rewards had indirect pathways to voluntary turnover intention through job embeddedness. All variances explained 62.3% of the voluntary turnover intention scores. The findings suggest that greater job embeddedness, organizational commitment and satisfaction with organizational rewards lead to lower voluntary turnover intention among clinical nurses in South Korea. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  17. Reducing turnover is not enough: The need for proficient organizational cultures to support positive youth outcomes in child welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Objective High caseworker turnover has been identified as a factor in the poor outcomes of child welfare services. However, almost no empirical research has examined the relationship between caseworker turnover and youth outcomes in child welfare systems and there is an important knowledge gap regarding whether, and how, caseworker turnover relates to outcomes for youth. We hypothesized that the effects of caseworker turnover are moderated by organizational culture such that reduced caseworker turnover is only associated with improved youth outcomes in organizations with proficient cultures. Methods The study applied hierarchical linear models (HLM) analysis to the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) with a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,346 youth aged 1.5- to 18-years-old and 1,544 caseworkers in 73 child welfare agencies. Proficient organizational culture was measured by caseworkers’ responses to the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure; staff turnover was reported by the agencies’ directors; and youth outcomes were measured as total problems in psychosocial functioning with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) completed by the youths’ caregivers at intake and at 18 month follow-up. Results The association between caseworker turnover and youth outcomes was moderated by organizational culture. Youth outcomes were improved with lower staff turnover in proficient organizational cultures and the best outcomes occurred in organizations with low turnover and high proficiency. Conclusions To be successful, efforts to improve child welfare services by lowering staff turnover must also create proficient cultures that expect caseworkers to be competent and responsive to the needs of the youth and families they serve. PMID:24273363

  18. Factors affecting turnover intentions among public hospital doctors in a middle-level city in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengfan; Luo, Zhenni; Chen, Ting; Min, Rui; Fang, Pengqian

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore prominent factors affecting turnover intentions among public hospital doctors in urban areas, particularly in Xiangyang City, Hubei Province, a middle-level city in central China. Methods Questionnaires were used to collect data from 284 public hospital doctors. Pearson's Chi-squared was used to assess whether sociodemographic and other factors were related to the turnover intentions of public hospital doctors. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine the significant factors that influence turnover intentions. Results The analysis revealed that 28.2% of public hospital doctors intended to leave the hospital where they were currently employed. Dissatisfaction with working conditions and hospital management processes, as well as work pressures, were significant factors contributing to the turnover intentions of public hospital doctors. Conclusion Research into turnover intentions indicates that public hospital doctors surveyed in urban China give greater weight to their professional environment and career development rather than salary in their employment decisions. What is known about the topic? Turnover of medical staff is a concern to hospital administrators because it is costly and detrimental to organisational performance and quality of care. Most studies have focused on the effects of individual and organisational factors on nurses' intentions to leave their employment. Income dissatisfaction was one of the determining factors of turnover intentions in previous studies. What does this paper add? The satisfaction of public hospital doctors with regard to income is not a determining factor of turnover intentions. In contrast with findings of previous studies, the doctors in public hospitals in urban China in the present study gave greater weight to their professional environment and career development in their employment decisions. What are the implications for practitioners? The findings suggest

  19. Uncertainties on Root C Turnover and Decomposition and its Impact on Soil C Sequestration Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamala, R.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Roots provide a path for movement of carbon and energy from plant canopies to soils; thus, root production and turnover directly impact the biogeochemical cycle of C and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. Uncertainties in estimates of production, mortality and decomposition of roots prevent proper quantification of net primary productivity (NPP), belowground C allocation and inputs to soil organic matter. Our study compares the ecosystem C sequestration potential of two distinct forest types, a pine and a sweetgum forest, growing under FACE (Free Air CO2-Enrichment) conditions that allow for the use of 13CO2 as a tracer in the tissues and soils. Using this technique root C turnover measurements have showed that although fine roots have often been assumed to have MRT of about one year, the MRT of the fine root C varies from 1 to 9 years depending on root diameter and tree species. The relative importance of a slow or a fast root C turnover is shown on the C accrual rate of the soil, slow root turnover rates appears to reduce the sequestration potential of C in soil supporting pine trees, while fast root C turnover in a sweetgum forest sustained significant increases in soil C after being exposed to elevated CO2 for five to six years. The rate of root decomposition and root inputs are calculated for both forest types and compared with the rate of soil organic matter accrual. Our results suggest that C sequestration in soils is strongly affected by root production and the MRT of C of the root system.

  20. On the Origin of the High Column Density Turnover in the H I Column Density Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Denis; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-12-01

    We study the high column density regime of the H I column density distribution function and argue that there are two distinct features: a turnover at N H I ≈ 1021 cm-2, which is present at both z = 0 and z ≈ 3, and a lack of systems above N H I ≈ 1022 cm-2 at z = 0. Using observations of the column density distribution, we argue that the H I-H2 transition does not cause the turnover at N H I ≈ 1021 cm-2 but can plausibly explain the turnover at N H I >~ 1022 cm-2. We compute the H I column density distribution of individual galaxies in the THINGS sample and show that the turnover column density depends only weakly on metallicity. Furthermore, we show that the column density distribution of galaxies, corrected for inclination, is insensitive to the resolution of the H I map or to averaging in radial shells. Our results indicate that the similarity of H I column density distributions at z = 3 and 0 is due to the similarity of the maximum H I surface densities of high-z and low-z disks, set presumably by universal processes that shape properties of the gaseous disks of galaxies. Using fully cosmological simulations, we explore other candidate physical mechanisms that could produce a turnover in the column density distribution. We show that while turbulence within giant molecular clouds cannot affect the damped Lyα column density distribution, stellar feedback can affect it significantly if the feedback is sufficiently effective in removing gas from the central 2-3 kpc of high-redshift galaxies. Finally, we argue that it is meaningful to compare column densities averaged over ~ kpc scales with those estimated from quasar spectra that probe sub-pc scales due to the steep power spectrum of H I column density fluctuations observed in nearby galaxies.

  1. Organizational politics, nurses' stress, burnout levels, turnover intention and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, L J; McEnroe-Petitte, D M; Gloe, D; Tsaras, K; Arteche, D L; Maldia, F

    2017-03-01

    This is a research report examining the influence of organizational politics perceptions on nurses' work outcomes (job satisfaction, work stress, job burnout and turnover intention). Organizational politics is a phenomenon common in almost all institutions and is linked with undesirable consequences in employees. Despite the plethora of research around the world on this topic, studies describing organizational politics in nursing remain underexplored. A cross-sectional research design was utilized in this study. One hundred sixty-six (166) nurses participated. Five standardized tools were used: the Job Satisfaction Index, the Job Stress Scale, the Burnout Measure Scale, the Turnover Intention Inventory Scale and the Perception of Organizational Politics Scale. Nurses employed both in private and government-owned hospitals perceived moderate levels of organizational politics. Positive correlations were identified between perceived organizational politics and job stress, turnover intention and job burnout. Negative correlations were found between perceived organizational politics and job satisfaction. Perceptions of workplace politics in Filipino nurses were lower when compared to findings in other international studies. A strong link was found between organizational politics perceptions and the four job outcomes (stress and burnout levels, turnover intention and job satisfaction). Use of a self-reporting questionnaire and exclusion of nurses from other provinces. Perceived organizational politics predicted nurses' stress and burnout levels, turnover intention and job satisfaction. The findings of this study may provide a valuable perspective of this organizational issue and could assist policymakers and nurse administrators in formulating interventions that could minimize the effect of workplace politics. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  2. Metabolic Turnover of Synaptic Proteins: Kinetics, Interdependencies and Implications for Synaptic Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laurie D.; Zuchman, Rina; Sorokina, Oksana; Müller, Anke; Dieterich, Daniela C.; Armstrong, J. Douglas; Ziv, Tamar; Ziv, Noam E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical synapses contain multitudes of proteins, which in common with all proteins, have finite lifetimes and therefore need to be continuously replaced. Given the huge numbers of synaptic connections typical neurons form, the demand to maintain the protein contents of these connections might be expected to place considerable metabolic demands on each neuron. Moreover, synaptic proteostasis might differ according to distance from global protein synthesis sites, the availability of distributed protein synthesis facilities, trafficking rates and synaptic protein dynamics. To date, the turnover kinetics of synaptic proteins have not been studied or analyzed systematically, and thus metabolic demands or the aforementioned relationships remain largely unknown. In the current study we used dynamic Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC), mass spectrometry (MS), Fluorescent Non–Canonical Amino acid Tagging (FUNCAT), quantitative immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics to systematically measure the metabolic half-lives of hundreds of synaptic proteins, examine how these depend on their pre/postsynaptic affiliation or their association with particular molecular complexes, and assess the metabolic load of synaptic proteostasis. We found that nearly all synaptic proteins identified here exhibited half-lifetimes in the range of 2–5 days. Unexpectedly, metabolic turnover rates were not significantly different for presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, or for proteins for which mRNAs are consistently found in dendrites. Some functionally or structurally related proteins exhibited very similar turnover rates, indicating that their biogenesis and degradation might be coupled, a possibility further supported by bioinformatics-based analyses. The relatively low turnover rates measured here (∼0.7% of synaptic protein content per hour) are in good agreement with imaging-based studies of synaptic protein trafficking, yet indicate that the metabolic load

  3. Effects of water and nitrogen addition on species turnover in temperate grasslands in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuwen Xu

    Full Text Available Global nitrogen (N deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change.

  4. Estimating Population Turnover Rates by Relative Quantification Methods Reveals Microbial Dynamics in Marine Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, Richard; Bird, Jordan T; Shumaker, Alexander; Lloyd, Karen G

    2018-01-01

    The difficulty involved in quantifying biogeochemically significant microbes in marine sediments limits our ability to assess interspecific interactions, population turnover times, and niches of uncultured taxa. We incubated surface sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, USA, anoxically at 21°C for 122 days. Sulfate decreased until day 68, after which methane increased, with hydrogen concentrations consistent with the predicted values of an electron donor exerting thermodynamic control. We measured turnover times using two relative quantification methods, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the product of 16S gene read abundance and total cell abundance (FRAxC, which stands for "fraction of read abundance times cells"), to estimate the population turnover rates of uncultured clades. Most 16S rRNA reads were from deeply branching uncultured groups, and ∼98% of 16S rRNA genes did not abruptly shift in relative abundance when sulfate reduction gave way to methanogenesis. Uncultured Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales increased at the onset of methanogenesis with population turnover times estimated from qPCR at 9.7 ± 3.9 and 12.6 ± 4.1 days, respectively. These were consistent with FRAxC turnover times of 9.4 ± 5.8 and 9.2 ± 3.5 days, respectively. Uncultured Syntrophaceae , which are possibly fermentative syntrophs of methanogens, and uncultured Kazan-3A-21 archaea also increased at the onset of methanogenesis, with FRAxC turnover times of 14.7 ± 6.9 and 10.6 ± 3.6 days. Kazan-3A-21 may therefore either perform methanogenesis or form a fermentative syntrophy with methanogens. Three genera of sulfate-reducing bacteria, Desulfovibrio , Desulfobacter , and Desulfobacterium , increased in the first 19 days before declining rapidly during sulfate reduction. We conclude that population turnover times on the order of days can be measured robustly in organic-rich marine sediment, and the transition from sulfate-reducing to methanogenic conditions stimulates

  5. Further examination of predictors of turnover intention among mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchus, N J; Periard, D; Osatuke, K

    2017-02-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: When mental health professionals leave organizations, detrimental effects on quality of patient care occur. Reasons for leaving include incivility, lack of autonomy, perceptions of unfair treatment and feeling psychologically unsafe at work. This paper sought to investigate additional reasons why mental health professionals intend to quit or to cognitively withdraw from their jobs. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Past research on this topic is limited in its scope and data. Mainly fragmented evidence is available about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intention (i.e. different mental health occupations examined in separate studies). Only two existing studies that examined broader mental health provider groups were limited by including few workforce settings, small sample sizes and insufficiently rigorous statistical analyses. We examined four occupations (mental health nurses, social workers, psychologists and psychiatrists), each represented through a large sample in multiple settings, all within one large healthcare network with complex patients. Our contribution is finding additional predictors (supervisory support, emotional exhaustion) of job satisfaction/turnover intention. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Organizations can consider using culture change initiatives to increase civility at work; this includes leadership support and role modelling of workplace behaviours. Leaders should monitor staffing levels and high workloads to pre-empt emotional exhaustion, which predicts turnover. Hiring and training supervisors should involve not only technical expertise, but also 'soft skills' necessary for creating civil and supportive work environments. Leaders and managers should use employee feedback data (e.g. organizational surveys) to learn about the workplace environments, and address areas of employees' concern. Introduction Given the global shortage of mental health professionals, high turnover

  6. Bypass of an anesthesiologist-directed preoperative evaluation clinic results in greater first-case tardiness and turnover times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Schwenk, Eric S; Witkowski, Thomas A

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated 4 hypotheses related to bypass of an anesthesiologist-directed preoperative evaluation clinics (APEC): 1) first-case tardiness and turnover times increased; 2) turnover times increased more than first-case tardiness; and higher American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) resulted in both an ordered increase among ASA PS and within ASA PS in 3) first-case tardiness; and 4) turnover times. Retrospective observational study using electronic health records. One large, teaching hospital. An average of 14,310 patients per year undergoing elective surgery in the hospital's main opera rating rooms who were not inpatients preoperatively between 2006 and 2016. None. Average increases in first-case tardiness and turnover times between patients seen or not seen preoperatively in the APEC. APEC bypass increased first-case tardiness 2.58 min per case (CI 1.55-3.61; PAPEC, the increase in total minutes OR- 1 workday- 1 for turnover times would have been larger than the increase in first-case tardiness (difference=5.71, CI 3.17-4.72; PAPEC bypass for both first-case tardiness and turnover times with increasing ASA PS (PAPEC bypass. All 4 hypotheses were accepted. Overall and with control for ASA PS, APEC bypass increases first-case tardiness and turnover times. A strategy of selective bypass of ASA PS 1-2 patients would not be effective economically because of substantial delays from ASA PS 2 patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Production and turnover of ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelial biomass and necromass under elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Alf; Mikusinska, Anna; Ågren, Göran I; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Wallander, Håkan; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bahr, Adam; Eriksson, Ulrika

    2016-08-01

    Extramatrical mycelia (EMM) of ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, but poor knowledge about EMM biomass and necromass turnovers makes the quantification of their role problematic. We studied the impacts of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on EMM production and turnover in a Pinus taeda forest. EMM C was determined by the analysis of ergosterol (biomass), chitin (total bio- and necromass) and total organic C (TOC) of sand-filled mycelium in-growth bags. The production and turnover of EMM bio- and necromass and total C were estimated by modelling. N fertilization reduced the standing EMM biomass C to 57% and its production to 51% of the control (from 238 to 122 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), whereas elevated CO2 had no detectable effects. Biomass turnover was high (˜13 yr(-1) ) and unchanged by the treatments. Necromass turnover was slow and was reduced from 1.5 yr(-1) in the control to 0.65 yr(-1) in the N-fertilized treatment. However, TOC data did not support an N effect on necromass turnover. An estimated EMM production ranging from 2.5 to 6% of net primary production stresses the importance of its inclusion in C models. A slow EMM necromass turnover indicates an importance in building up forest humus. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Enhancing retention of occupational therapists working in mental health: relationships between wellbeing at work and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Meredith, Pamela; Poulsen, Anne A

    2013-12-01

    Occupational therapists working in mental health who experience burnout, low work engagement or poor job satisfaction are at risk of poor wellbeing at work and may be more likely to leave their jobs. The aim of this project was to explore factors associated with wellbeing at work and turnover intention in a sample of occupational therapists working in mental health. One hundred and three occupational therapists working in mental health in Queensland completed a survey exploring work/life balance, effort invested in work, rewards received from work, wellbeing at work (job satisfaction, burnout and work engagement) and turnover intention. Analyses were conducted to explore relationships between work/life balance, effort, reward, wellbeing at work and turnover intention. All measures of wellbeing at work were significantly associated with turnover intention. A large proportion (33%) of the variance in turnover intention was predicted by job satisfaction. Perceptions of both work/life balance and effort invested in work, as well as perceived rewards in terms of recognition, prestige and personal satisfaction were significantly associated with work-related wellbeing scores. Results from this study deepen the understanding of factors associated with wellbeing at work and turnover intention for occupational therapists in mental health. This knowledge will support the development of interventions aimed at reducing turnover intention and enhancing retention of occupational therapists in the mental health workforce. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. The relationship between human resource development factors, career growth and turnover intention: The mediating role of organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid Nawaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Retaining the best employees is of high concern for most organizations and this issue has become a significant focus of attention for many researchers. For this reason, this paper discusses different factors which influence the employee turnover intention-behavior in the organization, specifically to examine the effect of salary, performance appraisal, training & development and career growth on turnover intention. In addition, based on the social exchange theory this paper explains the mediating role of organizational commitment in the relationship between human resource development factors, career growth and turnover intention. A cross sectional, survey data study is undertaken to investigate the relationships in a sample of 270 full time faculty members employed in different private universities of Pakistan. Partial Least Square two step path modeling is used to test the direct and the indirect hypothesis of the study. The results of PLS (SEM path modeling reveal that human resource development factors specially salary and performance appraisal were negatively associated with turnover intention. In addition, the results also indicate that career growth had significant relationships with turnover intention. Moreover, out of four dimensions of career growth, only two dimensions, namely promotion speed and remuneration growth, have strong influence on turnover intention. Finally, in terms of organizational commitment as mediating variable between the relationships of salary, performance appraisal, career growth and turnover intention, four out of six variables indicate partial mediation including career growth (career goal progress, career growth (promotion speed, career growth (remuneration growth and performance appraisal.

  10. Turnover of microbial groups and cell components in soil: 13C analysis of cellular biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna; Dippold, Michaela; Glaser, Bruno; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms regulate the carbon (C) cycle in soil, controlling the utilization and recycling of organic substances. To reveal the contribution of particular microbial groups to C utilization and turnover within the microbial cells, the fate of 13C-labelled glucose was studied under field conditions. Glucose-derived 13C was traced in cytosol, amino sugars and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) pools at intervals of 3, 10 and 50 days after glucose addition into the soil. 13C enrichment in PLFAs ( ˜ 1.5 % of PLFA C at day 3) was an order of magnitude greater than in cytosol, showing the importance of cell membranes for initial C utilization. The 13C enrichment in amino sugars of living microorganisms at day 3 accounted for 0.57 % of total C pool; as a result, we infer that the replacement of C in cell wall components is 3 times slower than that of cell membranes. The C turnover time in the cytosol (150 days) was 3 times longer than in PLFAs (47 days). Consequently, even though the cytosol pool has the fastest processing rates compared to other cellular compartments, intensive recycling of components here leads to a long C turnover time. Both PLFA and amino-sugar profiles indicated that bacteria dominated in glucose utilization. 13C enrichment decreased with time for bacterial cell membrane components, but it remained constant or even increased for filamentous microorganisms. 13C enrichment of muramic acid was the 3.5 times greater than for galactosamine, showing a more rapid turnover of bacterial cell wall components compared to fungal. Thus, bacteria utilize a greater proportion of low-molecular-weight organic substances, whereas filamentous microorganisms are responsible for further C transformations. Thus, tracing 13C in cellular compounds with contrasting turnover rates elucidated the role of microbial groups and their cellular compartments in C utilization and recycling in soil. The results also reflect that microbial C turnover is not restricted to the death or

  11. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  12. Probing the Jet Turnover Frequency Dependence on Mass and Mass Accretion Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Erica; Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    We have examined a sample of 15 sub-Eddington supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in a variety of galaxy classifications to further understand the proposed fundamental plane of black hole activity and scaling relations between black hole masses and their radio and X-ray luminosities. This plane describes black holes from stellar-mass to supermassive. The physics probed by these sub-Eddington systems is thought to be a radiatively inefficient, jet-dominated accretion flow. By studying black holes in this regime, we can learn important information on the disk-jet connection for accreting black holes.A key factor in studying the fundamental plane is the turnover frequency — the frequency at which emission transitions from optically thick at lower frequencies to optically thin at higher frequencies. This turnover point can be measured by observing the source in both radio and X-ray. Our project aims to test the dependence of the turnover frequency on mass and mass accretion rate.Radio observations of the sample were obtained using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in the range of 5-40 GHz across four different frequency bands in A configuration to give the highest spatial resolution to focus on the core emission. Our carefully chosen sample of SMBHs with dynamically measured masses consists of two sub-samples: those with approximately constant mass accretion rate (LX/LEdd ~ 10‑7) and those with approximately constant mass (MBH ~ 108 Msun). X-ray data were obtained from archival Chandra observations. To find the turnover frequency, we used Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to fit two power laws to the radio data and the archival X-ray data. The intersection of the radio and X-ray fits is the turnover frequency.We present the results for both subsamples of SMBHs and their relationship between the turnover frequency and X-ray luminosity, which we take to scale with mass accretion rate, and jet power derived from both radio and X-ray properties.

  13. Pengaruh Kepuasan Kerja dan Komitmen Organisasi Terhadap Turnover Intention Karyawan (Studi Pada Bank Perkreditan Mitratama Arthabuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim .

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and analyze the influence of job satisfaction (X1 and organizational commitment (X2 as independent variables either simultaneously or  individually  on  Turnover  Intention  (Y  as  the  dependent  variable  on  the employee of PT. BPR Mitratama Arthabuana Kertak Hanyar. This  was  an  explanatory  research  with  unit  analysis  of  PT.  BPR  Mitratama Arthabuana  Kertak  Hanyar.  The  sampling  technique  used  in  this  study  was saturated sample with 53 employees as population. Measurement of variables is done by using Likert Scale technique with weight scale from 1 to 5. Multiple linear  regression  statistical  technique  were  used  to  analyze  the  effect  of  job satisfaction  among  variables  (X1  and  organizational  commitment  (X2  on Turnover Intention (Y. Furthermore, to test the level of significance, the F test and t test with SPSS version 19 used. The study concluded that two independent variables simultaneously, namely job satisfaction variables (X1 and organizational commitment (X2 have significant relationship  to  Turnover  Intention  (Y  variable.  Meanwhile,  individually,  job satisfaction  variable  (X1  has  significant  negative  relationship  on  Turnover Intention  (Y,  as  well  as  the  organizational  commitment  variable  (X2  on  a Turnover Intention (Y.  Keywords :Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention

  14. Turnover rates in microorganisms by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and pulse-chase analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopka, Sylwia A.; Mansour, Tarek R.; Shrestha, Bindesh [Department of Chemistry, W.M. Keck Institute for Proteomics Technology and Applications, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Maréchal, Éric; Falconet, Denis [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et Végétale, UMR 5168, CEA-CNRS-INRA-Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble (France); Vertes, Akos, E-mail: vertes@gwu.edu [Department of Chemistry, W.M. Keck Institute for Proteomics Technology and Applications, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical processes rely on elaborate networks containing thousands of compounds participating in thousands of reaction. Rapid turnover of diverse metabolites and lipids in an organism is an essential part of homeostasis. It affects energy production and storage, two important processes utilized in bioengineering. Conventional approaches to simultaneously quantify a large number of turnover rates in biological systems are currently not feasible. Here we show that pulse-chase analysis followed by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) enable the simultaneous and rapid determination of metabolic turnover rates. The incorporation of ion mobility separation (IMS) allowed an additional dimension of analysis, i.e., the detection and identification of isotopologs based on their collision cross sections. We demonstrated these capabilities by determining metabolite, lipid, and peptide turnover in the photosynthetic green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in the presence of {sup 15}N-labeled ammonium chloride as the main nitrogen source. Following the reversal of isotope patterns in the chase phase by LAESI-IMS-MS revealed the turnover rates and half-lives for biochemical species with a wide range of natural concentrations, e.g., chlorophyll metabolites, lipids, and peptides. For example, the half-lives of lyso-DGTS(16:0) and DGTS(18:3/16:0), t{sub 1/2} = 43.6 ± 4.5 h and 47.6 ± 2.2 h, respectively, provided insight into lipid synthesis and degradation in this organism. Within the same experiment, half-lives for chlorophyll a, t{sub 1/2} = 24.1 ± 2.2 h, and a 2.8 kDa peptide, t{sub 1/2} = 10.4 ± 3.6 h, were also determined. - Highlights: • High-throughput pulse-chase analysis using direct sampling of biological cells. • Ion mobility separation for the elucidation of isotopologs. • Identification of isotopologs in difference heat plots of DT vs. m/z. • Simultaneous determination of turnover rates for lipids and

  15. Work-to-family conflict as a mediator of the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Hui; Brown, Roger; Bowers, Barbara J; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention among licensed nurses in long-term care settings. The considerable research on turnover in long-term care has primarily focused on the impact of job satisfaction on turnover intention. Given the well-documented high turnover rate in nursing home staffing, dissatisfaction is expected to continue. Alternatives (e.g. reduction in work-to-family conflict) for reducing turnover under the circumstance of job dissatisfaction have not been investigated extensively. A cross-sectional mailed survey. A convenience sample comprising 200 nurses from 25 private nursing homes in Central Taiwan was created. Data were collected from nurses about their level of turnover intention, job satisfaction and work-to-family conflict in 2012. A composite indicator structural equation model was used to examine the mediation model of this study. Overall, 186 nurses (93%) returned the completed questionnaires. Consistent with published research from other countries, turnover intention in our study was significantly and negatively associated with job satisfaction and significantly and positively associated with work-to-family conflict. In addition, job dissatisfaction indirectly influenced turnover intention through high work-to-family conflict. Findings from this study indicate the importance of work-to-family conflict to nurse turnover. While work setting has a strong, well-documented influence on job satisfaction, limiting job satisfaction efforts to work setting improvements may not yield the hoped-for results unless work-to-family conflict is also considered and addressed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Climate change amplifies gross nitrogen turnover in montane grasslands of Central Europe in both summer and winter seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Chen, Zhe; Unteregelsbacher, Sebastian; Lu, Haiyan; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Gasche, Rainer; Kolar, Allison; Schloter, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The carbon- and nitrogen-rich soils of montane grasslands are exposed to above-average warming and to altered precipitation patterns as a result of global change. To investigate the consequences of climatic change for soil nitrogen turnover, we translocated intact plant-soil mesocosms along an elevational gradient, resulting in an increase of the mean annual temperature by approx. 2 °C while decreasing precipitation from approx. 1500 to 1000 mm. Following three years of equilibration, we monitored the dynamics of gross nitrogen turnover and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in soils over an entire year. Gross nitrogen turnover and gene levels of AOB and AOA showed pronounced seasonal dynamics. Both summer and winter periods equally contributed to cumulative annual N turnover. However, highest gross N turnover and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were observed in frozen soil of the climate change site, likely due to physical liberation of organic substrates and their rapid turnover in the unfrozen soil water film. This effect was not observed at the control site, where soil freezing did not occur due to a significant insulating snowpack. Climate change conditions accelerated gross nitrogen mineralization by 250% on average. Increased N mineralization significantly stimulated gross nitrification by AOB rather than by AOA. However, climate change impacts were restricted to the 2-6 cm topsoil and rarely occurred at 12-16 cm depth, where generally much lower N turnover was observed. Our study shows that significant mineralization pulses occur under changing climate, which is likely to result in soil organic matter losses with their associated negative impacts on key soil functions. We also show that N cycling processes in frozen soil can be hot moments for N turnover and thus are of paramount importance for understanding seasonal patterns, annual sum of N turnover and possible climate change feedbacks. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Concentração industrial, fusões e turnover no setor supermercadista brasileiro Industrial concentration, mergers and turnover in Brazil's supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Concha-Amin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a evolução da estrutura do setor supermercadista no Brasil, entre 1991 e 2002. Constatou-se que houve crescimento da concentração, impulsionado pela entrada de redes supermercadistas estrangeiras e por expressivo processo de fusões e aquisições, nos últimos anos da década de 1990. Em relação ao turnover, notou-se que este foi elevado, mas concentrou-se no grupo das empresas que não eram as maiores. Embora haja efeitos contraditórios, a mudança estrutural pode levar ao abuso de poder de mercado por parte dos supermercados, o que deve preocupar os órgãos de defesa da concorrência.This paper reports on an analysis of the structure of the supermarket sector in Brazil from 1991 to 2002. This analysis revealed a growth in market concentration driven by the entry of foreign retail companies and by a considerable increase in mergers and acquisitions in the late 1990s. The turnover was high, but did not, in general, involve the largest groups. Although there have been contradictory effects, the structural changes in Brazil's retail sector may lead to the abuse of market power on the part of the largest retailers, a possibility that should concern the antitrust authorities.

  18. THE RELATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL LABOR, JOB BURNOUT AND INTENTION TO TURNOVER: A RESEARCH ON TRAVEL AGENCY WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokman TOPRAK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to show the relation between emotional labor, job burnout and intention to turnover of travel agency workers, and to develop appropriate suggestions in the light of obtained findings. For this aim, a survey is applied to travel agency workers which is one of the emotional labor-intensive jobs. According to the results of this research, emotional labor behaviors of travel agency workers influence job burnout negatively and their level of job burnout influences intention to turnover positively. However, any relation between emotional labor and intention to turnover was not found.

  19. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  20. Ankle-brachial index and bone turnover in patients on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Gérard M; Marchais, Sylvain J; Guérin, Alain P; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine

    2015-02-01

    An association between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis has been reported in several studies. This association could result from local intraosseous atherosclerosis and ischemia, which is shown by limb osteoporosis in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), but also could result from bidirectional communication between the skeleton and blood vessels. Systemic bone disorders and PAD are frequent in ESRD. Here, we investigated the possible interaction of these disorders. For 65 prevalent nondiabetic patients on hemodialysis, we measured ankle-brachial pressure index (ABix) and evaluated mineral and bone disorders with bone histomorphometry. In prevalent patients on hemodialysis, PAD (ABix1.4/incompressible) was associated with low bone turnover and pronounced osteoblast resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is indicated by decreased double-labeled surface and osteoblast surface (Phemodialysis vintage. These results indicate that, in prevalent nondiabetic patients with ESRD, PAD associates with low bone turnover and pronounced osteoblast resistance to PTH. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Growth rate controls mRNA turnover in steady and non-steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, José; Troulé, Kevin; Chávez, Sebastián; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2016-12-01

    Gene expression has been investigated in relation with growth rate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, following different experimental strategies. The expression of some specific gene functional categories increases or decreases with growth rate. Our recently published results have unveiled that these changes in mRNA concentration with growth depend on the relative alteration of mRNA synthesis and decay, and that, in addition to this gene-specific transcriptomic signature of growth, global mRNA turnover increases with growth rate. We discuss here these results in relation with other previous and concurrent publications, and we add new evidence which indicates that growth rate controls mRNA turnover even under non-steady-state conditions.

  2. The effect of acute exercise on collagen turnover in human tendons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Pingel, Jessica; Boesen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical loading of human tendon stimulates collagen synthesis, but the relationship between acute loading responses and training status of the tendon is not clear. We tested the effect of prolonged load deprivation on the acute loading-induced collagen turnover in human tendons, by applying...... the same absolute load to a relative untrained Achilles tendon (2-week immobilization period prior to acute loading) and a habitually loaded contra-lateral Achilles tendon, respectively, within the same individuals. Eight untrained, healthy males had one lower limb totally immobilized for 2 weeks, whereas...... the contra-lateral leg was used habitually. Following the procedure both Achilles tendons and calf muscles were loaded with the same absolute load during a 1-h treadmill run. Tissue collagen turnover was measured by microdialysis performed post-immobilization but pre-exercise around both Achilles tendons...

  3. Employees' views on outsourcing and its impact on employee turnover: A phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybelinski, Steven A.

    Increasing use of outsourcing gives employees concern about personal job security. Using a modified van Kaam approach, this qualitative phenomenological study examined perceptions and experiences of 12 employees' on the influence outsourcing had on employee turnover. Five themes describing employee perceptions emerged: (a) preparation---education gives job security, (b) plausibility---all believed job loss plausible, (c) emotional influence---feelings of stress, threat, betrayal, and not being valued, (d) environment---value of communication and interaction with leaders, and (e) confidence---gained from increased education, skills, and knowledge protected from outsourcing. Significance of this study to leadership is the identification of employee perceptions of outsourcing and motivating factors influencing employee turnover during times of outsourcing. Findings might present new information and assist leaders with employee retention concerns for future outsourcing activities.

  4. Formation and Maintenance of Robust Long-Term Information Storage in the Presence of Synaptic Turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fauth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing problem is how memories can be stored for very long times despite the volatility of the underlying neural substrate, most notably the high turnover of dendritic spines and synapses. To address this problem, here we are using a generic and simple probabilistic model for the creation and removal of synapses. We show that information can be stored for several months when utilizing the intrinsic dynamics of multi-synapse connections. In such systems, single synapses can still show high turnover, which enables fast learning of new information, but this will not perturb prior stored information (slow forgetting, which is represented by the compound state of the connections. The model matches the time course of recent experimental spine data during learning and memory in mice supporting the assumption of multi-synapse connections as the basis for long-term storage.

  5. Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice.

  6. Lignin as a molecular marker of land management impacts on soil C storage and turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Marco; Rumpel, Cornelia; Dignac, Marie-France; Billiou, Daniel; Chabbi, Abad

    2017-04-01

    Implementation of temporary grassland on cropped lands may be a sustainable option to enhance the carbon storage via the accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM). However, carbon storage is not only a matter of quantity, since higher inputs of labile carbon may stimulate soil microbial and fungal communities and induce the degradation of the formerly stabilized SOM, through the so-called priming effect. Therefore, targeted strategies for carbon storage need to consider the stability of newly added SOM at long term. Recently, soil ecologist emphasized the huge spatial variability of soil structure and properties, and the fact that many ecosystem functions of SOM are only achieved if it decomposes. Thus, more attention must be paid to fluxes of carbon rather than to the quantities accumulated. The present study aims to cope with the listed problems. The aim of the study was to use lignin as a molecular marker of plant C turnover, to assess carbon storage provided by a temporary (ley) grassland system situated at the long term experimental observatory in Lusignan (http://www.soere-acbb.com/). Our conceptual approach included plots under permanent grassland, permanent cropland and bare fallow as controls. A soil fractionation into water stable aggregates has been chosen as a strategy to overcome spatial complexity, and compound specific analyses were focused on lignin phenols within the aggregates. The hypothesis of this work is that lignin turnovers may be influenced by land uses, lignin localisation within soil compartments, the nature of litter input (above vs. belowground biomass), aggregate distribution, and plant cover characteristics (crop vs. grass). To test the hypothesis, cycles of storage and degradation of lignin were studied using compound specific stable isotope probing, taking advantage of in situ labelling provided by the switches from C3 to C4 plants (i.e. grassland to continuous maize) in the experimental area. Lignin monophenols were extracted and

  7. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    , dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary......We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total...

  8. Global Proteome Turnover Analyses of the Yeasts S. cerevisiae and S. pombe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Christiano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How cells maintain specific levels of each protein and whether that control is evolutionarily conserved are key questions. Here, we report proteome-wide steady-state protein turnover rate measurements for the evolutionarily distant but ecologically similar yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We find that the half-life of most proteins is much longer than currently thought and determined to a large degree by protein synthesis and dilution due to cell division. However, we detect a significant subset of proteins (∼15% in both yeasts that are turned over rapidly. In addition, the relative abundances of orthologous proteins between the two yeasts are highly conserved across the 400 million years of evolution. In contrast, their respective turnover rates differ considerably. Our data provide a high-confidence resource for studying protein degradation in common yeast model systems.

  9. Higher molecular weight dissolved organic nitrogen turnover as affected by soil management history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønne Enggrob, Kirsten

    High molecular weight dissolved organic nitrogen turnover as affected by soil management history *Kirsten Lønne Enggrob,1 Lars Elsgaard,1 and Jim Rasmussen1 1Aarhus University, Dept. of Agroecology, Foulum, Denmark 1. Introduction Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) play an important role in soil N...... cycling. DON, as a collective term, refers to a diversity of organic N compounds which can operationally be grouped into high molecular weight (Mw) DON (Mw > 1 kDa) and low Mw DON (... are presented for 14CO2 evolution during 14 days of incubation. 4. Results and conclusion Results showed that the turnover rate of high Mw DON was dependent on both the Mw size of DON and on the soil liming history. Evidence showing where in the DON Mw sizes the bottleneck lies will be presented....

  10. Ag-dependent (in silico) approach implies a deterministic kinetics for homeostatic memory cell turnover

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, Alexandre; Herai, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Verhulst-like mathematical modeling has been used to investigate several complex biological issues, such as immune memory equilibrium and cell-mediated immunity in mammals. The regulation mechanisms of both these processes are still not sufficiently understood. In a recent paper, Choo et al. [J. Immunol., v. 185, pp. 3436-44, 2010], used an Ag-independent approach to quantitatively analyze memory cell turnover from some empirical data, and concluded that immune homeostasis behaves stochastically, rather than deterministically. In the paper here presented, we use an in silico Ag-dependent approach to simulate the process of antigenic mutation and study its implications for memory dynamics. Our results have suggested a deterministic kinetics for homeostatic equilibrium, what contradicts the Choo et al. findings. Accordingly, our calculations are an indication that a more extensive empirical protocol for studying the homeostatic turnover should be considered.

  11. Effect of temperature on skeletal muscle energy turnover during dynamic knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferguson, R.A.; Krustrup, Peter; Kjær, Michael

    2006-01-01

    . Total ATP production (aerobic + anaerobic) was the same between each temperature condition [505.0 mmol/kg (SD 107.2) vs. 527.1 mmol/kg (SD 117.6); C and HT, respectively]. In conclusion, within the range of temperatures studied, passively increasing muscle temperature before exercise has no effect......The present study examined the effect of elevated temperature on muscle energy turnover during dynamic exercise. Nine male subjects performed 10 min of dynamic knee-extensor exercise at an intensity of 43 W (SD 10) and a frequency of 60 contractions per minute. Exercise was performed under normal...... (C) and elevated muscle temperature (HT) through passive heating. Thigh oxygen uptake (V(O2)) was determined from measurements of thigh blood flow and femoral arterial-venous differences for oxygen content. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated from measurements of lactate release as well as muscle...

  12. Fisheries portfolio diversification and turnover buffer Alaskan fishing communities from abrupt resource and market changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Timothy J.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Hilborn, Ray

    2017-01-01

    Abrupt shifts in natural resources and their markets are a ubiquitous challenge to human communities. Building resilient social-ecological systems requires approaches that are robust to uncertainty and to regime shifts. Harvesting diverse portfolios of natural resources and adapting portfolios in response to change could stabilize economies reliant on natural resources and their markets, both of which are prone to unpredictable shifts. Here we use fisheries catch and revenue data from Alaskan fishing communities over 34 years to test whether diversification and turnover in the composition of fishing opportunities increased economic stability during major ocean and market regime shifts in 1989. More than 85% of communities show reduced fishing revenues following these regime shifts. However, communities with the highest portfolio diversity and those that could opportunistically shift the composition of resources they harvest, experienced negligible or even positive changes in revenue. Maintaining diversity in economic opportunities and enabling turnover facilitates sustainability of communities reliant on renewable resources facing uncertain futures. PMID:28091534

  13. The ataxia (axJ mutation causes abnormal GABAA receptor turnover in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Lappe-Siefke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ataxia represents a pathological coordination failure that often involves functional disturbances in cerebellar circuits. Purkinje cells (PCs characterize the only output neurons of the cerebellar cortex and critically participate in regulating motor coordination. Although different genetic mutations are known that cause ataxia, little is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms. Here we show that a mutated ax(J gene locus, encoding the ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (Usp14, negatively influences synaptic receptor turnover. Ax(J mouse mutants, characterized by cerebellar ataxia, display both increased GABA(A receptor (GABA(AR levels at PC surface membranes accompanied by enlarged IPSCs. Accordingly, we identify physical interaction of Usp14 and the GABA(AR alpha1 subunit. Although other currently unknown changes might be involved, our data show that ubiquitin-dependent GABA(AR turnover at cerebellar synapses contributes to ax(J-mediated behavioural impairment.

  14. Quantification of functional dynamics of membrane proteins reconstituted in nanodiscs membranes by single turnover functional readout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moses, Matias Emil; Hedegård, Per; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    and quantification of the activity, abundance, and lifetime of multiple states and transient intermediates in the energy landscape that are typically averaged out in nonsynchronized ensemble measurements. Studying the function of membrane proteins at the single-molecule level remains a formidable challenge......, and to date there is limited number of available functional assays. In this chapter, we describe in detail our recently developed methodology to reconstitute membrane proteins such as the integral membrane protein cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase on membrane systems such as Nanodiscs and study their functional...... dynamics by recordings at the fundamental resolution of individual catalytic turnovers using prefluorescent substrate analogues. We initially describe the methodology for reconstitution, surface immobilization, and data acquisition of individual enzyme catalytic turnovers. We then explain in detail...

  15. Relationship Between Employee Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention in Microfinance Banks in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghir Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to analyse the factors, which significantly affect employee job satisfaction in Microfinance Banks of Pakistan. Furthermore, the impact of employee job satisfaction is evaluated on employee turnover intentions. Reward system and training opportunities are taken as independent variables. Primary data is used for this research, which was collected through questionnaire and the reliability of instrument is checked using Cronbach’s alpha. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS is used to process the collected data. Descriptive statistics are determined and correlation among variables is also calculated. OLS method is applied to find out the impact of independent variables and the results show that there is a significant positive correlation among training, reward system and employee job satisfaction, while a negative relationship is found between employee job satisfaction and employee turnover intention.

  16. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D. (Univ. of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))

    1987-05-01

    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24{degree}C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M PAF at 37{degree}C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for {sup 32}P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage.

  17. Changes in bone density and turnover after alendronate or estrogen withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasnich, Richard D; Bagger, Yu Z; Hosking, David J

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover changes after therapy withdrawal in postmenopausal women treated with alendronate or estrogen-progestin. DESIGN: In this randomized, blinded, multinational, placebo-controlled trial, 1,609 healthy postmenopausal women ages 45 to 59...... were switched from alendronate to placebo, while remaining blinded to treatment assignment. The women taking estrogen-progestin in years 1 to 4 were followed off therapy in years 5 and 6. BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured. RESULTS: The treatment...... groups described in the current report represent 860 women at baseline; 481 women entered year 5, and 430 completed 6 years. BMD steadily decreased in the placebo group during all 6 years. In contrast, spine and hip BMD increased during the first 4 years in the groups receiving daily continuous...

  18. Exploring Relationships Among Occupational Safety, Job Turnover, and Age Among Home Care Aides in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sandra S

    2017-01-01

    As the U.S. population ages, the number of people needing personal assistance in the home care setting is increasing dramatically. Personal care aides and home health workers are currently adding more jobs to the economy than any other single occupation. Home health workers face physically and emotionally challenging, and at times unsafe, work conditions, with turnover rates ranging from 44 percent to 65 percent annually. As part of a mixed-method, longitudinal study in Maine examining turnover, interviews with 252 home care aides were analyzed thematically. Responses to interview questions regarding the job's impact on health and safety, the adequacy of training, and the level of agency responsiveness were examined. Emergent themes, indicating some contradictory perspectives on workplace safety, quality of training, and agency support, were compared across three variables: job termination, occupational injury, and age. Implications for increasing occupational safety and job retention are discussed.

  19. Actomyosin pulsation and flows in an active elastomer with turnover and network remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Deb Sankar; Munjal, Akankshi; Lecuit, Thomas; Rao, Madan

    2017-10-24

    Tissue remodeling requires cell shape changes associated with pulsation and flow of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we describe the hydrodynamics of actomyosin as a confined active elastomer with turnover of its components. Our treatment is adapted to describe the diversity of contractile dynamical regimes observed in vivo. When myosin-induced contractile stresses are low, the deformations of the active elastomer are affine and exhibit spontaneous oscillations, propagating waves, contractile collapse and spatiotemporal chaos. We study the nucleation, growth and coalescence of actomyosin-dense regions that, beyond a threshold, spontaneously move as a spatially localized traveling front. Large myosin-induced contractile stresses lead to nonaffine deformations due to enhanced actin and crosslinker turnover. This results in a transient actin network that is constantly remodeling and naturally accommodates intranetwork flows of the actomyosin-dense regions. We verify many predictions of our study in Drosophila embryonic epithelial cells undergoing neighbor exchange during germband extension.

  20. Work–family climate, organizational commitment, and turnover: Multilevel contagion effects of leaders ⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, John W.; Harrison, Michelle M.; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work–family climate (operationalized in terms of three work–family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using multilevel modeling, we found significant associations between work–family climate, and both organizational commitment and turnover intent, both within and between hotels. Findings underscored the importance of managerial support for employee work–family balance, the relevance of senior managers’ own work–family circumstances in relation to employees’ work outcomes, and the existence of possible contagion effects of leaders in relation to work–family climate. PMID:19412351

  1. Differential impact of glucose administered intravenously or orally on bone turnover markers in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westberg-Rasmussen, Sidse; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    mimicked the glucose response curve to the oral glucose load. We analyzed blood samples for the bone turnover markers serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX) and serum procollagen type I N propeptide (s-P1NP), as well as insulin, glucose, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon......-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Finally, eight of the twelve participants underwent a control experiment where they fasted for 3h (Control). RESULTS: While OGTT induced a 50% reduction in s-CTX, only a ~30% reduction was seen during the IIGI and the Control. Neither intervention......, possibly in combination with hyperglycemia, may have an acute, uncoupling effect on bone turnover leading to a decrease in bone resorption but no change in bone formation....

  2. Acute effects of dichloroacetate in the depancreatized dog: glucose synthesis and turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, G L; Felts, J M; Shakelford, R

    1982-07-01

    Blood glucose turnover (entry and removal rates) and the rate of recycling of radiolabelled glucose carbon into newly synthesized blood glucose have been evaluated before and acutely after the administration of dichloroacetate to depancreatized dogs. Blood glucose concentration began to decline immediately after dichloroacetate administration and fell to new steady state levels within 1.5-3 h. Analysis of blood glucose kinetics during the decline demonstrated a 52% (average) reduction in the rate of hepatic glucose supply. Glucose supply remained reduced over the duration of these studies (3-4.5 h). Glucose turnover in the steady state following dichloroacetate administration averaged 62% of pretreatment values. Cori cycle activity was depressed by 63% after dichloroacetate administration. The results of these studies are consistent with the hypothesis that a major mechanism underlying the hypoglycaemic action of this drug is the inhibition of glucose synthesis.

  3. Characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology crosscutting program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to deliver appropriate characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) to the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60). The technology development must also be cost effective and appropriate to EM-30/40/60 needs. Furthermore, the required technologies must be delivered and implemented when needed. Accordingly, and to ensure that available DOE and other national resources are focused an the most pressing needs, management of the technology development is concentrated on the following Focus Areas: Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation (PFA); Landfill Stabilization (LSFA); High-Level Waste Tank Remediation (TFA); Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal (MWFA); and Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition (FDDMDFA). Brief descriptions of CMST-CP projects funded in FY95 are presented.

  4. Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, Anna M.; Basinska, Beata A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions. PMID:27847481

  5. Factors affecting employee turnover and sound retention strategies in business organization: a conceptual view

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury Abdullah Al Mamun; Md. Nazmul Hasan

    2017-01-01

    “Employee turnover” as an expression is broadly used in business organization. Despite the fact that several studies have been performed on this topic, little research has been conducted on examining the causes and leading factors of turnover as well, as advising some feasible approaches, which can be applied by bosses to ensure that employees will continue in their respective organizations to enhance organizational effectiveness and productivity. The main purpose of this study is to determin...

  6. Ground layer plant species turnover and beta diversity in southern-European old-growth forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Sabatini

    Full Text Available Different assembly processes may simultaneously affect local-scale variation of species composition in temperate old-growth forests. Ground layer species diversity reflects chance colonization and persistence of low-dispersal species, as well as fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. The latter depends on both purely abiotic factors, such as soil properties and topography, and factors primarily determined by overstorey structure, such as light availability. Understanding the degree to which plant diversity in old-growth forests is associated with structural heterogeneity and/or to dispersal limitation will help assessing the effectiveness of silvicultural practices that recreate old-growth patterns and structures for the conservation or restoration of plant diversity. We used a nested sampling design to assess fine-scale species turnover, i.e. the proportion of species composition that changes among sampling units, across 11 beech-dominated old-growth forests in Southern Europe. For each stand, we also measured a wide range of environmental and structural variables that might explain ground layer species turnover. Our aim was to quantify the relative importance of dispersal limitation in comparison to that of stand structural heterogeneity while controlling for other sources of environmental heterogeneity. For this purpose, we used multiple regression on distance matrices at the within-stand extent, and mixed effect models at the extent of the whole dataset. Species turnover was best predicted by structural and environmental heterogeneity, especially by differences in light availability and in topsoil nutrient concentration and texture. Spatial distances were significant only in four out of eleven stands with a relatively low explanatory power. This suggests that structural heterogeneity is a more important driver of local-scale ground layer species turnover than dispersal limitation in southern European old-growth beech forests.

  7. Arthritis induces early bone high turnover, structural degradation and mechanical weakness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vidal

    Full Text Available We have previously found in the chronic SKG mouse model of arthritis that long standing (5 and 8 months inflammation directly leads to high collagen bone turnover, disorganization of the collagen network, disturbed bone microstructure and degradation of bone biomechanical properties. The main goal of the present work was to study the effects of the first days of the inflammatory process on the microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone.Twenty eight Wistar adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA rats were monitored during 22 days after disease induction for the inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight. Healthy non-arthritic rats were used as controls for compar-ison. After 22 days of disease progression rats were sacrificed and bone samples were collected for histomorphometrical, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopical analysis and 3-point bending. Blood samples were also collected for bone turnover markers.AIA rats had an increased bone turnover (as inferred from increased P1NP and CTX1, p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0002, respectively and this was paralleled by a decreased mineral content (calcium p = 0.0046 and phos-phorus p = 0.0046. Histomorphometry showed a lower trabecular thickness (p = 0.0002 and bone volume (p = 0.0003 and higher trabecular sepa-ration (p = 0.0009 in the arthritic group as compared with controls. In addition, bone mechanical tests showed evidence of fragility as depicted by diminished values of yield stress and ultimate fracture point (p = 0.0061 and p = 0.0279, re-spectively in the arthritic group.We have shown in an AIA rat model that arthritis induc-es early bone high turnover, structural degradation, mineral loss and mechanical weak-ness.

  8. Stress and turnover intent in international organizations: social support and work life balance as resources

    OpenAIRE

    Giauque, David; Anderfuhren-Biget, Simon; Varone, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether work opportunities have an impact on stress and the related turnover intentions of employees working in intergovernmental international organizations. It contextualizes the job resources and demands model within international organizations’ specific work conditions. The empirical test is based on original data from a survey administered in four major organizations of the United Nations system. Results demonstrate that social work opportunities and work-life bal...

  9. Plant traits and environment: floating leaf blade production and turnover of waterlilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Peter F; van der Velde, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Floating leaf blades of waterlilies fulfill several functions in wetland ecosystems by production, decomposition and turnover as well as exchange processes. Production and turnover rates of floating leaf blades of three waterlily species, Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm., Nymphaea alba L. and Nymphaea candida Presl, were studied in three freshwater bodies, differing in trophic status, pH and alkalinity. Length and percentages of leaf loss of marked leaf blades were measured weekly during the growing season. Area and biomass were calculated based on leaf length and were used to calculate the turnover rate of floating leaf blades. Seasonal changes in floating leaf production showed that values decreased in the order: Nymphaea alba , Nuphar lutea , Nymphaea candida . The highest production was reached for Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba in alkaline, eutrophic water bodies. The production per leaf was relatively high for both species in the acid water body. Nymphaea candida showed a very short vegetation period and low turnover rates. The ratio Total potential leaf biomass/Maximum potential leaf biomass (P/B max ) of the three species ranged from 1.35-2.25. The ratio Vegetation period (Period with floating leaves)/Mean leaf life span ranged from 2.94-4.63, the ratio Growth period (Period with appearance of new floating leaves)/Vegetation period from 0.53-0.73. The clear differences between Nymphaea candida versus Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba , may be due to adaptations of Nymphaea candida to an Euro-Siberic climate with short-lasting summer conditions.

  10. Plant traits and environment: floating leaf blade production and turnover of waterlilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Klok

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Floating leaf blades of waterlilies fulfill several functions in wetland ecosystems by production, decomposition and turnover as well as exchange processes. Production and turnover rates of floating leaf blades of three waterlily species, Nuphar lutea (L. Sm., Nymphaea alba L. and Nymphaea candida Presl, were studied in three freshwater bodies, differing in trophic status, pH and alkalinity. Length and percentages of leaf loss of marked leaf blades were measured weekly during the growing season. Area and biomass were calculated based on leaf length and were used to calculate the turnover rate of floating leaf blades. Seasonal changes in floating leaf production showed that values decreased in the order: Nymphaea alba, Nuphar lutea, Nymphaea candida. The highest production was reached for Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba in alkaline, eutrophic water bodies. The production per leaf was relatively high for both species in the acid water body. Nymphaea candida showed a very short vegetation period and low turnover rates. The ratio Total potential leaf biomass/Maximum potential leaf biomass (P/Bmax of the three species ranged from 1.35–2.25. The ratio Vegetation period (Period with floating leaves/Mean leaf life span ranged from 2.94–4.63, the ratio Growth period (Period with appearance of new floating leaves/Vegetation period from 0.53–0.73. The clear differences between Nymphaea candida versus Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba, may be due to adaptations of Nymphaea candida to an Euro-Siberic climate with short-lasting summer conditions.

  11. Turnover diversity drives large-scale biodiversity patterns in bathyal sediments of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchelli, S.; Gambi, C.; Mea, M.; Pusceddu, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding biodiversity patterns and how they are driven at different spatial scales is a crucial issue in ecological studies. This is particularly evident for the deep sea, the largest biome of the biosphere, where information on the scales of spatial variation is very scant. Here, we investigated deep-sea nematodes species richness, turnover and functional diversity, and life strategies at different spatial scales (from local to macro-regional) to identify the factors that shape regional (γ) and macro-regional (ϵ) deep-sea diversity. This study was conducted in several deep-sea habitats (canyons, open slopes, deep-water corals, and bathyal plains) over > 2000 km across the whole Mediterranean basin, at a fixed depth of ca. 1000 m. Our results indicate that the patterns of local (α) diversity across the deep Mediterranean follow the gradients of the trophic conditions, which decrease from the Western to the Eastern basins. For all of the sites and habitats, the α-diversity is generally low. Conversely, the turnover diversity changes significantly among habitats (β-diversity) and between regions (δ-diversity), showing values of dissimilarity (based on species presence/absence) between 59% and 90% for β-diversity and between 81% and 89% for δ-diversity. This suggests that patterns and values of regional (γ) and macro-regional (ϵ) diversity in the deep Mediterranean Sea are related to turnover diversity among habitats and between regions (β- and δ-diversity), rather than to the local biodiversity (α-diversity). These results indicate that the differences in β-diversity and δ-diversity are even more important than those for the α-diversity for the understanding of the drivers of biodiversity in the deep Mediterranean Sea. These data also allow us to conclude that habitat heterogeneity (and type) and gradients in environmental conditions, by promoting a high turnover diversity across the deep Mediterranean Sea, are crucial players

  12. Level of dietary protein intake affects glucose turnover in endurance-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasiakos Stefan M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of higher-protein diets on endogenous glucose metabolism in healthy, physically active adults, glucose turnover was assessed in five endurance-trained men (age 21.3 ± 0.3 y, VO2peak 70.6 ± 0.1 mL kg-1 min-1 who consumed dietary protein intakes spanning the current dietary reference intakes. Findings Using a randomized, crossover design, volunteers consumed 4 week eucaloric diets providing either a low (0.8 g kg-1 d-1; LP, moderate (1.8 g kg-1 d-1; MP, or high (3.6 g kg-1 d-1; HP level of dietary protein. Glucose turnover (Ra, glucose rate of appearance; and Rd glucose rate of disappearance was assessed under fasted, resting conditions using primed, constant infusions of [6,6-2H2] glucose. Glucose Ra and Rd (mg kg-1 min-1 were higher for MP (2.8 ± 0.1 and 2.7 ± 0.1 compared to HP (2.4 ± 0.1 and 2.3 ± 0.2, P P P > 0.05 between LP (4.6 ± 0.1, MP (4.8 ± 0.1, and HP (4.7 ± 0.1 diets. Conclusions Level of protein consumption influenced resting glucose turnover in endurance athletes in a state of energy balance with a higher rate of turnover noted for a protein intake of 1.8 g kg-1 d-1. Findings suggest that consumption of protein in excess of the recommended dietary allowance but within the current acceptable macronutrient distribution range may contribute to the regulation of blood glucose when carbohydrate intake is reduced by serving as a gluconeogenic substrate in endurance-trained men.

  13. High bone turnover elevates the risk of denosumab-induced hypocalcemia in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Koji; Nagai, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keizo; Ohara, Kenji; Eguro, Takeshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Yoichi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is the most common major adverse event in patients with osteoporosis receiving the bone resorption inhibitor denosumab; however, limited information is available regarding risk factors of hypocalcemia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors of hypocalcemia induced by denosumab treatment for osteoporosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had received initial denosumab supplemented with activated vitamin D for osteoporosis. Serum levels of the following bone turnover markers (BTMs) were measured at baseline: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), total N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX). Of the 85 denosumab-treated patients with osteoporosis studied, 22 (25.9%) developed hypocalcemia. Baseline serum total P1NP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly higher in patients with hypocalcemia than in those with normocalcemia following denosumab administration (all P 76.5 μg/L, TRACP-5b >474 mU/dL, or urinary NTX >49.5 nmol bone collagen equivalent/mmol creatinine had a higher risk of hypocalcemia ( P osteoporosis with higher baseline bone turnover than in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with normal baseline bone turnover, because maintenance of normal serum calcium in this subgroup is more dependent on bone resorption. Close monitoring of serum calcium levels is strongly recommended for denosumab-treated patients with high bone turnover, despite supplementation with activated vitamin D and oral calcium.

  14. Transformational Leadership Moderates the Relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention among Community Mental Health Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Amy E.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively...

  15. Short organic carbon turnover time and narrow 14C age spectra in early Holocene wetland paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Lael; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Fernandez, Alvaro; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2017-01-01

    Paleosols contain information about the rates of soil organic carbon turnover when the soil was actively forming. However, this temporal information is often difficult to interpret without tight stratigraphic control on the age of the paleosol. Here we apply ramped pyrolysis/oxidation (Ramped PyrOx) 14C analyses to evaluate age spectra of transgressive early Holocene paleosols from the Mississippi Delta in southeastern Louisiana, USA. We find 14C age spectra from soil organic matter (SOM) in both paleosols and overlying basal peats that represent variability in age that is close to, or only slightly greater than, analytical uncertainty of 14C measurements, despite different sources of carbon with likely disparate ages. Such age spectra have not previously been observed in the sedimentary record. Here they indicate vigorous soil carbon turnover prior to burial, which homogenized 14C ages within SOM across the entire thermochemical spectrum. The weighted bulk 14C ages from Ramped PyrOx of paleosols and overlying peats are identical within analytical and process-associated uncertainty, and corroborate 14C ages from charcoal fragments and plant macrofossils from the overlying peat. The youngest ages from Ramped PyrOx age spectra may also potentially be applied as chronometers for stratigraphic burial ages. Our results suggest rapid turnover (≪300 years) of carbon in these soils relative to input of allochthonous carbon, indicating that the 14C age of different soil components is decoupled from thermochemical stability and instead reflects vigorous turnover processes. The concurrence of paleosol and peat 14C ages also suggests that pedogenic processes were linked with the development of coastal marshes, and that the priming effect potentially masked the signal of allochthonous carbon inputs during sea level rise.

  16. Work engagement: Individual and situational antecedents and its relationship with turnover intention

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Barbosa de Oliveira; Juliana da Costa Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the study was to analyze individual and situational antecedents of work engagement. More specifically, we propose that engagement is influenced by individual differences, measured by a construct called core self-evaluations, by human resourcemanagement practices, and by leader-member exchange quality.Moreover, we investigate the relationship between engagement and turnover intention. Design/methodology/approach – The hypotheses were tested through multiple...

  17. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province,South Africa.Objectives: To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms off requency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa.Results: Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9% than satisfied (37.8% with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%, availability of workplace resources(83.7%, salaries (78.8%, workplace safety (73.7%, career development opportunities (64.5% and hours of work (47.6%.Conclusion: Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retentionof nurses is to be achieved.

  18. Bench-to-bedside review: Dealing with increased intensive care unit staff turnover: a leadership challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Laporta, Denny P; Burns, Judy; Doig, Chip J

    2005-01-01

    Critical care leaders frequently must face challenging situations requiring specific leadership and management skills for which they are, not uncommonly, poorly prepared. Such a fictitious scenario was discussed at a Canadian interdisciplinary critical care leadership meeting, whereby increasing intensive care unit (ICU) staff turnover had led to problems with staff recruitment. Participants discussed and proposed solutions to the scenario in a structured format. The results of the discussion...

  19. Managing the academic talent void: Investigating factors in academic turnover and retention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Theron

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, the demand for academic staff in higher education is expected to continue to increase. The South African situation is exacerbated by the so-called ‘retirement swell’ and turnover and retention problems; measurements to diagnose these factors remain limited.Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate the factors that influence turnover and retention of academic and to validate the developed talent retention diagnostic tool for use in South African higher education institutions.Motivation for the study: Limited research currently exists on the retention factors of academic staff in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: Using an investigative quantitative research approach, the tool was administered to a convenience sample of academics (n = 153 in 13 higher education institutions.Main findings: The results showed an array of distinguishing turnover and retention factors and proved the tool to be a valid and reliable measure. Over half the respondents indicated slight to strong dissatisfaction with compensation and performance management practices. Significantly, 34% indicated that they considered exiting their academic institution, citing unhappiness about compensation, as the most likely reason, whilst 74.5% have previously looked for another job.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlights key areas (i.e. compensation, emotional recognition, a bonus structure that reflects employee contribution, performance management systems, mentorship and career development opportunities that higher education should attend to if they want to retain their key and talented academic staff.Contribution/value-add: The results contribute to new knowledge on the factors that contribute to turnover and retention of academic staff and present a valid and reliable measure to assess these retention factors.

  20. Team climate, intention to leave and turnover among hospital employees: Prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virtanen Marianna

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hospitals, the costs of employee turnover are substantial and intentions to leave among staff may manifest as lowered performance. We examined whether team climate, as indicated by clear and shared goals, participation, task orientation and support for innovation, predicts intention to leave the job and actual turnover among hospital employees. Methods Prospective study with baseline and follow-up surveys (2–4 years apart. The participants were 6,441 (785 men, 5,656 women hospital employees under the age of 55 at the time of follow-up survey. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used as an analysis method to include both individual and work unit level predictors in the models. Results Among stayers with no intention to leave at baseline, lower self-reported team climate predicted higher likelihood of having intentions to leave at follow-up (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation decrease in team climate was 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4–1.8. Lower co-worker assessed team climate at follow-up was also association with such intentions (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.4–2.4. Among all participants, the likelihood of actually quitting the job was higher for those with poor self-reported team climate at baseline. This association disappeared after adjustment for intention to leave at baseline suggesting that such intentions may explain the greater turnover rate among employees with low team climate. Conclusion Improving team climate may reduce intentions to leave and turnover among hospital employees.

  1. Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Dåderman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources (COR theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC and family-work conflict (FWC threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1 examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work and engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession; (2 attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigour were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigour, dedication and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  2. Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, Anna M; Basinska, Beata A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll's conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses' resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  3. Generational differences in factors influencing job turnover among Japanese nurses: an exploratory comparative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Oba, Keiko; Yamashita, Noriko

    2009-07-01

    Although nurse turnover is a serious problem, the fact that each nurse has different work-related needs/values, and leaves their job for different reasons makes it difficult for organisations to develop effective countermeasures against it. Understanding nurses' needs and the reasons for job turnover by the generation in which they were born may provide some feasible solutions. The purpose of the study was to identify specific work-related needs and values of nurses in three generations (born in 1946-1959, 1960-1974, 1975-present). The study also aimed to explore generation-specific reasons that might make nurses consider leaving the jobs. The study was conducted in three public hospitals in Japan. A convenience sample of 315 registered nurses participated in the study. A survey method was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were analysed by ANOVA, and qualitative data were analysed by content analysis. Nurses born between 1960 and 1974 embraced high needs and values in professional privileges such as autonomy and recognition, while those born after 1975 expressed low needs and values in the opportunities for clinical challenge. For nurses born between 1960 and 1974, the imbalance between their jobs and personal life made them consider leaving their jobs. For those born after 1975, losing the confidence to care made them consider turning over. Nurses born after 1960 tended to value economic return and job security more highly compared to those born between 1946 and 1959. Nurses in different generations have different sets of needs/values and reasons for job turnover. Understanding generation-specific needs and values of nurses may enable organisations and Nurse Managers to develop feasible and effective countermeasures to reduce nurse turnover.

  4. Microbial regulation of pesticide degradation coupled to carbon turnover in the detritusphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pagel, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Many soil functions, such as nutrient cycling or pesticide degradation, are controlled by microorganisms. Dynamics of microbial populations and biogeochemical cycling in soil are largely determined by the availability of carbon (C). The detritusphere is a microbial “hot spot” of C turnover. It is characterized by a concentration gradient of C from litter (high) into the adjacent soil (lower). Therefore, this microhabitat is very well suited to investigate the influence of C availability on mi...

  5. Predictors of new graduate nurses' organizational commitment during a nurse residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Marilyn Meyer; Felzer, Holly M

    2012-01-01

    Retaining newly graduated nurses is critical for organizations because of the significant cost of turnover. Since commitment to an organization is associated with decreased turnover intent, understanding factors that influence new graduates' organizational commitment is important. In a sample of nurse residency program participants, predictors of organizational commitment over time were explored. Perceptions of the work environment, particularly job satisfaction and job stress, were found to be most influential.

  6. Greater soil carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Creamer, Courtney; Baisden, W. Troy; Farrell, Mark; Fallon, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Devising agricultural management schemes that enhance food security and soil carbon levels is a high priority for many nations. However, the coupling between agricultural productivity, soil carbon stocks and organic matter turnover rates is still unclear. Archived soil samples from four decades of a long-term crop rotation trial were analyzed for soil organic matter (SOM) cycling-relevant properties: C and N content, bulk composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, amino sugar content, short-term C bioavailability assays, and long-term C turnover rates by modeling the incorporation of the bomb spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil. After > 40 years under consistent management, topsoil carbon stocks ranged from 14 to 33 Mg C ha-1 and were linearly related to the mean productivity of each treatment. Measurements of SOM composition demonstrated increasing amounts of plant- and microbially derived SOM along the productivity gradient. Under two modeling scenarios, radiocarbon data indicated overall SOM turnover time decreased from 40 to 13 years with increasing productivity - twice the rate of decline predicted from simple steady-state models or static three-pool decay rates of measured C pool distributions. Similarly, the half-life of synthetic root exudates decreased from 30.4 to 21.5 h with increasing productivity, indicating accelerated microbial activity. These findings suggest that there is a direct feedback between accelerated biological activity, carbon cycling rates and rates of carbon stabilization with important implications for how SOM dynamics are represented in models.

  7. Modeling the effects of hypoxia on ATP turnover in exercising muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, P. G.; Hogan, M. C.; Bebout, D. E.; Wagner, P. D.; Hochachka, P. W.

    1992-01-01

    Most models of metabolic control concentrate on the regulation of ATP production and largely ignore the regulation of ATP demand. We describe a model, based on the results of Hogan et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 73: 728-736, 1992), that incorporates the effects of ATP demand. The model is developed from the premise that a unique set of intracellular conditions can be measured at each level of ATP turnover and that this relationship is best described by energetic state. Current concepts suggest that cells are capable of maintaining oxygen consumption in the face of declines in the concentration of oxygen through compensatory changes in cellular metabolites. We show that these compensatory changes can cause significant declines in ATP demand and result in a decline in oxygen consumption and ATP turnover. Furthermore we find that hypoxia does not directly affect the rate of anaerobic ATP synthesis and associated lactate production. Rather, lactate production appears to be related to energetic state, whatever the PO2. The model is used to describe the interaction between ATP demand and ATP supply in determining final ATP turnover.

  8. Non-invasive quantification of collagen turnover in renal transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth G D Stribos

    Full Text Available Kidney allograft failure due to chronic injury/rejection remains the main cause of graft loss in renal transplant recipients (RTR. Here, we investigated whether specific biomarkers of extracellular matrix (ECM turnover are associated with allograft function and chronic kidney disease (CKD stage in RTR. Seventy-eight patients who attended the University Medical Center Groningen for a routine check-up after kidney transplantation were enrolled in the study. Plasma and/or 24h-urine samples were collected and specific matrix-metalloproteinase-generated neo-epitope fragments of collagens were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated that urinary levels of C3M, a marker for collagen type III degradation, correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; r = 0.58, p<0.0001, with lower levels detected in the urine of patients with advanced CKD. In addition, plasma levels of Pro-C6, a marker for collagen type VI formation, significantly increased with disease progression and correlated with eGFR (r = -0.72, p<0.0001. Conversely, plasma C3M and urinary Pro-C6 levels showed no correlation with renal function. We identified two neo-epitope biomarkers of tissue turnover associated with ECM remodeling and fibrosis that can stratify patients by CKD stage. This is as promising first step towards non-invasive monitoring of ECM turnover in the kidneys.

  9. A study of Kramers' turnover theory in the presence of exponential memory friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianconescu, Reuven; Pollak, Eli

    2015-09-14

    Originally, the challenge of solving Kramers' turnover theory was limited to Ohmic friction, or equivalently, motion of the escaping particle governed by a Langevin equation. Mel'nikov and Meshkov [J. Chem. Phys. 85, 1018 (1986)] (MM) presented a solution valid for Ohmic friction. The turnover theory was derived more generally and for memory friction by Pollak, Grabert, and Hänggi [J. Chem. Phys. 91, 4073 (1989)] (PGH). Mel'nikov proceeded to also provide finite barrier corrections to his theory [Phys. Rev. E 48, 3271 (1993)]. Finite barrier corrections were derived only recently within the framework of PGH theory [E. Pollak and R. Ianconescu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 154108 (2014)]. A comprehensive comparison between MM and PGH theories including finite barrier corrections and using Ohmic friction showed that the two methods gave quantitatively similar results and were in quantitative agreement with numerical simulation data. In the present paper, we extend the study of the turnover theories to exponential memory friction. By comparing with numerical simulation, we find that PGH theory is rather accurate, even in the strong friction long memory time limit, while MM theory fails. However, inclusion of finite barrier corrections to PGH theory leads to failure in this limit. The long memory time invalidates the fundamental assumption that consecutive traversals of the well are independent of each other. Why PGH theory without finite barrier corrections remains accurate is a puzzle.

  10. Actin filament turnover drives leading edge growth during myelin sheath formation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Schanila; Sánchez, Paula; Schmitt, Sebastian; Snaidero, Nicolas; Mitkovski, Mišo; Velte, Caroline; Brückner, Bastian R; Alexopoulos, Ioannis; Czopka, Tim; Jung, Sang Y; Rhee, Jeong S; Janshoff, Andreas; Witke, Walter; Schaap, Iwan A T; Lyons, David A; Simons, Mikael

    2015-07-27

    During CNS development, oligodendrocytes wrap their plasma membrane around axons to generate multilamellar myelin sheaths. To drive growth at the leading edge of myelin at the interface with the axon, mechanical forces are necessary, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Using an interdisciplinary approach that combines morphological, genetic, and biophysical analyses, we identified a key role for actin filament network turnover in myelin growth. At the onset of myelin biogenesis, F-actin is redistributed to the leading edge, where its polymerization-based forces push out non-adhesive and motile protrusions. F-actin disassembly converts protrusions into sheets by reducing surface tension and in turn inducing membrane spreading and adhesion. We identified the actin depolymerizing factor ADF/cofilin1, which mediates high F-actin turnover rates, as an essential factor in this process. We propose that F-actin turnover is the driving force in myelin wrapping by regulating repetitive cycles of leading edge protrusion and spreading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of human adipose lipid turnover in health and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arner, Peter; Bernard, Samuel; Salehpour, Mehran; Possnert, Göran; Liebl, Jakob; Steier, Peter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Eriksson, Mats; Arner, Erik; Hauner, Hans; Skurk, Thomas; Rydén, Mikael; Frayn, Keith N; Spalding, Kirsty L

    2011-09-25

    Adipose tissue mass is determined by the storage and removal of triglycerides in adipocytes. Little is known, however, about adipose lipid turnover in humans in health and pathology. To study this in vivo, here we determined lipid age by measuring (14)C derived from above ground nuclear bomb tests in adipocyte lipids. We report that during the average ten-year lifespan of human adipocytes, triglycerides are renewed six times. Lipid age is independent of adipocyte size, is very stable across a wide range of adult ages and does not differ between genders. Adipocyte lipid turnover, however, is strongly related to conditions with disturbed lipid metabolism. In obesity, triglyceride removal rate (lipolysis followed by oxidation) is decreased and the amount of triglycerides stored each year is increased. In contrast, both lipid removal and storage rates are decreased in non-obese patients diagnosed with the most common hereditary form of dyslipidaemia, familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Lipid removal rate is positively correlated with the capacity of adipocytes to break down triglycerides, as assessed through lipolysis, and is inversely related to insulin resistance. Our data support a mechanism in which adipocyte lipid storage and removal have different roles in health and pathology. High storage but low triglyceride removal promotes fat tissue accumulation and obesity. Reduction of both triglyceride storage and removal decreases lipid shunting through adipose tissue and thus promotes dyslipidaemia. We identify adipocyte lipid turnover as a novel target for prevention and treatment of metabolic disease.

  12. Personal Bullying and Nurses' Turnover Intentions in Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Omer Farooq; Sattar, Abdul; Shahzad, Asif; Faiz, Rafia

    2017-07-01

    In this study, quantitative and qualitative data are presented to examine the direct and mediated effect of personal bullying on nurses' turnover intentions via job stress. The study also investigates the moderating role of political skill on the association between personal bullying and job stress. The study employed an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative phase of the study, data were collected from a sample of 324 registered nurses working in public sector hospitals of Pakistan using a self-administered questionnaire. Results from variance-based structural equation modeling showed that personal bullying has a direct as well as an indirect effect on nurses' turnover intentions through job stress. Furthermore, results showed that political skill attenuates the effect of personal bullying on job stress. The second, qualitative phase was conducted as a follow-up to the quantitative results involving individual interviews from 11 nurses. Overall, the qualitative data validated the key quantitative results. The study is among the first to employ a mixed methods design to investigate the direct and mediated effects of personal bullying on nurses' turnover intentions and the stress-buffering role of political skill.

  13. Active turnover regulates pattern formation and stress transmission in disordered acto-myosin networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Patrick; Stam, Samantha; Kovar, David; Gardel, Margaret

    The shape and mechanics of animal cells are controlled by a dynamic, thin network of semiflexible actin filaments and myosin-II motor proteins called the actomyosin cortex. Motor-generated stresses in the cortex drive changes in cell shape during cell division and morphogenesis, while dynamic turnover of actin filaments dissipates stress. The relative effects that force generation, force dissipation, and disassembly and reassembly of material have on motion in these networks are unknown. We find that cross-linked actin networks in vitro contract under myosin-generated stresses, resulting in partial filament disassembly, the formation of asters, and clustering of myosin motors. We observe a rapid restoration of uniform polymer density in the presence of the assembly factors which catalyze network turnover through elongation of severed actin filaments. When severing is accelerated further by the addition of a severing protein, network contraction and motor clustering are dramatically suppressed. We test the relative effects of material regeneration and force transmission using image analysis, and conclude that the dominant mechanism for this effect is relatively short-lived stresses that do not propagate over considerable distance or push network deformation into the nonlinear contractile regime we have previously characterized. Our results present a framework to understand cytoskeletal active matter that are influenced by a complex interplay between stress generation, network reorganization, and polymer turnover.

  14. Factors influencing turnover and retention of midwives and consultants: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Cox, Annette; McBride, Anne

    2004-11-01

    This study is a review of literature on the factors affecting the retention and turnover of hospital consultants and midwives. While there is widespread concern and acknowledgement of staff retention problems for professional occupations within the NHS, far less research has analysed the causes of the staff retention problems for the occupations in question. This study shows that there is a dearth of literature in this area and that systematic comparative analysis of retention and turnover factors through both primary and secondary research is urgently required in order that policy-making can take place on the basis of informed choice. Tentative initial findings were that lack of appreciation or perceptions of not being valued are key factors influencing turnover for both occupations. Working hours, workload and work schedules are also common concerns to both groups. In addition, career development, promotion and appreciation of contribution were important retention factors for midwives, while a supportive professional environment, reduction in workload and working hours and more flexible work patterns were important to consultants.

  15. Turnover of new graduate nurses in their first job using survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Ji Yun; Mark, Barbara A; Yun, Sung-Cheol

    2012-03-01

    To examine factors related to turnover of new graduate nurses in their first job. Data were obtained from a 3-year panel survey (2006-2008) of the Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey that followed-up college graduates in South Korea. The sample consisted of 351 new graduates whose first job was as a full-time registered nurse in a hospital. Survival analysis was conducted to estimate survival curves and related factors, including individual and family, nursing education, hospital, and job dissatisfaction (overall and 10 specific job aspects). The estimated probabilities of staying in their first job for 1, 2, and 3 years were 0.823, 0.666, and 0.537, respectively. Nurses reporting overall job dissatisfaction had significantly lower survival probabilities than those who reported themselves to be either neutral or satisfied. Nurses were more likely to leave if they were married or worked in small (vs. large), nonmetropolitan, and nonunionized hospitals. Dissatisfaction with interpersonal relationships, work content, and physical work environment was associated with a significant increase in the hazards of leaving the first job. Hospital characteristics as well as job satisfaction were significantly associated with new graduates' turnover. The high turnover of new graduates could be reduced by improving their job satisfaction, especially with interpersonal relationships, work content, and the physical work environment. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. PENGARUH PERSEPSI PEGAWAI MENGENAI OUTSOURCING TERHADAP KEPUASAN KERJA DAN TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sari Murtiningsih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Background of this research was the trend of companies’ outsourcing human resource (expertise and specialists to accomplish tasks more cheaply and efficiently to increase productivity. The objective of this research was to find out the impact of employees’ perception of outsourcing human resource on their job satisfaction and turnover intention. To achieve this objective the quantitative research has been done by using explanatory survey method. The design of this research applies quantitative approach. The samples for the study consisted of 115 human resource division employees of three Banks in Jakarta. The primary data in this research was obtained by using closed ended questionnaires. Non probability sampling method with the convenience sampling technique was employed to select the sample. Data analysis used in this research was Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result of this research concludes that employees’ positive perception of outsourcing human resource increases their job satisfaction and decreases their turnover intention whereas negative perception of outsourcing human resource decreases job satisfaction and subsequently increases turnover intention. Based on the result of the research, it is important that a company outsource human resource to increase productivity.

  17. Effects of immobilization and whole-body vibration on rat serum Type I collagen turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Gürhan; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Suljevic, Şenay; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Bilgili, Hasan; Demirel, Haydar Ali

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) on serum type I collagen turnover in immobilized rats. Thirty Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the following 5 groups: immobilization (IS), immobilization + remobilization (IR), immobilization + WBV (IV), control (C), and WBV control (CV). Immobilization was achieved by casting from the crista iliaca anterior superior to the lower part of the foot for 2 weeks. The applied WBV protocol involved a frequency of 45 Hz and amplitude of 3 mm for 7 days starting a day after the end of the immobilization period. Serum type I collagen turnover markers were measured by using ELISA kits. Serum NH2-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) levels were significantly lower in the immobilization groups (p immobilization groups. Similarly, serum COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) levels were higher in the WBV controls than their own controls (p Immobilization led to deterioration of tendon tissue, as observed by histopathological analysis with a transmission electron microscope. Although 1 week of WBV had a positive effect on type I collagen turnover in controls, it is not an efficient method for repairing tissue damage in the early stage following immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction rewiring and the rapid turnover of plant-pollinator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Petry, William K; Brennan, Ross M; Cunningham, James L; Bronstein, Judith L; Waser, Nickolas M; Sanders, Nathan J

    2017-03-01

    Whether species interactions are static or change over time has wide-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. However, species interaction networks are typically constructed from temporally aggregated interaction data, thereby implicitly assuming that interactions are fixed. This approach has advanced our understanding of communities, but it obscures the timescale at which interactions form (or dissolve) and the drivers and consequences of such dynamics. We address this knowledge gap by quantifying the within-season turnover of plant-pollinator interactions from weekly censuses across 3 years in a subalpine ecosystem. Week-to-week turnover of interactions (1) was high, (2) followed a consistent seasonal progression in all years of study and (3) was dominated by interaction rewiring (the reassembly of interactions among species). Simulation models revealed that species' phenologies and relative abundances constrained both total interaction turnover and rewiring. Our findings reveal the diversity of species interactions that may be missed when the temporal dynamics of networks are ignored. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Bone turnover markers in sheep and goat: A review of the scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. CAMASSA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bone turnover markers (BTMs are product of bone cell activity and are generally divided in bone formation and bone resorption markers. The purpose of this review was to structure the available information on the use of BTMs in studies on small ruminants, especially for monitoring their variations related to diet, exercise, gestation and metabolic lactation state, circadian and seasonal variations, and also during skeletal growth. Pre-clinical and translational studies using BTMs with sheep and goats as animal models in orthopaedic research studies to help in the evaluation of the fracture healing process and osteoporosis research are also described in this review. The available information from the reviewed studies was systematically organized in order to highlight the most promising BTMs in small ruminant research, as well as provide a wide view of the use of sheep and goat as animal models in orthopaedic research, type of markers and commercial assay kits with cross-reactivity in sheep and goat, method of sample and storage of serum and urine for bone turnover markers determination and the usefulness and limitations of bone turnover markers in the different studies, therefore an effective tool for researchers that seek answers to different questions while using BTMs in small ruminants.

  20. Foliage nitrogen turnover: differences among nitrogen absorbed at different times by Quercus serrata saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Miki U.; Mizumachi, Eri; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitrogen turnover within plants has been intensively studied to better understand nitrogen use strategies. However, differences among the nitrogen absorbed at different times are not completely understood and the fate of nitrogen absorbed during winter is largely uncharacterized. In the present study, nitrogen absorbed at different times of the year (growing season, winter and previous growing season) was traced, and the within-leaf nitrogen turnover of a temperate deciduous oak Quercus serrata was investigated. Methods The contributions of nitrogen absorbed at the three different times to leaf construction, translocation during the growing season, and the leaf-level resorption efficiency during leaf senescence were compared using 15N. Key Results Winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen significantly contributed to leaf construction, although the contribution was smaller than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen. On the other hand, the leaf-level resorption efficiency of winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen was higher than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen, suggesting that older nitrogen is better retained in leaves than recently absorbed nitrogen. Conclusions The results demonstrate that nitrogen turnover in leaves varies with nitrogen absorption times. These findings are important for understanding plant nitrogen use strategies and nitrogen cycles in forest ecosystems. PMID:21515608

  1. High bone turnover is associated with low bone mass in both pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Fledelius, C; Rosenquist, C

    1996-01-01

    In 979 healthy women, aged 30-75 years, bone mass was measured by DXA in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, and by SXA in the distal forearm. Bone turnover was assessed by urinary CrossLaps (CrossLaps ELISA), a new assay which measures type I collagen degradation products in urine and by osteoc...... with previous results, we found that bone turnover increased perimenopausally and in the early menopause.......In 979 healthy women, aged 30-75 years, bone mass was measured by DXA in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, and by SXA in the distal forearm. Bone turnover was assessed by urinary CrossLaps (CrossLaps ELISA), a new assay which measures type I collagen degradation products in urine...... below 50 years of age, the concentrations of the biochemical markers were stable with age. At menopause CrossLaps and OCN-Mid increased abruptly to a level 60% and 35% above the premenopausal mean values (p

  2. Bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and vitamin D status in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tue H; Madsen, Marie T B; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Cohen, Arieh S; Hansen, Torben; Vestergaard, Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Allin, Kristine H

    2018-01-23

    A vegan diet has been associated with increased bone fracture risk, but the physiology linking nutritional exposure to bone metabolism has only been partially elucidated. This study investigated whether a vegan diet is associated with increased bone turnover and altered calcium homeostasis due to insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D. Fractionated and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and four bone turnover markers (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX)) were measured in serum from 78 vegans and 77 omnivores. When adjusting for seasonality and constitutional covariates (age, sex, and body fat percentage) vegans had higher concentrations of PINP (32 [95% CI: 7, 64]%, P = 0.01) and BAP (58 [95% CI: 27, 97]%, P Vegans had higher serum PTH concentration (38 [95% CI: 19, 60]%; P Vegans have higher levels of circulating bone turnover markers compared to omnivores, which may in the long-term lead to poorer bone health. Differences in dietary habits including intake of vitamin D and calcium may, at least partly, explain the observed differences.

  3. Cdc42 controls progenitor cell differentiation and beta-catenin turnover in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Lefever, Tine

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation of skin stem cells into hair follicles (HFs) requires the inhibition of beta-catenin degradation, which is controlled by a complex containing axin and the protein kinase GSK3beta. Using conditional gene targeting in mice, we show now that the small GTPase Cdc42 is crucial for diff......Differentiation of skin stem cells into hair follicles (HFs) requires the inhibition of beta-catenin degradation, which is controlled by a complex containing axin and the protein kinase GSK3beta. Using conditional gene targeting in mice, we show now that the small GTPase Cdc42 is crucial...... for differentiation of skin progenitor cells into HF lineage and that it regulates the turnover of beta-catenin. In the absence of Cdc42, degradation of beta-catenin was increased corresponding to a decreased phosphorylation of GSK3beta at Ser 9 and an increased phosphorylation of axin, which is known to be required...... for binding of beta-catenin to the degradation machinery. Cdc42-mediated regulation of beta-catenin turnover was completely dependent on PKCzeta, which associated with Cdc42, Par6, and Par3. These data suggest that Cdc42 regulation of beta-catenin turnover is important for terminal differentiation of HF...

  4. Satellite remote sensing data can be used to model marine microbial metabolite turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter E.; Scott, Nicole; Post, Anton F.; Field, Dawn; Knight, Rob; Hamada, Yuki; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2014-07-29

    Sampling ecosystems, even at a local scale, at the temporal and spatial resolution necessary to capture natural variability in microbial communities are prohibitively expensive. We extrapolated marine surface microbial community structure and metabolic potential from 72 16S rRNA amplicon and 8 metagenomic observations using remotely sensed environmental parameters to create a system-scale model of marine microbial metabolism for 5904 grid cells (49 km2) in the Western English Chanel, across 3 years of weekly averages. Thirteen environmental variables predicted the relative abundance of 24 bacterial Orders and 1715 unique enzyme-encoding genes that encode turnover of 2893 metabolites. The genes’ predicted relative abundance was highly correlated (Pearson Correlation 0.72, P-value <10-6) with their observed relative abundance in sequenced metagenomes. Predictions of the relative turnover (synthesis or consumption) of CO2 were significantly correlated with observed surface CO2 fugacity. The spatial and temporal variation in the predicted relative abundances of genes coding for cyanase, carbon monoxide and malate dehydrogenase were investigated along with the predicted inter-annual variation in relative consumption or production of ~3000 metabolites forming six significant temporal clusters. These spatiotemporal distributions could possibly be explained by the co-occurrence of anaerobic and aerobic metabolisms associated with localized plankton blooms or sediment resuspension, which facilitate the presence of anaerobic micro-niches. This predictive model provides a general framework for focusing future sampling and experimental design to relate biogeochemical turnover to microbial ecology.

  5. [Path analysis on workplace violence affecting work ability, job satisfaction and turnover intent in health professionals in Shangqiu City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-xi; Wang, Mian-zhen; Bai, Qin; Jia, Cai-feng; Lan, Ya-jia; Wang, Zhi-ming; Luan, Rong-sheng

    2006-11-01

    To explore the effects of workplace violence on work ability, work satisfaction and turnover intent based on the theory of occupational stress in health professionals and to provide evidence for evaluating the process and consequence of workplace violence. Subjects of 483 health professionals from 5 hospitals in Shangqiu city of Hennan Province were selected with stratified cluster random sampling method. Workplace violence, violent fear at work, coping resources, work ability, job satisfaction and turnover intent were measured with questionnaires. Ordinal regression analysis and path analysis were applied to analyze the data. Workplace violence had direct or indirect effects on the work ability and job satisfaction through the fear of future violence at work. Workplace violence only had indirect effects on turnover intent through the fear and job satisfaction in health professionals. Workplace violence had direct and indirect effects on the work ability, job satisfaction and turnover intent. Measures should be taken to reduce workplace violence and it' s effects in health professionals.

  6. How change information influences attitude toward change and turnover intention : The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, S.R.H.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  7. How Change Information Influences Attitudes towards Change and Turnover Intention: The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerd van den Heuvel; Charissa Freese; René Schalk; Marcel van Assen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  8. The Relationships Among the Factors of Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover of Air Force Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruch, Donald

    2005-01-01

    ...) creates both financial and morale issues for the Air Force. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the relationships among factors of satisfaction and anticipated turnover of USAF CRNAs...

  9. Vitamin D status and bone and connective tissue turnover in brown bears (Ursus arctos) during hibernation and the active state

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vestergaard, Peter; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Mosekilde, Leif; Heickendorff, Lene; Fröbert, Ole

    2011-01-01

    ...]) and bone turnover parameters (osteocalcin, ICTP, CTX-I), PTH, serum calcium and PIIINP. We drew blood from seven immobilised wild brown bears during hibernation in February and in the same bears while active in June...

  10. Fine root heterogeneity by branch order: exploring the discrepancy in root turnover estimates between minirhizotron and carbon isotopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dali Guo; Harbin Li; Robert J. Mitchell; Han Wenxuan; Joseph J. Hendricks; Timothy J. Fahey; Ronald L. Hendrick

    2008-01-01

    Fine roots constitute a large and dynamic component of the carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. The reported fivefold discrepancy in turnover estimates between median longevity (ML) from minirhizotrons and mean residence time (MRT) using carbon isotopes may have global consequences.

  11. Effects of environment and space on species turnover of woody plants across multiple forest dynamic plots in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Species turnover is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms that influence large-scale species richness patterns. However, few studies have described and interpreted large-scale spatial variation in plant species turnover, and the causes of this variation remain elusive. In addition, the determinants of species turnover depend on the dispersal ability of growth forms. In this study, we explored the large-scale patterns of woody species turnover across the latitude gradient based on eight large stem-mapping plots (covering 184 ha forest in East Asia. The patterns of woody species turnover increased significantly with increasing latitude differences in East Asia. For overall woody species, environment explained 36.30%, 37.20%, and 48.48% of the total variance in Jaccard’s (βj, Sorenson’s, (βs, and Simpson’s dissimilarity (βsim. Spatial factors explained 47.92%, 48.39%, and 41.38% of the total variance in βj, βs, and βsim, respectively. The effects of pure spatial and spatially structured environments were stronger than pure environmental effects for overall woody species. Our results support the hypothesis that the effect of neutral processes on woody species turnover is more important than the effect of the environment. Neutral processes explained more variation for turnover of tree species, and environmental factors explained more variation for the turnover of shrub species on a large scale. Therefore, trees and shrubs should be subjected to different protection strategies in future biodiversity conservation efforts.

  12. Job embeddedness, work engagement and turnover intention of staff in a higher education institution: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndayiziveyi Takawira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The world economy is becoming increasingly knowledge driven, and intellectual capital is now considered as a human resource that affords organisations a competitive advantage. A high turnover rate in higher education and the importance of retaining staff are concerns that have resulted in increased interest in psychological variables, such as job embeddedness and work engagement that may influence employee retention.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between job embeddedness, work engagement and turnover intention of staff in a higher education institution.Motivation for the study: Research on how employees’ job embeddedness and work engagement influence their turnover intention is important in the light of organisational concerns about retaining knowledgeable staff in the current higher education environment.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted on a non-probability purposive sample (N = 153 of academic and non-academic staff in a South African higher education institution.Main findings: Correlational analyses revealed significant relationships between job embeddedness, work engagement and turnover intention. Multiple regression analyses showed that organisational links and dedication significantly and negatively predict turnover intention.Practical/managerial implications: When designing retention strategies, management and human resource practitioners need to recognise how job embeddedness and work engagement influence the turnover intention of higher education staff.Contribution: These findings contribute valuable new knowledge that can be applied in the retention of staff in the higher education environment.

  13. The Impact Of Reward System On Employee Turnover Intention A Study On Logistics Industry Of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.S. Mendis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is a paramount important part of todays business world. For any company to achieve its corporate strategies it is important to have motivated committed workforce within the company. Therefore keep employees satisfy is a necessity for any organization. Otherwise they may leave the company as there are lots of job opportunities remain in this modern business world. This study focus on how reward system of an organization impact on employee turnover intention. This study empirically evaluated five independent variables remuneration cash incentives work life balance supervisor support and employee recognition and their relationship to the turnover intention of non-executives in the logistics industry of Sri Lanka. The sample consists of 97 non-executive staff in the logistics industry of Sri Lanka. The data collection was done by using a self-administrated structured questionnaire. The results indicated that remuneration cash incentives work life balance supervisor support and employee recognition variables were negatively and significantly correlated with turnover intention. And those relationships were strong. Results of regressing the reward system on turnover intention showed that reward system is a powerful predictor of labour turnover in logistics industry of Sri Lanka. The research findings give evidence that better financial and non-financial rewards have strong impact on employee turnover intention. Therefore to reduce employees high intention to leave the company the management needs to develop well balanced reward system in both financial and non-financial aspects.

  14. Using the Job-Demands-Resources model to predict turnover in the information technology workforce – General effects and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hoonakker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High employee turnover has always been a major issue for Information Technology (IT. In particular, turnover of women is very high. In this study, we used the Job Demand/Resources (JD-R model to examine the relationship between job demands and job resources, stress/burnout and job satisfaction/commitment, and turnover intention and tested the model for gender differences. Data were collected in five IT companies. A sample of 624 respondents (return rate: 56%; 54% males; mean age: 39.7 years was available for statistical analyses. Results of our study show that relationships between job demands and turnover intention are mediated by emotional exhaustion (burnout and relationships between job resources and turnover intention are mediated by job satisfaction. We found noticeable gender differences in these relationships, which can explain differences in turnover intention between male and female employees. The results of our study have consequences for organizational retention strategies to keep men and women in the IT work force.

  15. Listening to the voices of children in foster care: youths speak out about child welfare workforce turnover and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Kollar, Sharon; Trinkle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare workforce turnover rates across private and public child welfare agencies are concerning. Although research about the causes of child welfare workforce turnover has been plentiful, empirical studies on the effects of turnover on child outcomes are sparse. Furthermore, the voices and experiences of youths within the system have been largely overlooked.The purpose ofthis study was, first, to explore the experiences and opinions about child welfare workforce turnover and retention of youths in the child welfare system; second, to explore a relationship between the number of caseworkers a youth has had and his or her number of foster care placements; and third, to harness the suggestions of youths in resolving the turnover problem. Youths in the child welfare system (N = 25) participated in focus groups and completed a small demographic survey. Findings suggest that youths experience multiple effects of workforce turnover, such as lack of stability; loss of trusting relationships; and, at times, second chances. The article concludes with suggestions for caseworkers, state trainers, local and state administrators, and social work researchers on engaging with youths in relationships that facilitate genuine systems change around social work practice and the child welfare workforce crisis.

  16. Evaluation of work stress, turnover intention, work experience, and satisfaction with preceptors of new graduate nurses using a 10-minute preceptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Su-Ru; Chen, I-Hui; Shen, Hsi-Che; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2015-06-01

    Preparing new graduate nurses (NGNs) to achieve standards of nursing competence is challenging; therefore, this study developed and evaluated the effects of a 10-minute preceptor (10MP) model for assisting NGNs in their professional development and increasing their retention in hospitals. A repeated-measures design study, with an intervention and a two-group comparison, was conducted. A total of 107 NGNs participated in the study. At day 7, work stress and work experience were moderately high for the NGNs in both the 10MP and traditional preceptor model (TPM) groups. The preceptorship program showed significant differences between groups (p = 0.001) regarding work stress at months 2 and 3 and work experience at months 1, 2, and 3. The 10MP group reported lower turnover intention and higher satisfaction with the preceptors than the TPM group. The 10MP model is effective at improving training outcomes and facilitating the professional development of NGNs. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Deposition, persistence and turnover of pollutants: first results from the EU project AquaTerra for selected river basins and aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, J.A.C.; Steidle, D.; Kuntz, D.

    2007-01-01

    Deposition, turnover and movement of persistent organic pollutants (POP) were investigated in the EU integrated project "AquaTerra", which is among the first funded environmental projects within the 6th Framework Program by the European Commission. Project work integrates across various disciplines...... that range from biogeochemistry, environmental engineering, computer modelling and chemistry to socio-economic sciences. Field study areas are the river basins of the Ebro, the Meuse, the Elbe and the Danube as well as the 3-km(2) French catchment of the Brevilles Spring. Within the first 2 years...... in laboratory studies with soils and aquifer material from selected sites. For sediment transport of contaminants, new flood sampling techniques revealed highest deposition rates of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) in river sediments at hotspot areas on the Mulde River in the Bitterfeld region (Elbe Basin...

  18. Tissue turnover rates and isotopic trophic discrimination factors in the endothermic teleost, pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Madigan

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, Thunnus orientalis, 1-2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for (15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for (13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for δ(15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for δ(13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of (15N and (13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. (15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle δ(15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology.

  19. Bone turnover biomarkers and risk of osteoporotic hip fracture in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoli; Wang, Renwei; Ang, Li-Wei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2016-02-01

    While epidemiologic studies suggest that bone turnover biomarkers may predict hip fracture risk, findings are inconsistent and Asian data are lacking. We conducted a matched case-control (1:1) study nested in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort of Chinese men and women (45-74years) recruited from 1993 to 1998 in Singapore. One hundred cases with incident hip fracture and 100 individually matched controls were randomly selected from 63,257 participants. Serum bone turnover biomarkers, namely bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), N-terminal and C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX-I and CTX-I) were measured using immunoassays. Hip fracture cases had significantly higher serum levels of OC, PINP, CTX-I and NTX-I than controls (phip fracture (all Ps for trend≤0.006), where the risk was significantly increased by 4.32-8.23 folds for the respective BTM [Quartile (Q) 4 vs. Q1]. The odds ratio [OR (95% CI)] at the highest quartile (Q4) was 6.63 (2.02-21.18) for PINP and 4.92 (1.67-14.51) for CTX-I. The joint effect of PINP and CTX-I showed a 7-fold increase in risk (OR: 7.36; 95% CI: 2.53-21.41) comparing participants with higher levels of PINP (Q4) and CTX-I (Q3-Q4) to those with low levels of PINP (Q1-Q3) and CTX-I (Q1-Q2). Our data demonstrated that higher serum levels of bone turnover biomarkers were associated with increased risk of hip fracture in an Asian population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The roles of unit leadership and nurse-physician collaboration on nursing turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Leiter, Michael P

    2013-08-01

    To report a study of the relationship between variables at the group and individual level with nurses' intention to leave their unit. Workplaces are collective environments where workers constantly interact with each other. The quality of working relationship employees develop at the unit-level influences both employee outcomes and unit performance by shaping employee attitudes. The study was a cross-sectional design with self-administered questionnaires. A questionnaire including measures of leader-member exchange and nurse-physician collaboration analysed at group-level and affective commitment and turnover intention analysed at individual level, was administered individually to 1018 nurses in five Italian hospitals. Data were collected in 2009. A total of 832 nurses (81·7% response rate) completed questionnaires. The results showed that affective commitment at individual level completely mediated the relationship between leader-member exchange at group-level and nursing turnover intention. Furthermore, the cross-level interaction was significant: at individual level, the nurses with high levels of individual affective commitment towards their unit showed low levels of turnover intention and this relationship was stronger when the nurse-physician collaboration at group-level was high. This study showed the importance for organizations to implement management practices that promote both high-quality nurse-supervisor and nurse-physician relationships, because they increase nurses' identification with their units. Individual affective commitment is an important quality for retaining a workforce and good nurses' relationship at group-level relationships with both supervisors and physicians are instrumental in developing identification with the work unit. Thus, the quality of relationship among staff members is an important factor in nurses' decision to leave. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.